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CAMBRIDGE PRIMARY

English

Gill Budgell and Kate Ruttle

TeacherĂ­ s Resource


University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. Information on this title: education.cambridge.org Š Cambridge University Press 2015 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2015 Printed in Poland by Opolgraf A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library 978-1-107-64042-9 Paperback with CD-ROM Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but the publishers do not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Cover artwork: Bill Bolton Learning objectives from the Cambridge Primary English 0844 curriculum framework, for use from 2011, are reproduced by permission of Cambridge International Examinations. notice to teachers The photocopy masters in this publication may be photocopied or distributed electronically free of charge for classroom use within the school or institution that purchased the publication. Worksheets and copies of them remain in the copyright of Cambridge University Press, and such copies may not be distributed or used in any way outside the purchasing institution.


Contents Introduction

4

Stage 1 Curriculum correlation

7

Unit 1 Playing with friends

11

Unit 2 Finding out and making

24

Unit 3 Rhyme time

38

Unit 4 Joining-in stories

49

Unit 5 Reading to find out

63

Unit 6 Rhyme time 2

80

Unit 7 Make-believe stories

88

Unit 8 Things that have happened

104

Unit 9 Poems and rhymes on a theme

121

Photocopy masters (PCMs)

131

Contents 3


The Cambridge Primary English series The Cambridge Primary English series is a six-level, First Language English course, covering and following the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework from Cambridge International Examinations. The Cambridge Primary English course is intended to lead into the Cambridge Secondary 1 curriculum by giving learners the skills and knowledge to confidently access the secondary curriculum. The full series consists of a suite of Learner’s Books, Teacher’s Resources (Book and CD-ROM) and write-in Activity Books for each of the six levels. Although the series is designed to be used as a suite, the Learner’s Book provides independent and coherent coverage of the curriculum framework. The Activity Book is not core, but recommended as consolidation, extension or for homework.

Learner’s Books The Stage 1 Learner’s Book is the first of six in the Cambridge Primary English series. Each Learner’s Book contains nine units: two long units and one shorter unit per 10-week term. Each long unit of 12 sessions has been designed to be delivered over four weeks, with three lessons per week plus a revision session. The shorter units of six sessions are intended to be delivered over two weeks plus a revision unit. The units per term may be taught in any order with progression being built in per term rather than unit-byunit to add flexibility to the programme and to allow for more cross-curricular matching.

Main units In Stage 1, each unit contains a range of text types and genres included as whole texts or extracts around a unifying theme. The texts have been carefully selected to include an appropriate balance of fiction, non-fiction, poetry and plays, as well as to reflect the interests and diverse cultural backgrounds of the learners. Each lesson contains a selection of activities aimed at enabling the learners to acquire specific knowledge or skills across a wide range of text opportunities. Lessons incorporate both whole-class teaching led by the teacher and small group, pair or individual work so that children can practise and apply their learning. Comprehension activities are pivotal to each unit and may be oral, aural and/or involve reading and writing. Scaffolding and modelling learning for the learners plays an important part in the teaching and learning sequence of each unit and leads the learner towards increasing independence. Frequently children are invited to ‘innovate’ on a text to support and develop their confidence to create. There is the opportunity to begin to develop self-assessment at the end of each unit using a simple ‘smiley face’ system. The course aims for an approach that encourages children to actively explore, investigate, understand, use and develop their knowledge of English and in particular their reading, writing, listening and speaking 4

Cambridge Primary English Stage 1 Teacher’s Resource

skills through the use of regular, guided group and paired work, independent group work and individual work. Discussion with a talk partner or in a small group forms an important part of the course, helping learners become more articulate and confident in expressing their opinions; it is also an important part of embedding process and discovering that others do not always take the same approach or share opinions. Each unit provides an opportunity for progression through speaking and listening which includes specific vocabulary development, reading as a reader, reading as a writer, talk for writing and writing so that children can experience the journey to becoming literate, with the emphasis shifting from learning to read towards reading to learn. The texts and extracts selected for the course serve as language stimuli and springboards for teaching and learning grammar and punctuation, phonics, spelling and the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. However, texts should always be supplemented with a broad range of other texts and especially local literature and non-fiction texts local to your region to add depth and context to the range of skills learners encounter through the Learner’s Book. Online texts and multimodal texts (film, animation, eBook, audio book, etc) should also be actively included to ensure that learners are exposed to a rich and engaging diet of words and pictures to support their language learning.

Features Several units contains specific language input in the form of Language focus boxes to support teacher-led instruction emanating from text-based examples. They are reminders for the learners too. The language input is progressive and covers the curriculum framework over the year. The Tip box provides handy tips and reminders to guide the children and to ask questions that challenge their thinking and interest. Why not? This feature flags creative curriculum opportunities that are linked to the unit theme and may be valuable to pursue. The Duck mascot provides reminders and gives examples for learners to follow. Icons indicate when an activity involves discussion, writing, reading or active work. While the icons are indicators of the mode of work envisaged, it is always at the teacher’s discretion to approach the activity from a different perspective especially when implementing a differentiation strategy in the classroom. have a discussion do some reading do some writing role play, read out loud or do an oral activity At the end of the Learner’s Book, you will find a ‘Review and reference’ section; a series of reference resources for use by the learners. These include a range of reference


and learning tools such as words lists and pictures to recall and review the learning in the stage. These resources can be used throughout the programme and can be referenced by the teacher or the learners where appropriate.

Activity Books The Activity Book accompanying each Learner’s Book includes supplementary and extension material mirroring and based on the content of each session within the Learner’s Book so as to support: • the independent learning part of the teaching • the practice and apply parts of some sessions • some personalisation activities • reinforcement of concepts introduced in the Learner’s Book • space for quiet focused work. The Activity Book content is not tied page-by-page to the Learner’s Book content, rather it follows the Learner’s Book unit-by-unit, so that each unit follows the same unifying theme. At times, the Activity Books include smaller extracts of texts included in the Learner’s Book if they are focused on in such a way that merits repeating the extract in the Activity Book. The Activity Books aim to cater for learners with a wide range of learning styles, which means they include a wide range of activities from somewhat mechanical (drill can still be an important learning tool for reinforcement and modelling) to more open and creative, allowing for personalisation and differentiation. The Activity Books are designed to be flexible and should be used however suits the teacher and the class the best. In some cases it may be appropriate to use the Activity books as class homework tasks or to allow certain learners to reinforce concepts at their own pace. Similarly a number of the activities can be used to extend learners, allowing them more freedom of expression and creative space and to provide extension where the different pace of learners needs to be catered for. The answer to activities, where appropriate, are provided per unit following the notes on Learner’s Book activities within the Teacher’s Resource.

mix of whole-class teaching followed by group work (guided or independent) as well as a healthy mix of pair and/or individual work, following the review, teach, practise, apply cycle. The Teacher’s Resources provide opportunities and suggest strategies for differentiated learning throughout as well as opportunities for informal assessment. A summary of the curriculum framework coverage is provided in the grid on page 7. It shows comprehensive coverage of all element of the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework: phonics, spelling and vocabulary, grammar and punctuation, reading, writing and speaking and listening through specific activities. Opportunities for informal assessment are suggested throughout in the Teacher’s Resources. Three to four additional activities for each unit are provided in the form of photocopy masters (PCM) with accompanying notes. The PCMs provide opportunities for consolidation, extension or differentiation for certain of the activities in the Learner’s Book. They also offer opportunities for hands on learning including cutting and sticking, sequencing, retelling, making puppets, making games, etc. The optimum time to use the PCMs is clearly flagged in the Teacher’s Resource unit by unit. Each unit flags the complementary Activity Book focus and what learners should do to complete the activity(ies). Answers are provided for these activities following the notes and answers to the Learner’s Book activities. Some PCMs are ‘generic’ and can be used with any unit, others are specific to units or activities. The table on page 131 clarifies which are generic and which are specific to particular units. Each unit is supplemented with suggestions on how to use the Activity Book, with answer keys to these activities following the notes and answer keys to the Learner’s Book. The CD-ROM in the back of this Teacher’s Resource includes PDFs of the Teacher’s Resource content for printing and reference.

Teaching phonics, spelling and vocabulary

Teacher’s Resources

Phonics and spelling

The teachers’ guidance notes in the Teacher’s Resource follow the pattern of the Learner’s Book, providing support for the teacher across each of the nine units. The notes cover material for three lessons per week (30–45 minutes per lesson) based on the Learner’s Book content and include answers where appropriate. The unit-by-unit notes list what the teacher will need at the beginning of each session together with the primary learning intentions and outcomes for the session. Thereafter, it provides background and suggestions for how to approach the activities in the Learner’s Book and, when necessary, includes supplemental information and structuring. Each session assumes a

At Stage 1 a systematic phonic course is offered in the Phonics Workbooks A and B and within each unit phonic links are flagged and linked back to the workbook content where appropriate. In this way phonics is supported and consolidated seamlessly where opportunities arise. Additionally this ensures that phonics is taught and practised out of context but then further practised and applied in context. Ideally at this level there will be a daily or several short but frequent phonic sessions in a week. Understanding that words and language patterns are fun to explore is a critical part of early language development but it is also important to systematically teach, practise and apply phonic

Introduction

5


skills and to understand that each requires different approaches. Ideally, phonics and spelling should be addressed on a daily basis and taught discretely and then practised and applied in the context of the lesson. Embedded throughout the notes are ‘Phonic links’, these are intended to suggest opportunities at which the indicated phonic areas can be looked at in greater detail. Phonics does require a teacher to be constantly on the lookout for opportunities to consolidate phonic skills for reading and spelling in the early stages of language development. Vocabulary teaching and learning is an integrated part of this programme so that new concepts and vocabulary are systematically introduced at the beginning of a new unit and within the unit where appropriate. Learners are invited to share what they already know about a topic before building on that knowledge and experience.

Teaching grammar and punctuation Grammar and punctuation teaching and learning is integrated into the programme being clearly flagged as opportunities arise from texts and activities. Informal assessment opportunities are also cited within the Teacher’s Resource.

Practical ideas for the classroom Words and spellings need to be highlighted and enriched at every opportunity in the classroom. • Consider a phoneme–grapheme chart as a display or frieze around the walls as well as an alphabet frieze. Remember they are different but both useful in different ways. • Have plenty of hands on resources – plastic or magnetic letters, phoneme frames, labels, charts, dangles to display and use, fun items such as ping pong balls featuring different letter representations of phonemes, small mobile recording facilities, etc. Search mainstream educational suppliers to source these.

6

Cambridge Primary English Stage 1 Teacher’s Resource

• Encourage a phonics first approach to reading and writing words to fully utilise developing early reading skills. • Encourage personal word books, cards or logs: include words covered in phonic sessions. Play games such as letter and word dominoes, bingo and lotto. And sing songs. And take your phonic games outside in the fresh air if you can! • Have an interactive word list of interesting words, or words that match a phonic rule being focused on. Add to it whenever anyone comes across a relevant word. • Together build classroom displays that are interactive, useful and organic – not just pretty! Create banks of aspirational words or themed words around a topic (any learning area). • Systematically include common words that don’t always follow the most obvious phonic rules. These are sometimes referred to as high frequency and tricky words. • If handwriting lessons are timetabled, add letter, sound and word practice into those sessions. • Research free web resources to create your own games and activities linked to vocabulary in themes and phonic rules you are working on.

We hope you enjoy teaching the course and that it will help your learners to feel confident about responding to and using English in a variety of ways. Finally, a note on handwriting practice. This series encourages best practice in handwriting but does not teach it explicitly. We recommend using the Cambridge Penpals for Handwriting series alongside Cambridge Primary English for teaching handwriting.


Stage 1 Curriculum correlation Cambridge Primary English 0844 curriculum framework, for use from 2011. Phonic Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 workbooks Phonics Spelling and Vocabulary 1PSV1

Hear, read and write initial letter sounds

*

1PSV2

Know the name and most common sound associated with every letter in the English alphabet

*

1PSV3

Identify separate sounds (phonemes) within words, which may be represented by more than one letter ‘th’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’

*

1PSV4

Use knowledge of sounds to read and write single syllable words with short vowels

*

1PSV5

Blend to read, and segment to spell, words with final and initial adjacent consonants (e.g. b-l, n-d)

*

1PSV6

Begin to learn common spellings of long vowel phonemes (e.g. ‘ee’, ‘ai’ ‘oo’)

*

1PSV7

Use knowledge of sounds to write simple regular words, and to attempt other words

*

1PSV8

Spell familiar common words accurately, drawing on sight vocabulary

*

1PSV9

Use rhyme and relate this to spelling patterns

*

1PSV10 Recognise common word endings such as ‘s’, ‘ed’ and ‘ing’

✓ ✓

Grammar and Punctuation Reading 1GPr1

Pause at full stops when reading

1GPr2

Identify sentences in a text

1GPr3

Know that a capital letter is used for ‘I’, for names and for the start of a sentence

Introduction

7


Phonic Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 workbooks Writing 1GPw1

Mark some sentence endings with a full stop

1GPw2

Write sentence-like structures which may be joined by ‘and’

Reading Fiction and Poetry 1Rf1

Join in with reading familiar and simple stories and poems, and relate words said and read with 1-1 correspondence

1Rf2

Know that in English, print is read from left to right and top to bottom

1Rf3

Read a range of common words on sight

1Rf4

Use phonic knowledge to read decodable words and to attempt to sound out some elements of unfamiliar words

1Rf5

Read aloud from simple books independently

1Rf6

Anticipate what happens next in a story

1Rf7

Talk about events in the story and make simple inferences about characters and events to show understanding

1Rf8

Recognise story elements (e.g. beginning, middle and end)

1Rf9

Retell stories, with some appropriate use of story language

1Rf10

Talk about significant aspects of a story’s language e.g. repetitive refrain, rhyme, patterned language

1Rf11

Enjoy a range of books, discussing preferences

1Rf12

Make links to own experiences

1Rf13

Learn and recite simple poems

1Rf14

Join in and extend rhymes and refrains, playing with language patterns

8

Cambridge Primary English Stage 1 Teacher’s Resource

✓ ✓


Phonic Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 workbooks Non-fiction 1RNF1

Read labels, lists and captions to find information

1RNF2

Know the parts of a book (e.g. title page, contents)

1RNF3

Show awareness that text for different purposes look different (e.g. use of photographs, diagrams, etc)

1RNF4

Read and talk about own writing

Writing Fiction 1Wf1

Write simple storybooks with sentences to caption pictures

1Wf2

Write a sequence of sentences retelling a familiar story or recounting an experience

1Wf3

Begin to use some formulaic language (e.g. Once upon a time)

1Wf4

Compose and write a simple sentence, with a capital letter and a full stop

1Wf5

Use relevant vocabulary

Non-fiction 1WNF1

Write for a purpose using some basic features of text type

1WNF2

Write simple information texts with labels, captions, lists, questions and instructions for a purpose

1WNF3

Record answers to questions (e.g. as lists, charts)

Presentation 1WP1

Develop a comfortable and efficient pencil grip

*

1WP2

Form letters correctly

*

Introduction

9


Phonic Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 workbooks Speaking and Listening 1S&L1

Speak clearly and choose words carefully to express feelings and ideas when speaking of matters of immediate interest

1S&L2

Converse audibly with friends, teachers and other adults

1S&L3

Show some awareness of the listener through non-verbal communication

1S&L4

Answer questions and explain further when asked

1S&L5

Speak confidently to a group to share an experience

1S&L6

Take turns in speaking

1S&L7

Listen to others and respond appropriately

1S&L8

Listen carefully to questions and instructions

1S&L9

Engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations

1S&L10 Note that people speak in different ways for different purposes and meanings

10

Cambridge Primary English Stage 1 Teacher’s Resource


1

Playing with friends

Unit overview In this four-week unit, learners are introduced to the theme of Playing with friends using three simple texts featuring three friends; Hedgehog, Bear and Dragon. Learners explore and revisit the stories in a variety of ways: discussing the storyline orally, reading in pairs as independent readers, via oral and written comprehension, extending one aspect of the story orally and in writing (‘innovating on the text’), recalling the story and actions, and giving personal responses. Character, dialogue and setting are each given separate focus through role play, sequencing activities and paired and/or individual reading. Capital letters, full stops, prepositions, instructional sequences (first, then, next, etc.), phonic skills and high-frequency words are all practised. The sequence of preparing the concepts and vocabulary of a text, enjoying/sharing a text, retelling it orally/ role play, revisiting it (or aspects of it) in pairs/independently and then in writing is important to this unit.

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit, learners will be able to: • use action words • join in with reading a simple story • understand the story and talk about events and characters in it • retell a simple story • join in with discussions and say what they think • demonstrate their own ideas • remember who says what in a story • remember the story sequence and act it out.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • develop an awareness of analogy as a useful strategy for reading and writing • develop an understanding that in English, print is read from left to right and top to bottom • develop the skill of reading common words on sight e.g. to, the, no, go, I • recognise common word endings such as ing • learn that a capital letter is used for names and for the start of a sentence.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • follow instruction and simple classroom language in English • use ‘book talk’ such as book, cover, beginning, end, blurb, page, line, word, letter, sentence • recognise and use (for reading and writing) all the basic letter–sound correspondences for letters of the alphabet including double letters (ff, ll, ss, zz) and ck.

Unit 1 Playing with friends

11


Session 1: The Bike Race Learner’s Book pages: 6–9 Activity Book page: 4

Nice to have: pictures/video of learners racing and/or performing sports or actions to support vocabulary; plastic/magnetic letters for word building. Phonics link: letter–sound correspondences.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to understand the concept of games and racing • to listen to the reading of a simple story • to talk about events and characters in the story. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use vocabulary about games and racing correctly and confidently • show good listening skills during class reading • talk about the story confidently.

A

Talk about racing

• Ask the learners if they know what a race is. • Draw on their experiences and use the pictures in the Learner’s Book as prompts. If you have collected pictures of people racing in different events then use these too. Have the learners been in a running race? A swimming race? A bike race? Do they like to race with their friends outside in the playground? Who has a bike? What do you get if you win a race? • Does anyone know about silly races, such as an egg and spoon race, jumping in a sack race, balancing a beanbag on your head race, etc.? Can the learners think of their own silly race ideas? • Encourage the learners to share their ideas and record these ideas on the board if useful, either in words or pictures. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

The Bike Race

• Together, talk about the cover image of the book. Ask the learners to work in pairs to decide together what they think this book is about: three animals bikes playing outside a race? • Take their ideas and establish that the book is about three little animals who are probably friends. They are riding their bikes. • Introduce the characters, Hedgehog, Bear and Dragon. Write the words on the board and show the learners how to read and write them even though

12

Unit 1 Playing with friends

some of these phonemes may not yet have been formally taught. H-e-dge-h-o-g B-ear D-r-a-g-(o)n Get the learners to say each name, and then to clap the syllables. Note the capital letters for these character names. • Phonics link: these are difficult words to read so if you want to make a phonic link then focus on the initial letter sounds of each. Further activities on letter sounds appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • Differentiation: for learners who find this difficult, provide phoneme/grapheme cards so that they can be sequenced to build the word, e.g. h-e-dge-h-o-g. Also allow those who find this difficult to work with more able students. • Together, read the story The Bike Race. Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence in joining in with discussions and ability to use correct language. • Reading: comment on learners’ ability to read and say words with 1:1 correspondence. Check their ability to clap syllables. We have learned to: • use vocabulary about games and racing correctly and confidently. Ask: what sort of races do you like? • show good listening skills during class reading. Observe. • talk about the story confidently. Ask: who are the characters in the story? Where are the characters in the story racing? Activity Book A Learners join the pictures of the actions to the words. B Learners write each character’s name.

Session 2: Check the story Learner’s Book pages: 9–10 Activity Book page: 5

You will need: a space for playing an acting game.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to listen to, respond to and read a story • to talk about verbs and use them accurately. Learning outcomes Learners can: • answer questions about the story to show understanding • use verbs correctly and confidently.


A

Check the story

• Together, re-read or talk about The Bike Race from pages 7 to 9 of the Learner’s Book. • Differentiation: Ask more confident learners to retell the story from memory for the whole class. • Remind the learners that this is a story about three friends who are riding their bikes in a race. • Check they can remember the characters’ names. • Can they remember how to write the names Hedgehog, Bear and Dragon? Invite learners to do this on the board or model the writing of the names again for them. • Pair work: give the learners a few minutes to read and prepare their answers to the three comprehension questions, to check their understanding of the storyline. • Invite the learners to compare responses with the class. Encourage learners to participate and share their answers. • Ask the learners to write their answers in their notebooks. Answers: 1 Bear 2 Yes, they go very fast. 3 Up to the big tree.

• As you move around the classroom, check that learners are holding their pencils and forming letters correctly. • Differentiation: invite those who are able to formulate a question for others to answer.

B

What are they doing?

• Talk to the learners about different actions (verbs). • Show learners how they can use the ing form of the verb. Encourage the learners to use a wide variety of action words. • Pair work: get them to say the verbs that best describe the pictures in the Learner’s Book. As you walk round the class, listen out for their responses. • You could begin a class ‘word wall’ of ing forms of verbs so that you can add to it over time.

C

Act out the action

• Invite learners to perform some of the action words they have discussed. Can the others guess the word? Play this like the game Charades. Play several rounds to really embed the new vocabulary and verb form. • You could also introduce the phrases I like … and I don’t like … by inviting the learners to share their ideas about what they like to do with their friends. Play a ‘round the class’ game again by stating: I like swimming. Do you? Point to a learner to invite him/her to respond, to make a new statement and to choose the next person to respond, e.g. No, I don’t like swimming. I like racing. Do you? If the learners struggle, have visual prompts of different activities ready for them to use so that there is a good variety of responses. • Differentiation: For extension, encourage learners to think more widely about what they like and don’t like as hobbies by asking them or providing a selection of pictures to work from to further extend their vocabulary, e.g. I like dancing/singing/playing with my football/flying my kite, etc.

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note which learners are confident to join in with discussions and acting the verbs. • Writing: check on correct pencil grip and letter formation. Note which learners are able to record their answers to the comprehension questions without support and using phonic strategies to spell some words. We have learned to: • answer questions about the story to show understanding. Ask: who wins the race? • use verbs correctly and confidently. Ask as you perform different actions: what am I doing? Activity Book A Learners join the speaker to the words. B Learners suggest what Bear is saying. Answers: A Hedgehog: Get set … GO! Dragon with Bear: Let’s have a race. Dragon: I am winning! B Learners’ own answers.

Session 3 Retell the story Learner’s Book page: 11 Activity Book page: 6

You will need: a space for role play. Nice to have: PCM 3; character badges or hats for role play, a camera or video-recording facility. Phonics link: using phonic skills to blend for reading.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to retell the story • to remember who says what in a story; character dialogue • to engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations • to work collaboratively in groups. Learning outcomes Learners can: • retell the story with confidence • use the dialogue from the story when retelling or in role play • demonstrate confidence in role play • demonstrate good listening and speaking skills in their group work.

Session 3 Retell the story

13


A

Retell the story

• Pair work: ask the learners to re-read the story (pages 7–9) to each other. Sample their reading as you move around the classroom. • Phonics link: encourage the learners to use their phonic knowledge for words they are less familiar with or feel less confident about reading aloud. Further activities on reading simple decodable and common tricky words appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • Note any words that more than a few learners are stumbling over and revisit these with the whole class to model how to tackle these. • Ask learners to look at the story pictures on page 11. They are going to try to retell the story. Use the picture prompts to encourage the right language. • Check learners are saying Let’s ride … and Let’s have a race. • Check that they understand that ‘Let’s’ means ‘Let us …’. • Check that they are clear about who is saying what. • Ask a pair, or a confident individual, to retell it. Allow several retellings if time allows. • If you are using the PCMs, use PCM 3 The Bike Race here to help learners with the sequence. They cut out and stick the pictures in the correct order. • Differentiation: learners may use the story text in their Learner’s Book if they still need help with this sequencing.

B

Act out the story

• Find a large space and choose three learners to act out this story together. • Choose one learner for each of the characters, Bear, Dragon and Hedgehog. You may wish to make, or get the learners to make, badges or hats for each character to wear. • Invite the rest of the class to prompt the performers with key phrases to support the sequence: Let’s ride to the big tree, Let’s have a race, Get set … GO!, We are going very fast, Wait for me, I am winning, I am rolling, I am the winner. • Repeat the activity a few times, choosing different learners to be the characters. • Talk to the learners about the first sentence of the story, “Let’s ride to the big tree.” Show the learners how it is possible to innovate on this sentence by changing the verb, for example “Let’s jump to the big tree”, skip/swim, etc. • Give the learners a few minutes to think of some alternative verbs/actions before asking them to share their ideas orally. • Record alternative verbs/action words on the board for those who need to refer to them. • Group work: organise the class into groups of three and give learners time to revisit retellings of the story, their new action words, and props or name badges as required.

14

Unit 1 Playing with friends

• Differentiation: allow pairs to act together as one character if a learner lacks confidence to speak out alone. • After ten minutes invite groups to perform. If possible, capture some of the performances in pictures or videos to enjoy later, and share with others in the school and parents. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence in the role play and ability to use appropriate language. • Use the pictures/video as assessment evidence. We have learned to: • retell the story with confidence. Listen and observe. • use the dialogue from the story when retelling or in role play. Show Learners’ Book page 7. Ask: what does Hedgehog say here? • demonstrate confidence in role play. Observe. • demonstrate good listening and speaking skills in their group work. Listen and observe. Ask: who do you think helped your group with the role play ideas. How? Activity Book A Learners answer the comprehension questions about the story. B They then write a question for a friend. Answers: A 1 Dragon. 2 Get set … GO! 3 He rolls.

Session 4: Playing games Learner’s Book page: 12 Activity Book pages: 7–8

Nice to have: a selection of games, or pictures/video links of games being played.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about games using correct vocabulary • to make links to personal experiences • to write sentences with correct punctuation. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use vocabulary about games correctly and confidently • share their ideas and experiences • write about games they enjoy using correct punctuation.


A

Games

• Ask the learners what sort of games they like to play with their friends. What games do they know? Remind them that they know about races (from earlier lessons). Draw on their experiences, and get them started by using any pictures or videos that you may have sourced. • Why not? set up a table-top of games and even organise a games afternoon so that everyone has firsthand experiences to draw on. • Play a chain reaction game: Set up a chain reaction around the class: A What is your favourite game? B My favourite game is … . What is your favourite game? [to C] C My favourite …, etc. Continue until everyone has responded. Or if your situation allows, play a simple game of Hide and Seek. Choose six learners; three to hide and one each to find each hider, whilst the rest of the class must keep quiet as they will know where the hiders are. When the seekers begin, encourage them to say: Here we come!, Where are you?, etc., and encourage the hiders to say, You found me! as they are discovered. • Talk about games you play on your own (maybe on the computer, or a jigsaw puzzle); games you play in pairs (Snap), or in small groups or teams (football). Encourage the learners to think about how many people you need to play a game – can you play Hide and Seek on your own? Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Do you play these games?

• Use the pictures in the Learners’ Book to focus on some specific game examples and the language used in the playing of games. • Ask the learners what they say when they play Hide and Seek, Tug of War, Pin it On (Pin the Tail on the Donkey), computer games, etc. Establish the principle of taking turns as often being important in games – we say, It’s your turn or My turn now. • Differentiation: encourage more confident learners to record in writing which of the games they play and why. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

C

Your favourite game

• Group work: encourage the learners to share their ideas about favourite games they like to play. Give them just three minutes to discuss the games before reporting back their ideas to the class. • Now encourage learners to work independently and support them to record information about their favourite game, either by writing or drawing in their

notebooks. Remind learners to use capital letters at the beginning of sentences and full stops (or question marks or exclamation marks) at the end. • Differentiation: allow some learners to work in pairs for support or provide them with letters to build words, or words to build sentences. More able learners may record more than one type of game. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence to speak out clearly in the chain reaction game. • Writing: note which learners can begin to write ideas of their own with a degree of confidence using phonic skills where they need to. Note which learners need additional support for ideas and then writing those ideas. We have learned to: • use vocabulary about games correctly and confidently. Ask: which games have we talked about? • share their ideas and experiences. Ask: which is your favourite game? Why? • write about games they enjoy using correct punctuation. Observe their writing. Check for capital letters, full stops and correct letter formation. Activity Book A Learners look at the pictures then choose and write the ing form of the verb to describe each action. B Learners then write responses about their own likes and dislikes, using either of the following two responses: no. I don’t like … or Yes. I like … with the ing form of the verb. Answers: A running, skipping, jumping, riding a bike, riding a horse, sitting, rolling, swimming, splashing B Learner’s own answers.

Session 5: Hide and Seek Learner’s Book pages: 13–15 Activity Book page: 9

Phonics link: revisiting letter–sound correspondence.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to demonstrate good listening skills • to join in with reading a simple story. Learning outcomes Learners can: • show good listening skills in their behaviour and in their comprehension • join in with class or paired reading.

Session 5 Hide and Seek

15


A

Hide and Seek

• Using the pictures in the Learner’s Book introduce the story Hide and Seek. • Do the learners recognise the characters from the previous story (Hedgehog and Dragon)? • Establish the game that Hedgehog and Dragon play in this book. • Differentiation: invite a confident learner to explain how to play Hide and Seek. • Phonics link: re-establish that Hedgehog begins with /h/ and Dragon begins with /d/ and both names have two syllables; clap them. Take the opportunity to reinforce some basic phonic and spelling skills here. Further activities on letter-sound correspondence appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • Read the story to the class asking them to follow in their Learner’s Books. • Talk about the story and what happens. Do they find it funny? Why? • Re-read the story with the learners joining in this time. They will particularly enjoy making the sneeze! • Notice that at the end of the story Dragon says, My turn now. Check that the learners understand the implications of this; that the friends are going to play again. • If time allows, invite learners to try to read the story on their own. Give them time and move round the classroom supporting those that need it. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Reading: note which learners are confident to join in. • Reading: if you allow independent reading time then take the opportunity to target specific learners and note how they are coping with tackling unknown words. We have learned to: • show good listening skills in their behaviour and in their comprehension. Observe concentration. Ask: who hides first? • join in with class or paired reading. Observe and ask: what does Hedgehog do/say while he’s hiding? Activity Book A Learners write the name of each game under each picture. B They then number the pictures to sequence the story correctly. Answers: A Hide and Seek, Tug of War, Pin it On

16

Unit 1 Playing with friends

Session 6: Check the story Learner’s Book page: 16 Activity Book page: 10

Nice to have: picture cards and word cards to exemplify prepositions. Phonics link: reading common words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to answer and ask questions orally and in writing to demonstrate understanding of a story • to use prepositions correctly. Learning outcomes Learners can: • answer and ask questions about the story either orally and/or in writing • use in, on, up, etc. correctly.

A

Check the story

• If necessary, recap the story Hide and Seek from the last session just to remind learners of the storyline and characters. • Use the three comprehension questions in the Learner’s Book to check the learners’ understanding. • Pair work: you may wish to give the learners a few minutes to prepare their answers and then invite them to feedback and compare responses as a class. • Model how to write the answer to each question and then ask learners to write the answers in their notebooks. • Differentiation: allow learners who are more confident about recording to work with those who will benefit from the support; invite those who can to formulate a question for others to answer. Answers: A 1 Dragon 2 no 3 Hedgehog is on the box. B Learners' own answers.

B

Where are they?

• Formally introduce the prepositions in, on and under. Ask the learners where Dragon looks for Hedgehog. Answers: in the boxes and under the boxes

• Ask the learners to look at Activity B. Get them to practise each response orally as you work through each question: where is Dragon? – Dragon is under the cone; Where is Hedgehog? – He is on top of the box.; Where is Dragon? – He is on the ball. • Check that the learners are confident with the prepositions in, on and under. • Phonics link: check that learners can read and write these words and model how to use their phonics. Further activities on reading common words appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B.


• Pair work: ask the learners to repeat the activity, asking the questions to each other. • Differentiation: ask less confident/able learners to choose the correct word, in, on, or under and match it to the picture; those more confident or able may be able to record the word or sentence in their notebook. For extension, get learners to write other prepositions they may know such as next to, behind, above, in front of. • Why not? if you have physical education equipment then encourage learners to play on a slide, in a tunnel, up and down a (small ladder), in a cone, box and with a large ball. Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note which learners can remember and recall the story from the last session. • Writing: as you move around the classroom, check that learners are holding their pencils and forming letters correctly. Check they have remembered to write a capital letter for Dragon as it is his name. We have learned to: • answer and ask questions about the story either orally and/or in writing. Ask: what game are they playing? For written responses: observe and check correct answers as well as correct punctuation and letter formation. • use in, on, up, etc. correctly. Ask: where is the … ? as you place it either in, on or under various items in the classroom. Activity Book A Learners answer the comprehension questions about the story. B They then write a question for a friend. Answers: A 1 Dragon/It is Dragon. 2 No, Hedgehog hides./No, he counts. 3 Hedgehog is at the top of the ladder/above Dragon/on top of the box/in the blue box. B Learners’ own answers.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to retell a story • to engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations. Learning outcomes Learners can: • retell the story using the pictures and demonstrating correct and confident vocabulary and sentence structures • act out the story in groups working together and reflecting the story accurately.

A

Retell the story

• Pair work: ask learners to retell the story to each other, using the picture prompts for the seven story sections in the Learner’s Book. • Encourage the correct language. Check learners are saying Let’s play hide and seek, Dragon looks …, etc. • Check that they understand that Let’s means Let us as in the previous story. • Check that they are clear about who is saying what, including the narrator. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Act it out

• In a large space, choose three learners to act out Hide and Seek together – one learner for each of the characters, Dragon and Hedgehog, and one narrator. Reuse any badges or hats you made for the previous story. • Invite the rest of the class to prompt the performers with key phrases to support the sequence, such as Let’s play Hide and Seek, Dragon counts, Hedgehog hides, Here I come!, Where are you?, Dragon looks, Dragon sneezes, There you are, My turn now! • Repeat a few times choosing different learners to be the characters. Assessment opportunities

Session 7: Retell the story Learner’s Book page: 17 Activity Book page: 11

Nice to have: space for role play; any props from previous sessions (badges, hats, etc.).

• Speaking and listening: note who participates really well in the role play; note which learners can interact and collaborate well in the group work. We have learned to: • retell the story using the pictures and demonstrating correct and confident vocabulary and sentence structures. Ask: what’s happening in this picture? • act out the story in groups, working together and reflecting the story accurately. Observe group interaction and collaboration as well as the final performance.

Session 7 Retell the story

17


Activity Book A Learners read a simple sentence about where Hedgehog is hiding and in each case draw him in the correct place.

• Invite each group to nominate a speaker to feed back their ideas. Some groups may need help with this feedback. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 8: What Can We Make? Learner’s Book pages: 18–20 Activity Book page: 12

Nice to have: pictures or video links of people making things, or some real examples (perhaps from other classes) of models learners have made; a large sheet of paper and felt tip. Phonics link: reading common decodable and tricky words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about making things • to predict what a story might be about or what might happen • to join in with reading a story. Learning outcomes Learners can: • join in with discussions and use words about making things • give credible ideas about what might happen in a story • join in with class or paired reading.

A

Making things

• Talk about any ‘made things’ you have in the class. Do the learners have experience of making things? What sort of things do they like to make? • Look at the pictures in the Learner’s Book to further stimulate the discussion about what you can make. • Ensure the learners understand the vocabulary hat, game, model and den (which may be inside or outside). • Draw learners’ attention to the Tip box to talk specifically about the notion of a sentence and sentence structure if appropriate. Encourage those who can to both say and write the sentence and then to write their own.

B

The book cover

• Group work: ask the learners to look at the book cover of the next ‘friends’ story, What Can We Make? Ask them to make predictions about this story: Who is this story about? (Hedgehog and Bear) What are they making in this story? (a robot) What body parts do they make? (body, head, arms, mouth) What do they use to make their robot? (boxes, paint, sticky tape)

18

Unit 1 Playing with friends

C

What Can We Make?

• Together, read the story. Talk about the story and what happens. • Do the learners find it funny? Why? • Just as in The Bike Race and Hide and Seek it is Hedgehog playing a trick on his friends. Can the learners remember what he did in each previous story? Answers: The Bike Race: he rolls to win. Hide and Seek: he hides from everybody. This time he hides inside the robot or pretends to be the robot!

• Pair work: ask the learners to re-read the story to each other. Ask them to take it in turns to read the text for alternate pictures – one learner reading whilst the other points with a finger or stick to each word. • Phonics link: encourage the learners to use their phonic knowledge for words they are less familiar with or feel less confident about reading aloud; Tricky common words include what, we, says, the, me, some. Words with tricky phonic elements include make(s), body, head, arms, paint, robot, mouth. • Note any words that more than a few learners are stumbling over and revisit them with the whole class to model how to tackle them. Further activities on reading common decodable and tricky words appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note which learners are able to make predictions about the story. • Reading: as learners read in pairs, move around the classroom and sample their reading. We have learned to: • join in with discussions and use words about making things. Ask: what would you like to make? Have you made anything like the robot? • give credible ideas about what might happen in a story. Show a book cover and ask: what do you think this story is about? • join in with class or paired reading. Observe and invite individuals or pairs to join in so that you can hear their contribution. Activity Book A Learners think about what you need to make the items in the central column and then join the pictures to each other and then to the correct word.


B

Answers: boxes – robot – a robot tissue roll holder – animal model – animal model sock – sock puppet – sock puppet branches – den – camp cardboard strip – hat – hat paper plate – mask – mask

Session 9: Check your understanding Learner’s Book page: 21 Activity Book page: 13

Nice to have: PCM 4.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to understand a story and answer or write answers to questions • to read in a small group taking character parts • to recognise story elements beginning, middle and end • to use story language; sequencing words. Learning outcomes Learners can: • answer questions about the story to show understanding • demonstrate reading behaviours (answers, responses, reading aloud, making use of punctuation) that show understanding • talk about the beginning, middle and end of the story • use words such as first, then, next when talking about the story.

A

Check the story

• Read each of the three comprehension questions to check the learners’ understanding of the storyline. • Pair work: give the learners a few minutes to prepare their answers and then invite them to compare responses as a class. • Invite those who are able to formulate a question for others to answer. • Model how to write the answer to each question then ask the learners to work in a writing book to practise the skills they have just worked on with you. • As you move around the classroom, check that learners are holding their pencils and forming letters correctly. Answers: 1 It is the robot/The robot. 2 Bear is making the robot’s head/Making the head. 3 Hedgehog is in the box/in the robot’s body/behind the robot.

What happens?

• Group work: ask the learners to form groups of threes and re-read the story, What can we make? Get them to each take a part: the narrator, Hedgehog and Bear. Encourage the learners to notice the sequence of events in the story: ensure that each reader is following his/her part invite one group to share their reading to the others. • Talk to the learners about the sequence of events when the animals make the robot; the beginning, the middle and the end. Ask: What do they make first? (the body) Then what do they do? (the head) What do they do next? (the arms) What do they do at the end? (paint the mouth) • Group work: use the Learner’s Book as a stimulus for the learners to practise the language of sequencing. • If you are using the PCMs, use PCM 4 Playing with friends to allow learners to practise the language of sequencing. • Differentiation: ask confident learners to find other examples of texts that use this language. Can they give different examples of a sequence using this vocabulary? E.g. First I get up, then I go to the bathroom, then I wash and brush my teeth and finally I go down for my breakfast. Show the learners that this is a simple four-step sequence. They may be able to create their own four-step sequences and record them in a variety of ways: draw, paint, orally record, sing, act, write, etc. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: sample their discussions about sequencing as learners work in their small groups. • Reading: while learners work in small groups reading parts, move around the classroom to sample their reading. We have learned to: • answer questions about the story to show understanding. Ask any question about the text or a specific question such as: how did Bear make the robot’s mouth? • demonstrate reading behaviours (answers, responses, reading aloud, making use of punctuation) that show understanding. Observe and listen to the group reading. • talk about the beginning, middle and end of the story. Ask: what happens at the end of the story? • use words such as first, then, next when talking about the story. Ask: what happens first? What happens next? etc.

Session 9 Check your understanding

19


Activity Book A Learners choose a word to fill the gap to complete each sentence. Answers: 1 2 3 4 5 6

Robot Robot’s makes arms paints “Hello!”

Session 10: A robot Learner’s Book page: 22 Activity Book page: 20

Nice to have: large boxes or furniture to make a robot model; labels, PCM 5.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about significant aspects of a story’s language • to read and write labels and captions using relevant vocabulary • to read and talk about their own writing. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use the correct names for parts of the body • write labels with neat and correctly formed letters • talk about their writing confidently.

A

Dragon says: point to your …

• Ask the learners if they are able to identify their body parts: head, eyes, arms, legs, mouth, body, feet, hands, etc. • Introduce the game Hedgehog/Bear/Dragon Says (based on the rules for Simon Says). • Take the lead by saying, for example, Hedgehog says touch your eye, so the learners must touch an eye. Then, for example, Touch your leg. In this case they should not touch their leg as the instruction did not come from Hedgehog/Bear/Dragon. If they do so they are out of the game. • The game continues until there is an outright winner. • Play the game several times allowing different learners to be the lead. • Check that all learners are familiar with the relevant body vocabulary.

B

Your robot

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note who can recall the correct vocabulary for the body parts. • Writing: note which learners are confident in their writing of labels for their robot. Check on pencil grip as well as letter formation. We have learned to: • use the correct names for parts of the body. Ask (pointing to body parts): what is this? • write labels with neat and correctly formed letters. Observe. • talk about their writing confidently. Ask (looking at their drawing and writing): tell me what you have done here. Activity Book A Learners draw their own idea of a robot.

The robot body parts

• Pair work: ask learners to point and say each word before matching the label to the right part of the robot’s body. • Differentiation: can some learners suggest additional labels, for example ears, hands, feet? Answers: Learners’ own answers.

20

C

• In their notebooks, ask the learners to draw and label a robot. To help them, they can use the words for body parts in the Learner’s Book. • Differentiation: if some learners struggle with their writing, allow them to work in pairs to create a ‘robot poster’ with labelled body parts which may give them additional space to both draw/paint the robot and then label it in writing or orally. Alternatively, if you are using the PCMs, use PCM 5 Make a robot, which invites learners to cut out shapes to create their own robot. • Why not? have a robot challenge afternoon. Challenge learners to think about how they could make a robot with the items in your classroom. Encourage creative and imaginative contributions and, if your space allows, build a robot with your class: You could use a chair for the legs, a lidded plastic storage box for its body, and a smaller box or stack of books for its head. How can you add facial features? How can you add arms? How can you make the robot ‘speak’? • Invite learners to be the robot and to answer questions that the rest of the class ask: what is your name? Who is your best friend? Where are you from? Where do you live?, etc. The ‘robot’ must answer.

Unit 1 Playing with friends

Session 11: Making a dragon Learner’s Book page: 23 Activity Book page: 14

Nice to have: junk modelling material (boxes, cartons, etc.); audio-recording technology.


Learning objectives

B

Learning intentions • to extend a concept • to write for a purpose (instructions) • to write using relevant vocabulary • to write a sequence of sentences retelling a procedure. Learning outcomes Learners can: • talk about making a different kind of model • talk and write about what they need and what they do • use correct vocabulary confidently and write it • say and write the correct sequence for what they are making.

• Talk through the example of how to make a dragon. • Ask learners to say what you do: First I make a body, then I make a head. Next I stick on some legs and the face. At the end I paint it. (or similar). • Group work: you may want to allow time for the learners to practise their oral responses to this challenge. Where appropriate or possible, provide audio-recording facilities for the learners to record their ideas and play these back to the class later to share. Some groups may prefer to perform their instructions to others. • Differentiation: more confident learners may be able to share their ideas for making something different – a badge, a puppet, etc. or talk about something they have previously made.

A

Answers:

Making a dragon

Learners’ own answers.

• If you talked about models in general at the beginning of this unit, remind the learners what you looked at. If you didn’t, invite ideas about the sort of models they can make. Ask the learners what sort of model they would like to make (and ensure that wherever possible in art/craft time, they have time to develop some of these ideas). • Pair/Group work: invite the learners to share their ideas about making a model like the robot, first in pairs/groups, and then with the whole class. • Record the ideas on the board, then select one idea with the class and talk about what materials you need and what you need to do. • Now, formally introduce the notion of writing instructions for someone else. • Show the learners the template headings and write them on the board: Let’s make a … What do we need? What do we do? • Discuss and share ideas showing the learners how you write lists under each heading. Talk about how to make everything very clear for someone who wants to follow these instructions (further work on instructions will follow in Unit 2). • Pair/Group work: allow learners to try to write their own lists. • Differentiation: some learners will be able to have a go at this on their own whilst you may wish to sit with those who need more support. • Ask learners to look at the Learners’ Book and ask what the picture is to ensure that they all have the vocabulary, dragon. • Ask them to say what you need to make a dragon: boxes, egg boxes, paint, glue, shapes, sticky tape, scissors, etc. Ensure learners are using correct language: I need … to make the dragon. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

What do you do?

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note those who can share their creative ideas and use correct vocabulary. • Writing: take the opportunity to sit with your least confident group to gather evidence about their writing of instructions. We have learned to: • talk about making a different kind of model. Ask: what else could we make? • talk and write about what we need and what we do. Ask: what do you think you might need to make … ? What would you need to do? • use correct vocabulary confidently and write it. Ask: how would you make wings for a model? • say and write the correct sequence for what they are making. Ask: what would you make first? Activity Book A Learners label the dragon picture using the words provided to help them.

Session 12: Thinking about Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon stories Learner’s Book page: 24 Activity Book page: 15

Nice to have: pictures or video links of learners playing in different settings.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to express personal response and make links to own experiences • to speak clearly and choose words carefully to express feelings and ideas • to write a simple sentence with a capital letter and a full stop.

Session 12 Thinking about Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon stories

21


Learning outcomes Learners can: • share their experiences and opinions • use well-chosen and appropriate vocabulary • write a simple sentence correctly.

A Where do Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon like to play? • Review the adventures of Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon. • Ask the learners if they think the animals are friends. • Do they like to play together? What sort of play do the characters like? • Using the Learner’s Book for stimulus, ask learners where the story characters like to play. Where do they make the robot? It may be at home or it may be at school.

B

Where do you like to play?

• Where do the learners like to play best, inside or outside? If they like to play outside where do they play? e.g. the park, the garden, the beach. If they like to play inside where do they play? e.g. school, in the house, in a friend’s house, in their bedroom. • Take a vote on whether most learners prefer to play inside or outside. If you have the space, ask learners to stand in different places to indicate their preference. Or ask them to stand if they prefer to play outside. Those sitting prefer to play inside. Count and decide on your result. • Show the learners how you can record your findings on a chart: Prepare a Venn diagram – one circle represents ‘Prefer to play inside’ and the other represents ‘Prefer to play outside’. The overlap of the circles in the middle represents ‘Don’t mind’ or ‘Like both’. Give each learner a sticky note and ask them to write their name on it. Ask each learner to stick their name on the Venn diagram in the section that applies to them. When each learner has made a vote and stuck their name on the diagram, look at it again together. Ask: how many of us like to play inside/ outside/don’t mind? • Leave this as a wall display and return to it at another time to consolidate this way of recording information. • Ask the learners to work in their notebooks to record where they like to play in a sentence and extending the notion of inside/outside to more specific settings. • Differentiation: let learners work with others who find reading and recording easier. Or work with those who need most help so you can offer focused support and ensure progress. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

22

Unit 1 Playing with friends

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note which learners are confident to offer their views and share their experiences about play. • Writing: note who copes with the recording of information in chart form. Also check pencil grip and letter formation during writing activities. We have learned to: • share their experiences and opinions. Ask: what do you like to play with your friends? Use well-chosen and appropriate vocabulary. Ask: what are your favourite games/places to play? • write a simple sentence correctly. Observe, read and check for correct pencil grip, letter formation and punctuation. Activity Book A Learners ask family and friends where they like to play in order to complete the chart. B They then look at their data to see which the most popular place is.

Unit review Learner’s Book page: 25 Activity Book page: 16

Nice to have: previous unit work that features the characters (badges, hats, paintings, etc.); PCM 1. Phonics link: reading and writing common words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to revisit and review reading experiences • to express personal opinions and discuss preferences • to develop a sense of becoming a reader • to read and write common/high-frequency words using phonics and sight vocabulary. Learning outcomes Learners can: • recognise the links between the Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon stories. • share opinions and preferences about the stories • share ideas and experiences to show understanding of each story • read and write common words.

A Talk about Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon • Talk about friends – best friends, groups of friends, friends at school and friends at home. Be sensitive in this discussion if there are learners in the class who find it difficult to make friends – be inclusive. • If space allows, get the learners to sit in a circle. They are going to each say something positive about


another person in the class. To ensure no-one is left out, put names in a box and ask learners to pick one out. Make sure they can each read the name they choose. Give them a few minutes quiet time to think about why they like that person or what they like about the person. Begin by offering a model: I like (x) because he/she is kind/smiles/is happy/tries hard, etc. I like (x’s) red jumper/school bag/big brother, etc. Ask the learners about the three characters they have been reading about over the course of this unit. If you made Hedgehog, Bear and Dragon badges or hats, retrieve them and use them as stimulus for the discussion. Invite the learners to make up descriptions of their favourite character so others can guess. Let them take turns to speak and then listen to others. For example: My favourite character is green with a tail and big ears. My favourite character is brown with lots of spikes. My favourite character is yellow with little ears and a brown nose. Why do they like each character – is it how they look, or what they do? Remind the learners that Hedgehog tricks Bear and Dragon. He has good ideas. He is funny. What do they know about Bear and Dragon? e.g. Dragon makes fire (when he sneezes). Bear is helpful (he gets the paint). Take ideas from the learners and refer back to the pictures in the Learner’s Book if this helps. Talk about which of the three stories, about Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon, the learners like best. Remind them about each story: The Bike Race, Hide and Seek and What Can We Make? Take ideas from the learners and refer back to the pictures in the Learner’s Book if this helps, but encourage them to give their own ideas. Ensure that they can use the structure – I like … best because ... Model how to write it, then get learners to write their view in their notebook using this structure.

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Common words

• Remind the learners that there are some words that we see a lot in books and it’s good to practise these because we can’t always use phonics for them so easily. • Phonics link: practise using phonics strategies where possible to read these words. Further activities on reading common and tricky words appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • Some of the words that learners have read and written a lot in this unit include: the, let’s, say/ing, what, to, get, some, where, are, you, come, here, I, play/ ing, yes, no, go, into, down, am.

• Write these words on the board or make word cards. If you have word cards, hand them out randomly. As you say the words the learner holding the matching word card must jump up and read it out loud. If the words are on the board, choose a learner to come up to the board, choose a word to read and cross it out. That learner then chooses the next learner, and so on, until all the words have been read.

C Add capital letters, full stops or question marks • Check that learners are familiar with capital letters, full stops and question marks. Explain to learners that the sentences in the Learner’s Book are missing these features. • Work through the first two as a class and then ask learners to copy them into their notebooks. • Check for correct responses but also for comfortable pencil grips and accurate scribing of the punctuation marks. Answers: 1 2 3 4 5

Can I play with you? Let’s get into the box. I am playing with you. Are you in here? What are you playing?

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note who is able to play the games with confidence and ease of vocabulary. • Writing: note those who are not yet confident with punctuation and plan for some revision activities. • Self-assessment: if you are using the PCMs, use PCM 1 Check your learning here to encourage the learners to reflect on their learning. We have learned to: • recognise the links between the Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon stories. Ask: what is the same in each of these stories? • share ideas and experiences to show understanding of each story. Ask: would you like to be friends with Bear, Hedgehog and Dragon? Why? • talk about the stories. Ask: what was your favourite story? • read and write common words. Listen and observe. Activity Book A Learners read the common words, then cover them and try to write them. B Learners then use the numbers 1 to 7 to sequence the words into a question. Answers: What are you playing in the park?

Unit 1 review 23


2

Finding out and making

Unit overview Over the course of this four-week unit, learners are introduced to the theme of Finding out and making using a range of simple non-fiction texts which feature signs, labels and instructions to enable learners to explore the reading and writing of instructions. Each text is introduced with a prior discussion and introduction of key concepts and vocabulary. Signs written in capital letters provide the opportunity to revisit letter formation of capital letters. Instructional texts with a clear sequence, with and without numbers, are introduced. The sequence of preparing the concepts and vocabulary of a text, enjoying/sharing a text, retelling it orally in role play and then revisiting it (or aspects of it) in pairs, independently and then in writing is important to this unit. Phonics and spelling objectives are specifically covered in the Phonics Workbooks to support the learning at this level. Further activities relating to the unit objectives are provided in the Activity Book. See the Phonics Workbooks for systematic practice of phonics as well as holding a pencil correctly and good letter formation. See also PCM 33 and PCM 34 for practising handwriting.

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit learners will be able to: • talk about and join in with the reading of a range of labels, signs and instructions • be able to recognise and give different kinds of instructions • understand and recognise some language features of instructions • understand the importance of sequence in some instructional texts • write simple instructional signs, labels and instructions • change specific aspects of a text.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • write and label pictures • write signs for a real purpose • practise reading and writing the colour words • practise capital letters for signs • say and write numbers and number words for instructions • develop an understanding of the imperative for instructional texts, e.g. put, do, make • understand that How to … can signify an instructional text • develop the skill of reading common words (especially the question words) using a range of strategies, e.g. where, what, how, why, who.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • follow instructions and simple classroom language in English • use ‘book talk’ such as book, cover, beginning, end, blurb, page, line, word, letter, sentence • recognise and use (for reading and writing) all the basic letter–sound correspondences for letters of the alphabet including double letters (ff, ll, ss, zz) and ck. • read and answer/ask questions • join in with paired/group or class discussions • write simple phrases or sentences with support • know the numbers and number words.

24

Unit 2 Finding out and making


Session 1: Reading labels Learner’s Book pages: 26–27

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Activity Book page: 17

Nice to have: pictures or posters of labelled scenes and diagrams to support vocabulary and concept; objects in the classroom ready labelled; labels to hand out for learners; A3 paper and pens; word cards or plastic letters. Phonics link: recognising and saying sounds; writing CVC words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about labels using correct vocabulary • to understand what labels are • to read labels to find information • to write labels. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use correct vocabulary with confidence • answer questions about labels • read labels to find information • write labels.

A

Labels everywhere!

• Ask the learners if they know what a ‘label’ is. • Draw on their experiences and use the pictures in the Learner’s Book as prompts. If you have collected pictures or have made a labelled collection in the classroom then use these too. Have the learners got their own examples of labelled items, such as clothing? • Does anyone have a labelled item of clothing or a school bag? Look at some real examples if you have them. • Differentiation: provide labels on objects in the classroom for those learners who need to choose from given options. • Draw attention to the capital letter of the names in the Learner’s Book examples (Petros, Malak, Chan and Ali) and also in any real examples you have. Write them on the board and get the learners to join in and/or demonstrate some of these letters. • Phonics link: can the learners recognise the initial letter sounds of these names: Malak, Chan Po, Ali Patel? Further activities on recognising and saying sounds appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • Ask the learners why they have labelled their belongings. Draw on their experiences and discuss what the labels tell us, e.g. often a label tells us who things belong to so we don’t lose them. • Encourage the learners to share their labels and ideas. • Extend the discussion to talk about labels in your classroom. (It would be good if you have managed to prepare some so the learners can find them.) • Invite learners to either find existing labels and point them out to others and say what the label tells them, or invite learners to place a label on something you suggest, e.g. Anna please take this and label the sink/ door/window.

B

Labels in our classroom

• Use the picture of the labelled classroom scene in the Learner’s Book to read the labels together. Ask the learners to work in pairs to find and read all the labelled items. • Sample their reading as you move around the classroom. • Encourage the learners to use their phonic knowledge for words they are less familiar with or feel less confident about reading aloud. • Note any words that more than a few learners are stumbling over and revisit these with the whole class to model how to tackle these. • Take their ideas and establish that labels are helpful for giving us information about what something is or who it might belong to. • The Learner’s Book invites learners to record (draw and write) two labelled items from the classroom picture. You may prefer learners to do this in pairs or small groups using A3 pieces of paper to make their labels clear and to then share with the rest of the class. They could also make some labels on a computer if you have the time and facilities. • Model how to write each label if you then want the learners to follow through with a written response. • Phonics link: check that the learners are confident about segmenting the sounds and writing these CVC words: jug and pot (or pens). Further activities on writing CVC words appear in Phonics Workbook A. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

C

Check the labels

• Read each of the three comprehension questions in the Learner’s Book to check the learners’ understanding. • Pair work: you may wish to give the learners a few minutes working in pairs to prepare their answers and then invite and compare responses with the class. • Invite those who are able to formulate a question for others to answer. • Ask the learners to work in a writing book to practise the skills they have just worked on with you. They are writing simple responses to three questions. • As you move around the classroom, check that learners are holding their pencils and forming letters correctly. • Differentiation: have word cards available and/or plastic letters so learners can use them to support their reading and spelling. Answers: 1 It’s a sink. 2 No, it’s a label for paints. 3 No, the jug does not have a label.

Session 1 Reading labels

25


Assessment opportunities Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence in joining in with discussions and ability to use correct language. Reading: listen to individual learners as they read aloud to each other. Comment on their ability to read and say words with 1:1 correspondence. We have learned to: • use correct vocabulary with confidence. Show a label and ask: what is this? • answer questions about labels. Show a label or something that is not and ask: is this a label? • read labels to find information. Ask: what does this label say? • write labels. Ask: can you write me a label for this … ? Activity Book A Learners write the missing labels on the picture. Answers: Pen pot Jug sink

Session 2: Writing labels Learner’s Book page: 28 Activity Book page: 18 You will need: some examples of different types of label in the classroom, including on the wall; a label linked to something very specific by a string for example; a folder paper label; a dangling/hanging label. Nice to have: PCM 6.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to listen to others and respond appropriately, taking turns • to understand the use of labels • to talk about labels using correct vocabulary • to write labels. Learning outcomes Learners can: • demonstrate good listening and speaking as they share ideas • show an understanding of where to find and put labels • can write and place labels appropriately.

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Unit 2 Finding out and making

A

Label it!

• Remind the learners about the work last session on labels. • Check that learners: are able to find labels and read them understand that a label tells us what something is or who it belongs to can identify a capital letter on a named label. • Choose different learners to find or place labels, e.g.: Who can find the label for the door? Who can label the window? How do I know this is Chan’s book? • Invite learners to be the ones to ask questions of each other. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Add labels

• Tell or show the learners that labels may be different; some may be stuck on a wall, some dangling from a classroom washing line, some linked by string perhaps to something very specific, some folded and free-standing, etc. • If you are using the PCMs, use PCM 6 Dangle for learners to make a dangling label. • Pair work: use the Learner’s Book display to encourage the learners to explore the different types of label that they might choose for the class display on the picture. • Check that the learners practise phrases such as: I think we should label X. We could have a dangling label for X. • Encourage the learners to write two examples of things they would label within the picture and how they would label them in their writing books. • Encourage each learner to make a simple label using paper and sticky-tack, or sticky notes. • Check letters are formed correctly. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Differentiation: • Provide plastic letters or similar for learners who need to first build each word before writing it. • Provide word cards or words on the board for those learners who need to choose from given options. Assessment opportunities • Writing: note which learners can begin to write ideas of their own with a degree of confidence using phonic skills where they need to. • Speaking and listening: note which learners are confident, can take turns and can listen to others’ ideas. We have learned to: • demonstrate good listening and speaking while sharing ideas. Observe in group time


• show an understanding of where to find and put labels. Ask: where will you put this label for the X? • write and place labels appropriately. Ask: please write me a label for X. Can you put it in the right place? Activity Book A Learners identify correct labels from items that are incorrectly labelled. B Learners then write gift labels. Answers: Yes: tree, leaf, stone, snail, flower No: bark, frog, grass

Session 3: Looking at signs Learner’s Book pages: 29–30 Activity Book page: 19

Nice to have: a camera; a walk about session in the local vicinity to notice and take photos of signs. Phonics link: reading CVV and CVVC words with long vowel phonemes.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about signs using correct vocabulary • to understand what signs are • to read signs to find information • to use body language to give signs. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use correct vocabulary with confidence • answer questions about signs • read signs to find information • act/mime a sign.

A

Signs

• Ask the learners if they know what a sign is. • Talk to the learners about signs. What do they know? What can they tell you? Is there a school sign outside your school? A sign for visitors to go to reception? • If possible, go on a walkabout in the local area or even around the school grounds to take photos of signs, where they are, what size they are, what they tell us, etc. • Is a sign always in words or pictures? Wave at the learners to give them a clue about this type of non-verbal sign. • Encourage them to share their ideas orally. • Introduce the selection of ideas in the Learner’s Book. • Did the learners think of signs like these? • Show them how signs can have different functions. Ask the learners about each picture. Get the learners to discuss each picture and talk about what the sign is telling them.

Listen out for ideas as you walk round the class, listen out for their responses. Invite some learners to share their ideas and encourage others to listen well. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Act out signs

• Group work: invite learners to add one type of sign to each category (where to go, what to do, how we are feeling) and write or draw them in their notebooks. • Take it in turns for each group to act out their sign. • Can the others guess what it means? No words allowed! • Differentiation: allow pairs to work together if a learner lacks confidence to perform. • Why not? begin a class wall of signs so that you can add to it over time. Learners may write them, paint them, take photos of street signs, make models, cut them out of magazines, etc. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

C

Check the signs

• Together, read and answer each of the questions in the Learner’s Book to check the learners’ understanding of the signs and to practise the structure: this sign tells us … or this sign means ... • Phonics link: check the learners can identify the /oo/ sound in zoo and the /ai/ sound in wait. Further activities on reading CVV and CVVC words with long vowel phonemes appear in the Phonics Workbooks A and B. • In this way, model how to write the answer to each question if you then want the learners to follow through with a written response. • Encourage the learners to write their answers in their notebooks. Answers: 1 No, this sign means the way to the castle. 2 No, this sign means to go. 3 Yes, this sign means goodbye.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence in small group work and in the participation of the game. We have learned to: • use correct vocabulary with confidence. Show a sign and ask: what is this? • answer questions about signs. Show something that is or isn’t and sign and ask: is this a sign? • read signs to find information. Ask: what does this sign tell me? • act or mime a sign. Ask: show me a sign to tell me to stop, etc. Session 3 Looking at signs

27


Activity Book A Learners match the signs to the relevant word. Answers: a

stop

b

angry

c

sad

d

no way

e

zoo

f

school

Session 4: Signs in capital letters Learner’s Book page: 31 Activity Book page: 19

Nice to have: PCM 7; a sign (if you have access to a large sign such as a large road works sign or street sign [children crossing] that would be very exciting for the learners to see); photos of signs from a walkabout; large pieces of paper and felt tip pens for writing large signs; small whiteboards and pens for practising the formation of capital letters; sticky tape, pins or similar for displaying their signs. Phonics link: recognising that capital letters represent the same letter sounds as small letters.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • form capital letters correctly • write with a comfortable and efficient pencil grip • read signs in capital letters • write simple signs for a purpose and know their purpose. Learning outcomes Learners can: • write capital letters correctly • show a correct pencil grip • read signs in capital letters • write and display a sign.

A

Signs in capital letters

• Now the learners are familiar with idea of signs, revisit any that you have collected, made or viewed. • If you made a ‘wall of signs’ then use it now to remind the learners of the messages. • If you went on a walkabout last lesson and took photos of signs, review those. • Ask the learners if they can see any signs that use capital letters. • Do they know why capital letters may be used sometimes? (To make a strong point, get someone’s attention or to tell us that this is very serious or dangerous.)

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Unit 2 Finding out and making

• Ask the learners to read the signs in the Learner’s Book that are written in capital letters. • Can they read each one and have they noticed the capital letters? • Pair work: ask the learners to work in pairs to work out what each sign means.

B

Write a sign in CAPITAL LETTERS!

• If learners are unsure about capital letters look at the alphabet in the Tip box as a model. • Say the alphabet and write each letter for them on the board, reinforcing the formation as you go. Generally the rule is to write each letter top to bottom and left to right. Phonics link: remind the learners how to say the sound for each letter – whether a or A, it is still code for the sound /a/. After you write each letter, get the learners to skywrite it or to write it on small whiteboards with waterproof pens if available. Get each learner to write his or her name in capitals or invite specific learners to come up to demonstrate beautiful writing of their name. • Pair work: ask learners to write a sign you might need in class or school in capital letters. • Give them time to read and respond and encourage them to share their ideas about what sort of signs they think you need in class or school – what do they really want people to notice? • Differentiation: let learners work with others who find reading and recording easier. • Differentiation: allow less confident learners to use magnetic or plastic letters in capitals to build their sign on the table top first and/or if you are using the PCMs, use PCM 7 Signs in CAPITAL LETTERS here. • Check that learners are forming each capital letter correctly. • Either get learners to write their sign in their writing book or allow them in pairs to write their signs on large pieces of paper. Allow them to paint their signs if possible. • Encourage learners to agree where they should display their signs for maximum effect. Discuss what is a good place and why. • Allow learners to display their signs using sticky tape or similar as appropriate. • Pair work: invite learners to talk about their sign and what it means and why it was important to write, etc. • Differentiation: for extension, encourage learners to think more widely about signs in the community and add to the class wall.


Answers: Learners’ own answers.

• When you have practised, use the pictures in the Learner’s Book as a stimulus to complete the activity. Answers:

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: make notes about learners’ confidence in tackling the reading of words in capitals. Do they still realise they can use their phonic knowledge? • Writing: check letter formation, relative size of letters, capital letters. We have learned to: • write capital letters correctly. Observe how letters are formed • show a correct pencil grip. Observe the pencil grip • read signs in capital letters. Ask: what does this sign say? • write and display a sign Ask: write a sign that says X. Where is a good place to put it? Activity Book A Learners draw a sign in capital letters and see if a friend can guess what it means. B Learners then write its meaning in capitals.

Session 5: Following instructions Learner’s Book pages: 32–33 Activity Book page: 20

Nice to have: a selection of paints for actual demonstration/experimentation of colour making, paint colour charts or classroom colour posters, rainbows, etc. Phonics link: sound talk.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about how to make colours using correct vocabulary • to make links to personal experiences • to join in with reading a simple instructional text. Learning outcomes Learners can: • join in with discussions • share ideas and experiences • join in with class or paired reading.

A

Colours

• Check on learners’ colour vocabulary using flashcards that you may have or using items of different colour in the classroom. You may decide to use paint and paintbrushes getting the learners to help you to decide what colours to choose.

Learners’ own answers.

B

Play a game

• Check the learners can remember the colour words. Say: I am wearing a blue top – what are you wearing? • Repeat around the class, inviting learners to pick out the colours they are wearing. • You may also wish to play this physical game where the learners can react: Say: stand up if you are wearing red. Sit down if you are wearing black. Jump up if you are wearing green. Show me if you are wearing blue. • Vary the game if you have time and the learners need practice: touch something that is red. Show me something that is black. Find me something that is brown. Tell me something that is orange. • Phonics link: you may like to play the game using sound talk: stand up if you are wearing something b-l-a-ck. Show me something r-e-d, and so on. Further activities on recognising and saying the letter sounds appear in the Phonics Workbook A. • Note that you could play these games orally or you could use colour word cards to ensure that the learners are able to speed-read the colour words (many of which are phonically irregular). • Refer to a class colour chart and if you don’t have one then consider getting a group of learners to make one.

C

How to make colours

• Use the pictures in the Learner’s Book to focus on some specific colours that the learners will need to be familiar with for the text, How to make colours. • Group work: encourage the learners to share their ideas about favourite colours. Give them just three minutes to discuss and share before asking them to report back their ideas to the class. How will they remember or record their ideas? (Using sticky notes? On paper? On the interactive white board? Mini write-on/wipe-off boards?) • Differentiation: allow less confident learners to work with more confident learners in the group. Encourage more able learners to think about how we use colour in the environment, traffic lights, for cars, to paint our homes. They may also think of more unusual colours to share. • Using the pictures in the Learner’s Book, introduce the instructional text How to make colours. Establish that the text is about colours, how to make them by mixing other colours and what you need to be able to do this. • Together, look at the word colour as it is quite a tricky word. Show the learners how we read it: /k/for c, /u/ for o, /l/ for l, /u/ for our. Invite a learner to write it out for others to see.

Session 5 Following instructions

29


• Together, read the text How to make colours. Talk about the text and that it is telling us how to do something. • Pair work: ask the learners to re-read the text. Get them to take it in turns to read alternate lines – one learner reading whilst the other points with a finger or stick to each word. Ensure that those ‘pointing’ are aware of one to one correspondence and that their pointing is matching the correct word the reader is reading. • Sample their reading as you move around the classroom. • Encourage the learners to use their phonic knowledge for words they are less familiar with or feel less confident about reading aloud. • Note any words that more than a few learners are stumbling over and revisit these with the whole class to model how to tackle these.

A

Making colours

• Hand out some colour cards (yellow, red, blue, orange, purple, green) to different learners. Say: if [X] is red (learner stands up) and [Y] is yellow (learner stands up) and they mix together, what colour will they make? They make orange! So the learner holding orange stands up. Use this activity as a reminder of last session.

B

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note who can contribute ideas about colours with confidence. • Reading: note who can work well in a paired reading scenario. We have learned to: • join in with discussions. Ask: what colours do you like? • share ideas and experiences. Ask: what happens when you mix colours? How do you do that? • join in with class or paired reading. Ask: can you read this sentence for me? Activity Book A Learners write Yes or No to indicate whether a statement is true or not. B Learners then complete simple Venn diagrams to represent colour making. Answers: A 1 No. 2 No. 3 Yes B Missing labels: 1 purple 2 orange

Learning outcomes Learners can: • answer questions that show an understanding of instructional texts • join in with discussions and use words about how to make things.

3 green

Session 6: Checking the instructions Learner’s Book page: 34 Activity Book page: 21

Nice to have: a range of instructional texts; colour charts.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to demonstrate an understanding of an instructional text • to speak in the manner of an instructional text.

Answer the questions

• Re-read the How to make colours instructions as a class. • Using the Learner’s Book, read each of the three comprehension questions to check the learners’ understanding of the instructional text. • Pair work: encourage learners to participate and share their answers. • Invite and compare responses as a class. • Differentiation: invite those who are able to formulate a question for others to answer. • Model how to write the answer to each question if you then want the learners to follow through with a written response. • Ask the learners to work in a writing book to practise the skills they have just worked on with you. They are writing simple responses to three questions. • As you move around the classroom, check that learners are holding their pencils and forming letters correctly. Answers: 1 It’s a paint brush. 2 No, you need red and yellow paint to make orange. 3 You mix yellow and blue paint to make green./You mix yellow and blue paint.

C

Instructions

• Pair work: ask learners to use the Learner’s Book picture prompts to discuss where to find the relevant mixing instruction, what they need, and which colours mix to make others. Learners write down their answers in their notebooks. • Encourage learners to use phrases such as: If you want to make orange, mix red and yellow paint. • Explain to the learners that in an instructional text they are able to jump to the instructions that interest them, and that they don’t necessarily need to read through all the instructions if they aren’t interested in finding out about how to make green, for example. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

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Unit 2 Finding out and making


We have learned to: • answer questions that show an understanding of instructional texts. Ask: do you need to read instructional texts in order? • join in with discussions and using words about how to make things. Ask: how do you make … ?

Activity Book A Learners complete the instructional text by writing in the missing words to reinforce vocabulary and understanding. Answers: How to make orange

Mix blue and red to make purple.

How to make green

Mix red and yellow to make orange.

How to make purple

Mix yellow and blue to make green.

Session 7: Writing instructions Learner’s Book page: 35 Activity Book page: 22

Nice to have: props for How to get ready for painting, How to tidy up; poster size pieces of paper; felt tip pens.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to recognise and talk about the features of an instructional How to … text • to work collaboratively, taking turns and listening • to write an instructional text. Learning outcomes Learners can: • talk about some features of instructional texts • work together • write an instructional poster.

Features

• Re-read How to make colours again if necessary. • Differentiation: encourage an able reader to read it for the class, as the text should be familiar by now. • Use the examples in the Learner’s Book to introduce and discuss the features of an instructional text – the ‘what you will need’ information, headings, etc. • Then ask the learners to tell you about each feature to reinforce the learning. Point to an instruction, a heading, a label, photograph, etc. and ask: what’s this? Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

• •

What you need

A

Instruction posters

• •

want to let them choose, or allocate half of the class with each poster theme.) They should talk together about what you would need and what you would do. You may wish to give props out to prompt the learners in their discussions – or allow them to gather props themselves if these are easily available, e.g. for how to get ready for painting you might give out an apron, paints, paint brushes, water, paper, etc. Ask learners to write their instructions on large pieces of paper, using the format in the Learner’s Book as a guide. Remind them to include the features of an instructional text, as you have discussed. Differentiation: for less confident writers, model each type of instructional text feature and leave it on the board for those who need to check. Encourage the learners to present their instructions to the class. Differentiation: for extension, ask learners to find other instructional texts in the school library. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note learners’ speaking and listening skills as they present their posters to the class; note any learners who are using correct terminology with confidence. We have learned to: • talk about some features of instructional texts. Show a heading, what you need, etc. and ask: what is this? • work together. Observe. • write an instructional poster. Ask: which ideas were yours? What did you like about X’s ideas? Activity Book A Learners complete an instruction poster template to represent their own idea. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 8: Instructions in pictures with numbers Learner’s Book page: 36 Activity Book page: 23

You will need: number cards; badges or necklaces 1–6. Nice to have: pictures or video links of people making things or some real examples (perhaps from other classes) of models learners have made; large sheet of paper and felt tip pens for each table or small group in the class; number poster to show correct formation of numerals.

• Pair work: ask the learners to discuss either how to get ready for painting or how to tidy up. (You may Session 8 Instructions in pictures with numbers

31


your hands in the water. 5 Dry your hands. 6 Eat your lunch!) Point out to the learners that each step tells you to do something: use, put, rub, rinse, dry, eat Write the verbs on the board and number them 1–6. Take the opportunity to practise the correct formation of numerals. Re-read the text for the learners, stopping after each step to invite them to act out the instruction. After the reading, give them time to rehearse the actions. Invite pairs of learners to talk through and act out the sequence. Differentiation: for extension, get more confident learners thinking of other muddled sequences for the class to sort out. Establish that the sequence is important; what would happen if we dried our hands first and then put on the soap?

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about a sequenced instructional text that has one outcome, e.g. how to wash your hands • to talk about the importance of numbers in a sequenced text • to understand and ‘read’ pictures. Learning outcomes Learners can: • join in with discussions about the correct sequence of the instructions • read and understand the importance of numbers to sequence • understand the place of pictures in instructions.

A

Instructions with numbers

• Talk about sequences of things we do every day, e.g. getting up, brushing our teeth, washing our hands. Encourage learners to share their experiences and to explain the order in which they do things. • Ask the learners some silly questions: Do you put your toothpaste on your toothbrush after you have brushed your teeth? NO! Do you use the towel before you get in the bath? NO! Do you put soap on your hands after you have washed them? NO! Do you put on your coat when you get into the classroom? NO! • Differentiation: see if any of the more confident learners can ask a question. • Talk about the importance of doing things in the correct order. • Look at the poster ‘How to wash your hands before you eat’. Discuss the questions in the book. Ask whether learners have seen picture instructions like this before (e.g. in instructions for making construction toys). Discuss the numbers on the pictures (they help us know which order the instructions are in).

B

Reading pictures

• Pair work: ask the learners to look at the instructional text How to wash your hands and answer the following questions: What is this text telling you to do? Where is the heading? How many numbered steps are there to follow? Answers: How to wash your hands. No, because it is a poster. At the top There are six numbered steps to follow.

• Then, together, talk about each step in the text. (For example: 1 Use hot and cold water. 2 Put soap on your hands. 3 Rub your hands with soap. 4 Rinse

32

Unit 2 Finding out and making

• • • • •

C

Check the order

• Together, act out the steps in the mixed-up How to wash your hands and talk about what is wrong. • Pair work: give the learners a few minutes to decide on the correct sequence and then compare responses with the class. • Model how to resequence the steps – if necessary, by physically moving nominated learners back in to the correct order. If you have made numbered badges or necklaces to represent the six steps this will help to get it sorted out! • Model the correct language of the numbered sequence, but also use phrases such as first, next, then and finally. This builds on some of the language introduced in Unit 1. • Differentiation: some learners may be able to write out the correct sequence of pictures. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note those learners who can ‘read’ pictures well. • Writing: note those learners who can count and write numbers with confidence. We have learned to: • join in discussions about the correct sequence of instructions. Ask: does it matter if I do these things in a different order? • read and understand the importance of numbers to sequence. Ask: why are there numbers here? • understand the place of pictures in instructions. Ask: why are there pictures here? Activity Book A Learners trace and copy numerals 1–10.

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 1  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 1. Gill Budgel, Kate Ruttle, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 1  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 1. Gill Budgel, Kate Ruttle, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014