Cycling UK's Cycling Statistics

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CYCLING UK’S CYCLING STATISTICS Do you need facts and figures about cycling? Here’s Cycling UK’s latest annual round-up


Cycling Statistics

February 2022

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Contents Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 5 Sources ............................................................................................................................. 5 2020 ................................................................................................................................. 5 Comparing like-for-like ..................................................................................................... 6 The questions ........................................................................................................................... 7 Q1.

How much cycling is there compared to other transport, and is it increasing? ....... 7

a. Proportion of traffic, Great Britain ............................................................................... 7 b. Longer-term trends for cycle mileage .......................................................................... 9 Great Britain, 1993-2020 ............................................................................................... 9 London, 1977-2019 ...................................................................................................... 10 London 2020.................................................................................................................. 10 Northern Ireland, 1999-2019 ....................................................................................... 11 c.

Proportion of trips ....................................................................................................... 12 England, 2002-2020 ..................................................................................................... 12 Scotland, 2008-2019 .................................................................................................... 12 Northern Ireland, 2017-2019 ....................................................................................... 13

Q2.

How many people cycle and how often? ................................................................... 14 England ........................................................................................................................... 14 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 15 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 15 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 16

Q3.

How many people don’t cycle much, if ever? ............................................................ 17

Q4.

How many cycle trips do people make, and how far do they go each time? .......... 18 England ........................................................................................................................... 18 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 19 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 19

Q5.

How many people own or have access to a cycle? ................................................... 20 England ........................................................................................................................... 20 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 21 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 21 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 21

Q6.

Who cycles most – females or males? ...................................................................... 22 England ........................................................................................................................... 22 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 22

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Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 23 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 23 Q7.

Which age group cycles most? ................................................................................... 24 England ........................................................................................................................... 24 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 25 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 25 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 26

Q8.

What’s the purpose of most cycle trips? ................................................................... 27 England ........................................................................................................................... 27 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 28 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 28 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 28

Q9.

What proportion of children cycle to school & how far do they travel? ................... 29 England ........................................................................................................................... 29 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 30 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 30 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 32

Q10.

What about cycling to work?................................................................................... 33

England ........................................................................................................................... 33 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 33 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 34 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 34 Q11.

Occupation, income, ethnicity and impairment .................................................... 35

England ........................................................................................................................... 35 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 37 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 37 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 38 Q12.

How many drivers cycle? And how many cyclists drive? ...................................... 39

Q13.

What kinds of roads are people most likely to cycle on? ..................................... 40

Q14.

Which local areas see the most cycling? ............................................................... 41

England ........................................................................................................................... 41 Wales .............................................................................................................................. 42 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 42 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 43 Q15.

How do UK levels of cycling compare to those in other European countries?.... 44

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Q16.

How safe is cycling? ................................................................................................ 46

Q17.

How many cycles are sold in the UK? .................................................................... 49

Q18.

What’s the average weekly spend on bikes? ........................................................ 49

Q19.

How many cycles are stolen in the UK? ................................................................. 50

England & Wales ............................................................................................................ 50 Scotland .......................................................................................................................... 50 Northern Ireland ............................................................................................................. 51 Q20.

What are our main sources? .................................................................................. 51

Key .................................................................................................................................. 51 More about our main sources ....................................................................................... 51 Great Britain ....................................................................................................................... 51 England ............................................................................................................................... 52 Wales .................................................................................................................................. 53 Scotland .............................................................................................................................. 53 Northern Ireland ................................................................................................................. 53

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Cycling UK’s Cycling Statistics Introduction Each year, Cycling UK rounds up the latest available statistics covering the topics that most often generate queries (see contents list above). Obviously, statistics for a full year aren’t published until the year afterwards. This is often some months in and, occasionally, not until the year after that. On top of this, the Covid pandemic has delayed the appearance of some sets of data but, by and large, the latest, whole-year figures available at the time of writing cover 2020.

Sources The figures we use mainly come from official government sources, which we quote in brackets (see ‘What are our main sources?’ below).

2020 It goes without saying that 2020 was unusual. With governments expecting most of the population to work from home during lockdown, while strongly encouraging active travel for exercise and social distancing purposes, car and public transport use dropped and more people than normal took to their bikes. Although statistics show that, in the overall scheme of things, only a small proportion of all trips are cycled, we have every reason to celebrate the relative promise of 2020. Here are some highlights: •

• •

In Road Traffic Estimates: Great Britain, the Department for Transport (DfT) says that in 2020, cycle traffic on public highways and cycle paths was 45.7% above 2019 levels, the “highest level of cycling on the public highway since the 1960s.” Daily figures from the DfT show a weekend peak for cycling in England on Saturday 9 May 2020, 284% above an equivalent day or week pre-Covid; and a +143% weekday peak on Thursday 25 June 2020. Cycling Scotland reports that 47% more cycling journeys were recorded between 23 March 2020 and 22 March 2021. Traffic counts in autumn 2020 found a 22% increase in cycling in outer London compared to a previous count in spring 2019.

But the pandemic did more than affect the population’s travel and transport habits – it also upset the way several of our sources collected their data. Monitoring via traffic counters in some areas was reduced or suspended for a time; and, for surveys, fewer people were contacted than in past years, making sample sizes smaller. Also, respondents were less likely to be interviewed face-to-face – e.g. they were telephoned or asked to complete questionnaires exclusively online, which altered the nature of the sample base. Inevitably, this impacts how representative findings of the most recent surveys may be.

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In view of this, our sources tend to caution against comparing 2020 directly with previous years. That said, the figures help reveal how cycling fared during such an atypical time so, where possible, we have separated out them out and present them side-by-side with earlier data.

Comparing like-for-like It’s also important to note that England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland all produce data sets, but their approaches don’t always match. The surveys that collect travel data, for example, do not necessarily ask the same questions. Also, not every administration asks all its questions annually, questionnaires are sent out to potential respondents at different times and at different frequencies, some cover all ages, some just adults (defined as either 16+ or 18+), and the results are published at different points in the calendar. This means that we need to be careful when comparing figures, clear about what they cover and aware that certain data may not be collected by every government.

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The questions Q1. How much cycling is there compared to other transport, and is it increasing? a. Proportion of traffic, Great Britain • •

From 2015-2019, cycling accounted for around 0.9% of all traffic mileage on Britain’s public roads. In 2020, this doubled to 1.8%. In contrast, car and taxi mileage dropped somewhat, from just over 77% to 73.4%, no doubt due to lockdown.

Note: the GB cycling figures quoted in this section include riding on public roadways and cycle paths, but not cycling activity elsewhere (e.g. on towpaths, byways or bridleways).

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This table breaks GB’s mileage figures down into nations:

Cycling as a proportion of all traffic (billion vehicle miles), annual average 2015-19 v 2020, GB 2015-2019 England Wales Scotland Great Britain

2020

1.0% 0.6% 0.7% 0.9%

1.8% 1.3% 1.6% 1.8%

In Great Britain, motor traffic dropped by about a fifth compared with the previous five-year period, but cycling rose by over a half, from 3.30 billion miles on average each year, to 5.03 billion miles in 2020:

Cycling as a proportion of all traffic (billion vehicle miles), annual average 2015-19, GB Motor England Wales Scotland Great Britain

2015-19 295.24 19.28 29.26 343.80

2020 % change 242.00 -18% 15.30 -21% 23.20 -21% 280.50 -18%

Cycle 2015-19 2.98 0.11 0.20 3.30

2020 % change 4.46 49% 0.20 82% 0.37 87% 5.03 53%

Motor + cycle 2015-19 298.22 19.39 29.46 347.10

2020 246.46 15.50 23.57 285.53

Note on Northern Ireland Comparable figures are not readily available (but see ‘Proportion of trips’ below).

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b. Longer-term trends for cycle mileage Great Britain, 1993-2020 •

Generally speaking, cycle mileage in Great Britain has been trending upwards since 1993, but 2020’s figure is estimated to be twice as much as all those years ago:

But there’s still a long way to go until we reach the 14.7 billion miles cycled in 1949, when the population was about three-quarters of the size it is now:

All the figures for Q1a & b above come from TRA 0103, 0104, 0401, 0402 & 0403.

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London, 1977-2019 •

In London (2019), around six times as many people cycled across the central cordon as they did in 1977 (TfL’s Travel in London reports 12 & 13, Tables 6.5 & 3.4):

Increases in recent years have coincided with the installation of dedicated cycling infrastructure (e.g. physically segregated cycle lanes and improved junctions).

London 2020 Usually, of course, cycle commuting in London is particularly strong but it reduced dramatically during the pandemic. While cautioning about their limited data collection during 2020, Transport for London (TfL) says: “Following an initial reduction during lockdown to about 40 per cent of normal demand (on the basis of available indicators), volumes rapidly bounced back, with leisure cycling broadly cancelling out the reduction in commuter cycling over the summer, and early autumn volumes have been significantly higher overall than the pre-pandemic baselines.” For more on how the pandemic affected London, see Travel in London Report 13, section 7.6.

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Northern Ireland, 1999-2019 •

Data suggest that cycle mileage in Northern Ireland has doubled since 1999:

(The figures for the above graph are calculated from mid-year population statistics from the Office of National Statistics; and TSNI reports from 1999. The report that will cover 2020 is expected during winter 2021/22).

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c. Proportion of trips England, 2002-2020 •

In 2002, 1.7% of trips were cycled, a figure that hardly changed until 2020, when it rose to 2.8% (NTS 0409a):

! Please note DfT’s disclaimer for 2020: “Due to changes in the methodology of data collection, changes in travel behaviour and a reduction of data collected during 2020, as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, care should be taken when interpreting this data and comparing to other years, due to the small sample sizes. Please see the background documentation for further details of these changes.”

Scotland, 1999-2020 • •

Since 1999, the proportion of journeys made by cycle per year has never risen above 1.5%, but the overall trend has been creeping upwards. In 2019, 1.2% of journeys were made by bicycle as the ‘main mode’. This is a drop on 2017 and 2018 (1.5% and 1.4% respectively), and the same as in 2012, 2015 and 2016. In 2020, around 1.5% of journeys were cycled, but data for this year are not comparable with previous years, because of Covid-related changes to the survey (the sample size was considerably smaller). (TATIS 2020, Table TD2)

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Northern Ireland, 2017-2019 •

On average, about 1% of journeys are cycled. This figure has been about the same year-to-year over the past decade (TSNI table 3.2):

Figures for 2020 are expected during winter 2021/22.

A note on Wales The figures for the proportion of trips made by cycle per person in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland are based on answers given to survey questions that are not asked in Wales.

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Q2. How many people cycle and how often? Please note: it is best not to compare the following figures nation against nation. This is because they come from the results of surveys with differently framed questions, the sample sizes vary (and may be small), and the definitions of ‘cycling’ aren’t necessarily the same. For more detail, please refer to the original sources.

England • •

Respondents in England are asked how often they’d cycled in the last year or so. The figures below cover cycling for any purpose, leisure and for transport/travel on the “on the public highway (any public road, street or path available to the public by a public right of way)”. The results suggest that, usually, about 14% of people aged five and over say they cycle more than once a week. In 2020, a fifth said the same.

England: proportion and number of people aged five and over who cycle by frequency 2015-2019 How often over the last year or so?

3 or more times a week Once or twice a week Less than once a week, more than once or twice a month Once or twice a month Less than once a month, more than once or twice a year Once or twice a year

2020*

Millions of people

%

Millions of people

%

7% 7%

3.7 3.7

10% 10%

5.3 5.4

4%

2.2

5%

2.8

6%

3.0

5%

2.8

6%

3.0

4%

2.4

4%

2.2 52

4%

2.4 53

Population of England, aged 5 & over (estimate)

(NTS 0313) *Please note the DfT’s disclaimer for 2020 (see Q1c above).

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Wales •

Respondents aged 16+ in Wales were asked if they’d cycled in the last three months as a “means of transport”, defined as cycling to get to a particular destination such as work, shops or to visit friends, but not cycling purely for pleasure or exercise. These are the results:

(NSW results viewer (full year), active travel topic). Note: further survey data from the first quarter of 2021, for which we made a special request, imply little change over the average for the past few years. However, the results are not directly comparable because of Covid-related changes in the way respondents were contacted.

Scotland •

Respondents aged 16+ in Scotland were asked if they’d cycled in the last week and, if so, how often. These are the results for cycling as a means of transport and for pleasure combined. (TATIS 2020, SHS Table 3a):

Scotland: estimated proportion of people (16+) who cycle (transport + pleasure) by frequency, 2014-2019 How often in the last seven days? 6-7 3-5 1-2 Population of Scotland, aged 16+ (estimate) =

% days 0.9% days 2% days 3% 4.5 million

Thousands of people 40k 91k 134k

Note: This question is now asked in alternate years, so the next results will be for 2021.

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Northern Ireland •

Respondents in Northern Ireland were asked if they’d done any cycling in the last four weeks and, if so, how often. These are the results (CNI, Tables 2a, 3a & 4):

Northern Ireland: estimated proportion of people (16+) who did any cycling, 2016/17-2019/20 How often in the last four weeks? Once every 4 weeks At least once every fortnight At least once a week 2-4 days a week 5-7 days a week

2016/17 1.4% 2.6% 2.5% 1.4% 0.5%

2017/18 1.2% 3.0% 1.9% 1.5% 0.8%

2019/20 1.4% 2.8% 1.2% 1.2% 0.4%

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Q3. How many people don’t cycle much, if ever? The following pie charts give estimates of the proportion of people who very rarely, or never cycle. Please note that the figures below are based on different survey questions, definitions of cycling, age groups and timespans (see Q2 above for more detail on sources).

! Please note DfT’s disclaimer for England, quoted in Q1c.

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Q4. How many trips do people make, what’s their mileage and how far do they go each time? England •

On average a year from 2015-19, people made 960 trips by ‘all modes’ (i.e. car, cycle, public transport, foot etc.). This dropped to 739 in 2020 (-23%).

Cycle trips, however, increased in 2020 compared to the annual average for 201519, rising from 16 on average, to 20 (+25%).

The average ‘all modes’ mileage per person per year from 2015-19 is estimated to be around 6,553 miles. This dropped to 4,334 in 2020 (-34%).

Car/van drivers clocked up 3,248 miles on average a year from 2015-19. Their mileage fell in 2020 to 2,324 (-28%).

In contrast, the average cycling mileage per person rose from 54 on average year from 2015-19, to 84 in 2020 (+57%).

(All the above figures come from NTS 0409) •

The average length of a cycle trip increased from 3.3 miles in 2015-19, to 4.1 miles in 2020. In contrast, the average length of a car/van trip as a driver dropped from 8.4 miles to 7.9. (NTS 0303)

England: car, cycle and 'all modes' use, average per person Car/van driver 2015-19 (average) Average number of trips Average mileage Average trip length (miles)

387 3,248 8.4

Cycle

2020 295 2,324 7.9

2015-19 (average)

All modes

2020

16 54 3.3

20 84 4.1

2015-19 (average) 960 6,553 6.8

2020 739 4,334 5.9

In 2015-19, NTS respondents who made at least one bicycle trip in the week that they were asked to record their travel averaged considerably more trips a year than others: 329 trips and 1,088 miles. In 2020, they made fewer trips (301), but accumulated more miles than usual (1,273). (NTS 0314).

Please note the DfT’s disclaimer for 2020 (quoted in Q1c above).

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Scotland •

These are the mean and median trip distances in Scotland in 2019 (TATIS 2019, TD5a):

Scotland: mean & median distance of trips (miles), 2019 Median Mean

Driver car/van 4.2 9.0

Bicycle

All modes 1.7 3.0

2.7 7.3

Note: Data for the average number of trips and annual mileage for different modes are not readily available. Sample sizes for ‘bicycle’ in 2020 were too small, so the results weren’t published.

Northern Ireland These are the average trip distances in Northern Ireland (TSNI, Tables 3.1 & 3.2):

Northern Ireland: car, cycle & 'all modes' use, average per person per year

Average number of trips Average mileage Average trip length (miles)

Car driver Cycle All modes 2016-18 2017-19 2016-18 2017-19 2016-18 2017-19 439 453 7 7 903 906 3,434 3,641 32 34 5,868 6,130 7.8 8 4.7 4.8 6.5 6.8

A note on Wales Comparable data are not readily available.

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Q5. How many people own or have access to a cycle? England • • •

Surveys from 2017-19 suggest that about 42% of people aged five or over own or have access to a bicycle. This figure rose to 47% in 2020. Younger age groups, particularly 5-10 year-olds, are more likely to own or have access to a cycle than older people. In 2020, cycle ownership rose in all age groups.

(NTS 0608)

Please note the DfT’s disclaimer for 2020 (quoted in Q1c above).

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Wales In 2013/14, when this question was last asked, the proportion of people who own or have access to a bike was: • • • • •

63% among 16-24 year-olds 63% among 25-44 year-olds 58% among 45-64 year-olds 44% among 65-74 year-olds 30% among 75+ year-olds.

(NSW results viewer).

Scotland • •

In 2019, 33.5% of households reported owning one or more bicycles that can be used by adults. (TATIS 2019,Table 18a). In 2020, this figure came in at 45% (please bear in mind that the sample size for the survey was much smaller than normal, and the survey methods changed because of Covid). (TATIS 2020, Table 18).

Northern Ireland •

Overall, about 32% of adults in Northern Ireland own or have access to a cycle, but there is a difference between age groups (CNI Table 2a):

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Q6. Who cycles most – females or males? Males cycle more than females, but the gap in England narrowed somewhat in 2020.

England • • •

On average a year from 2015-19, males of all ages made about two-and-a-half as many trips by bike as females, but only just over twice as many in 2020. Cycle mileage among males in 2015-19 was nearly four times as much as it was among females, but this dropped to about two-and-a-half in 2020. Females increased their cycle trips by a half in 2020, and more than doubled their cycle mileage. Trips and mileage increased for males too, but not by as much.

(NTS 0601) Please note: the source, DfT’s National Travel Survey, uses the terms ‘females’ and ‘males’ for these figures, and they cover all ages groups, from 0 to 70+ (for a breakdown by age group, please refer to source).

Wales The latest survey results from Wales on cycling by gender are based on very small samples, but commuting figures give some indication of the split (NSW, results viewer):

Wales: usually travel to work by bicycle (gender), 2019-2020 Female

Male 0.9%

2.4%

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Scotland •

In 2019, males were about twice as likely as women to have cycled in the last seven days, when asked in 2019. (TATIS 2020, Table 25a). This question was not asked in 2020.

Northern Ireland •

Males are about twice as likely as females to report that they’d cycled in the last four weeks. The likelihood of cycling dropped for both a little in 2019/20 compared to 2017/18. (Sample sizes are very small in Northern Ireland). (CNI Tables 2b (2017/18) & 3b (2019/20))

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Q7. Which age group cycles most? England • •

The younger people are, the more likely they are to cycle for travel at any frequency. People aged 35-54 seem to enjoy cycling for leisure rather more than other age groups, however.

(CW Table 0305).

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Wales •

In 2018/19, about 14% of 16-24-year-olds and 35-44 year-olds cycled at least once a month for transport, compared to 4% of older people (60+). The two other age groups (25-34 and 45-59) came in at just under to just over 10% respectively. (ATWCWales, release 2018-19, Chart 4).

For 2019/20, the smaller sample size for responses to the survey’s questions around cycling means no comparisons should be made to previous years.

Scotland •

Generally speaking in 2019, when asked whether they’d cycled as a means of transport in the last seven days, younger age groups (apart from 30-39 year-olds), were more likely to say they had cycled than people over fifty. For age groups falling between 16 and 59, the picture for cycling ‘just for pleasure/to keep fit’ is a touch more mixed, with 40-49 year-olds in particular saying they enjoying a cycle ride on 1-2 days a week. People over 60, though, were less likely to report that they’d cycled.

(TATIS 2020, Table 25a). This question was not asked in 2020.

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Northern Ireland •

In 2019/20, 35-49-year-olds were more likely to cycle than other age groups, but 2434-year-olds were not far behind. (CNI Table 3b):

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Q8. What’s the purpose of most cycle trips? England •

Usually, commuting and leisure* are the most common purposes of cycle trips, at just over a third each. In 2020, however, leisure surged to 55% and commuting fell to 20%, almost undoubtedly thanks to working from home rules and the population being encouraged to cycle for exercise (NTS 0409):

* Leisure is here defined as: “Visit friends at home and elsewhere, entertainment, sport, holiday and day trip.”

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Wales •

In Wales (2014-15, the last time National Survey Wales respondents were asked this question), ‘getting to or from work/business’ (30%) was the most common purpose for their ‘most recent ‘active travel’ journey by bicycle’. Just over a fifth of respondents said their purpose was going to the local shops for small errands (22%); while another fifth or so (21%) cited local or non-local leisure activities or recreation (NSW, results viewer):

Scotland •

In Scotland (2014-19), cycling for ‘transport’ (utility) purposes and cycling ‘just for pleasure’ are about even – 5.6% and 6.1% respectively (TATIS 2020, SHS Table 3a). This question is now asked in alternate years, so the next results will be for 2021.

Northern Ireland Data on the purpose of cycling journeys are not readily available.

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Q9. What proportion of children cycle to school & how far do they travel? England •

• • • • •

On average (2015-19), only about 2.2% of children aged 5-16 travelled to school by cycle. In 2020, this rose slightly to 2.5% (schools, of course, were not open for the full year but, when they were, the Government encouraged children to travel actively). Usually, 44% of children walk, and 35.4% are driven to school. Both of these figures rose somewhat in 2020. The only named mode to drop significantly in 2020 was ‘local bus’ – falling from 12.1% to 6.4%. For every year since 1995/97, 11-16 year-olds were more likely to cycle to school than 5-10 year-olds, and 2020 proved no different (3.6% compared to 1.3% in 2020). Generally speaking, the proportion of all children cycling to school has barely changed since 1995/97. Being driven, though, has risen from 30% to 37%. The average distance travelled to school in England is about 2.4 miles.

(NTS 0613) •

Usually, travel for education contributes significantly to peak-time traffic (all modes of transport): from 2015-19, it was responsible for about 29% of trips between 8 and 9 am, with an additional 23% escorting others to education. (NTS 0502).

Note: sample sizes for 2020 were far smaller than for earlier years. Also, please note the DfT’s disclaimer, quoted in Q1c.

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Wales •

• •

In some years, the National Survey for Wales questions parents about how their children travel to school on an “average (a typical)” day. More often than not, however, the results for “bike” come from < 30 people, so are often not robust enough to be published. 2014/15 was the last time a figure was estimated and published, and this was only for primary school children (1.7%). Results from 2018/19 suggest that well over half of primary pupils go by car (c57%); and about 45% walk. Results also suggest that around a third of secondary children are driven to school, and about the same walk (figures fluctuate around this mark from year-to-year).

(NSW, results viewer. The survey invited parents to tick more than one option).

Scotland •

• •

Scotland’s ‘Hands Up’ survey, carried out by Sustrans, suggests that about 4% of children cycle to school (all schools, excluding nurseries). This did not change in 2020 compared to the average for 2015-19. Another 10% or so ‘park & stride’; 23% are driven and 2% take taxis. Between 2008 and 2019, the proportion of children saying they walk dropped from about 48% to 41%, but the figure for 2020 rose to 45%.

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Note: the annual ‘Hands Up’ survey in Scotland asks pupils “How do you normally travel to school?” with a choice of travel modes. 2020’s results were subject to considerable variation in pupil response numbers, so should be interpreted with care. •

The Scottish Household Survey suggests a lower figure for cycling to school – about 1.9% for 2018 & 2019, and a little more, 2.1%, for 2020 (a figure that is not directly comparable with previous years because of Covid-related changes to the survey in that year). (TATIS Table Sum1).

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Northern Ireland • •

Only about 1% of 4-18 year-olds cycle to school. Almost half go by car and, in 2017/19, about a fifth walked (over a quarter did so in 2014/16). The figures below combine all age groups, but cycling is more prevalent among 4-11 year-olds (2% according to the 2017/19 TSNI) than in 12-18 year olds (0%)). Breakdowns for 2017/19 also show that younger children are more likely to be driven by car (61% v 31%), but less likely to go by public transport (15% v 46%) – see source for more detail.

(TSNI Headline report, Table 5)

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Q10. What about cycling to work? England •

Usually, around 4% of commuting trips are cycled. This figure increased to 5% in 2020, but commuting trips by car/van went up too (from 63% to 72%). (NTS 0412).

Note: on average from 2015-19, employed/self-employed people made an average of 332 commuting trips a year. In 2020, this figure dropped to 203. !Please also note the DfT’s disclaimer for 2020 (see Q1c above).

Wales •

In 2019/20, around 2% of respondents to the National Survey Wales said they usually travelled to their workplace by cycle. This was the first time the question was asked since 2014/15, when 4% said they usually cycled to work. In both periods, three-quarters commuted by car or van. (NSW, results viewer).

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Scotland •

In 2019, about 3% of employed adults said they usually cycled to work, as opposed to 68% who said they drove or were driven. • In 2020, these figures were 2% and 74% respectively. (Note that the sample size was much smaller for 2020, and the survey methods changed because of Covid). (TATIS 2019 & 2020, Table 7).

Northern Ireland •

Figures for 2017/19 suggest that 1% of workers cycle-commute, compared to over four-fifths who drive. These figures have barely changed for the past decade. (TSNI Table 4.3).

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Q11. Occupation, income, ethnicity and disability England !Please note the DfT’s disclaimer for 2020 data, quoted in Q1c above. Occupation •

In ‘normal’ years (2015-19), students are more likely to cycle than people in other occupations. Second down are people in managerial and professional roles, followed by ‘routine & manual’ workers. • Least likely to cycle are the long-term unemployed and those who have never worked. • In 2020, people in managerial/professional occupations made more trips than other groups, including students (probably because colleges – 26, compared to an average of 21 for all individuals aged 16+. All groups made more cycle trips than usual, but people who have never worked or are long-term unemployed in particular upped their count (from c.11 trips a year to 17). (NTS 0708).

Income •

Over the last few ‘normal’ years (2015-19), people in the ‘highest real income level’ tended to take more cycle trips than others (19.5 on average a year); but their 25 trips during 2020 were overtaken by people at the ‘third level’ (28.5). (NTS 0705).

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Ethnicity • •

People who describe themselves as ‘White Other’ are more likely to cycle once a week than other ethnic groups (16%). In 2019-20 compared to 2018-19, the proportion of people who reported cycling at least once a week fell somewhat for ‘Other ethnic’, ‘Chinese’, ‘Black’ and ‘South Asian’, but rose a little for ‘White Other’, ‘White British’ and ‘Mixed’.

(CW 0305).

Disability •

Adults with a limiting disability are less likely to cycle at least once a week than adults with either no disability or a non-limiting disability. Figures from 2018-19 and 2020 were very similar. (CW 0305).

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Wales In 2018/19, people with a limiting long-standing illness, disability or infirmity were less likely to have cycled at any frequency than those without a limiting illness – just over 5% as opposed to around 11% respectively. (ATWCWales Chart 5). Note: Wales issued an active travel release covering April 2019 to March 2020 too, but the sample size for cycling-related questions was much smaller than the year before (2,000 as opposed to 12,000), and the results were only summarised briefly. The release covering 2018/2019, quoted above, is much more detailed.

Scotland Income •

In 2019, people in households with higher net incomes were more likely to say they’d cycled in the last seven days that those with lower incomes.

Ethnicity •

In 2019, people who identified themselves as ‘Other white’ were more likely to say they’d cycled in the last seven days than those in other ethnic groups.

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Disability •

In 2019, people who said they were ‘not disabled’ were far more likely to say they’d cycled in the last seven days than those who said they were disabled.

Note: All the charts for Scotland in this section are based on TATIS 2020, Table 25a. They are based on the results from a question that was not asked in 2020. The next results will be for 2021.

Northern Ireland In 2017/2018, of the people who said that they have use of a bicycle (CNI 2b): • •

16% of those who reported a disability said they’d cycled in the last four weeks, compared to 30% of those who reported that they did not have a disability. The economically active were as likely to cycle as those not economically active (27%).

In 2018/2019: •

Around 1.3% of people with a disability cycled at least part of the way to work, as opposed to 2.5% of people with no disability. (Walking and cycling to/from work in Northern Ireland 2018/19, Table 8).

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Q12. How many cyclists drive? And how many drivers cycle? •

According to the answer to a question Cycling UK asked the Department for Transport (England) almost everyone who cycles at some point during the year not only holds a driving licence but also uses it.

Here are the finer details (figures for 2019, with 2020* in brackets): • • • •

98% (100%) of people who cycle and hold a driving licence also drive 85% (88%) of people aged 18 years+ who cycle hold a driving licence 83% (87%) of people aged 18 years+ who cycle also drive 30% (35%) of people who hold a driving licence also cycle

Note: this data comes originally from the National Travel Survey (NTS), which covers households in England only. ‘People who cycle’ include all those who reported that they cycled more often than “less than once a year”. * ! Please also note DfT’s disclaimer for 2020: “Due to changes in the methodology of data collection, changes in travel behaviour and a reduction of data collected during 2020, as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, care should be taken when interpreting this data and comparing to other years, due to the small sample sizes.”

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Q13. What kinds of roads are people most likely to cycle on? •

Over four-fifths of cycling takes place on minor roads, mostly minor urban roads. In 2020, minor rural roads attracted a higher share than usual. • In 2020, cycling on all classes of roads rose compared to 2015-19. (TRA 0402 – covers roads only, not off-road on bridleways or byways etc.).

Cycling by road class (billion miles cycled) All major roads All rural Urban 'A' (trunk + 'A' roads roads principal + 'A') 2015-19 (annual average) 2020

Minor rural roads

Minor urban roads

All roads All minor (major + roads minor)

0.1

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.9

2.7

3.3

0.2

0.6

0.8

1.5

2.8

4.3

5.0

Note: Comparable figures for Northern Ireland are not readily available.

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Q14. Which local areas see the most cycling? Note: each of the tables in this section uses a different measurement. Also, figures for individual authorities fluctuate quite a bit from year to year (this could be, for example, because of small sample numbers in some areas and/or few people cycling – i.e. finding an extra handful of cyclists compared to the handful found the year before, would double the percentage). This means that the following data aren't a perfect reflection of cycle use, or progress on it, in any given area, but they do provide some indication. Topography, the density of settlements, population, demographics and urban/rural split are factors to consider too, when comparing authorities.

England •

• •

In 2019/20 (mid-November to mid-November), more people cycled three times a week in Cambridge (nearly 29%) than in any other local authority area. Oxford always does very well too. The average for England was 5.3%. The table below shows the top twenty authorities, according to the latest figures (CW 0302):

England: proportion of adults cycling at least three times a week top 20 local authorities (mid-Nov 2019 to mid-Nov 2020) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cambridge Oxford Hackney Hammersmith & Fulham Islington Wandsworth Richmond upon Thames South Cambridgeshire Isles of Scilly* Cambridgeshire

28.7% 20.8% 16.1% 14.7% 14.6% 14.5% 14.3% 13.9% 13.0% 12.3%

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Lambeth Southwark Adur Tower Hamlets Inner London Portsmouth Oxfordshire York Lincoln Basingstoke & Deane =20 Gosport

11.6% 11.2% 11.0% 10.4% 10.3% 10.3% 10.2% 10.1% 10.1% 9.4% 9.4%

ENGLAND (average) = 5.3% * sample sizes for Isles of Scilly are very small, so caution is needed when interpreting these results

Note: This chart is rather unfair on authorities who clocked up 9.3%, or not far off. So, do have a look at DfT's walking and cycling statistics for more. These cover all local authorities in England, so if yours isn't in the top twenty, you can check the list to find out how they rank. The list also breaks cycling down into leisure and travel (the table above gives figures for ‘any cycling’).

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Wales According to the statistical bulletin on walking and cycling in Wales for 2018/2019: “Due to the small numbers of people who cycle as a means of transport, it is not possible to produce reliable statistics for frequency of cycling at the local authority level. We can however look at those who used a bicycle as a means of transport in the previous three months more frequently than once a month, though sample sizes are still low so these estimates should be interpreted with caution.” With that in mind, around: •

16% of respondents in Cardiff said they’d cycled more often than once a month in 2018/19, putting it at the top of the chart. The city came a good second to Flintshire in 2017/18, both scoring around 17%. Ceredigion and Swansea appeared in the top five in each of these surveys, although Flintshire came 7th in 2018/19 at about 12%.

(ATWCWales: releases April 2017 to March 2018, and April 2018 to March 2019, Chart 9)

Scotland •

Edinburgh and Highland usually top the charts for the proportion of people cycling to work (ACMRScot): Scotland: proportion of people cycling to work at least regularly: top five local authorities, 2017, 2018 & 2019 2017 1 City of Edinburgh 2 Highland 3 Moray

2018 11.9% 1 City of Edinburgh 12.9% 11.7% 2 Highland 11.8% 9.1% 3 Angus 6.7% Dumfries and 4 Dundee City 8.5% 4 6.7% Galloway 5 Orkney Islands 6.4% 5 Dundee City 6.7% Average for Scotland = 4.9% Average for Scotland = 5.5%

2019 1 City of Edinburgh 2 Highland 3 Scottish Borders 4 Glasgow City = 5 Angus/Stirling Average for Scotland = 5.7%

13.2% 13.1% 8.2% 7.6% 7%

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Northern Ireland •

In 2017-19, Belfast saw a higher proportion of journeys by cycle than anywhere else (2%). (TSNI in-depth report, table 3.5):

But, in 2019/20, more people agreed they were a ‘cyclist’ and that cycling was a strong part of their identity in Newry, Mourne & Down than elsewhere (CNI Table 1b):

Northern Ireland: proportion of people who agree that they are a 'cyclist' and that cycling is a strong part of their identity, 2019/20 Newry, Mourne & Down Antrim & Newtownabbey Mid Ulster Armagh, Banbridge & Craigavon Belfast Lisburn & Castlereagh Mid & East Antrim Derry & Strabane Causeway Coast & Glens North Down & Ards Fermanagh & Omagh

5% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

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Q15. How do UK levels of cycling compare to those in other European countries? Not well. •

According to data on ‘cycling modal share’, collected by the European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF), the UK comes towards the bottom of the list of 28 countries in Europe.

Country

Cycling modal share

The Netherlands Hungary Sweden Denmark Finland Germany Belgium Slovakia Austria Ireland Lithuania Czech Republic Slovenia Romania

27.0% 22.0% 16.5% 16.0% 13.4% 11.8% 9.5% 8.0% 7.0% 7.0% 7.0% 6.3% 6.3% 6.2%

Country Italy Poland Estonia France Luxembourg Bulgaria Latvia UK Spain Greece Republic of Cyprus Malta Portugal Croatia

Cycling modal share 5.0% 5.0% 4.5% 4.0% 4.0% 3.4% 2.0% 2.0% 1.3% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.5% n/a

Source: https://ecf.com/cycling-data Note: individual countries do not necessarily collect the same kind of data or report on them in the same way. The above table, which covers recent years – but not always the same ones – is therefore indicative of the share that cycling enjoys (or does not enjoy), compared to other ways of travelling. It’s fair to say, though, that the Netherlands always rises to the top, and the UK is never anywhere near it. The ECF has also published a report, The State of national cycling strategies in Europe. This covers 47 European countries, including the UK, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

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A survey of 27,565 people across Europe, which asked about their main mode of transport on a typical day in 2019, puts The Netherlands top again by a long way, and the UK even further down the chart. The top seven countries are the same as in the chart above from the ECF.

Proportion of people using a privately owned bike or scooter (including electric ones) as their mode of transport on a typical day, 2019 The Netherlands 41% Estonia 4% Sweden 21% Italy 4% Germany 15% Romania 4% Hungary 14% Slovenia 4% Finland 13% France 3% Belgium 12% Bulgaria 2% Denmark 12% Greece 2% Latvia 8% Spain 2% Austria 8% Luxembourg 2% Poland 7% Malta 2% Czechia 6% UK 2% Croatia 6% Ireland 1% Slovakia 6% Republic of Cyprus 0% Lithuania 5% Portugal 0% Note: the survey, conducted by the European Commission, lumped privately owned bikes/e-bikes in with scooters/e-scooters. Source: Mobility and Transport, Special Eurobarometer 495, published July 2020 by the European Commission. The Netherlands Looking at The Netherlands in particular, in 2019: • • • • • •

4.8 billion trips were made by bicycle, covering 17.6 billion km. This equates to 3km of cycling per day per person More than one-quarter (28%) of all trips are primarily by bicycle 8% of the total distance travelled is cycled Trips for leisure purposes account for one-third of the total distance cycled, followed by bicycle trips for shopping purposes and home-work commutes More than half (52%) of all education-related trips were cycled Working people use bicycles for approximately 27% of their home-work commutes This percentage is higher for those who travel relatively short distances: 55% of working people residing within 5 km of their workplaces commute to work by bicycle.

For more facts on levels of cycling in the Netherlands, see Cycling facts: new insights, from KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis, Nov 2020.

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Q16. How safe is cycling? Cycling is safer than many people think it is. In ‘normal years’ (2015-2019, GB), over a distance equivalent to 1,000 times round the Earth at its widest point: • • • •

One cyclist is killed (0.76, in fact) 33 are seriously injured 103 are slightly injured The figures for 2020 are: 0.70 (killed); 21 (seriously injured); 59 (slightly injured).

(Source: calculated from RAS 30001 (adjusted figures) & TRA 0401) • •

There are around 10.4 million cycle trips for every cyclist fatality (9.4 in 2020) The general risk of injury of any severity whilst cycling is just 0.045 per 1,000 hours of cycling (0.025 in 2020).

(Source: calculated from RAS 30001 & NTS 0303 (NTS figures, which cover England only, are used here as a proxy for GB)). Despite this, many people are put off cycling because they think it's unsafe: •

Around two-thirds of the population aged 16+ agree/strongly agree that it is too dangerous to cycle on the roads (National Travel Attitudes Survey, 0101a).

Cycling UK believes that, unfortunately, the behaviour and attitudes of some road users, speed, lorries, the sheer volume of motor traffic and substandard road layout all conspire to make cycling feel and look more dangerous than it actually is. Also, the health benefits of cycling outweigh the injury risks by between 13:1 and 415:1, according to various studies (and depending on the benefits/disbenefits considered). That said, every road crash victim is a victim too many. Risk per billion miles: is it going up or down? We think it’s important not to measure the risk of cycling by the number of cyclist casualties alone (‘absolute numbers’). If the number of cyclist casualties drop, it could simply be because fewer people are out on their bikes; if they rise, it could be because cycle use levels are going up. If, on the other hand, more people are out riding, but casualty numbers rise less steeply or even drop, it suggests that cycling /cycling conditions must have grown safer. Absolute numbers, therefore, are not a good measurement of whether the risk of cycling is going up or down. We therefore look at casualties per mile / trip (the rate) instead. •

Calculations based on traffic counts for the last twenty years suggest that the risk of being killed whilst cycling per billion miles cycled has been trending downwards since 2013, as has the risk of being seriously or slightly injured. Compared to the rate for pedestrians, cyclists are about as likely to be killed, but more likely to be seriously or slightly injured. The casualty rate for car drivers is considerably lower than both, while for fatalities and serious injuries, motorcycle riders are at far higher risk.

(RAS 30070).

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This table shows the number of cyclist casualties in each nation: Cyclist casualties: England, Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland (numbers) England 2015-19 average Killed Serious* Slight* All severities

90 3,887 12,890 16,867

2020 124 3,851 11,347 15,322

Wales 2015-19 average 4 143 299 445

Scotland

2020 6 120 246 372

2015-19 average 6 292 404 703

Northern Ireland

2020 11 244 345 600

2015-19 average 2 51 249 301

2020 4 45 207 256

* Figures for England, Wales & Scotland are adjusted to account for changes in police reporting; Northern Ireland's figures are unadjusted.

Under-reporting: Please note that the figures above originate from police reports. While most, if not all, road fatalities are reported to the police, a proportion of non-fatal casualties are not, even if someone goes to hospital for treatment. The Department for Transport (DfT) estimates that this is, in fact, a ‘considerable’ proportion. That aside, as the DfT says, “police data on road accidents, whilst not perfect, remain the most detailed, complete and reliable single source of information on road casualties covering the whole of Great Britain, in particular for monitoring trends over time, and remains well regarded in international comparisons.”

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Q17. How many cycles are sold in the UK? The Bicycle Association, the national trade association for the UK cycle industry, is an excellent source of market data, and we reproduce the following figures with thanks to them. In the UK in 2020: • • • • •

3,260,000 cycles (units) of all kinds, including e-bikes, were sold 160,000 e-bikes were sold The average price paid for a mechanical bike was £332; and £1,854 for an e-bike. An estimated c.180,000 conventional bikes, including e-bikes, were manufactured, a significant proportion for export. Transport for Quality of Life’s 2018 report for the Bicycle Association, The Value of the Cycling Sector to the British Economy: A Scoping Study estimated that products associated with the cycling industry contributed about £0.7b to the British economy.

If you’re interested in further detail, including trends, please contact the Bicycle Association’s Market Data Service directly. •

In 2020, around 1.7 million cars were registered for the first time in the UK, much fewer than the number of cycles sold (in 2019, c2.3 cars were registered for the first time. (DfT, Vehicle Licensing Statistics, Table VEH 0150).

Q18. What’s the average weekly spend on bikes? Obviously, how much each household spends on transport varies widely but, on average, it was around £81.60 a week in the financial year ending (FYE) 2020, only a little more than it was for FYE 2019 (£80.80). Only a tiny amount of this goes on bicycles – not needing to buy fuel is, of course, a big saving.

UK: average weekly household expenditure on transport, financial year ending 2020 (£) Purchase (outright or loan/hire; new/second hand) Spares/accessories/repairs/servicing Fuel (petrol, diesel, motor oils) Other motoring costs (subscriptions, rent, washing, fines, permits, fees, lessons, anti-freeze, battery water, cleaning materials) Total Public transport (fares, taxis, school travel, vehicle hire etc.) Total transport spend (private inc. motorcycles / public) * includes 'other vehicles'

Cars/vans Bicycles 25.1 0.90* 8.3 0.20 22.3 0 2.8

0

58.5

1.10 21.70 81.60

Source: Office for National Statistics: Family Spending (Table A1, section 7).

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Q19. How many cycles are stolen in the UK? Bike security is a serious concern for people who already cycle, and for anyone who's thinking of taking it up.

England & Wales •

• •

Figures gathered via a household survey suggested that there were around 271,000 incidents of bicycle theft from April 2019 to the end of March 2020 (adults aged 16 and over/households). Clearly, by no means all of these incidents reported to the police, who recorded 88,303 bicycle theft offences for the same period. Broadly speaking, it looks as if incidents of bicycle thefts at least have been trending down for the last decade or so.

Source: Crime in England and Wales, tables A1a and A4.

Scotland •

Best estimates suggest that about 19,000 bicycle theft crimes were committed in 2019/20, affecting approximately 0.7% of households. (Note: this comes from a crime survey, not police records).

Source: Scottish Crime and Justice Survey: main findings. (Tables A1.1 & A1.5).

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Northern Ireland •

Best estimates for 2019/20 suggest that: around 0.6% of households and 1.6% of bicycle owners (adults) fell victim to bicycle theft; and there were around 5,000 incidents of the crime. In 2020/21, the police recorded 731 bicycle thefts (882 in the year before).

Sources: The Northern Ireland Safe Community Survey (Experience of crime tables A2 & A7) & Police Recorded Crime in Northern Ireland (Annual trends Table 2.2).

Q20. What are our main sources? Key ACMRScot = Annual Cycling Monitoring Report (Scotland) ATWCWales = Active Travel Walking and Cycling (Wales) CNI = Cycling in Northern Ireland CW = Walking and cycling statistics (England) NSW = National Survey for Wales NTS = National Travel Survey (England) RAS = Reported Road Casualties Great Britain TATIS = Transport and Travel in Scotland TRA = Road Traffic Statistics (GB) TSNI = Travel Survey for Northern Ireland

More about our main sources Please bear in mind that 2020 was a problematic year for data gathering (see introduction above, and refer to the source itself for more detail).

Great Britain Road Traffic Statistics, Department for Transport (TRA) These are estimates of the vehicle miles travelled each year in Great Britain by vehicle type, road category and region. They are compiled using data from around 8,000 roadside 12-hour manual counts, continuous data from automatic traffic counters, and data on road lengths. Reported Road Casualties Great Britain, Department for Transport (RAS) These are annual road casualty statistics released twice each year (the main results usually appear in June, followed later in September by much more detailed data and analyses). They are mostly based on forms (STATS19) filled in by the police when collisions are reported to them, and provide figures for personal injury road accidents,

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vehicles and casualties involved. Although most tables relate to GB, some offer figures relating specifically to England, Wales, Scotland and (very occasionally) to Northern Ireland. The devolved nations also published casualty figures separately: • • •

Wales Scotland Northern Ireland

Note on underreporting: not all incidents are reported to the police, so some do not make their way into official statistics.

England National Travel Survey (NTS) & National Travel Attitudes Survey (NTAS), Department for Transport The NTS is a household survey that monitors long-term trends in personal travel. It collects data via interviews and a seven-day travel diary, recording how, why, when and where people of all ages travel as well as factors affecting travel. It’s part of a continuous survey that began in 1988, following ad hoc surveys from the 1960s. Until 2013, it covered the whole of Britain, but England alone thereafter. The DfT says: “Fieldwork for the NTS 2020 survey was impacted by the coronavirus restrictions with interviews being conducted via telephone instead of face-to-face, resulting in a reduction of more than a half of the response rate to the survey compared to previous years (6,239 individuals in 2020 compared to 14,356 individuals in 2019).” For each table, the DfT gives the sample size on which its results are based. From 2019, the DfT has been conducting a National Travel Attitudes Survey (NTAS). This is based on questions asked of NTS respondents who consent to being contacted for further studies. Multiple survey waves are conducted each year. The NTAS has replaced the questions formerly included in the British Social Attitudes Survey. Walking and Cycling Statistics, Department for Transport (CW) These statistics are derived from the NTS (see above) and the Active Lives Survey (ALS). The ALS is usually a ‘push-to-web’ survey of households in England conducted by Sport England to derive official estimates of participation in sport and physical activity (in 2020, it was ‘push-to-telephone’ instead). It is much bigger than the NTS, with around 178,000 adults (aged 16+) taking part in 2020. The first ALS was conducted between November 2015 and November 2016. The relatively large sample size for the ALS makes it a particularly useful source of data on cycling and walking frequencies at local authority level. The finer differences between the NTS and ALS are set out here. For example, the definitions of ‘cycling’ are not quite the same.

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Wales National Survey for Wales, Welsh Government (NSW) The NSW involves around 12,000 people each year, running all year round and across the whole of Wales. It asks people about several aspects of their lives, including their travel habits (but it does not ask respondents to keep a travel diary, unlike the NTS). Active Travel Walking and Cycling Wales, Welsh Government (ATWCWales) This is a statistical bulletin that presents and analyses the responses to the active travel questions asked in the NSW (see above). Annual reports vary in detail.

Scotland Transport and Travel in Scotland, Scottish Government (TATIS) This bulletin provides the results of the transport and travel questions asked in the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) and uses data from a range of sources for context. The SHS is a continuous survey, conducted annually since 1999. It includes a travel diary (TD) that asks people to recount details of all the journeys they made the previous day. TTS also presents the responses to questions asked in the general social survey. In 2019, there were around 9,800 respondents to the SHS. Annual Cycling Monitoring Report Scotland, Cycling Scotland (ACMRScot) This is an annual publication that reports on the national indicators used to monitor progress towards the goals set by the Cycling Action Plan for Scotland (CAPS). It uses several sources, including TATIS, SHS (see above) and road casualty figures. It offers detailed reports on local areas.

Northern Ireland Cycling in Northern Ireland, Department for Infrastructure (DfI), Northern Ireland (CNI) CNI is based on the answers to cycling-related questions the DfI has commissioned the Northern Ireland Continuous Household Survey (CHS) to ask since 2016/17. Since 2017/2018, the relevant questions have been included biennially. In the 2019/20 CHS, the results were based on just under 3,000 respondents (aged 16 and over). The DfI also publishes Walking and cycling to and/or from work in Northern Ireland, likewise based on the CHS. Travel Survey Northern Ireland, Department for Infrastructure (DfI), (TSNI) TSNI, which started in 1999, collects information on how and why people travel via a seven-day travel diary and a computer interview. Everyone in a household (including children) are eligible, and the results are published annually in three reports: in-depth, headline and technical. From 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019, 2,762 households and 5,266 persons were interviewed. (As the sample size is relatively small, three years of data have to be combined to allow for robust analysis).

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