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The world in the palm of your hand

—— Daniel Crouch Rare Books is a specialist dealer in antique atlases, maps, plans, sea charts, globes, scientific instruments, and voyages dating from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Our particular passions include rare atlases, wall maps, and separately published maps and charts.


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Catalogue edited by Daniel Crouch, Lucy Garrett, Noah Goldrach, Kate Hunter, Elena Napoleone, and Nick Trimming Design by Ivone Chao Photography by Louie Fasciolo Cover: item 1, p1: item 3, p4: item 9, p6: item 2 Terms and conditions: The condition of all books has been described. Each item may be assumed to be in good condition, unless otherwise stated. Dimensions are given height by width. All prices are net and do not include postage and packing. Invoices will be rendered in £ sterling. The title of goods does not pass to the purchaser until the invoice is paid in full.


The world in the palm of your hand: a collection of pocket globes from the long eighteenth century


‘Sent, with a pocket globe, to a young gentleman going on board the Amethyst man-of-war’.

To England ere you bid adieu, My friend and sailor, gallant Hugh, Proud to exchange, at Honour’s call, Your cricket for a cannon-ball, This globe accept – so like, we know, One whirl’d six thousand years ago, By Him whose fiat rules the tide, And bids our fleets in triumph ride! Who smote the French by valiant Howe, And crown’d with laurel Duncan’s brow, Bade Jervis Spain’s armada foil, Bade Nelson thunder at the Nile, Bade England humble Gallic pride, That scatters blood and ruin wide. On this small Globe, exulting, see Great Britain in epitome; Britain, our consequential speck, Whose sailors keep the world in check; They, who to shores of Iceland roam, In either India are at home. Learn, here, to study daring Drake, There Raleigh voyaged, here fought Blake; Contemplate Cooke’s eventful story, Or follow Anson’s path to glory; See Rodney, deck’d with flags, advance From vanquish’d Holland, Spain and France! But vain the task to number o’er These heroes of the British shore... H.M.C. Published in the Gentleman’s Magazine, May 1799.

Note: The “Hugh” addressed in the poem is Hugh Entwistle (d1867), who was in his early teens when he joined the crew of the Amethyst as a First Class Volunteer. He served on the Amethyst until 1805, taking part in the Battle of Trafalgar.

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Introduction

Pocket globes are a miniature representation of the cosmos: a small terrestrial globe housed in a shagreen case lined with celestial gores. The earliest mention of such globes is made in Joseph Moxon’s sales catalogue of 1657 “Concave hemisphere of the starry orb, which serves for a case to a terrestrial globe 3” diameter made portable for the pocket. Price 15s”. They were intended, as the poem on the preceding page suggests, not only as an educational tool for young ladies and gentlemen, but were also Georgian Britain’s must-have executive toy. The globes within these pages provide a broad overview of their production during the “long eighteenth century”. They demonstrate the rapid pace of new cartographic information during the period, brought back by the likes of William Dampier, George Anson, James Cook, and George Vancouver, which transformed European understanding of, most notably, Australasia, North America, and the Arctic. As well as geographic changes, the globes also record new political realities, from the birth of the United States, and the fledging Mexican Republic, to the naming of Australia. The pieces also shed a light on the globe market in London during this period. Many of the globes had remarkably long lives (see globe time line p.10), with globe sellers acquiring old plates and reissuing them with their own imprint. The plates for John Senex’s globe (item 1), for example, would be bought by George Adam in 1757, who would continue to re-issue the globe well into the 1770s (item 6). On the other hand, Thomas Lane, one the most prolific globe sellers of the early nineteenth century, would appear to have sold globes wholesale, as items 11 and 12 attest. This is not to say that no new globes were produced. In fact, John Cary (item 9), proudly boasts of such in his advertisement of 1791, and the Newton firm were major innovators with the introduction of the analemma, and representations of the solar system (item 13), and the Earth’s daily rotation (item 18). Not until the mobile phone and advent of Google Earth would there be an instrument that so neatly epitomized the globe and the heavens in the palm of your hand.

Overleaf the the evolution of Australasia and the Arctic. Australasia from left to right: items 1, 2, 4, 6, 13, 16 Arctic from left to right: items 1, 5, 8, 13, 16, 17

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Globe Timeline

A timeline illustrating the lifespan of the plates of major globemakers’ globes

1710

1775

Herman Moll

1775

Terrestrial

item 7 1730

1770

John Senex

1817

Terrestrial

item 1

item 6

1730

1830 Celestial

item 1 1731

Richard Cushee

Celestial

item 2

1754

1756

item 4

item 5

item 17

1809

1816

item 11

item 12

1816

Nathaniel Hill

Terrestrial

1791

1798

item 9

item 10

John Cary

1830 Terrestrial

1756

1830 1840

James Ferguson

Terrestrial

1779

1779

Lane

Terrestrial item 11

item 15

1816

1825

item 12

item 14

1817

Newton & Co.

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1841 Terrestrial

item 13

12

1829

THE WORLD IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND

item 17


British Globemakers Family Tree

Anne Wyeth

Elizabeth Wyeth

(b1707)

Richard Cushee

(fl1733-1773)

John Senex (1678-1740)

(1696-1733)

m 1728 m 1742

Charles Price (fl1697-1733)

Nathaniel Hill (1708-1768)

Leonard Cushee (fl1758-1761)

Thomas Bateman (fl1754-1781)

William Palmer

John Newton

John Cary

(1739 - 1812)

(1759-1844)

(c1754-1835)

William Cary

William Newton

(1759-1825)

(1786-1861)

Nicholas Lane (fl1770-1783)

Thomas Lane

William Edward Newton (1818-1879)

AlfredVincent Newton

(fl1801-1829)

(1821-1900)

James Ferguson (1710-1776)

George Adams (1709-1772)

George Adams (1750-1795)

Dudley Adams (1762-1830)

Benjamin Martin (1704-1782)

John Addison (?1791-1847)

family master/apprentice partnership stock transfer

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“The greatest globe-maker of his day”

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SENEX, John A New & Correct Globe of the Earth. By I. Senex F.R.S. Publication [London, J. Senex, c1730]. Description Globe, 12 engraved hand-coloured paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, clipped at 70 degrees declination, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker, pp245-6 and 489-95, an earlier version of GLB0034; an earlier version of van der Krogt Sen 1; Sumira 25; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.599-601; Worms, ‘The Search for John Senex’, 2000.

Biography John Senex (1678-1749) was apprenticed to the London bookseller Robert Clavell in 1695, branching out on his own in 1702. Between 1703 and 1706 Senex formed an early partnership to produce instruments with Jeremiah Seller and Charles Price, the successors of John Seller. Senex continued in partnership with Price until 1710, and then joined forces with John Maxwell, by which time he had gained a reputation as a successful publisher of atlases, maps and geographical texts. He produced his first set of 12-inch globes in 1706, then, in 1710, just before his split with Price, a pair of pocket globes. In 1728 Senex was appointed Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1738 he presented a paper to the Society with suggestions for making a celestial globe into a procession globe. His globes were held in such high regard that one appears in a portrait by Richard Wilson of George III and his brother Frederick with their tutor: “if we can judge from survival rates and geographical spread, he was the greatest globe-maker of his day” (Worms). Following his death, Senex’s publishing interests were continued by his widow, Mary. In 1755 his stock was acquired at auction by James Ferguson. Only one set of plates escaped, the Senex-Price celestial pocket globe and those for a newly engraved matching terrestrial sphere, which went to the celebrated instrument maker George Adams Snr (1704-1772) (see item 6). Geography Senex engraved new gores to differentiate them from the plates he had produced in partnership with Price. He changed the lettering, emphasised the trade winds and erased the track of Francis Drake’s voyage. The title sits within a rectangular cartouche in the northern Pacific Ocean. The prime meridian is marked as London but ungraduated. The North and South Poles are labelled as well as the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, and their respective landmasses marked “Incognita”. The “Pacific Ocean or Great South Sea”, the “Western or Atlantic Ocean” and the “Etheopic Ocean” are shown with arrows for trade winds and monsoons. Australia is drawn according to the Dutch discoveries, and appears as “New Holland”, although “New Zeland” appears in the place most contemporaries assigned to “Van Diemen’s Land”. Portions of the western and southern coastline are missing, and all of the eastern coastline. The northern coastline is connected to New Guinea. North America is without a western coastline north of California and labelled “Incognita”, and California is shown as an island. Africa includes “Negroland”, “Zaara Desert”, “Coast of the Caffres” and “Zanguebar”. Asia lacks a firm northern and north-eastern coastline, and both areas are labelled “Incognita”. Japan is incorrectly drawn, with its southern island labelled “Bongo”.

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Astronomy The celestial gores bear no revision from the set Senex published with Charles Price in 1710. The signs of the zodiac are shown along the ecliptic. Both ecliptic poles are marked; as are the Arctic and Antarctic circles, the tropics and the celestial equator. The 48 Ptolemaic constellations are named, and two non-Ptolematic; together with the 12 southern constellations by Plancius - although Dorado is named “Xiphias� - and three by Hevelius.

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Cushee’s pocket globe

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CUSHEE, Richard Globe of the Earth by R. Cushee 1731. Publication [London], Richard Cushee, 1731. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, clipped at 70 degrees declination, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker GLB0044; van der Krogt Cus 1 and Cus 3; Sumira 26; Worms and BaytonWilliams, pp.176-177.

Biography Richard Cushee (1696-1733) was a globe maker, surveyor, and publisher who worked at the sign of the Globe and Sun, between St Dunstan’s Church and Chancery Lane. He was apprenticed in 1710 to Charles Price and was made a freeman in 1721. In 1731, Cushee took on Nathaniel Hill (see items 4 and 5) as an apprentice. In the same year, in collaboration with the instrument maker Thomas Wright, Cushee published the popular book by Joseph Harris, ‘The description and use of the globes, and the orrery’. He also began to make pocket globes: these small terrestrial globes were also used by Wright for his own orreries. Cushee died young, and his wife Elizabeth took over his business, later marrying one of his relatives, Thomas Cushee. Over the years she went on to work both with her younger brother William Wyeth and her husband’s former apprentice Hill. Geography In North America, the area west of the Hudson Bay is marked “Unknown parts”. California is drawn as an island. The title cartouche has been strategically placed in the Pacific Ocean between America and Asia to avoid having to define the area more clearly, although Cushee has chosen to show the two continents as separate, perhaps after news of the exploration of the Bering Strait in 1728 reached Britain. Australia is named “New Holland”, and William Dampier’s explorations are indicated by “Sharks Bay” on the west coast. Australia is joined to New Guinea; however Dampier’s Strait is not marked, as on Senex’s globe (item 1). Tasmania is named “Dimens Land”, and New Zealand “N. Zeeland”. Both North and South Poles are marked, as is the meridian from London; the equator and the line of the Ecliptic, with signs of the zodiac; trade winds are marked by hatched lines in the ocean between the tropics. In Asia, the Great Wall is identified as “Ch. Wall”. Astronomy The projection of the celestial gores is geocentric but the constellations are seen from the back. Cushee has reversed the human figures. The stars are represented by different symbols to denote magnitude, but there is no key. The Milky Way is labelled: “Via Lactea”. The 48 Ptolemaic constellations are marked, with five of the non-Ptolemaic. Six of Plancius’ southern constellations are named, but two not drawn; all those of Hevelius are shown, though Triangulum Minus is not labelled.

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A silver pocket globe

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Æ [Anonymous] [A Silver Globe]. Publication [London], 1731. Description Engraved silver globe. Dimensions Diameter: 650mm (2.5 inches).    References Cf. Dekker GLB0249 and GLB0025 and pp.101-103 for examples of silver pocket globes; and van der Krogt Cus 1 and Sumira 26 for Cushee’s pocket globe.

A silver pocket globe, which appears to be a copy after Richard Cushee’s silver pocket globe, also published in 1731. Geography The geography of the globe is broadly the same as Cushee’s. Both North and South Poles are marked, as are the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, and the Tropics. Also shown are the meridian from London, the equator and the ecliptic, with signs of the zodiac. Trade winds are marked by hatched lines in the ocean between the tropics. The northwest of North America is labelled “Unknown Parts”, and California is drawn as an island. Australasia is represented according to the Dutch discoveries, with Australia named “New Holland”, Tasmania “Dimens Land”; and New Zealand “N. Zeeland”. In Asia, the Great Wall of China is marked “Ch. Wall”, and the Russian Empire as “Dominio[n] of Moscovy”; the northeast is labelled “Parts Unknown”. Several seas are named including: “The Great South Sea”, “Pacifick Sea”, “Western Ocean”, “The Atlantick Ocean”, “Southern Ocean”, “The Eastern or Indian Sea”, “Eastern Ocean”, and “Ice Sea”. There are slight differences between this globe and Cushee’s. The title cartouche on Cushee’s globe is replaced here with a ship; three other ships and a spouting whale have also been added. The Isle of Dogs does not appear near the intersection between the ecliptic and equatorial lines in the Pacific. Attribution Although the globe is monogrammed “Æ” below Australia, we are unable to trace the particular engraver bearing these initials. The only other English eighteenth century silver pocket globe of which we are aware is the 1731 example by Richard Cushee mentioned above. The National Maritime Museum holds two examples of silver pocket globes: one, the famous Whitwell Globe, which was made over a century and a half earlier; the other, an anonymous globe dated c1800, was made in France.

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Hill’s cartographic confusion

4

HILL, Nathaniel A New Terrestrial Globe N. Hill 1754. Publication [London], 1754. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 60 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, with two calottes, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 76mm (3 inches).    References Dahl and Gauvin, pp.93-95; Dekker, pp.355-357; van der Krogt, Hil 1 and Hil 4; Lamb, Collins and Schmidt 5.10/11; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.318-319.

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Biography Nathaniel Hill (fl1746-1768) was a surveyor, mathematician and instrument maker based in London. He started his career as an apprentice globemaker to Richard Cushee. His shop was at the Globe and the Sun in Chancery Lane, and his trade card advertised “New and Correct Globes of three, nine, 12 and 15 inches”. Hill’s most popular items were the three and nine inch globes, which he published either as pocket globes, mounted on a stand, or for orreries. After Hill’s death, his business was continued by Thomas Bateman, who took John Newton (see items 13, 17 and 18) and William Palmer as apprentices. Geography The globe demonstrates the cartographical confusion that still surrounded some areas of the world. Hill’s lack of knowledge of northwest America, as shown by the inscription “Unknown parts” near Hudson Bay, causes the coastline to disappear between Alaska and British Columbia. The non-existent “Long River” in America is drawn after the account of Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan, a French explorer who travelled around the Mississippi valley and wrote of a “Rivière Longue” in the area. Hill has also included the “St[rait] of Annian”, a semi-mythical body of water which appeared on European maps from the early sixteenth century, separating America and Asia. Hill shows it unconnected to any land because of uncertainties about the shape of the coast. Only the north coast of Australia (marked as “New Holland”) and a tiny section of “New Zeeland” appear, after the discoveries of Abel Tasman. The globe also incorporates a host of new discoveries and voyages, with a patriotic preference for British adventurers. Dampier’s Strait is marked in present day Papua New Guinea, named after the British buccaneer William Dampier. A dotted line shows the route taken by Admiral George Anson, who circumnavigated the world from 1740 to 1744. The expedition set out to wreak havoc in the Spanish Main, and made a dramatic return to London with a captured galleon, only a tenth of the crew still alive, and Anson in disgrace for summarily shooting a drunken crew member. The explorations of the English sailors John Davis, Henry Hudson and William Baffin are included in the Arctic. North America is divided into the areas claimed by Spain, France and England with heavy outline colouring, of which traces survive.

THE WORLD IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND


Astronomy The celestial gores are geocentric in orientation and, in a departure from most previous pocket globes, are concave, thus depicting the constellations as seen from arth. Previous pocket globes, most notably John Senex’s pocket globe of 1730 (item 1), simply used gores intended for celestial globes, thus rendering the night sky in reverse when pasted to the inside of the case. The difference is most noticeable in the orientation of Ursa Major, with the bear facing in the other direction.

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The effect of the Kamchatka Expedition

5 HILL, Nathaniel A New Terrestrial Globe N. Hill 1754. Publication [London], 1754 [but c1755 or later]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dahl and Gauvin, pp.93-95; Dekker, pp.355357; for reference see van der Krogt, Hil 1 and Hil 4; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.318-319.

Biography For Nathaniel Hill’s biography please see item 4. Geography This second pocket globe by Hill shows the rapid changes in European knowledge of the world. Although it bears the same date as the previous globe, it shows some significant revisions, the most obvious of which is the addition of trade winds. In Asia, the Caspian Sea has been reduced in width to reflect the findings of the Russian nautical surveyor, Feodor Soimonov, who thoroughly surveyed the sea for the first time between 1719 and 1727, and published his findings in 1731. The most significant development is the redrawing of eastern Russia, influenced by Vitus Bering’s second expedition to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Bering spent ten years (1733-1743) exploring along northern Russia, mapping the Arctic coast of Siberia, and reaching Alaska in North America. Bering died of scurvy during the voyage, and an island off the Kamchatka Peninsula was eventually named in his honour. Stephan Krasheninnikov published the first detailed description of the peninsula, ‘An Account of the Land of Kamchatka’ in 1755, which is possibly where Hill acquired the new information. Astronomy For notes on the cartography of the celestial gores please see item 4.

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Australia gains an eastern coast

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ADAMS, G[eorge] after SENEX, John A Terrestrial Globe. Publication London, G. Adams, No. 60 Fleet Street, [c1770]. Description Globe, 12 engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier maché and plaster sphere, with contemporary hand-colour in outline, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, the interior lined with two sets of 12 celestial gores, clipped at 70 degrees declination, hand-coloured and varnished, with hooks and eyes. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches). References Dekker GLB0052; Worms and BayntonWilliams, pp.3-5.

Biography George Adams (c1704-1773) was a leading British instrument maker. Apprenticed in 1718, he set up his business in 1735 at the sign of Tycho Brahe’s Head in Fleet Street. He began making scientific instruments for the East India Company from 1735, was mathematical instrument maker to the Royal Ordnance from 1748 to 1753, and later instrument maker to the Prince of Wales and King George III. He also supplied the instruments for Captain Cook to observe the transit of Venus in 1769. After his death, his sons George and Dudley continued the business; with Dudley setting up on his own in 1788, working from a shop at 53 Charing Cross. In 1796, Dudley returned to the family firm and remained there until its bankruptcy in 1817. George Adams Snr acquired John Senex’s (see item 1) plates at some point in the 1760s. His son Dudley in turn acquired three inch globe plates from James Ferguson. After the firm’s bankruptcy in 1817 the Ferguson-Dudley Adams globes would be acquired by Thomas Lane (see item 14). Geography The cartography is an updated version of John Senex’s globe (item 1) with the west coast of Australia now fully formed, and “Van Diemen’s Land” (Tasmania) now attached to the southern coast. New Zealand has been moved to the east, to accommodate Australia’s hypothetical eastern coastline. Papua New Guinea is no longer joined to Australia’s northeast tip. In Asia Canton is marked on the Chinese coast, with the Kamchatka Peninsula added to the northeast. The western coastline of North America is extended and shows the Bering Strait, but it is not labelled. George Anson’s voyage of 1740-44 is marked by a dotted line. Astronomy Adams has used Senex’s celestial globe gores but reversed the forms.

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The pirate’s pocket globe

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[ANONYMOUS after MOLL, Herman] A Correct Globe with the New Discoveries. Publication [London, c1775]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, clipped at 70 degrees declination, varnished. Dimensions Dimensions: 70mm (2.75 inches). References Dekker GLB0196; for Moll’s globe see Lamb, Collins and Schmidt 5.4 and Sumira 21; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.456-458.

Biography Herman Moll (?1654-1732) moved to London from Germany or the Low Countries, sometime before 1678. His career in London would span some 60 years and see him move from a jobbing engraver to a successful publisher of maps and atlases. He was part of the intellectual circle that gathered at Jonathan’s Coffee House, counting Robert Hooke, Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift amongst his acquaintance. Moll even provided a map for Defoe’s work ‘Robinson Crusoe’ showing the track of Crusoe’s supposed voyage, and is mentioned by Lemuel Gulliver in ‘Gulliver’s Travels’. This globe was formerly attributed to George Adams Snr, on the basis that it appeared in one of his instruments. However, it also appears in the instruments of several other publishers, which makes this unlikely. Georgraphy Moll’s 1710 pocket globe - the only one he ever produced - was influenced by the voyages of William Dampier, his friend and collaborator. Dampier (1651-1715), sometime pirate and explorer, was the first Englishman to explore Australia, and the first to circumnavigate the world three times. He published an account of his adventures in ‘A New Voyage Around the World’ in 1697. The maps in ‘New Voyage’ and another work, ‘A Voyage to New Holland’, were created by Moll. Moll’s globe contained the tracks of Dampier’s voyage, updated coastlines based on his discoveries, and records of trade winds after Dampier’s treatise on the subject. The present example updates Moll’s original with the latest discoveries. California appears correctly as a peninsula, rather than the island originally portrayed by Moll - conflicting reports from Spanish explorers of the region had given rise to confusion as to whether it was attached to the mainland or not. California’s status was confirmed after the explorations of Juan Bautista de Anza (1774-76). The tracks of Dampier’s voyage have been partially erased and overlaid with the track of the first voyage of Captain James Cook (incorrectly dated “Cook’s Track 1760”), and the geography of Australasia adjusted accordingly, including the labelling of Cook Strait. It also adds the label “North.n Ocean” to the North Pole, although this is a preference of the cartographer rather than any new information, as the area was still largely unexplored. Astronomy The ecliptic is graduated and provided with the signs of the zodiac. The polar circles and tropics are drawn but not named. A magnitude table (1-6) sits below Ursa Major. The 48 Ptolemaic constellations are marked, with four non-Ptolemaic constellations. Only five of the 12 southern Plancian constellations are named, and Scutum is not labelled among the Hevelian constellations.

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An otherwise unknown maker

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KEMM, E[dward] A New Globe of the Earth from the Best Authorities. Publication [London, c1790]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, metal pivots, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter 75mm (3 inches). References Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.367.

Biography Kemm is recorded only as the author of this globe. He could possibly be the shipwright Edward Kemm recorded in Deptford, whose will was proved in 1801, or his son, also named Edward, who was recorded as a gentleman between 1795 to 1808. Geography Whichever Kemm was the maker, he took an interest in the voyages of Captain Cook. Not only are Cook’s voyages on HMS Resolution recorded, but Kemm has shown where the leadership of the expedition changed after Cook’s death. Captain Charles Clerke, in command of the other vessel on the expedition, HMS Discovery, is named on the track after it leaves Hawai’i, where Cook was killed. After Clerke in turn died from tuberculosis on the way to Kamchatka, his second in command, Captain John Gore, took control, unaware that his homeland, America, had declared independence from Britain two years before. The name on the track changes again to those of Gore and Captain James King, who Gore placed in command of HMS Discovery. The two men eventually brought the expedition home. The area around Australia has been adjusted in accordance with Cook’s discoveries, including the naming of Cape Farewell in New Zealand, so called because it was the last land that Cook saw before sailing to Australia, but the southern coast is left dotted. The Bering Strait, navigated for the first time only 50 years before the globe was made, is labelled, as is Bering Island, where Vitus Bering died of scurvy. Astronomy The case contains an unusual variation on the standard practice of pasting celestial globe gores inside the case of a terrestrial globe. The constellations are shown simply as star formations rather than pictorial forms, except for the signs of the zodiac, shown on a yellow band. The band marks the ecliptic, or the path of the sun through the sky as seen from earth - the signs of the zodiac fall exactly along this line. Unusually, Virgo is shown as an angel.

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The legacy of Captain Cook

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CARY, John and CARY, William Cary’s Pocket Globe agreeable to the latest discoveries. Publication London, Published by J. & W. Cary, Strand, April, 1791. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, metal pivots, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter 80mm (3.5 inches).    References Dekker GLB0001 and GLB0066; van der Krogt Car 1; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.129-133.

Biography The Cary dynasty of globemakers was founded in the late eighteenth century by John Cary (1755-1835). The son of a Wiltshire maltster, Cary was apprenticed to William Palmer and became freeman in 1778. The first globes by Cary were advertised in the ‘Traveller’s Companion’ in January 1791. The advertisement mentions that his globes were made from “entire new plates”. It was common for publishers to buy or inherit copper plates for gores and alter them, rather than go to the expense of creating new ones. The address of the company at this time was 181 the Strand, and it was known as J & W Cary, to recognise the contribution of John’s brother William (1759-1825). Geography William himself was primarily an optician and nautical instrument maker, having been apprenticed to Jesse Ramsden and had his own premises further down the Strand at Nos. 272 and 182. In his advert Cary was keen to stress that his pocket globe contained “the new Discoveries, & the Tracks of the different Circumnavigators”. All three of Captain James Cook’s voyages are marked. The first, from 1768-71 when he commanded the HMS Endeavour, reached Australia and circumnavigated New Zealand. He discovered the Endeavour Strait (marked on the globe) in 1770 between the Australian mainland and Prince of Wales Island and named it after his ship. Botany Bay also appears, named for the specimens found there by Sir Joseph Banks, the naturalist who sailed with Cook. The second voyage, from 1772-75 when he commanded the HMS Resolution, reached the Arctic Circle. His third and final voyage from 1776-79, with HMS Resolution and Discovery, made Cook the first European to have formal contact with the Hawaiian islands in 1778; it was also where he died after a confrontation with natives, commemorated with the inscription ‘“Owhyee where Cook was killed”. Astronomy The celestial gores are characterised by the unusual treatment of the constellations. Like Edward Kemm, rather than differentiating them by showing them in pictorial form, Cary has chosen to outline them. Unlike Kemm, he uses solid blue rather than dotted black lines. All 48 Ptolemaic constellations are included, as are the 12 southern constellations of Plancius. The Enlightenment constellations of Lacaille are all present, but Cary has omitted Cerberus, Mons Maenalus and Triangulum Minus of Hevelius’ constellations.

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Tracking the First Fleet

10

CARY, John and CARY, William Cary’s Pocket Globe agreeable to the latest discoveries. Publication London, Published by J. & W. Cary, Strand, April, 1798. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, metal pivots, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Dimensions: 80mm (3.5 inches). References Dekker GLB0001 and GLB0066; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.129-133.

Biography Cary advertised his updated globes in the ‘New Itinerary’ in 1798, announcing that “the Celestial is laid down by Mr Gilpin of the Royal Society, & Late Assistant to Dr Maskelyne; & the Stars are Calculated to the Year 1800: the Terrestrial exhibits the different Tracks of Capt. Cook & other Circumnavigators”. Geography Cary’s globe is unusual for marking the passage of some of the First Fleet, the 11 ships which founded Britain’s penal colony in Australia in 1787. Among the tracks marked are the Lady Penrhyn under Captain William Sever, which carried the first horses brought to Australia, and the Scarborough under Captain John Marshall, who sailed from Australia to China on the return voyage and in whose honour the Marshall Islands are named. An interesting addition is the track labelled “Lieut[enant John] Shortland” running into New South Wales. After serving as naval agent for the First Fleet, Shortland returned to Australia as first lieutenant on the Reliance in 1794. While tracking runaway convicts in 1797 he entered the estuary of the Hunter River, mapped the area, and named it. The extent of British exploration in the Pacific area is shown by the plethora of British place names. These include Duke of York Islands in Papua New Guinea, named after Prince Edward, younger brother of George III, by Philip Carteret, who circumnavigated the world in 1766-69; and Palmerston Island, an atoll named after Henry Temple, 2nd Viscount Palmerston (then Lord of the Admiralty).  The globe also marks other contemporary explorations. Cary was the first to use information derived from Alexander Mackenzie’s 1789 explorations in north-western Canada, showing “Mackenzie’s R[iver]” before Mackenzie’s own maps were published in 1801. Tasmania is still marked “Diemensland” and appears as a peninsula. The existence of the Bering Strait had now been confirmed, and it appears between America and Asia. Finally, the globe shows the 1773 Arctic expedition of Constantine Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave (with a young Horatio Nelson on board), where Phipps was the first European to describe the polar bear as a distinct species. Astronomy For notes on the cartography of the celestial gores please see item 9.

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13928 First fleet


A French maker’s English globe

11 LORIOT, A[uguste] after LANE, Nicholas [Pocket globe]. Publication London, 65 New Bond Street, 1809. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, paste-over imprint to cartouche, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker, pp.393-394; Sumira 35 and 45; Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.414. 

Biography Auguste Loriot (1755-1831) was a Normandy-born stationer, perfumier and toymaker. He set up his business in London at 60 New Bond Street in 1784, where he remained until 1807. He held a warrant to the Prince and Princess of Wales between 1802 and 1811, and moved to new premises at 65 New Bond Street in 1808, from where he also ran a juvenile library. He returned to his birthplace of Caen in France around 1826. Loriot was one of several London-based makers who reissued Lane family globes - his imprint has been pasted over the original. Nicholas Lane’s pocket globe, with completely new terrestrial plates, was first issued in 1779. His son, Thomas, updated the plates in 1807 and sold them wholesale. The present globe is based on Thomas’s updated plates. Geography “New South Wales, Botany Bay and Cape Byron are depicted in New Holland (Australia), and “Buenos Ayres” (Buenos Aires) appears in South America. Two years later there were more changes: Dimens Land (Tasmania) is separated from New Holland by the Bass Strait; Port Jackson (Sydney) is added to the eastern coast of the mainland; and Sharks’ Bay and ‘South C.’ are newly marked on the western side. The Antipodes of London are also shown. In northwest America, “New Albion” and the “Stony Mountains” (the Rockies) have been added. Curiously, the date of Captain Cook’s death, 14 February 1779, is another late addition squeezed in below the Sandwich Islands” (Sumira). Astronomy The celestial gores, which were acquired by Nicholas Lane from Richard Cushee sometime in the mid-eighteenth century, are geocentric in orientation. The difference is most noticeable in the orientation of Ursa Major, with the bear facing the other direction. The deep green colour is characteristic of Lane globes.

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A Toymaker’s globe

12

MINSHULL, George after LANE, Nicholas Minshull’s 1816. Publication [London], 1816. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, paste-over imprint to cartouche, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches). References Dekker, pp.393-394; Sumira 35 and 45; Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.451. 

Biography George Minshull (fl1800-1835) was a toymaker and carver. Although based in Birmingham, there was a “George Minshull & Son” registered in Hatton Garden in London in 1814, suggesting the globe was sold there. It was common for small cartographic items and scientific instruments to be sold alongside toys. Geography Minshull’s globe is an updated version of Thomas Lane’s issue of his father’s pocket globe (see item 11). By 1816, the date of the globe shown here, the geography has been altered yet again: “At the southern tip of the Californian peninsula, “C. S. Lucas” (Cape San Lucas) is now shown... “Dampier’s Anchor”, where William Dampier first reached Australia, is marked off the north west coast of New Holland, and we see a mysterious “Labyrinth” [The Great Barrier Reef ] off the north-east coast” (Sumira). Astronomy For notes on the cartography of the celestial gores please see item 11. Minshull has put his own stamp on the celestial gores by only colouring the constellations in green.

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I can see Uranus

13

NEWTON, John Newton’s New & Improved Terrestrial Pocket Globe. Publication London, No. 66 Chancery Lane, June 1st, 1817. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, brass meridian ring, which sits in a engraved hand-coloured and varnished horizon ring, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, upper lid lined with 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, calotte, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker GLBOO58; van der Krogt New 1; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.487-490.

Biography John Newton (1759-1844) was trained by Thomas Bateman (fl1754-81), who had previously been apprenticed to Nathaniel Hill (see items 4 and 5). Newton’s first globe was a revised edition of Hill’s 1754 pocket globe, which he published in 1783 in association with William Palmer. The partnership dissolved shortly after, and Newton continued to publish the pocket globe under his own name. John’s second son William Newton (1786-1861) joined the firm between 1814-1816, which traded under the name J. & W. Newton. In the same year the firm produced a new series of globes, including a new pocket globe. By the 1830s the firm was also active as a patent agent, and was joined by Miles Berry, a civil engineer and patent agent, after which the firm was known as Newton, Berry & Son. In 1842, William’s eldest son, William Edward Newton (1818-1879), joined the business, followed by his brother Alfred Vincent Newton (1821-1900). The firm became known as W. Newton & Son, or once again, on the death of William as simply Newton & Son from 1861 until about 1883. Geography In a departure from pocket globes produced in the eighteenth century, Newton has mounted the present globe in a graduated brass meridian ring. The ring fits into two slots in the paper horizon ring which is pasted on to the lower part of the case. This enables the globe to be positioned at an angle, mimicking the earth’s axial tilt. In Australia, the southeastern coast is labelled “French disc.”, after the scientific expedition led by Nicolas Baudin (1800-1803). This is a contentious choice on Newton’s part. The British explorer Captain Matthew Flinders was exploring the area at the same time, and the expeditions met each other in the consequently named “Encounter Bay”. Although Flinders completed the task before Baudin, he was captured and imprisoned for six years at Mauritius on his voyage home, along with his charts and manuscripts. This allowed the French explorers to print their account of the new discoveries before Flinders, and for Freycinet to produce the first complete chart of the Australian continent. The maps and charts prepared by Freycinet ignored the discoveries of Grant and Flinders and depict the whole of the newly discovered coast of Melbourne to the border of Western Australia as the “Terre Napoleon”.

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In North America, the northwest coast is labelled “Vancouver’s disc.”, after George Vancouver’s 1791-95 expedition. Further north Alaska is marked “Russian Settlements”. The Russian-American Company was formed in 1799, and set up a trading post in Alaska for the purpose of hunting sea otters for their fur. The United States would later acquire Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867. To the west of Alaska the Bering Straits are shown but not named. To the southern Pacific is “An Improved Analemma shewing the sun’s declination & place in the zodiac for each day of inspection”. In the South Pacific Ocean additional information is provided - “NB. This improved Analemma is intended to supercede the necessity of the Ecliptic Line hitherto unnecessarily drawn upon the Terrestrial Globe” - although Newton has failed to remove the line of the ecliptic that still surrounds the globe. Astronomy Only the upper hemisphere is printed with designs depicting astronomical phenomena. To the rim is a zodiacal scale, with symbols of the signs of the zodiac. The rest of the hemisphere depicts the solar system, with the new planet Uranus named after its discoverer William Herschel, who had found the planet on 13th March, 1781. It was the first new planet to be discovered since antiquity.

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Lane’s improved pocket globe

14 LANE, Nicholas and LANE, Thomas Lane’s Improved Globe. Publication London, 1825. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, one calotte at north pole, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker, pp.393-394; Sumira 35 and 45; Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.387. 

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Biography The present globe is the work of Nicholas Lane (fl1775-1783), whose business was particularly associated with pocket globes. Lane is best known for producing a very popular 2.75 inch globe in around 1779. The globe would be updated in 1807 by his son Thomas Lane (fl1801-1829) the present globe, who continued to revise the globe up until the 1820s; not only did he sell the globe under his own name but he also sold them wholesale (see item 11 and 12). Geography For a discussion of the geography please see items 11 and 12. Astronomy For notes on the cartography of the celestial gores please see item 11.

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The Swan River Colony

15

LANE, Thomas after ADAMS, Dudley and FERGUSON, James Lane’s Improved Globe. Publication London, [after 1830]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, paste-over imprint to cartouche, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores. Dimensions Diameter: 76mm (3 inches).    References Dekker, p.132, pp.245-250, pp.393-394 and GLBOO40; van der Krogt Lae 5 and Lae 6; Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.387. 

Biography When Dudley Adams went bankrupt in 1817, the Lane family firm acquired the plates for a three inch globe, which Adams had in turn purchased from James Ferguson. The plates were issued ten times over almost a century. Geography The globe has been updated to reflect many of the latest discoveries in the polar and Australasian areas. The most notable addition is the marking on the west coast of Australia of the “Swan R. Settlement”. The ‘Swan River Colony’ was the brain-child of Captain James Stirling who in 1827, aboard HMS Success, had explored the Swan River. On his return to London he petitioned Parliament to grant land for a settlement along the river. A consortium was set up by the MP Potter McQueen, but was disbanded after the Colonial Office refused to give them preference over independent settlers. One of the members of the consortium, Thomas Peel, did, however, accept the terms set down by Colonial Office. In late 1829, Peel arrived with 300 settlers and was granted 250,000 acres. The first reports of the new colony arrived back in England in late January 1830. They described the poor conditions and the land as being totally unfit for agriculture. They went on to say that the settlers were in a state of “near starvation” and (incorrectly) said that the colony had been abandoned. As a result of these reports, many people cancelled their migration plans or diverted to Cape Town or New South Wales. Nevertheless the colony did survive, although due to the difficult of clearing land and growing crops, the population had only increased to 5,886 by 1850. Astronomy The celestial gores are taken from James Ferguson, but Lane has added hour angles along the equator in the southern hemisphere and a zodiacal belt along the ecliptic.

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The race to the North Pole begins

16

ADDISON, John A New Terrestrial Globe; from the best Authorities. Publication London, No.116 Regent Street, J. Addison & Co., [c1825-1830]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, metal pivots, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 80mm (3 inches).    References Worms and Baynton-Williams, p.5. 

Biography John Addison (1791?-1847) was an instrument maker and mapseller. He had begun his own business by 1820, trading as J. Addison & Co., and became Royal Globemaker to George IV. Geography Addison’s globe focuses on British expeditions in the Arctic and solidifies British control of Australia. Australia is no longer called “New Holland” - the first globe in this catalogue to do so. The name New Holland had been given to the continent by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and remained in use until the early nineteenth century, despite the fact that the Netherlands never claimed any territories there and never established a permanent colony. The British explorer Matthew Flinders, whose Australian expedition is shown on this globe (see “Spencer’s Gulf ”, discovered by Flinders in 1802), and who published a map of Australia in 1814, pushed for the continent to be known as Australia or Terra Australis. He argued that the Ptolemaic southern continent did not exist and so the name should be given to Australia; and also that Britain should avoid giving the Dutch too much prominence, especially given the establishment of the British colony in New South Wales. The name was officially adopted by the British Admiralty in 1824. In North America, the Mackenzie River can be seen winding down from the northern coast, underneath the inscription “Sea seen by Mackenzie”. The fur trapper Alexander Mackenzie had followed the river up in 1789 to try and reach the Pacific Ocean; finding the Arctic Ocean instead, he had named the river “The River of Disappointment” in frustration. His discovery is mirrored by “Sea seen by Hearne” to the east. Samuel Hearne made three expeditions with First Nations peoples through northern Canada to try and find copper sources. On his third voyage (1770-1772) he followed the Coppermine River north and became the first European to reach the Arctic Ocean by Land. “Barrow’s Strait” is marked above the Hearne inscription, discovered by William Parry on his 1819 expedition, which was one of the first voyages to carry food in tin cans. Astronomy The celestial gores follow Senex in outlining each constellation in blue (see item 1). Addison reissued a Dudley Adams celestial globe in 1818, suggesting he had access to the firm’s celestial pocket gores after they went bankrupt. The Arctic and Antarctic Circles, the Tropics, and the celestial equator are marked. All 48 Ptolemaic constellations are included, as are the 12 southern constellations of Plancius. The Enlightenment constellations of Lacaille are all present. 

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Discoveries at the North Pole

17

NEWTON, William Newton’s New & Improved Terrestrial Globe. Publication London, Newton Son & Berry, 66 Chancery Lane, [1838-41]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished. Dimensions Dimensions: 70mm (2.75 inches).    References Dekker GLB0054 and GLB0060; Sumira 48; Worms and Baynton-Williams, pp.487-490. 

Biography For a biography of the Newton firm please see item 13. Geography In North America, Alaska is marked “Russian Territory”, denoting the success of the Russian-American Company’s colony, which was set up in 1799, to hunt sea otters for their fur. To the west of Alaska the Bering Straits are now named. The results of the multiple voyages of the British explorer William Parry in the Arctic throughout the 1820s are shown. He explored throughout the area and wintered on the ice on two separate occasions, avoiding scurvy among his crew by growing mustard and cress in his cabin. In 1827 Parry broke the record for the furthest exploration north - a higher latitude would not be reached for 49 years. The tentative coastlines shown were named by him “North Georgia” and “Melville Land” for George III and Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville and First Lord of the Admiralty. Interestingly, in Australia, Newton has named the continent both “New Holland” and “Australia”. New South Wales and Sydney are marked. Geographical features include the Swan River, the Gulf of St. Vincent as named by Matthew Flinders, and Halifax Bay. Further south in the Antarctic Circle are Alexander Island “Alexander 1st I.” and Peter 1st Island “Peter 1st I.”. The islands were discovered in 1821 by a Russian expedition under Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, who named them for the reigning Tsar of Russia and Peter the Greatw. Von Bellinghausen was the second person to circumnavigate Antarctica, disproving James Cook’s theory that there was no land at the south pole, and the first Russian to circumnavigate the world. Astronomy The celestial gores show the constellations in pictorial form. Those include all 48 Ptolemaic constellations, all 12 of Plancius’ southern constellations, all those of Hevelius, except “Mons Maenalus” and all the Enlightenment constellations of Lacaille, except “Reticulum”. The stars are marked with their Bayer notations.

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Newton shows the earth in motion

18

NEWTON & SON [NEWTON, John, NEWTON, William Edward and NEWTON, Alfred Vincent]

Biography For a biography of the Newton firm please see item 13.

Newton’s Improved Pocket Celestial Globe.

Astronomy Dekker dates this celestial globe to around 1860, a development on the celestial globe offered by the Newton firm in 1838. Unlike the 1838 globes, the stars are marked with their Bayer notations, with different symbols indicating their relative magnitude. In contrast to pocket globes produced in the eighteenth century, the case of this celestial globe has a flat base rather than being spherical. The globe itself is held within a bronze meridian ring. This allows the globe to be positioned at an angle, mimicking the earth’s axial tilt and giving the viewer a better understanding of the position of the constellations from a terrestrial viewpoint. The lid of the globe contains an astronomical calendar around the rim, with the signs of the zodiac represented in constellation form over the appropriate months. The solstices and equinoxes are marked. Other important astronomical bodies are also labelled: the Milky Way “Via Lactea”; major stars like Aldebaran and Antares; and the recently discovered group of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter - Juno, Ceres, Vesta and Pallas. The gores on the lid have been cleverly engraved with rays so that the calotte pasted to the centre looks like the sun. Four small pictures of the earth have been pasted in around the lid to show how shadow passes across the planet during its daily rotation.

Publication London, No. 66 Chancery Lane, [c1860]. Description Globe, 12 hand-coloured engraved paper gores, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, brass hour ring, brass meridian ring, which sits in an engraved hand-coloured and varnished horizon ring, housed within original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case with extended base, with hooks and eyes, upper lid lined with 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, solar calotte, four small engraved images of the earth pasted over gores, varnished. Dimensions Diameter: 76mm (3 inches).   References Dekker GLB0060; Worms and BayntonWilliams, pp.487-490. 

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Glossary

Analemma In the context of a globe, this usually refers to a diagram showing the position of the sun at the mean solar moon over the course of a year, in the form of a figure-ofeight on a terrestrial globe. Calotte A circular paper cap pasted at the poles of a globe. Cartouche A label on a globe, usually displaying the name of the maker, the date of manufacture and other descriptive text.

Declination See celestial co-ordinates. Ecliptic The great circle on the celestial sphere which is the apparent path of the sun through the stars. It cuts the equator at an angle of 23.5˚. The ecliptic is divided into the 12 signs of the zodiac. Gore One of the segments of paper that cover a globe. The use of 12 gores came to be standard practice, 12 being a very convenient factor of 360˚.

Celestial co-ordinates There are two co-ordinate systems that can be used on a celestial globe. The first, following Ptolemy, uses the ecliptic as a baseline from which the position of the stars is measured using celestial longitude and celestial latitude. The second system is based on the celestial equator - a projection of the terrestrial equator. In this system star positions are measured by right ascension along the equator and declination above and below the equator. The vernal equinox or the First Point of Aries is the starting point for the measurement of celestial longitude and right ascension.

Horizon ring The horizontal ring encircling the globe that represents the plane of the horizon on the earth. The horizon is a great circle that separates the visible half of the heavens from the invisible. On a globe, the printed horizon ring displays several concentric circles that typically show degrees of the compass, the points of the compass, the degrees and signs of the zodiac, and the calendar months and occasionally winds.

Clipped A gore is described as clipped when it has been cut to accommodate a calotte.

Meridian ring The brass ring in which a globe is suspended. It is usually engraved with degrees of latitude.

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Hour circle A ring, placed around the pole, usually made of brass, and divided into 24 hours.

THE WORLD IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND

Shagreen A material made from the skin of sharks, rays or dogfish, often used for globe cases. Zodiac A band of the heavens 8˚ to either side of the ecliptic which is divided into twelve equal parts, each containing a sign or constellation of the zodiac. We are grateful to Sylvia Sumira for allowing us to borrow all definitions apart from clipped and shagreen from her work The Art and History of Globes (see bibliography).


Select Bibliography

Dahl, Edward and Gauvin, Jean-Francois. Sphaerae mundi: Early globes at the Stewart Museum. ([Québec]: Septentrion and McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008). Dekker, Elly. Globes at Greenwich: A Catalogue of the Globes and Armillary Spheres in the National Maritime Museum. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). Dekker, Elly and van der Krogt, Peter. Globes from the Western World. (London: Zwemmer, 1993). Van der Krogt, Peter and ten Haken, Willie (trans.). Old Globes in the Netherlands. (Utrecht: HES, 1984). Lamb, Tom, Collins, Jeremy and Schmidt, Rudolf. The World in your Hands: An Exhibition of Globes and Planetaria. (Leiden: Museum Boerhaave, 1995). Sumira, Sylvia. The art and history of globes. (London: The British Library, 2014). Worms, Laurence and Baynton-Williams, Ashley. British Map Engravers. (London: Rare Book Society, 2011).

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For those who wish to learn more about the items on offer in the catalogue, we are pleased to offer two works on the history of globes and globemaking. A crucial reference work, Elly Dekker’s ‘Globes at Greenwich’ is a catalogue of all the globes and related material held at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Meticulously detailed and extensively illustrated, it carries essays on the practice of globemaking in cultures throughout history and details about the Greenwich collection. £425 inc p+p.

Sylvia Sumira was curator at the National Maritime Museum before becoming a full time globe restorer. ‘The Art and History of Globes’ takes a broad view of the history of globes and looks particularly at the process of their construction. £30 inc p+p. Please email info@crouchrarebooks.com to order.

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Daniel Crouch Rare Books LLP 4 Bury Street, St James’s London SW1Y 6AB

Daniel Crouch Rare Books New York LLC 24 East 64th Street New York NY 10065

+44 (0)20 7042 0240 info@crouchrarebooks.com crouchrarebooks.com

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The World in the Palm of Your Hand  

The World in Your Pocket - a collection of English pocket globes from the long eighteenth century.

The World in the Palm of Your Hand  

The World in Your Pocket - a collection of English pocket globes from the long eighteenth century.

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