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History for the IB Diploma

Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas Michael Scott-Baumann and Mark Stacey Series editor: Allan Todd

Cambridge University Press’s mission is to advance learning, knowledge and research worldwide. Our IB Diploma resources aim to: s ENCOURAGELEARNERSTOEXPLORECONCEPTS IDEASAND topics that have local and global significance s HELPSTUDENTSDEVELOPAPOSITIVEATTITUDETOLEARNING in preparation for higher education s ASSISTSTUDENTSINAPPROACHINGCOMPLEXQUESTIONS APPLYING critical-thinking skills and forming reasoned answers.


cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107697515 Š Cambridge University Press 2013 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2013 Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by the MPG Books Group A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-107-69751-5 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. This material has been developed independently by the publisher and the content is in no way connected with nor endorsed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.


Contents 1

Introduction

2

Native American movements in the Americas

r What was the situation of Native American populations in 1945? r Why did Native American movements emerge in the immediate post-war period?

5 13 14 19

r What were the goals of the reformers in the Native American movements?

24

r How did Native Americans seek to affirm their identities during the 1960s?

26

r To what extent did the civil rights of Native Americans change from the 1960s to the 1980s? 3

The African-American experience from slavery to the Great Depression

32 41

r What was life like for African-Americans during the period of Reconstruction?

42

r What were the effects of ‘Jim Crow’ laws and white supremacy in the South?

r What were the origins of the early civil rights movement? r How did the First World War affect African-Americans? 4

The emergence of the civil rights movement in the 1940s and 1950s

r How did the civil rights movement emerge during the Second World War? r How far did the NAACP and Supreme Court achieve desegregation in education?

r What was the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955–56? 5

The peak of the campaign for civil rights 1960–65

r Why were sit-ins and Freedom Rides launched in 1960–61? r To what extent was the campaign in Birmingham in 1963 a turning point?

r How successful was the March on Washington in 1963? r What was Freedom Summer 1964? r Why did Martin Luther King go to Selma in 1965 and what was achieved? 6

The achievement of the civil rights movement by 1968

r How successful was the civil rights legislation of 1964–65? r Why was Martin Luther King less successful after 1965? r Who achieved more for civil rights – Martin Luther King or the federal government?

46 49 54 62 63 70 75 84 85 95 99 104 106 116 117 121 126


7

r r r

The growth of Black Power in the 1960s Why did the civil rights movement fracture? How significant was Malcolm X? What was the impact of the Black Power movement?

139 140 143 148

8

Youth protest movements in the Americas

158

r Why did youth protest emerge in the Americas after the Second World War?

r What were the goals of the young protesters in the 1960s and 1970s? r How did youth culture change in the 1960s and 1970s? r How successful were the youth protests of the 1960s and 1970s in achieving their original goals?

r How did youth movements influence politics in Latin America? 9

Feminist movements in the Americas

r Did feminism exist in the Americas before 1945? r Why did the women’s movement emerge in the Americas after the Second World War?

r What were the goals of the reformers in the women’s movement? r In what ways, and to what extent, did the role and status of women change as a result of the women’s movement?

159 162 167 173 183 187 188 190 197 202

r How successful were the women’s campaigns of the 1960s in achieving their original goals? 10 Exam practice Further reading Further information Index Acknowledgements

205 215 233 234 236 240


1

Introduction

This book is designed to prepare students for the Paper 3, Section 11 topic, Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas (in HL Option 3, Aspects of the History of the Americas) in the IB History examination. It will mainly focus on the USA, and will examine the history of the struggle for African-American civil rights from the time of the Civil War to the late 1960s, with the emphasis on the peak of the movement in the 1950s and 1960s. It will also examine the campaign for Native American rights, and assess the achievements of both the women’s and the youth protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s. The extent to which these movements succeeded and the role of governments will be regularly assessed. Small case studies of the impact of similar movements in other parts of the Americas will also be included.

Activity Carry out research to find out about the lives of Native Americans (traditionally called American Indians) both before and after the arrival of Europeans. Who were the main tribes and how did they make their livelihoods? What was the impact of the Europeans on the lives of the Native Americans?

A modern map of the USA (excluding Alaska and Hawaii)

Canada

Seattle Washington Montana Oregon

Vermont

North Dakota

Minnesota

Massachusetts

Utah

San Francisco

Denver Colorado

California Arizona

Los Angeles

New Mexico

Miss

Phoenix

New York

pi

Nevada

Michigan

South Dakota

issip

Wyoming

Texas Houston km 0 0 miles

500 500

Mexico

New Hampshire

Boston Rhode Island Connecticut Detroit New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Iowa Chicago Philadelphia Nebraska Ohio Delaware Indiana West Illinois Maryland Virginia Virginia Washington D.C. St. Louis Kansas Kentucky North Missouri Carolina Tennessee South Arkansas Oklahoma Carolina Atlanta Montgomery Georgia Dallas Alabama Wisconsin

Idaho

Maine

Louisiana

New Orleans

13 original colonies 16 modern southern states

Florida


Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas

Themes To help you prepare for your IB History exams, this book will cover the main themes and aspects relating to Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas as set out in the IB History Guide. In particular, it will examine civil rights and social movements in the Americas in terms of:

r the goals, methods and achievements of the Native American movements for civil rights

r the origins, tactics and organisation of the early US African-

r r r r

r r

American civil rights movement in its campaign to challenge white supremacy in the South the role of the Supreme Court and legal challenges to segregated education in the 1950s; the emergence of Martin Luther King the civil rights campaigns and the ending of segregation in the South from 1960 to 1965 the role of the federal government in achieving civil rights for African-Americans the growth of African-American radicalism from 1965 to 1968, including Malcolm X, the Black Muslims, Black Power and the Black Panthers youth cultures of the 1960s and 1970s, including the growth of a counter-culture and the impact of the Vietnam War protests feminist movements in the Americas; their origins, goals and achievements.

Theory of knowledge In addition to the broad key themes, the chapters contain Theory of knowledge (ToK) links, to get you thinking about aspects that relate to history, which is a Group 3 subject in the IB Diploma. The Social Movements and Civil Rights in the Americas topic has several clear links to ideas about knowledge and history. Some of the subject matter (e.g. race relations, abortion) is still ‘live’ and divides opinion today. Historians cannot help but be influenced by contemporary opinion. This presents a huge challenge to the historian, and is an issue that has clear links to the IB Theory of knowledge course. Historians have to decide which evidence to select and use in order to make their case, and which evidence to leave out. But to what extent do the historians’ personal political and social views influence their decisions when they select what they consider to be the most important or relevant sources, and when they make judgements about the value and limitations of specific sources or sets of sources? Is there such a thing as objective ‘historical truth’? Or is there just a range of subjective historical opinions and interpretations about the past, which vary according to the political leanings and social values of individual historians?

6


Introduction

Much of this book is concerned with the sensitive issue of race. Our current values make it intensely difficult to understand the deeply entrenched attitudes and beliefs of white supremacists in the American South in the 1950s and early 1960s. Yet, without an empathetic understanding of those racist views, it is impossible to understand fully why the campaign for African-American civil rights met such bitter resistance. We need to be both sensitive and dispassionate, both understanding and impartial. You are strongly advised to read a range of books on the subject – historical novels as well as historians’ accounts. The novels To Kill a Mocking Bird by Harper Lee and The Help by Kathryn Stockett give a historically well-founded portrayal of racial prejudice and inequality in the 1930s and early 1960s respectively.

IB History and Paper 3 questions In IB History, Paper 3 is taken only by Higher-level students. For this paper, IB History specifies that three sections of an Option should be selected for in-depth study. The examination paper will set two questions on each section – and you have to answer three questions in total. Unlike Paper 2, where there are regional restrictions, in Paper 3 you will be able to answer both questions from one section, with a third chosen from one of the other sections. These questions are essentially in-depth analytical essays. It is therefore important to study all the bullet points set out in the IB History Guide, in order to give yourself the widest possible choice of questions.

Exam skills Throughout the main chapters of this book, there are activities and questions to help you develop the understanding and the exam skills necessary for success in Paper 3. Your exam answers should demonstrate:

r factual knowledge and understanding r awareness and understanding of historical interpretations r structured, analytical and balanced argument. Before attempting the specific exam practice questions that come at the end of each main chapter, you might find it useful to refer first to Chapter 10, the final exam practice chapter. This suggestion is based on the idea that if you know where you are supposed to be going (in this instance, gaining a good grade), and how to get there, you stand a better chance of reaching your destination!

7


Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas

Questions and markschemes To ensure that you develop the necessary skills and understanding, each chapter contains comprehension questions and exam tips. For success in Paper 3, you need to produce essays that combine a number of features. In many ways, these require the same skills as the essays in Paper 2. However, for the Higher-level Paper 3, examiners will be looking for greater evidence of sustained analysis and argument, linked closely to the demands of the question. They will also be seeking more depth and precision with regard to supporting knowledge. Finally, they will be expecting a clear and well-organised answer, so it is vital to do a rough plan before you start to answer a question. Your plan will show straight away whether or not you know enough about the topic to answer the question. It will also provide a good structure for your answer. It is particularly important to start by focusing closely on the wording of the question, so that you can identify its demands. If you simply assume that a question is ‘generally about this period/leader’, you will probably produce an answer that is essentially a narrative or story, with only vague links to the question. Even if your knowledge is detailed and accurate, it will only be broadly relevant. If you do this, you will get half marks at most. Another important point is to present a well-structured and analytical argument that is clearly linked to all the demands of the question. Each aspect of your argument/analysis/explanation then needs to be supported by carefully selected, precise and relevant own knowledge. In addition, showing awareness and understanding of relevant historical debates and interpretations will help you to access the highest bands and marks. This does not mean simply repeating, in your own words, what different historians have said. Instead, try to critically evaluate particular interpretations. For example, are there any weaknesses in arguments put forward by some historians? What strengths does a particular interpretation have?

Examiner’s tips To help you develop these skills, all chapters contain sample questions, with examiner’s tips about what to do (and what not to do) in order to achieve high marks. Each chapter will focus on a specific skill, as follows:

r Skill 1 (Chapter 2) – understanding the wording of a question r Skill 2 (Chapter 3) – planning an essay

8


Introduction

r r r r r

Skill 3 (Chapter 4) – writing an introductory paragraph Skill 4 (Chapter 5) – avoiding irrelevance Skill 5 (Chapter 6) – avoiding a narrative-based answer Skill 6 (Chapters 7 and 9) – using your own knowledge analytically and combining it with awareness of historical debate Skill 7 (Chapter 8) – writing a conclusion to your essay

Some of these tips will contain parts of a student’s answer to a particular question, with examiner’s comments, to give you an understanding of what examiners are looking for. This guidance is developed further in Chapter 10, the exam practice chapter, where examiner’s tips and comments will enable you to focus on the important aspects of questions and their answers. These examples will also help you avoid simple mistakes and oversights that, every year, result in some otherwise good students failing to gain the highest marks. For additional help, a simplified Paper 3 markscheme is provided in the exam practice chapter. This should make it easier to understand what examiners are looking for in your answers. The actual Paper 3 IB History markscheme can be found on the IB website. This book will provide you with the historical knowledge and understanding to help you answer all the specific content bullet points set out in the IB History Guide. Also, by the time you have worked through the various exercises, you should have the skills necessary to construct relevant, clear, well-argued and wellsupported essays.

Background When the United States was created in 1783, it was made up of 13 colonies, from New Hampshire in the north to Georgia in the south (see map on page 5). These states had been 13 colonies of the British Empire. Most of the colonists were of British origin, together with a small number from other European countries. In their Declaration of Independence of 1776, the American colonists stated: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal … with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.’ Yet two large minorities of Americans were not entitled to these rights: they were neither equal nor free in the newly independent Unites States of America. These minorities were the Native Americans and the black slaves. Six of the chapters in this book examine the 20th-century campaigns by the descendants of these groups in the US to gain equal rights.

9


Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas

The first of these groups, the Native Americans, were the country’s original inhabitants. As the European colonists arrived and settled the land, the Native Americans were forced back. When the colonists moved further west, the Native Americans were often deprived of their lands. In the late 18th and the 19th centuries, the citizens of the newly independent USA pushed their way into the heart of the continent, often forcing the nomadic Native Americans to live on reservations – lands that were allocated to them by the government. The other large minority were the black slaves, mostly living in the South. Slavery was nothing new in the 18th century. It had existed since ancient times. The Greeks and Romans practised it in Europe, and the Arabs did so in Asia and Africa over many centuries. Then, from the 16th century, Europeans started to capture black Africans and to transport them, virtually as livestock, to their colonies in America. African-Americans today are nearly all descended from slaves whom the British, in particular, shipped to America. They were regarded as property, and large numbers were employed in the southern colonies of the British Empire in America, in what are today the southern states of the USA (see map on page 5). Huge numbers were employed in hot, back-breaking work on white-owned plantations growing sugar, rice, tobacco and, above all, cotton. After the creation of the United States of America in 1783, the vast majority of these African-Americans remained as slaves. A small minority were able to buy their freedom, some escaped, and some were employed in the northern states of the USA where slavery was not so widely practised. But over 90% of African-Americans were employed, as slaves, in the South. In this book, the terms ‘African-American’ and ‘black’ are used interchangeably. Until the 1960s, the term ‘Negro’ was widely used, both by blacks and whites, and it was acceptable. It was later replaced by ‘black’ or ‘African-American’.

Discussion point Before you begin to work your way through this book, find out about the role that African-Americans played in the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. How were they treated, whether as slaves or as soldiers in the northern (Union) army?

10


Introduction

Terminology and definitions Civil rights Civil rights are the rights of an individual to political and social freedom and equality by virtue of citizenship. In the US, they are enshrined in the Constitution. They include:

r r r r

the right to vote in elections the right to equal treatment under the law the right to a fair trial the right to free speech, religion and movement.

Most of the civil rights and protest movements examined in this book aimed to secure these rights through changes in the law or through changes in the way the laws were interpreted. That meant winning the support of the government in Washington, DC, the capital of the USA.

The US system of government The rules and regulations for the government of the United States were set out in the Constitution of 1787. One of the primary aims of the Founding Fathers who drew up the Constitution was to establish a balance between the powers of the individual states and of the central government. The 13 states that made up the United States had come together to fight for their freedom from Britain, but did not want to replace one strong central government – that of the British monarch – with another in Washington, DC. They were keen to retain their autonomy. The solution was to create a federal system of government. This provided for a federal (national) government in the capital and for separate governments in each of the states. The head of the federal government would be the president. He would be elected by all the citizens, which meant white men. He could propose laws but these would have to be passed by an elected law-making body, the Congress. The Congress was to consist of two houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate would consist of two elected representatives, or senators, from each state. In this way, the smaller states could not be dominated by a few bigger states. This system of government would be copied in the individual states, each of which would have an elected governor and legislature (lawmaking body). The states would be responsible for law and order, education and many other matters.

11


President (executive branch) r Head of state, elected for four years r Can propose laws r Can veto bills r Appoints the cabinet and federal

Congress (legislative branch) r Made up of two houses: the Senate and Voted for by the American people

judges

the House of Represenatives

r Each state elects two senators r The number of representatives per state depends on that state’s population

r Creates laws r Can override presidential veto r Approves federal judges

Courts (judicial branch) r Made up of the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, district courts r Approves laws and issues rulings (does not create laws) r Can declare laws and presidential acts unconstitutional

The US system of government There was much scope for dispute between the federal government and the states over their respective powers. It was the job of the Supreme Court to act as arbitrator in such disputes. As the highest court in the land, its job was to protect the Constitution and decide, when asked, if laws passed by the federal or state governments were constitutional or not. Changes could be made to the Constitution but they had to be passed by a majority of two-thirds in both houses of Congress and ratified by the states. These changes were added as Amendments to the Constitution. The campaigns by Native Americans, African-Americans and the women’s movement in the US all involved demands for changes in federal law, and appeals to the Supreme Court for favourable interpretations or changes in interpretation of existing law.

Summary By the time you have worked through this book, you should be able to:

r understand and explain how the Native Americans had improved their civil rights by the 1980s

r understand and explain the role of the civil rights movement in challenging and outlawing racial segregation in the USA

r evaluate the role of Martin Luther King and of the federal government in achieving civil rights for African-Americans

r assess the significance of Malcolm X and Black Power r understand the nature and assess the impact of youth protest in the 1960s and 1970s

r assess the success of the feminist movement in the Americas.

12


History for the IB Diploma: Civil Rights and Social Movements in the Americas