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CAMBRIDGE PRIMARY

English

TeacherĂ­ s Resource

4

Sally Burt and Debbie Ridgard


University Printing House, Cambridge cb2 8bs, United Kingdom Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. Information on this title: education.cambridge.org Š Cambridge University Press 2015 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2015 Printed in Poland by Opolgraf A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library isbn 978-1-107-65085-5 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but the publishers do not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Cover artwork: Bill Bolton Learning objectives from the Cambridge Primary English 0844 curriculum framework, for use from 2011, are reproduced by permission of Cambridge International Examinations. notice to teachers The photocopy masters in this publication may be photocopied or distributed electronically free of charge for classroom use within the school or institution that purchased the publication. Worksheets and copies of them remain in the copyright of Cambridge University Press, and such copies may not be distributed or used in any way outside the purchasing institution.


Contents Introduction

4

Stage 4 Curriculum correlation

8

Unit 1 Storybook

12

Unit 2 Going deep

28

Unit 3 Mind pictures

43

Unit 4 Just imagine

53

Unit 5 Making the news

66

Unit 6 Sensational poems

78

Unit 7 What would you do?

85

Unit 8 Food for thought

99

Unit 9 Poems to ponder

111

Photocopy masters (PCMs)

119

Learner’s Book 4 index

156

Spelling lists

157

Spelling activity answers

159

Contents 3


The Cambridge Primary English series The Cambridge Primary English series is a six-level, First Language English course covering and following the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework from Cambridge International Examinations. The Cambridge Primary English course is intended to lead into the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum by giving learners the skills and knowledge to confidently access the secondary curriculum. The full series consists of a suite of Learner’s Books, Teacher’s Resources (Book and CD-ROM) and write-in Activity Books for each of the six levels. Although the series is designed to be used as a suite, the Learner’s Book provides independent and coherent coverage of the curriculum framework. The Activity Book is not core but is recommended as consolidation, extension or for homework.

process and discovering that others do not always take the same approach or share opinions. Each unit provides an opportunity for progression through reading as a reader, reading as a writer and writing, so that learners can experience the journey to becoming literate, with the emphasis shifting from learning to read towards reading to learn. The text extracts selected for the course serve as language input and springboards for teaching and learning grammar and punctuation, phonics, spelling and the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. However, texts should always be supplemented with literature and non-fiction texts local to your region to add depth and context to the range of skills learners encounter through the Learner’s Book.

Learner’s Books

Spelling

The Stage 4 Learner’s Book is the fourth of six in the Cambridge Primary English series. Each Learner’s Book contains nine units: two long units and one shorter unit per 10-week term. Each long unit contains 12 teaching sessions and has been designed to be delivered over four weeks, with three lessons per week. The shorter units are intended to be delivered over two weeks with six teaching sessions in each. Since learners work at different speeds, some double sessions have been included to allow for differentiation of pace. The units are in groups of three (1-3, 4-6, 7-9) and the units in each group may be taught in any order with progression being built in per term rather than unit by unit to add flexibility to the programme and to allow for more cross-curricular matching.

Main units In Stage 4 each unit contains a range of text types and genres included as extracts around a unifying theme. The texts have been carefully selected to include an appropriate balance of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry and plays, as well as to reflect the interests and diverse cultural backgrounds of the learners. Each lesson contains a selection of activities aimed at enabling the learners to acquire specific knowledge or skills across a wide range of text opportunities. Lessons incorporate both whole class teaching led by the teacher, and small group or individual work so that children can practise and apply their learning, with regular checks to self-assess their progress. The course aims for an approach that encourages learners to actively explore, investigate, understand, use and develop their knowledge of English and in particular their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills through the use of regular, guided group and paired work, independent group work and individual work. Discussion with a talk partner or in a small group forms an important part of the course, helping learners become more articulate and confident in expressing their opinions; it is also an important part of the embedding 4

Cambridge Primary English Stage 4 Teacher’s Resource

The Learner’s Book contains three spelling spreads at the back of the book. These spelling spreads contain specific spelling rules and activities linked to the units across the three terms to be used at the teacher’s discretion. Some spelling activities may also appear in the units and the Teacher’s Resource notes will also indicate spelling opportunities (signposted with a spelling icon in the Learner’s Book). Ideally, at least one formal spelling session per week should be planned using either the spelling spreads or the spelling lists in the Teacher’s Resource that are provided for reinforcement of common spelling patterns and letter strings. Vocabulary development is closely linked to spelling but a spelling programme does not on its own guarantee vocabulary development. Each unit therefore introduces a set of words which will be used during the unit and would therefore be useful for the pupils to learn. Certain words are glossed in the chapters to clarify meaning immediately but at other times learners are encouraged to self-help by using dictionaries, thesauruses, whether print or ICT-based, and to reflect on the shades of meaning suggested in the contextual use of the word. Understanding that words can have multiple meanings or even multiple shades of meaning is important in many aspects of reading and writing, from advertising to poetry; in addition to which, the excitement of words and their power is a lifelong gift.

Features Each unit contains specific language input in the form of Language focus boxes to support teacher-led instruction emanating from text-based examples. These boxes allow learners to reference the input in their own time and internalise it as they work through the activities that provide opportunities to practise their skills. The language input is progressive and covers the curriculum framework over the year. Did you know? boxes draw learners’ attention to interesting facts or cross-curricular information to add depth to the learning environment and to make crosscurricular links where appropriate.


The Tip boxes provide handy tips and reminders to guide learners and to ask questions that challenge their thinking and interest. The Duck mascot provides reminders and gives examples for learners to follow. Icons indicate when an activity involves discussion, writing, reading or paired/group work. While the icons are indicators of the mode of work envisaged, it is always at the teacher’s discretion to approach the activity from a different perspective especially when implementing a differentiation strategy in the classroom. have a discussion do some reading do some writing role play, read out loud or do an oral activity do a spelling activity (from spelling spreads) Throughout the course, the learners are encouraged to keep a reading log. This log is meant to track as much of the reading that they do as possible, and not just for a reading scheme or independent reader books. The reading log is intended to include both fiction and non-fiction and any reading learners may do at home or when out and about – you can encourage them to include advertisements, posters, newspapers and magazines, leaflets and even invitations in their logs. When learners look back over a year they will realise the rich variety of media in which they engaged in reading and the process of keeping the log will help make them active rather than passive readers as they move from learning to read towards reading to learn and appreciate. The Learner’s Book reminds learners at strategic moments to complete their reading logs with specific comments to help them reflect on the reading that they have done in the Learner’s Book; however, the log should be encouraged as a habit (not as a chore), so the process must be quick and easy rather than a laboured activity. Throughout the Learner’s Book learners encounter self-reflection How did I do? questions on particular activities. These self-assessment moments are designed to be specific to the activity rather than general questions. Similar questions could be written on the board by the teacher for activities which do not have the self-check element. The aim is to encourage learners to reflect on their progress and identify areas for themselves in which they are either achieving satisfactorily or wish to improve upon. This Teacher’s Resource Book and CD-ROM contains a series of specific photocopy masters aimed at slightly more formal assessment of learners against a series of success criteria identified for the activity. These are explained in more detail below. At the end of the Learner’s Book, you will find a ‘Toolkit’: a series of resources for use by the learners. These include a range of reference and learning tools such as an editing checklist and a self-evaluation tool for reading aloud. These resources can be used throughout the programme and can be referenced by the teacher or

the learners where appropriate. There are also tools and tips to guide group work, presentation skills and silent reading to support the teaching, the learning and the assessment process.

Activity Books The Activity Book accompanying each Learner’s Book includes supplementary and extension material mirroring and based on the content of the Learner’s Book so as to support: • the independent learning part of the teaching • the ‘practise and apply’ parts of some sessions • some personalisation activities • reinforcement of concepts introduced in the Learner’s Book • space for quiet focused work. The Activity Book content is not tied page by page to the Learner’s Book content, rather it follows the Learner’s Book unit by unit, so that each unit follows the same unifying theme. At times, the Activity Books include smaller extracts of texts included in the Learner’s Book if they are useful to repeat in the Activity Book. The Activity Books aim to cater for learners with a wide range of learning styles, which means they include a wide range of activities from somewhat mechanical (drill can still be an important learning tool for reinforcement and modelling) to more open and creative, allowing for personalisation and differentiation.Tasks in the Activity Book are also intended to provide some familiarisation with the task types learners may encounter in the Cambridge Primary Progression Tests. The Activity Books are designed to be flexible and should be used however suits the teacher and the class the best. In some cases it may be appropriate to use the Activity Books as class homework tasks or to allow certain learners to reinforce concepts at their own pace. Similarly a number of the activities can be used to stretch learners, allowing them more freedom of expression and creative space and to provide extension where the different pace of learners needs to be catered for. The answer keys to activities, where appropriate, are provided per unit following the notes on Learner’s Book activities.

Teacher’s Resource The teachers’ guidance notes in the Teacher’s Resource follow the pattern of the Learner’s Book, providing support for the teacher across each of the nine units, six long and three short. The notes cover material for three lessons per week (30–45 minutes per lesson) based on the Learner’s Book content, and include answer keys. The unit-by-unit notes list what the teacher will need at the beginning of each session together with the primary learning objectives and outcomes for the session. Thereafter, it provides background and suggestions for how to approach the activities in the Learner’s Book and, when necessary, includes supplemental Introduction

5


information and structuring. Each session assumes a mix of whole class teaching followed by group work (guided or independent), as well as a healthy mix of pair and/or individual work, following the review, teach, practise, apply cycle. The Teacher’s Resource provides opportunities and suggests strategies for differentiated learning throughout as well as opportunities for both formal and informal assessment. A summary of the curriculum framework coverage is provided in the grid on pages 8–11. The speaking and listening element of the curriculum framework is covered in part through specific activities but also through ongoing activities throughout the course. While the speaking and listening activities are not formally assessed opportunities for informal assessment are suggested in the Teacher’s Resource. Three to four additional activities are provided in the form of photocopy masters (PCM) for each unit with accompanying notes. Some PCMs focus on specific assessment opportunities of writing activities in relation to success criteria. The aim is for these PCMs to be part of the activity and to engage the learners in developing their own appropriate success criteria so that they are aware from the outset what is being looked for and how they will be assessed. As a result the PCMs include self-reflection from the learners on their progress as well as review by the teacher. The remaining PCMs provide opportunities for consolidation, extension or differentiation for certain of the activities in the Learner’s Book. Because success criteria are considered to be a vital part of learners becoming independently engaged in their learning process, certain generic PCMs have been included to allow teachers to develop success criteria for a wide range of other activities throughout the Learner’s Book. In recognition of this, where appropriate, session notes contain suggestions for possible success criteria that can be negotiated with the learners to allow them some input into where they will focus their efforts and how activities are assessed. However success criteria are not just about assessment; they are about providing goals for learners to aspire to in their personal learning journeys. Some PCMs are ‘generic’ and can be used with any unit, others are specific to units or activities. The table on page 119 clarifies which are generic and which are specific to particular units. An index to the Language focus boxes in the Learner’s Book is also provided on page 156 as a photocopiable resource for use with learners. Each unit is supplemented with suggestions on how to use the Activity Book, with answer keys to these activities following the notes and answer keys to the Learner’s Book. The CD-ROM in the back of this Teacher’s Resource includes PDFs of the Teacher’s Resource content for printing and reference.

6

Cambridge Primary English Stage 4 Teacher’s Resource

Teaching phonics, spelling and vocabulary Spelling spreads Spelling and vocabulary is an integrated part of an English programme. A teacher who is disciplined about focusing on spelling at the right moment and in the right context is well on the way to having better spellers with an increased vocabulary. As mentioned, pages 140–145 of the Learner’s Book feature three spelling spreads, one for every three units, providing a selection of rules and spelling activities linked to the units. The spreads are placed at the back of the book to give the teacher flexibility on when and how to do specific spelling teaching and practice – whether as a class activity or as differentiated work opportunity. In addition, the unit by unit notes include suggestions for when and how to approach specific spelling and word knowledge activities, providing the opportunity to work with the words and rules in context. The activities aim to reinforce a particular spelling rule or pattern and address some of the basic reasons why learners struggle to spell: • the language itself being confusing – quay sounding like key; present being a noun or a verb • pronunciation – sounding the words incorrectly • confusing words that look similar – weak visual perception • not being aware of root words or how to break down syllables and parts of words. By actively focusing the learners’ attention on activities and useful rules in the context of the lesson, this course aims to improve the average spelling age in your classroom. A spelling programme should take into account the following: • Acquiring a new word is a process: the word is recognised, spelling is learned, meaning and use are understood, the word is used in context. • A learner’s ability to spell grows through practice and analysis. Working with words and working out how and why letters are placed together, helps learners understand, internalise and apply the rules to other words and in other contexts. • A learner’s ability to spell requires them to recognise the sounds that make up a word and translate them into the written form. Spelling progresses when there is an understanding of the association between the sounds and the symbols. By Stage 4, ‘sight’ words (words acquired by sight and not by rules, e.g. the Dolch sight list) should have been acquired, although frequent reminders and displays are still valuable. Although the spelling spreads are designed primarily to be teacher-mediated, there is no reason why learners should not be encouraged to refer to them independently if they feel the need to do so and know where to find the spelling support they want.


Spelling lists The spelling lists on pages 157–58 of this Teacher’s Resource are a supplement to the spelling spreads at the back of the Learner’s Book. Notes on how to use the spelling lists are also provided on page 157.

Teaching spelling in the classroom Many approaches to how spelling should be taught in the classroom have been developed and continue to be developed. It is difficult to be too rigid about this; much depends on teacher commitment and the emphasis on spelling in the school as a whole. It is also dependent on the level of the class and how many learners are operating with English as their first language or as the primary language spoken in the home. Ideally, spelling should be addressed on a daily basis and in the context of the lesson. Embedded throughout the notes are Spelling links; these are intended to suggest opportunities at which the indicated spelling areas can be looked at in greater detail. Spelling link opportunities are also signposted with an icon in the Learner’s Book units. A time should be set aside regularly for specific spelling activities, e.g. to focus on a word, analyse it, group it with other words with the same spelling pattern and then add it to a spelling dictionary or index book. None of this need take up a lot of time but it does require a teacher to be constantly on the look-out for opportunities to look at spelling. If possible, a formal spelling lesson should take place once a week where rules are taught and learners are given a chance to practise the rule and use it. The formal lesson should focus on a specific sound or rule the teacher feels is relevant to the class and the context.

A suggested spelling session format • SAY the word and SEE the word. Introduce words both orally and visually so the learners see each word and hear the sound simultaneously to develop auditory perception. Use flashcards, words appearing on a screen or written on the board. • PLAY with the word. Learners write it in the air or on their desk with a finger, mime it to a partner, write it on a slate or paper and hold it up, do visual memory activities with a partner: look at a word, close eyes and spell it. These activities provide immediate feedback and develop visual memory. Clap the sounds to demonstrate how the word is broken into syllables. Let the learners find their own associations to help them remember words, e.g. ear in hear or ache in headache. • ANALYSE the word. Spelling rules can be helpful here to explain how words are built up, why letters move, how sounds change from one word to another and how patterns fit into words. • USE the word – make up a sentence. Activities are provided in the Learner’s Book but you can add to these by playing spelling games. Younger learners

enjoy spelling Snap or Bingo!; older learners might enjoy a spelling challenge/ladder or a competition that involves winners. • LEARN the word. Learners commit the word to memory while writing it out in a word book or personal spelling notebook. Tests or assessments need not be repetitive weekly activities but learners do need incentive to internalise the spelling of words and to see they are making progress.

Practical ideas for the classroom Words and spellings need to be highlighted and enriched at every opportunity in the classroom. • Encourage personal word books or cards: include words covered in spelling sessions and ones learners look up in the dictionary. At the back, suggest they develop a bank of words they would like to use (especially powerful, descriptive or unusual words). Word meanings can also be included. Some children may benefit by using colours or underlining/ highlighting to identify tricky bits or root words. • Have a classroom display of aspirational words or themed words around a topic (any learning area). • Have plenty of large spelling resources – dictionaries, thesauruses, etc. • Set up spelling buddies as a resource to use if a dictionary or thesaurus does not help. • Play word games such as word dominoes, or phonic pairs on a set of cards as a memory game. • Highlight and discuss word origins and have a merit system for anyone with interesting words or word information to share. • Display lists of words with similar sounds or letter patterns (either at the start, middle or end) – write the words large in the handwriting taught at the school (joined up if appropriate) to stimulate visual and kinaesthetic knowledge. • Have an interactive word list of interesting words, or words that match a spelling rule or word pattern being focused on. Add to it whenever anyone comes across a relevant word. • Consider an alphabet of vowel sounds and consonant sounds as a display or frieze around the walls. • If handwriting lessons are timetabled, add word patterns and sounds into those sessions. • Research free web resources to create your own crosswords and word searches linked to vocabulary in themes and spelling rules you are working on. Spelling may be a challenge but it does not have to be dull. Spelling can be fun if you make it that way! Finally, a note on handwriting practice. This series encourages best practice in handwriting but does not teach it explicitly. We recommend using the Cambridge Penpals for Handwriting series alongside Cambridge Primary English for teaching handwriting. We hope you enjoy teaching the course and that it will help your learners to feel confident about responding to and using English in a variety of ways. Sally Burt and Debbie Ridgard

Introduction

7


Stage 4 Curriculum correlation Cambridge Primary English 0844 curriculum framework, for use from 2011. Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary 4PSV1 Extend knowledge and use of spelling patterns, e.g. vowel phonemes, double consonants, silent letters, common prefixes and suffixes. 4PSV2 Confirm all parts of the verb to be and know when to use each one.

4PSV3 Apply phonic/spelling, graphic, grammatical and contextual knowledge in reading unfamiliar words.

4PSV4 Identify syllabic patterns in multisyllabic words.

4PSV5 Spell words with common letter strings but different pronunciations, e.g. tough, through, trough, plough.

4PSV6 Investigate spelling patterns; generate and test rules that govern them.

4PSV7 Revise rules for spelling words with common inflections, e.g. -ing, -ed, -s.

4PSV8 Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes. 4PSV9 Match spelling to meaning when words sound the same (homophones), e.g. to/two/too, right/write.

4PSV10 Use all the letters in sequence for alphabetical ordering.

4PSV11 Check and correct spellings and identify words that need to be learned.

4PSV12 Use more powerful verbs, e.g. rushed instead of went.

4PSV13 Explore degrees of intensity in adjectives, e.g. cold, tepid, warm, hot.

✓ ✓

4PSV15 Collect and classify words with common roots, e.g. invent, prevent.

✓ ✓

4PSV14 Look for alternatives for overused words and expressions.

4PSV16 Build words from other words with similar meanings, e.g. medical, medicine.

Grammar and punctuation: Reading 4GPr1 Use knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read with fluency, understanding and expression.

4GPr2 Identify all the punctuation marks and respond to them when reading.

4GPr3 Learn the use of the apostrophe to show possession, e.g. girl’s, girls’.

8

Cambridge Primary English Stage 4 Teacher’s Resource

✓ ✓


Unit 1 4GPr4 Practise using commas to mark out meaning within sentences.

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

✓ ✓

4GPr5 Identify adverbs and their impact on meaning. 4GPr6 Investigate past, present and future tenses of verbs.

Unit 4

4GPr7 Investigate the grammar of different sentences: statements, questions and orders.

4GPr8 Understand the use of connectives to structure an argument, e.g. if, although.

Unit 5

Unit 6

Grammar and punctuation: Writing 4GPw1 Use speech marks and begin to use other associated punctuation.

4GPw2 Use a range of end-of-sentence punctuation with accuracy. 4GPw3 Experiment with varying tenses within texts, e.g. in dialogue.

4GPw4 Use a wider variety of connectives in an increasing range of sentences. 4GPw5 Re-read own writing to check punctuation and grammatical sense.

Reading: Fiction & poetry 4Rf1

Extend the range of reading.

4Rf2

Explore the different processes of reading silently and reading aloud.

4Rf3

Investigate how settings and characters are built up from details and identify key words and phrases.

4Rf4

Explore implicit as well as explicit meanings within a text.

4Rf5

Recognise meaning in figurative language.

4Rf6

Understand the main stages in a story from introduction to resolution.

4Rf7

Explore narrative order and the focus on significant events.

4Rf8

Retell or paraphrase events from the text in response to questions.

4Rf9

Understand how expressive and descriptive language creates mood.

4Rf10 Express a personal response to a text and link characters and settings to personal experience.

4Rf11 Read further stories or poems by a favourite writer, and compare them.

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

4Rf12 Read and perform play scripts, exploring how scenes are built up.

4Rf13 Explore the impact of imagery and figurative language in poetry, including alliteration and simile, e.g. as ... as a ....

4Rf14 Compare and contrast poems and investigate poetic features.

Introduction

9


Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Reading: Non-fiction 4RNF1 Understand how points are ordered to make a coherent argument. 4RNF2 Understand how paragraphs and chapters are used to organise ideas.

✓ ✓

4RNF3 Identify different types of non-fiction text and their known key features.

4RNF4 Read newspaper reports and consider how they engage the reader.

4RNF5 Investigate how persuasive writing is used to convince a reader.

4RNF6 Note key words and phrases to identify the main points in a passage.

4RNF7 Distinguish between fact and opinion in print and ICT sources. Writing: Fiction 4Wf1

Explore different ways of planning stories, and write longer stories from plans.

4Wf2

Elaborate on basic information with some detail.

4Wf3

Write character profiles, using detail to capture the reader’s imagination.

4Wf4

Explore alternative openings and endings for stories.

4Wf5

Begin to adopt a viewpoint as a writer, expressing opinions about characters or places.

4Wf6

Begin to use paragraphs more consistently to organise and sequence ideas.

4Wf7

Choose and compare words to strengthen the impact of writing, including some powerful verbs.

✓ ✓

Writing: Non-fiction 4WNF1 Explore the layout and presentation of writing, in the context of helping it to fit its purpose.

4WNF2 Show awareness of the reader by adopting an appropriate style or viewpoint. 4WNF3 Write newspaper-style reports, instructions and non-chronological reports. 4WNF4 Present an explanation or a point of view in ordered points, e.g. in a letter.

4WNF5 Collect and present information from non-fiction texts.

4WNF6 Make short notes from a text and use these to aid writing.

4WNF7 Summarise a sentence or a paragraph in a limited number of words.

10

Cambridge Primary English Stage 4 Teacher’s Resource

✓ ✓

✓ ✓


Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Writing: Presentation 4WP1

Use joined-up handwriting in all writing.

Speaking and listening 4S&L1 Organise ideas in a longer speaking turn to help the listener.

4S&L2 Vary use of vocabulary and level of detail according to purpose.

4S&L3 Understand the gist of an account or the significant points and respond to main ideas with relevant suggestions and comments.

4S&L4 Deal politely with opposing points of view.

4S&L6 Adapt the pace and loudness of speaking appropriately when performing or reading aloud.

✓ ✓

4S&L7 Adapt speech and gesture to create a character in drama. ✓

4S&L5 Listen carefully in discussion, contributing relevant comments and questions.

4S&L8 Comment on different ways that meaning can be expressed in own and others’ talk.

Introduction 11


1

Storybook

Unit overview This is a four-week unit of 12 sessions focusing on fiction and extending the learners’ range of reading. It encourages them to reflect on their reading preferences and different genres of books. It also encourages the learners to read as writers and to analyse how a writer builds up character and setting from small details. The emphasis of the unit is introductions and how to grab the reader’s attention.

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit, learners will: • be able to use ‘story talk’ terminology effectively • have the opportunity to predict story plots and discuss characters and setting • explore narrative and dialogue tense conventions • practise reading aloud skills focusing on punctuation and expression.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • revise and build on story talk terminology • develop prediction and inference skills • refine their word selection skills • use a variety of texts and ICT opportunities.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • read books independently • are familiar with ‘story talk’ and can differentiate between different types of stories at a basic level • talk about characters and setting • know essential parts of speech • understand what a sentence is.

12

Unit 1 Storybook


Session 1: What makes a story a story? Learner’s Book pages: 6–7 Activity Book pages: 4–5

You will need: a selection of different genres of books. Nice to have: independent readers or learners’ own reading books. Spelling link: alphabetical order.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to understand ‘story talk’ vocabulary • to recall a favourite story and retell it briefly. Learning outcomes Learners can: • display familiarity with, and can use, relevant terminology • recall and summarise a story.

A

Revise story talk

• Let talk partners or groups match vocabulary words with definitions first, and then pull together a class discussion. Learners should be familiar with all the terms, but may need to revise them, hence the initial group ice breaker. Remind learners to use these terms when discussing stories. Discuss other meanings of the ‘story talk’ words, in other contexts, e.g. the setting sun; a plot of land. • Learners could write the words and definitions on the back page of their notebooks for easy reference. Answers: The writer of a story, play or poem – author A person, animal or fictional being in a story – character The ending of the story – conclusion A passage taken from a story – extract A synonym for a story – tale Stories about events that have not really happened – fiction The beginning of the story – introduction The sequence of events in a story, play or novel – plot The solving of a problem – resolution The place or places where a story takes place – setting A real or imaginary account of an event, or series of events – story • The type of story – genre • • • • • • • • • • •

Spelling link • The above answers are almost in alphabetical order. Which words (answers) would have to move position to ensure alphabetical order? • Did you know? Remind learners about synonyms and alternative words. Point out that synonyms could have subtle differences of meaning or nuances, e.g. yarn implies an oral tale and possibly exaggeration (‘spin a yarn’).

B

Remember a story

• Invite personal responses and build a discussion. • Explain that stories learners recall can be fictional, factual, or based on fact with invented details added for interest. • Explore the significance of where they heard the stories and who told them: stories can teach something, reinforce a place within a culture, religion or family, or simply entertain. • Encourage use of the word genre. Answers: 1–5 Learners’ own answers.

C

Retell a story

• Tell the class a favourite story of your own, or a traditional story appropriate to your region. Oral storytelling traditions include Greek and Roman myths, regional legends, nursery rhymes, fairy tales, folklore, religious stories and epics, e.g. the Ramayana, stories about fantastical creatures or places, e.g. Big Foot, Atlantis, El Dorado and Shangri-La, and even proverbs and sayings within fables. • Allow free choice of talk partners. Encourage use of ‘story talk’ words, e.g. setting, characters. Suggest using pointing words, e.g. first, second, finally. • Explain that summarising means just recounting the main events and not including all the details. Set a five minute time limit for each story. • If learners recognise each other’s stories, do they remember anything differently? Discuss oral storytelling, which is important in many cultures, and how oral stories may exist in many versions and can change over time, e.g. in the story of Hercules, there are different accounts of how he overcame the snakes sent to kill him as a baby, including the animated film version. Explore how stories are changed from book into film. Have learners ever been surprised or disappointed by a film based on a book? Answers: 1–4 Learners’ own answers.

• ICT opportunity: if you have a smart board or computer display and access to the internet, show learners different images associated with well-known characters (they can suggest them) and how different images affect perceptions. Assessment opportunities Can learners: • use story talk vocabulary confidently? • recount details of a story? Activity Book A Remind learners how to complete a reading log. D Discuss what genres the cover illustrations suggest. E Explain that Pliny is a historical figure who lived in Ancient Rome. Session 1 What makes a story a story?

13


Answers: A Date: Learners’ own answers. Title: The Pliny Adventures Author: BC Loveit Publisher: Scroll Publishing B Faiek, Jehan, Pliny, Madame Histoire C Should identify Faiek, Jehan and Pliny because the three of them go on the adventures. D Learners’ own answers. Likely choices: Imaginary world; adventure; mystery; historical. E Learners’ own answers.

Session 2: Extend your reading range Learner’s Book pages: 8–9 Activity Book page: 6

You will need: a selection of different genres of books; PCMs 1, 2 and 3; independent readers. Nice to have: The Legend of Spud Murphy by Eoin Colfer and Where the Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin.

• Ask: who is reading a book with animal characters/ an imaginary setting? Tell us about it. Do you prefer realistic books? Tell us about some of the events in your book so far. Would you say it is an adventure or a mystery story? • Invite some ideas and model sentences to help learners express their preferences. • Explore genre words (e.g. adventure, fantasy, science fiction, mystery, true to life, historical fiction, stories from other countries or cultures, myths, legends, fables, traditional tales, short stories, comics). Explore how books can cross genres, e.g. both adventure and fantasy. • Use PCM 1 Extend your reading to challenge learners to read beyond their normal reading patterns. Suggest books to get them going and then support them in making further choices. Answers: 1–4 Learners’ own answers.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to identify elements of enjoyable stories and relate to personal preferences • to extend range of reading choices • to start a personal reading log • to differentiate between types or genres of story. Learning outcomes Learners can: • articulate personal preferences • try out a different genre of book to their usual reading pattern • start their log and fill it in for their independent reader • link features of stories to genre and discuss preferences. • This session sets the groundwork for an ongoing focus on extending learners’ range of reading throughout the year. They will set up a log to track all their reading in school and at home (not just a book record).

A

Story preferences

• Being able to express personal preferences is important for choosing books and for extending individual reading range. Learners may fall back on formulaic responses if they are not confident in their preferences and approach. Being comfortable that there is no ‘right’ answer is important for extending their individuality, reflecting background, cultural perspective and creative self-expression. Encourage learners to remain open to new genres. Getting hooked on a particular author or series can make it hard to move on to other books and genres. • Express your own preferences of books you enjoyed at the learners’ age and those you enjoy now. • Model how to reflect on reading preferences, e.g. The Legend of Spud Murphy by Eoin Colfer contains humour, quirky characters, characters of similar age, family life and children’s experiences of life. 14

Unit 1 Storybook

Choose a book for each other

B

• Talk partners share their sentences from Activity A. They tell each other what sort of books they normally read, and what they have read recently. • Explain they should choose a book for their partner. It should be a genre different from their partner’s usual preference, but still contain something they like (e.g. an adventure story with animal characters). They can discuss the books as they choose them. • You could hold the session in the library, with the school librarian guiding learners, if one is available. To get them going, the librarian could give a talk about popular books for their age group. • Ask some pairs to tell the class what they chose for each other, and whether they think they would enjoy the book chosen for them. Answers: 1–3 Learners’ own answers.

C

Record your reading

• Introduce PCM 2 Reading log. This is intended to be a quick moment of reflection after each reading session. Learners use the comment section to note favourite characters or personal reflections on whether they enjoyed it. • Learners fill in details of their current reader. Make sure they understand what is required in each column. • Book reviews: shared peer group book reviews are useful in helping learners extend their reading range, but having to review every single book read can be off-putting. Learners could fill in PCM 3 Book review just for books they have particularly enjoyed or not enjoyed. Ensure learners understand book length does not correspond directly with difficulty. They should reflect on whether they understood the words and sentences and could follow the story easily.


• ICT opportunity: research websites that review books for this age group (e.g. www.lovereading4kids.co.uk) and develop your own resource of reviews. This is a good way to keep up-to-date with recent children’s literature. Some websites let you download extracts that you could display and discuss in class. Differentiation: • Match stronger and less able readers as talk partners, or mix reading abilities when they join other pairs. • Challenge stronger readers to read a different genre of book. Suggest books for less confident readers and their partners to ensure a good match. Assessment opportunities Reading: • If your school has a formal reading programme, familiarise yourself with where learners are in the scheme. Listen to each learner read to you individually, at some point. • Assess the learners’ independent readers through their reading logs to assess their level and choices of reading. Reading success criteria to negotiate: • I have to choose a book I would not normally choose to read. • I want to find out more about what sort of books I enjoy. Activity Book A Recap the terms fact and fiction. Can learners provide examples of each? B Talk partners could discuss the sentences to decide on their category. C Challenge learners to change their factual sentences into fictional ones (e.g there are six dragon eggs in the box) and vice versa. Answers: A B C D

1 fiction 2 fact 3 fiction 4 fact 5 fact 6 fiction Learners’ own answers. Learners’ own answers. Fiction – because the events are impossible in real life. Insist on at least two examples from the cover.

Session 3: Read and present an extract Learner’s Book pages: 9–11 Activity Book page: 7

You will need: PCM 10. Nice to have: a copy of The Legend of Spud Murphy. Spelling link: noun and verb homophones; practice and practise.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to use book clues to make predictions • to differentiate between narrative and dialogue when reading aloud • to present a reading in groups, using punctuation to create meaning and expression. Learning outcomes Learners can: • establish expectations of the story from the title • clearly identify narrative and dialogue • read presenting narrator and characters and show appropriate expression.

A

Prepare to read an extract

• Organise learners into groups of four to fit the roles in the extract. • Point out the definition of spud. Discuss reasons for nicknames, e.g. traditional or regional diminutives, something a younger sibling called them, a personal attribute. • Discuss legends as stories from a long time ago, often with a hero with superhuman qualities. Explore how not all legendary figures are ‘good’, e.g. the Pied Piper of Hamelin. • Invite groups to feed back their ideas of modern-day legends. Suggest a few modern legends from your region, e.g. Mahatma Gandhi in India, or Nelson Mandela in South Africa. How many of the legends learners have thought of are associated with films, TV or sport? Differentiate between being famous and being a legend because of achievements. • Encourage predictions building on discussions about genre in the previous session. Answers: 1 Learners’ own answers. Likely answer is no. Ensure reasons given support answer. 2 A person or character is a ‘legend’ when they are famous for their extraordinary gifts or powers, and stories are told about them. 3 Learners’ own answers. 4 Spud Murphy will be a main character and will be extraordinary in some way. The silliness of the name should indicate a humorous book. It is likely to be about the ‘legend’ associated with the character.

B

Discuss narrative and dialogue

• Reinforce the difference between narrative and dialogue. A story can be told entirely in narrative; a story entirely in dialogue is effectively a play. • Recap that skimming is a reading skill to get the general idea quickly; scanning is looking over the text to find specific information. • Discuss the characteristics of an outside narrator versus a character relating the story, without focusing too heavily on technical terminology.

Session 3 Read and present an extract 15


Third person narrator: the story is told as if someone is recounting the events from outside looking in. Personal pronouns are not used except in dialogue. First person narrator: a character narrates the story and is part of the action. The reader understands the story from the character’s perspective. Personal and possessive pronouns such as I and me and mine. • Did you know? Learners are not yet expected to be able to punctuate dialogue completely, but do need to be able to read it, identify when a character speaks, and continues to speak, after a narrative insert. Point out examples in the extract of speech continuing (e.g. lines 19–21) and of new lines indicating a new speaker (e.g. lines 8 and 9). Answers: 1 Will narrates the story. His mother mentions his name and he uses the personal pronouns I and my. 2 Marty, Mum, Dad and Will all speak. Will is also the narrator.

C

Read the extract aloud

• Discuss what each character seems to be like and how they might speak. Will – the narrator; ready to give his opinions. The reader will need to differentiate between when he is speaking and narrating. Marty – Will’s brother; seems prone to doing silly things. Mum – amused by the boys’ reluctance to join the library and shocked at their ideas about Mrs (Spud) Murphy; convinced it is a ploy not to do any reading. Dad – thoughtful and on Mum’s side. • Support groups to allocate roles appropriately (e.g. avoiding giving the narrative part to the weakest reader). • Demonstrate how you might read each character, adjusting your voice for effect. Stand up and use your body to support expression. Model using punctuation to add expression. • How could Will show when he is speaking and when he is narrating? (e.g. by facing the audience when narrating and facing the other characters when speaking.) Learners could consider omitting Will’s narrative inserts (e.g. I asked) and just use body language and expression. • Recap basing expression on punctuation and content clues (e.g. question mark, exclamation mark, begged, whispered, asked). • Allow practice time, and then let groups present their reading to another group or class. • Extension: Extend the discussion on narrative versus dialogue. How are plays different from novels? What would be lost if there was no narrative? Can they suggest a way around it?

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Unit 1 Storybook

Spelling link Point out that the noun practice and the verb to practise are spelled differently, despite sounding the same (homophone). Suggest the following memory jog: practice – ice is a noun; practising – sing is a verb. Other nouns/verbs: advice/advise; licence/license; device/devise. Note: not all verbs ending in ice change in the same way (e.g. service, price, rejoice). Differentiation: • Organise mixed-ability reading groups. Support less able readers by allocating the smallest part and helping them individually to prepare their part. • If some learners are anxious about performing to a large group, ensure this does not become an ordeal. They could practise and present reading with expression just to you if necessary. Assessment opportunities Reading: • Assess the learners’ ability to add expression, follow speech marks and respond to punctuation. Performance success criteria to negotiate: • We have to perform a reading for … so that everyone can hear and enjoy it. • We each have to prepare our own part and work out what expression to add. • We have to practise together and give each other feedback on how to improve. Activity Book A Encourage learners to remember their spelling work as they practise selecting the correct homophone for each sentence. B Recap nouns, verbs and adjectives before learners attempt the cloze activity. Answers: A 1 practise 2 devise 3 device 4 advise 5 advice B 1 ate 2 eight 3 allowed 4 aloud 5 bored 6 board 7 daze 8 days


Session 4: Check your understanding Learner’s Book page: 12 Activity Book page: 8

You will need: notebooks.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to understand main idea of the extract • to identify relevant detail • to relate story to personal experience • to complete reading log for text. Learning outcomes Learners can: • answer questions demonstrating comprehension of main idea • use relevant detail in their answers • express a personal response • complete their reading log.

A

Use close reading

• Set your expectations and prepare learners to answer the questions by discussing them together first. Help them identify relevant detail and model answering to demonstrate understanding. Use the prompts in the answer section below. Encourage learners to quote or paraphrase text in their responses. • After the preparation discussion, allow time for learners to read the questions and re-read the extract on their own. Remind them to use full sentences for their written answers. Encourage talk partners to compare answers and clarify any differences. This will help them become independent learners who can use a range of strategies to review their work. • When everyone has finished, discuss answers with the class to assist with the self-evaluation questions. Self-evaluation will be more valuable if learners have an immediate idea whether their answers are on track, rather than waiting for marked work to be handed back when the momentum will have gone. Answers: 1 Mum wants the boys to join the library as an educational hobby. 2 The boys went to art classes which ended when Marty became ill from drinking paintbrush water. 3 Will’s stomach is churning because he is terrified at the thought of going to the library. 4 Spud Murphy is the librarian (Mrs Murphy). 5 Mum thinks Mrs Murphy is ‘a lovely old lady’. Will believes Mrs Murphy does not show her true self to grown-ups and that really she hates children. She used to be an army tracker of children from enemy countries. He believes she shoots children with her spud gun if they make a noise in the library. Answer on which view is more likely – learners’ own answers, encourage reasons. 6 Learners’ own answers; must indicate a personal response.

B

Record your reading

• Reinforce how to fill in the reading log by revising what should appear in each section of the log. • Refer to the reading log example on page 9. • Encourage learners to write whether they would enjoy reading the rest of the book. Differentiation: • Support learners who read more slowly than others to check that they can identify relevant parts of the text. Assessment opportunities • Assess how well learners make connections between what they read and their understanding of this story, and features of stories in general. • After talk partners have swapped answers, ask learners to review their answers using the How did I do? box. Allow them to make changes afterwards. • If needed for assessment portfolio, learners could write answers on paper rather than in their books. Activity Book A Recap the terms noun, verb, adjective and adverb. Point out the spelling pattern of nouns that end in ice and related verbs that end in ise. Answers: A Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

practice device advice board daze days

practise devise advise ate allowed

eight bored

aloud

B Learners’ own answers.

Session 5: Work with verb tenses Learner’s Book pages: 12–14 Activity Book pages: 8–12

You will need: large card on which to write a Handy Hint; learners’ independent readers. Spelling link: revise rules for adding suffix ed; irregular past tense verbs to be.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to investigate and use the past tense in story narrative • to investigate present tense in dialogue • to formulate a rule for forming past and present tenses for regular verbs • to learn some irregular past tense forms • to explore more powerful dialogue verbs.

Session 5 Work with verb tenses

17


Learning outcomes Learners can: • note and use past tense for story narrative • note and use present tense in dialogue • establish a rule for forming verb tenses of regular verbs • note irregular forms of verbs for learning • explore and use more powerful dialogue verbs.

A

Practise tenses

• Revise verbs and what they do, especially to be and to have. Read through the first paragraph of the Spud Murphy extract together identifying the verbs. • Use the Language focus box to revise the past, present and future tenses. Ask questions (e.g. What did you eat yesterday? What will you do at the weekend ?) and discuss the tense learners used naturally in their answers. • Which tense ‘sounds’ more like part of a story? Learners are likely to recognise the past tense as a story tense through familiarity. Encourage them now to notice it more consciously and thus internalise it. Answers: 1 a tries/tells b tried/told 2 a reminds/informs/alerts b reminded/informed/alerted Duck speech bubble: tells implies Mum might not have known what happened; reminds implies she may have forgotten; informs implies something formal; alerts adds a hint of danger.

• Have an oral challenge each morning by asking the class to close their eyes while you call out some of the verbs. Learners raise their hands if they know and can spell the past tense form. • In question 3, learners match verbs with their irregular past tense forms. Supplement this by discussing further irregular past tense forms: dig–dug, wear–wore, sting–stung; grow–grew, feel– felt, buy–bought, drink–drank, pay–paid, get–got. Learners could write them at the back of their notebooks on a special page for irregular verbs. • When learners have written their own sentences using an irregular past tense form, invite volunteers to read out a sentence. Ensure they have used the past tense correctly, and demonstrate it to the class. • Learners often do not recognise to be as a verb because it is not an action or doing verb. Point it out especially when it is a stative/linking verb. The Spelling section, Activity Book and later units contain more work on this important verb.

Spelling link • This is also a good time to check that learners can identify all forms of the irregular verbs to be and to have. • Although complex tenses are not a specific focus at Stage 4, learners will use them automatically to form certain tenses. Most errors in using both verbs are errors of concord and tense. To be

B

Revise the suffix ed

• Learners should already be familiar with adding the suffix ed to form the past tense of regular verbs. They revise this structure and reinforce the use of past tense in narrative. • Talk through the paragraph with less able learners before they write it in their notebooks. Make sure they suggest the correct verb and the past tense form. • Two rules are revised in the Tip box. Write a few examples on the board, e.g. share or spare. Ask a volunteer to put them into the past tense. Try to develop the rules together before answering question 3.

Singular

18

Unit 1 Storybook

Plural

Singular

Plural

Present tense I am You are He/she/ it is

We are You are They are

I have You have He/she/it has

We have You have They have

Simple past tense I was You were He/she/it was

We were You were They were

I had You had He/she/it had

We had You had They had

Future tense

Spelling link The activity revises two spelling rules for adding the suffix ed to a verb to form the past tense: • If the verb already ends in e, just add d. • If the verb ends in y, the y changes to i before adding ed. There are more activities on these spelling rules in the Spelling section on page 140 of the Learner’s Book which could be used for homework. • Write these spelling rules on large card and display them in the classroom. Also display each of the verbs with its irregular past tense partner from question 3 (read–read, say–said, think–thought, find– found, is–was, has–had).

To have

I will be You will be He/she/it will be

We will be You will be They will be

I will have You will have He/she/it will have

We will have You will have They will have

There are more activities on root words and the y rule in the Spelling section on page 144 of the Learner’s Book.


Answers: 1 churned; visualised; glared; closed; sighed; changed 2 a loved; arrived; hoped; decided b tried; worried; spied 3 read–read, say–said, think–thought, find–found, is–was, have–had 4 Learners’ own answers.

C

Explore verb tenses in dialogue

• This activity is designed to sensitise learners to the variety of tenses that may be used in stories and dialogue. • Do some oral activities differentiating between past and present. Ask: how do you feel – hot, cold or just right? This should prompt responses like: I feel ... I am… Then ask: how did you feel yesterday? • Demonstrate the difference between describing something that has already happened and a current state. • Learners should be familiar identifying dialogue, from having read the extract aloud. They should notice the variety of tenses including the present, e.g. You are not … it is perfect. • Raise awareness that narrative and dialogue differ. Dialogue reflects how we actually talk in a variety of tenses; narrative reflects how we report events that have already happened (usually in the past tense). Answers: 1 Mostly present tense, but spoken descriptions of past events are in past tense. 2 Past tense (e.g. tried, said, was, added). 3 Answers may vary but are likely to recognise that narrative is mostly (but not always) in the past tense; dialogue is mostly (but not always) in the present tense.

D

Use powerful verbs with dialogue

• Organise learners into mixed-ability groups so able readers can model using appropriate expression according to the verb used. • This should be a fun activity – encourage exaggerated expression to match the verb. • Finish the activity by asking learners to suggest which of the verbs might apply to Mum’s mood by the end of the extract: chuckled, laughed (My mother thought this was all very funny). • Reinforce regular past tense verb endings. • Challenge: Suggest a more powerful alternative for said or asked wherever they are used in the extract. Answers: 1 Learners’ own answers. Learners should notice that the verb encourages them to speak in a particular way to reflect the mood it implies. 2 Any of the verbs except laughed and chuckled; said is ineffective because it is so neutral, but it is not strictly inappropriate.

between action verbs and the verbs to be and to have. This can be especially challenging where perfect or continuous (progressive) tenses are used and to be and to have are the auxiliary verbs. • Help the same learners to identify the tense of the verbs, focusing on action verbs first. Ask: has the action already taken place, is it happening now or will it happen in the future? • Create a spelling card for learners who find it difficult to remember irregular spellings. Divide the card into alphabet blocks. Learners pencil in words they struggled to remember so that they can erase each word when they are more confident of its spelling. • Encourage able learners to check the tenses used in their independent readers. Assessment opportunities • Use the cloze passage in Activity B, question 1 to assess whether learners are successfully following past tense spelling rules. • Check whether learners used irregular past tense forms accurately in the sentences written in Activity B, question 4. Activity Book A Encourage learners to say the sentences out loud to try and hear which verb is correct. C Explain that the present tense in the grid should be for the first person: (I) awake, etc. D Support learners with crossword-solving skills. Ask: how many letters does that word have? Which words could it be? Which meaning fits? Let them use a dictionary to check any meanings they are unsure of. F Explore other powerful alternatives for ‘said’ using a thesaurus and learners’ own ideas. Answers: A 1 4 B 1 5 C

worried, had; 2 told, kept; saw, shot; 5 wore, wrote.

3 went, said;

hit 2 hurt 3 shut 4 split let 6 set 7 spread 8 burst simple past

present

future

awoke broke froze grew sang

awake break freeze grow sing

will awake will break will freeze will grow will sing

D Across: 2 sobbed; 6 yelled; 7 whispered Down: 1 mumbled; 2 suggested; 3 exclaimed; 4 shouted; 5 stammered E Learners’ own answers using the crossword answers. F Learners’ own answers (accept sensible suggestions). G Learners’ own answers. H Present: have, have, has Past: had, had, had

Differentiation: • Work with groups of learners you identify as struggling to recognise verbs. Identify verbs in their own readers, a paragraph at a time. Help them differentiate especially Session 5 Work with verb tenses

19


Session 6: Explore beginnings Learner’s Book page: 15 Activity Book pages: 12–13

You will need: a selection of stories/books with different types of beginnings.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to use details from story to develop expectations about the storyline • to log key words and phrases on a story map. Learning outcomes Learners can: • make predictions about the story • summarise the key information in the extract using key words and phrases.

A

Analyse the beginning

• Begin by choosing two to three stories and read out the opening two or three sentences of each to the class. Model making predictions regarding characters, settings and storyline. Encourage the use of questions: what do you think is happening? What does this tell you about … ? Where is the story set? What clues suggest what might happen in the story? • Allow time for groups to summarise their ideas about the Spud Murphy opening. Offer ideas of your own as a model of summarising at the end. Answers: 1 Learners may note some or all of the following: the words tried to save us hints at disaster but the next sentence shows that it is not serious danger, only that they are going to be forced to take up an educational hobby they are not keen on, suggesting there may be unexpected adventures and laughs ahead. 2 The main characters are likely to be Marty, Will and Mrs Murphy. Much of the action may take place at the library since the story is the legend of the librarian, Mrs Murphy. 3–5 Learners’ own answers.

Differentiation: • Extend more able learners by encouraging them to write out their summaries before sharing them with the class. • Pair less able learners with more able learners who could act as scribe and suggest improvements (e.g. in tense). Assessment opportunities • Use this lesson to assess whether learners can make links between what they read, their knowledge of stories in general and the predictions they make. • Story map success criteria to negotiate: We have to summarise on a story map what we know about the characters, setting and plot. We can only use key words and phrases. Activity Book A Learners could check the introductions of a range of books if they are unsure of any points. The final sentence may provide an opportunity for discussion. Encourage learners to give evidence and reasons for their opinions. B Invite volunteers to read the excerpt out loud. Briefly discuss what we can infer from what the characters say. Encourage learners to imagine what happened, where, and what the situation must have been like, using evidence in the text. Learners could role play the scene they plan on the mind map. Answers: A Statements 1 and 3 should be ticked. Can accept 5. B Largely learners’ own answers. Main characters: Marty and Will; setting: art classroom; what happens: Marty drinks the paintbrush water and is sick.

Session 7: Focus on character and setting Learner’s Book pages: 16–18 Activity Book pages: 13–14

B

Create a story map

• Only keywords and short phrases should be used. Prompt appropriate words by asking questions, e.g. What do you think Will is like? What does he enjoy? Do you think he exaggerates? Where else might the action take place? (There is more work on mind maps in Unit 2.) • The story map does not need a lot of detail – it should just capture what learners have already established about the plot, characters and setting. Invite learners to share ideas from their story maps and create a group map as a model for future mind-mapping activities. • Use the opportunity to reinforce identification of adjectives, nouns and verbs on the story map.

20

Unit 1 Storybook

You will need: a range of younger picture storybooks with a range of settings.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to read another story introduction • to investigate character and setting detail • to explore paragraph changes • to investigate descriptive verbs. Learning outcomes Learners can: • skim a story for main idea and scan for specific detail • establish the setting and character • explain why new paragraphs are used • appreciate and use descriptive verbs.


A

Analyse the start of a fantasy story

• Recap that skimming means quickly reading a text, looking for key words to give the main idea of the extract. • Learners should quickly identify the main character and then skim for her name to find out information about her. • Learners may find identifying the setting difficult. Ask what they think they should be looking for. Use some picture books from earlier years and quickly recap identifying the setting from the pictures or from the first few paragraphs. • If necessary, prompt learners to think about the name of the place – it isn’t mentioned but appears later in the story, Village of Fruitless Mountain (at the end Fruitless changes to Fruitful), the type of place (a village), location (by river and mountain), local features (paddy fields and mud) and what the weather is like (hot). • Spelling points to discuss: color, meager and gray are American spellings. Point out that certain letter patterns are different in US English, for example the our ending becomes or in US English (colour–color, honour–honor, humour–humor); the re ending becomes er (centre–center; meagre–meager, metre–meter); and some words are just spelled differently (grey–gray). • ICT opportunity: search for images of different settings (e.g. paddy fields, villages by rivers and mountains) and weather conditions (sun, cloud, rain). Learners can identify features in the images as groundwork for describing a setting later on. Answers: 1 Minli, a young girl. 2 A village where Fruitless Mountain and Jade River met. A hard, poor landscape, dominated by muddy paddy fields.

B

Paragraphs organise ideas

• This activity encourages learners to consider why writers start a new paragraph – i.e. for a reason rather than just because it seems like they have been writing for a while. Encourage discussion about keeping one idea per paragraph and possible reasons for starting a new one. • The reasons are similar for both fiction and non-fiction except that dialogue requires new paragraphs in fiction. Answers: 1

C

Explore powerful, descriptive verbs

• Ask learners to write the verbs underlined in the text, each on a separate line, in alphabetical order. • Even if learners know the meanings of the words, focus on the strategy of reading words in context. Reinforce that many words have several meanings and words that are familiar in one context could mean something different in another (e.g. tramp as a noun means something different from tramp as a verb). • Have a side discussion on how different areas have more words to describe their predominant weather condition (e.g. Inuit languages have a wide vocabulary for different types of snow; places with lots of rain use vocabulary such as downpour, drizzle, shower, deluge). • Allow learners to use dictionaries if necessary when pairing verbs and their meanings in question 3. • Recap the term synonym. Explain that a thesaurus will give synonyms and possibly an antonym but not the definition of a word. Model trying out words from the thesaurus in context as not all words will be appropriate, particularly if several nuances of meaning appear in the thesaurus. If any learners are not confident at using a thesaurus, ask them to join a small group and show them how to search for words. Make a note of any learners who appear to be struggling with alphabetical order. • Invite volunteers to read out one of their more interesting verbs in context after they have compared their choices with a talk partner. Answers: 1 coax, cut into, flashed, glowed, suited, tramp 2 Learners’ own answers. They should use context clues to make sensible deductions. 3 cut into – sharply outlined against; coax – persuade; tramp – walk heavily; flashed – came readily; glowed – had a warm healthy appearance; sparkled – caught the light. 4 Learners’ own answers. 5 Possible answers: jutted, encourage, traipse, lit up, became, shone, twinkled. 6 Learners’ own answers.

Differentiation • Spend time with selected groups to make sure that they are able to use a thesaurus. • Give learners who are struggling with alphabetical order an alphabet strip that they can fold into their notebooks.

• • • • • •

Fruitless Mountain is introduced The setting for the village is described Minli’s home and family are introduced. Why Minli is different is explained. Clues about the plot are given. Minli asks her father to tell her a story. 2 Link the main ideas to reasons why the new paragraphs were started: change of topic/event.

Session 7 Focus on character and setting

21


Assessment opportunities • Make a note of learners who are able to choose interesting verb synonyms to fit the context. Identify whether consolidation work needs to take place. Activity Book A This activity encourages learners to reflect on why writers start new paragraphs. Many stories at this stage end up as a single paragraph unless learners make a conscious effort to write in paragraphs. Point out that paragraphs have a purpose as well as making it easier to read text. Revise the concept of one idea per paragraph – for both fiction and non-fiction (although in dialogue, a new line [i.e. paragraph] is started when a new speaker speaks). Answers: 1–3 Learners’ own answers.

understand and to develop their skills as writers by noticing how successful authors build character profiles and establish settings using detail. • Remind learners to use key words rather than copying whole sentences from the text. • Learners complete the activity on their own except when they discuss with a talk partner how the setting in the extract is similar to or different from where they live. This discussion will help them think more clearly about what the village by Fruitless Mountain is like before they draw it. • Cross-curricular link/Extension: learners could draw the village, exploring shades of colour. List brown colour synonyms for learners to match to actual colour samples, emphasising nuance and descriptive power in words (e.g. chocolate, coffee, tan, beige, russet, fawn, hazel, mahogany, umber, sepia, chestnut, auburn, tawny) and levels of intensity (pale, light dark, dense, intense, luminous). Learners could add a profile map below their picture for display. Answers:

Session 8: Creating mind pictures from detail Learner’s Book page: 19 Activity Book page: 14

You will need: colouring pencils/pens. Nice to have: a copy of Where the Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin; PCM 10.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to build up a picture of the setting and characters from detail in the text • to begin to develop a viewpoint as a writer. Learning outcomes Learners can: • produce setting and character profiles from relevant detail in the extract • express their opinion on the setting and characters.

A

Scan for detail

• This activity, although it looks short, should take the whole session. • Recap that scanning is a technique for locating specific information; close reading allows us to begin to infer meaning, motive and message from the text as a whole. • Encourage learners to use lists, mind maps or other methods to note down the information they find. They could also use colours to highlight and organise the information. • Discuss your own school setting – the general area, the weather, colours that learners might associate with the school and how they would describe the local community (e.g. busy, always inside/outside, friendly). Emphasise that learners are reading to

22

Unit 1 Storybook

1 Possible answers: Setting – the village’s location: where Fruitless Mountain and Jade River meet – tucked away in the corner; its colour: a depressing shade of faded brown; the climate: hot and dry – the water has to come from the river for the paddy fields; the villagers’ problem: nothing grows on Fruitless Mountain and the ground is hard and poor – they have to work very hard to get anything from it. Character – Minli’s name: means ‘quick thinking’; how she is different: not brown and dull, glossy black hair with pink cheeks, shining eyes, eager for adventure, a fast smile, a lively and impulsive spirit not worn down by hard work; what makes her different: her father’s stories keep her from becoming like everyone else. 2 The village is not named in the extract – learners may guess it is called Fruitless Mountain Village because it is the mountain is the dominant landmark and a key part of the story (title). 3 Learners’ own answers. Learners must relate what they have extracted about the setting to their own experience. 4 Learners’ own answers. They should include a personal opinion and reason.

Differentiation • Allow selected learners to do a joint activity with each doing half (one working on the drawing and the other on the text). Then ask them to share their answers. Assessment opportunities • The pictures, mind map and sentences on paper could be retained for portfolio purposes as a record of learners’ understanding of how to identify and use detail to build characters and settings. • Negotiate appropriate criteria according to your learners’ differentiated needs using PCM 10 Describing Fruitless Mountain Village. Here are some suggestions: We have to build up a word profile of the village and Minli using key words and phrases from the extract.


We have to compare the village and the area where we live. We must draw our impression of the village and explain if we would like to live there using full sentences. We must give at least two reasons. Activity Book A The extract from Where the Mountain Meets the Moon is provided on pages 14 and 15 of the Activity Book, but learners could also answer these questions by referring to their own list of key words and phrases. If learners’ notes do not include some of the details they need, use this as an opportunity to examine which key details they could have included in their earlier notes. Learners can refer to the full extract if necessary to complete their answers. Answers: Name: Minli

What she enjoys: Father’s stories

Lives in: village by Fruitless Mountain and Jade River

House: small, made of wooden boards held together by roof (like a bundle of matches)

Family: Mother (Ma), Father (Ba) and Minli

How different: not brown and dull, glossy black hair, pink cheeks, shining eyes, eager for adventure, a fast smile

Name means: quick thinking

Why her name suits her: because she has a lively and impulsive spirit, and a habit of quick acting

Personality: learners’ own answers.

Picture: learners’ own answers.

Session 9: Find out more about the story

A

Use visual clues

• Discuss how book covers give clues about genre, setting and characters and affect our choice of a book. Encourage learners to reflect on the cover of their independent reader and give an opinion on whether they like it and whether they think it fits the story so far. Point out that the cover may not be a good indicator of the book if it does not fit the ‘mind picture’ of the reader. • Discuss the saying, ‘Never judge a book by its cover’. • Encourage learners to begin by describing factually before they make inferences. This should prevent them from rushing to make judgements about preferences. Reinforce the methodology – facts before analysis (facts – what they see; analysis – how the details match the story content as far as they know it). • Learners may need assistance applying the factual detail to the inferences about Minli and her surroundings. Ask questions to recap work already done on the extract, for example: how is Minli different from the other villagers? What suggests this on the book covers? • Encourage learners to think like writers rather than readers when brainstorming descriptive or more powerful/intense verbs/adjectives. Focus on the character versus the setting as the extract implies that Minli is different from the people around her. This could lead into a useful discussion about the characteristics of heroes/heroines in stories. Must they be different from ordinary people? • Remind talk partners that they do not have to agree on which cover fits their mind picture best, just explain to each other their personal view. Invite pairs to share opinions and then maybe have a fun vote to see which would win the prize for the best cover.

Learner’s Book pages: 19–20

Answers:

Activity Book pages: 14–17

1 Learners’ own answers. Ensure answers include visible relevant details and use these to make sensible inferences about Minli and her surroundings 2 Learners’ own answers.

You will need: examples of novels and stories with interesting covers that give clues about the story. Nice to have: book covers from the internet of various local and international books from reputable sites.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to use visual clues to develop understanding of implicit as well as explicit meaning • to use a book description to develop understanding of storyline • to complete reading log for the text. Learning outcomes Learners can: • make links between visual and word clues, and implicit meaning • predict a storyline • complete their reading log.

B

Using a book description

• Follow school guidelines about independent research for book reviews, but as a general principle, encourage learners to look up the books they are reading on the internet on reputable sites or under supervision. Regularly encourage learners to read books reviews in newspapers, magazines and online. Reviews by learners of a similar age can be especially relevant as part of selecting books and extending learners’ reading range independently. There are many good independent booksellers’ sites; guide learners to relevant retailers in your region. Many books and authors also have their own websites.

Session 9 Find out more about the story

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Answers: 1 Possible answers: the characters in Minli’s father’s stories; she sets out to change her family’s fortunes; she searches for the Man in the Moon on Never Ending Mountain; she gets a red dragon friend; she has to ask an important question when she gets to her destination.

Activity Book A Encourage learners to look up any unfamiliar words in a dictionary. After they have completed their answers, discuss learners’ responses to the open questions (6, 8, 9, 10) and compare ideas. Answers:

C

Jot down notes

• This activity is about selecting relevant details to form opinions. It involves inferring information from the book description and building on prior knowledge from the extract. The aim is for learners to jot down notes as reminders for oral feedback, rather than full sentences. It is time-consuming and frustrating for learners to have to focus on everything all the time; in this case, grammar and punctuation are secondary – meaning and understanding are more important. Answers: Possible answers: 1 Mountains and moons don’t meet. 2 Getting instructions from a goldfish; believing her father’s stories could be real; that there could be a man in the moon; her dragon friend; it says she encounters fantasy. 3 Learners’ own answers – but hopefully saving the village and finding a way to make things grow again.

D

Record your reading

• Keep the momentum going on the reading log. Once again encourage learners to give an opinion on whether they would enjoy reading the rest of the book. Do a straw poll of who thinks they would read it to find out about the class’s general preferences. This will help inform your choice of class novels and recommendations throughout the year. • Remind learners to use neat, joined-up handwriting in their reading logs as well as their notebooks. Not only will it make it easier to refer back to but all neat, joined-up handwriting helps increase learners’ kinetic knowledge of words and phrases in terms of the feel and flow of words and their spellings. Make this a regular reminder whenever learners fill in their reading logs. Differentiation • Some learners may need a lot more practice before they are able to identify hidden or implicit meaning in texts. Use encouraging win-win questions in class discussion. Lead them into the answers rather than making the questions blocks. Win-win questions effectively give the learner very little choice other than to give the required answer because the questioning is so targeted, for example: do you think Ba’s stories will be important in the book? How do you think the covers and illustrations show this? Do you think the title is related to Ba’s stories? What tells you this? Assessment opportunities • Make a note of any learners who struggle to draw conclusions from what they can describe for further consolidation work. 24

Unit 1 Storybook

B 1 The land is poor and nothing grows there. 2 miserable (difficult). 3 a A bunch of matches tied with a piece of twine (string). b The wooden boards seem so small and flimsy (especially from a distance) that they could resemble a bunch of matches. 4 mud 5 Minli lives close to Jade River. Minli’s family grows rice. Minli was quick acting and quick thinking. 6 Learners’ own answers but must explain why the villagers are brown and dull. 7 Yes. 8–10 Learners’ own answers.

Session 10: Practise using punctuation to read for meaning Learner’s Book page: 21 Activity Book page: 17

You will need: the learners’ independent readers. Nice to have: an example to read out that the learners can follow, containing sentences to be punctuated with commas for meaning; PCM 11.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to read to express meaning, focusing on commas • to extend awareness of reading for meaning as well as with expression. Learning outcomes Learners can: • make sense of the extract using punctuation • discuss their punctuation choices.

A

Reading aloud using punctuation

• Reading for meaning both silently and aloud is extremely important; while the processes are different, the need to find meaning through sentences and punctuation is the same. • Sentences a–d change dramatically in meaning, depending on how they are read with the punctuation. This is a fun, warm-up activity to get the learners engaged in looking at punctuation as a tool to help them understand or give meaning to text. • Before doing the next activity, read out a passage of your choice to the learners. If possible, give each learner a copy or project the extract onto the screen or smart board. Highlight the commas and show how you pause at the commas when you read to create meaning.


• Use PCM 11 Reading for meaning with the paragraph printed for the learners so they can mark where they would like to place the commas, capital letters, full stops, etc. Answers: 1 The first pair has opposite meanings: Do not stop and Do stop. In I like cooking my friends … the friends are being cooked. In I like cooking, my friends … the friends are being liked. 2 Minli loves her father’s tales. She is fascinated by the way his eyes light up and his body seems straighter and younger. She never tires of hearing about the Man in the Moon, the Never Ending Mountain, the Bad Tiger Magistrate and places like the Dragon’s Gate or the Village of the Moon Rain, but most of all, Minli longs for home.

B

Read aloud the book description

• The book description has two paragraphs of sentences with commas. The final sentence has a semicolon. Explain that the pause is longer than for a comma but less than a full stop. Allow learners time to explore the process of reading the paragraphs to themselves initially and then to practise reading them aloud to each other, focusing on reading for meaning by pausing at the commas. Remind learners to follow the text while they read each other the paragraphs so that they can follow the comma pauses and give each other feedback. • While learners are reading the extract to themselves, select individuals and listen to them read a few sentences, paying attention to the punctuation. This activity is not just about reading aloud, but about reading for meaning. Punctuation and commas need to be ‘read’ whether reading aloud or silently. Careless reading causes comprehension problems. Answers: 1–2 Learners’ own answers.

Differentiation • The reading for meaning activities can be repeated for different passages and at different levels for different level readers. • As an additional activity, suggest learners prepare a reading from their independent readers. They should read silently first, noticing the punctuation and the commas. Invite volunteers to read their paragraphs out loud to you or to the class, and give feedback. • Learners read aloud with varying fluency and understanding at this stage. Allow stronger readers to extend themselves into reading more challenging texts from their readers and spend time listening to less able readers. Hearing learners read aloud is an important teaching tool. Assessment opportunities • Use this lesson as an opportunity to make informal notes on the class’s reading aloud ability.

• Negotiate appropriate criteria according to your learners’ differentiated needs, using PCM 4 Assessment sheet. Here are some suggestions: We have to skim read the passage and decide on the main point. We have to read the passage closely and decide where to add punctuation to create meaning. We have to give each other feedback on how well we made sense of the paragraph using the punctuation. Activity Book A Encourage learners to read the text aloud to help them hear the natural breaks and identify where punctuation is needed. Discuss how punctuation affects meaning, for example compare rasped, frantically scanning … and rasped frantically, scanning … Ask: what did he do in a frantic way? Answers: A The sand dunes shimmered in the early morning sunlight. Slowly and tentatively a boy of about ten years unfurled his body, rubbing grit and dust from his eyes. He blinked as if unused to sunlight, shading his eyes with his arm. “Where are you?” he rasped, frantically scanning the horizon. He grinned suddenly, clapping his delicate green hands together in delight, and darted off in the direction of his gaze. (Accept variations that make sense.)

Session 11: Write a story starter competition entry Learner’s Book pages: 21–22 Activity Book page: 18

You will need: A4 paper for the fantasy forms. Nice to have: PCMs 4 and 12.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to stimulate ideas for exciting story starters • to design a form that fulfils certain criteria • to summarise in key words and phrases, detail about character and setting • to explore the link between descriptive words and mood • to write an exciting first sentence to a fantasy story. Learning outcomes Learners can: • engage with story starters and add creative follow on sentences • design and complete an entry for the Fantasy Fiction competition • use key words and phrases on the entry form • write an attention-grabbing first sentence that includes something unlikely or impossible in real life.

Session 11 Write a story starter competition entry

25


A

Read fantasy story starters in a group

• Learners can let their imagination loose in this initial fun warm-up. Use one of the story starter sentences suggested, or develop your own with the class if you prefer. Check that the class can identify the unlikely/ fantasy element in the starter; then each learner adds a sentence in turn. It does not matter if the story becomes quite silly as this brainstorming is just to stimulate ideas and the story will not have to be written beyond the introduction. • Allow about five minutes for groups to brainstorm their own story starter sentence – the time pressure will help them get creative and add some competitive energy. They must write their sentences on a slip of paper to give to another group. Ask one or two confident groups to do a live creative session of adding another sentence each but do not force anyone to take part. You may prefer to put all the story starters in a hat and invite volunteers to participate. • Ensure learners develop the habit of using clear, joined-up handwriting, even for brief notes. • Use the adjectives on the scale in a fun way to demonstrate the degrees of intensity; read out the first sentence of several books for the class to rate. Learners could read out and rate the first sentence of their own readers. Brainstorm more words including a few they may not know: mundane, run-of-the-mill, electrifying, etc. • It may be useful to discuss the concept of an anti-climax. Answers:

Differentiation: • Allow less confident writers to use one of the story starters from Activity A. They can then work backwards to try to give more information on the character and setting. Assessment opportunities • Make notes on how well learners are able to plan and use original ideas. Check they included something unlikely or impossible in real life. Use PCM 12 Assessment sheet – Fantasy Fiction entry or PCM 4 General assessment sheet to negotiate appropriate criteria. Here are some suggestions: We have to design a form of our own for the competition. We have to include keywords and phrases on: a main character and the setting. We have to include adjectives, adverbs, or verbs to describe the mood of our fantasy story idea. We have to write an attention-grabbing sentence that includes something unlikely or impossible in real life. Activity Book A Discuss different ways of starting sentences, e.g. with a noun or an adverb. Learners should try to use different sentence structures in their answers. Answers: A 1–5 Learners’ own answers.

1–4 Learners’ own answers.

B

Enter the competition

• Encourage learners to enjoy designing the form but the main point of the activity is for them to write a story starter linked to a character and a setting. • Remind them to use key words and phrases, not full sentences. They can use illustrations if they wish, which can be used in later activities. • Writers tend to write better about something they know because they can visualise it. Model what you might include for a story set in the classroom. Brainstorm keywords and phrases focusing on what you see, hear, smell, and touch. • Use the story starters in Activity A to recap how small details can set the mood (e.g. cautiously, tree, barking, panicked). • Encourage learners to try out ideas on a talk partner first, although some may prefer to keep their ideas as a surprise. These forms will make an enjoyable display for the classroom wall – the display will also allow learners to see how others approach the same task. • You could give each form an excitement rating using one of the adjectives from the more encouraging end of the ratings chart. Answers: 1 Learners’ own answers; ensure answers include a fantasy element. 2–3 Learners’ own answers.

26

Unit 1 Storybook

Session 12: Write a story introduction Learner’s Book page: 23 Activity Book pages: 18–19

You will need: competition entry from previous session. ICT opportunity: consider learners writing/presenting their story introductions in an electronic slideshow presentation.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to write three to four paragraphs of an introduction to a fantasy story • use peer group review on drafts • revise draft for spelling, punctuation, grammar and more descriptive verbs • present and illustrate the introduction. Learning outcomes Learners can: • write two to three paragraphs • give feedback to talk partners on each other’s draft • revise draft and make changes • neatly write out their introduction and illustrate it.


A

Draft your idea in more detail

• Encourage learners to use a planning diagram (e.g. a mind map, table or a sheet of paper divided into blocks) to jot down notes. Encourage them to include a strong opening sentence (a topic sentence). Set a limited time for the activity. Remind them they will not have to write the entire story, so it doesn’t matter if they cannot think how the story will end. • If learners have gone off their idea in their competition entry, allow them to start afresh. • Remind learners to use their best joined-up handwriting so that their talk partner can easily read their ideas. • Swapping notes with a partner will help learners who are stuck for ideas and it will give learners practice at explaining further detail not included in their notes. • Each learner should suggest at least two ideas on how their partner could make their introduction more effective (e.g. content, action, choice of powerful verb or adjective to intensify the description or mood). • Learners must check that their partner included a fantasy element. Does the introduction make them want to know what happens next? • Discuss TV programmes where each episode ends with a cliff-hanger that draws viewers back for the next episode. Explain that before wide publication of books, many novels were published in instalments, and used the cliff-hanger technique to maximise ongoing sales (e.g. many of Charles Dickens’ books). • Decide in advance what grammatical and punctuation aspects you would like the learners to focus on (e.g. speech marks for dialogue, commas). Discuss possible formats they could use to present their introduction to the publisher, e.g. storyboard or electronic slideshow presentation including illustrations. If time is short you could suggest that the introductions will only be read aloud and therefore the learners will need to make sure that their punctuation is sufficient for them to be able to read aloud expressively.

Assessment opportunities • Story introductions on paper can be retained for portfolio evidence. Using PCM 4 Assessment sheet assess the stories according to success criteria you have negotiated with your learners as appropriate for their needs (including differentiation). Here are some suggestions: My introduction should contain something unexpected or unlikely to happen in real life. My setting must be described clearly. I must have a main character. I must choose powerful verbs and adjectives to show the mood in the introduction. I must write the narrative parts in the past tense. Activity Book A When learners have completed the Activity Book task on plural spelling patterns, they should apply their knowledge to their story introduction, and check carefully and correct any errors in their work. Answers: A s, sh, ch – rule is to add es; nouns ending in a consonant + y – rule is that y changes to ies; nouns ending in a vowel + y – rule is just add s. The rest of the question is open.

Answers: 1–6 Learners’ own answers.

B

Celebrate your success

Make this a fun session. Celebrate all the work learners have done in the unit – they have revised story features (character and setting) and story structure, they have looked at mood and how writers build up profiles from detail. Now they need to feel that it is worthwhile being a writer. Create a festival atmosphere. Choose a special location and even invite another class, if possible, to share the occasion. Allow time to suggest story continuation plots and alternative ideas for endings for at least some of the stories. Differentiation: • Some learners may need more time for writing. Try to find time to allow them to finish developing their story introduction.

Session 12 Write a story introduction

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2

Going deep

Unit overview This is a four-week unit of 12 sessions focusing on finding information in non-fiction books. Learners read dictionary definitions, compare a contents page and index, read an introduction to a book and analyse information from a non-fiction book. Learners practise summarising using key words and phrases and making notes using full sentences. Learners also revise alphabetical order, words in context and verb tenses. Having practised their skills of collecting and summarising information, learners prepare and deliver an oral presentation on a topic of their choice. Since learners work at different speeds, one double session has been allocated in this unit to allow for differentiation of pace.

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit, learners will: • revise alphabetical order • know the difference between a key word, a phrase and a sentence • understand how to find information using a contents page and index • identify some key features of non-fiction texts • summarise information and write their own notes • give an oral presentation.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • use a dictionary • identify and use key words and phrases • write sentences from key words and phrases • change sentences into statements • write sentences using different tenses • research and present information.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • repeat the alphabet and do simple ordering • use a dictionary, basically • explain the difference between fiction and non-fiction • write sentences • do a mind map using key words and phrases.

28

Unit 2 Going deep


Session 1: Talk about the sea Learner’s Book pages: 24–25

Answers: 1–3 Learners’ own answers.

Activity Book pages: 20–23

You will need: space for small group/partner discussion; notebooks. Nice to have: some pictures of the sea and various sea creatures. ICT link: use of the internet to find pictures or video clips to show the class images of the sea and interesting sea creatures.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to discuss a topic together • to practise listening skills • to problem solve together • to read and comprehend a text • to understand the purpose of a heading. Learning outcomes Learners can: • listen in a discussion and share personal experiences and knowledge of the sea • use vocabulary related to the topic • disagree politely and offer other alternatives and answers • identify key features of a non-fiction text • make up their own headings.

A

Have a discussion

• Some learners might not have seen the sea but most of them will have an idea of what the sea is like. • Encourage them to share their own ideas and experiences. Remind them there is no right or wrong answer when sharing personal knowledge and experience. Be sensitive as some learners might have negative feelings or experiences about the subject. • Initiate and monitor a class discussion. Prompt ideas on what the sea looks like, how it feels, what it can do. • Encourage them to listen to each other and pay attention. • After their initial ideas, if possible show pictures of the sea or use a computer to display images and prompt further discussion. • Share specific knowledge about the sea. As learners contribute their facts, write down key words and phrases for them to see and remember. Some of the information might need to be verified. This could be something for learners to do at home or in the library. • There are many ways to present information. The ‘fishy facts’ are presented as Collector’s Cards. The purpose of Collector’s Cards is to create interest in a particular topic. Ask learners if they have ever collected cards before – what was the topic? • Discuss the expression ‘sea of knowledge’ (in the duck’s speech bubble) and explain that as a figurative expression, the word sea is not a real sea. It is used to create an image of how vast and deep the knowledge is.

B

Make up your own questions

• Think of questions that can be used as headings. The questions should evoke interest. • Revise punctuation. All questions should begin with a capital letter, have a question word and end with a question mark. Some question words are: Who? What? Where? When? How? Why? Is? Are? • Discuss learners’ answers. If you have computers and internet available in the classroom you could look up the information to get accurate answers or ask learners to do independent research at home. This is a good opportunity for learners to research independently for information in the library or at home. Answers: 1–2 Learners’ own answers.

C

Listen to riddles and guess the answer

• Use this as an opportunity to develop listening skills. Read out a riddle or joke and then let pairs or groups discuss the answer and write it down. Then invite volunteers to share their ideas and see if anyone got them right. The answers are on page 26 of the Learner’s Book. • The first riddle comes from a scene in the book, The Hobbit, in which the hobbit Bilbo Baggins plays a riddlegame with Gollum in the caves of the Misty Mountains. This is a good opportunity to discuss the meaning of the word mail as it is key in finding the solution to this riddle. A definition of mail appears in the dictionary page extract in the Learner’s Book on page 26. • The second riddle comes from the Book of Exeter, a book of ancient Anglo-Saxon riddles. Various translations are available and you can find other examples online by searching for ‘Anglo-Saxon riddles’ or ‘riddle poems’. Here is another example: I am the yellow hem of the sea’s blue skirt. (Answer: sand on a beach.) • This riddle links nicely with the expression ‘a sea of knowledge’. What can be deeper than the sea, More intriguing than stars and space, Simple as can be, Duller than an empty place, As innocent as a gentle word, And guilty like a mean jailbird, From whence comes most of the things we see, Which otherwise just wouldn’t be. What can it be, what can it be? (Answer: thought.) Session 1 Talk about the sea

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C

Riddle answers: 1 fish 2 waves on the sea

Differentiation: • Some learners might need help with new vocabulary and concepts related to the sea. Be aware of any learners who might need extra visuals or explanations about the sea. • As an extension activity, the learners can write their own riddles about sea creatures using the riddles provided as models. Assessment opportunities • Class discussion provides a good opportunity for informal assessment. Take note of learners with particularly good or weak vocabulary. • Informal observation of group work and discussion will give you a good idea of which combinations of learners work together well. Activity Book A Talk partners could discuss the expressions, first exploring what each would mean literally. Support them in inferring its figurative meaning. Learners can do independent research to find out where these expressions originate from and also find other expressions related to the sea. At this stage it is important to encourage independent research. C Ensure learners understand the statements and look up any unfamiliar vocabulary. E Ensure learners do not forget to write their questions correctly with an initial capital letter and question mark. F Encourage learners to be creative when designing their collector’s cards. They do not need to research a large volume of information, but should present it in an eye-catching and effective way, using the headings suggested or ideas of their own. Explain that learners can use their own layout and headings for the second card if they wish. If no suitable reference materials are available, ask them to use information from the texts in the Learner’s Book. Ensure they reword information in their own words. G Explain that words may go in any direction in the wordsearch grid, forwards, backwards, diagonally, etc. Support learners with scanning to find the initial letter of each word. They could run a finger along each row line to help them scan methodically. Answers: A 1 e; 2 a; 3 d; 4 b; B Possible answers: 1 all at sea 2 all hands on deck 3 the coast is clear 4 a fish out of water 5 sink or swim

30

Unit 2 Going deep

5 c

5

Do whales speak to each other?

2

Which fish glow in the dark?

4

Which fish don’t like swimming?

6

Can fish fly?

1

Do fish need air?

3

Are whales a type of fish?

D a Frostbite b On a seabed c A FSH d A mussel E Learners’ own answers. F Learners’ own answers; should provide evidence of individual research. G

D

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Session 2: Dictionary work Learner’s Book pages: 26–27 Activity Book pages: 23–27

You will need: at least one dictionary between two learners, preferably a children’s dictionary. The dictionaries do not need to be of the same kind. Nice to have: extra dictionaries; the alphabet displayed in the classroom. Spelling link: homonyms; work with alphabetical order.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to use a dictionary effectively to find information • to understand words have a specific meaning in their context. Learning outcomes Learners can: • identify features of a dictionary • order words alphabetically • find the correct meaning of a word in its context.

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 4  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 4. Sally Burt, Debbie Ridgard, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014...

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 4  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 4. Sally Burt, Debbie Ridgard, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014...