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Waterfront Sines

Z A C H O D N I O P O M O R S K I U N I W E R S Y T E T T E C H N O L O G I C Z N Y W S Z C Z E C I N I E / Z U T Polonia | T E C H N I S C H E U N I V E R S I T E I T E I N D H O V E N Holanda | H A F E N C I T Y U N I V E R S I T Y H A M B U R G Alemanha | A R I S T O T E L E U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L O N I I K I – F A C U L T Y O F E N G I N E R I N G – S C H O L O F A R C H I T E C T U R E Grécia | U N I V E R S I T E D E P A R I S L A S O R B O N N E França | P O L I T E C N I C O D I M I L A N O – FA C O LTA D I A R C H I T E T T U R A E S O C I E TA D I A P – D I P A R T I M E N T O D I A R C H I T E T T U R A E P I A N I F I C A Z I O N E Italia | G A Z I U N I V E R S I T E S I Turquia


Organizers

escola de comunicação, arquitetura, artes e tecnologias da informação

Title

Keywords

Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD)

Waterfront Regeneration, Port Cities, Urban Design, Sines

Coordinator

Impressão e Acabamento

This publication contains the results of the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design – EWWUD 2012

Pedro Ressano Garcia Organizing committee

Depósito Legal

Bernardo Vaz Pinto Margarida Valla Maria João Matos

ISBN

Students committee

Ana Brás Carlos Vinagre Daniela Silva Gonçalo Casqueiro João Banha Marta Dias Miguel Sousa Editorial coordination

Daniela Silva Pedro Ressano Garcia Design & layout

Itemzero Graphic logo

Carlos Vinagre Publication date

2013 Permalink

ewwud.ulusofona.pt

Sponsor

Todos os direitos reservados Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Campo Grande, 376 – 1749 – 024 Lisboa edições.lusofonas@ulusofona.pt

Partners


Acknowledgments

3

The workshop has much to thank. At the time of publishing the results of EWWUD I should start by saying that this book is only possible because of the enthusiasm of all who have supported the event in so many different ways. It all begun with the grant from the ERASMUS program that covered most of the expenses, secondly the availability of the extraordinary team of international professors coming to Lisbon and Portuguese teachers that succeed to leave their busy professional lives and work passionately with each group. And at last, or first of all, the Universidade Lusófona that turned this project real. The workshop requires the energy of a crowd. It is an extraordinary group of people, nearly one hundred that work hard. They travel miles to be in Lisbon, have litle sleep and produce extraordinary material that we publish in this book. The support from Public Entities exceeded all expectations. Port Authority of Sines and all the technical personal from Sines municipality contributed widely with material and internal information - Architect Ricardo Pereira and Lidia Sequeira. At Universidade Lusófona the International Relations, Career & Entrepreneurship Office carried out all the difficult administrative procedures, that is not an easy job and they succeed beautifully. Joel Hasse Ferreira and Sub-Director if ISCAD Jorge Gregório hosted the group. The administrator of Universidade Lusófona, Manuel José Damásio carefully handled the project and solved a number of difficulties that the project, being pioneer, necessarily demands.

The participation of invited professors raised the level of scientific expertise thanks to Zbigniew Paszkowski, Jakub Golebiewski, Irene Curulli, Maarten Willems, Dirk Schubert, Timothy Pape, Renèe Tribble, Alkmini Paka, Nikos Kalogirou, Anastasia Tzaka, Nur Caglar, Adnan Aksu, Françoise Py, Andrea Colombo, Marco Oriani, Johannes Kalvelage. From Universidade Lusófona professors Luís Santiago Baptista, Margarida Valla, Maria João Matos, Bernardo Vaz Pinto, Filipe Afonso, António Louro and Pedro Pinto contaminated the group with their enthusiasm and challenged their thoughts. The group students of the organization made the event possible, without them it would not have happened, they brought a refreshing and energetic approach thanks to Carlos Vinagre Martins, Daniela Silva, Gonçalo Casqueiro, Miguel Sousa, Ana Brás, Marta Dias and João Banha.

Pedro Ressano Garcia Coordinator of European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design 2012


Plan

5

Introduction

9

Waterfront New Life

Paper

Paper

Paper

13

Waterfront revitalisation from local to regional perspectives in Hamburg and Barcelona

53

Waterfronts: The power of transformation in a Sustainable World

107

Lagoons’ Promenade

Paper

Paper

109

The Zipper

23

The City of Sines Barrier Transitions

Team Project

113

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

Team Project

125

The Zipper

Team Project

27

Sines Barrier Transitions

Paper

39

Living Wall

Team Project

41

Sines Living Wall

Team Project

57

Port of Sines Human, Environment, Industry

Team Project

69

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Paper

Team Project

79

Land to Sea Eco Path

135

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

Team Project

85

Santo André Land to Sea

Team Project

97

Healthy Santo André

Conclusion

147

Waterfront New Life Seven ideas to challenge the Port City

149

Final Boards


Introduction

7

Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Lus贸fona University of Lisbon

Waterfront New Life

The third edition of the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD) is dedicated to region of Sines. Ten schools of Architecture and Urban Planning came to Portugal to work together in March 2012. The initiative brought one hundred participants from fifteen countries: graduate students and teachers exchanged their own views regarding the future increment of the waterfront. During the workshop they had the opportunity to analyse, discuss and formulate hypothesis for the sustainable development of the region, based on the preservation of environmental quality and growth of port activity. The local community was in the centre of the discussion, to imagine a process that aims a better future for the whole region.

Waterfront brings together a number of different topics since it relates two different worlds, land and water. From the side of the water there are maritime transportation requirements, the necessary reduction in carbon emission, levels of pollution, relocation of population and sensitive ecologic areas. Waterfront Urban Design merges several constrains, there are opportunities and threats discussed at the beginning of the workshop with an overall view presented by prof. Costa Lobo. In his introductory talk, Lobo explained the complexity of the theme and succeed to highlight the specificity of local constrains and opportunities when imaging to design the future. In the last decades the region of Sines has experienced major transformations with the birth of the port of Sines. The first

four decades have face political ruptures and consequent discontinuities for the project, that was interrupted as it faced strong opposition coming from politicians and the public opinion. After the revolution of 1974 the political instability affected the development and planning strategies. The whole process became unpredictable. The project seems to touch sensitive cultural values and consequently face years of discussion. Such difficulties brought a loss of competitiveness on both sides, as well as unsustainable development of the industry in the region, irregular investments and decreasing quality of life for their citizens. In the first years of democracy, the local stakeholders were guided by a culture of mistrust. There was a dominant lack of loyalty between the leaders and their institutions behaved unreliably to each other.


8

Waterfront New Life

At the opening session representatives from the municipality of Sines and Santo André gave a wide scope of the extraordinary opportunity for the local economy and also pointed out some of the threats they face.

to contribute for future solutions each group is expected to be connected to reality when addressing the challenges that involve governmental institutions - Municipality, Port Authority and local stakeholders.

The president of the Sines Port Authority gave accurate information regarding the expansion of the port activity and the articulation with the industrial facilities.

The subject requires a wide understanding of different fields that affect and influence the process of transformation. It is necessary to combine research from various subjects and to make use of interdisciplinary information. Participants were divided in groups where they were able to exchange transversal fields of knowledge, develop their know-how, reflect upon implemented solutions and their contexts, and draw hypotheses towards what can be applied in the future.

PSA – Port of Singapure Authority share their vision and explained the reason to atrack the largest foreign investment in Portugal. They foresee the container terminal for transshipment as well as the gate to the Iberia Peninsula. At present, there is a significant improvement of cooperation between institutions that accepted to be together at the opening session. Listening to the different inputs it become clear that there were several topics yet to be discussed. The fair and open atmosphere seemed possible between them, to build a common ground for fertile and reachable solutions. Imaginative solutions inspired by the creativity of the academic environment are useful in opening the process of transformation where both city and port are involved. The academic neutrality is valuable to raise new questions and address the situation from a different perspective. At the workshop, professors and students brought their local expertise to the discussion formulated by each of the nine groups. Since there are different topics that are related to waterfront urban design, each group holded multinational participants with the aim of sharing best practices interdisciplinary disciplines from the fields of architecture, urban planning, geography and urban design. The presentations made by each stakeholder offered a good understanding of their struggles and their victories. The process of waterfront urban design is complicated and

The ideas and proposals published in this book aim to produce a holistic vision of the present problem. The quality stands on the ability that students and faculty had to bring the knowledge of local situation to find imaginative solutions port cities depend on creative and innovative solutions to contribute for most desirable sustainable development. The proposals presented along this publication merge historic, geographic, economic competitiveness, the environment and local people’s necessities. They are culturally rooted and are guided by a humanistic tone, where human life and its various expressions aim to help us think in a better way.

Introduction

[...] shares a new perspective on the subject or establishes cross references with other waterfront urban design solutions produced elsewhere. a body of knowledge that is free from political pressures, and cross the projects developed by public and private entities. The information collected covers a wide range that is useful for defining particularities of local culture. Each group organize, select and edit the information having in mind that the aim of the workshop is to design solutions.

The groups were divided in four locations: the historic town of Sines; St. André and its waterfront; Port and industrial infrastructures and the forth location was located in the area between Sines and St André with few population and few industrial infrastructures.

Municipality representatives and high profile professionals, authors of master plans and projects of architecture of significant relevance for the region were involved in the workshop to share their perception of the theme. The aim to bring together local and external experts has been of great interest. It enhances a learning process that holds respect for the local culture and intense curiosity regarding the constrains and opportunities for the site.

The definition of these four locations was sorted out after discussing with technical responsables from both municipalities, developing work for the area. Meetings with Port Authority technical representatives, regional planers, “forum of the sea” chairman, government consultants, local stakeholders, heritage commission were part of the preparatory work. The research was made prior to the workshop, it intended to create

While international participants bring their own perception, they reveal a respectful attitude and true interest, understanding the importance of local culture. They bring their knowledge and challenged the group with a new vision. One that inevitably, shares a new perspective on the subject or establishes cross references with other waterfront urban design solutions produced elsewhere.


Introduction

Waterfront New Life

9

The area of intervention is located in the heart of the cork region. Cork trees are a national asset. The presentation by Cristina Verissimo focused on the richness of this material, and the extraordinary example of a sustainable ecosystem. The cork has been pealed from the trees and being used in the construction for its insulation characteristics. Recently it is being used in many other products. Scientists are using cork in various fields mainly in of cutting edge technology products. Cork and its derivatives emerge as iconic material that offers comfort, saves energy consumption while the trees produces oxygen in a perfectly adapt ecosystem tested for several centuries.

Municipalities attempt to give the legal frame work for the new design solutions is depending on various bodies of governmental, regional, environmental and municipal institutions. At present, the organization of governmental related institutions is such that there is little articulation and short cooperation. The complexity of legal procedures present profound contradictions. These institutions follow administrative procedures but not value holistic solutions, in particular if they require to think above procedures. To understand such proposals one must think beyond procedures and regulations.

The main challenge is how to attract capital and compete with other economic centers, while enhance the environment, natural and urban.

It might be waste less to think beyond procedures and regulations. However among our group we come to realize that new ideas take some time to be understood by the community and it is the task of academics to launch new ideas that eventually challenge the current situation.

The three main topics Nature – Community – Industry design a triangle holding each on the side. It is a fragile equilibrium. A balanced situation, that aims for a sustainable arrangement between the three, is possible. To reach good results, the needs from each side of the triangle must be taken in consideration.

The beaches along the coast, dream for surfers, hold surf schools that operate around the year. The lagoons and the untouched natural ecosystem are the place for nest birds. A paradise for bird watchers, tourists that come to enjoy and observe nature in its primitive state interrupted only by discrete human footprints.

City planning and master plans are evolving towards the denial of thought, where the procedure becomes more important than the possibility of thinking.

The natural environment is being supported to protect wild life but how it may bring an added value for the industry competiveness?

The proposals envision an holistic approach where constrains are to be integrated in the design solution.

And finally how nature and industry can be taken as an opportunity to value urban life.

Large oil facilities connected with the Port of Sines though pipelines claim to be the largest energy supplies of the country. Due to their efficient organization they are positioned as an important engine not only for the national economy, but for the Iberian Peninsula.

The interdisciplinary approach present solutions that integrate economic activity, protection of nature and the needs of the community.

The difference of approaches leads to opposite choices when dealing with urban infrastructures and natural resources.

Cork tree ecosystem is close to a zero carbon emission enviroment while increasing the production of cork enhances the balance between nature and humen presence and create a better world.

Sines cultural events have been attracting an increase number of public that enjoy cultural richness and diversity, such is the World Music Festival among others. Some of the proposals published in this book are away from the legal possibility to be implemented. They can be considered Utopian or too far from legal viability, however we believe they are clever and possible in a near future.

From a philosophical point of view this is not necessarily opposed. The complexity of nature is yet to be understood, and the main question is how the urban environment can be improved to host industrial activity.

Through the publication of design proposals we try to

[...] new ideas take some time to be understood by the community and it is the task of academics to launch new ideas that eventually challenge the current situation.


10

The natural environment is being supported to protect wild life but how it may bring an added value for the industry competiveness? contribute for a better way of thinking and bring the discussion to a higher level of complexity. On one hand there are those that believe we can transform and control nature and those who rather wish to negotiate with it since they realize nature is increasingly stronger and unpredictable. Economic The main energetic source brought by the large industrial infrastructure of the electric powerplant were thought to be in clear conflict with the sensitive natural environment. And yet, not necessarily. The possibility to negotiate with nature, and take advantage of industrial presence already exist on the site. A surf school takes advantage of the electric power plant that uses water from the ocean to cool down the turbines. The temperature of the water is pleasant for surfers around the year. The human presence inside the industrial facilities have been helpful at early stages of fire that take place during the summer. Areas dedicated to nature tend to be abandoned and vulnerable to natural disasters. The good balance between wild life and human presence has been in the center of discussion for all the proposals presented. • Over protection of the natural environment leads to unsustainable use of the territory.

Waterfront New Life

Introduction

• Unrestricted regulations for the industrial activity lead to a decrease quality of life for the local community.

— to understand that former industrial waterfronts are potential sites of continuity for urban morphology.

• The community holds mechanisms to settle a sustainable development for waterfront territories. The possibility to control nature is not just necessary but desirable. Since waterfront landscape is artificial and the process should continue.

The material produced at the workshop is expected to offer the participants a multidisciplinary overview of innovative and creative solutions for the following objectives:

Each group working at the workshop was multinational, highly educated and well informed. Today data flows freely, it is not possible to limit decisions when dealing with a total of sixteen design studios (eight in this book and eight in the previous book) formulating solutions of urban design and architecture for the region of Lisbon. Few guidelines can be established when aiming for sustainable regeneration on the waterfront. Participants agreed on three major orientations: social, environment and economic. Each group presented visions structured by a time frame of five, ten, twenty, fifty years consequently most of the proposals considered solutions within an extensive time line. Both criteria follow the latest tendencies in urban design and inevitably structure all solutions within a common frame work. In short the IP main objectives were: — to generate a methodology to contribute for the sustainable development of port cities; — to invite local authorities to come and exchange management visions that succeed to re-establish its relation with the water, improving environmental conditions while supporting the port activity; — to discuss and produce projects that improve the quality of life at the city and enhances the competitiveness of the port. — to discuss the influence of geographic and historical factors on the present situation of ports and cities and produce cartographic records of the transformation of the waterfront,

— Port cities sharing similar experiences regarding projects of architecture and urban design at former port areas, — Introduction of the cartographic culture of urban fabric’s transformation at the water edge. — Comparison of cultural, environmental and historical heritage solutions, — Port cities exchange mutual visions and common practices, that constitute a relevant tool for the regeneration of former port areas, — Production of architecture and urban design sketches for publication. The work published here has been coordinated by Alkmini Paka, Anastasia Tzaka and Nikos Kalogirou from Thessaloniki, Greece, Françoise Py from Paris, France, Zbigniew Paszkowski and Jakub Golebiewski from Szczecin, Poland, Dirk Schubert, Timothy Pape and Renee Tribble from Hamburg, Germany, Nur Caglar and Adnan Aksu from Ankara, Turkey, Irene Curulli and Maarten Willems from Eindhoven, Netherlands, Andrea Colombo and Marco Oriani, Milano, Italy, Matt Kondolf from Berkeley, California. Together with local faculty who supervised the studios, Maria João Matos, Margarida Valla, Bernardo Vaz Pinto, Filipe Afonso, António Louro. They made the workshop possible and their ideas are expressed through design and text in this book. ■


Paper

11

Text

Prof. Dirk Schubert From

Hafencity Universität Hamburg

Waterfront revitalisation from local to regional perspectives in Hamburg and Barcelona

The EWWU-Workshop 2012 took place in Sines, south of Lisbon. In a way this offers a perspective of dealing with waterfronts not only on a project-based scale but also on a regional scale. While waterfront redevelopment started often on a small scale, project-oriented, incremental basis nowadays it is integrated into a regional more sustainable perspective. Two examples of this extending dimension will be discussed here. Seaports are not only vital economic drivers, but also provide great urban settings. They are important image makers and offer unique features in the context of competition between cities. No two seaports are alike. All cities on waterfronts, coasts, rivers, canals and lakes have their own face, distinct character and individual history. They have different geographical conditions, technical possibilities, historical development,

access to the hinterland, property ownership and constellations of stakeholders (Schubert 2008: 29). The seaports themselves have specialised land uses. Ferry ports, fisheries, shipbuilding, ship repairing, transhipment, seaport industries, navy and military all have specific location requirements and relate to their urban contexts in different ways.

Harvey developed the term “fixity and flow� as a paradigm to characterise relationships and contradictions, the spatial flow and motion on the one hand and more static elements such as the urban fabric and the built environment on the other (Harvey 2005). Waterfronts offer perfect empirical case studies for this theoretical concept.

Changes in (seaport) cities are taking place at a faster pace than we can perceive, appraise or analyse. These transformations are less the result of planning and design than the expression of (global) social and economic processes. Cities reflect the complexity of modern society. Discontinuity and inconsistencies are a chief constant, and cities are becoming increasingly amorphous, unordered, illogical accumulations of people and buildings. Geographer David

Waterfronts and embankments are places where these inconsistencies become evident. Rapid succession of industrialisation, deindustrialisation and post-industrialisation can be paradigmatically analysed in this context. These zones in particular mark the built spatial and social shifts from industrialisation to the knowledge-based economies and postindustrial society (Marshall 2001: 5).


12

After a period when derelict areas were negated and neglected, they now represent unique opportunities (often close to the city centre) to advance the process of transforming cities for postmodern society. Rivers, ports and cities have many points of interaction, are often the hub of the local economy and an important factor influencing socio-cultural changes and spatial restructuring processes. Seaports have always occupied an important role in the economic and cultural life of nations; they were, and still are, fascinating culmination points of history, economy, society and culture. The transformation process of ports and waterfronts can only be understood in the context of world-wide economic restructuring, changes in dock labour and the urban spatial frameworks of cities and ports (Hoyle 1989: 430). During the late 1960s, the formerly close functional and spatial relationship between ports and cities began to loosen. The type of work in ports has changed (de-casualisation) and often the ports have moved seawards away from the city centre. Changing conditions for port logistics and containerisation of the transhipment of goods (Witthöft 2000: 14) have advanced the rationalisation of handling activities and the spatial relocation of functions formerly linked to the harbour (Löbe 1979: 268). The interfaces between ports and cities show significant changes in land uses, economic activities and in the building stock (i.e., from ships to chips). A shift in attitude and the new value attached to (derelict) port and waterfront zones has recently become evident in the change of public opinion and positive media coverage. Some decades ago, harbour areas still had negative connotations of being dangerous and noisy places for the handling of cargo (Priebs 1998: 20). Some sections of the ports were privatised and inaccessible customs areas or security zones cut off others from the city with fences and walls. Consequently, harbours were set apart from the daily life of the urban population. Port areas, waterfronts and access to the water’s edge have become highly desirable (Bruttomesso 1999). Harbour areas had not been addressed by urban planning for many decades and were perceived as “no-go areas”, dangerous unsafe zones,

Waterfront revitalisation from local to regional perspectives in Hamburg and Barcelona

Paper

“Seaports have always occupied an important role in the economic and culture life of nations; they were, and still are, fascinating culmination points of history, economy, society and culture.” “facades of ugliness” but as well as diasporas and stepping stones for newcomers . The discourse on appropriate strategies for handling such potential development areas has stirred controversial debate on the theory and practice of planning goals and priorities. Gordon stated that “the definitive book on waterfront has not yet been written” (Gordon 1998: 96). Cycles of transformation and (re)development The term “re”-vitalisation of ports and waterfronts straddles a range of meanings attached to very diverse processes and plans. While port planning includes (internal) port development measures such as the reorganisation and relocation of port uses, urban planning is now concentrating on changing former port economies to activities such as services, tourism, leisure and housing. Terms like quay, waterside and embankment describe areas, buildings and facilities formerly associated with ports. Revitalisation, however, has no precise definition, but embraces a complex field of changing uses, rejuvenation and regeneration, redesign and remodelling at the intersection of diverse interests that are connected at the interface of city/ country - port/water. Hence, the terms revitalisation, change of use and development are often used synonymously. The cycle of dereliction, neglect, planning, implementation and revitalisation of old harbour areas as well as the necessary

construction of port infrastructures are part of a complex network of stakeholders and interests. Derelict waterfront sites offer opportunities for new sustainable uses that no longer require sites close to the water. New waterfronts in particular mirror globalisation processes and have become locations for work, housing and recreation favoured by the “creative class” (Florida 2005, Peck 2005) in knowledge-based societies. Everywhere efforts are being made to compensate structural changes in cargo handling, ship building and seaport industries, as well as the consequential loss of employment by way of revitalisation projects that exploit structural changes in an attempt to modernise the urban economies. Although there are is a great variety of influences as size of the project, local and regional office and housing market, timeframe of planning and implementation, approaches and targets chosen for regeneration and context of governance and planning cultures roughly a similar sequence of developments can be noted: — dereliction, relocation of terminals and port uses — neglect of derelict areas — planning, concepts and designs for sub—optimally used former port areas


Paper

— implementation, construction — revitalisation and enhancement of port areas and along waterfronts. Generally, transformation began in the oldest parts of the ports and cities, with small projects such as converted warehouses, and slowly moved to more peripheral areas that were redeveloped later. Initially, a step-by-step approach was often taken, beginning with the most attractive sites, but not integrating developments in a sustainable urban or regional (re)development strategy. The thesis of this paper – that defines this process as a new cycle – is examined in comparative studies, while reflecting the complex problems at the macro, meso and micro levels. In the context of stronger competition between seaports and the challenges of globalisation, waterfront redevelopment has to be integrated into a city-wide and regional research perspective. Much experience of transforming central urban waterfronts has been gained in the meantime. However, the targets of the projects are not adequately defined and it is not clear what the indicators are for best practice and “success stories” (Breen and Rigby 1994; Breen and Rigby 1996). Often this kind of project-based “research” is done with local studies and merely comparing the situation before and after revitalisation. As not much trans-disciplinary comparative research in this field is available so far, such studies offer opportunities for identifying different structures of decision-making processes, different types of urban (re)development and diverse socio-cultural conditions (Wolman and Ford III and Hill 1994: 838) . The dereliction of older port areas and waterfronts, often dramatised in Europe and implemented much quicker in Asia (Schubert, 2007b), is part of a “normal” process that will, at best, lead to their rapid re-utilisation. But in Europe the revitalisation of ports and waterfronts often takes several decades, from the time of disuse to the start of redevelopment. However, water sites have specific features that can delay swift regeneration.

Waterfront revitalisation from local to regional perspectives in Hamburg and Barcelona

Contamination, difficult sub-soil conditions, existing maritime architectural heritage or industrial conservation sites and pioneer vegetation that has grown since the site has fallen derelict, are but a few factors that may delay or hamper construction and add to the costs. During this period the constellation of stakeholders, (party) political constellations, governance structures and the market can (repeatedly) change. Designing for “end users” who are not known at the time, or who will emerge or change at a later stage, makes the planning and implementation of such projects more complex. World-wide waterfront revitalisation projects can be distinguished into different phases (“generations”). The “first generation” emerged in the mid-1960s in the North American cities Baltimore, Boston and San Francisco, where problems of derelict, underused port areas first became apparent. The new planning task meant that a “learning by doing” or “project-led” approach was frequently adopted. New uses often included tourist facilities, hotels and offices (Harvey 1990: 93). At the beginning of the 1980s, when dramatic changes occurred as containerisation took hold, more seaports started waterfront revitalisation projects in a “second generation.” These projects were commonly larger in scale and dimension, again providing a mix of offices and leisure facilities along the waterfronts. This period of deregulation often resulted in a “sameness” of sites from Sydney to Toronto. Similar architects, planners and developers dominated the scene; developments were repeatedly criticised for resembling “concrete curtains” along the waterfront. By the beginning of the 1990s, a “third generation” had evolved adopting a different approach. In European seaport cities such as Oslo or Gothenburg, a participatory planning culture was used and the local population integrated into the planning process. A step-by-step process involving design competitions and masterplans was introduced to lead the way in restructuring former port areas. Events like the Olympics or cultural and leisure facilities such as aquariums or museums (Bilbao) helped to promote the redevelopments. At the

13

“A step-by-step process involving design competitions and masterplans was introduced to lead the way in restructuring former port areas.” beginning of the new millennium, the “fourth generation” of projects emerged. Private-public-partnerships and professional planning management dominated the global competition between waterfront revitalisation projects. These projects were exploited for new city-marketing strategies which were founded on their unique seaport heritage. During this phase (luxury) housing and mixed-used developments became more widespread. Although the boundaries between the four generations overlap, they still provide useful categories for different waterfront revitalisation strategies. With the dereliction of port and waterfront areas new futureoriented uses were introduced that no longer required waterrelated sites. Apart from offices and mixed-use projects, housing was put up as refurbishments or new builds. Housing development, if possible catering for a mix of different market segments, appears to have a long-term stabilising effect on regeneration efforts along the waterfronts, since it does not rely on events, seasonal or daily fluctuation of visitor numbers but has permanent residents. Many of the restructured waterfronts were developed as recreational facilities with tourist attractions that draw in large visitor numbers.


14

Waterfront revitalisation from local to regional perspectives in Hamburg and Barcelona

Meanwhile a lot of experience dealing with waterfront revitalisation has been collected worldwide. Often the central waterfront areas, with older and sometimes listed buildings, most attractive for tourists as well as for developers have been re-used and sometimes (several times) been redeveloped again and again. As this task is more or less done in many seaport cities and taken as an exercise now other more peripheral areas are waiting to be redeveloped in the future. Often these areas are larger and heavily contaminated, the sites tailored different, buildings are of low-grade and these zones offer no public transport.

Comparative Statistical Data

In this article these perspectives are described for two important European seaport cities. Although there is a great diversity of implementation, results, planning cultures and future planning strategies in European seaport cities similar developments into a more regional perspective of waterfront redevelopment can be verified.

a. Barcelona

Paper

City/Seaport

Inhabitants city

Inhabitants region

Containers handled TEU

Start of project ca.

Spatial strategy dimension

Barcelona

1,578,546

4,233,638

2,610,037

1992

city

Hamburg

1,777,373

4,266,000

9,889,792

1998

part of city

Barcelona Catalonia’s capital is the second largest city in Spain, with a population of 1.5 million and a region of around 4.2 million – similar to Hamburg. The port handles approximately one quarter of the containers of Hamburg and Rotterdam. In the mid-1980s, it experienced a remarkable boom. Without benefiting from the “capital city bonus”, Barcelona transformed from an industrial town into one of the most important cities for the service sector in the western Mediterranean region and one of the major

b. Barcelona

destinations for city tourism. It has rediscovered its maritime side after building numerous new parks and reclaiming its beaches, and now offers an exceptionally high quality of life for a large city. In 1986, Barcelona won the bid for the Olympic Games 1992, which acted as a catalyst for urban transformation and simultaneously provided a stage for self-representation. This gave the city a contemporary image that would re-define its position on the map of increasing competition between cities. A new metropolitan self-conception emerged with the urban planning of Barcelona (Meyer 1999: 128). The concept of a


Paper

compact and mixed city (predominantly infill) was combined with large-scale urban development components. Like in many other seaport cities, restructuring measures in Barcelona started in the oldest district close to the centre. In between the old town and the oldest part of the harbour the fourteen-lane Passeig de Colom formed a large barrier. After port operations and transhipment had been relocated away from the mole, the opportunity arose in the context of plans for the Olympics to convert the Moll de la Fusta into a promenade. The proposals envisaged the segregation of traffic into a lower level for through traffic with parking decks and bus and taxi lanes delineated with rows of palm trees, plus a level for local traffic. An elevated viewing terrace with kiosks and a promenade formed the heart of the new scheme. It was designed as a pedestrian area covering traffic lanes for long-distance transport and a multi-storey car park. A system of bridges and steps provided pedestrian links from the old town to the port. The development was the first and most spectacular project of Barcelona’s opening towards the sea, which since has been followed by other projects in addition to the complete redevelopment of the old harbour Port Vell (including an aquarium, Rambla de Mar, IMAX-cinema, Palau del Mar and the leisure centre Maremagnum and myriad restaurants). This “island” is reached via a footbridge in the south and has vehicular access through an underground car park in the north. The redevelopment of Port Vell gave up the former harbour character in favour of consumerism, attracting predominantly international visitors. This “fun city” was modelled on the festival market places in the USA. A busy promenade now leads from Placa Catalunya along the Ramblas to Port Vell. The construction of the World Trade Center, an office complex in the southern section of Port Vell, and a modern cruise and ferry terminal completed the reconstruction of the inner city section of the harbour.

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“[...] restructuring measures in Barcelona started in the oldest district close to the centre [...] a system of bridges and steps provided pedestrian links from the old town to the port.” The (sometimes controversial, urban design-dominated) debate on Port Vell and single buildings near the city centre pushed other important regional redevelopments into the background (Busquets, 2005: 413). Commercial zones and cargo handling were relocated south, away from the centre, and together with the trade fair, wholesale markets and the airport are now part of a logistics centre in the estuary of the River Llobrregat. With good rail and road links between the port and airport, the intermodal transhipment hub for cars, oil, chemical products and containers could not be better positioned. Redevelopment was continued at the northern beachfront. Barceloneta, to the north of Port Vell, was included in the improvements. It is a densely built-up area of former fishermen’s and dockers’ housing that was for a long time associated with crime and prostitution. The (partly) illegal shacks (chirinquitos) and fish stalls were replaced during the reorganisation of the beach zone (Calbet I Laura 2006: 370). The reasonably priced fish shops were driven out by the new “gentrified” gastronomy. The marina at the Olympic Port further to the north is used to capacity, but the shops and restaurants around the harbour are not very busy. Access to Poblenou, located further inland, is not easy and links between the beach and residential and commercial areas difficult due to heavy traffic on the coastal road. The redevelopment of the waterfront is paradigmatic of urban development policy in Barcelona. The perspective of

“cleansing” and “sanitizing” combined with new attractive public spaces (“positive mestases”) and so called “acupunctures” soon became a model for other European cities (Wüstenrot Stiftung (Hg.) 2008). The transformation is based on smallscale interventions and infill integrated in a long-term urban and regional development strategy. The focus is now readjusted on brownfield sites in the “second row”. The district Poblenou (once called the Catalan Manchester) has turned into a modern place for high-tech enterprises. The neglected and/or sub-optimally used areas and buildings are here now transformed into an innovation centre. The large site is subdivided into several blocks that extend from the inner city up to the north-eastern districts. It is earmarked for redevelopment and improvements comprising single blocks and block clusters between the Rambla Prim in the north and Gran Via de les Corts Catalan in the west, the street Marita in the south and the sea in the east and is bisected by the Avinguda Diagonal. The alignment of the ring road will reduce through-traffic in Poblenou and reveal new development potentials. The privileged location opens special opportunities for redevelopment; from all parts of Poblenou the beach and the sea are within walking distance. The River Besos on the northern periphery of the city was renaturalised. The transformation of Barcelona’s waterfront ends exactly at the city boundary, where another large-scale project, the Forum 2004, has been completed. The large


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“The urban regional and spatial redevelopment of Barcelona is part of a specific “design culture” that has architectural and design ambitions.” diagonal alignment (“Diagonal Mar“) through the chequerboard pattern of the Cerda Plan from 1859 has now been “finalised” at the seafront and the Besos estuary. The “Forum Universel de les Cultures” forms an end point in a new sub-centre which comprises another marina, an amusement park, residential and office buildings as well as hotels. In contrast to Port Vell, and despite its peripheral location, the development is less commercial and more culture-oriented. A five-kilometre long promenade extends from Port Vell via the Olympic Port to the “Forum”, drawing the city towards the sea. The water quality has significantly improved and Barcelona can now advertise assets not commonly found in large cities – sun, sandy beaches and the sea. The economic structural change towards service industries and knowledge-based societies forms the economic background of the urban redevelopment. Barcelona has strong historical design roots to build upon, from Ildefons Cerda to Antoni Gaudi. Being unique and distinctive was always a a part of the Catalon identity amidst Spain (Landry 2006: 263). With a string of new projects Barcelona has repositioned itself as an international location for post-industrial urban renewal (“city not suburb”) in the competition between cities (Marshall 2004: 19). The fostering of economic structural change through urban development policies sets an example for other regions and metropolitan areas. It attracts large scale investment and is

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integrated in long-term innovative urban development policies.

the Hamburg Port Authority (HPA). It is perceived as part of the urban infrastructure, and the capital investments in quays and harbour basins, the maintenance of the shipping channel and its dredging are transactions accounted for in the city’s budget.

The urban regional and spatial redevelopment of Barcelona is part of a specific “design culture” that has architectural and design ambitions. The combination of urban design together with big events became a successful strategy for city-marketing. Based on new management structures and a new “urban regime” which embraces a broad elite of social groupings, a “private sector-led style” has emerged in urban governance. Commercial demeanour, economic approaches and professional urban marketing of the “entrepreneurial city” have given Barcelona location advantages (“Barcelona model”) in the exacerbated competition between cities. As being the capital of Catalonia Barcelona brings together diverging interests und unite them to larger regional goals, “city between two rivers” which includes the whole urban waterfront. Hamburg – from “String of Pearls” to “Leap across the Elbe” This comparative perspective looks at Hamburg, Europe’s second largest port with a population similar to that of the Barcelona region and about one third of the London region. Like in other seaport cities, the oldest facilities and infrastructures from the mid-19th century near the city centre became vacant or underused in the 1980s and the port moved seawards where new container terminals were built. Hamburg is a tidal seaport city on the estuary of the River Elbe, one hundred kilometres upstream from the North Sea. Its specific topography is shaped by the confluence of the smaller River Alster and its tributaries into the Elbe. The city is characterised by the Lake Alster in its middle and the port with ocean liners on the Elbe. Germany has a rather short coastline. Its few ports, and Hamburg in particular, have a gateway function to a large hinterland. After the end of Cold War Hamburg regained its central position as the most eastern port on the North Sea and as a gateway to the Baltic Sea. Most of the port is owned by the city of Hamburg and governed by

The waterfront along the northern shore of the Elbe, with splendid views towards the shipyards and ocean liners, plays a special role in Hamburg. When its port-related activities declined, public attention became increasingly focused on new uses. In the early 1980s, the northern shore of the Elbe comprised a heterogeneous mix of land uses with buildings from the mid-19th century (“black spots”) to the post-war period. The upgrading of this waterfront area raised high expectations. New uses had to be found, identification points created and attractions for citizens, visitors and tourists established. Revitalising measures on the waterfront were expected to have a positive impact on the city. The best locations were attractively presented to companies and investors looking for new sites. A catchy name was found for the site between Neumühlen and the Speicherstadt: “String of Pearls”. It was assumed that applying a coherent strategy for the whole area would be difficult, but that several spectacular projects based on a market-led approach would generate enough thrust and, consequently, higher land values which would upgrade the area. Since then, a number of building projects have significantly enhanced the northern Elbe bank in the past two decades. The long periods of time that pass from riverfront sites falling derelict to surveys, designs and implementation works, are due to different reasons specific to each project. They might be structural problems (district authority, senate), hierarchical decision-making (top-down-hierarchies), diverging interests (urban development – port development), lack of acceptance (interest groups – investors), relationship conflicts (administration – citizens) and party political conflicts. The enhancement and restructuring of the northern Elbe bank is a success, although the establishment of different types of uses and mixed neighbourhoods could not be achieved (Schubert and Harms 1993, 150). The implementation of the projects


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was not strictly governed by planning requirements, but by the availability of plots and developers’ interests as well as investment considerations. Buildings have a great variety of uses and the architectural designs stem from different periods and planning contexts. The metaphor of the “string of pearls” suggests that there had been an urban planning concept, but it was not coined until the project was already under way. HafenCity differs from the “string of pearls” in that it is the most important urban redevelopment project in Hamburg – the most significant “reclamation” of the (outer) city centre for housing in Germany – and one of the largest projects of its kind in Europe. The HafenCity re-establishes the connection between the River Elbe and the city centre, giving Hamburg a new direction of growth, down to and along the river. HafenCity extends from the Speicherstadt (Warehouse District) to the Elbbrücken, the bridges across the river. For the first time, a large area will be taken from the port and put to other than port-related industrial

c. Hamburg

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“In a way, HafenCity is a latecomer project, where planners tried to avoid the mistakes of other waterfront revitalisation projects, such as London Docklands.” uses. The borders and gates of the customs in the free port had to be relocated elsewhere in HafenCity. The existing site covers approximately 155 hectares, without any housing, but both old and new operational port facilities. It is surrounded by several neglected housing estates, the wholesale market, industry, port facilities and railway lines. Hamburg has adopted a plan-led, mixed-use approach for HafenCity. Following a

d. Hamburg

competition for a masterplan, specific districts were designed with a focus on offices, housing, shopping, recreation, etc. In a way, HafenCity is a latecomer project, where planners tried to avoid the mistakes of other waterfront revitalisation projects, such as London Docklands. Approximately 5,500 apartments for 10,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are planned (Bodemann 2002, 102). Projections for the required social


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infrastructure are based on these figures. The area is within the Elbe flood plain, making built and organisational solutions for the protection of people and buildings indispensable.

Another development axis and urban connection is planned from the city centre via HafenCity across the Elbe to Wilhelmsburg and Harburger Binnenhafen (Harburg Riverport).Wilhelmsburg, Europe’s largest river island, will become the focus of iconic urban design projects. The Elbe island, which in the past had to bear the burden of urban development, should now be enhanced with waterfront sites between the rivers Norderelbe and Süderelbe. Amidst these poles and bridge heads, Wilhelmsburg Mitte should develop into a new centre. But most importantly, the Reiherstieg, canals and the watercourses in Wilhelmsburg should become its new “life veins”.

defined Wilhelmsburg (central work area) as a place for port extensions and industrialisation prior to the Groß-HamburgGesetz 1937 (Greater Hamburg Act 1937). The traditional urban development axis in an east-west direction along the Elbe was now complemented by a north-south axis.

The Masterplan specifies the phased implementation of developments in sub-districts. It lays down the principle development sequence from west to east, avoiding uncontrolled construction activities throughout the development area. A zoning plan for HafenCity’s first phase was already drawn up in 2000, and land sales started in 2001. A development agency was devised in 2002 and the first buildings completed by 2004. The newly founded GHS (Port Area Development Corporation, later HafenCity GmbH) is responsible for the area and the implementation of its projects. A typical quango (quasi autonomous non-governmental organisation) was set up in order to speed up the development which soon owned most of the land. The federal state government fosters opportunities for growth in Hamburg and its metropolitan region (“Metropolis Hamburg – a Growing City”), HafenCity being its flagship project. In 2006, plans for the future centre (Überseequartier) of HafenCity were finalised. Construction of the characteristic mixed use development began in 2007, starting with a new metro line. In 2004, a temporary cruise terminal received its first passengers at Hamburg. In 2008, the Maritime Museum was opened in Speicher B. Most spectacular is the project of a concert hall (Elbphilharmonie) on top of Speicher A. The landmark project will be completed by 2011, but has already attracted a good deal of international attention. A new strategy was started with a more regional perspective: “Leap across the Elbe”. The Elbe island Wilhelmsburg is the centre of a large-scale urban redevelopment strategy for improving the housing and living conditions within the area. The International Building Exhibition (IBA) and International Garden Show (IGS) will be held here in 2013, and speed up the step-by-step approach to regeneration.

In the context of the political key concept “Metropolis Hamburg – Growing City”, the “Leap across the Elbe” in conjunction with the International Building Exhibition and the International Garden Show take on a central role (FHH 2003). For more than 60 years, the proposition of Hamburg’s chief planner Fritz Schumacher had been followed in allocating sites for housing on the higher grounds of the geest and portrelated or industrial uses on marshland. This paradigm had

“The postulate to stop thinking in terms of “city or port”, but of “city and port” instead, incorporating aspects of sectoral and comprehensive regional planning, collides with harsh reality.”

Stretches along Reiherstieg and the southern banks of the Norderelbe are (still) mainly occupied with port-related and industrial uses, while the eastern side has a range of different residential neighbourhoods. Flood control structures and the noisy transport arteries crossing Wilhelmsburg lend it the character of a transit space. Conflicts between port uses, new terminals, the relocation of the dock railway, the crossharbour link (Hafenquerspange) and new residential areas are inevitable. It is assumed that the “Leap across the Elbe” is a task that will span one century, occupying at least two generations. Plans for the transformation of derelict waterfront sites in Hamburg started with a project and architecture-led incremental approach along the northern river bank. Conflicts arising between urban and port development were dealt with case by case, among the authorities and stakeholders. Rapid implementation of building projects was the prime goal. HafenCity implied a jump in scale and a more complex implementation strategy formulated with one developer and a project embedded in (part) urban perspectives of inner development. The implementation phase was predicted to last about 20 years. The “Leap across the Elbe”, on the other hand, reorganised the urban perspectives for the entire city. Using architectural projects, the geographical centre of Hamburg should be moved from the periphery into a new centre by means of a diverse range of projects and plans that are part of a long-term strategy. Initially, the existing building stock will be selectively enhanced and distinct innovative projects incorporated into an overall urban design concept (“perspective incrementalism”) which will restructure the interface between port and city.


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Conclusion When more than 30 years ago discussions began on the redevelopment of derelict and sub-optimally used harbour sites, it was assumed that this would be a specific and unique planning task. Using experiences from Boston and Baltimore the new post-industrial waterfront was imbedded in a re-invention of the city image. Especially the waterfront was the place where the transformation from the industrial and fordist city to the postindustrial and science based city could be recognized, in a way the shift from ships to chips. Baltimore Harborplace and the “invention” of the “festival marketplace” (1979) by the developer James Rouse (“Rousification”) was seen as a model, the “global prototype of waterfront regeneration” (Ward 2002: 342). In the 1980s a lack of experience in Europe, unclear responsibilities, a bad image and want for possible future uses allowed “pioneers” to exploit niches for their own purposes. Soon this was followed by single redevelopments of (often listed) warehouses and the conversion of the architectural heritage dating back to early industrialisation into lofts and expensive private apartments. Soon it became clear that standardised regeneration models (“do a Baltimore”) are not delivering the best local solutions. The partly mono-functional and small-scale approach to redevelopment of central port and derelict waterfront sites has now been integrated in large-scale strategic perspectives. Waterfront sites are “only” used for the development of important components in comprehensive urban and regional concepts. The examples discussed in this article illustrate this Although waterfronts are important elements for redevelopment and unique image factors for urban marketing they are now often integrated in Europe in a sustainable medium-term and long-term perspective of regeneration together with other brownfields, transport and landscape planning. The distribution of resources and power between terminal operators and logistics enterprises as “global players” and the cities and ports as “local actors” has become more and more unbalanced. Whilst the attention of large logistics companies is increasingly concentrated on investment returns and global

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“‘Architects’ visions [...] to convert harbour and waterfront sites into promenades and attractive housing, offices and cultural facilities, clash with the requirements of port logistics and economies.” optimisation strategies, (seaport) cities must consider local medium to long-term perspectives for the development of their ports and urban areas. Today, the flow of goods is managed from business locations far from the ports. Important terminal operators such as the Port of Singapore (PSA) or Dubai Ports World act globally with a focus on horizontal and vertical integration, offering their customers bespoke logistics services. The part of global terminal operators (transnational terminal operating companies TTOs) has significantly increased during past years (Juhel 2001: 143). This has led to more short-sea transport being handled in terminals that are also owned by the shipping companies. The postulate to stop thinking in terms of “city or port“, but of “city and port” instead, incorporating aspects of sectoral and comprehensive regional planning, collides with harsh reality. Merging the terms competition and cooperation into co-optition signifies a joint approach that is, however, still wishful thinking. It is important to leave behind romanticising and nostalgic views as the planning of cities and ports will increasingly follow different development parameters. The future development in coastal regions and seaport cities is thus dependant on the interaction and development of the global economy, transport and ship building, nature and the environment as well as climate change and, ultimately, the citizens’ interests. The conflicts of interest in costal regions are similar all over the

world – amplified by global development trends in the field of logistics – and are expected to grow rather than lessen in the future. Architects’ visions as well as the covetousness of the real estate industry and urban developers, egged on by the media to convert harbour and waterfront sites into promenades and attractive housing, offices and cultural facilities, clash with the requirements of port logistics and economies. The largely automated terminal operation and the ISPS Code (International Ship and Port Facility Security Code) have made ports into high-security zones, strictly controlled and with limited access. This in turn implies the reversal of centuries of development: cities need their ports, but modern container ports no longer need cities; its outdated structure has become a hindrance to future development. The perception of port cities as one organisational and spatial unit consisting of city and port is replaced through decoupling and spatial specialisation. The flagship projects described above are the mega projects of Europe. They were, and still are, an integral part of their respective national planning cultures, urban regional housing and office markets and globally established real estate and project management structures. At the same time they document perspectives of European urban development from monocentric to polycentric (regional) cities (Salet 2008: 2344). Although the ambivalence, fragmentation and social


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polarisation continue to be significant at a small-scale, they are embedded in large spatial contexts. This new strategic orientation can be identified by the status attached of the projects: they no longer are local-led, but regional or government-led.

Calbet I Elias, Laura, 2006, Avantgarde des Stadtumbaus? Neueste

Salet, Willem, 2008, Rethinking Urban Projects: Experiences in Europe, in:

Projekte aus Barcelona, in: Die Alte Stadt, 33, 4, 364-379.

Urban Studies 45 (11): 2343-2363.

Florida, Richard, 2005, Cities and the creative class, New York: Routledge

Schubert, Dirk/Harms, Hans (1993): Wohnen am Hafen. Leben und Arbeiten an der Wasserkante; Stadtgeschichte. Gegenwart. Zukunft. Das

Gordon, David, 1998, Different views from the water’s edge, In: Town

Spatial planning has thus gained in significance. Although city marketing is primarily concerned with landmark projects by “star” architects, they are now nothing more than important components within the whole city. The implementation of integrated and sustainable regional and spatial planning policies on the other hand is linked to different political traditions and planning cultures in Europe. Mostly the countries that have anticipated the increasing competition between seaport cities and, in response, adopted forward-looking regional strategies and new governance structures involving the relevant private and public stakeholders will succeed in the long-term. ■

Beispiel Hamburg, Hamburg: VSA-Verlag.

Planning Review 69 (1), 91-97. Schubert, Dirk, 2007a, Hafen – und Uferzonen im Wandel, Analysen und Harvey, David 1990, The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the

Planungen zur Revitalisierung der Waterfront in Hafenstädten, 3rd ed.,

Origins of Cultural Change, Malden.

Berlin: Leue.

Harvey, David, 2005, Spaces of neoliberalization: towards a theory of

Schubert, Dirk, 2007b ‘Ever-Changing Waterfronts’: Urban Development

uneven geographical development, Stuttgart: Steiner.

and Transformation Processes in Ports and Waterfront Zones in Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai”. In: Arndt Graf/Chua Beng Huat (eds.), Port

Hoyle, Brian S., 1989, The Port-City-Interface: Trends, Problems and

Cities. Asian and European Transformations, Oxford: Routledge.

Examples, In: Geoforum 4, 429-435. Schubert, Dirk, 2008, Transformation Processes on Waterfronts in Seaport Juhel, Marc H. (2001): Globalisation, Privatisation and Restructuring of

Cities – Causes and Trends between Divergence and Convergance, In:

Ports, in: International Journal of Maritime Economics, 3, 139-174.

Kokot, Waltraud, Gandelsman-Trier, Mijal, Wildner, Kathrin, Wonneberger,

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Prof. Alkmini Paka Prof. Anastasia Tzaka Prof. Nikos Kalogirou From

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – Faculty of Engineering – School of Architecture [Greece]

The City of Sines Barrier Transitions

Sines is the fastest growing port in Portugal, claiming an internationally competitive status as “Europe’s Atlantic gate”. Located about 150 km south of Lisbon, the port holds extended road and rail links that provide direct connections to the national and international transportation network. The broader area is a conglomeration of diverse urban elements and players, i.e. the cities of Sines and Santo André, the multipurpose port facilities and the in-between surroundings, that work as codependent nodes of a wider dynamic network. 1. Context analysis The students’ analysis and proposals were focused on the city of Sines, a historic settlement dating back to the medieval

times. The development of the town was marked by catalytic events which triggered off urban transformations, recognizable in the contemporary fragmented urban fabric as ruptures in continuity, large urban voids and indeterminate spaces. 1.1. The historic development of the town Sines has been through multiple phases of urban evolution. Once a small fishing village, Sines was founded in the 15th century within the medieval castle and was later expanded around it and walled. The dense medieval structure of the city is still visible in the contemporary historic center, with the civil square at the intersection of the main street network. In the 19th century, the industrialization phase carried along some

significant transformations in the urban morphology. Large cork factories and farm house complexes, where inserted randomly in the urban fabric while wider urban blocks and new roads network were designed to serve the cork industry needs. At the same time, new landmarks were planned, such as a Church, designed by military architects in a “rational” baroque style. After the mid-20th century, the cork industry started to decay, bringing desolation to large parcels of urban land. 1.2. The development of the port The late 20th century has brought the most important changes in the identity of the city and its urban structure. At the end of the 70’, political decisions prompted the rapid development


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The City of Sines Barrier Transitions

of the multipurpose port that acquired a strategic role and a competitive position in the national economy, transportation and energy sector. The historic fishing village has turned rapidly into the most significant industrial and commercial port of the Iberian Peninsula. The port and industrial facilities have completely transformed the region inserting new ruptures and barriers in the urban structure. A new settlement, Santo Andres was planned by the government in the Northern part of the area, in order to provide healthy residential spaces. Nevertheless, the city of Sines continued to develop further. New residential quarters were planned, featuring some quite interesting social housing complexes. Other developments, such as a small industry park at the limits of the city, have given rise to new coherent clusters.

1.3. The contemporary urban context

a. Urban tissue differentiation

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Today, the city of Sines shows potential for further growth on multiple levels. Demonstrating an intense urban dynamic, it has developed synergies to its residential counterpart, Santo AndrĂŠ. Sines operates as the administrative, commercial and cultural center of the broader area, hosting important public buildings and services. At the same time, the city has strengthened its status as a popular tourist attraction. This lies on multiple factors such as the well preserved prominent castle overlooking the bay, the preservation of the picturesque blue flag beach in the middle of the port and the development of a new high-standards leisure-boats marina. On the other hand, a critical understanding of the actual context highlights several problematic issues in the urban

“Today, the city of Sines shows potential for further growth on multiple levels.� function that owe to be addressed. The multiple phases of development of the city have generated a fragmented urban tissue with distinct urban typologies that coexist randomly like independent urban clusters with weak urban connectivity and no overall masterplan. This is mostly evident in the historic center of the city where connection to the city entrances and the newer developed quarters seems loose and unplanned.

b. Restricted areas and areas of potential intervention


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Furthermore a series of natural or constructed barriers act as fixed limits within and around the city. The restricted port areas, the industrial pipeline network, the new highway in the north, the quarry in the west and the industrial park in the north-west confine the city within given borders. At the same time, large industrial complexes are still unexploited, introducing other kinds of inner limits and discontinuities in the urban fabric. The extreme topography of the rock between the city center and the beach produces a natural kind of limit hindering the direct and easy pedestrian access to the waterfront.

The City of Sines Barrier Transitions

“Furthermore a series of natural or constructed barriers act as fixed limits within and around the city.”

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2. Urban repair strategy Context analysis, through a critical understanding of urban conditions, helped define potential strategies and a network of programs that can help weaving together the fragmented urban tissue in Sines, while providing new civic and urban infrastructure that responds to the specific conditions of its urban morphology. Proposals varied in scale, ranging from an overall reevaluation of the traffic and pedestrians flows -resulting in a new master plan for the center of the city-, to smaller scale interventions promoting the redesign of urban voids for building up a coherent, symbiotic and balanced townscape facing up the future rapid development of the city and its port. More specifically, the small, urban design scale projects proposed, try to reassert heterogeneity of city life while creating a viable, dense and mixed-use urban fabric. Instead of promoting larger scale interventions that will be contrasting the mild urban landscape of the historic city, emphasis is put on repair and infill with a contextual and sustainable approach. 2.1. The proposed master plan focused on four issues: — Stitching the fragmented urban fabric by tracing down a hierarchy of new axis or enhancing existing ones. The streetscape design, along these axis, will underline their continuity crossing through the different quarters of the city – constructed during different phases of its development- while linking them to the proposed new city entrances – from the main highway and the port area- as well as to new parking areas within the fabric. — Develop a network of green lanes for pedestrians and bikes that will extend to the outskirts of the city facilitating flows and help converting the surrounding landscape into a leisure area for the city and its visitors while avoiding an eventual urban sprawl.

c. Master Plan

— Propose a green belt and a series of green areas inside the urban core connected to the network of green lanes.


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“[...] small, urban design scale projects proposed, try to reassert heterogeneity of city life while creating a viable, dense and mixed-use urban fabric.” Among these proposed sites, certain ones were decided to be designed in detail. — Revitalize neighborhoods by providing public space hubs through the redesign of existing urban voids. 2.2. Interventions - Small scale urban design projects I. The Rock Standing at the edge of the leisure port, the rock is a natural landmark, separating the city waterfront from the port. The view of the sea and sunset at this site, together with its natural structure make it a privileged point of intervention. Taking advantage of its morphology, a small amphitheatre was curved out of the existing stone, overlooking the sea. The waterfront promenade leads to it through a small pier. II. The waterfront The difference in level between the historic core and the waterfront is bridged through a series of platforms, creating view points and sitting areas along the slope. On the waterfront, commercial nodes are proposed all along its length, together

The City of Sines Barrier Transitions

Paper

with the redesign of the promenade and the diversion and limitation of traffic flows. The waterfront is linked to the network of green lanes, the fishing port and the leisure port.

VI. The Quarry

III. The Castle square The castle stands at the edge of the historic city overlooking the sea. The open space next to its entrance, is used as parking space having an undefined urban form. The proposed redesign of this site creates a shaded space next to the high wall of the castle and arranges the urban landscape in order to form a central axis leading from the square to the array of viewing platforms that reach down to the waterfront. IV. Green Bridges The landscape around the city of Sines is marked by the presence of big fuel pipes that cut down whole areas from being accessible. The network of green lanes reaching out of the city until the beach to the north, have to cross this system of pipes. The design of footbridges that can be used also by cyclists, proposes materials such as cork and copper for their construction, trying to integrate these artificial elements into the well preserved –apart from the pipes- natural landscape. V. Using urban voids The present fragmentation of the urban fabric is enhanced by big left over spaces in the core of the city. Moreover, Sines developed without a planned civic center that will be appropriate for its present scale and eventual future growth and importance. Next to the existing municipal premises, an urban void, was redesigned in order to provide a new urban infrastructure hub, including education, commerce, new municipal buildings, a small park and a civic square. The new blocks have been designed in order to facilitate the flow of the new central axis leading from the new city entrance to the waterfront promenade and through the Castle square.

The site of the quarry, located between the city and the port area, presents a spectacular artificial landscape created through the exploitation of the area that is presently abandoned. The natural setting is close to the waterfront line, easily accessible from the road reaching the port from the city. The future expansion of the city will probably incorporate this site which from its higher level has an unobstructed view of the port, the city and the sea. The design proposal views the potential of the quarry as a multifunctional cultural and leisure hub that can develop in phases. Extreme sports, concert areas and a park are being proposed while in a latter phase, part of the site can be invaded by sea water and have its two sides bridged by a suspended, light structure planted bridge. 3. Conclusions Τhe rapid development of the city and its regional importance have created conditions, demands and potentials that Sines has to respond to, while preserving its heritage and natural context. All proposals address the dynamics of contemporary urban repair operations needed in these conditions, integrating a sustainable approach and developing urban strategies that could network projects in the actual identity of the place. ■


Team Project

Teachers

Alkimini Paka AnastasiaTzaka Nikos Kalogirou Students

Annalisa Trolli Daniela Silva Johanna Hoffmann Marion Giraud Naomi Even Natalia Paszkowska Nathaniel Kauffman Nikolas Klostermann Timur Kurbanov

Sines Barrier Transitions


26

1. Barriers

Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis

2. Artificial areas


Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis

3. Restricted areas and areas of potential interventions

4. Existing waterfront

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5. Proposed waterfront


28

Sines Barrier Transitions

6. Connections

Analysis


Analysis

7. Masterplan

Sines Barrier Transitions

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30

Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis

B icycle path

G reen B ridge

C ork B ridge

E mpty S pace

B each

8. Network of cycle paths and green areas


Analysis

Sines Barrier transitions

9. Waterfront section

10. Viewing platforms

11. Commercial nodes

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12. Waterfront section

13. Waterfront plan

Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis


Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis

14. Sketch

15. Plan

16. View from the Castle to the waterfront

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34

Sines Barrier Transitions

Analysis

17. The rock

18. The rock

19. Sketches


Analysis

20. The gorwth of the city

21. Time-line of the quarrey

22. View to the quarrey

Sines Barrier Transitions

35


Paper

37

Text

Assistant Andrea Colombo Assistant Marco Oriani From

Politecnico di Milano Facolta di Architettura E S. D. D. di Architettura e Pianificazion [Italy]

Living Wall

Site

gate to enter in the city by foot and walk from the old town to the beach, passing by the castle

• Sines: not a city with a port, but a city in the port • Few relationship with the sea: the lenght of the seafront is weak compared to the extension of the city • Particular section: “inhabited city” at the top, “sea town” at the bottom. Presence of a vertical urban void • The dock of the marina and the dock of fishermen are privileged points of view: they offer a 360° view

Aims and tasks • Redesigning the waterfront to create a new “urban facade”

• Renovation of the castle: the first step towards a global renewal of the city • Erosion /subsidence of the eastern cliff, due to mining operations in the nearby stone quarry

• Using the difference in height of the ground to connect the two parts of the city and, in the same time, to insert different functions in the upper and lower part • Reinforcing the existing connections

• Every year in july sines hosts the festival musicas do mundo (fmm)

• Fortifing the cliff • Managing the urban expansion

• Municipal urban strategy: to use the cultural centre as a city


38

• Proposing a “cultural system” to continue the one started from the municipality Proposal • Recovering the dock of fishermen giving to it new recreational functions (restaurants and public spaces) • Connecting the city and seafront pedestrian paths with the same paving material • Recovering of the existing green areas • Designig new open spaces useful to the festival músicas do mundo • Cultural activities related to the cultural centre: rehearsal rooms, dance studio, music and theater schools • New housing site above the eastern cliff ■

Living Wall

Paper


Team Project

Teachers

Andrea Colombo Marco Oriani Students

Carlos Martins Christina Flores Daniela Palma Galya Vladova Magdalena Stefanska Ozan Gursoy Raquel Nunes Vangel Kukov

Sines Living Wall


40

Living Wall

What we had perceived in Sines? What was Sines for us when we went there? What will be Sines after our visit?

1. Main idea

Analysis


Living Wall

Concept

2. Analysis | Strenghts

3. Analysis | Threats

4. Concept | Functions

41


42

Living Wall

5. The green faรงade - 30 and 40 years

6. The green faรงade - Actuality

Concept


Masterplan

7. Panoramic view

8. Masterplan

Living Wall

43


44

What will be Sines after our visit ?

9. Time-line

Living Wall

Time-Line


Proposal

Living Wall

45


46

Living Wall

10. Proposal - Phase 1

10.2. Diagram lighthouse

Proposal

10.1. Skecth of the lighthouse

10.3. Section lighthouse


Living Wall

Proposal

11. Proposal - Phase 2

11.2. Diagram stage

47

11.1. Sketch of the stage

11.3. Stage


48

Living Wall

12. Proposal - Phase 3

12.2. Diagram arts house

Proposal

12.1. Sketch of the arts house

12.3. Arts house


Living Wall

Proposal

13. Proposal - Phase 4

13.2. Diagram calhaus building

49

13.1. Sketch of the calhaus building

13.3. Calhaus building


Paper

51

Text

Prof. Bernardo Vaz Pinto From

Lus贸fona University of Lisbon

Waterfronts: The power of transformation in a Sustainable World

1. The future and Waterfronts To speak about Waterfronts today is to speak about the world and it is to speak about the future. In other words it is to speak about what matters for the future of the world. It is to speak about the world because water is clearly a pretext for the materiality of the planet, the sole reason for our existence. It is to speak about the world because water is a most important connector. It has been historically, throughout times, and still is, in our era of global and virtual highways. And I mean a social, cultural, and economic connector.

It is to speak about the sustainable future because without water and the ocean, humanity will sink and disappear in a lifeless desert. Sustainability at a global scale is intrinsically connected with the discussion of the future of the water resources. In a world that is more and more a unique, continuous place, but also more and more distinctive and idiosyncratic, the management of water and its relationship with the land has become an unavoidable issue to be discussed. Not being a specialist, and even less a scholar, I can only speak from the view of a practicing architect and design professor. For architects see things as reality, as data that we would like to transform with our vision, our mostly felt desires.

To speak about Waterfronts is to speak about ideas and desires that can result in transformations on a global level. Very few other human enterprises transform nature so dramatically than works related to waterfront, the very edge between sea and land, between moving (water) and fixed (land) nature. 2. The Portuguese Context So to speak about Waterfronts today is to speak about architecture and about the sustainable world. And to speak about waterfront projects in Lisbon, Portugal, cannot be overlooked as a minor detail.


52

“Short term necessity and fashionable strategies, in such cases as the ones dealing with water and land, can only lead to future disasters” Very few countries in the world have had such a specific and inherent relationship with the ocean. Since the fifteenth century, through the awakening of the modern world, our relationship with the ocean goes beyond the environmental, landscaping, planning and architectural issues; influencing social and cultural aspects such as poetry and painting. It seems to me that it is not possible to speak about Waterfronts today in Portugal, without opening our eyes to the experience of the past, to the Portuguese maritime past. 3. From Protection (fortress) to Connection (harbor) Limits and fences are places of connection, but also rupture. Changes here can be more dramatic, as in the steep rocks of Sagres, or more subtle, as in the sand dunes of the Ria de Faro, the Faro Estuary. Waterfronts are limit areas by excellence, they represent a unique natural microcosm which cannot, and should not be transformed without a supportive vision. Historically, they became for this same reason priority sites for the development of empires. For us, Portuguese born, we have grown up accustomed with a symbolic image of our small country: our land was oversees,

Waterfronts: The power of transformation in a Sustainable World

Paper

our land was the Madeira Islands, was the west coast of Africa, was the east coast of Africa, it was the middle east in Ormuz, Asia in Goa, Damâo and Diu; it was Brasil. The Portuguese left their culture, their vision and their hope, in buildings constructed in all these geographical points. At the time of the sea discoveries conquest, the objectives where clear: to protect those newly discovered lands. The west coast of Africa became punctuated with the most amazing fortresses, symbolizing the gradual limits of the new empire: Mazagan, in Morroco, or S.Jorge da Mina, in Gana. With the successful sea passage of the Good Hope Cape, the great waterfront of India was transformed by the new works of stone and plaster following the Portuguese architectural tradition, which invented itself for the matter, creating a new style that is now, in itself, part of the world’s architectural heritage. The discoveries enterprise was then clothed in architectural built works, representing the will of a small country, which was raised in front of the wide open ocean landscape. Later came the ports and the possibility of larger commerce by sea, the “Feitorias”, places of commercial and social trade. From security fortresses, Waterfronts became gates that opened inland, connecting pieces in a disparate world, bridges that unified water and land.

a. Portuguese Fortress in Gana (S.Jorge da Mina)

4. Waterfronts Today So to speak about Waterfronts today is to speak about the hope of a place in the future for humankind. We need to take the experiences of the past and use them to light our future. Short term necessity and fashionable strategies, in such cases as the ones dealing with water and land, can only lead to future disaster. Architecture in itself should aim to be a hopeful vision of an infinite future, in the sense that however clever we might think we are, we can never oversee the future.

b. Portuguese map of India, 1630 (aprox.)


Paper

Waterfronts: The power of transformation in a Sustainable World

53

“We need to clearly understand what is it that we are willing to do, what are our long term objectives, our limitations. We need a vision.� That implies that all aspects need to be taken into account, it implies that instead of this OR that, we have to think about this AND that, it is not water or land, nature or man, green or industry, it is all together. The challenge of working in waterfront sites and projects is tight to this absolute necessity to come to terms with the limits of nature, physical as well as metaphorical, and the limits of man, physical, social and cultural. Knowing that every implementation will bring changes that can easily become out of control, it is our role to humbly understand the limits of our desires. It is in the solving of these apparently contradictory issues that man gains the capacity to construct the future. Nevertheless the challenge demands new ways of dealing with solving the problems. Firstly we need to understand that architecture alone cannot solve most of the problems that are presented to us. Interdisciplinary work and association is inevitable. Secondly we need to root our interventions in an ever larger strategic way of thinking. We need to clearly understand what is it that we are willing to do, what are our long term objectives, our limitations. We need a vision. From the idea of protection of the citadels and fortresses of the past, from the great ports of late modern capitalism, we

need to think about other ways to connect people, cultures and worlds that seem to exist separately. Waterfronts should become the frontal areas of a deeper geographical transformed landscape. If that already existed in industrial and economical terms, we need to expand and raise the issue to a wider and more sustainable level, truly on a global context. One that will include the discussion of environmental, economic, as well as social and cultural issues. While there was no need in the past to transform the fifteen century fortresses into other types of buildings, we do have now the need to transform the pure functional aspects of Waterfront settlements, and open them to new layered and more complex functions, which should include a long lasting vision of nature, of land and water, a long lasting vision of industry, of commerce, and of Man himself. In that vision, whatever that might be, lies the hope of our future. â–

c. Swimming pools, Madeira, Paulo David + Gomes da Silva (photo by Leonardo Finnoti)


Team Project

Teachers

Bernardo Vaz Pinto Filipe Afonso Pedro Ressano Garcia Students

Giuseppe Giuliano Gonçalo Ferreira Iraklis Kalogeropoulos Liudmila Bulavina Marlies Raterink Monia Gläske Silvia Pomodoro Wilasinee Suksawang

Port of Sines Human, Environment, Industry


56

1. Site - existing

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry first first first

second Site


Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Time-Line

57

2.1. Landscape evolution - 70’s

2.2. Landscape evolution - 80’s

2.3. Landscape evolution - 90’s

2.4. Landscape evolution - 00’s

2.5. Landscape evolution - 2012

2.6. Landscape evolution - future expansion


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3. Landscape barriers

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Analysis


Aims

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

59

Industry - Economiv growth Environment - Natural resources Human - Local community

4. Aims

5. Proposed mixture


60

6.1. Transversal section a

6.2. Transversal section b

6.3. Transversal section c

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Counter Proposal and Scenarios


Counter Proposal and Scenarios

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

61


62

7. Masterplan

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Masterplan


Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Masterplan

8. Area 3 - section

8.1. Area 3

8.2. Area 3 - beach

63


64

Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

9. Area 1 - Section

9.1. Area 1

9.2. Area 1 - public space

Proposal


Port of Sines – human, environment, industry

Proposal

10. Area 2 - section

10.1. Area 2

10.2. Area 2 - public scape

1


Team Project

Teachers

Dirk Schubert Timothy Pape Renee Tribble Students

Corina Popa Damiano Castelli Gonรงalo Casqueiro Hazal Gunal Kamila Nowak Mael Castellan Olga Tsagkalidou

Sines Establishing Symbiosis


first Sines Establishing Symbiosis first first

second Analysis

People

N at u r e

I n d u st r y

Main elements: inhabitants / workers / tourists

Main elements: ocean / lagoons / valley / creeks / trees

Main elements: port / refineries / pipelines / powerplant / infrastructure

Needs: health / quiet / beauty / recreation / transportation / mobility

Needs: protection / awareness / access / connecting / wildlife connections / replanting

Needs: planning / space / social acceptance / infrastructure / economic opportunity

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1. Time-line

Interrelated problems: health hazards / noise / unemployment / entertainment / transportation / population flux

Interrelated problems: pollution / soil degradation / wildlife barriers / impermeability / habitat loss / encroachment / water cycle interruption

Interrelated problems: real estate / constraints / sustainability / isolation / social resistence / increased coasts / expensive energy


Analysis

2. Conceptual analysis

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

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70

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Concept


Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Analysis

71

Existing symbiosis Industry - Sport

3. Site analysis

Symbiotic Landscape

4. Concept

Industry - Nature


72

5. Strategies

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Strategies


Proposal

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

6. Container connection tunnel

7. Pipelines paths

8. Rollercoster

9. Railways paths

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74

10. Container as a connection element

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Proposal


Proposal

11. Reusing the containers

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

75


76

12. Reusing the containers

Sines Establishing Symbiosis

Proposal


Paper

77

Text

Prof. Zbigniew Paszkowski Assistant Jakub Gołębiewski From

West Pomeranian University of Technology [Poland]

Land to Sea Eco Path

The Project Area

a. Sines industrial area. Photo ZP

b. Medieval Arabic castle on the hill of Santiago de Cacem looking toward the new city od St. André and the Atlantic coast. Photo ZP

In the small and quiet ancient fisher city Sines, placed at the beautiful Portuguese Atlantic coast-line, some major political decisions cause the cascade of changes. Those decisions has been followed by consequences in the surrounding environment and in the spatial organization of urban areas. Decisions about location in Sines of the new gigantic port with all infrastructural facilities, followed by placement of industrial lots, important for the national economy have a great impact on social structure of existing settlements, the natural environment and urban development. Sines became suddenly one of the most important industrial centers of Portugal after creation of two refineries, chemical industry factories, fuel storage facilities


78

and first of all extensive container port in the late 60-ties. The side effect of this development – the air pollution and land/water contamination – was the reason to undertake next steps in this cascade of consequences. In the early 70-ties at the highest political level the decision to build the brand new city of St. André in the distance of 17 km away from Sines has been undertaken. The new city was intended to be inhabited first of all by the inhabitants of Sines, replaced from the polluted area. The green protests, first in Portugal, took place in Sines in the 80-ties. Evaluation of the industrial impact on health of Sines inhabitants has been introduced as well as investments in environmental protection started. The new city of St. André has been planned by the special group of highest administrative power, by purchasing the land in the pine woods north from Sines. This location, situated North-West from the Sines industrial concentration, due to major frequency of North winds allowed to protect the new housing from the possible pollution or disaster effects. The project of the city was based on the principles of modern movement, using best examples at that time applied in England or United States. Several “districts” of social housing in different but simple forms has been built, constituting the answer for the search of modern housing form, which was

c. The main street axis in the town of St. André. Photo ZP

Land to Sea Eco Path

“The St. André dwellers go for entertainment of recreation to the other two, traditionally grown cities.”

Paper

has leaved too much “no-one’s space” undeveloped public space and empty central areas. The negative features of the city are exactly the same as those in the other modernist cities invented in the late 70-ties all over Europe. The Portuguese revolution brought a rupture in realization of the large plans done initially under the Salazar dictatorship. The observed nowadays low care about the arranged green spaces and parks in the city are giving impression of abandonment and decay. The city of Santo André is currently inhabited by

demanded at that time. Modern type of citizen, which should be healthy enough to work hard in the industry was aim of this vast new investment. The emerged new town of St. André is an interesting case of new town urban development. Placed in the outstanding natural environment represents modern, functional way of thinking in urban design. The housing is carefully planned, equipped with needed infrastructural facilities. The applied architecture with simplified architectural forms, gave the inhabitants better living conditions than the average in the urbanized areas of Portugal. The relaxed city structure however, was untypical for the Portuguese urban tradition,

e. The architecture of St. André. Photo ZP

d. One of the living estates in St. André with awkward public space. Photo ZP

f. The architecture of St. André. Photo ZP


Land to Sea Eco Path

Paper

79

“[...] the creation of organized and structured connection between the town and the wonderfull recreation and leisure area [...]” preferring to stay at their home-city, where they traditionally used to live. Why? The answer could be found in the difference in expectations, “how the city should look like” and “what is the city” – between the ordinary society (inhabitants) and the architects and urban planners (local power) affected by the modern movement. The modernist planned city never have this emotional factor, which is one of most important components of historically grown towns. The emotions are expressed by astonishment, surprise, reflection, love – feelings, which are hardly to be found in the city composed of block of flats.

are creating a similar triangular functional structure, however with some differences. First of all the industry is located in the space in-between the three cities and the “linearity” (linear industrial city at le Corbusier drawing) is represented by the coastal line, which is, by the way, under environmental

Le Corbusier in Sines The composition of the three neighboring cities (Sines Santiago do Cacem – Santo André) and the huge industrial area in the middle existing today, interconnected by the motorways, with apparently clear functional division between them all, evokes the triangular “city – scheme” of famous modernist architect and urban philosopher Le Corbusier concerning the 3 types of the city: g. View from the castle hill of Santiago de Cacem. Traditional city with its diversity and visual qualities and functional deficiencies. Photo ZP

— unite d’exloitation agricole — la ville radioconcentrique des echanges

about 15 000 inhabitants and counts to the youngest urban population of the country. The population is composed mostly of the newcomers, workers of the Sines industry, which have come here for work reasons and cheaper living conditions then in Lisbon. The Sines inhabitants rejected in their majority the replacement possibility to Santo André,

— la cite lineaire industrielle — exutoire pour la ville teutacule The three cities (Sines −Santiago do Cacem – St. André)

h. City-Scheme by Le Corbusier


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Land to Sea Eco Path

Paper

protection. The most common for the both schemes is the idea of functional separation and specification of the different functions of those three urban organisms. The distances between them, which are about 10 - 15 km, are mostly driven by individual cars. There were no public transportation between the cities planned, however the railway line from the port to the interior of the land was one of the crucial elements of the infrastructure. Over 90% of all goods, which are transported by sea to Sines, are overloaded over the trains and send to the heart of Europe.

3. Healthy environment and green belt protection from industrial pollution.

The Concept

Design Problem The aim of the workshop group was to define on hand of the collected information, the problems of the town, which need interventions. The analysis of the existing problems has shown a whole set of problems, like: 1. No connection to the sea waterfront. 2. Too low population density. 3. Not clearly developed town centre. 4. Not developed public transportation system between the cities. 5. No private gardens (limited private ownership of the land). 6. Lack of attractive public spaces. 7. No appropriate road system – too large motorways, too narrow local roads. Several advantages of the area has been discovered as well: 1. Vicinity of the environmentally interesting lagoon area, 2. Short distance to Lisbon and to the airport.

4. Topography appropriate for multifunctional road system development. 5. Rich natural recourses enabling the development of tourism. 6. Existing sport facilities. 7. Good working possibilities in Sines industrial sector. The group members agreed, that one of the most important disadvantages of the town is lack of good organized public spaces, which could define the town and give it its identity. There is however the pedestrian zone in the core of the town, but used more for short shopping and not too much for social integration. St. André is composed of housing estates of different quality and style. Between the particular estates the pine woods and unused areas are creating the puffer zones. Lack of public spaces means the problems in social integration of the citizens. The St. André dwellers go for entertainment or recreation to the other two, traditionally grown cities. The workshop group found out, that the main problem is to define the new shape of the public space, specific to the place and not competing with the public space qualities in the other cities. The applied questionnaire has shown, that the citizens of St. André see the main advantage of the town in its relation to the nature, clean air and vicinity of the ocean (only in 2 km distance). On the other hand in the summer time there is a remarkable touristic interest in coming to St. André – because of the positive features mentioned above. The town can profit from tourism, being the service and retail centre for the coastal area. This strong bounds with the nature and the wonderful Atlantic coast with lagoons and endemic plants, lead the group to the project, which was placed outside the town itself, however strongly with it related.

The aim of the project was to construct the system, which do not concentrate on the city itself, but first of all on the area being its integral part. The need of re-establishment of this natural connection between the coastline and the town became the main idea of the project, focused on the improvement of the life quality in the city of St. André. One of the essential deficiencies discovered during the analysis of Santo André was not sufficient quality of life and limited possibilities of spending free time in the town. One of the possibilities of the improvement of this situation is the creation of organized and structured connection between the town and the wonderful recreation and leisure area – natural area of Lago de Santo André and the adjacent Atlantic coast line. This finding became the core of the project. In the project concept the system of pedestrian routes has been introduced, interconnecting the particular settlements with three centers: the cultural, for entertainment and finally the informational and educational one. The two first has been located in the park area, where the cultural

i. The beautiful lagoon Lago de Santo André under the environmental protection. Photo ZP


Paper

Land to Sea Eco Path

centre has been already planned before, but not realized. The third centre became the starting point of the workshop group design.

the knowledge about the natural park of the coast, located close to the town. Several design ideas has been invented for the project:

The aim of the project was to create the informational and educational centre in the form of a pedestrian link (PATH) between the town and the coast, concentrated on spreading

• Use of local materials (cork, rid, re-used materials …) • Leading the paths along different areas, like: the natural water channels, sandy dunes, forest and lagoon still waters. • Interconnection of outer green space with the parks with local plants located inside the city.

j. The town of St. André. Visible deficiencies of the urban space in the city core. Photo ZP

l. The town of St. André. Visible deficiencies of the urban space in the city core. Photo ZP

81

“At André [...] sensibility toward the natural environment, openness to the human needs and modern life style.”

• Enriching the functional program of the PATH with infrastructure for different activities, like: Sport activities (surfing, kite, kayak, tennis, skate parks, swimming, running, volleyball, fitness, information about the area, survival activities, fishing, diving, picnic spots, observation spots, overnight shelters, etc.

– increase of respect toward the natural environment, by direct contact. The environmental protection rules of the natural park caused a very soft and sustainable intervention elaborated in the project group. All the elements planned are done from natural elements. The route itself is divided into four parts with different style, named after the areas they pass: pine wood, moors, lagoon and beach.

The educative PATH from the CITY to the WATERFRONT will give the knowledge upon the surrounding world, about the PLACE on EARTH one lives in. This will build the necessary context of the city, contribute to the identification, sustainability, consciousness of place, space, surroundings and ongoing transformations.

The routes are equipped with the stop points of different functions. In the moor area there is the observation point of birds, in the lagoon area the kayak rental office and the camp and the last stop is the multifunctional center close to the beach. Additionally to that, there are some smaller information points enriched with the sculptures.

The PATH starts with the educational centre, which has a form of the observation tower. It allows to see the coast and the beautiful area of pine woods and dunes. Integral part of this centre is the pioneers camp in the wood dedicated for children and youth, providing the pro-ecological education and sustainability and particularly the rain water collection and waste treatment. The Camp offers also some recreational arrangements like climbing wall or line-park.

The presented project is responding to the two main problems discovered by the workshop group in St. André. Firstly, new public spaces are created in the town and its vicinity. Secondly creates the link from the town to the coast in a very attractive way. Project responds also to the question of healthy life style, development of the educational and recreational activity. Finally, the project refers to the idea of creation of St. André: friendly and healthy town, strongly tighten to the surrounding natural environment.

This centre is the starting point for the eco-route (PATH) linking the town of St. André with the lagoon and the coast. Its role is not only the creation of the public access to the lagoon in the form of pedestrian and bike road, but education

Development of these features in St. André contributes also to the creation of individuality and identity of this town. St. André is therefore different than the other two towns: Sines and Santiago


82

de Cacem – due to its sensibility toward the natural environment, openness to the human needs and modern life style. Nowadays the development has slowed down and planned huge investments has been pushed into the distant future. Therefore the problem is to deal with the existing urban situations by modernizing, improvement and transformations of the different urban situations in order to improve standards of everyday life. We do hope to contribute with our tiny, contributive project to the improvement of the image of St. André and therefore to better the functioning of the whole unique ensemble of the three cities: Santiago de Cacem, Sines and St. André. ■

Land to Sea Eco Path

Paper


Team Project

Teachers

Zbigniew Paszkowski Jakub Golebiewski Students

Alparslan Bulut Ana Brás Dagna Pekala Gabriel Kaprielian Jet Tillman Julia Zaritskaja Louisa Fricke Ourania Pappa

Santo André Land to Sea


84

1. Existing uses

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Site

2. Types of fabrics


Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Proposal

3. New paths

4. Main nodes

5. Types of paths

85


86

6. Conceptual Masterplan

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Masterplan


Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Concept

7. Sketch of the observatory tower in the forest

7.1. Observatory tower in the forest

7.2. Section of the observatory tower in the forest

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88

8. Forest path

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Proposal


Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

Proposal

9. Summer camp for kids in the forest

10. Elevations of the summer camp for kids in the forest

89


90

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

11. Wetland path

12. Birdwatching spot

13. Plan of the birdwatching spot

Proposal


Proposal

14. Floating spot

16. Plant of the floating spot

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

91

15. System for the water levels


92

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

17. Lagoon path

18. Lagoon shelters

19. Lagoon shelters

Proposal


Proposal

20. Beach path

Santo AndrĂŠ Land to Sea

93


Team Project

Teachers

Irene Curulli Maarten Willems Students

Marco Cunha Maria Dias Zuzanna Gaszczak Felix Knopf Chiara Girolami Shannon Fiala Steven Lee

Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ


Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

Analysis

97

What is a healthy city? Reinforce the identity of the neighborhoods Strengthen connections to the greater landscape Promote physical activity

R e gi o n

1. Different scales

C it y

N e ighb o r h o o d


98

first Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ first first

second Analysis

Regional Scale Connecting Santo AndrĂŠ to the Greater Landscape

2.4. Path

4. Section

2.1. Existing barrier between the city and the waterfront

2.2. Connect the city back to the waterfront

2.3. Attention to the topography

2.5. Main points of intervention

2.6. Green areas

2.7. Green lines


Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

Proposal

City Scale A Network of Neighborhoods and Open Spaces

3.1. Existing condition

3.2. Proposed condition

99


100

5. Vacant lands perspective

Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

Views

6. Compost garden


Views

7. Connections between neighborhds

Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

8. Connections between neighborhds

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102

9.1. Plan

Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

Plan

9.2. Plan with green spaces


Views

10. Proposal

Healthy Santo AndrĂŠ

103


Paper

105

Text

Prof. Françoise Py From

University of Paris, La Sorbonne [France]

Lagoons’ Promenade

Foreword The port of Sines is a “spacious deepwater port with excellent maritime access and no restrictions in terms of depth….this allows safe berthing of large vessels such as bulk and gas carriers, containerships and tankers …” The general framework outlined by the government in its “Strategic Planning Guidelines for the Maritime and Port Sector” gives Sines a leading role in Portugal in containerized traffic and energy-related traffic. The port authority and the municipality have agreed for the future physical development of the port. The key element is a

swap of land : it will be transferred to the city limited areas of the port estate which are no longer useful in exchange of new areas more suitable for modern facilities and development of port-related activities.

port’s activities. That was the challenge.

That meant that we had to respect the importance of the port’s development in the future of the city.

Regional master plan regulations

We decided to reinforce our project by more detailed regulations on our specific area.

The purpose of adding new regulations We had to constrain our dreams about the uses of the beautiful area north of the city of Sines. That is why focusing on the extraordinary lagoons we decided to improve their access and attractiveness both in preserving the natural heritage and taking into account the future of the

— protect the existing community and open spaces. — emphasize the attractiveness of the natural environment and the archeological, historical and architectural heritage.


106

Lagoons’ Promenade

Paper

- integrate protected areas into regional planning

Cultural heritage

Key Points Added to Current Regulations:

— Handicraft

Exchange of experience regarding the development of environmental education both among research institutes and primary and secondary schools

- Integrating protected areas into the regional planning means identifying key heritage points which include:

— Integrating protected areas into regional planning means specific regulations in order to:

Planning documents should respect park’s regulations and protection of ecosystems ■

Nature

— Protect ecosystems

— Sensitive ecosystems

— Maintain traditional activities

— Species biodiversity

— Control public uses

— Habitat

Authorizing:

Landscape

— Farming is allowed but controlled – no cattle allowed within 50 meters of creek

— Seashore, beaches and dunes — Lagoons and streams

— Activities linked to nature and culture – low impact activities only

— Pine, cork and eucalyptus forests

Controlling:

— Shrubs and flowers

— Public access and activities

Human traditional activities

Restricting:

— local people

— Industry in preserve’s watershed boundaries

— traditional knowledge

Imposing:

Built heritage

— A new sewage and industrial used water plant with the best modern technology

— Religious — Military — Vernacular

—The chart of the regional park All partners should be involved in the process both in elaborating and implementing the plan – especially petrochemical and all polluting industries


Paper

107

Text

Prof. Adnan Aksu Prof. Nur Caglar From

Gazi University Ankara [Turkey]

The Zipper

The main objective of Group 5 has been to explore and interpret the natural, geographic, environmental, cultural, urban, industrial, and historical heritage characteristics of the inbetween area in order to generate alternative design strategies that may contribute to the sustainable development of the area. Group 5 would not like the area to become the continuity of urban morphology of the cities surrounding it. Instead, it is a goal to protect and enhance the already existing marvelous landscape, to conserve the area as a natural resort for all kinds of daily and week-end activities for all, to prevent any permanent facilities from being conventionally constructed, and to discover a smooth way of re-designing the area so it becomes even more impressive but still stays as if it has been untouched.

Group 5 has adopted the working methodology of generating design ideas developed both individually and collectively by its designers. These design ideas are embodied both in the individual architectural designs created by the members of Group 5 and in the collective path they follow to reach the workshop objectives. All throughout the twoweek workshop, the work and inspiration have been led by coincidence, feelings and mood. Decisions were taken spontaneously and incoherently. In this way, the design became a common production. After several brain storming sessions, the participants of the workshop reached a consensus to adopt container as an inspiration and a conceptual tool for individual designs, site-

specific art as a collective concept to reach the objectives and diptychs as a concept to both structure the workshop and construct the final presentation. The Diptychs The overall design idea developed in Group 5 was undertaken within and outside the discipline of architecture, considered from both near and far perspectives. The ideas and knowledge base of the individual minds of Group 5 designers were organized and visualized in order to materialize and present a single architectural statement, conceptualized under the zipper theme, which is the metaphor of integrating the concept pairs that are apart. Consequently, the dialectic of interrelation of


108

the individual and collective approaches indicates the diptych structure of the design. Group 5 embraces the slogan of “two is better than one.” It prefers to think in pairs because two different or identical concepts, images, materials, sketches, drawings, models, and/or photographs fit together better than they do when apart. Concepts work well in teams of two. As their boundaries blur, they transform and adhere to each other to constitute a boldone that gains a reinforced expression. The urban and rural characteristics of the landscape, the industrial and residential characteristics of the two cities Sines and Santo Andre, the sea and dunes, the cork plantings and two lagoons, the waves and rocks, the flatness and steepness, the silence and congestion, the travelling and activity islands, and the flora and fauna are several examples that illustrate the natural and cultural values and identity of the in-between site in pairs. The final presentation tells many mini stories of the abovementioned concept pairs under one umbrella theme called the zipper. The In-Between For the in-between, the conceptual approaches of Elisabeth Grosz were adopted: “The space of the in-between is the locus for social, cultural, and natural transformations: it is not simply a convenient space for movements and realignments but in fact is the only place-the place around identities-where becoming, openness to futurity, outstrips the conservational impetus to retain cohesion and unity.” “The space in-between things is the space in which things are undone, the space to the side and around, which is the space of subversion and fraying, the edges of any identity’s limits.

The Zipper

Paper

“The dynamism in the nature and energy in its emptiness makes the in-between space adequate to transformation and adaptable to a rich range of programs.” In short, it is the space of the bounding and undoing of the identities which constitute it.” Group 5 has embraced the in-between as the space of blurring between the discipline of architecture and alternative spatial disciplines, between constructive and ephemeral peoplespace relations, and between architectural structure and its spatial context. The in-between space is the transition space between places and moments where different existences interfere with each other. The in-between site that Group 5 dealt with looks like any void in any natural surroundings. It is a kind of emptiness that lacks a purpose or a clear meaning. As it seems that it does not have any specific content, it is unclear and confusing in the sense of architectural and urban design approaches. However, the intactness of the area carries a high potential for any creative process and rapid change of content. The dynamism in the nature and energy in its emptiness makes the in-between space adequate to transformation and adaptable to a rich range of programs. Consequently, the design process of the in-between is open-ended. The Containers Containers are the large metal boxes that standardize the shipping and transporting of goods around the world. However, they are no longer limited only to ports. Containers

can travel, but they can also stay put. They have a unique ability to serve amazingly diverse uses. With some imaginative effort on the part of designers, containers seem fit for almost any purpose. Consequently, they have become a fetish of our age and symbols of the contemporary life style in the age of globalization and mobility. There have already been a number of exhibitions on Container Architecture all around the world as architects have explored their creative architectural design potentials. Group 5 draws inspiration from the shipping containers massed in the port of Sines and came to the decision of exploring the potentials of the container as a design concept. Containers have interpreted and abstracted as sculptures that are created either in nature using natural materials such as soil, rock, cork, reeds, logs, branches, leaves or reconstructed in urban landscapes using introduced materials such as concrete, metal and glass. The actual containers are also adapted for a variety of uses, from high-rise urban student flats to lighthouses on steep rocks by the sea. On the road that aligns with the in-between and connects the cities, people and nature are the backbone of the sitespecific art. The alignment of the road is ornamented by the reed lighting located at internals and also combined with car parking lots. The size of the reed lighting is identical to the actual size of shipping containers. They symbolically point that there are some site-specific art pieces, namely containers,


Paper

and activity possibilities around within walking distance. In other words, they provide for both lighting and signage. Thus, the in-between becomes also a car-free area. Many of the containers, created in the in-between land, are ephemeral in nature. Each container is a unique experiment in peoplespace interaction that illustrates a proposition about how the in-between site might be experienced. The Site-Specific Art The abstracted, re-designed, and re-constructed containers have been re-interpreted and temporarily installed to exist in certain places within the huge site called the in-between. The designers have taken certain characteristics of these places into account while creating their containers. Generally, the place becomes the means of the creation of the containers. The containers have been designed for and installed in spaces with different characteristics such as sea, dunes, rocks, forest, coast, national park, lagoon, etc, and left to change and erode under open-air natural conditions. Consequently, the inbetween land and the containers are inextricably linked. Thus, the overall design becomes a site-specific art installation that includes the landscaping combined with interesting containers designed to exist only in the space for which they are designed. Group 5 has treated the EWWUD 2012 workshop as a research environment for compiling and interpreting the idea of architecture and of design concepts. Therefore, the overall process of the workshop has been organized at the level of strategy. Thus, the story of design constructed throughout the two-week workshop has provided the designers in attendance with experience by experimenting on design. â–

The Zipper

“Each container is a unique experiment in people-space interaction that illustrates a proposition about how the in-between site might be experienced.�

109


Team Project

Teachers

Françoise PY Students

Agnieszka Gucz Cemil Kocamaz Johanna Fink Marta Dias Mia Docto Roberto Cherardi Sofia Laia Stylidis Efstathios

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade


112

1. Analysis of the site

first Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade first first

second Site


Plan

2. Lagoa de Sancha plan

3. Lagoa de Sancha section

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

113


114

4. Environmental education center

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

Proposal

5. Environmental education center


Proposal

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

6. Amphitheater

7. Lagoa de Sancha section

8. Environmental education center

9. Lagoa de Sancha section

115


116

10.1. Horse stable north-east cross section

10.2. Horse stable north-west cross section

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

Proposal

11. Horse stable


Plan

12. Lagoa de Sines plan

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

117


118

13. View tower

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

Proposal

14. View tower


Proposal

15. View tower sketch

17. Sketches of the view tower and paths

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

16. Sketches of the view tower and paths

119


120

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

Proposal

Lagoons’ Promenade More: Protection Awareness Access Opportunities

18. Lagoa de Sines changing rooms

19. Lagoa de Sines camping

20. Lagoa de Sines cafe


Aims

21. Lagoa de Sine detail

22. Proposal aims

Inbetween Lagoons’ Promenade

121


Team Project

Teachers

Adnan Aksu Nur Caglar Students

Agata Czapkiewicz Amna Alruheili AndrĂŠ Jacob Chiara Giussani Despoina Thomaidou Ezgi Basar Felicity Passmore Norbert Olczyk Pedro Alves

The Zipper


124

first Zipper The first first

second Analysis

Unspoilt and prosperous natural environment that we want to preserve

So what would fit all? Container — Temporary

Very large area with different urban and rural characteristics (sea - sand - rocks - dunes - lagoon - forest - city)

— Easy-to-move

Dual character of the area:

— Modularity

— A place of contradictions;

— Simple design

— A combination of industrial and natural character.

— Industrial

Displacing content The contents of the inbetweenare moved by a set number of modules to be amongst some of the other content. Running in a line from the road into the sea to pick up on all the different contents. Temporary in their strength of apperance, eventually they run into oneanother. Road - sea/nature - industry

1. Sketches from the site


The Zipper

Concept

2. Concept

125


126

The Zipper

3. Cork structures

4. Cork forest

Proposal


Masterplan

5. Masterplan

The Zipper

127


128

The Zipper

Proposal

6. Container on the sand

7. Natural materials

/Modular structure /Linear and geometrical elements /Natural materials /Shadows play light /Different grade of privacy


Proposal

8. Minimum impact on the context

The Zipper

129


The Zipper

130

Floating

Proposal

Super protected nature

Reformation of container to make furniture in the sea.

Each specific vegetation of the inbetween planted into

Floating in the sea, to take advantage of the seas

A container. Movement, add interestto the coastline, tempt out to A point.

Floating in the lagoon, visable but not easily accessible.

Temporary as they can be drag out and back in again

Temporary in its fragility of the ecosystem.

By tugs.

Forest - shrubland/industry - nature

Movement - static/sky ground

9. Floating containers

10. Floating contained ecosystems


The Zipper

Proposal

131

Float Concept Preserve nature Connect human with nature Bird watching Local materials Harmony with nature Native flora 11. Observatories

12. Insertion on the new part of the city

13. Insertion on the historical center


132

14. Structures on the rocks

The Zipper

Proposal


Team Project

Teachers

Antonio Louro Johannes Kalvelage Pedro Pinto Students

Anna Klimuskina Aude Touraine Chatzistamoulos Nikolaos Ece Ataer Gabriela Koziel Matteo Penitenti Miguel Sousa Piotr Szczesniak Robin Kim

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View


134

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

Thesis / Analysis

need for change... — disconnection — out of scale — lack of identity — lack of cohesion

1. Schematic approach

2.1. Towns

2.2. Industrial map

2.3. District map


Strategies

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

135

Connecting people To the land

3. Urban agriculture

4. Sketches


136

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

5. Strategies

6. Time-line - industry versus green spaces

Strategies


Proposal

7. Support station

8. Bungalow

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

137


138

9. Tent

10. Beach bar

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

Proposal


Proposal

11. Surfing school

12. Beach shack

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

139


140

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

Balance Research Center — water — eco-system — energy — forestry

13. Research center

Strategies


Strategies

14. Sines section

15. Habitat section

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

141


142

16. Existing

18. Complete street

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

Proposal

19. Connections - stream corridor

20. Connections - stream corridor

21. Green corridor

22. Green corridor

17. Proposed


Master Plan

23. Masterplan

Inbetween From a Bird’s Eye View

143


Conclusion

145

Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Lusófona University of Lisbon

Waterfront New Life Seven ideas to challenge the Port City

The conclusions presented at the end of this book can be summarized in the content of the panels produced by each of the eight groups participating at the workshop. They illustrate the ideas of a multidisciplinary and international group that analyse, discuss and formulate hypothesis for the Sines and St André region. The individuality of each group is well illustrated in the previous pages that hopefully are inspiring and thoughtful for the reader as much as it was for the participants. Together, they present a remarkable and unprecedented body of knowledge putted together and designed for the region. For each case the priorities were decided among the participants of the group. The wide range of disciplinary

backgrounds intended to stimulate the debate on various fields of knowledge and prevent from getting caught in a narrow discussion of one discipline; instead we created groups integrating participants coming from architecture, planning, urban design geography and landscape architecture. Since the topic of waterfront urban design is interdisciplinary and involves a wide scope of interests and expertise, the working environment was creative to the point that it is hard to imagine a better team. The involvement with the topic and the passionate debate around it finally had the possibility to open the discussion to an international level. The guests were put together to deal with the task of a difficult subject and were required to bring their new fresh perception of the problem.

It started with great curiosity regarding the present situation at the region of Sines – St André. The present situation was critically reviewed integrating information of local historical, geographical and regulatory constrains. The interdisciplinary approach gave the evidence that the waterfront subject benefits from their presence, because through constructive dialogue they succeed to embrace the complexity of the problem. Regional planning and urban design is increasingly focused on regulations and the way they can survive administrative procedures. The lack of ideas settles down and buries some possibility to improve the present situation. The four sites subject to research, analysis, critical review and development of design solutions were Sines, St. André and


146

Waterfront New Life

waterfront, Port of Sines and industrial infrastructures, and the area between Sines and St. AndrĂŠ. The selection of these sites was brought into discussion by the people who have been involved in the last twenty years.

number of academics, professionals, municipal representatives and international experts. Sponsors provided a significant sum of money to cover travel and living expenses of the group. However the book that is published here became possible due to the generosity of highly qualified people. They have given commitment and involvement that is priceless. The enthusiasm in producing design solutions consumed such number of hours of work that is beyond any reasonable budget.

Revelation at the European Workshop Urban Design has been done through pragmatic design proposal that inspire different visions merging conservation and regeneration guided by a sustainable philosophy. The information presented in the existing plans was critically reviewed and has enabled each team to deal with this task and develop ideas. The method must start from here, otherwise the presence of the best graduate students oriented by enlightened academics is not seized or fully exploited. The presence of local prominent professionals and municipal representatives at specific dates succeed to raise the quality of the discussion. Some of finest experts and highly qualified professionals were able to come and join the group to share their knowledge and answer to particular questions. During the workshop period, each group gathered around the drafting table. It is fundamental that they succeed to put their differences to the side and learn from each other. This fragile equation relies on human values and not strictly technical values. They are successful, in creating the appropriate working environment where each participant soon understood that the diversity of cultures and their own perception brought richness to the group. At the end of the workshop, the general perception among the group is that the improvement of the built environment requires a humanistic approach. The parameters taken in consideration are useful to influence the design decisions. Parameters do not decide, they inform. They build a body of knowledge to inform the mind of designers. Intelligence decides and better when guided by intuition. During this time we were able to think, design, write and edit what we now publish in this book. It is a long and thoughtful process where we had extraordinary contribution from a large

The book offers solutions to be digest by the actors who hold power to use them or put to the side. We claim to produce solutions that will be a reference for the years to come. The people involved and the work that is printed is seen as a milestone made in 2012. Knowledge is power, but it is up to those that hold the political power to put it in practice.â–

Conclusion


Final Boards


148

Barreiro - Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

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150

Barreiro - Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

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152

Barreiro - Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

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154

Poço do Bispo – Crossing Borders

Final Boards


Final Boards

Poço do Bispo – Beyond the Barriers

155


156

Margueira – Bac scape

Final Boards


Final Boards

Margueira Heritage Rebirth

157


158

Docapesca – Waste [Land] Scape

Final Boards


Final Boards

Bridging Docapesca

159


160

Barreiro – Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

161


162

Barreiro – Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

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164

Barreiro – Note the Nodes

Final Boards


Final Boards

Barreiro 2011_2021_2036

165


Ewwud 2012  
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