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IP Designation: 03988/PLISBOA52/ERA10 IP 2009-2010 Title: European Workshop Waterfront Urban Design 2010 (EWWUD) Coordinator: Pedro Ressano Garcia PhD Organizing Committee: João Sequeira PhD Pedro Ressano Garcia PhD Vasco Pinheiro PhD Students Committee: Daniel Silva Daniela Silva Diana Brito e Cunha Gonçalo Silva Hugo Vieira João Carvalho Pedro Ribeiro Editorial Coordination: Pedro Ressano Garcia Design & Layout: Daniela Silva Diana Ramos Graphic Logo: Andrea Varela Rivera Benedetta Agostini Publication Date: 2010 Permalink: http://ewwud.ulusofona.pt/ Keywords: Waterfront Regeneration, Port Cities at Tagus River, Urban Design.

Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Impressão e Acabamento: SOARTES - ARTES GRÁFICAS LDA Depósito Legal: 325669/11 ISBN: 978-972-8881-95-5 Todos os direitos deste edição são reservados por Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Campo Grande, 376 – 1749 – 024 Lisboa E-mail: edições.lusofonas@ulusofona.pt


Acknowledgments: The workshop has much to thank, nearly eighty people working hard for two weeks have produced this material. At the time of publishing the results of EWWUD I should start by saying that this book is only possible because of the help of all who have supported the event in so many different ways. It all begun with the grant offered by the European Community that covered most of the expenses, secondly the availability of the extraordinary professors coming to Lisbon while leaving their busy professional life’s. And at last, or first of all the Universidade Lusófona that turned this project real. The support from Public Entities exceeded all expectations Eng. Ana Cristina Cunha from Port Authority of Lisbon, technical personal from City Hall of Oeiras, the City Hall of Almada and the City Hall of Seixal contributed widely with material and internal information. At Universidade Lusófona the International Relations, Career & Entrepreneurship Office carried out all the difficult administrative procedures, that is not an easy job and they succeed beautifully. Sub-Director of ISCAD Jorge Gregório hosted the group. The Chancellor of Universidade Lusófona, Mário Moutinho is the first to challenge me to write the application of the IP. When the program received the funds Moutinho cheered the grant and carefully handled this program throughout the process. The participation of invited professors raised the level of scientific expertise thanks to Aleksandra Satkiewicz, Zbigniew Paszkowski, Dirk Schubert, Renee Tribble, Irina Curulli, Tom Veeger, Susan Ubbelohde, George Loisos, Françoise PY, Ado Franchini, Silvia Ceschel, Andrea Colombo, Marco Oriani, Alkmini Paka, Anastasia Tzaka, Nur Caglar and Zeynep Uludag. From Universidade Lusófona professors included André Caiado, Ana Paula Rainha, Bernardo Vaz Pinto, João Sequeira, Margarida Valla, Pedro Formosinho Sanches, Rui Simões, Tiago Queiroz and Vasco Pinheiro. The students group made the organization of the event a refreshing and energetic approach thanks to Daniel Silva, Daniela Silva, Diana Brito e Cunha, Gonçalo Silva, Hugo Vieira, João Carvalho e Pedro Ribeiro. Pedro Ressano Garcia Coordinator of European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design 2010

Abstract: Solutions for the relocation of port facilities and the consequent waterfront regeneration of old ports are dependent upon the capacity of both port and city to successfully develop the necessary means of negotiation, to work towards mutual improvements. While Port Representatives privilege the efficiency of maritime activity, City leaders pursue improvements to their citizens’ quality of life. Exchange of good practices between port cities is required with two goals: to support the port’s needed to expand and relocate, and to produce urban waterfront regeneration that integrates rather than segregates neighborhoods and their citizens. The main workshop’s objectives were as follows: - Port cities sharing similar experiences regarding projects of architecture and urban design at former port areas; - Discussion of the influence generated by geographic and historical factors; - Introduction of the cartographic culture of urban fabric’s transformation at the water edge; - Comparison of cultural, environmental and historical heritage solutions; - Port cities exchange mutual visions and common practices, that constitute a relevant tool for the regeneration of former port areas; - Production of architecture and urban design sketches for publication; - Understanding that former industrial waterfronts are potential sites of continuity for urban morphology.


plan

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plan introdution

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Tiago Pitta e Cunha

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Dirk Shubert

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“The European Maritime Policy and Waterfront”

“From harbour towards International Top-Location_ Hafen City Hamburg”

François Py

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Zbigniew Paszkowski (paper)

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Trafaria Tradition and Innovation Trafaria

023 037

Margarida Valla (paper)

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Docapesca Archipelago Docapesca added | subtracted

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Mário Moutinho (paper)

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Santos / Trafaria Thirsty City

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Alkmini Paka aaaaa Anastasia Tzaka aaaaa Nikos Kalogirou(paper)

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Seixal Healing Seixal Urban Waterscapes

107 117

conclusion

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final boards

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“Facing globalization: Urban strategy for renewal of old ports cities”


Waterfront New Life

introduction

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text Pedro Ressano Garcia PhD from Lusófona University of Lisbon

Waterfront New Life European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD) is an intensive program IP supported within the Erasmus framework. Eight schools of Architecture and Urban Planning worked together in Portugal for two weeks, in March 2010. At the workshop they had the opportunity to analyse, discuss and formulate hypothesis for the Lisbon Waterfront. The initiative brought together graduate students and teachers from various European countries, but also Turkey and California, to exchange their own views regarding the future increment of the waterfront. The preservation

of historic features and growth of port activity, were in the centre of the discussion, to imagine a process that aims a sustainable development for the port city of Lisbon. Waterfront brings together a number of different topics since it relates two different worlds, land and water. The high concentration of citizens living at port cities, the maritime transportation requirements, a sustainable strategy regarding the necessary reduction in carbon emission, were on the basis of the discussion.

Waterfront Urban Design merges several constrains, therefore the workshop started with an overall view presented by the Responsible for Integrated Maritime Policy in the European Union – Tiago Pitta Cunha. In his introductory talk, he explained the complexity of the theme and succeed to highlight constrains and opportunities when imaging to design the future. The port city of Hamburg in Germany has been in the centre of the contemporary debate of the waterfront regeneration. It is pointed out as the most successful example in Europe for the new “Hafencity” or harbour city. Professor


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Dirk Schubert from Hafencity University is in the best position to explain the methodology adopted in Hamburg and critically review the successes and the problems of waterfront urban design. The intimacy and accuracy of his talk allowed each group to envision and discuss possible methods to design. Euromediterranean project located at the city of Marseille was presented by Professor Françoise Py from Université de Paris, La Sorbonne, The perception of different constrains but also extraordinary opportunities enlarge the realm of possibilities when relating to waterfront regeneration and sustainable urban design illustrated by this project. The Lisbon case was introduced by Pedro Ressano Garcia, from the host University (ULHT) following the path of his own PhD thesis – Life and Death of Lisbon Waterfront; and further developed in his book – Tagus Platform: Lisbon Waterfront and the 21st Century. The boat tour at the Tagus Estuary kindly offered by the Port Authority of Lisbon completed the strategy of the first day. The perception of the city from the waterside and not exclusively from the dominant view – the land, and also, the aim to merge a European overall view, with the local situation. Together the contributions addressing three main port cities in Europe have set the pace for the meeting. Plus the cross of a multicultural group, carrying a pluridisciplinary knowledge, willing to exchange best practices, have completed the motto for the workshop. In the last decades a number of waterfront projects were interrupted as they faced strong opposition coming either from public opinion, the media or lawsuits. Projects seem to touch sensitive cultural values and consequently face years of discussion, only to be put aside eventually. Such difficulties bring a loss of competitiveness on both sides, as well as unsustainable development of seaports and decreasing quality of life for their citizens. Within the European Community this represents a great challenge for the future as much as

introduction

an extraordinary opportunity. Given the scenario, it seemed necessary to create a European brainstorm on the subject. The exchange of good practices between port cities became the starting point for the discussion, those that succeed to support the port’s need to expand and relocate, and to produce urban waterfront regeneration that integrates rather than segregates neighbourhoods and their citizens. Imaginative solutions are required and the creativity of the academic environment could be useful in the process of transformation where both city and port are involved. There is a question supporting the argument that Universities, and the research projects they undertake, can contribute in this process. The topic has been so controversial that in some cases, like the city of Marseille, the academic neutrality had been valuable to raise new questions and address the situation from a different perspective. At the Lisbon Workshop, Professors and students brought their local expertise to the discussion, formulated by multinational groups with the aim of sharing best practices. EWWUD brought to Lisbon in Portugal eight partner institutions making a total of 45 graduate students and 14 professors teachers and senior lectures to work together at the workshop for two weeks. Teaching staff and researchers from various higher education institutions increase the volume of multilateral cooperation at graduate level studies. The partners were: Germany - HafenCity University Hamburg, Poland - Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny,

Waterfront New Life

Holand - Technische Universiteit Eindhoven , U.S.A - University of California at Berkeley, Greece - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki France - Université de Paris La Sorbonne, Turkey - Gazi University, Ankara, Italy - Politecnico di Milano, working together with Lusofona University in Lisbon. If academics can play an important role they should take advantage of their independent environment to value this process but they must be connected to reality when addressing the challenges that involve governmental institutions, traffic office, Municipality, Port Authority and Railway Company. Since there are different institutions that are related to waterfront urban design, an interdisciplinary group from departments of architecture, urban planning, geography and urban design work together. The subject requires a wide understanding of different fields that affect and influence the process of transformation. It is necessary to combine research from various subjects and to make use of interdisciplinary information. In the Intensive Program IP, groups established connection between transversal fields of knowledge, develop their know-how, reflect upon implemented solutions and their contexts, and draw hypotheses about what can be applied in the future. The ideas and proposals formulated during the workshop produced a holistic vision of the present problem. The visionary proposals published in this book refuse the current culture of municipality procedures and territory planning tools.

“The ideas and proposals formulated during the workshop produced a holistic vision of the present problem.”


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introduction

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“Waterfront regeneration, if based on dialogue and exchange of information, may produce an overall design strategy that does not get caught in difficulties of one particular site but encompass the general perception of the situation.” The quality stands on the ability that Students and Faculty had to bring the knowledge of local situation to produce imaginative solutions for the waterfront. Proposals merge historic, geographic, economic competitiveness, the environment and local people’s necessities. Such knowledge is usually dispersed and fragmented. Too many governmental institutions are in conflict and get dissolve by the complexity of current regulation. The organization of this Intensive Program aimed to gather the fragments and share local knowledge while learning from other cases. The relations between city and port are decreasingly determined through the production of new master plans, where a new type of thinking emerges, where design projects are analysed and discussed individually. Considering that Schools are free from political pressure, it is innovative and increasingly necessary to bring scholars to formulate design projects to be considered for discussion. Port cities depend on creative and innovative solutions to contribute for most desirable sustainable development. In short the IP main objectives were: - to generate a methodology to contribute for the sustainable development of port cities; - to invite local authorities to come and exchange management visions that succeed to re-establish its relation with the water, improving environmental conditions while supporting the port activity;

- to discuss and produce projects that improves the quality of life at the city and enhances the competitiveness of the port. - to discuss the influence of geographic and historical factors on the present situation of ports and cities and produce cartographic records of the transformation of the waterfront, - to understand that former industrial waterfronts are potential sites of continuity for urban morphology. The material produced at the workshop is expected to offer the participants a multidisciplinary overview of innovative and creative solutions for the following objectives: - Port cities sharing similar experiences regarding projects of architecture and urban design at former port areas, - Introduction of the cartographic culture of urban fabric’s transformation at the water edge. - Comparison of cultural, environmental and historical heritage solutions, - Port cities exchange mutual visions and common practices, that constitute a relevant tool for the regeneration of former port areas, - Production of architecture and urban design sketches fopublication. According to the conclusions presented at the end of the workshop, by each team, the waterfront presents extraordinary potential for development if taken from a sustainable perspective.

Eight groups working in an international environment have taken four locations selected along the Tagus Estuary. Each present conservation of particular features and implementation of new facilities. It is comprehensible that the proposals integrate a holistic vision; this was possible through the methodology adopted. Waterfront regeneration, if based on dialogue and exchange of information, may produce an overall design strategy that does not get caught in difficulties of one particular site but encompass the general perception of the situation. ■


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text Tiago Pitta e Cunha Responsible for Integrated Maritime Policy in the EU

The European Maritime Policy and Waterfronts City works on water fronts imply, in most cases, a complete rethinking of the links between the city and the river, the lake or the sea it faces. I should underline “a complete rethinking” because waterfronts were often and for a long time already shaped by industrial uses connected to port’s operations and since then were left alone, forgotten, taken for eternal or, in the worse cases, simply abandoned.

century; some parts featuring important historical monuments were redesigned for the World exhibition of 1940, including in particular the western area of the Tower of Belém and Jerónimos; some parts have been the subject of intense transformation more recently at the former EXPO 98 site; and others are still waiting to be discovered, to be restored and to be redesigned.

Lisbon, in this regard and as a port city with many miles of water front can be an interesting lab for your brainstorm and for your ideas. In Lisbon one can find a bit of everything: some parts are occupied with port uses and resembles the way the whole water front was in the 30’s or 40’s of last

The question is how should we do it? How should we design our water fronts in Europe? A key element of the answer is to find a reasonable compromise between allowing the total occupation of our

water fronts for port industrial uses, such as it was the rule in the past, and the more recent tendency to completely switch use of water fronts to recreational and entertaining areas. Hence, the prevailing trend nowadays should be to mix both uses, combining port uses with recreational uses in the same spaces as much as this is possible. I am very much in line with this new tendency, if my opinion matters at all. In fact, I suspect, it was not to give you my opinions on water fronts restoration that I have been invited to talk to you but because of the job I did in the last five years as coordinator of the European Integrated Maritime Policy in the European Commission.


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Without going too much into details I just would like to explain that this policy is a new European policy which aims at looking at our oceans and seas as a whole through a set of joined up policies instead of the former prevailing sectoral approach of different departments focusing only on ports, or on fisheries or on shipbuilding, or on energy and so on. In any case, what is more important is to know how can this new policy influence your subject-matter, the planning and designing of city waterfronts in Europe. To start with the European Integrated Maritime Policy wishes to raise awareness of Europeans to the immense influence that the seas and oceans have in the history and fate of Europe. Europe is the most maritime of all continents with a long coastline and it is surrounded by many islands. The understanding of the geography and the history of Europe and its strong links with the sea should therefore be taken into account when we think of re-thinking Europe’s city waterfronts. Indeed, they are not only prime real estate areas. They are a particular feature of many European cities and therefore of our life and society. What we are today is in many ways due to the vibrant deeds of people that lived in European port cities such as Genoa, Hamburg or Rotterdam. Thus, port cites are not only a distinctive feature of most European countries but they are also strong contributors to the European idiosyncrasies. Within this context one important issue to take into account when thinking on waterfront transformation is that ports are growing all over the world and not diminishing. Like airports they are gateways of communication between people, markets and cultures. But airports can be located anywhere. They can be relocated and ports cannot as they need to be by the waterfront. We can therefore try and redesign waterfronts without ports anymore. This is to follow what I call the “marine plus hotel solution”. But ports, if they are needed, will always come back and will reappear and it is a matter of fact that Europe needs its sea ports for reasons of competitiveness in this era of globalization. Not only 90% of its external trade is carried out by sea but even close to 46% of its internal trade involves a maritime leg in the set of logistics

Seminar on City Waterfronts in Europe

involved in transport. Moreover given that Europe needs to reduce Co2 emissions from the transport sector it will need to reduce road traffic and to replace part of it through short sea shipping, using the Motorways of the Sea. Ports will also reemerge as energy terminals given the rapid expansion of offshore renewable energies, in particular offshore wind energy. They will nevertheless need to be cleaner and vessels need to be greener. Till today vessels’ emissions while docked in ports contribute greatly to air pollution in port cities especially through the emission of noxious gases such as Nox and Sox. Finally, ports need to be open to people and societies and fences and barriers need to come down. Antwerp is in this respect a good example to follow. City waterfronts are often located in coastal areas and the latter are under huge environmental pressure from stressors like urban development and sea-level rising. Such pressure is undermining vital coastal habitats and ecosystems. Salt marsh lands, for instance, are disappearing fast notwith

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standing the fact that they are important carbon sinks and should be preserved. When working on water front projects one should take all these factors into consideration. Before finishing let me come back to the European Integrated Maritime Policy and its founding document, the Green Paper. In the last chapter of this document which is entitled “Reclaiming Europe’s maritime heritage and confirming Europe’s maritime identity” it is written: “As awareness in Europe of the links between different maritime activities grows, this will not only lead to better policy making, but also to the development of a common vision of the role of the sea in our lives, the broad heritage on which we can build, and the rich promise of our maritime future.” This sentence will allow me to deliver a final message: with sound and good work redesigning Europe’s key water fronts we have the chance to link Europe’s maritime heritage with the rich promise of our maritime future and, most of all, we can inspire all by revealing the promise of an auspicious maritime future for Europe. ■

“[...] ports need to be open to people and societies and fences and barriers need to come down.”


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text Prof. Dr. Dirk Schubert from HafenCity University, Hamburg [Germany]

From Harbour towards International TopLocation: HafenCity Hamburg Regional and urban setting Hamburg is not imaginable without its port. In the history of Hamburg, the harbour had always been the core of the local economy. Since its origin, Hamburg’s development as an urban place was formed by its harbour and shaped by its trade relations. A powerful ideology produced the effect that finally trade interest were always given priority in Hamburg. “What serves the harbour serves Hamburg” was a saying and a leitmotif in all periods, according to it, decisions on economic policy and urban development were made. In comparison with other harbour-cities, like competing ports as Lisbon, Bremerhaven, Rotterdam, Barcelona and Antwerp, Hamburg has some specific characteristics:

- Hamburg is a tidal seaport-city at the estuary of the river Elbe, hundred kilometres upstream from the northern sea; - Germany has a rather short coastline. Its few ports and Hamburg especially have a gateway function to a large hinterland; - Until today Hamburg is (as well as the port city of Bremen) a “land” or a city-state within the federal structure of Germany. The rights of self-government in relation to the federal authorities are established within the German constitution; - Most of the port zone of 700 ha, (11,5 % from the total area of Hamburg) is in ownership of the City of Hamburg. The capital investments in quays and the harbour basins, in the

maintenance of the shipping channel and the dredging of its depth are transactions within the budget of the city. Now it is renamed to Hamburg Port Authority (HPA) and it is going to be partly privatised (probably 49 %) to get private investors and to refinance expensive new infrastructures and port facilities; - A big part of the port has since 1888 a “Free Port” status. The borders of the Free port district have been changed several times and the status will be abolished soon; - Within the port area private companies cannot buy, but only rent sites in the port zone.


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Brownfields in Hamburg Hamburg is a growing city in the northern part of Germany. There is a political strategy to increase the number of inhabitants. In Hamburg there are about 730 hectares of brownfields, without brownfields in the port area. About 70 areas are identified, which are going to be converted in the next years. Although size, ownership and contamination are quite different there is a target to (re)use 40 hectares a year. This year about 50 projects are in progress, about 35 of them with contaminations. The strategy is to reuse as many brownfields as possible and to develop as many greenfields as necessary.

the city limits. Meanwhile most of the new office buildings, some converted warehouses are realised.

Meanwhile there are several brownfields in the port area, which could be used for other purposes than port related businesses. Especially the oldest parts of the port, next to the city centre can be used for transformation and revitalisation.

“Visions and plans for the reallocation of uses for buildings and land in derelict areas, architectural competitions;”

In Hamburg we got other former port areas which are going to be converted to other uses like housing, offices and tourism. - Sites in the south of Hamburg in the Harburg Inner Port area. This area was at one time an autonomous Prussian small lock harbour and competed with Hamburg. Urban design competitions have been held for the harbour and its accompanying storage buildings and silos, and meanwhile several buildings –mostly offices- are realised; - Sites along the northern shore of the river Elbe. The waterfront at the north shore of the Elbe with a grand view towards the shipyards and the oceanliners plays a special role in Hamburg. The northern shore consisted in the early 1980s of a heterogeneous mixture of land uses and buildings from the time between the middle of the last century and the post war period. But the “invention” of the “String of Pearls” for the north shore, the Architectural Forums, competitions and media attention to the theme “Hamburg returns to the Elbe” stimulated discussions about Hamburg far beyond

Global changes in seaport regions The type of work in port has changed (de-casualisation) and often the port has moved to a location away from the city centre seawards. Containerisation accelerated the rationalisation of transshipment and spatial relocation of functions which used to be bound to the port. Seen in this context, the areas where port and city meet have undergone severe changes in land use, economic activity and built environment.

The traditional port with its narrow finger-piers, multi-purpose terminals and quay-side warehouses could not come up to the new standards. Quay-side storage and warehouses, sheds used for temporary storage protected from the weather, are no longer necessary. Three interwoven reasons are important for transformation processes: - Drop of passenger ships (although increase in cruise ships); - Crisis of shipbuilding and de-industrialisation processes in seaports; - New logistic systems - containerisation.

The consequences led to discussions on suitable and sustainable strategies how to deal with the potential of former port areas and has also led to controversial debates concerned with practical planning as well as t heoretical issues, about aims and priorities. Despite of the unique potential, considerable delays between dilapidation and renewal were common. The process of transformation at the city/port interface follows a similar cycle: - Dereliction of old port areas near the city, relocation of

modern, containerised trading facilities to areas suitable for expansion outside the city centre; - Dereliction of old port areas near the city, relocation of modern, containerised trading facilities to areas suitable for expansion outside the city centre; - Disuse, temporary and sub-optimal usage of areas and buildings in the old ports; - Visions and plans for the reallocation of uses for buildings and land in derelict areas, architectural competitions; - Implementation of plans, establishment of new land uses (offices, recreation, housing) in these areas; - Redevelopment, new land uses, acquisition, enhancement


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of desirability of these areas;

linked with the regional office and housing market.

later, were discussed.

- Occasional transformation of already redeveloped zones for other more suitable and more profitable uses.

The project announces a new strategy for the port and city and great expectations for growth in the future. This also implies that projects of waterfront revitalisation are getting more important for politics, developers and planners and that the waterfront, often centrally located but sub optimal used, is a great chance for sustainable development and a more compact city.

Masterplan The Masterplan finished in 2000 – now 10 years old - establishes the phased development in sub-districts during the period of realisation. The winner of the urban design competition was a team combining Hamburg Plan with the Dutch planner Kees Christianse.

Discussion on suitable and sustainable strategies to deal with the potential of former port areas has led to controversial debates concerned with practical planning as well as theoretical issues, about aims and priorities. Despite the unique potential, considerable delays between dilapidation and renewal were common. Generalisations are difficult to make and easy recipes do not exist. Differences in cause, procedure, results and planning tradition need to be taken into account. It is not just a matter of architectural design, but of a complex set of planning, institutional, political, client-related, economic, ecological, legal and financial questions. For several decades now, the restructuring of derelict docks and waterfronts in inner cities has been taking place on a world wide scale. The cycle of dilapidation, blight, neglect, planning, implementation and revitalisation, is a part of a complex network involving protagonists and interests. The reasons and problems of revitalising land formerly occupied by the port and its related industries are very similar in many seaports, but the aims, planning systems, governance structures, financing and scale is very different. The tasks of revitalising and reorganising these brownfields prove very different from each other because of the factors of location, transportation connections, building structures, contamination and planning possibilities. HafenCity Hamburg When in 1997 the Hamburg Mayor H. Voscherau announced a new ‘HafenCity’ for Hamburg, he wanted to reconnect with this project the river Elbe and the city centre, trying to create a new direction for the growth of the city centre directly to and along the river. The project is imbedded in far reaching consequences for urban development, implies the redevelopment and revitalisation of the waterfront and is

A development agency was established for 2002. The new founded GHS (Port Area Development Corporation, later HafenCity Hamburg GmbH) is responsible for this area and for the implementation of the project. Most of the land in the area is owned by the city state of Hamburg. Location For the first time in Hamburg a part of the port is taken for urban development and better connections between the new planned city and the old city centre are wanted. In a way it is a kind of a deal taking away areas from the port, sell the plots and refinance new port facilities in Altenwerder with this money. The strategic link to try to finance a part of the new port selling plots is the harbour city is a critical issue. As the money paid for the plots shall be used for investments in the port of Altenwerder, this will increase the pressure for the HafenCity. What makes the project different from similar urban redevelopment and brownfield projects is its location. Hafen -city is only a few minutes’ walk from Hamburg’s city hall and main railway station. It is right next to the present city centre and will enlarge the size by around 40 per cent. In the area only few older buildings survived the Second World War. The existing finger piers with sheds from the 1950s cannot be used for container handling. Some of the buildings were empty, some derelict some sub used. In the 1990s the first visions for the HafenCity area, as it was called

The HafenCity is a planning area of approximately 155 hectare (100 hectare land, 55 hectare water, 60 hectare net building land) making it one of the most significant projects to be undertaken by the city of Hamburg. About 5.500 Apartments will be built, about 10.00- 12.000 residents areplanned together with business property for about 40.000 jobs. The estimation of the required social infrastructure is based on these figures. The target is “a unique chance to create a new, model European city centre”. The average plot ration is 2,5, there will be about 10 kilometer of promenades along waterfronts. To seize this opportunity, it is necessary to further develop the international competitiveness of Hamburg as a metropolis and simultaneously maintain the city’s identity. In the balance of growth and integration, economic impulses and social equalisation, international scale and local character, innovation and tradition, lies the long-term urban design challenge for the realisation of the HafenCity. The development agency HafenCity GmbH is owned subsidary 100 % bei the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. HafenCity Hamburg is responsible for managing development, business relocation, construction of new infrastructure, project-related planning, marketing, communication and development and marketing of buildings plots. As most of the land is owned by the City of Hamburg chances for transformation seemed to be quite realistic.


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Step-by-step approach Existing tenants have found replacement properties. The development started in the north next to the warehouse district and next to the city centre. The Masterplan lays down a principle development sequence from west to east, avoiding uncontrolled construction activities throughout the planning area. A zoning plan for the first area of the HafenCity was ready in 2000, so the sale of the land started in 2001. The buildings along the Sandtorkai meanwhile are finished. Mix use buildings, but mostly offices have been built together with a promenade along the water. The first residents moved in their apartments 2004. At the end of the promenade the Magellan Terraces have been built and opened in 2005, as a public space with a view over the area. The Dalmannkai is the next area which will be completed in 2007. About 660 apartments and condominiums will be built adjacent to a marina and pontoon bridges. This will be the first residential area in this district. The five- to seven-storey residential buildings are flanked to the east and wet by distinctive office buildings. The diverse ownership profile will produce a lively mix of owner-occupied apartments, rented apartments, shared ownership schemes and housing with special provisions for the elderly. The completion of HafenCity is expected for about 20202025. It could almost be described as a peninsula. The names of top architects (David Chipperfield London, BRT Hamburg and Carsten Lorenzen Copenhagen) will hopefully guarantee high quality design. Almost 30 different architect’s offices contribute to the Dalmannkai quarter. Flagship projects and landmarks The first project adjacent to HafenCity was the Kehrwiederspitze (Hanseatic Trade Centre) which was built on a site, where

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buildings had been demolished in the second world war and which was used as a parking space. For implementation of the project it was necessary to exclude the area from the port and freeport area. The competition results for the planned “Hanseatic Trade Centre” were decided in March, 1990. The investor had been allowed to build 20% more square metre than originally planned. The high-rise office building was the western starting point for the project of HafenCity. The other flagship projects and landmarks are all located on important strategic sites. The historic Kaispeicher A (warehouse A) building is set to become Hamburg’s new cultural landmark. A tent-like superstructure, sheathed in glass, will house two concert auditoriums a hotel and apartments. The Kaispeicher A was designed by Werner Kallmorgen 40 years

“It increases HafenCity’s international profile and strengthen the position of Hamburg as a city of culture [...]” ago. Up to two thirds of the space will be used for car parking, with some backstage areas. The new concert hall will be constructed on the roof of the existing warehouse building. Renowned Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron submitted the design. The roof of the larger auditorium will be a sea of waves linking the harbour traditions to the new cultural identity of HafenCity. Escalators will deliver visitors through Kaispeicher A and into an open plaza 37 meters up. In 2005 the

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Hamburg Parliament voted to create the Elbe Philharmonic concert hall. The price of the urban beacon in the beginning was estimated about 160 Mi.. €, meanwhile it has more than doubled. The city has to pay was estimated about 77 Mill. € for the project, the rest comes from patrons and about 62 Mill. € have been donated. Meanwhile the city will have to pay over 320 Mill. € (at the minimum) and the opening was delayed several times. The new Philharmonic on top of Kaispeicher A is of course an important landmark. It increases HafenCity’s international profile and strengthen the position of Hamburg as a city of culture among its European competitors. The Kaispeicher B (Warehouse B) dates back to 1879 and is one of the oldest warehouses. The building is listed but now converted to an International Maritime Museum and here the large private collection of Peter Tamms will find a new home here. There will be ten floors for the exhibits, a café and a library. The museum will open doors to the public early in 2008. The Überseequartier will be the heart and the centre of HafenCity. The centrepiece of HafenCity will be a magnet for the public and strengthen the present-day city centre by providing new impulses. In this area a mix of cultural leisure and entertainment facilities, a cruise ship terminal, restaurants, hotels, offices and housing will be built. The main attraction will be an aquarium and a Science Centre. Construction works here start in 2007, completion is expected for 2011. Here a “24 hour city” will be created were approximately 1.000 people will have their homes, there will be 6.000 to 7.000 jobs and 40.000 visitors daily are expected. Concerning to the financial crisis the implementation of the project is retarded. Cruise ship tourism is one of the strongest growing branches of the sector and has regained importance for Hamburg. The provisional reception centre in HafenCity is already busy


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and will eventually be replaced by a proper terminal to be constructed. The location is ideal for tourist ships; just a few minutes walk from the city centre. The quay, which offers sufficient water depths, can accommodate two large cruise ships at a time. The number of passenger ships visiting Hamburg rose from 1999 to 2004 from 19 to 31 a year. Although this is a seasonal business cruise ships visits are expected to stabilise at this high level in the coming years. Also the centerpiece of HafenCity the Überseequartier is now on the way. There was a two-stage international investor selection process before and nine month of negotiations. A Dutch-German consortium formed by ING Real Estate, Bouwfonds Property Finance and Groß & Partner will develop the quarter. For the realisation of HafenCity the borders and gates of the free port area, responsible for customs, had to be relocated. Problems of implementation Of course it is a quite long period of 25 up to 30 years to develop HafenCity. Housing and office markets will change in such a long period. So there was one idea to speed up the development process by a bid for the Olympics 2012. Hamburg lost the competition already on the national level, but many planning ideas for HafenCity were created. For example to use a finger pier in HafenCity as an Olympic Village, having the stadium on the opposite side of the river. The decontamination – which was not very intensive – is about to be finished. The area is within the Elbe flooding area. Different solutions of flood protection had been discussed. But changing the line of dikes or a new flood barrier would have been very expensive, delaying the process. But constructural and organisational solutions for the protection of people and buildings are indispensible. All buildings and streets will now be elevated to a flood-proof level of at least 7.50 metres above the sea. The big spin-off benefit from this procedure is that the basements can be used as underground car parks.

Seminar on City Waterfronts in Europe

Also for public transport different solutions had been discussed. Building a new tramway system or a elevated people mover were just two of the ideas taken from Sydney and London. Good infrastructure is of course the backbone of the HafenCity. An essential prerequisite for the future development is the construction of the new subway U4, which is now decided - and building already began - which will be subsidised by the Federal Government. Although there had been architectural competitions for all building the overall result is not that amazing. Computer designed images and boring reality look quite different. The project will increase the size of the Hamburg city centre by 40%. The question arises is HafenCity complementary to thecity centre, or will there be a competition between these two centres. Finally the governance structures next to HafenCity are quite fragmented. Different public actors have their interests in the development. The spatial proximity of industry in the port and port facilities could give rise to conflict with neighbours, e. g. through the noise from the port. Summary - conclusions The HafenCity in a way is a kind of late-comer project where planners tried not to make mistakes of other waterfront revitalisation projects. Of course there are different approaches for brownfields redevelopment and transformation of former port areas related to topographical, local urban and port history, the network of actors, governance structures and planning cultures matter. But brownfields redevelopment offer always a more sustainable strategy than urban sprawl at the periphery. To simply copy a “successful” project or so called “best practices” – the title of our conference - and a course of action cannot always be recommended. Generalisations are difficult to make and easy recipes do not exist. Differences in cause, procedure, results and planning tradition need to be taken

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into account. It is not just a matter of architectural design, but of a complex set of planning, institutional, political, client related, economical, ecological, legal and financial questions. Brownfields and the dereliction of ports and waterfronts, often dramatised in Europe, is the “normal” process that will, at best, lead to rapid re-utilisation. In Germany and Europe, the revitalisation of ports and waterfronts often takes decades, from the time of disuse to the start of reorganisation. The rebuilding of the water’s edge and the revitalisation of waterfronts offer a once in a century chance to let port and city, water and land, history, present day and future, merge to a new symbiosis. Redundant and derelict port areas and waterfronts are one of the greatest challenges for town planners and offer a great opportunity on a medium to long term basis for new uses like tourism, housing and offices and for a reintegration in the urban fabric. ■

Further information and details: Schubert, Dirk (2007) (ed.), Hafen- und Uferzonen im Wandel. Analysen und Planungen zur Revitalisierung der Waterfront in Hafenstädten, 3nd. ed., Berlin (Leue) Schubert, Dirk (2008): Transformation Processes on Waterfronts in Seaport Cities – Causes and Trends between Divergence and Convergence, in: Kokot, Waltraud, GandelsmannTrier, Mijal, Wildner, Kathrin, Wonneberger, Astrid (eds.), Port Cities as Areas of transition, Bielefeld (transcript) and the more detailed informations for the HafenCity in Hamburg: http://www.hafencity.com/en/home.html


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Seminar on City Waterfronts in Europe

015

text Prof. Françoise PY from University of Paris, La Sorbonne [France]

Facing Globalization: Urban Strategy for Urban Renewal of Old Ports Cities. Two Different Strategies: Le Havre and Marseille Most of the world’s biggest cities are or have been ports. The problematic Nowadays the main issues are the result of historical evolution, especially globalization and international competition. Technical changes in the economy of international transportation led to the relocation of harbors leaving derelict sites. As trading and fishing ports were the heart of their cities, local, regional and national governments have, now, to deal with two issues which might appear contradictory: - The necessary competitiveness of maritime activity which dissociates transportation systems and modern human

settlements; - The absolute necessity of rehabilitating these derelict areas and furthermore of finding the best projects to integrate them in the changing urban process.

So the international competition between the biggest ports leads the authorities to leave the traditional site and migrate to a site where an adequate and appropriate isolated terminal will be built.

Ports had to be relocated because of the hard international challenges. International transport traders are looking for huge spaces which will receive huge containers carried by huge dedicated ships. International transport traders are only looking for simple terminals able to receive this size of containers and huge quantities of goods. Port representatives are looking for the relocation of port facilities because they need effective hubs with new handling and storage systems as well as warehouses able to satisfy door to door logistic.

Meanwhile the land opportunity of the waterfront should allow the rehabilitation of the city’s old port and political leaders have to take advantage of this evolution to improve their citizens’quality of life. The connections between port activities and the city’s activities are sometimes a problem. The goal should be a reciprocal fertilization between the city’s activities and the port’s activities, both supporting the


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the port’s needs to expand and relocate and the urban waterfront regeneration that integrates rather than segregates neighborhoods. The challenge The challenge for big port cities is to switch from local economy to globalization using regional and national tools to be able to compete. They have to reconcile: - Global strategy offering free circulation to any continent through competitive hubs; - Regional strategy for the city to remain the place of decision as well as the centre of political power, which has always been the advantage of big cities; - Local strategy for the appropriation of the derelict land to create urban life. They have to succeed in finding the ways to integrate economic, social and cultural activities which are the goals of urban modern life.

Seminar on City Waterfronts in Europe

wants to multiply by 3 the port’s capacity to achieve a traffic of 6 million containers a year. This example is emblematic of the French national urban planning of the “Glorious Thirties”. Even the proclaimed “urban project philosophy” did not change the gap between urban and economic strategies so far preserving the separation between city and port. Up to date information There is a proposal linked to the Grand Paris urban planning project competition. Architect Grumbach is working on a big area from Paris to the sea through the port cities of Rouen on the river Seine and the big harbour of Le Havre....is it going to be the implementation of the 68’s moto “le boulevard SaintMichel jusqu’à la mer “ !........? Second strategy Leisure activity only: «waterfront» replacing port. It is an urban project disconnected from the economy, aiming only at developing leisure activities to replace industrial activities.

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Third strategy Comprehensive approach …: Urban and port activities linked: a project which tries to develop interface between port opportunities and city renewal. Urban and economic development in dialectic links aiming at redeveloping the whole city, taking advantage of its territorial identity and geographic situation. For example, Marseille which worked on transforming the crisis in the port industry as a corner stone for an urban renewal operation which will fullfill metropolis geopolitical concerns based on attractiveness and heritage and therefore, bring additional jobs. This big urban renewal operation is called “ Marseille Euroméditerranée”. It was planned at the end of the 90’s. It started with the redevelopment of an area of 480 hectares in the middle of the city of Marseille metropolis between the trading port, the “Vieux-Port” and the TGV station. It was officially declared “Opération d’Intérêt National»-national interest operation- which enables the project to receive public funds not only from the French state and Europe but from regional and local public authorities as well.

An historical point: France had built fortifications against the sea and Holland or Portugal have faced the risk in opening the accesses. In the future we might live underneath the sea or on floating houses......there are very serious thinking and experimentation. The strategies Today the strategies for urban renewal of old ports facing globalization and the reconquest of the sea shore might be listed as: First strategy Port activity only: Focusing mainly on the functional development of their ports. For example Le Havre. - The project « Port 2000 » focuses only on port development aiming to give back to the port its predominant role in Europe. - The PAH which controls 60% of the French container traffic

“[...] port’s needs to expand and relocate and the urban waterfront regeneration that integrates rather than segregates neighborhoods.”


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So the partners are: the State, the city of MARSEILLE, the urban community “PROVENCE METROPOLE”, the district “REGION PACA”, the department council “CONSEIL GENERAL” and last but not least EUROPE. For example: Between 1995 and 2007, 309 millions euros in public investments generated 1 billion euros in private investments. The project’s goals - To develop the city so as to become the capital of the future Mediterranean union, accelerating the attraction and influence processes of the metropolis between Europe and the Mediterranean area; - To recreate a new town on the old one by initiating sustainable development and also to be 20 years ahead of time on this issue; - To expand the city center towards the north and integrate these neglected outbelt neighborhoods; - To develop connections between city and port through a comprehensive renewal operation on a disused zone by the creation of an attractive area mixing housing, offices, shops and all sorts of facilities and a new public transportation network.

Seminar on City Waterfronts in Europe

Euroméditerranée uses a planning and urban development tool called «Zones d’Aménagement Concertées- ZAC». (areas of concerted development). The process - Euroméditerranée buys the land, develops the public spaces and elaborates the building program; - The building lots are sold to developers and building contractors with very precise urban and architectural specifications. On large operations, not using the ZAC process, there will be an agreement process between the city of Marseille, the State, Euroméditerranée and land owners to control the defined objectives and their implementation. On previously built areas specific tools will be developed: - For buying land or - Assistance devices to offer incentives for rehabilitation : OPAH (planned operation for improving housing). On large operations not using the ZAC process (for ex rue de la

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République) there will be an agreement process between the city of Marseille, the State, Euroméditerranée and land owners to control the defined objectives and their implementation. This is a simple foreword to expose the issues and to open the discussion and the critics especially on the Marseille example. It will need some time to see what has been done and is going to be achieved of this comprehensive project and especially regarding social housing and how, so to say, “old” inhabitants have been kept on the redeveloped sites ….at the same price” …..the risk of gentrification is not unfortunately an utopia… Last but not least there are other risks to be taken into account … the news of our world these last weeks about …………..earthquakes, tsunamis, floods ….. I just want you to remind you that Voltaire in 18th century wrote about Lisbon’s earthquake!....... ■


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Trafaria

019

text Zbigniew Paszkowski PhD from West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin [Poland]

Trafaria Waterfront Concept Artificial Landscape Development of Lisbon was based on trade and especially on the overseas shipping. The Portuguese colonies gave the capital of Portugal a lot of income and possibilities of grow. The contemporary position of Lisbon in Europe is much weaker, than it was in the XVII or XVIII century. Lisbon is taking part in the competition between the major European and World Cities. One of the important factor enabling the city development is a contemporary harbor, which can attract shipping companies from Asia. Contemporary harbors are based mainly on container turnover and the development of the container harbor for Lisbon is the main subject of the presented paper. Container ports are not nice. It’s a pure technological

arrangement, so however they are needed, the placement of a new, modern container harbor together with its infrastructure is quite complex task. The best locations for the container ports are of course on the edges of land and sea/ ocean waters, with appropriate depth, allowing entrance of the big ships. The existing container harbor in Lisbon is placed at Alcântara district, almost in the city centre and close to the one of the most crowded crossings leading toward the huge suspended bridge connecting the city of Lisbon over the Tagus River with the new development area on the other side of the river – Almada. This location of the almost 1,7 km long port facility equipped with modern gate cranes, with one side loading

area, is in the clear conflict with the contemporary traffic (railway and frequently circulating trains block regularly the streets), as well as with the development possibilities and renovation of the whole Alcântara district. The Lisbon Port Authority is planning since many years a new port facilities near the old fisher village Trafaria, belonging to the Almada community, located opposite the Lisbon district - Belém. Trafaria is a village, or rather a small town, with almost regular grid of streets sloping smoothly to the river bay, where the small fishing boats use to be anchored. In the year 2002 the Almada Council opened the small boulevard along the


020

Tagus River beach at the fishers bay and soon after the new ferry terminal in Trafaria (for pedestrians only) has connected the village with the centre of Lisbon. Even this developments has not stopped the decay of the village. It is generally assumed, that the worst thing for the calm and sleepy Trafaria atmosphere is the invasion of different port facilities. The western border of Trafaria is closed with the location of oil tanks hidden however in the topography of the cliffs. The skyline of Trafaria is not marked by the small church facing the tiny rectangular market square in the middle of the village, either the 8 floors high post office building dominating over the 1-2 storey historic housing, but with the grain silos ragging up to 80m high and several loading cranes build in the added land close to Trafaria fisher bay on its southern end. This new industrial development, however harmful for the skyline, can mean for Trafaria also new life possibility and a severe social and material revival. One has to remember, that the beginning of this town was also caused by development of fishing and fish industry. Today the beauty of Trafaria area reveals in its western part, where the left Tajo River bank reaches the Atlantic ocean area with its wonderful, wide sandy Caparica beaches and clear waters with great waves attracting surfers from whole Europe. From the Trafaria hills, reaching the height of 60 m, enormous views over the Tagus River mouth and the Atlantic Ocean are presenting the beauty of the area. The free standing light house standing as far as 3 km in the ocean can be seen from the shore. Once upon a time this light house used to be connected with the main land. Now it has a significance as a land mark of the Lisbon Port Area. The main question, which should be answered is, whether the Trafaria area is really good to locate the container port, as the Lisbon Port Authority is supposing to plan? Will it not harm the natural environment and the life of people living in the area? Can the container port be planned in such a way, that it helps both environment and people living in the area? How to match the necessity of industrial development

Trafaria

“As a consequence of the decision to place the container port on the artificial pier in the mouth of Tagus River [...]” with the residential functions and potential of recreational development? The challenge is great and the answers are not simple. The firs approaches to the topics said – no, there is no way. The area is so beautiful, that the natural landscape should come back and the existing silos should be moved away. There should be not talking about the container harbor in this place. The fulfillment of this conclusions however is utopian. If not here – where? The presence of deep waters near the shore line is unique in the Tajo mouth. The analyzed alternatives near the shore or in the eastern direction seemed to be worse than the solution proposed. Analyzing the social aspects of the development possibilities, the neglecting of the proposed construction of container harbor facilities will mean unemployment, continuation of the process of leaving the village by the young people and, as final result, the further decay of the Trafaria and the area. Lisbon port area is already industrialized and everybody used to the presence of cranes, platforms and vessels moving around.

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The studies to place the container port has been introduced. Based on the analysis of the water depths and the possibilities of railway and road connections for the heavy traffic the final placement of the container port has been chosen – the offshore location. The reason to make the offshore port in the Tagus River mouth is following: 1. The depth of the waters is in the offshore area convenient to anchor the big vessels (20 m of depth); 2. The separation of the new port area from the existing Trafaria shore will allow to protect the village and environmentally protected zone of the cape from the influences of port activity. This separation shall also allow the flow sea water on Trafaria beach instead of the sometimes dirty and smelly waters from the river; 3. The small bay, (Laguna), which will emerge in this situation, can be used for the recreational purposes and for the marina facilities, creating in the same time the needed buffer zone from the Trafaria village. As a consequence of the decision to place the container port on the artificial pier in the mouth of Tagus River, the construction of the railroad and road connections to the main transportation routes around Lisbon will be needed. It means introduction of new infrastructural investments in the area south of Trafaria overrunning the high differences between the sea level and the level of the cliff (40-60m). In the future this route could be also used for the entrance into the tunnel under the Tagus River going in the direction of Bahia district. The village of Trafaria needs improvement of its buildings, public areas and introduction of new functions, which will help to improve the existence of inhabitants and invitation of tourists looking for some special, original, local experiences. The special values of Trafaria village is the tiny fisher port


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Trafaria

a. b.

021

and a set of restaurants specialized on sea food. The fish trade at the moment has lousy and provisory character. One of the abandoned buildings could be transferred in the “fish market” and provide possibility of new activity for villagers and fishers. For to provide the separation of the industrial area from the living area, the canal dividing the silos area has been introduced.

The extension of Trafaria industrial zone must be seen as both the chance for Trafaria itself and as the chance for Lisbon as an important European port. After some analyses of the Tajo river depths, areal development of the city and its surroundings – especially along the waterfronts, the introduction of the container port facilities in Trafaria seems to be a justified solution.

The ferry connection from Lisbon to Trafaria gives possibility to move there from the city center faster and in more sustainable way. But Trafaria itself is not providing enough interest for Lisbon inhabitants. It needs also a clear connection to the Caparica beaches for the Lisbon city dwellers and tourists. Therefore the pedestrian and bike route should be provided in order to connect the ferry terminal with the Caparica ocean beaches. The possibility to rent a bike would make this way of transportation pleasant and not harming the environment. The area in front of the ferry terminal should be transformed into a pedestrian zone. The abandoned post industrial buildings in the vicinity could be reused for garages. The adjacent fort area, closing the town at the Tajo embankment from the East could be converted into pleasant hotel and restaurant complex with rich historic attitude and background.

The design team have analyzed the sizes of the container ports and the location possibilities within the Trafaria area. The conclusion was to plan the offshore artificial island, which could be connected with the main land with bridges and viaducts. The reason of such a location was the depth of the river bed and the idea of protection of the natural shore of Trafaria town. The proposed solution has to be seen as an overall idea, not solving major infrastructural problems. But the main planning issue – the combination between the development and environmental protection – seems to be solved in this concept.

The upper area of Trafaria should be devoted to its inhabitants. The tiny market square in the middle of the town with a small church is marking the place and giving vernacular beauty, charm and scale of the whole ensemble. Finally the historic area of Trafaria should be claimed as protected zone in order to keep the values of scale and the history.

a. Fisher boats in Trafaria – suppression by the silos development. b. The Bay near Trafaria – chosen for development of the container port location.

The proposed project tries to combine industrial development of the Lisbon metropolis with the sustainability of the development of the “slow city” of Trafaria. The proposed offshore location of the container port, its disconnection from the main land, allows the development of Trafaria along its waterfront according to the needs. It may be the traditional fishing and fish marketing or recreational development as extension of Caparica area. It may be also the service for the grooving industrial-park in the area. The best solution would be to combine all this possibilities in one development project. It will enable to maintain the beauty of the tiny town with its tangible fishing activity and would contribute to stop social and substantial decay of the Trafaria town. It would give to the people living there quite new chances of personal fulfillment. Such a diversified project could also contribute to creation of a new touristic attraction in the Lisbon area. ■


team project

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

023

Trafaria Tradition and Innovation Teachers: Aleksandra Satkiewicz Zbigniew Paszkowski Students: Diletta Vignali Dorota Wilczyńska Ezgi Başar Gonçalo Silva Kirsten Heming Lauriane Lahery Nerea Etxebarria Stelios Psaltis Teresa Barreiros


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Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

Trafaria

Tradition and Innovation

Old fishing village on the south bank of the Tagus River. Trafaria is located 30 minutes by car from Lisbon and 10 minutes by bike from costa da Caparica.

in their development and a marked aging of the population, perhaps, by that reason, this place was becoming a dormitory of Lisbon.

Getting retain the aspect of earth humble and working people over the years, Trafaria was considered in the past, as one of the most important resort and leisure areas from other bank of the Tagus.

Changing of coastline due to changes in the level of water and soil erosion.

The location of Trafaria has experienced some stagnation

1.1. Changing of the coastline along the years

1.2. Outline of the site

analysis

The connection from the Cova do Vapor to the Bugio tower disappears, and in 1987 appears in the right corner an artificial area of sand where there are the silos.


analysis

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

025

“There was a time when i could see the dolphins from my balcony, this was 45 years ago ...“ told us one of the locals with who we talked, to them the silos are a bad influence to the degradation of village. “Once there were a lot of factories here: of fish, of explosive materials… now they are all closed” there´s no job opportunities, young people are leaving Trafaria.

28/28 of the people think the silos have a bad influence but some of them have become used to them

4/28 are students

What does Trafaria need? - supermarckets - new housing - museum of fishing

- turist atraction

8/28 of the people think that the life in Trafaria has become better 10/28 think it become worse

1.3. Industry, fishing and housing in Trafaria

1.4. Outline of the site


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1.5. Development of the concept and shapes

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

artificial landscape


artificial landscape

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

1.6

1.7

The fishing activity is the only attraction of the village, however without conditions due the precariousness of the destined installations to this and bad conditions of hygiene of the river. On the other hand we consider the significant position where is the Trafaria, it is the place of connection of the exterior (sea) with the interior (river), is the axis, the entrance of the estuary, Trafaria is the gate. Topographical the current village of Trafaria is between two hills and the private area of the Silopor, the company of the silos. We follow this orientation and we wanted to preserve the tradition conciliating it with the innovation. â– 

1.6. 1.7. 1.8. Development of the main form for the proposal - artificial landscape 1.9. Final result for the artificial landscape

1.9

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1.8


028

1.10. Project areas and new / existing access connections

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

proposal


program

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

029

1. new houses 2. recreational area 3. new port facilities 4. new fish market 5. container space 6. craines space 7. connections 8. new marina 9. parkings 10. new school 1.11. Program of the proposal


030

1.12. Project of the houses for the fisherman

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

proposal


proposal

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

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1.13. Project for the fish market


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1.14. Proposal for the transportation network

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

proposal


development

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

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1.15. Development of the container port area

1.16. Development of the villages and the marina port


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1.17. Plan and sections of the proposal

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

proposal


proposal

Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

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1.18. General view of the proposal


team project

Trafaria

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Trafaria Teachers: Dirk Schubert Renee Tribble Students: Aleksandra Ostapiuk Alessia Tosini Baptiste Gervaise Carlos Vinagre Debora Chaves Dimitris Giovos Irem Kucuk Noy Hildebrand


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Trafaria

analysis

Lisbon Trafaria Lisbon District Almada Land Almada Sandy Bay Almada Low Waters

2.1. Analysis of the site along the years


analysis

2.2. Analysis of the diferent uses along the years

Trafaria

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040

Trafaria

Trafaria Area

Development of the Industrial Area

1970 2.3. Development of the industrial area

analysis

Going to Splitting up?

1980

2000


analysis

Trafaria

noise

1900

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smell

1970

2000

2.4. Effects of the industry


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Trafaria

links

Lisbon + Trafaria + Costa de Caparica = A New Network

2.5. Links with Trafaria


proposal

2.6. Proposed activities for the area

Trafaria

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044

Trafaria

proposal

2.7. Proposed activities for the area


proposal

Trafaria

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What we add...

2.8. What we add to the site


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Trafaria

proposal

2.9. Traffic of ships in the proposed marina


proposal

2.10. Uses proposed

Trafaria

entertainment area new tourist area green area expansion of the cliff_housing and leisure tunnel_train and cars sidewalk Trafaria village new port Costa de Caparica_village urban green division

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048

Trafaria

views

2.11. General view


views

2.12. Views

Trafaria

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Trafaria

views

2.13. Views of the public space


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The Tagus Estuary and its Borders

053

text Margarida Valla PhD from Lusófona University of Lisbon

The Tagus Estuary and its Borders The Tagus Estuary is the core territory of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon (AML), which includes the capital and all the Councils located around its borders. Others entities rule this area, such as the Administration of the Lisbon Port (APL), the Natural Reserve of Tagus Estuary (RNET) and all different Councils (Lisboa, Loures, Vila-Franca de Xira, Benavente, Alcochete, Montijo, Moita, Barreiro, Seixal, Almada, Oeiras), who employ their own policies. Throughout centuries, especially since the Portuguese Discoveries, this territory has acquired a symbolic meaning due to the relation between Lisbon and the river. The urban development of Lisbon occupied the hills overseeing the Tagus River and extended along its borders, creating a cultural area located near the mouth of the river named Belém, which today still maintains its characteristics. The administration centre of the city and its port area always had strong ties that even endured after the earthquake of 1755. In fact, the new urban plan that was later developed reinforced that relation, as it comprised a huge main square open to the river, where

not only the administration buildings were placed, but also the King’s statue in representation of his power. The new economic reform policies that were established at that period by the Prime Minister, Marquês de Pombal, determined the name of the square - “Praça do Comércio”. In addition, due to the Tagus River’s potential in that area, the arsenal building was also established near the square, as well the shipyards. The Tagus Estuary has four different morphological areas throughout its large territory, where the tides’ influence spans up to 80 km upstream, therefore allowing for the development of salt explorations, mainly in the eastern part of the territory. The North-East area of the estuary is a deltaic zone containing islands and islets - “mouchões”, which has a very rich biological ecosystem, being the habitat to 100.000 birds

c. Lisbon and the Estuary of Tagus

area, is in the clear conflict with the contemporary traffic (railway blocks regularly the streets), as well as with the development possibilities of the whole Alcantara area needed badly renovation. The Lisbon Port Authority is planning since many years a new port facilities near the old fisher village Trafaria, belonging to the Almada community, located opposite the Lisbon Belem district. Trafaria is a village, or rather a small town, with almost regular grid of streets sloping smoothly to the river bay, where the small fishing boats use to be anchored. In the year 2002 the Almada Council opened the small boulevard along the


054

The Tagus Estuary and its Borders

during the winter. Most of this area is protected and belongs to the Natural Reserve of the Tagus Estuary. The second biggest are is called Straw Sea -“Mar da Palha”. Here the water is a little deeper but on the south border, a flat landscape with 2.000ha of bay muds - “sapais” compels boats to sail in precise routes. The third area called Tagus Channel has very deep waters (around 40m in depth). In the northern side of this part of the river, we find the centre of Lisbon and in the opposite south side, neighbouring Almada. Here was where the main 20th century shipyard was built, having been closed a few years ago. The fourth area corresponds to the mouth of the river, where two great military structures were built in the 15th and 16th centuries, in order to defend the capital city. Within the area of “Mar da Palha”, old urban settlements, such as Seixal, Alcochete and Montijo were established as small agricultural and cattle raising communities, whose products supplied Lisbon’s markets. At the same time, fishing activities were also important, as they established strong ties between the local populations and the river. The small village called Trafaria, located near the mouth of the river, still maintains its fishing activities, despite the cargo ships that constantly sail back and forth so as to supply the nearby gigantic mill.

“[...] in order to reinforce people’s connectio with the Tagus River, bicycle and pedestrian pathways were created [...]”

From the end of the 19th century till the first decades of the 20th century, a lot of small and big industries were established around the area of “Mar da Palha”, in both sides of the river. In the city of Lisbon, two industrial zones were created along its riversides, where the railway station was also located.

only important cultural equipments were established, but especially many enterprises and office buildings, thus creating and promoting a business centre in that area.

Two main exhibitions reinforced the strong existing bond regarding the Tagus River: the Portuguese World Exhibition in 1940 and the Expo’ 98. The former, which was held in Belém, emphasised the neighbourhood’s cultural activity. The latter exhibition took place in the eastern side of Lisbon and was meant to renew an industrial decaying area and further draw the population nearer towards the river. This was achieved by afterwards developing an urban housing plan, where not

The construction of the “25 de April” bridge over the Tagus River in 1966, marked the beginning of a huge urban development process, which affected all the existing settlements of the south border. The urban and housing construction became an important economic market and gave people the alternative to find cheap houses. Important industrial factories settled in areas around those urban settlements. Today four bridges cross the Tagus Estuary, from the mouth of the river till Vila Franca de Xira, establishing a road network for transportation of goods and people, therefore devaluing the use of the river.

paper

d e

d. Center of Lisbon - Praça do Comércio e. Cultural area of Belém


paper

The Tagus Estuary and its Borders

In 1995, the Administration of the Lisbon Port approved a new plan called “POZOR”. Its aim was to transform the waterfront decaying areas that had been built in the early 20th century. Some of Alcântara’s docks were transformed in recreational spaces as old storage buildings became restaurants, maintained their nautical activities. In addition, in order to reinforce people’s connection with the Tagus River, bicycle and pedestrian pathways were created, so as to allow people to appreciate the beautiful coastline that characterises and so clearly identifies Lisbon.

tourist growing attraction.

Nowadays, the councils that border the Tagus Estuary are aware of the necessity to preserve and rehabilitate some of their local traditional activities, such as fishing, sailing and ship construction. In Seixal village, new museums, like the Municipal Eco-museum, were created to preserve the memory of small industries and portrait local maritime activities. Windmills were rehabilitated as they are regarded as historical and important landmarks dating back to the Portuguese Discoveries era. In addition, regular boat trips are made as a

Today, the interaction with the river must respect the topographical and natural form of the different borders which define the Estuary. Our approach and perspective must be contrary to the one of the last century, which promoted and built landfills. It is important to research tides’ potential as an energetic valuable asset of the Tagus River. Moreover, it is necessary to rehabilitate the fluvial-maritime stations and fluvial transportation as a way to unite the two borders, regarding water as the dominant element of the whole territory. ■

055

The development and expansion of the waterfront areas intends to bring culture and provide environmental qualification not only to all the towns that border the Tagus Estuary, but to the unique territory as a whole. The expression “offer the river to the city” exemplifies the main goal that underlined all the maritime policies of Greater Lisbon. Maintaining the port activity was also an important premise due to Lisbon’s special Atlantic location, open to Europe and North America.

“[...] so as to allow people to appreciate the beautiful coastline that characterises and so clearly identifies Lisbon.”

f. g. h. The Estuary of Tagus

f.

g.

h.


team project

Docapesca Archipelago

057

Docapesca Archipelago Teachers: Irina Curulli Tom Veeger

Students: Ana Lopes Benjamin H채ger Daniela Silva David Dana Esra Yozgan Francesco Camillo Irena Nowacka


058

Docapesca Archipelago

analysis

Urban reality constantly requires fundamentally new spatial arrangements in order to face ever emerging challenges. Many of the urbanistic forms imprinted in contemporary cities have been shaped by the needs and constraints and the paradigm of the industrial period – like our project site: the harbor of Docapesca. Although areas like this have been important and typical or even symbolic points of urban life at the time they were built, today they have lost the functions and habilities they once had. Weaknesses: Of course there are interesting aspects, too (strengths). Strengths: But in general, they seem not to be useful and prepared for the future anymore. Threats: There is growing evidence that the postindustrial city – or let us say the sustainable city in the global climate change – is being reread in innovative ways.

3.1. SWOT analysis


analysis

Let the nature work

Docapesca Archipelago

059

3.2. Water floading - status quo

Work with the water and not against it

3.3. Water floading - proposal


060

Docapesca Archipelago

3.4. Analysis: topography and water

3.5. Proposal: water as main designer / flexibility - deal with it!

3.6. Analysis: flows, voids and edges

3.7. Proposal: breaking the edge / permeability

3.8. Analysis: fabric and functions

3.9. Proposal: mixed use in a new design

analysis

Urban Analysis With the city for itself, we have to reflect these remnants of the past like monofunctional harbor zones. They could be described as voids in the city or isolating edges. And they also can be described as man-made, pseudo-optimized units that are not optimal anymore. Let’s go through the urban analysis.


sketches

3.10. Potentials: breaking boundary, create permeability

Docapesca Archipelago

3.13. Potential: retaining holes for the water

061

3.16. Program

3.17. Topography as a solid base

3.11. Potentials: different islands

3.14. Potential: recreational / program (because of the flood and the existing infrastructures)

3.18. Scenarios: Permeability

3.12. Potential: gren areas to buil the concept

3.15. Potential: steps | flow, breaking lines (allowing water inside)

3.19. Scenarios: Flexible vs Stable


062

3.20. General sketch with the final proposal

Docapesca Archipelago

sketch


building an attitude

Docapesca Archipelago

063

Building an

Attitude We need true and deep reflections about general aspects (climate, society…) and urban design details (techniques, hybrids…). By following a specific urbanistic attitude – not a concrete design model – we were interested in the immanent potentials of the Docapesca site.

3.21. Water storage potential in the different possible scenarious


064

Docapesca Archipelago

proposal

3.22. Scenario 2030

3.23. Scenario 2030 (high water level)

Concept We tried to reshape the urban space, reprogram buildings and open spaces and revise the old logics (of godfather planning) to a new, sustainable, nature-related urban space. Finally I give an overview to our proposals. â– 


proposal

Docapesca Archipelago

065

Scenario 2015 - 2100 Changing Landscape

3.24. Year 2015

3.25. Year 2100


066

Docapesca Archipelago

views

Permeable West Coast

3.26. Cascades

3.27. Marina & promenade

3.28. Marina campus: green


views

Docapesca Archipelago

067

3.29. Cascades

3.30. Central boulevard

3.31. Rentention of water

3.32. Marina campus: blue & green


068

Docapesca Archipelago

3.34. Physical model of the site and the proposal

physical model


project team

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

071

Docapesca Added | Subtracted Teachers: Pedro Ressano Garcia Susan Ubbelohde George Loisos Students: Alice Cantore Andrea Perletti Andrea Varela Benedetta Agostini Dimitris Avramidis Hanna Santoro Hugo Vieira Jo達o Banha Kamila Nowak Marve Celik Sandra Salaytah


072

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

historical maps

The large scale site is located on the border of the municipality of Lisbon and the municipality of Alges and is influenced by the Monsanto Park. Most importantly, the site has a 2km waterfront on the Tagus River, which until currently is not connected to the public because of its lack of accessibility (Railway and Highway) and the various uninviting uses (the port, the parking area, the empty land field etc). Through the analysis important issues came up, such as the steep limits to the city, a channelized river which floods often, the hydrologic and geological changes of the waterfront the low building mass around the area.

4.1. Historical map of pre-industrial age, from the site

Because of the large scale of the site, it soon becomes obvious that it could not be developed at once, but through the passage of time. As a result, we set a strategy to develop in time the connection between the city and the waterfront by working on the limits until this two parts merge.

4.3. Historical map of post industrial age, from the site

In order to succeed this as a dynamic process we develop three main objectives by creating subtracted and added links.

4.2. Historical map of industrial age, from the site

4.4. Historical map of information age 2100, from the site


analysis

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

4.5. City and waterfront expansion

073

4.6. Expansion zones


074

4.7. Masterplan: artificial and natural

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

proposal


proposal

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

4.8. Fisical model of the concept

075


076

The Harbour In this area the waterfront is separated from the city because of the intensive traffic caused by the railway and highway. There for we decided to make several connections above and underground and reorganize the harbor area so that we facilitate the access and attract the interest of people.

4.9. The harbour: new structures, connectios, functions

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

the harbour


the harbour

4.10. View of the harbour

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

077


078

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

the platform

The platform In this area we take advantage of the wall next to the railway, so that the city can cross over the mobile infrastructure and reach the waterfront. Our idea was to create a structure composed by multiple platforms connected to each other with paths and areas with different functions. â– 

4.11. Diagrammatic seccion

4.12. Uses

4.13. Structure activities


the platform

4.14. Views from the platform

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

079

4.15. Top view platform


080

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

the river

The river The hidden river is a constant problem to the urban infrastructure of the hole area. In order to deal with it, we thought in sustainable terms and reveal the river. At the same time we create an ecosystem in the delta of the merging rivers, improve the microclimate of the city and connect the public to the waterfront by going under the railway.

4.17. Diagram of the shape for the North part of the river

4.18. Diagram of the shape for the midle part of the river

4.16. Characteristics of the proposed river

4.19. Diagram of the shape for the South part of the river


the river

4.20. North seccion of the river

4.21. Midle seccion of the river 4.22. South seccion of the river

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

081


082

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

the river

4.23. Sketch of the river shore levels

4.24. View of the river shore

4.25. View of the river shore


the river

4.26. View of the connection to the Tagus River

Docapesca Added | Subtracted

083


paper

Alcântara

085

text Prof. Mário Moutinho from Lusófona University of Lisbon

Rethinking Alcântara and the Tagus River from a Time-Based Perspective It is in the area of Alcântara that we can find an excellent sample of all the different ways in which Lisbon has related to its territory for the past 150 years; we can easily identify some of the most significant approaches that have been taken throughout this period: - The idea of overcoming nature, combined with the positive paradigm of urban against rural, the channels built into Ribeira de Alcântara, making it a work of engineering of some significance. However, this situation is no longer discussed and nowadays this issue is closed. For the City Hall, commissions, ministries, etc. the Ribeira is very well piped, and will be so for the rest of its life;

of São Tomé and Príncipe. Railways started to be built from the town centre to the waterfront, first to the riverside, then spreading to the sea front of the Atlantic Ocean; - Later on, with the expansion of road transportation, this train line was duplicated by a road, known as “Marginal”;

- Once the Ribeira was piped, the industries and the warehouses arrived at the beginning of the 20th century to cover up the old riverbed, so close to the Tagus River that the port industries started to take shape;

- in the early 20th century, in the 1930s, at the northern boundary of Alcântara, Duarte Pacheco (who was Minister of Public Works in 1932 and became Mayor of Lisbon in 1938) created the Monsanto Forest, almost as large as the city of Lisbon at that time. Destined to be a green reserve at the beginning of the 1970s, it would be saved by Gonçalo Ribeiro Teles in the summer of 1974. This is a vision of the future which in the following years and until nowadays Lisbon Mayors haven’t stopped coveting for various ends and purposes. Yet none of them has added one single inch of green to the Monsanto Forest;

- However, at the beginning of the 20th century, tourism was taking its firsts steps thanks to cocoa, from the African colony

- With so much free space in the riverbed, nothing better than installing the Wastewater Treatment Works (ETAR) there at

the present time (2011), to be resized to serve 800,000 inhabitants; - In the past 30 years the spaces occupied with decadent industries, the future wastelands, are open to real estate speculation, to be followed by architectural projects with towers and without towers occupying those spaces, turning oldhouses into new ones. On one side there is Jean Nouvel, and on the other, Sua Key. Every day the riverbed (fortunately the Ribeira is still channelled) is taken up with more construction, including a sewer treatment works, office buildings, luxury residential developments or even the relocation of Casal Ventoso. Even when basements and streets are flooded, the only thing people can do is say: “The good Lord has ordered pouring rain... but indeed the firefighters came quickly!”; - At the beginning of the century, at the waterfront there was the unloading of codfish into the refrigerated warehouses, and coal for the power station. But with the Great Colonial War, the passenger port that existed there – from where the


086

great ships with soldiers departed – and the Maritime Platform of Alcântara were mortgaged in favour of larger port facilities for freight goods. Replacing them, we find containers and their actual extension, which are involved in a suspicious legal suit. Regarding the Maritime Platform of Alcântara, it still hasn’t had the chance to show its Almada Negreiros tiles; - Also in front of the river, Alcântara has seen the redevelopment of the old warehouses in exchange for the restaurants and bars of “Docas”, a reference of the “best” of Lisbon nights near the river, despite the permanent noise of the train and cars from the bridge, which roll over that place, and the really foul smell, garbage and mice in the recreational dock. The final analysis of the ways in which Lisbon has been connected to Alcântara, and the latter to its own territory, is a true lesson which explains what has been done, when it is done without a long term vision, where we can see the consequences of replacing urban planning concerns for immediate architectural decisions. In Alcântara the time dimension has never been present in the mind of those who have taken the decisions, the ones who simply have overlooked issues, in the past as well as in the present, considering the immediate situation without any concern for urban issues. Had the Marquis of Pombal depended on Lisbon’s Mayors, City Councilmen and others (those who make regulations for a 10-year time span and for an imaginary population of 35 million), his task would indeed have been daunting. In this context we’ve put forward as challenges the following considerations: - Every Territory has North, South, East and West; - Since at present the Ribeira de Alcântara is piped, it is necessary to undo the channels;

Alcântara

- If the railways are a barrier that prevents access to the Tagus River from the Lisbon centre, then it’s necessary to provide a link to the west using the underground system, starting in Pedrouços; - If “Marginal” is also a barrier, due to the characteristics of this road, then it’s necessary to give it the characteristics of an urban avenue, linking it with the tram system, taking it back to the northern boundary of that area, which is nowadays a wasteland of old industrial facilities; - If it is already a nightmare to keep the container port as well as its road and rail accessibility, then the only solution is to remove all this to some other place, where they should always have been located, preventing its expansion and redeveloping that area;

“In an urban plan for a 100-years span, [...] Lisbon, Alcântara and the Tagus River would be better off, as a result contributing to a better relationship between nature and the city.”

paper

- Monsanto being an essential district for the city of Lisbon, it is necessary to link it to the Tagus River waterfront and redevelop the entire area, from the new urban avenue to the north, and from the Cordoaria building to the western area of the container port. Thus, the once again flooded riverbed will flow into the Ribeira de Alcântara, linking the eastern part of Lisbon to the Monsanto Forest in the west, and the city to the north with the Tagus River waterfront. This will unquestionably be done sooner or later. In an urban plan for a 100-year span, not an architectural project looking just at the immediate situation, the spaces occupied with construction will come to the end of their life cycle and surely Lisbon, Alcântara and the Tagus River will be better off, as a result contributing to a better relationship between nature and the city. And let us not forget that on the other side of the river there is also the other bank. ■

f. Diagram of the Ribeira de Alcântara


team project

Santos / Alcântara - Thirsty City

089

Santos / Alcântara

Thirsty City Teachers: Françoise PY Ado Franchini Silvia Ceschel Andrea Colombo Marco Oriani Students: Anna Maurer Bruno Salgueiro Daniel Silva Franek Ryczer Giorgios Tsakiridis Julia Kern Katerina Westrich Maud Menard

Merle Pannecke Natalia Paszkowska Nicole Lew Pedro Ribeiro Silvia Mundula Tasos Roidis Verònica Vales


090

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

How is the

Waterfront in Lisbon? 5.1. Diagram of the waterfront in Santos / Alc창ntara

5.2. 5.3. Panoramics of the waterfront in Santos/ Alc창ntara

analysis

In the most popular cities with the waterfront, the shore is usually very well exposed. In Lisbon is possible to observe lack of connection between the city and the river side.


program

As the city is a composition of different districts and areas (elements) division of different compartments it is important to combine the strong parts such as a city center with the and waterfront. Center of Lisbon is located very close to the river. On the other hand, river side is now mostly industrial area, separated from the center with a way with high traffic. In order to give the waterfront back to the city, we need to introduce some new urban design with a and, of course,

Santos / Alcântara - Thirsty City

How to deal with the thirst? Giving Lisbon’s inhabitants back the waterfront

Housing

Mixed structures

Green and open space

Promenade

Sport activities

Connection to the city

Office

Eco-Science-Center 5.4. Program to the area

091

mixture of functions, that will help to bring attract people to the waterfront. Our project consists of several actions (parts, elements, operations): In respect to the local urban history we would like to keep the old indutrial grid, which organises street network partly ortogonal. To introduce Lisbon‘s character, we chose few „organic city-cells“ (fragments) and resized them into apropriate humanscale. This is one part of the project. The other part operation is about introducing a mixed – use big choice of functions. The ortogonal part with existing museum is destinated ment to be mostly a cultural center of the city, that can atract not only tourists but first of all also serve the inhabitants of Lisbon. The planned transformation of the area will provide the planned This will cause the difference in density, which constitutes one of the main features of our concept. we were also trying to provide in the concept. In our project we decided to link the lungs of the city – park Monte Santo with the waterfront, by creating a green coridor along the Alcantâra valley wich would connect to the park and green boulevard created in the place of container harbour, and along the highway and railtruck. One of the biggest problems is the existing viaduct, that instead of connecting city with the port, is rather a big border. Redesign of the viaduct can contribute to the connection of the two separated parts (city with waterfront), and offer a much more easier access to the planned site on the waterfront. ■


092

Santos / Alcântara - Thirsty City

strategy

Phase one 2016

5.5. Phase one of the strategy - 2016

1. container port leaves and goes to Trafaria 2. cancel railway 3. infrastructure reorganization (car, pedestrian, bike) 4. cruise terminal 5. “triangle” development

Phase two 2022

5.6. Phase two of the strategy - 2022

1. metro line 2. move marina to another part of harbor 3. container park 4. extension of car, bike and pedestrian paths 5. introduction of metro de água

Phase three 2026

5.7. Phase three of the strategy - 2026

1. container port becomes residential area 2. increase density in zone between “triangle” and cruise terminal 3. additional stop of metro di agua in the residential zona


proposal

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

093

Zone 1 La colina da ponte

5.8. In green, the first area - Zone 1


094

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

Zone 2

La rocha de obidos

5.9. In green, the first area - Zone 2

proposal


evolution of the proposal

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

5.10. Existing buildings

5.11. Two grids

5.12. Mirror grids

095

5.13. Buildings cuts

5.14. Accesses

5.15. Green buildings


096

5.16. Public spaces

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

views


views

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

097

5.17. View of the north area


098

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

Zone 3 La rocha de passaros

5.18. In green, the first area - Zone 3

proposal


analysis

Santos / Alc창ntara - Thirsty City

099

no function restaurants / cafes sports / wellness good condicion, in function good condition, no function bad condition, no function

23. Condition of buildings

club / discotheque retail educational using

24. Usage of buldings

5.19. Current situation


100

5.20. Monument Travessia & Lisbon Centro eCOOL贸lico

Santos / Alc芒ntara - Thirsty City

5.21. Perspective of the new river shore

proposal


paper

Seixal

103

text Prof. Alkmini Paka Prof. Anastasia Tzaka Prof. Nikos Kalogirou from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - Faculty of Engineering - School of Architecture [Greece]

A Sustainable Approach to Urban (Re)Design The regional context “The city of Lisbon has an estimated population of 600.000 inhabitants. Greater Metropolitan Lisbon which encompasses 3.3% of Portugal’s surface, has a population of 2.7 million inhabitants, i.e.27.1% of the country’s population. Every day, up to two million people arrive in Lisbon to work and to engage in multiple dwelling dynamics... The road systems have bulked and polarized the city’s sense of inhabitation and built new centralities within the expanded city...The periphery has created its own centers as self – organized entities and systems. These are places that create a new possibility for the city, considering it is in their midst that new cultural expressions are being manifested, recreating themselves and becoming active.”

Αmancio (Pancho) Guedes, Ricardo Jacinto: “Lisboscopio” in Cities. Architecture and Sοciety, Catalogue of the10th International Architecture Biennale of Venice,2006, vol. II, pp 104

Seixal is one of these places in the outskirts of Lisbon, just opposite to the city center, across the river Tagus. It is linked to the city with a frequent ferry connection and through the national road A2 arriving from the east coast of the peninsula occupied by the municipality of Seixal. On the northwest edge of this peninsula, the historic center of Seixal develops on the waterfront, a traditional fisherman’s village with a well conserved dense urban fabric overlooking Lisbon. The national road runs all along the waterfront of the historic site arriving at the ferry terminal on the north east edge of the peninsula. New quarters have developed to the south and east of the historic nucleus and considerable public infrastructure is provided to the expanding community.


104

Seixal is considered a suburb of Lisbon and most of its inhabitants commute daily in order to work in the city center. The Mundet factory, an impressive industrial complex for the production of cork, the largest in Portugal, is not functioning today and traditional fishing activity has considerably declined. Tourists come and visit the fish taverns of the old village, the natural reserve areas, the cultural center and the Polynucleus Ecomuseum of the borough’s heritage. There is a rise of the community’s population while new developments occupy rapidly all vacant sites within the municipality area. Analysis The site, its history and actual condition The historic nucleus of the Seixal Municipality, with its dense organic fabric clearly stands out on the site plan of the area, while two more quarters of the post war period, can be clearly delimitated because of their relatively dense fabric and orthogonal street grid. The new quarters are occupying building blocks where streets and plots have been already traced down waiting for new constructions. The market stands between the new quarters and the old village, overlooking the waterfront street and linking the port to the town centre. Old private farms and gardens provide important nuclei of greenery dispersed in the area. On the west waterfront of the peninsula, an area of marshes forms a natural reserve that is protected. The historic village developed during the end of the 19th century and most of its present structures date from the beginning of the 20th century. It is a linear settlement with four streets parallel to the water’s edge/coastline with a hill rising to the south forming a natural boundary and delimitating its development. On the plateau formed on this hill, the industrial complex of Mundet stands in the middle of a considerable large green area. In 1906 the Mundet cork factory started developing providing work for the local population. It stopped running in 1988, being bought by the Seixal Town Hall in 1996. Today, the Mundet grounds are used for various cultural activities and the restoring of its space for a cork

Seixal

museum nucleus is predicted, as well as, for a Public University. Traditionally and until recently, fishing was an important sector of the local economy. Today, just a small fishing port (dock) is active in front of the old town. In the wider area of the settlement, a series of mills that produced wheat, oat and barley mowing, are not functioning anymore and their facilities are abandoned. The mills are buildings located close to the water’s edge forming small complexes of a distinctive architectural quality. With the decline of traditional activities the historic center was gradually abandoned. The new population arriving in the area consists mainly of people commuting on a daily basis to Lisbon to work. These people are relocated in Seixal from the city of Lisbon and the greater region south of river Tagus. The major incentives for this relocation are the lower prices of real estate property in Seixal and the good connectivity of the area through the transportation networks provided. The municipality is quite active in planning the new urban infrastructure of the town. The only Ecomuseum of the country is founded in the area, occupying a series of important listed buildings such as the Mundet factory, Corroios Tide Mill, Quinta da Trindade, Arrentela Naval Nucleus. A municipal library, a cultural center, a new Court of justice and a Town Hall, form, in the core of the new quarters, a new civic center, where public spaces and main axes remain to be planned.

paper

On the east waterfront of the peninsula, a project for the arrangement of a promenade has been recently carried out, next to the public gardens of the Quinta da Fidalga where a Music Metropolitan Conservatory and the Seixal Contemporary Medal International Centre are going to be built. Next to the marshes, a big athletic complex is hosting the training facilities of the Benfica football team. Diagnosis Choosing the intervention areas The analysis major objectives were to trace down the urban conditions of the site and identify potential intervention areas. A series of maps were prepared, representing in multiple layers the main elements of the urban fabric, seeking to indicate the dynamics of the emerging new physiognomy of Seixal, interpret its potential and define strategies and criteria for a sustainable approach of urban design in the area. Maps were prepared focusing individually on existing elements of the townscape such as: . Housing areas . Green areas . Public urban infrastructure . Activity nodes – meeting places . Potential and existing conservation areas . Networks and flows of pedestrians and cars . Boundaries . Orientation . Population dynamics

“[...] interpret its potential and define strategies and criteria for a sustainable approach of urban design in the area.”


paper

The town was perceived as a network of urban ‘islands’ with distinctive character that should be interlinked through a series of urban design operations enhancing their potential and focusing mainly on the repair of the fragmented aspect of the existing urban fabric. So the main points of the diagnosis are: - The national road, running along the waterfront of the historic fabric, is cutting off the flow of pedestrians on the main promenade, altering the scale of the place and depriving the main recreation zone of the town from a direct contact with the water’s edge; - Discontinuity of orientation, strongly experienced on the axis linking the port and the historic center, has to be repaired. This part of the waterfront, being completely abandoned, enhances the lack of orientation for visitors arriving in the town by ferry. The same finding is valid for the network of streets linking the new civic center and the different quarters of the new developments; - The new market place, an important activity node and meeting place, is isolated from the waterfront and the old center because of its difference in level in terms of the coastline and its problematic accessibility. Proposal Repairing discontinuities - the street network The lack of orientation and the feeling of discontinuity in the actual street network of the town, needs to be repaired through the redesign of the main existing axis of the urban fabric. The waterfront of the historic center has to be reserved mainly for pedestrians, allowing access to emergency vehicles and local residents. The existing asphalt has to be removed and a uniform paving with local stone has to unify the public waterfront space, incorporating all existing vegetation and trees, while providing new places for sitting and shade, improving the settlement’s access to the water and creating attractive infrastructure for livability. The national road crossing today the waterfront area, has to be deviated through the

Seixal

new main axis, running along the south fence of the Mundet factory. This main axis, having a width of approximately thirty meters, serving the new urban center, has to be redesigned and form the spine of a new network of streets where walking and bicycling should be combined with through traffic and community gathering spaces. This network of green lanes could encourage walking and bicycling and can reduce the number and length of automobile trips since the scale of the urban fabric permits it. The network should serve the entire Seixal district, reaching the port and the natural reserve areas of the marshes, repairing discontinuities and existing lack of orientation, breaking down existing boundaries and facilitating the continuous flow of people and cyclists. Planting of high trees with wide spreading canopies should provide shade and increase the sense of directionality and orientation. Green lanes, through design choices should enhance the interconnectivity of streets, existing and emerging urban centers and activity nodes, while applying sustainable solutions in terms of materials and construction techniques. The use of asphalt should be limited and water permeable pavement materials allowing natural infiltration should be proposed. Furthermore, public transportation can be encouraged with the operation of small shuttle buses running on a circuit starting from the port, through the historic center, the Mundet, the public services island, the new housing quarters, the new Marketplace and back to the port. Waterfront – redesigning the water edge Focusing on a smaller scale, the waterfront line between the port and the historic center was considered as an eventual case study area for a redesign proposal. It is the part of the urban fabric where the total lack of urban landscape interventions, creates a negative impression or people arriving in Seixal by boat. Lack of orientation is also strongly experienced, while the view of the historic center is extensively blocked. The large parking space, in the entrance to the old

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village is obstructing its view and is altering the scale and identity of the place. The new market can be seen from the waterfront, being though inaccessible due to the difference in level from the sea. Three alternative proposals were formulated, by the three teams of the group, using the commonly shared material of the analysis. A wider land zone was provided for use by pedestrians and cyclists near the waterfront and green lanes and green areas were proposed by all three groups. The concept for the rearrangement of the riverside front in the historic center was proposed to be extended in the case study area, with the use of similar materials, planting and vegetation. An entrance square was proposed in the place of the existing parking, given the fact that the port provides an immense parking space which is currently only partially used. In one of the proposals, a cascade of urban landscape arrangements is linking the market to the waterfront, bridging the existing difference of level. Finally, small floating platforms were proposed along the coastline, together with the conservation of the riverside ecosystem, enhancing leisure and recreation activities in the area. ■


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Seixal Healing Teachers: Alkmini Paka Anastasia Tzaka Nikos Kalogirou

Students: Anna Pietkiewicz Fatih Ozay Jo찾o Carvalho Magdalena Malska Malte Pill Patrick Martin V창nea Anjos


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analysis

maritime flows internal flows external flows pedestrian flow pedestrian flow

6.1. Analysis

6.2. Approach / Mapping

Car Flows

Social Gathering Places

Boarders

Orientations

Build Structures

Pedestrian Flows

Discontinuity

Bus and Boat

Water

Green Areas

Land

Social Infrastruture

Aerial

Conservation Areas


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6.3. Analysis


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analysis

6.4. Example: orientation

6.7. Scenarioplan

6.10. Future urban fabric

6.5. Example: orientation

6.8. Network of green lanes and cyclepaths

6.11. Natural and built heritage

6.6. Continuity of orientation

6.9. Car traffic / Deviation of National Road


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6.12. City

6.15. New quarters

6.13. Old town

6.16. Green / yelow belt

6.14. Midle town


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connect the sea and the land

How can we connect the sea and the land?

6.17. Sketch of the actual situation and the proposal for the site

6.18. Sketch of the general proposal


views

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6.19. View of the market place


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6.20. View from the market place to the water

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views


3D model

6.21. 3D Model of the site

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6.22. 3D Model of the proposal


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SEIXAL

URBAN WATERSCAPES SEIXAL IS… Seixal is on the other side of river Tagus. It has intimate ties with the river. It is an old settlement. In the past it was a huge center of activity. Seixal’s origin lies in its being an old fishermen’s town. Towards the end of the 19th Century industrial factories were emerged one after the other. After the establishment of the iron bridge in 1966 population of Seixal increased. Today marsh lands, agricultural areas and green areas are important natural characteristics of the site. Also the town is significant with its fishing activities, shipyards, old town, old industrial sites and tide mills. This settlement has very characteristic physical and social organization. However it needs an improvement and reorganization on the waterfront. Seixal can be an urban waterscapes.

Teachers: Nur Caglar Zeynep Uludag

Students: Ana Brás David Dahl Diana Cunha Ida Lewandowska Katerina Petrou Nur Durmaz Sabrina Rezgui


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7.1. Seixal: river and land limits

7.2. Seixal development 1st phase: historical center

7.4. Seixal’s development, 3rd phase: industrial area

7.5. Seixal’s development: new urbanization

analysis

7.3. Seixal’s development, 2nd phase: fisher village

Urban Evolution Seixal is an old fishing village that has evolved from the coast of the bay to the interior.


problems or potentials?

We discovered the physical and social problems of the site: - Lack of recreational facilities; - Lack of cultural facilities; - Lack of public spaces; - Integration of land and sea; - Integration of city and nature.

7.6. Small collage of Seixal’s look: problems or potentials?

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Seixal means

We discovered that the name Seixal comes from the name “seixos� in Portuguese, which means pebbles in English. And we discovered that Seixal is on the gateway of Seixal Bay. It defines the entrance of this natural bay. So we decided to work on this waterfront.

7.8. Seixal means pebbles

7.7. The needs of Seixal

We discovered the needs of the site The site is in need of an improved and more efficient transportation network: - The site is in need of a demographic mixture and facilities serving all groups; - In need of an identity; - In need of a renovation; - Better connection from ferry to town; - Improved treatment and respect of landscape; - Target of regeneration; - Something to wake it up; - Energy efficient design; - Social richness, mixture of new facilities.


concept

We started with the physical and spatial integration of land and sea, town and the waterfront. The concept of “pebbles” in terms of “floating decks” is developed as a strategy to design the gateway and the waterfront. It will be a good integration with the existing natural sources of the site, like the marsh lands.

7.9. Seixal concept: pebbles like floating decks

   

Seixal Urban Waterscapes

This relation between city and nature will also suggest an ecological relation. It will also emerge as a system to connect future development of public spaces with the existing public spaces in Seixal.

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proposal

Regeneration of the waterfront: - An attempt for promoting social interaction and integration; - Creating new accesses and creating new facilities as gravity of attraction and regeneration; - Regenerating and promoting natural resources; - Recovering historical heritage: new functions of existing buildings; - Recovering the identity of the town; - Creating new public facilities, new dynamics for recovering cultural and historical heritage, to attract more visitors.

What is our aim? Regeneration of the waterfront

7.10. Conceptional routes of the area

 

7.11. Uses of the area


proposal

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Floating Decks Floating decks are cores of activities exist both on the sea and in the city. They also create outdoor spaces for recreation and for relaxation. Some of them offer collective spaces such as theatrical venues and sport facilities. They move and join to create different decks for different activities. Sometimes they may be sun terraces; sometimes they act as decks of performances, social and cultural activities.

7.12. Floating decks. Floating pebbles are being rearranged in order to create decks, stages

7.13. Floating decks. They have different activities

The demarcation of sea and land is fused. Various zones of flexible surfaces, shifting in sequential phases from sea to land and creating a new physical formation like a flowing landscape. “Floating decks� emerge as conceptual islands in the flow of new landscape, like temporal elements in the flow of water.

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proposal

For the Regeneration of the waterfront we started from the entrance of the bay: - We emphasized the gateway to Seixal Bay by designing a Light House (Farrous) there; - We enhanced the significance of the waterfront with the design of a wide promenade viewing the waterfront by removing the shipyard and with the design of public facilities all along the coast; - We searched for contrasts; creating an organic design in waterfront and continue with an organized, rational design proposed for the inner land; - We proposed three different paths to give different choices to people to experience different landscapes and different uses. 7.14. Perspective of the area. Entrance to Seixal: meeting space with restaurants, pubs and cafes, nautical club.


proposal

As an attempt for promoting social interaction and integration: We proposed the promenade act as a chain to link social, cultural and commercial activities; Floating decks, sun decks, beaches, pools.

7.15. Perspective of the area. Floating decks

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proposal

Energy efficient design - The power of the rise and fall of the sea level or tidal power can be harnessed to generate electricity; - Renewable energy; - Tide energy generators and also wind mills are there.

 

7.16. Exhibition rooms. The old cork factory Seixal is rehabilitated and transformed in art studios

 

 

 

 

Recovering historical heritage - Recovering and readapting the existing buildings of industrial site; - We propose art studios and exhibition rooms, small shops for art and crafts; - Conservation and renovation of tide mill (Restaurant and café).

Regenerating and promoting natural resources - Better treatment of landscape; - Marshlands are vital for the health and sustainability of cities; - Conservation of marshlands; - Rehabilitate natural landscape. ■

7.17. 7.18. New building of art: old Industrial buildings become a new art center

 

7.19. Ecology: Marsh Pebbles like Bioremediation. These elements help clean the water


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conclusion

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text Pedro Ressano Garcia PhD from Lus贸fona University of Lisbon

Waterfront New Life Seven ideas to challenge the Port City

The conclusions presented at the end of this book can be summarized in the content of the panels produced by each of the eight groups participating at the workshop. The panels were assembled for the exhibition that took place at the Universidade Lus贸fona right after the workshop. They illustrate the ideas of a multidisciplinary and international group that analyse, discuss and formulate hypothesis for the waterfront. The individuality of each group is well illustrated in the following pages that hopefully are inspiring and thoughtful for the reader as much as it was for the participants.

Together, they present a remarkable and unprecedented body of knowledge putted together and designed for the main Portuguese Estuary. The quality of the work produced results from three main aspects. First, the quality of the people involved in the process, the expertise of some of the brightest minds that were able to contribute and work together at the workshop. Secondly the formulation of a methodology that integrates rather than secluded strategies that have dominated the waterfront regeneration process for the last twenty years. At last, the passionate effort of the participants who succeed to design proposals that merge, their

previous knowledge of the subject, with locals demands. A new gate for the Lisbon Estuary is imagined at the mouth of the river. Both sides receive new infrastructures that are necessary if the port activity intends to remain competitive. The symbolic gates are placed at Docapesca and Trafaria. Both teams working at Trafaria imagined the development of container terminals as an added value for the port. The strategy presented considers the integration of time in the design. It launches periods of time of 5, 10 and 20 years period, suggesting that short time strategies are unsustainable


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when dealing with waterfront urban development and that great solutions come from an integral perception of the present situation. Both groups working at Docapesca integrate hydrological and ecological requirements in their design proposals. The landfill of the coastal area is under great environmental pressure created by the possibility of urban development but also sea-level rising. The channelized or hidden river is a constant problem to the urban infrastructure of the whole area. It is undermining vital coastal habitats and ecosystems. The design proposal reveals the river and creates an ecosystem in the delta of the merging rivers, to rehabilitate salt marsh lands that are important carbon sinks and should be preserved. And, to improve the microclimate of the city while connect the public to the waterfront by going under the railway. The intensive traffic caused by the railway and highway is taken in consideration, therefore several connections above and underground are presented to reorganize the harbor to facilitate the access and attract the interest of people. When designing waterfront projects all these factors should be taken into consideration. A platform located at the upper level of the city so that one can cross over the mobile infrastructure and reach the waterfront. The structure composed by multiple platforms connected to each other with paths and areas with different functions, to blurred the barrier and the «cut off effect» existing between city and port areas. At Alcantâra area the design proposal intends to link the lungs of the city – park Monsanto with the waterfront, by creating a green corridor along the Alcantâra valley which would connect to the park and green boulevard created in the place of container harbour, and along the highway and rail truck. The waterfront avenue is taken as a barrier due to the characteristics of the road that it is necessary to heal and turn into an urban avenue linked by Tramway, making the link between the wasteland of the old industrial installations and the ancient city along the area.

conclusion

At Seixal groups have redesign the water edge focusing on a smaller scale. Where the line of the waterfront located between the port and the historic center has been taken as a case study area. The design proposals present the site as part of the urban fabric. According to the group the waterfront site presents a “total lack of urban landscape interventions, creates a negative impression on people arriving in Seixal by boat.” The perception of the site was integrated in the design proposal to give a sense of orientation that is needed at present. The problem of the historic center being extensively blocked is taken in consideration by small floating platforms that should be placed along the coastline. To enhance recreational and leisure activities the design proposal values the conservation of the ecosystem and preservation of salt

Waterfront New Life

marsh lands. Finally I would like to quote Pitta e Cunha that delivered a final message to the group explaining the unique opportunity that such think tanks may represent for several port cities European Community: “good work redesigning Europe’s key waterfronts we have the chance to link Europe’s maritime heritage with the rich promise of our maritime future and, most of all, we can inspire all by revealing the promise of an auspicious maritime future for Europe.” Revelation at the European Workshop Urban Design has been done through pragmatic design proposal that inspire different visions merging conservation and regeneration guided by a sustainable philosophy. ■

“The strategy presented (by each group) considers the integration of time in the design. It launches periods of time of 5, 10 and 20 years, suggesting that short time strategies are unsustainable when dealing with waterfront [...]”


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Final Boards

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Trafaria - Tradition and Innovation

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Trafaria

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Docapesca Archipelago

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Docapesca Added | Subtracted

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Santos / Alc창ntara Thirsty City

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Santos / Alc창ntara Thirsty City

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EWWUD 2010