The Workbook: – focuses on developing Skill B, Handling information and problem solving, and some aspects of Skill C, Experimental skills and investigations – contains exercises arranged by chapter, in the same sequence as in the Coursebook – contains exercises structured to give students plenty of guidance in the early stages, progressing to more difficult and less structured tasks towards the end of the book – invites students to match their performance in some tasks against generic criteria, to help them to see clearly what they need to do to improve – uses language accessible to students of a wide range of abilities.
Completely Cambridge – Cambridge resources for Cambridge qualifications Cambridge University Press works closely with Cambridge International Examinations as parts of the University of Cambridge. We enable thousands of students to pass their Cambridge exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about Cambridge International Examinations visit www.cie.org.uk Visit education.cambridge.org/cie for information on our full range of Cambridge IGCSE titles including e-book versions and mobile apps.
Jones and Jones
Other components of Cambridge IGCSE Biology, Second edition: Coursebook ISBN 978–0–521–14779–8 Teacher’s resource ISBN 978–0–521–17617–0
Co m ple t Ca el y m Ca br idg Ca m br idg f e re m e q or sou b rce ri ua dg lifi s ca tio e ns
This Workbook is intended to be used alongside the Cambridge IGCSE Biology, Second edition Coursebook. It contains exercises that will help students to develop the skills they need to do well in the IGCSE Biology examination. A Teacher’s resource is also available.
Mary Jones and Geoff Jones
Cambridge IGCSE Biology, Second edition matches the requirements of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Biology syllabus (0610). The series is written by an experienced IGCSE teacher, and is endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations, ensuring that it is up to date and comprehensive in its coverage.
9780521124430 JONES & JONES IGCSE BIOLOGY WORKBOOK. COVER. C M Y K
Cambridge IGCSE Biology, Second edition Workbook Mary Jones and Geoff Jones
cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521124430 © Cambridge University Press 2010 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. Workbook first published 2010 8th printing 2013 Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by the MPG Books Group A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-12443-0 Paperback ® IGCSE is the registered trademark of University of Cambridge International Examinations Cover image: The blue-cheeked butterflyfish, Chaetodon semilarvatus, found in the Red Sea. © blickwinkel / Alamy Past examination questions reproduced by permission of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate Page make-up: Greenhill Wood Studios Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
Mary Jones and Geoff Jones
Biology Workbook Second edition
Completely Cambridge â€“ Cambridge resources for Cambridge qualifications Cambridge University Press works closely with University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) as parts of the University of Cambridge. We enable thousands of students to pass their CIE exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about University of Cambridge International Examinations visit www.cie.org.uk To find out more about Cambridge University Press visit www.cambridge.org/cie
Contents Introduction 1
1.1 Leaves 1.2 Using keys
2.1 Animal and plant cells 2.2 Drawing cells and calculating magnification 2.3 Organelles
3 Movement in and out of cells 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
Diffusion experiment How plants take up water Osmosis and potatoes Diffusion and active transport
4 The chemicals of life 4.1 Carbohydrates 4.2 Proteins 4.3 Testing a hypothesis
5.1 Writing enzyme questions 5.2 Lipase experiment 5.3 Finding the optimum pH for amylase
6 Plant nutrition 6.1
How a palisade cell obtains its requirements Sun and shade leaves Limiting factors
6 7 9
10 12 13 17
19 19 20 21
23 24 26
31 31 32 34
7 Animal nutrition 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4
Diet Functions of the digestive system Fluoridation data analysis Food additives and yoghurt
40 41 42
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4
Risk of heart attack The heart in a fetus A transpiration experiment Water hyacinth experiment
45 46 47 50
Effect of temperature on the rate of respiration The effect of animals and plants on the carbon dioxide concentration in water A simple respirometer
52 54 56
10 Coordination and response
11 Homeostasis and excretion
10.1 Caffeine and reaction time 10.2 Muscles in the leg
11.1 Diabetes 11.2 Homeotherms and poikilotherms
12.1 Alcohol and traffic accidents
13.1 Breast-feeding statistics 13.2 Adaptations of fruits 13.3 Pollination in different shapes and sizes of forests
67 69 71
14 Inheritance and evolution 14.1 Pedigree 14.2 Big-horn sheep 14.3 Selective breeding for high milk yield.
75 77 79
15 Living organisms in their environment
16 Humans and the environment
15.1 Goats on an island 15.2 Fish tank
16.1 Eutrophication 16.2 Acid rain and wildlife in Canadian lakes
Introduction This workbook contains exercises to help you to develop the skills you need to do well in your IGCSE Biology examination. The IGCSE examination tests three different Assessment Objectives, which we call ‘skills’ in this workbook. These are: Skill A Knowledge with understanding Skill B Handling information and problem solving Skill C Experimental skills and investigations In the examination, about 50% of the marks are for Skill A, 30% for Skill B and 20% for Skill C. Just learning your work and remembering it is therefore not enough to make sure that you get the best possible grade in the exam. Half of all the marks are for Skill B and Skill C. You need to be able to use what you’ve learned in unfamiliar contexts (Skill B) and to demonstrate your experimental skills (Skill C). There are lots of Activities in your coursebook, which will help you to develop your experimental skills, by doing practical work. This workbook contains Exercises to help you to develop these further, and also to develop Skill B. There are some questions that just involve remembering things you have been taught (Skill A), but most of the questions require you to use what you’ve learned to work out, for example, what a set of data means, or to suggest how an experiment might be improved. These Exercises are not intended to be exactly like the kinds of questions you will get on your exam papers. This is because they are meant to help you to develop your skills, rather than testing you on them. There’s an introduction at the start of each Exercise that tells you the purpose of it – which skills you will be working with as you answer the questions. The Exercises are arranged in the same order as the chapters in your coursebook. Towards the end of the book, there are some Exercises that contain questions covering more than one chapter. For some parts of the Exercises, there are self-assessment check lists. You can try marking your own work using these. This will help you to remember the important points to think about. Your teacher should also mark the work, and will discuss with you whether your own assessments are right. In a few Exercises, you will see this symbol in the margin:
S – – – – – – – – This indicates that the Exercise is intended for students who are studying the Supplement content of the syllabus as well as the Core. We would like to thank CIE for permission to reproduce exam questions. introduction
excretion removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements
growth a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
movement an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
nutrition the taking in of nutrients, which are organic substances and mineral ions containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them
reproduction the processes that make more of the same kind of organism
respiration the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy
sensitivity the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses
binomial system a system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species
Exercise 1.1 Leaves skills
This Exercise will help you to improve your observation and drawing skills (Skill C2), and also your knowledge of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. You will also
You need: l two leaves, one from a monocotyledonous plant (monocot) and one from a dicotyledonous plant (dicot) l a sharp HB pencil and a good eraser l a ruler to measure in mm. a
Observe both leaves carefully, looking at both the upper and lower surfaces. Look for any differences between the two leaves.
In the space overleaf, make a large, labelled drawing of the upper surface of one of the leaves. The labels should point out any interesting features that you have noted. Chapter
Use this check list to give yourself a mark for your drawing. For each point, award yourself: 2 marks if you did it really well 1 mark if you made a good attempt at it, and partly succeeded 0 marks if you did not try to do it, or did not succeed. Self-assessment check list for drawing
point You used a sharp pencil and rubbed out mistakes really thoroughly. You have drawn single lines, not many tries at the same line. You have drawn the specimen the right shape, and with different parts in the correct proportions. You have made a really large drawing, using the space provided. You have included all the different structures that are visible on the specimen. You have drawn label lines with a ruler, touching the structure being labelled. You have written the labels horizontally and neatly, well away from the diagram itself. Take 1 mark off if you used any shading or colours. total
marks awarded you your
12–14 10–11 7–9 5–6 1–4 c
Excellent. Good. A good start, but you need to improve quite a bit. Poor. Try this same drawing again, using a new sheet of paper. Very poor. Read through all the criteria again, and then try the same drawing.
Measure the actual length of the leaf that you have drawn, in mm. length of real leaf =
Measure the same length on your drawing. length on drawing =
iii Use your measurements to calculate the magnification of your drawing. Write down the equation you will use, and show your working.
magnification = d
Complete this table to describe at least three differences between the monocot leaf and the dicot leaf. One feature has been suggested for you.
distribution of veins
This Exercise gives you practice in using a key, and also checks your knowledge of classiﬁcation
The drawings show four vertebrates. A B
Use the dichotomous key below to identify each of these four animals. List the sequence of statements that you worked through to find the name. Animal A has been done for you. 1
Shell present Shell absent
Geochelone elephantopus go to 2
go to 3
Scales on back form large plates
Scales on back do not form large plates
1b, 2a, 3a
B C D b
What is the correct term for the two-word Latin name of an organism?
Explain what the two parts of the name tell you.
State one feature, visible on all of the animals in the drawings, which indicates that they are all reptiles.