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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education

Volume 9, Page 1  

             

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry:  

Education          

Education Edition, Volume 9, Issue 1

Fall 2018      

Published by: Center for Scholastic Inquiry, LLC ISSN: 2330-6564 (online) ISSN: 2330-6556 (print)


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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education The Center for Scholastic Inquiry (CSI) publishes the Journal of Scholastic Inquiry to recognize, celebrate, and highlight scholarly research, discovery, and evidence-based practice. Academic research emphasizing leading edge inquiry, distinguishing and fostering best practice, and validating promising methods will be considered for publication. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method study designs representing diverse philosophical frameworks and perspectives are welcome. The JOSI publishes papers that perpetuate thought-leadership and represent critical enrichment. The JOSI is a rigorously juried journal. If you are interested in publishing in the JOSI, feel free to contact our office or visit our website. Sincerely,

Dr. Tanya McCoss-Yerigan Executive Director & Managing Editor Center for Scholastic Inquiry 4857 Hwy 67, Suite #2 Granite Falls, MN 56241

 Web: www.csiresearch.com

Phone: 855-855-8764

Email: editor@csiresearch.com


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ISSN: 2330-6564 (online) ISSN: 2330-6556 (print)

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education

Fall 2018

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Volume 9, Issue 1

www.csiresearch.com


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JOURNAL OF SCHOLASTIC INQUIRY: Education Edition Fall 2018, Volume 9, Issue 1

Managing Editor Dr. Tanya Yerigan

Editor-in-Chief Dr. Dennis Lamb

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Shirley Barnes, Alabama State University Joan Berry, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor Brooke Burks, Auburn University at Montgomery Timothy Harrington, Chicago State University Michelle Beach, Southwest Minnesota State University Kenneth Goldberg, National University Linda Rae Markert, State University of New York at Oswego Lucinda Woodward, Indiana University Southeast Arina Gertseva, Washington State University Robin Davis, Claflin University

PEER REVIEWERS Kathy Smart Lorena Morales Cynthia Gautreau Sally Creasap

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Hortencia Tommye Thomas Gary Cheeseman Darolyn Seay

Sharon Wilbur Sharon Dean Gina Garza-Reyna Tyler Bridges


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publication Agreement and Assurance of Integrity Ethical Standards in Publishing Disclaimer of Liability Research Manuscripts

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8-271

Storytelling Through Documentaries: An Innovative, Culturally Diverse Practice in Preparing Pre-service Teachers Gary Cheeseman, University of South Dakota

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Is There Space for Co-mingling Mexican Parents’ Learned Mathematical Knowledge with Their Children’s School Learned Ways of Thinking and Doing Mathematics? Gilbert Dueñas, Auburn University Montgomery Luke Alexander Smith, Auburn University Montgomery

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Latino Parents’ Perceptions on Educating Bilingual-Bicultural Children through Effective Home-school Collaborations Dr. Gina L. Garza-Reyna, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Lorena Morales, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Hortencia Morales, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Xenia Barbosa-Centeno, Texas A&M University-Kingsville

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An Examination of the Relationship between a Candidate’s Disposition Assessments from Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program to Completion of the Program Darolyn D. Seay, Nebraska State College System – Peru State College

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Incorporating Online Professional Development Materials in Teacher Education Coursework: Perceptions of Faculty and Pre-service Teachers Kathy Smart, University of North Dakota Cynthia Gautreau, California State University, Fullerton Tommye Thomas, Brenau University

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Examining Pedagogy Rubrics to Influence and Enhance Instruction Joseph W. Spadano, Rivier University

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Strategic Leadership Development through Energy Management Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Ana Rosado-Feger, Ohio University Amy Taylor-Bianco, Ohio University

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Students’ Perceptions of Technology Tools: An Interdisciplinary Approach Courtney Wiest, Saint Leo University Keya Mukherjee, Saint Leo University Rhondda Waddell, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Debra Mims, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Felicia Wilson, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Lin Carver, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Holly Atkins, Ph.D., Saint Leo University

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Utilizing Inquiry and Discourse to Engage Diverse Stakeholders and Promote Cultural Competence in a Strategic Planning Process Sharon Wilbur, University of Oklahoma Sharon Dean, University of Oklahoma Tyler Bridges, University of Oklahoma

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Manuscript Submission Guide

272

Why Read Our Journals

274


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PUBLICATION AGREEMENT AND ASSURANCE OF INTEGRITY By submitting a manuscript for publication, authors confirm that the research and writing is their exclusive, original, and unpublished work. Upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication, authors grant the Center for Scholastic Inquiry, LLC (CSI) the sole and permanent right to publish the manuscript, at its option, in one of its academic research journals, on the CSI's website, in other germane, academic publications; and/or on an alternate hosting site or database. Authors retain copyright ownership of their research and writing for all other purposes. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN PUBLISHING The CSI insists on and meets the most distinguished benchmarks for publication of academic journals to foster the advancement of accurate scientific knowledge and to defend intellectual property rights. The CSI stipulates and expects that all practitioners and professionals submit original, unpublished manuscripts in accordance with its code of ethics and ethical principles of academic research and writing. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY The CSI does not endorse any of the ideas, concepts, and theories published within the JOSI: E. Furthermore, we accept no responsibility or liability for outcomes based upon implementation of the individual author’s ideas, concepts, or theories. Each manuscript is the copyrighted property of the author.              


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Storytelling through Documentaries: An Innovative, Culturally Diverse Practice in Preparing Pre-service Teachers Gary Cheeseman University of South Dakota Abstract This paper will share a pre-service teacher course project that was designed to introduce them to an indigenous teaching method, the ancient art of storytelling, combined with a modern variation the inclusion of technology, by producing a mini-documentary (mini-docs) based on an interview of an experienced teacher. This project introduced them to a varied teaching method, and it also helped them to learn about effective practice as experienced teachers shared their stories. The purpose of this study was to determine if the data obtained from the student mini-docs would be pertinent to use in a thematic documentary. Interviews from the mini-documentaries were analyzed and emerging themes were identified. Ultimately, the professor used the mini-docs to develop a thematic documentary that was published and used as a teaching tool in the teacher education program and beyond.

Keywords: pre-service teacher preparation, documentaries, storytelling, electronic storytelling.

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Introduction Teacher preparation programs have been under scrutiny, questioning whether pre-service teachers are being adequately prepared to meet the instructional needs of students (Aldeman & Mitchell, 2016, DeMonte, 2015; Teachplus, 2015), particularly for an increasingly diverse population (Akiba, 2011; Engel, 2009).

Cultural competence has become an important

characteristic of effective teachers (Akiba, 2011; Gay & Kirkland, 2003; Gayle-Evans & Michael, 2006; Sleeter, 2001) and is now included in state and national teaching standards with expectations that teachers modify instructional methods to address diversity (Akiba, Cockrell, Simmons, Hans, & Agarwal, 2010: Council of Chief State School Officers, 2013). My task, as a professor of Indian Education, in a state where 12% of the population is American Indian, is two-fold.

I teach prospective mostly non-Indian teachers culturally

responsive pedagogy building their knowledge and confidence in working with diverse students and build their awareness of the culture itself. The objectives of the course are to prepare effective teachers. One course project that has been designed to introduce students to an indigenous teaching method, the ancient art of storytelling, combined with a modern variation with inclusion of technology, is the production of a mini-documentary (mini-docs) based on an interview of an experienced teacher. Not only does this project introduce them to a varied teaching method, it also helps them to learn about effective practice as these experienced teachers share their stories. Ultimately, the professor used the mini-docs to develop a thematic documentary (T-Doc) that is being used as a teaching tool in the teacher education program and beyond. The purpose of this study was to determine if the data obtained from the pre-service teacher mini-docs would be pertinent to use in a thematic documentary. Â


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Purpose of the Study Students produced a mini-documentary (mini-docs) after interviewing an experienced teacher. Ultimately, the professor will use the mini-docs to develop a thematic documentary (TDoc) that will be published and used as a teaching tool in the teacher education program and beyond. The purpose of this study was to determine if the data obtained from the student minidocs would be pertinent to use in a thematic documentary. Purpose of the Assignment Students were given the task of creating a mini-doc designed to collect, critically analyze, and extract data from the stories of experienced teachers. Students learned about teaching during the interview process, while using Indigenous educational methodologies (storytelling). Students were simultaneously learning about Indigenous storytelling in the classroom. Literature Review Change, a Diversifying Society Teachers must understand that society is in a state of technological and social change (Ball, 2012). These changes impact teacher education systems and programs (Hirsh, 2005, Giroux, 2000, Hopmann, 2013). These systems and programs have a responsibility to change. This responsibility reveled the need for educational stakeholders to develop and cultivate diverse learning environments (Giroux, 2000; Nieto, 2010). There is a consensus that teacher preparation programs must include the development of knowledge and delivery instruction. The knowledge includes emphasizing teaching theory, instructional methodology, child psychology, development, and content. The delivery portion of the program is reflected in teaching experiences where students use what they learned in their coursework. Â


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Most importantly however, prospective teachers must also learn the cultural characteristics to becoming an effective multicultural educator as well as the instructional dexterities that allow all students to benefit from schooling. Why Teachers Want to Teach Teachers are generally empathetic and teach for altruistic reasons (Brunetti, 2001; Marston, Brunetti, & Courtney, 2005). They have a fundamental love of young people, which leads to personal and professional fulfillment. Teachers are seldom influenced by salaries and benefits and are most satisfied when students develop and learn (Muchmore, 2004). Fundamentally, seeing transformational change in children is what matters (Marston, et.al, 2005; Muchmore, 2004). Teaching Strategies Many teachers are confused about how to help all students succeed (Eccles, 2005; Sleeter, 2011). They feel pressure to make certain that they meet the required academic goals and objectives (Eccles, 2005). Developing classroom-teaching strategies is a challenge in schools throughout the United States (Eccles, 2005). Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, and Thornburg (2009) argue, affective teaching strategies sustain student interest and are essential in improving learning patterns. There is no single teaching strategy that works in every situation (Phillips, Gormley, & Lowenstein, 2009). Teachers must contemplate the many factors associated with each student (Eccles, 2005). Teacher Support Teachers in fiscally disadvantaged and politically divested schools reveled that “career discontentment” was primarily why they left the teaching profession feeling unsuccessful (Spradlin & Prendergast, 2006). The main source of discontent was poor administrative support


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(Spradlin & Prendergast, 2006). When teachers get the support they deserve they feel successful. Successful teachers positively impact students and are more likely to continue in their career (Fullan & Knight, 2011). Successful educational systems have implemented a philosophy of support that begins with collaboration, cooperation, and communication (Fullan & Knight, 2011). As today’s educational needs create challenges in the schools, school administrators must champion their teachers using communication methods that focus on research-based strategies that enhance teacher satisfaction and increase student engagement (Green, 2009). Storytelling The influence of storytelling is apparent within academia (Anderson, 2001; Vansina, 2006), however some scholars simply do not take storytelling seriously and have not considered its utilitarian value. Storytelling however, is consummately profound as the world’s oldest pedagogy (Pellowski, 1990). It has taught life’s lessons for centuries in all cultures (Vansina, 1985). Storytelling socializes (Greene, 1996) by communicating subjectively and often unprompted with others, we call it moral reasoning. The revitalization of storytelling began in the early 1980s to recapture and safeguard our moral stories (Lawrence, 2002). We perceive our morality through story (Vansina, 1985). Technology, the Documentary Digital technology has changed and challenged the epistemological landscape in education (Frederik, Sonneveld, & de Vries, 2011). New technologies have inspired creative projects in education (Johnson & Daugherty, 2008).


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The production of the mini-doc is a uniquely engrossing approach for exploring topics in education by challenging the technological abilities of students (Kadjer 2004). Mini-docs are produced on common computers with movie making software. Mini-docs require students to acquire information from participants to construct their narrative. As students continually revisit their data, they develop critical thinking and reflective learning routines. Storytelling Assignment In 2011, the Professor issued an assignment with multiple, synthesized, overarching objectives. The first objective was to create a learning partnership by having a student interview a practicing teacher or participant. The second objective was to utilize a creative form of technology to tell the participant’s story. The third objective was to have students engage in an extraneous epistemological process using the ancient pedagogy of Indigenous storytelling. Students were provided with training that included techniques in: panning, zooming, timing, cutting, general editing, and audio overlays. The professor taught these basic skills to students prior to issuing the assignment. For this assignment, students received interview training in the classroom and by appointment with the Professor, if needed. Producing a mini-doc is much like writing a research paper except the storyboard is where the work happens. Students researched their subject to create a flexible working narrative that eventually emerged into a story. The assignment guided students through the process of transforming a videotaped interview into a Mini documentary (Mini-doc), a story to be told, preserved and passed on. Ultimately, the Professor/Researcher created a thematic documentary based on the minidocumentaries of the students. Â


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Mini-Doc Methodology This Mini-doc assignment had multiple learning objectives including: valuing and interpreting communication, understanding the transformation of knowledge, comprehending modern technology, using creative and critical thinking techniques, learning about Indigenous culture, and understanding storytelling. Students (Pre-service teachers) interviewed participants from various grades, school districts, and cultural compositions, hoping to obtain a wide variety of data. The following questions were designed to extract data relevant to this study: “Why did you enter the field of teaching? What teaching techniques do you find useful in your career? And “what advice would you give teachers just entering the teaching profession?” For this assignment students identified, made contact, and met with their participant. Students thoroughly explained the purpose and the process guiding the participant through the inform/consent form. The student and participant then decided on a place, date, and time for the formal interview. Students were asked to gather at least 60 minutes of data using digital cameras (provided by the School of Education, if needed). It was the students’ responsibility to make sure that the recording equipment was working correctly, the filming angles were accurate, and the audio was clear. After the interview was complete, the students transferred the data to movie making software (available on campus, if needed) where they edited the interview to about 30 minutes in length. Only data relevant to the study’s questions was included. Students were careful to allow participants to complete their thoughts. If students were unsure about what was relevant or what


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were complete thoughts, they were encouraged to seek assistance from the professor. The interview needed to be clear, clean, and concise. Students were provided with an envelope to turn in all elements of the assignment including: a hard copy of the inform/consent form, the exact transcription of the final video, the video on a flash-drive, and a one-page essay explaining what they (interviewer) learned while doing the assignment. Final videos were evaluated on their technical stature, topic relevance, question asking and follow-up, clarity, length accuracy, transcript accuracy, timely completion, and essay. After all Mini-docs were finished, the researcher proceeded to the next phase, the Thematic Documentary. Thematic Documentary The Thematic Documentary (T-Doc) included an array of goals on a variety of levels. One goal was to publish the T-Doc to be used in education courses as a teaching tool. A second goal was to show how small stories can become big stories (a topic in the Indian education Course). A third goal was to promote effective teachers and excellent work in the teaching profession. The T-doc allowed its audience to view raw data without having been subjected to a number crunching formula that often did not or could not address specific variables. Narrative The interview consisted of three questions: “Why did you enter the field of teaching?”, “What teaching techniques did you find useful in your career?” and “What advice would you give teachers just entering the teaching profession?” The following themes emerged per question from the mini-doc interviews. The narrative to support the emergence of themes was taken from the thematic documentary.


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Reasons to Enter the Field of Teaching The best teachers often have a passion or purpose for teaching. When asked “Why did you enter the field of teaching?”, the following themes emerged. Destiny. Many participants felt that teaching was their destiny. Some participants knew from any early age that they were meant to be teachers because of their love of children, their natural ability to teach, an appeal to help in teaching settings, their desire to role play a teacher during playtime, or a love for teaching and learning. Others didn’t come to this realization until they were in college or already working in another career. 

Fran felt as if she was destined to be a teacher, “I guess just because it is always what I wanted to be. There was no other option I really considered.”

Nancy responded in much the same way, “I have always liked working with kids. In high school, as a study hall, I went to my Aunt’s classroom and helped… in college I worked in a daycare and I was a nanny. I just always liked working with younger kids… I couldn’t see myself doing anything different.”

Joy spoke about pretending to be a teacher when she was young. “I would say that I always wanted to be a teacher.” Family members told her that she could be heard saying, “Okay, listen up, I have a couple of things to say.” She explained, “I was really influenced by my mom” and other family members. “I never really thought about any other career.”

Helen explained that she was always teaching and that she found her purpose early in life. “I started… teaching Sunday school… and swimming lessons.” Helen explained, “I have always enjoyed math; I initially went to college, like everyone else


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kind of pre-med, but then I decided that I did not like my sciences that much.” She went on to say, “I just found a way to mesh my favorite subjects.” 

Angie is a person who needed to be learning all the time. “I always really liked being around kids; I loved to babysit. I taught swimming lessons for a long time and I coached swim team.” She went on to say, “I really like being around kids and being able to teach. She always wanted to be learning.” She states, “Teaching is a good place to do that.

Carl ultimately found his calling after making a career change. “Originally coming out of high school, I was debating between business and education and my brother and sister were in education. I wanted to be a little different, so I went the business route and graduated with a business degree and started working. I found out I absolutely hated it, so I went back to school and decided to become a teacher.”

Inspiration. Many participants shared that they were inspired to teach. Some were influenced or inspired by teachers that encouraged and supported them, served as positive role models, were passionate about their teaching, and/or made teaching fun. Others were influenced by significant family members or friends that had chosen teaching as their career. 

Kim had great influences in her life, “I don’t know if there was a moment.” Kim states thinking about when she knew she wanted to be a teacher, “I think that I went through high school and had some really good English teachers and a good History teacher…probably by the end of my junior year is when I knew.” Kim explains, “I had a really good Junior-year English teacher, her personality is a lot like mine,


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especially her humor. It just seems like I am a lot like she was in her classroom. I guess I was always interested in history and they (English and history) really do kind of blend well together. 

Some people figure out their passion in college. Bobbi fell into education by chance and then became inspired by a particular teacher. “I went to college not knowing what I wanted to do and I took a general education course in Special Education… I would have been a sophomore in college when I chose to be a teacher. It… started with one professor who was very passionate about the field of Special Ed. not only just as a teacher, but himself having a lot of medical issues. He suffered from severe seizures and had multiple brain surgeries. It was an inspiring story for me. To see how passionate, he was about something turned my opinion of special education. So, throughout my years in the program, I just decided that this is what I really wanted to do. The teachers (Professors) there (Education program) were awesome and I kind of fit well when I went into the field experiences, it just felt right. That kind of made my choice. I didn’t decide that I wanted to do emotional and behavioral disorders until I took a placement at an alternative learning school. Working with some of those students filled my need for success.”

Ellie explained that many teachers had a profound influence on her decision to become a teacher. “I just had some really awesome teachers that I will always remember for the way they treated me… they encouraged me to be a better me and a better constructive thinker. I had a good first grade teacher; I had a wonderful fourth grade teacher and in high school; both my band and English teacher as well as my drama coach were really… special.”


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Dave spoke about how his teacher empowered his learning and inspired him to do better by having him in class. “This teacher was like ‘Hey, you take role quick! and I would do that every morning because we had… a quick 15-minute class. So I would be the person that would do role; I was like ‘Oh that was kind of neat.’ But I think probably in elementary school was when I knew I wanted to be a teacher because I had a great Principal who was really close to our family and I thought it was neat how schools ran.”

Larry was inspired because of his personal experiences and relationships that he built with teachers. “I decided to become a teacher primarily because of good experiences I had with teachers, especially my high school choir director… she encouraged me to continue in music and that is where I found the best option and that was in teaching.”

Angie had a mother that inspired her. “I always wanted to be a teacher and my mom was a teacher. I would beg her and beg her to go and help in her classroom. I knew that she was probably annoyed, I am sure that I made more work for her. I always wanted to go help and hang up posters on her walls. So, when it came time for school to start in the fall, I would go and help her set up her classroom.”

Mavis, like all of the participants, has a wonderful sense of empathy and was inspired by others along the way. “I think it was just my desire to help others ‘the helping factor’ I think it gets you a long way as a teacher. I volunteered as a Sunday school teacher when I was in school going all the way to the sixth grade. I had an awesome 6th grade teacher. She just really made things fun and I thought I could really be her and I really enjoyed that relationship that we had. The instructor that I had was somebody that I had to model off of, he was wonderful and not everything that he did


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was perfect, but neither is what I do. I think I have taken bits and pieces of every director that I have had and kind of tried to compile it into who I am today.” Recognized a Talent. Some participants realized that they had talent. They realized that this talent was a gift that could be shared through teaching. 

Irene did not find teaching until she started to coach. “When I was in high school, I was told I should be a teacher by all kinds of people and I threw my hands up in the air and said I would never do that. Then, I went to college to do English because I was planning on going to law school and I started coaching. I was doing a lot of that when I realized, that is what I wanted to do, I wanted to coach. The more I was coaching the more I realized that I was teaching. It just fell into place and it was the right thing to do.”

Mavis was extremely talented and knew that she had a gift that was to be shared. “The music… started in junior High school in 5th and 6th grade… things were really easy for me in music and especially the chair positions, so music was ‘Oh I must be really good at this so why wouldn’t I do well with this?’ This continued in high school and of course, that is where you get the heart of music.”

Passion for Children. Some participants felt a passion or a need to help children. They expressed a sense of caring and a hope to help children succeed. 

Mavis, like most participants, possessed an incredible sense of empathy.” Like most of the participants, Mavis explained her passion for children. “I think it’s just that caring aspect. I just care a lot about the kids and the passion of teaching and I want to see them strive to do their best. If I can do that in the music world, then it is where I need to be.”


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Larry spoke about needing to help children. “For me, it’s working with so many kids and seeing where they go, helping them do what they want to do in music. Helping them grow in their singing; helping them read music better. It is kind of an instant gratification day in and day out to see where they go and how they progress.”

Useful Teaching Techniques Many prospective teachers are curious about what they have to do and how they need to prepare. Some teachers are goal oriented and see the big picture very clearly. Others are focused on student outcomes and understand the necessity to have their students achieve particular objectives. When asked, “What teaching techniques did you find useful in your career?”, the following themes emerged. Understanding Your Job. Participants spoke about the importance of meeting individual needs of students, teaching to the whole child, and making a positive impact on their students both in and beyond the classroom. Others indicated building positive relationships with both students and parents is an important aspect of the job. 

Bobbi spoke about what she does to help her special education students succeed. She explains that an effective teacher recognizes that there is a difference in teaching strategies. “I would say when I was at the elementary setting (Special Education) my end goal was for the kids to have a good day. I worked with a lot of severe behaviors and so I just wanted the kids to be able to sit down at a table and play an educational game, have a smile on their faces, have fun and get that positive relationship built between school and students. At high school, it is more about preparing them for adulthood, so I try not to take things so seriously. I want to give students their freedom to explore different careers and to have some independent time where I


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expect them to complete their work all on their own and not hover over them so much. So, at the high school, it is all about how independent they can be before they need some help.” 

Teachers feel that one of the most difficult aspects of their career is working with parents. It is also one of the most essential aspects of teaching. Ellie spoke about dealing with parents. “Every year you have a parent or two that decides that you are against their kid, and I think it is really important in the beginning to establish relationships with parents and let them know how much you love their kids. It sounds kind of goofy, but I don’t have a specific technique. I just love kids, and if they know that I love them and that I am interested in them, that I am concerned about their wellbeing and that I treat them like the great human beings they are, then I don’t have to worry about discipline. They just do what I want them to do. We have fun in our classroom. As far as parents go, you just have to encourage them and let them know that you are on their kids’ side that you are an advocate for their kids and you are only concerned about them. If you can prove that to them then you don’t have as big of problems.”

Gale spoke about her experience with parents and understanding what her job was. “In kindergarten all the parents brought their kids and you wanted to seem like you knew what was going on. Once the parents are gone you can be silly and entertain the kids and make them feel comfortable. If you have crying kids or kids with questions, you want to make sure you answered them correctly or properly and especially when they were by the parents so they (parents) felt comfortable. I know


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that as soon as the parent left, I would be fine. I can make the kids feel comfortable. I can be silly.” Persistence. Another emerging theme from participants’ responses was the need be persistent. Persistence referred to either a continued use of lessons and instruction that worked well, but also persistence in trying varying techniques to be responsive to learning and/or to keep learning interesting. 

Carl is an experienced science teacher and speaks about how he uses different techniques in the classroom. His theme seems to be “hands-on” and “keep trying things.” Carl states, “Hands-on, it is pretty easy with science. With the minerals and rocks unit we did a lot of labs. They (students) had to do the streak test and compare hardness of the minerals and look at the cleavage and fracture. That type of thing is pretty easy using hands-on methods. In life sciences we are doing osmosis, respiration, and fermentation. We did an osmosis lab with eggs to see how water transfers. You just have to find out what you are comfortable with for activities. There are some content areas, that even after eight years, I still don’t like and I am not very good at. Sometimes I struggle to find good activities to do with the kids, but you… just have to keep trying. Some years I will try something and I hate it, it just didn’t work out very well, so I will do something different the next year. You just have to try and see what works. There are some things that worked from year to year. For states and matter we do one lab where we make “oblique.” The kids test that out and see what type of state and matter it is; and I have been doing that for most of my time here. You just figure it out and find things that work. For cultural things (content) you find areas where it fits and you use what you can because sometimes


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it’s hard. If you look hard enough, you find ways to incorporate culture into pretty much any subject area.” 

Teaching is a profession that presents new and unique challenges every day. No two days are alike. Teachers learn to adjust and even embrace each encounter. Fran spoke about how she gets enthused about teaching. “The ups are definitely, that there is something different every day. I would be so bored if I had to do the same thing every day. There are some things that I love to teach, and I get so enthusiastic when I see that the kids understand something that I love or that I am passionate about. That gets me really excited and it motivates me. One of the downs is that 12-hour days tend to take a lot out of you.”

Differentiate. Many participants spoke about the need to diversify teaching to address varying learning needs and introduce multiple ways of solving problems. Participants spoke to approaching interactions and communications with students and families in a responsive and sensitive manner to be welcoming and inclusive, particularly if there are diverse learning, cultural, or language considerations. 

Gale has a diverse teaching style and believes that you must approach teaching from many angles. “You have to teach from a lot of different angles. If it is addition for example you can teach them traditionally, and we can do stuff together. They can do multiple activities over many different days. For example, they may do something with dice or they may do something with partners or maybe we will watch a math movie or we may read a book and solve problems with that. I think that you have to touch base in so many different areas because everybody learns differently and it will click one way for one kid and another way for another kid. So, I think it is really


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important and it teaches them that there is more than one way to figure things out. I think it is really important now to teach kids to think instead of, ‘This is how you do it and this is how you are going to find the answer.’ You want them to be able to resolve it or solve it, and I think that giving them multiple opportunities and ways to solve things (problems) helps them to become better thinkers.” 

Bobbi spoke about diversity and communication. “It is really important to communicate with all the team members that you work with and the parents, especially parents from the Somali culture. When addressing students (Somali students) it is a lot easier to address the male students in the class. You will be more able to get feedback as opposed to the female because in their culture that is just a different tradition that they have. When you work with parents, you are just trying to show that you respect their culture, and I try to incorporate that. A lot of times parents have really good ideas that teachers don’t think about. So, I have always thought that communication with parents is most important. When I hold an IEP meeting, parents tend to think that they are being called in because their kid is in trouble. They don’t typically understand that it is just a routine meeting that we must have to ensure that their kids are doing great or that we have a concern. We really emphasize the positives to parents right away just so they know that this isn’t a negative meeting; this is just a meeting to make everyone aware so the school and parents can get together and figure out the best education plan for that particular student. It is also really important, even though we live in a rural community, that if we have parents that speak a different language we


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always have an interpreter either there (in the meeting) or over the phone and to not use the child as an interpreter because sometimes things get lost in translation if the student is interpreting. We always stress that we use a professional interpreter when working with parents and legal documents and things like that. I think it helps the parent feel more comfortable that we are just speaking about them the whole time, but we are trying to incorporate them more into the student’s individual IEP.” Empathy. Every participant displayed a unique sense of empathy. There seems to be a genuine willingness to do whatever it takes to meet the needs of the student. Teachers persevere through the tough times and tough children and provide a safe place to learn. 

Ellie speaks about how to work your way through some of the difficulties associated with teaching. “I think that this last part of my teaching career has been the hardest because there are so many different entities that have their fingers in education and because we are so standards based and we are looking at testing so critically. I think that as a teacher you have to be aware of your whole student. You can’t just teach for the test; you have to think about developing learners who can think for themselves, not regurgitate material to pass the state test or to look good for your district. I think you still need to make learning enjoyable and fun. We want kids to be life-long learners, not just to learn something and forget it once the test is done. I think in order to do that you have to find out what children are interested in and you need to make learning relevant. You need to get them excited about life and learning. So, finding a balance between teaching what you have to teach to meet standards and


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teaching what you know is good for kids and spend the time developing whole human beings is really important. There is a lot of working with people in education that I don’t think everyone understands until they have taught. You know that you have a little “kiddo” (students) that comes to school and is terrified of storms or if loud noises scare them. You start to talk to kiddos and you learn what is happening in their life and make sure their basic needs are met when they come to school and learn. So I think as I have taught longer the amount of kids who need help and have extraordinary circumstances is larger… It used to be that all kiddos came to school and they had a mom and a dad and a warm place to sleep at night; they had breakfast every morning and clean clothes to wear every day. In the populations that I choose to teach, that doesn’t happen every day and there are more and more needy kids out there that we try to take care of and help.” 

Dave is a firm believer in getting to know your students. He believes that establishing a relationship with students is the best way to help them. “You have to know every kid’s situation, and that might be your way of connecting with that person, and that is one thing that I am kind of proud of over the years. Not to say that I am the father of something, but I am the product of a single parent family. My mom died when I was really young and I have a feeling that those teachers knew that and I respect that. They knew my situation. My Dad farmed and he had a lot of things going on in his life. Those teachers picked up the rope and said, ‘We gotta help this person even more.’ So, I guess what I have been proud of over the years is, I kind of tell


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kids, ‘I understand what you are going through, but you need to help yourself and that’s why we are here.’ So, you have to know everybody’s situation. 

Angie spoke about the concept of using “love and logic” and how that concept helped solve the issues that develop in the classroom. “I use a lot of love and logic in the classroom, so giving students choices and being very open with them and telling them that ‘if there is a situation that arises I will deal with it’ and there will be a consequence if something happens that should not happen. I don’t just throw a bunch of rules at them. I think it is really important, especially in middle school, because if that is the way that you come off as a teacher, they are not going to respond to you very much because they are being told that they have to do things and often don’t want to do those things. We have a conversation at the beginning of the year, be respectful, be responsible, and be safe. I always tell students that I want everybody to feel comfortable coming to class every day. If everybody feels comfortable coming to class, then you have done your job, and if people don’t feel comfortable coming to class, then there is a problem, and we are going to have to talk about it, and depending on what the problems are, we will figure out what the solution is going to be. I just have conversations about it, and I involve the students in it. So at the beginning of the year, I usually set up a chart with those three titles and we talk about ‘What does it look like to be respectful and responsible and to be safe.’”


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Advice for New Teachers During the interview, participants were asked, “What advice would you give teachers just entering the teaching profession?” The following themes emerged. Kindness. Many of the teachers in this study emphasized that they stress kindness and a loving caring environment. They suggested to be understanding of the situation, yet still maintaining structure and expectations. 

Helen spoke about being kind and using kindness throughout the day. “I would recommend being kind and understanding at the same time. You have to stick to your guns; you can’t let things slide because you are going to get walked over, and then everything will slide. Be understanding of the situation and make your students understand that you are caring and portray that to your students so they (students) feel like, ‘Okay, she is helping me out, she is getting me through this.” But, I have to stick to the schedule.”

Be cognizant. All of the teachers in this study mentioned that every new teacher should be asking lots of questions. Nearly all of the participants indicated that one must be cognizant of what is going on around them. Watch and see what works for other people. See both the good and the bad things and remember that what works for one person may not work for another. 

Irene spoke about the need to ask questions as well as the need to question yourself. “Ask lots of questions. Ask questions of all the other teachers and don’t ever stop asking questions. Don’t be afraid to get feedback on what you did. Everybody is nervous about failing and worried about, ‘Well I don’t want you to feel like I am not teaching my kids anything.’ We have to be willing to start that dialogue so that you can find out what we are missing. When you get that positive feedback you can use


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that too. You might find a colleague that you can build lessons with and that would be great. That is kind of on the adult side. As far as the kids side, set your expectations and make them extremely clear from day one. We all want to be liked. We all want our kids to like us, but we have to remember that like and respect are two different things. 

Joy underscored the need for asking questions. “I think my best advice would be to ask questions, ask questions even when you don’t think you need to ask questions. I have had a lot of teachers that have been really really good to me as far as showing me the ropes and letting me use their ideas and materials and showing what’s the norm for the school. Every single school is different and every single district is different. I wasn’t sure what to expect and I asked a lot of questions and I should have probably asked more questions. I feel like every single day I was running over to my co-workers and asking, ‘How would I do this?’ and finding out what to expect. ‘How do I take a personal day?’ Everything is kind of an unknown at first. I would say don’t be afraid to ask questions.”

Angie spoke about taking advantage of a mentor and being aware of things around you. “If you are in a building where you are fortunate enough to have some sort of mentor, take advantage of everything that they can give you because they are awesome. Just listen and be aware of things that are around you. You might see things that people do and you might say ‘I never want to do that in my classroom.’ That’s Okay. Noticing the good things and the bad things makes you a better teacher because you figure out what is what; this is my philosophy. I think this is something that a lot of people don’t know going in just because you have not had the experience


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yet. I think this changes over time. So, when I was a first year teacher, I would see classes just walking down the hallway. I knew that that was not the way I would manage my kids; or that is the way I would manage my kids. I would see that the kids respect their teacher. 

Ellie underscores what nearly all participants say, “Surround yourself with good people, too. Surround yourself with good attitudes and people who want to collaborate and do good things. Be passionate about what you are doing. Know that it is not going to be easy. It is going to be a lot of work. There are going to be a lot of late nights and late hours. There are going to be some heartbreaks, but the joy that comes from teaching kids is immeasurable.”

Creativity. Creativity seems to be part of a teacher’s natural make up. Creativity allows a teacher to explore and allows the students to explore as well, so participants suggested new teachers strive to be creative. 

Bobbi spoke about the need to be creative and how creativity is the key to reaching the most students. “I guess my best piece of advice would be just be creative and continue trying new and creative things. Sometimes you can feel like it is impossible, or that the student can never learn. It maybe that we just haven’t found the right strategy or technique that this student works best with, so just continue to try new things all the time. Talking with secondary language teachers, speaking with other special education teachers or with teachers who have worked with culturally diverse students to ask how a particular student learns. What is their favorite subject? Things like that. Communicating with parents and being very open with them because a lot of times, parents know some really good information that teachers are not always


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aware of or privy to, so, asking what students do at home and are they really successful at doing that? What kind of things do students struggle with at home? You can work on academics and the skills that they are going to need to be successful outside of school as well. So, just a lot of creativity and communication are the best pieces of guidance a first-year teacher is going to need.” Involvement. Participants felt that it was very important to build positive relationships with your students. A suggestion was to attend extra-curricular activities as an opportunity to build relationships and become involved with students outside of the classroom. 

Carl spoke about the need to build relationships and trust. He feels that this is the way to get involved with the kids. “The first year I wouldn’t worry so much about the content. The content will come the more you teach. The biggest thing is start building those relationships with the kids. If you can build relationships with the kids, the teaching will be easy. The kids will respect you, and they will listen to you. They will do what you want them to do. You will learn the content and you will make mistakes; everyone makes mistakes teaching; I have made tons of mistakes you learn from it, and you grow. The biggest thing is to be involved with the kids. Go to activities of theirs. Try to see them outside of school. Try to be one of the people that go to sports. If they are in debate, go to watch them debate. I guess just get involved. Get to know your kids, and the rest will take care of its self.”

Professional development. Many participants encouraged new teachers to take advantage of professional development opportunities. Taking classes and collaborating with colleagues were suggested ways to continue one’s learning to improve their practice and remain current.


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Angie believes that the key to being a success was to continue one’s education. “You kind of feel out of it after you have not been taking college courses for a while. There are so many things that change throughout the years. I never want to be the person or the teacher that is stuck in the ‘old way’ of doing things. There are always cool new things to learn.”

Ellie also explained the need to continue learning and the need to collaborate with colleagues. “Number one I would say collaboration. Finding a group of people in which to collaborate. One way to do that is by always taking new classes and doing new things. I think I have 90 some hours past my undergraduate degree. I wish I had applied it to a doctorate. I always kept taking things that would make me a better teacher; things that kept me current as a teacher.”

Last Word Responses across questions suggested the reward in teaching was about the relationships built with children and the impact a teacher can have on childrens’ lives. Teachers shared a sense of responsibility and purpose. 

Ellie sums up what many participants believe. “I have memories from students from years and year ago, and it is so much fun to come back and see them again. It is fun to follow them in high school in sports, drama, and in music. Even the little kids, I go to their little league games. It’s fun. Know that what you do is not going to be easy. You are not going to get rich, but the memories you make and the lives that you touch will make it all worthwhile.


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Discussion It is a challenge to identify the characteristics that define an effective teacher, but there are a few universal traits, such as the ability to produce good curriculum, build positive relationships with students, and perhaps most importantly, understand the cultural backgrounds of those you teach. Consequently, teacher education programs must prepare teacher candidates to build relationships and teach affectively across cultures. Characteristics of Effective Teachers The essence of this project was to demonstrate that education students can view primary research that speaks to the aforementioned characteristics of an effective teacher. This study denoted aspects of effective teaching by analyzing the primary themes that emerged throughout this research project. Below are the themes that emerged and a brief explanation about how those themes are important. Destiny. It seemed that many of participants always knew that they were going to be a teacher. They played school growing up, taught in various settings, and appreciated the love of learning. One thing for certain, they all possess a love for children. Inspiration. Most of the participants were inspired by someone or something; a teacher, relative, student, or the thirst for knowledge. Some of the participants spoke about how important it was for their students to have someone around them that genuinely cared about them. Recognize a talent. Many of the teachers had a gift that they felt strongly about passing on. Nearly all the participants said that teaching was a natural part of who they are and a natural way to give their gift to others.

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Passion for children. All the participants possessed a passion for not only teaching children, but also helping children. Some of the participants pulled from their own school experiences and developed a unique understanding toward the needs of children. Understand their job. Most of the participants understood that no two children learn the same way and learning about these differences is important in meeting their instructional needs. All participants understood that building relationships with parents, colleagues, and students was imperative and that it is always a good idea to collaborate and problem solve. Persistence. Many of the participants revealed that being an effective teacher means being persistent, experimenting with new ideas; introducing new relevant content; and being sensitive to the needs of students. Differentiation. Many of the participants understand that teachers must approach teaching from different perspectives. Students from different cultures understand the world from different points of view and an effective teacher will approach content from multiple vantage points. Many participants spoke about the need to understand the cultures of the students in their classrooms. One example that was given is that gender across cultures may reveal itself as a classroom management issue, if it is not fully understood. Empathy. A deep sense of empathy and a genuine willingness to do whatever it takes to meet the needs of the student are an imperative part of being an effective teacher. Some participants’ spoke about the long hours, challenging students, and low pay associated with teaching but in the end, they understood that they must persevere and continue to show every student empathy. Advice for New Teachers

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Participants in this study also offered advice for new teachers. Advice offered was analyzed and the following primary themes emerged. Kindness. Some participants emphasized the need to build a kind classroom environment. Those participants suggested that kindness goes a long way toward preventing and solving problems that develop in the school setting. Be cognizant. Most of the participants emphasized the need to ask questions and take advantage of any assistance the school has to offer. Many schools have mentoring and professional development opportunities. Other participants stressed the need to learn from mistakes and watch what other teachers do in their classrooms. One participant suggested the need to surround one’s self with good people. Creativity. Most participants revealed that creativity is part of being an effective teacher. Participants spoke about how creativity frees the teachers and the students to explore new ideas. One participant indicated that creativity is the key to reaching most students. Involvement. Many of the participants thought that being involved with the activities of the students was a factor in building good relationships with students. All the participants go beyond what they are required to do. Professional development. Most of the participants agreed that education is a life-long endeavor. Many of the participants indicated that teachers need to understand and apply the best practices of teaching. In addition, the technology associated with teaching expands daily; consequently, the most obvious way to keep knowledgeable is to continue to develop as a professional. Conclusion The data obtained in the mini documentaries provided valuable information in developing the Â


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Thematic Documentary. The emerging themes in both characteristics of effective teachers and advice for new teachers were identified and utilized in organizing a more comprehensive documentary, which can be used as a valuable teaching tool for preservice teachers. Participants mirrored Wadsworth’s (2000) findings that teachers are “talented hardworking professionals who have responded to a calling” (p.25). Participants revealed that their career choice was a moral choice. Nearly all of the participants said that being a teacher is a purposeful function of love, empathy, and efficacy and not of monetary compensation. Participants revealed that love of children and inspiring others are the biggest reasons for becoming teachers. Participants indicated that teaching is a truly satisfying career and they would not want to do anything else. Most participants in this study set out to be a teacher, but those that switched careers knew that they finally found what they were looking for in a profession. Teaching is a complex profession and becoming a great teacher is more than aspiration and inspiration. Participants indicated the need to have: a well-rounded education, a good working environment, a positive supporting administration, a good understanding of content, access to resources and, a good working relationship with colleagues, in order to be successful. Despite the many challenges that teachers face in the classroom and beyond, young teachers seem to be doing exactly what they want to be doing, and what they should be doing. Nearly all participants encouraged collegial interaction, such as mentoring and asking questions. In fact, most participants mentioned the importance of asking questions “many questions.” Educators at every level understand that the need to asking questions is vital to the learning process.


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There are many types of great teachers; a great teacher in one school might not be great in another. The participants in this project showed that great teachers are cognizant of where they are, whom they teach, and the need to go beyond traditional pedagogical techniques and try new things. They spoke about being enthused, ambitious, and always prepared to address any issue, and they explained the need to provide every student with the best possible education. This project targeted learning objectives at multiple levels. The students had the opportunity to speak face-to-face, with knowledgeable teachers and learn from their experiences. The students also had the opportunity to experiment with technology and understand its usefulness in a classroom setting. It also provided a source so future students will have the opportunity to view primary research in the classroom and learn more about the teaching field. The students reflected in their essays that this assignment, coupled with the classroom lectures and activities, taught them more about Indigenous culture and storytelling that they could have imagined. The story of this study seems to indicate that teachers are morally committed to their profession and are willing to do whatever it takes to teach every student in their care. This project seems to be an excellent way to press that issue. References Aldeman, C., & Mitchel, A. L. (2016). No guarantees: Is it possible to ensure teachers are ready on day one? Washington, DC: Bellweather Education Partners. Anderson, C. (2001). Communication in the medical interview team: An analysis of patients’ stories in the United States and Hong Kong. The Howard Journal of Communications. 12, 61–72. Akiba, M. (2011). Identifying program characteristics for preparing pre-service teachers Â


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for diversity. Teachers College Record, 113(3), 658–697. Akiba, M., Cockrell, K. S., Simmons, J. C., Han, S., & Agarwal, G. (2010). Preparing teachers for diversity: Examination of teacher certification and program accreditation standards in the 50 states and Washington, DC. Equity & Excellence in Education, 43(4), 446–462. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 10665684.2010.510048 Ball, A. F. (2012). To know is not enough: Knowledge, power and the zone of generativity. Educational Researcher, 41, 283–293. Brunetti, G. (2001). Why do they teach? A study of job satisfaction among long-term high school teachers. Teachers Education Quarterly, 28(3), 49-74. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2013). Interstate teacher assessment and support consortium InTASC model core teaching standards and learning progressions for teachers 1.0: A resource for ongoing teacher development. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Croteau, E.,& William, H., & Milan, S. (2012). Media/society: Industries, images and audiences, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DeMonte, J. (2015). A million new teachers are coming: Will they be ready to teach? Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Eccles, J. (2005). Studying the development of learning and task motivation. Learning and Instruction, 15, 161–171. Ellis, J. (2009). What are we expected to feel? Witness, textuality, and the audiovisual.


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Screen, 50(1), 67-76. Engel, S. (2009). What it takes to become a great teacher. Teachers College Record. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org. Frederik, I., Sonneveld, W., & de Vries, M. J. (2011). Teaching and learning the nature of technical artifacts. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 21, 3, 277–290. Fullan, M., & Knight, J. (2011). Coaches as system leaders. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 5053. Gayle-Evans, G., & Michael, D. (2006). A study of pre-service teachers’ awareness of multicultural issues. Multicultural Perspectives, 8(1), 44–50. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/ s15327892mcp0801_8 Gay, G., & Kirkland, K. (2003). Developing cultural critical consciousness and selfreflection in pre-service teacher education. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 181–187. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1207/s15430421tip4203_3 Green, R. (2009). Practicing the art of leadership: A problem-based approach to implementing the ISLLC standards. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Greene, E. (1996). Storytelling: Art and technique. New York: R. R. Bowker. Giroux, H. (2000). Impure Acts: The Practical Politics of Cultural Studies. New York, Routledge. Hirsh, S. (2005). Professional development and closing the achievement gap. Theory Into Practice, 44, 38–44. Hopmann, S. (2013). Editorial: The end of schooling as we know it? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(1), 1–3.


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Johnson, S. & Daugherty, J. (2008). Quality and characteristics of recent research in technology education. Journal of Technology Education, 20, 1, 16–31. Kajder, S. (2004). Enter here: Personal narrative and digital storytelling. English Journal, 93, 3 64–8. Lawrence, S. (2002, July). Once upon a time. The Stage, p. 27. Marston, S.H., Brunetti, G.J. & Courtney, V.B. (2005). Elementary and high school teachers: Birds of a feather? Education, 125(3), 469-495. Mitchell, T. (2005). What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images. Chicago University of Chicago Press. Muchmore, J. (2004). A teacher's life: Stories of literacy, teacher thinking and professional development. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Backalong Books. Nieto, S. (2004). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education. Pellowski, A. (1990). The world of storytelling. New York: H. W. Wilson. Phillips, D., Gormley, W., & Lowenstein, A. (2009). Inside the pre-kindergarten door: Classroom climate and instructional time allocation in Tulsa’s pre-K programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 213–228. Pianta, R., Barnett, W., Burchinal, M., & Thornburg, K. (2009). The effects of preschool education: What we know, how public policy is or is not aligned with the evidence base, and what we need to know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 49–88. Sleeter, C. E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education,


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52(2), 94–106. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487101052002002 Spradlin, T. & Prendergast, K. (2006). Emerging trends in teacher recruitment and retention in the No Child Left Behind era. CEEP Educational Policy Brief. 4 (12), 1-9. Teach Plus. (2015). Teach Plus teacher preparation flash poll summary. Boston, MA. Vansina, J. (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, J. (2006). Oral tradition: A study in historical methods. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Wadsworth, D. (2001). Why new teachers choose to teach. Educational Leadership, 58(8), 2428.

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Is There Space for Co-mingling Mexican Parents’ Learned Mathematical Knowledge with Their Children’s School Learned Ways of Thinking and Doing Mathematics? Gilbert Dueñas Auburn University Montgomery Luke Alexander Smith Auburn University Montgomery Abstract In the daily moments of the Mexican household, parents tap their accumulated cultural knowledge of mathematics as a framework for influencing their children’s use of mathematics for making sense of their immediate world. From 18 months of household visits and bi-monthly conversations in the Spanish language with five families, I gained unique insights of the parents’ childhood either on a ranch, a marketplace, or the daily, one-hour trek to the schoolhouse. These parents’ cultural frame of reference—prior experiences with mathematics, life events, and native language—underlies their children’s out-of-school learning that at times conflicts with schoollearned strategies. As a result of many heartfelt conversations, I came to understand what these parents sought from their child’s school teacher—a trusting alliance and tacit acknowledgement of parental knowledge.

Key words: household mathematics; culturally relevant teaching


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Introduction Within the household, the Mexican parents intuitively draw upon their own native language, prior life and [limited] school experiences to guide their children’s out-of-school learning with respect to knowing and doing mathematics. The parents’ efforts to teach their children about mathematics is not necessarily an academic endeavor. Rather, the parents’ efforts can be described in terms of nurturing their children to successfully perform a household task, while simultaneously embracing the relevance of mathematics. The breadth of the parents’ mathematics knowledge will closely resonate with their own childhood upbringing in Mexico— early morning chores to feed farm animals, mending wire fences to safeguard livestock, making morning breakfast for 10 – 15 family members, or completing construction/renovation projects. Literature Review Conflict between Culturally Learned and School Learned Mathematics Practices Having migrated from Mexico to the United States, in order to secure a better standard of living and educational system for their children, the parents extol their children to respect the classroom teacher (Fuller & Coll, 2010; Pena, 2000; Valdes, 1996) and learn as much as possible from their school experience. As children begin to develop English language competence and embrace both the concepts and strategies of school mathematics, the parents, at times, become conflicted or alienated during conversations with their children—due to not understanding the math vocabulary or the school’s teaching practices (Civil, Diez-Palomar, Menendez-Gomez, & Acosta-Iriqui, 2008; Gonzalez, Andrade, Civil, & Moll, 2001). Part of the parents’ consternation is how to communicate with the classroom teacher the desire to have their household and cultural knowledge viewed as legitimate resources for their child to rely upon in performing mathematics


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problem-solving at school (Good, Masewicz, & Vogel, 2010; Lindeman, 2001; Lundgren & Morrison, 2003). It is the hope of these Mexican parents to forge a collaborative relationship with the school teacher; more significantly, a trusting bond that includes a recognized parity for each other’s ways of nurturing children’s incremental acquisition of mathematical precepts (Auerbach, 2011). Communication based on genuine trust (referred to as confianza) between the parents and teachers is especially helpful for parents being able to inform teacher’s work within the classroom (Allen, 2008; Civil, 2001). An integral element in these substantive conversations between marginalized parents and teachers is succinctly addressed in Flecha’s (2000) perspective on dialogic learning: “A dialogue is egalitarian when it takes different contributions into consideration according to the validity of their reasoning, instead of according to the positions of power held by those who make the contributions” (p. 2). These parents realize the journey to connect with the classroom teacher will be inherently difficult because of their limited ability to speak the English language or difficulty with knowing the mathematical vocabulary, due to their limited schooling opportunities in Mexico. Civil et al. (2008) reported that Latino parents’ prior learning experiences influences the manner in which they attempt to engage with their children’s mathematics education. In many instances, the parents attempt to impose their own learned ways of doing mathematics without emphasizing that their children explain or justify their solution process. Furthermore, in attempting to help their children with mathematics homework, Civil (2006) noted that parents rely upon their own prior learning experiences in Mexico grounded in their own distinct, cultural frame of reference; a system that involves memorization of facts, computation and sometimes


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problem solving. Parents recall the classroom teacher’s emphasis in the early school years to memorize their multiplication facts and to recite the facts in any order—a learning goal that the parents feel is not sufficiently emphasized as much in U. S. schools. This is evidenced in this comment, “Children in their current schools do not know them and refer to the back of their notebook to look at the multiplication tables” (p. 10). In efforts to assist in their children’s outof-school learning, the parents and children’s mathematics perspective and ensuing discourse may lead to conflict between the parents’ own experiences as children in Mexico and what they see their own children doing based on reform-based math curriculum (Civil, 2006; Civil & Quintos, 2006). However, in some instances, the differences in perspective between the home and school learning practices may lead to an opportunity for parent and child to learn from one another (Civil, et al. 2008). In other instances, Planas and Civil (2009) noted that the parent-child discord in approaches to mathematics may prompt individuals to ultimately “use an argument to defend an answer that is wrong independent from the method used to get the result” (p. 13). The Hispanic parents’ prior experiences with school in general, i.e., the content of mathematics and algorithms for teaching and learning mathematics, and their children’s need to learn a second language are two other factors moderating the parents’ involvement with their children’s out-ofschool learning. At the cognitive level, the parent recognizes, but does not understand, mathematical words and precepts that are presented in the English language. At the affective level, the parents develop feelings of low self-esteem, because of being linguistically excluded from their child’s school learning (Civil, et al. 2008). Building Bridges between Home and School toward Mathematics’ Understanding Capitalizing on what Latino students already know in their own culture versus an


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emphasis on student errors is clearly a prerequisite for building their level of self-confidence and self-efficacy in approaching mathematics. Minority students become empowered to more readily generate their own knowledge when the classroom teacher allows students to access their second language and acknowledges their cultural identity in mathematics dialogue (Cummins, 1986). With respect to using the student’s primary language especially while the student is developing proficiency in the English language, Secada, Fennema and Adajian (1995) asserted, “Without attention to making bridges between meanings and terminologies developed in the two contexts, that is, home and school, mathematical discussions could be less than effective and may even be incomprehensible” (p. 282). Adding a corollary viewpoint, Civil (2008) asserted that minority, non-English speaking students do bring family knowledge and experience to school. However, traditional school practices that overlook a student’s cultural knowledge or native language tend to lessen that student’s opportunity for success at learning mathematics and literacy. Reforms in classroom mathematics discourse must shift away from whether English language learners understand the vocabulary or can distinguish amongst multiple word meanings. Instead, teachers should be receptive to the child’s use of multiple resources such as gestures, objects, and their native language to express mathematical ideas (Moschkovich, 2002; Orellana, Reynolds, Dorner, & Meza, 2003). Soltero-Gonzalez (2010) similarly posited that allowing children to draw upon their home language and cultural experiences directly aids in English language acquisition and higher academic achievement. In their research of teachers using their children’s cultural knowledge within a MexicanAmerican school community, Gutstein, Lipman, Hernandez, and De Los Reyes (1997) portrayed a classroom teacher’s actions to empower her students to become critical thinkers. As critical


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mathematical thinkers, the students were challenged to consider multiple perspectives, ask questions, think aloud, and reexamine their own reasoning as strategies for building on their cultural and experiential knowledge. The teacher’s intentional practices empowered students to assert their own voices and construct their own knowledge (NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 1989). Additionally, the classroom teacher switched between English and Spanish and used Spanish cognates such as escala for scale, while engaging students in informal mathematics as a platform for accessing their informal knowledge; or as Ladson-Billings (1994) noted, ‘pulling knowledge out of students’ and challenging students to construct their own interpretation. Offering a related perspective, Jung and Conderman (2013) posited that intentional teachers can make mathematics learning more powerful when children know what they are doing and why—in other words, school learning is purposeful and tied to real life. In more recent research, McDuffie, Wohlhuter, and Breyfogle (2011) reiterated that classroom teachers need to know their students’ experiences and background. One reason would be to determine the most relevant learning experiences for them and secondly, to guide them toward high level reasoning tasks. Montelongo, Hernandez, Herter, and Cuello (2011) indicated that many Latino English learners arrive at elementary schools “with many English-Spanish cognates in their listening, speaking, reading and writing vocabularies” (p. 429) for example colecionar meaning gathered or collected. Understanding the experiential level of students, the classroom teacher knowingly makes the necessary accommodations to fill the void between what they presently know and where they need to be in terms of the lesson objective. An intentional practice to fill the void is classroom teachers using questioning techniques as a way to develop students’ mathematical thinking and


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reasoning skills and in particular peer-to-peer questions. “Language is a tool for thought, but mathematics can only become a universal language when everyone is empowered to understand it, use it to communicate mathematical meaning, and apply it in their everyday lives” (Sheet, as cited in Leonard, 2008, p. 150). Valorization of Household Funds of Knowledge Drawing upon a dissertation focus on four Latino young women’s participation in school mathematics, Jilk (2007) identified two characteristics particularly significant in empowering the students to view themselves as successful learners of mathematics. First, the students utilized their cultural identities, referred to as the Funds of Knowledge (FOK), to regularly translate the classroom teacher’s practices, curriculum expectations, and appropriate ways of interacting, in order to make sense of their learning environment. In their research with Mexican families, the researchers explored how family members used their body of household knowledge and social networks to approach social and economic circumstances (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005). To better understand the discontinuity between the classroom and household practices in mathematics, schools need to closely examine the social setting (place, time, etc.) in which household members ordinarily learn and subsequently use their accumulated knowledge and learned strategies to practice mathematics (Civil, 2002). Second, the students felt there were certain pedagogical practices in their classrooms that encouraged their engagement in mathematics; some of these practices were the valorization of collaborative groups and multiple ways of expressing mathematical thinking. In exploring the conflict that at times arises between the parents’ and the school’s way of learning mathematics, Quintos, Bratton and Civil (2005) explained, “The knowledge that working class and minoritized parents possess is not given the same value as that which middle class parents possess” (p. 1184).


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Civil (2008) noted, “Parents do not always see the point in some of the school approaches to teaching mathematics” (p. 14). In addressing the connection between successful mathematics experiences and migrant students, Reyes and Fletcher (2003) reported that state-mandated guidelines can lead to institutional practices that emphasize drill and practice versus mathematical reasoning. Under these mathematics practices, students become passive learners; ultimately come to depend on the teacher’s knowledge; and see no connection between mathematics and their everyday lives. The researchers stipulated there can be a fundamental revision in the school culture that values their students’ cultural lives, as a basis for constructing teaching patterns. Arguing for a corollary paradigm shift in school practices, Leonard (2008) reported that classroom teachers must be willing to teach mathematics in a non-traditional way, even interesting way by cultivating the cultural identities that diverse students (e.g. Latino students) bring to the classroom and by “linking the content to issues of social justice and civil rights” (p. 141). In this manner, students will feel empowered to want to understand mathematics and apply it to their everyday lives. Methodology Procedures The mode of inquiry was qualitative research intended to gain a retrospective perspective of the parents’ own lived experiences with mathematics, as well as their children’s own learned strategies—be it from their household or via school learning. Over an 18-month period, various data collection methods: observations, field notes, and informal interviews with parents and children in the homes of five Mexican families were used. On average, the monthly visits occurred on Friday late afternoons and lasted for two hours at each visit (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007). It was my intention (Pablo, the researcher and pseudonym) to speak with the parents and


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children in their own native, Spanish, language and forge a mutually respectful relationship, in order to gain an insider’s viewpoint regarding the ways that mathematics was part of the daily household experience (Allen, 2008; Civil & Bernier, 2006; Emerson, Fretz, & Shaw, 1995). In line with the research, within the natural, daily context of their household, I sought to “know and understand the relevance of their experiences and activities to them” and its relevance to their children’s school performance (Emerson, Fretz, & Shaw, 1995, p. 12; Meyer & Mann, 2006). In this paper, I focused on the following three research questions: 1. What was the landscape of the Mexican parents’ learning and doing mathematics in Mexico? 2. What were some of the household practices that parents utilized to activate their children’s out-of-school mathematics knowledge? 3. What were the parents’ expectations, in terms of their children’s classroom teacher? I understood the research findings that Mexican parents place much emphasis on imparting strong moral values in their children (Auerbach, 2011; Valdes, 1996) and often defer to school teachers the responsibility of properly guiding their children’s learning of the academic content. Within the household, the parents intuitively turn to their prior experiences and family resources as the framework for guiding their child’s out-of-school mathematics experience— which, at times, may conflict with their child’s school teaching practices. Because Mexican parents (recently migrated to the United States) may not possess the requisite English language proficiency and are unclear about how to navigate within the formal school system, these parents remain unsure of how to communicate with the school teacher to learn about instructional practices for guiding children’s school learning of mathematics. Thus, I explored how the parents’ own lived experiences in their native land, Mexico, influenced their children’s out-ofschool education and how I could forge a trusting parent-teacher dialogue about mathematics.


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Participants The five participating parents migrated within the past eight–seventeen years from rural sections in Mexico to a southeastern state in the United States. To maintain anonymity of the participating families, pseudonyms were used in place of their real names. The Gutierrez parents immigrated to the United States 11 years ago; having been raised on the same street in the small town of Vera Cruz, located in a valley at the southern section of a mountainous region in central Mexico. Rivers, hillsides, and dirt roads, as well as vegetation, fruit, and trees characterized the landscape surrounding their respective parents’ ranch; to sustain the ranch, ranch hands raised cows and other livestock. As children, their education took place in a school that accommodated about 300 children in grades first – sixth grade. The daily school schedule was from 8:30am – 1:30pm, with 30 children per class for grades 1 – 6. Within their home in the United States, they raised two children, now five and 10 years old. The parents solely used the Spanish language to communicate with their children, while the children used Spanish and their emergent English language proficiency to talk among themselves. The Robles parents immigrated to the United States 13 years ago from a farm located in the rural section of western Mexico. Living on the farm entailed raising mostly cows, sleeping on dirt floors, growing up with multiple siblings (the father had 11 siblings, while the mother had 7 siblings) and a makeshift fireplace to cook tortillas, beans, potatoes, or meat. Mrs. Robles completed a sixth-grade education in Mexico, but withdrew from further schooling in order to help with domestic chores in support of 7 siblings and work at the family store. Based on her duties at the family store, as a child, Mrs. Robles attended school either from 8:00am – 1:00pm or from 2:00pm – 6:00pm. Getting homework done was always a challenge, since it was typically done after all chores at home or the store were completed. The dialogue between


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parents and children (ages 6, 8 and 19 years) was in the parents’ native Spanish language; the children naturally switched between both Spanish and English among themselves; however, the children could not write in the Spanish language. The Ochoa parents immigrated to the United States eight years ago from a ranch located in a rural section of northern Mexico; a community where donkeys and handmade cart wagons were the main modes of transportation over rugged hillsides and unpaved, muddy dirt roads. A typical day might include doing household chores, caring for siblings, helping raise farm animals, and selling home-made tamales and tacos at a corner street store. With the aid of a burro, Mr. Ochoa traveled the four-mile distance via dirt roads to attend the first grade in Mexico. However, he was only able to attend the second grade for about three months because he now had to care for his 11 siblings and complete various ranch duties. Mrs. Ochoa attended primary school in Mexico from the first – sixth grade at a three-room school with a total of 60 children. Similarly, her schooling stopped at the sixth grade, in order to help with household chores at the family ranch with as many as 30 ranch workers and because her parents could not afford the expected tuition at the local junior high school. Like the Gutierrez and Ochoa families, the Spanish language was exclusively used between parents and children (ages 7 and 13); the children used their emergent English language proficiency to converse among themselves and with neighbors. The Macias parents immigrated to the United States 16 years ago from the city of Aguas Calientes, located in the north central section of Mexico; a city with various family owned businesses and continued economic growth. Within this setting in Mexico, the mother found a part-time job at a modest shoe store—in addition to attendance at a local elementary school, while the father secured a full-time job as a carpenter working very long hours to support his


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own parents. The mother stopped attending school in the 10th grade to care for children in her parents’ home. The father discontinued school in the fifth grade—believing that economic support for his parents outweighed the time spent on school attendance. In both instances, the Macias parents (as children) walked to their destination—with shoes that had seen better days; but always with a determination to find a better future. While visiting the Macias, I observed that Spanish was the only language utilized at home between the parents and their three grown daughters (ages 12, 16, and 24); on the other hand, the daughters quite freely drew upon their familiarity with the subtleties of the English language to converse and banter among themselves. The Sandoval parents immigrated to the United States approximately eight years ago from the city of Guadalajara—the capital of Mexico; their city of birth is located approximately in the western section of Mexico. Using the public transportation system, the parents traveled daily to their elementary school, grades 1 – 6, between the hours of 8:00am – 2:00pm. Since their own parents worked at local farms—plowing the land, landscaping, and harvesting the crops, there was often little time at home to ask their own parents how to complete homework. The mother was fortunate to attend school until the seventh grade but stopped when her own mother became ill and could no longer offer financial support toward raising the children. The father attended school until the eighth grade—especially interested in the topics of mathematics and geography. Within the Sandoval household, I observed both parents utilize pieces of the English language to find intersections of commonality with their children; in fact, in several instances I observed the parents and children watching television in the English language. Analysis From the inception of this investigative study, I recognized the examination of data would involve subjective interpretations of observed life experiences and expressed perspectives


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during visits within the five Mexican households. As noted in Emerson, Fretz, and Shaw (1995), my own life experiences, feelings, interactions as a Mexican were intertwined with the descriptions, memos, and reflections of observed events while immersed in each Mexican household. I struggled between the notion of being solely an observer and a participant-observer role for fear of objectivity loss. Ultimately, I chose to forge a close, trusting relationship within each family—a special family friend—as a strategy for gaining an insider’s view of their life experiences (Wolcott, 2008). After transcribing and translating a particular interview or an interim summary, I routinely shared Spanish – English translations with all five families to ensure the documented perspectives accurately corresponded with the contextual meaning the family member intended (Cordon & Sainsbury, 2006). In attempting to make sense of the data, I created a preliminary coding system of words and phrases. The spectrum of the coding system included memorizing multiplication facts; solving a math problem in their head without indicating the rationale on paper; limited schooling in Mexico; childhood experiences in Mexico and mathematics; and conflicts between parents’ cultural knowledge of mathematics and supporting their children’s school learning. What follows is a table portraying the predominant themes and subthemes drawn from informal conversations, field notes, and observations during household visits with five Mexican families. Table 1. Predominant Themes and Subthemes Theme 1: Feelings of ambivalence and uncertainty of how the school system imparts mathematics learning to students.

Subtheme 1: Unsure of how to guide child’s school learning; conflict in cultural values

Subtheme 2: Parents do not understand school or norms, practices, and instructional methods


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Subtheme 3: Reliance on their children to translate teacher expectations on how to complete math homework

Subtheme 4: Parental desire for Spanish language explanation of math homework. Theme 2: Parental views of school learning about mathematics: U.S. and Mexico.

Subtheme 1: Reliance on the classroom teacher—authoritative source of child’s academic knowledge.

Subtheme 2: Value school opportunities to learn—technology, trained teachers, resources

Subtheme 3: Expect their children to do homework, pay attention in class, respect the teacher, and do well at school.

Subtheme 4: Find a way to blend household math literacy with school learning practice. Theme 3: Parents and children at times switch between native language and second language to bridge household and school.

Subtheme 1: Older children as language brokers—facilitate non-English speaking parent’s contribution to children’s school mathematics learning

Subtheme 2: Parent’s merging English with native language as a strategy for household mathematics conversations

Subtheme 3: Older siblings—a model for


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Theme 4: Parents’ perspective: collaboration between parent and teacher—build mutual respect and trust

Subtheme 1: Valuing potential connections between cultural and school practices

Subtheme 2: Acknowledgement of parental influence on child’s mathematics learning

Subtheme 3: Ongoing forum for parents and school teacher sharing life experiences and how to support children’s success in math.

What follows are three vignettes that indicated how parents regarded their comfort level with mathematics, in turn, their interaction with the children. These vignettes also indicated the potential for confusion between the parents and their children; and potentially between parents and teachers. The second vignette suggests the parent’s own prior experiences with school mathematics can lead to a reluctance with helping their children with school learned mathematics. In the third vignette, the parent’s subtle disagreement with her daughter’s efforts to utilize the school learned practice of detailing her mathematical thinking that underscored the calculation of a problem solution. Mrs. Ochoa: Ҁ Hijo, porque no hace el problema como yo le explique? Nomás, haga la cuenta en su cabeza y simplemente ponga el resulto abajo. [Son, why do you not do the problem as I explained? Only do the count in your head and simply put the result below.]


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Juan (son): Pero mama, así no nos ensenaron en la escuela. Primero, tenemos que poner las marcas que ensena el proceso que usamos para llegar al resulto. En esa manera, puedo dar la prueba de como llegue al resulto. Si no lo hago, mi maestra me va quitar puntos de mi grado. [But mother, that is not the way we were taught at school. First, we have to put the marks that show the process that we use to get to the result. In that manner, I can give the proof of how I came to the result. If I do not do it, my teacher will take away points from my grade.] Mrs. Ochoa: No entiendo esta nueva manera. Es mucho trabajo de hacer todo esto cuando ya sabe el resulto en su cabeza. [I do not understand this new way. It is much work to do all of that when you already know the result in your head.] (Mrs. Ochoa, Interview 2, Nov. 4, 2016) Pablo: Ҁ Como llego a conocer la matemática cuando estaba en la escuela de México? Y, como se siente en su habilidad de apoyar sus niños en aprendiendo la matemática? [How did you come to know mathematics when you were in the school at Mexico? And, how do you feel in your ability to support your children’s learning of mathematics?] Mrs. Robles: Pues, en México, nomás fui hasta el grado seis y nunca aprendí bien sobre las matemáticas. Yo recuerdo que en la escuela secundaria la materia de matemática siempre se me hizo muy difícil. Tanto que el día de hacer el examen no pude pasarlo, en ese momento yo quería tener a alguien o buscar una forma de aprender el valor de los números. Tratare de ensenarle los valores desde pequeños para que cuando mis hijos estén grandes pueden recordar lo poco que yo les ensene sobre el valor de los números.


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[Well, in México, I only went to the sixth grade and I never learned much about mathematics. I remember that in middle school the mathematics material was always very hard for me. So much on the day to complete the exam I could not pass it, in that moment I wanted to have someone help me to learn the value of numbers. I shall try to teach my children the value of numbers from the time they are little so that when my children are grown they can remember the little that I taught them about the value of numbers.] (Mrs. Robles, Interview 3, Feb. 17, 2017) Mrs. Sandoval: No entiendo el esfuerzo adicional que está haciendo en su tarea. Cuando yo fui a la escuela en México, nomás tenía que dar la solución y mi maestra nunca me pidió el lógico de mi pensamiento. [I do not understand the additional effort that you are doing in your homework. When I went to school in Mexico, I only had to give the answer and my teacher never asked me for the logic of my thinking.] Josefina: Mama, si no enseno el proceso que está en mi mente para solucionar el problema, mi maestra me va quitar puntos de mi tarea. [Mom, if I do not show the process that is in my mind to solve the problem, my teacher will take away points from my homework.] (Mrs. Sandoval, Interview 2, Nov. 1, 2016) Summary Communicating with the parents—in their own native language—allowed me to piece together the authentic, lived perspectives of the parents—grounded in their cultural experiences specific to their schooling in Mexico—about knowing math distinct from their children’s school.


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It was significant that in each household, the parents did not initiate dialogue with their children of math problem-solving strategies they did not understand or had unpleasant memories. Results Landscape of Mexican parents’ learning and doing mathematics in Mexico In attending elementary school in the southern section of a mountainous region in central Mexico, a rural section of central western Mexico, the rural section of northern Mexico, or the capital of Mexico, the participating parents asserted that their childhood upbringing in these communities shaped their ways of learning and doing mathematics. One participant, Mrs. Gutierrez reflects on how she initially began to think of mathematics while working at her parents’ local market in Mexico: Mrs. Gutierrez: My mother teach me that we add when we count what we collect; one time just before we close our family store, we have to count how many roses and carnations we still have at the flower stall. We collect all the roses and carnations into one bundle. Next, my mother asked me, how many roses and carnations do you have in total? I have to count without any pencil or paper and just use my head, as my mother often said. Pablo (the researcher): Can you remember another experience of how you learned to think about mathematics while working at the store? Mrs. Gutierrez: I had to learn how to quickly count money and calculate the customer’s change in my head. So, I think it is better for children to learn and practice that way. (Mrs. Gutierrez, Interview 11, Sept. 8, 2017) Another participant, Mr. Ochoa recounts the many instances a few days before each New Year’s Eve in which he, nine siblings and parents sat around a work table in the back of their family


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bakery. Here, we talked about the amount of flour needed to make 300 tamales in order to place about 15 tamales in each basket to give to other families and friends in the neighborhood. In the following reflection, Mr. Ochoa recalls how his parents taught him to understand subtraction: Mr. Ochoa: My father and mother taught us that we subtract when we want to know what is missing or not there. Because many times we needed to calculate the amount of flour needed to make our tamales, my mother would pose a problem, “Your uncle, Mario, has six pounds of flour but he needs a total of 15 pounds of flour to make 300 tamales for the New Years’ Eve party. How many pounds of flour does your uncle still need?” (Mr. Ochoa, Interview 9, Oct. 14, 2016) A third participant, Mrs. Robles, who grew up with her parents and siblings on a ranch and helped raise livestock such as cows, goats, burros, and chickens, talks of how she learned to practice addition and multiplication while helping her father construct the fence to secure the animals so that they would not stray on the open field in the rural section of northern Mexico: Mrs. Robles: With my father’s help, I fixed a fence with seven stakes, and I used five nails with each stake. At this point, my father asked me, “Daughter, so, how many nails did you use in total?” So, I walk back to the first stake and I say, “Dad, I used 5 nails on this stake, and I used 5 nails on the second stake, and I used 5 nails on the third stake, 5 nails on the fourth stake, 5 nails on the fifth stake, 5 nails on the sixth stake, and 5 nails on the seventh stake. Next, my father asked, “Daughter, so, how many times did you put 5 nails on a stake?” At this point, I said to my father, “Well, I did that 7 times because I put 5 nails on each stake. Here, my dad began to teach me about multiplication to help me work faster with numbers, so he said, “5 times 7 is?” And, after a few moments, I said to my father, “Well, the answer is 35 nails in total.”


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(Mrs. Robles, Interview 2, Jan. 13, 2017) A fourth participant, Mr. Sandoval recalled the many instances as a child in Mexico joining his father to survey the length of many rooftops in centimeters, estimate the number of bags of tiles, and calculate the number of labor hours by number of workers based on the size of the rooftop. Mr. Sandoval talked at length about the way his father used informal talk to apply mathematical principles such as multiplication and division to the task of installing or repairing the roof tile. In Mr. Sandoval’s opinion, his father’s comfort with talking about mathematics affected his attitude (and thinking) toward embracing the role of mathematics within a meaningful learning context. (Mr. Sandoval, Interview 4, March 16, 2017) The above interactions with the Mexican parents provided me a contextual basis i.e., cultural, daily life experiences that framed the parents’ ways of knowing what is mathematics and its role at the family store, in household cooking or maintaining a ranch. From many home visits, I gained immense insight with respect to the familial activities, neighbors and daily events that family members intuitively drew upon to construct mathematical knowledge. In line with the research, there is much importance for educators knowing more of their children’s out-ofschool mathematics learning, more aptly, of other ways of doing mathematics (Abreu & Gorgorio, 2007; Civil & Planas, 2008). Household Practices to Activate Out-of-school Mathematics Knowledge Through informal conversations and firsthand observations, I discovered how each family helped their children acquire a practical knowledge of mathematics, which the parents typically referred to as el aprendizaje de los numeros (which means the learning of numbers). Using the extent of their own learning and comfort with using mathematics, the parents of each household shared unique ways to scaffold their children’s acquisition of mathematics:


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Mrs. Robles: With my daughter, I want her to learn how to sew clothes so that when a shirt, a blouse or pants is torn, she can repair the clothes so we do not need to buy a new one. In fact, during this visit, Mrs. Robles asked her 12-year old daughter to sit at her side and initially showed her daughter to draw straight lines with a 12-inch ruler on a section of fabric. Next, she modeled how to cut about one half-inch of fabric and then to use the needle and thread at least one dozen times at different corners to attach the fabric to the torn section of the garment. As Mrs. Robles showed her daughter how to perform these tasks, she talked about her own mother’s teachings in Mexico and how her own mother continually asked open-ended questions to assess Mrs. Robles’ understandings of the sewing tasks that entailed mathematics. (Mrs. Robles, Interview 6, February 24, 2017) Mrs. Gutierrez: While growing up in Mexico, there was not much time to go to school because we have to clean the house and help with the little children; but, my mother liked to sing a lot with words about numbers that help us to think about addition and multiplication. When my own children are helping me to wash the dishes or cleaning the kitchen, I sing one of my favorite childhood songs, Las Tablitas (which means The Tables). It is a song that all of my children now know and even sing by themselves. (Mrs. Gutierrez, Interview 5, Mar. 10, 2017) Cancion de las tablitas: Brinca la tablita (Song of The Tables: Jump the table)

Brinca la tablita

Jump over the board

Yo ya la brinqué

I already jumped over it

Bríncala de vuelta

Jump over it again

Yo ya me cansé.

I’m tired now


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Dos y dos son cuatro

Two and two are four

Cuatro y dos son seis

Four and two are six

Seis y dos son ocho

Six and two are eight

Y ocho, dieciséis

And eight, sixteen

Mrs. Ochoa: Since my husband often takes the car to work, my two children and I walk to the local market to buy groceries. On one Saturday afternoon, I accompanied Mrs. Ochoa and her two children to the local market. Along the way, Mrs. Ochoa talked to her children about the food to be purchased saying, “Today, we need to buy 7 pounds of chicken, 3 pounds of fish, 5 pounds of potatoes and 6 cans of mixed vegetables.” As Mrs. Ochoa and the children entered the market, Mrs. Ochoa said to her eldest son, Mario, “Use the scale to weigh 4 pounds of apples and 2 pounds of lemons. In paying the clerk, Mrs. Ochoa guided her 13-year old to hand $20.00 to the store clerk and mentally calculate the expected change. After Mrs. Ochoa asked her son if the correct change had been given, Mario, correctly replied, “In my head, I think $3.45 will be the change.” (Mrs. Ochoa, Interview 4, Feb. 17, 2017) What was unique about the above exemplars regarding the children’s household practice of mathematics was the inclusion of language—a resource that parents utilized to instruct their children while sewing, singing, and buying groceries. In several instances, I observed the children utilizing their native language, Spanish—but, also their emergent English language proficiency to assertively express their questions, ideas, and understandings about the situation. As noted in Garcia, Johnson, and Seltzer (2017), through language—at times, alternating between two languages—these children freely utilized their linguistic repertoires, from their perspectives, to communicate their increasing competency of the academic content. However, as


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noted in the research, quite often the parents’ own ways of teaching or household methods are not given the same value as the classroom teacher’s expertise or the school textbook (Quintos et al., 2005). In observing and listening to the parent-child interactions within these three families, I realized the occasional conflicts that emerged over the parents’ learned ways of knowing mathematics and their child’s school-learned practices. On one occasion, Mr. Ochoa and his son, Enrique, debated between mentally solving the multiplication problem versus portraying on paper each step in the two-digit multiplication problem. In a separate visit, I noted Mrs. Robles’ lack of familiarity with the vocabulary needed to understand the mathematics word problem. Once I explained the meaning of the terms in the Spanish language and made contextual references to the Mexican culture, the parent was then able to continue her exchange of ideas about the solution with her child. Drawing upon a reflective moment with Mrs. Gutierrez’ struggles to connect with her child’s school work, she noted, “…over time, I have become disillusioned and now believe that my child is changing—losing ties with his cultural heritage and only using American ways for doing mathematics.” Of particular significance, I observed that in several instances, the children quietly disregarded their parents’ mathematical algorithms and instead used the school’s mathematics problem-solving strategies to visually or textually express their thinking. These observations reiterate the parents’ use of memorized algorithms for adding, subtracting, and multiplying, but without as Reason (2003) noted, “The appropriate language to form links within mathematical ideas without resorting to memory” (p. 184). Legitimizing Parental Hopes of Their Math Knowledge by Teachers The participating parents expressed a heartfelt hope that their child’s school teacher


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would one day allow them to be part of the classroom conversation that informed their children’s mathematics learning. All of the parents indicated that because they knew very little English they were unsure how to communicate with the school teacher about what they knew about mathematics and how they were shaping their children’s daily usage of mathematics at home. One parent, Mr. Ochoa, expressed the following sentiment that succinctly reflected all of the other participants’ thinking about an open dialogue with the school teacher: Even though we only went to school a few years, we have learned the value of working with others—family, neighbors, and friends, so that we can find the best answer to a problem. This is an idea that we want to say to the teacher; allow us to be part of what is said in the classroom so that we can help with how our children learn to apply mathematics. We have known our children since they were born so we know how they best learn; we want to work with the school teacher so our child does well at school. We hope the teacher will listen to us. (Mr. Ochoa, Interview 7, Apr. 14, 2017) It is the participants’ hopes that one day the classroom teacher will place value on the ways that the parents have learned to do mathematics in Mexico. Perhaps, our ways of thinking about mathematics will be an advantage for our children when they are looking for choices to show how they solved a problem or what they were thinking about in their head to get the answer. And, while speaking with Mr. and Mrs. Gutierrez about the idea of an ongoing dialogue with their child’s school teacher, they both contributed to the following poignant perspective: I think that teachers need to learn the cultural and intellectual values of the family; to know how families raise their children to show respect and other positive behaviors at school. It is a problem in the education process for new teachers that they may not learn


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about the family’s motives and fundamental values used to teach their children in the house. Spanish-speaking parents may not know how to speak or write in Spanish, or do not have the school knowledge or familiarity with the American schools. It represents a double effort for the parents because they do not know the English language or are not familiar with how the schools work. Mexican parents may be reluctant to speak in the English language for fear of being criticized in their use of words. (Mr. and Mrs. Gutierrez, Interview 9, Jun. 9, 2017) Speaking to the importance of her children being allowed to use multiple methods and languages as part of their school learning, Mrs. Robles offered this succinct assessment: If my children can learn different methods in solving mathematics problems that I learned in Mexico and the methods they now learn at school, then they will have an option of which approach to use…if the teacher really wants to know what is in the mind of my child, what she really thinks about using money, then the teacher needs to let my daughter talk in the language that I have taught at home while using money. At home, she is very confident while using the Spanish language to explain how she calculates the count in her mind…but, at school my daughter cannot use her native language, Spanish, to say what she really knows. As a result, she does not get good grades in math. (Mrs. Robles, Interview 13, Jun. 23, 2017) It is essential that a deficit perspective (which emphasizes what a person or group cannot do) be replaced with a genuine openness of what people of culturally diverse populations can do and bring to the classrooms and schools (Gorski, 2008; Peterson & Heywood, 2007; Valenzuela, 1999). In speaking to alternative response options or languages to express mathematical ideas, Garrison and Mora (1999) noted:


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The difficulty of expressing ideas in a secondary language can be mitigated by having students write their responses in the language of greatest fluency. During this writing process, the language difficulty is lessened and the students are able to concentrate on concept and thought development (p. 43) School teachers can facilitate a tacit acknowledgement of the immigrants’ life experiences, cultural heritage and identity as an additive to children’s learning of mathematics. Educators, school administrators, and community stakeholders can serve as the first line of empowerment for all families—whether born in the U.S. or elsewhere. Discussion Differences in Perspectives between Parents and School Approaches My household visits with the five Mexican households helped me better understand the prior research findings of Civil (2008) who asserted that Latino parents viewed their children’s mathematics through a cultural lens—nurtured from their own school experiences in Mexico that valued repetition and rote memorization as mathematics learners. Civil noted that the manner in which the parent interacted with their child’s mathematics learning in the United States was influenced, for example, by whether the parent understood the mathematics while in school or whether they viewed themselves as practitioners of mathematics. Thus, the parents involved in the study reported that they viewed mathematics learning in Mexico as being different, in terms of school approaches from the mathematics learning their children were experiencing in the United States (Civil et al., 2008). From many household visits with the five families, I agreed with Civil (2002) who indicated that parents want to learn and understand the math their child was learning at school and not simply be given information to memorize.


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From observations of household events and conversations with the parents and children, I concurred with Gonzalez et al. (2001) who asserted that an individual’s math knowledge is inextricably embedded within the individual’s social experience. Referring back to the observed interactions between parents and their children with respect to sewing clothes, constructing a screen porch, raking fallen leaves or repairing a livestock fence; the parents and their children constructed a body of mathematics knowledge because of real-time, life experiences. Valuing Children’s Learned Literacies to Articulate Mathematics Ideas My own ability to speak in Spanish permitted a deeper conversation with their children about how they felt of what they had learned since childhood at home and its relation to their mathematics learning at school. In their explanations, the children intuitively used both languages and daily life experiences to support their mathematical thinking. Drawing upon the research, minority students become empowered to more readily generate their own knowledge when the classroom teacher allows students to access their second language and acknowledges their cultural identity in mathematics dialogue (Cummins, 1986). Allowing children to use their familiar [primary] language, culture, talents, and skills empowers them to generate their own knowledge (Montelongo, et al., 2011). Classroom teachers must create spaces that encourage children to freely draw upon their linguistic strengths, such as their home language as a resource for learning, as opposed to feeling that their primary language is a source of interference or a liability (Haneda, 2010; SolteroGonzalez, 2010). Leonard (2008) noted that to have meaningful conversations about mathematics within the context of the classroom, there should be the opportunity for discourse that not only requires the student to explain how, but also why a particular strategy was used to solve a mathematical problem. To have students view themselves as successful learners of


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mathematics, allow them to use their household funds of knowledge i.e. their accumulated skills and abilities that derive from the communities from which they come from (Gonzalez et al., 2005). Hernandez (1999) posited that an integral factor contributing to the marked difference between the achievement of Latinos and the majority group is a school’s decision not to allow the child’s familiar language, Spanish, as well as their culture, talents, and skills as a resource for articulating the meaning attributed to the math concept. Noted in Civil (2008), a corollary study focused on equity across different countries found that schools and classroom teachers in Greece either were unaware or minimized the [community] knowledge that minority students brought with them to school. As part of the study, Civil reported Vietnamese and Iranian migrant students in Australia used their primary languages when engaging with mathematical ideas; but, in many instances, the classroom teachers were unaware the students were intentionally drawing upon their own language to determine the problem solution. Civil offered the following analysis, “Language of mathematics is best taught by starting with students’ informal language and gradually moving to the precision of mathematical language” (p. 8). In addressing the connection between successful mathematics experiences and migrant students, Reyes and Fletcher (2003) indicated that state-mandated guidelines can lead to institutional practices that emphasize drill and practice versus mathematical reasoning. Under these classroom mathematics practices, students become passive learners; ultimately come to depend on the teacher’s knowledge; and see no connection between mathematics and their everyday lives. All too often, students from poor communities have been relegated to lowertrack classes (Secada et al., 1999). Likewise, Silver and Stein (1996) purported that poor and minority students have been disproportionately represented in more complicated mathematics


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courses requiring thinking and reasoning skills. These students have generally scored lower in comparison to affluent and White students on standardized tests. Thus, to better understand the discontinuity between the classroom and household practices in mathematics, I concur with Civil (2002) who asserted that schools need to closely examine the social setting (place, time, etc.) in which household members ordinarily learn and subsequently use their accumulated knowledge and learned strategies to practice math. As noted in Garcia et al. (2017), “teaching and learning begin with valuing our students” (p. 157); it presupposes that teachers will work collaboratively with bilingual students with the realization that students’ home and school experiences go together. As a former third grade classroom teacher and now a University professor supervising teacher candidates at 15+ elementary schools, I concur with the studies of Epstein (2017) and Jung and Conderman (2013), who conducted studies in early childhood. It is their belief that intentional teaching values children’s voices and questions as part of class discourse in mathematical learning—through such pedagogy, children can begin to see mathematics as truly relevant to their everyday lives. Conclusions The parents in this study repeatedly articulated the notion of parents and teachers building on each other’s strengths, life experiences, and learned ways of knowing and applying mathematics. Bridges of communication and mutual trust between the household and school can promote an awareness of classroom instructional practices and the cultural knowledge that children bring to the doorsteps of the school (Brown, 2015). With the help of bilingual parents or local university educators, the school principal and a cadre of classroom teachers can be trained to make a neighborhood walk through a series of household visits. In this setting, the principal and classroom teachers can make first-hand observations as a framework for adjusting


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the pedagogical practices during mathematics instruction and serve as a resource for the families, on questions about school practices and mathematics ideas. This study highlighted the parents’ persistent need for knowing how to communicate within the school’s network of communication. Recently arrived non-English speaking parents, with little knowledge of the school’s rules and procedures, will greatly benefit from a program oriented toward the needs and concerns of each family. A joint initiative cannot be a once-a-year event; this push for change, in what counts for mathematics instruction and how students are given equitable access, needs to be talked about regularly in the school library, home of a concerned parent, at parent-teacher meetings, or at other appropriate venues. For lasting change, everyone will need each other to create a school experience that intentionally incorporates culturally relevant mathematics (Leonard, 2008). An expert in the field of culturally responsive teaching, Gay (2010) posited, “When instructional processes are congruent with the cultural orientations, experiences and learning styles of marginalized African, Latino, Native and Asian American students their school achievement improves significantly” (p. 213). Witnessing first-hand the increased numbers of culturally diverse children at the K – 6 elementary school where I taught, I concur with Gay (2010) and other researchers who assert that today’s diverse classrooms fare higher in standardized testing when the teacher’s pedagogical practices and approaches are congruent with children of color. Drawing on a wonderful sentiment that Mrs. Ochoa shared with me near the end of this study, Pablo, “I truly believe that our words, as parents and teachers, do matter…we can choose to change our children’s expectation…we can guide them to new understandings, new horizons.” (Mrs. Ochoa, Interview 13, Nov. 17, 2017)


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Limitations of Present Study With the aim of self-disclosure, this exploratory study has several gaps. This case study involved only five Mexican families over a short period of time—approximately 18 months. These families were intentionally selected because I already had some familiarity with these families while attending a neighborhood Catholic Church service in the Spanish language. Also, the field notes were recorded in the Spanish language—based on my own proficiency in the Spanish language; so it is quite possible that some Spanish – English translations were based on my cultural experience on ways of portraying specific words and phrases. Furthermore, I made intentional decisions about what articles to include; mainly research pieces that spoke directly to the mathematics education of five Mexican households. Based on this research study, I have initiated two other research studies that entail household visits with Mexican families: one study focused on approaches utilized to scaffold Mexican parents’ literacy in the English language, in order to better understand their children’s school-learned mathematics. A second study recently started is how older siblings—with a greater degree of English language proficiency—serve as language brokers to support younger siblings out-of-school mathematics learning. Author Biography Dr. Gilbert Dueñas is an Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Technology within the College of Education, Auburn University at Montgomery. He teaches both undergraduate and graduate level courses and supervises candidates enrolled in the 10-hour field experience and the 250-hour early childhood internship. Dr. Dueñas was born and raised in East Los Angeles, California. Following high school completion, he served a 30year military career in the United States Air Force. Prior to his current professional work, he worked 7.5 years as a third-grade classroom teacher at a K-3 public school in central Alabama.


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Dr. Luke Alexander Smith is an Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Technology within the College of Education, Auburn University at Montgomery. He teaches both undergraduate and graduate level courses and supervises candidates enrolled in their internships. His research interests include improving student success in postsecondary remedial mathematics courses. His other interests are gardening and spending time with his family. References Abreu, G., de, & Gorgorio, N., (2007). Social representations and multicultural mathematics teaching and learning. In D. Pitta-Pantazi & G. Philippou (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 1559-1566). Larnaca, Cyprus: Department of Education, University of Cyprus. Allen, J. (2008). Family partnerships. Educational Leadership, 66(1), 22-27. Auerbach, S. (2011). Learning from Latino families. Educational Leadership, 68(8), 16-21. Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Brown, G. III (2015). Strong one lasting one: An elementary school principal’s ability to establish a positive school culture by building trust. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 18(4), 309-316. Civil, M. (2001, July). Parents as learners and teachers of mathematics: Towards a two-way dialogue. In M. J. Schmitt & K. Safford-Ramus (Eds.). Adults learning mathematics— 7: A conversation between researchers and practitioners (pp. 173-177). Cambridge, MA: Adults Learning Mathematics & National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.


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Civil, M. (2002). Culture and mathematics: A community approach. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 23(2), 133-148. Civil, M. (2006). Working towards equity in mathematics education: A focus on learners, teachers, and parents. In S. Alatorre, J. L. Cortina, M. Saiz, & A. Menendez (Eds.). Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol, 1, 30-50). Merida, Mexico: Universidad Pedagogica Nacional. Civil, M. (2008). Mathematics teaching and learning of immigrant students: A look at the key themes from recent research. Paper presented for ICME Survey Team 5: Mathematics Education in Multicultural Multilingual Environments, Monterey, Mexico. Civil, M. & Bernier, E. (2006). Exploring images of parental participation in mathematics education: Challenges and possibilities. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 309330. Civil, M., Diez-Palomar, J., Menendez-Gomez, J. M., & Acosta-Iriqui, J. (2008, March). Parents’ interactions with their children when doing mathematics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), New York, NY. Civil, M., & Planas, N. (2008). Latino/a immigrant parents’ voices in mathematics education. In E. Grigorenko & R. Takanishi (Eds.), Immigration, diversity and education (in preparation). New York, NY: Routledge. Civil, M., & Quintos, B. (2006). Engaging families in children’s mathematical learning: Classroom visits with Latina mothers. New Horizons for Learning Online Journal, XII(1).


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Cordon, A., & Sainsbury, R. (2006). Exploring ‘quality’: Research participants’ perspectives on verbatim quotations. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 9(2), 97110. Emerson, R. M., Fretz, R. I., & Shaw, L. L. (1995). Writing ethnographic field notes. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Epstein, A. S. (2014). The intentional teacher: Choosing the best strategies for young children’s learning (Revised edition). Washington, D. C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Flecha, R. (2000). Sharing words: Theory and practice of dialogic learning. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Fuller, B., & Coll, C. G. (2010). Learning from Latinos: Contexts, families, and child development in motion. Developmental Psychology, 46(3), 559-565. Garcia, O., Johnson, S. I., & Seltzer, K. (2017). The translanguaging classroom: Leveraging student bilingualism for learning. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon, Inc. Garrison, L., & Mora, J. K. (1999). In W. G. Secada, L. Ortiz-Franco, N. G. Hernandez, & De La Cruz (Eds.). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on Latinos (35-47). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally-responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Gonzalez, N., Andrade, R., Civil, M., & Moll, L. (2001). Bridging funds of distributed knowledge; Creating zones of practices in mathematics. Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 6(1&2), 115-132. González, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in


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households, communities, and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers. Good, M. E., Masewicz, S., & Vogel, L. (2010). Latino English language learners: Bridging achievement and cultural gaps between schools and families. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(4), 321-339. Gorski, P. (2008). The myth of the “culture of poverty.” Educational Leadership, 65(7), 32-36. Gutstein, E., Lipman, P., Hernández, P., & De Los Reyes R. (1997). Culturally relevant mathematics teaching in a Mexican American context. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(6), 709-737. Haneda, M. (2010). Becoming literate in a second language: Connecting home, community, and school literacy practices. Theory Into Practice, 45(4), 337-345. Hernandez, N. G. (1999). The mathematics-bilingual education connection: Two lessons. In W. G. Secada, L., Ortiz-Franco, N. G. Hernández, & De La Cruz (Eds.). Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on Latinos (49-57). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Jilk, L. M. (2007). Translated mathematics: Immigrant women’s use of salient identities as cultural tools for interpretation and learning. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Jung, M., & Conderman, G. (2013). Intentional mathematics teaching in early childhood classrooms. Childhood Education, 89(3), 173-177. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African-American children. San Francisco, CA: Sage Publications. Leonard, J. (2008). Culturally specific pedagogy in the mathematics classroom: Strategies for


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teachers and students. New York, NY: Routledge. Lindeman, B. (2001). Reaching out to immigrant parents. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 62. Lundgen, D. & Morrison, J. W. (2003). Involving Spanish-speaking families in early education programs. Young Children, 58(3), 88-95. McDuffie, A. R., Wohlhuter, K. A., & Breyfogle, M. L. (2011). Tailoring tasks to meet student needs. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 16(9), 550-555. Meyer, J. A., & Mann, M. B. (2006). Teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of home visits for early elementary children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 93-97. Montelongo, J. A., Hernández, A. C., Hertner, R. J., & Cuello, J. (2011). Using cognates to scaffold context clue strategies for Latino ELs. The Reading Teacher, 64(6), 429-434. Moschkovich, J. (2002). A situated and sociocultural perspective on bilingual mathematics learners. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4(2&3), 189-212. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2014). Principles to actions: Ensuring mathematical success for all. Reston, VA: NCTM. Orellana, M. F., Reynolds, J., Dorner, L., & Meza, M. (2003). In other words: Translating or “paraphrasing” as a family literacy practice. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(1), 12-34. Pena, D. (2000). Parent involvement: Influencing factors and implications, Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 42-54. Peterson, S. S., & Heywood, D. (2007). Contributions of families’ linguistic, social, and cultural capital to minority-language children’s literacy: Parents’, teachers’, and principals’ perspectives. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(4), 517-538. Planas, N., & Civil, M. (2009). Working with mathematics teachers and immigrant students: An empowered perspective. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 12(6), 391-409.


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Quintos, B., Bratton, J. & Civil, M. (2005). Engaging with parents on critical dialogue about mathematics education. In M. Bosch (Ed.). Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 1182-1192). Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain: FUNDEMI IQS, Universitat Ramon Lluil. Reason, M. (2003). Relational, instrumental, and creative understanding. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 184, 5-7. Reyes, P., & Fletcher, C. (2003). Successful migrant students. The case of mathematics. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(4), 306-333. Secada, W. G., Fennema, E., & Adajian, L. B. (1995). New directions for equity in mathematics education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Soltero-Gonzalez, L. (2010). Preschool Latino immigrant children: Using the home language as a resource for literacy learning. Theory Into Practice, 48(4), 283-289. Valdes, G. (1996). Con respeto: Bridging the distances between culturally diverse families and schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: U. S. – Mexican youth and the politics of caring. New York: State University of New York Press. Wolcott, H. F. (2008). Ethnography: A way of seeing. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

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Latino Parents’ Perceptions on Educating BilingualBicultural Children through Effective Home-school Collaborations Dr. Gina L. Garza-Reyna Texas A&M University-Kingsville Lorena Morales Texas A&M University-Kingsville Hortencia Morales Texas A&M University-Kingsville Xenia Barbosa-Centeno Texas A&M University-Kingsville Abstract Through this study, we explored the role parents of Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) played in helping their children become a bilingual-bicultural individual. Participants shared their insights on: (1) raising a bilingual-bicultural child, and (2) the influence they believed the home and school environment had on the linguistic/academic development of their children. Parents shared viewing bilingual-biculturalism as a positive thing and supported their child’s development through the district’s program. However, their interaction with their child’s teacher and involvement in school was minimal. While parents were active in helping their children reach that bilingual-bicultural goal at home, they attributed their noninvolvement in school to: (1) having a “blind trust” in the teacher, (2) not feeling welcomed by teachers when presenting themselves at school, and (3) not knowing how to assist with academic activities at home, due to


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a lack of training. Introduction The percent of individuals in the United States who speak a language other than English at home has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2013-2014, the percent of students who were identified as English Learners (EL) in schools across the nation was at 9.3%; the majority of them Spanish speakers (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016). To date, nearly 3.8 million EL students are in public schools, accounting for 7.7% of the school-age population in the K–12 system (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016). The continuous growth of EL students in the US (United States Census Bureau, 2009) have subsequently evolved the public-school system into a more culturally and linguistically diverse setting, where different instructional approaches and programs are being implemented to help address the needs of the diverse learners they service, including ELs (Baker, 2011). One way of addressing the academic and linguistic needs of ELs is to implement bilingual education programs that focus on validating their linguistic, cognitive, and affective domains (Aydin, 2012; Baker, 2011; Esquinca, Araujo & de la Piedra, 2014). In addition, there is research to support that providing a socio-culturally supportive school setting for language minority students also helps promote their academic success (Aydin, 2012; Baker, 2011). Although, bilingual educational programs influence the academic and linguistic development of EL students, the home environment and parents of these students play a role as well in the academic and linguistic development of their child. Presently, researchers are exploring the positive effects that parental involvement has on the biliteracy development of minority students (Banerjee, Harrell & Johnson, 2011; Jeynes, 2007, 2012). This research, however, studied the role of parents using a slightly different lens. Â


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Our goal was to explore the role parents of Spanish speaking ELs play specifically in helping their child become a bilingual-bicultural individual, zoning in the idea of “familial capital” (Yosso, 2006). Participants in this study shared their insights on raising a bilingual-bicultural child and the influence they believed the home environment had on the linguistic/academic development of their child and how they, as parents, played a part. The research question that guided this study was: What opinions, if any, do parents have on the roles the home and school environments play on raising a bilingual-bicultural child? Literature Review According to Valdez, Shewakramani, Goldberg & Padilla (2013), support from individuals/systems play a role in all aspects of a child’s development. While formal instruction plays a role in the academic success of a child, there is no denying that parental involvement, too, plays a role (Epstein, Sanders, Simon, Salinas, Jansorn, & Van Voorhis, 2002; Epstein, 2011; Yosso, 2006). In essence, the critical contribution to successful learning does not derive from the home or school alone, but from the dynamic relationship between them. This suggests that parents of English learning students, regardless of their level of education or socioeconomic status, can have a positive impact on their child’s achievement and language development (familial capital) (Sánchez, Plata, Grosso & Leird, 2010; Yosso, 2006). Parental involvement in the education of a child has long been considered beneficial for the child’s academic development (Rebell & Wolff, 2012; Shah, 2009). When parents become involved in the academic progress of their child through activities as simple as volunteering, homework support, and literacy projects, children benefit academically and socio-emotionally (Orozco, 2008). However, Gonzalez, Borders, Hines, Villalba & Henderson (2013) report that for Spanish speaking, Latino parents though their expectation of involvement has often been


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limited, due to teachers who do not identify with them because of a language barrier or who do not value them as true collaborators in the development of their children's academic knowledge (O'Donnell & Kirkner, 2014). There is ample research showing that parents should not just be informed, but also be involved in decision making that affects their child’s cognitive and linguistic development (Epstein, 2010; Larrotta & Ramirez, 2009; Orozco, 2008; O’Donnell & Kirkner, 2014 & Walker, 2016; Sánchez, Plata, Grosso & Leird, 2010; Shah, 2009; Walker, Ice, Hoover-Dempsey, & Sandler, 2011; Yosso, 2006). Parents want the best for their children, making it of the upmost importance that they have knowledge on how to help their child academically progress in life, but more importantly be given the tools to be active members of their child’s education (Orozco, 2008). The work of the previous aforementioned authors all call for parental involvement and provide theoretical support for its positive impact on children, again zoning in on that idea of familial capital. The big question that remains is: how does one go about accomplishing the task of getting parents “actively” involved? Epstein’s framework for establishing and maintaining parental involvement offers a solution and presents a platform that can be used to address all of these authors’ suggestions, in essence providing for teachers of ELs a roadmap, who are seeking to help their students succeed academically and linguistically. A Framework for Parental Involvement Epstein (2001) defines school and family partnerships as the relationship that two entities form and share for benefit of a child’s education and are broken up into six types of involvement: (1) parenting, (2) communicating,


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(3) involvement at school, (4) involvement in learning activities at home, (5) involvement in decision making/advocacy, and (6) collaboration within and among the community. (Epstein et. al., 2002. Epstein, 2011) Epstein’s work reinforces the fact that parents are part of the equation for student success and getting them involved is an absolute, because they too have something to contribute (Chavkin & Williams, 1993; Epstein et. al., 2002, Epstein 2011; Larrotta & Ramirez, 2009; Orozco, 2008; O’Donnell & Kirkner, 2014 & Walker, 2016; Sánchez, Plata, Grosso & Leird, 2010; Shah, 2009; Walker, Ice, Hoover-Dempsey, & Sandler, 2011; Yosso, 2006). Now, how can Epstein’s framework assist schools in getting parents of EL students involved in their child’s education? Chavkin and Williams (1993) suggest that by focusing on all of Epstein’s framework, in particular the last three components, a positive impact can be made on the EL population linguistically and academically. When Latino parents become “actively” involved in their child’s education, they move from being part of the “audience” that merely observes/supports, to playing an “active” role in their child’s education as a co-learner, advocate, and decision maker, thus positively impacting their children and empowering them as parents. All in all, Epstein’s framework can help increase parental involvement of Latino parents, a group that has a history of having lower parental involvement than parents of other ethnicities (Child Trends, 2013). Methodology Through this study, we explored the role that parents and the school play in creating an academically prepared, bilingual-bicultural child through: 1) communication, 2) involvement in learning activities at home and at school, 3) decision making, 4) advocacy, 5) parenting, and 6) community engagement, all part of Epstein’s (2011) framework.


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Setting. The participants who partook in this study were from an urban school district in South Texas, just 15 miles north of the Mexican Border. The district is medium-sized with 15,800 students enrolled, 99% of which are Hispanic. A total of 83% of the students come from low socio-economic backgrounds. A total of 42% of the student population is labeled as English Learners (ELs) and receive bilingual education services. The participating campuses had begun to implement a one-way dual language education program four years ago and at the time of this study were currently serving its EL students up to the 3rd grade with this program. EL students in 4th grade and beyond were educated using the district's previous bilingual program, transitional early-exit, a program that used their native language for partial instruction for the first three years of their education, before transitioning them into an all English setting. We chose to conduct this research in this district because of the substantial population of ELs within it. Population. The participants in this study were parents who had at least one child enrolled in the district’s bilingual education program. All children were labeled as ELs, based on the results of the oral language proficiency assessment given to the students upon initial entry into the district, as outlined by state requirements (19 Texas Administrative Code § 89.1201 (b), 2012). Based on their child’s grade level, these parents had their child placed in either a transitional bilingual or dual language education program. Parent participants did not have the option of selecting which bilingual program their child was enrolled in, but rather, depending on their child’s grade level, was assigned to one of the two. The parent participants come from two elementary campuses in the district. Currently, the district has 14 elementary campuses implementing a bilingual education program. Data Collection. In order to collect data, we contacted all campus principals within the district via email, with district permission, and informed them about the study. Two principals


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responded and shared their interest in having their campus participate in this study. At each of the two campuses designated bilingual classes were set at each grade level, totaling 410 EL students. The parents of these 410 EL students we contacted. Data was collected by doing the following: (1) sending out an initial survey that collected information on the parent participants’ background, as well as their opinion on the role the school and the home played in educating bilingual-bicultural EL children, (2) a focus group discussion, led by one of us, that explored the topic further, and (3) by the presentation of themes from the focus group to the study’s parent participants for review and discussion by the researcher who conducted the focus group sessions. Surveys. We passed out surveys in English and Spanish so the students could take home to their parents through their designated homeroom teachers. Prior to sending out the surveys, we piloted them with a set of 20 parents who were bilingual but did not have their child in the district’s bilingual education program. The surveys collected demographic information on the parent, as well as their opinions via a series of open-ended questions that probed their thoughts on: (1) a bilingual-bicultural education, (2) the role the school plays in helping create bilingualbicultural children, and (3) the role that they, as parents, play in doing the same. The survey questions also probed into how the parent participants got involved at the campus to ensure their child becomes bilingual-bicultural. We opted to use open-ended questions in the survey because they provided participants a sense of ease as no specific answer was elicited (Krueger & Casey, 2015), thus prompting a higher number of potential participants to respond. Surveys were collected over a period of 12 days. We conducted follow-up phone calls every 4th day with the phone numbers we were provided by the campus principal. We used the phone calls as opportunities to explain the study and answer any questions the potential participants had before filling out and returning their survey, if they had not already done so. We


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did the follow-up through phone calls to increase the response rate (Cox & Cox, 2008). At the end of the 12 days, a total of 109 surveys were collected, resulting in a 26.5% response rate-above the expected 10-15% (Fryrear, 2015). From the 109 surveys, 80 completed the section informing us that they would be interested in participating in a focus group. We then separated those surveys from the rest and considered them for the focus group. Focus Group. From the separated surveys, we randomly selected 30 parents and invited them to participate in one of two focus group discussions. Krueger and Casey (2015) recommends a focus group should have around 10 participants, thus being small enough for the participants to have ample opportunities to share their opinions, while still providing multiple views on the topic. Of the 30 randomly selected participants, 17 accepted, 1 was male and 16 were female. These 17 participants (n=17) represented the population (N=410). The first focus group we conducted was held at campus A and had a total of 8 participants. The second was held at campus B and had 9 participants. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, since all participants spoke that language (See Table 1 for a copy of the focus group questions). However, since all parents noted themselves as English:Spanish bilinguals, responses given were in either English or Spanish, as codeswitching is a natural linguistic phenomenon that occurs among bilingual individuals (Baker, 2011). At each session, the parents gathered to answer a series of open-ended questions focused on raising bilingual-bicultural children and the role the home and school played in doing so. For this research, we decided to assign all participants a number to provide them anonymity (Seidman, 2006; Vaughn, Schumm, & Sinagub, 1996). Any descriptors were stripped from the data and any names mentioned were replaced with pseudonyms as well (Vaughn, Schumm, & Sinagub, 1996). We opted for focus group interviews because they offered advantages over Â


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individual interviews in qualitative research. They provided opportunity for the following to happen more easily: (1) synergism, allowing for a wider band of data to emerge through the group interaction and (2) snowballing, allowing for the statements of one respondent to initiate a chain reaction of additional comments (Elliot and Associates, 2005; Seidman, 2006; Vaugh, Schumn, & Sinagub, 1996). Presentation of themes. The parent participants’ opinions from their completed surveys, their exchange of ideas during the focus group discussion were analyzed and organized in themes. We presented to parents for discussion as part of the data triangulation (See Table 2) a paper with the themes that emerged through the research. This was done because we wanted to provide the participants the opportunity to view the themes that emerged from their discussion, as well as a review of the research questions. The participants were given the opportunity to express any further opinions they had on the topic with us at that time. Their opinions were noted and included as part of the research data. Results The results presented in this section were derived after we analyzed and synthesized data from (1) the participant surveys, (2) the focus group discussion, and (3) from the follow-up that occurred with the participants as part of this research study. Parents self-reported their demographic information when they completed the initial survey. The demographic information was collected to help provide an overview of the participants. In reviewing the participants’ demographic information, parents were from a wide age group, with 1 participant, or 6%, falling into the 18-24 bracket, and one more participant, 6%, in the 46-55 bracket. A total of 15 parent participants, 88%, were between the 25-45 age group. A total of 35% of the parent participants identified themselves as bilingual, noting the use Â


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of English or Spanish with their child(ren), while the other 65% preferred the use of only Spanish with their child(ren). Fifteen parent participants, or 88%, have had their child in the bilingual program 5 years or less, making them relatively new to bilingual education and the process of developing language in EL students, as well as new to the process of identifying, serving, and exiting EL students from a bilingual education program in the state. See Table 3 for an overview of the participants’ demographic information. The Bilingual-Bicultural Choice We found that the decision to raise their child to be bilingual-bicultural was unanimously supported by all 17 participants and expressed in their written surveys, during the focus group discussion, and reaffirmed during the final meeting. However, their reasons for raising a bilingual-bicultural child and placing him/her in the bilingual program differed. One of the first reasons that emerged among 3 parents was that of maintaining cultural and family values. Parent 6 shared on her written survey: “my decision to raise my child to be bilingual is because I mostly speak Spanish and most of the persons that surround my children are Spanish speaking persons. I think it’s important for my son to be able to talk to them, especially like his grandma and grandpa. They are the matriarch and patriarch of this family and have gone through so much to establish us here in the U.S. by working and working and working. My son needs to be able to talk to these people to understand not just where we have come from as a family, but also see how we have progressed.” Similar to Parent 6, Parent 3 shared during the discussion: “…at home I speak to him in English and Spanish...and out of respect for the elders that speak only Spanish, I tell my children to talk to them in Spanish. I do believe we should


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know two languages for many reasons, but more because I don’t want my children to be thought of as disrespectful because they don’t speak to a person in their language. Like if a person speaks English, talk to them in English, and if they speak Spanish, talk to them in Spanish.” Parent 2 shared this sentiment and confirmed during the review of themes that she did “feel it is important to know both languages because it helps us communicate with other people from different places…” While the need to facilitate communication among people, whether it be family members or others outside the family circle, another important theme that came up that was that of maintaining one’s culture from 3 of the parents. Parent 13 shared during the focus group, “yo pienso que es cuestión de ayudarle a el niño desarrollar su cultura, igual que su idioma. Y con estas clases bilingües se va poder hacer. Yo como mexicana tengo que saber de mi cultura, las historias de nuestros antepasados para ayuda a seguir vivo lo que es ser mexicana.” [I believe that it is a question of helping my son develop his culture, like I am doing with his language. And with these bilingual classes it will be able to be done. I, as a Mexican, need to know about my culture, the stories of our ancestors to help keep alive what it is to be Mexican.] Parent 5 agreed and added during the focus group, “…es parte de nuestro deber ayudarles a nuestros hijos saber de su cultura y para ser te franca, es algo con que batallo a veces. Es como a Abigail, yo le digo cuentos en español, esos que me mamá y mi abuela me contaban cuando era pequeña. También le canto canciones o escuchamos canciones en español por la radio o en Pandora cuando limpio la casa. Pero a Abigail le gusta mucho Katy Perry y esa Taylor Swift. Que está bueno que le


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guste, pero también quiero que le guste música que refleja de nuestra cultura también.” […it’s part of our responsibility to help our children know about their culture and to be honest this is something I struggle with at times. Like with Abigail, I tell her stories in Spanish, the ones my mom and grandmother would tell me when I was small. I also sing songs to her and we listen to Spanish songs on the radio or on Pandora when I clean the house. But Abigail really likes Katy Perry and that Taylor Swift. Which is fine that she likes that, but also I want her to like music that reflects our culture, too.] Parent 2 shared a similar sentiment by stating during the focus group, “I also feel that culture plays an important role because it helps them understand others. The more you know about someone and their culture, the easier it will be to form friendships or business relationships. I can see music and stories as a way of doing that, but also exposing these kids to experiences, like make them part of the culture and not just study it. That will help it mean more for them. I try my best at home. I don’t see much of it going on in the school.” As parents discussed the whole concept of culture and how developing it could possibly help EL students form new friendships and help them better relate to people, yet another reason for raising bilingual-bicultural children was shared. Parent 11 confirmed during the final meeting with parents that she felt that as a bilingual-bicultural individual, her child would feel more confident and be able to adapt in different situations with different people of all backgrounds. Parent 7 was of the same belief, however, Parent 7 focused on the academic benefits of being bilingual-cultural by sharing with the focus group that “la educación bilingüe les ayuda a los niños aprender los dos idiomas…no solo se la abre la mente, pero de ver cosas de maneras diferentes.” [a bilingual education helps children learn two languages…not only does it open


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their mind, but in turn they learn to see things in different ways.] Parent 5 noted on her written survey that doing this would provide better employment opportunities for her child and others that were bilingual-bicultural and stated that was her motivation for placing her child in the bilingual classroom. During the discussion, one parent participant from discussion group A, who had remained quiet during this portion of the focus group, spoke up and stated that she did want her child to be bilingual and bicultural. However, she felt that the district did not necessarily give her the option to choose the best route, thus inciting a very interesting discussion among some of the parents. She shared when referring to the bilingual program, “es la opción que te da la escuela, mejor dicho, no te da la opción.” [its the option the school gives you, or better said, they don’t give you the option.] She began to share her discontent for the fact that her child was not educated through the districts’ new bilingual program, dual language, but was placed in the old program, transitional early-exit program. She continued to share that she felt that rather than tell her of different options, they simply told her they were placing her daughter in the bilingual program and that it wasn’t until after they changed to dual language and she saw the different type of instruction given to her nieces and nephews in the district; that she saw the difference in the programs. The participant continued to share: “Este nuevo programa promueve más el español. Yo lo noto con mis sobrinos que están en este programa. Cuando mija estaba en primero, con ellos no se usaba el español. Mi hija ahora habla más inglés que español. Me hubieran dicho que habían otras opciones cuándo di permiso que la pusieran en bilingüe,” [This new program promotes more Spanish. I see it with my nephews and nieces that are in this new program. When my daughter was in first grade, Spanish was not used with them. My daughter now speaks


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more English than Spanish as a result. They [the school] should have told me that there were other options when I gave permission to put her in the bilingual class.], she shared. Parent 6 replied and shared, “well, you have to trust the school. I, like as a parent, don’t know. The teachers and principals they went to school for this. I did not. We have to trust that they are doing what is right for my child and all the other kids.” Parent 8, too, replied and shared, “si no puedes confiar en la escuela que te ayude con tu hijo entonces en quién puedes confiar.” [If you can’t trust the school to help you with your child then who can you trust.] Following the parent participants lead during the focus group, we moved into discussing the program implementation and how they feel it has helped their child move toward the goal they set for them of being bilingual-bicultural. Bilingual-Bicultural Development through a Bilingual Education Program When discussing the program impact on helping their children become bilingualbicultural, 12 of the 17 parents offered their opinion via either the written survey, during the focus group discussion, or during their final meeting/discussion on the topic. Their responses are presented in the table below and are grouped by either positive, neutral, or negative responses. In reviewing the parent participants’ comments, it became evident that the parents interviewed were divided, with 5 offering positive comments, 5 offering negative comments, and 2 offering neutral comments. The majority of the comments, though, focused on language or language learning. The parent participants that did provide negative feedback were focused more specifically on the structure of the program and not necessarily on language or the academic aspect of it. For those that provided neutral feedback, the focus was still on either language or structure; however, those 2 participants offered observations rather than specific opinions/statements (Refer to Table 4 for participant comments).


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Over all, in reviewing the parent participants’ responses, those that were pleased with the impact the bilingual education program has had on their children focused on issues such as: (1) teacher’s support of the students, (2) language development/communication, and (3) sparking interests/curiosity about language. Those that provided negative feedback based their feedback on (1) their child’s personal experiences in the program or (2) the way the child’s native language was being used in the classroom, not enough or too much. The Parents’ Role in Creating a Bilingual-Bicultural Child As parent participants also shared their praises or concerns for their child’s language development or experience in the bilingual education program, they also dove into discussing the bigger question(s), “how do you get involved with your child?” “What do you do to help ensure your child continues receiving a positive experience while in the bilingual program?” “If you are not satisfied, how do you ensure things change for the better?” “How do you collaborate to help the classroom teacher?” “Is this even important?” Twelve parents shared and agreed that being involved and collaborating with the teacher/school is important if you want your child to have a positive experience and a good academic career via the focus group discussion. When asked to explain the concept of “collaboration”, the parent participants offered the following during the focus group discussion, as they put the concept into their own words: (1) to cooperate, (2) to have communication with the teacher, (3) to let the teacher know that you are part of the team. When asked during the focus group how they’d let the teacher know that they were part of the team and willing to cooperate, the following suggestions were common responses: (1) having the child read in English; (2) having the child watch TV in English; (3) helping with homework in English and


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Spanish; and (4) and helping students read and study high frequency words in English. During this time though, Parent 15 shared that she sometimes wondered if she was doing enough. “La maestra no me dice como le puedo ayudar, yo hago lo que yo pienso que está bien. Quiero que mi hijo sobresalga, pero no tengo la preparación de la maestra. Pero si ella me enseñará yo le podría ayudar a mi hijo y a ella.” [The teacher doesn’t tell me how I can help her. I do what I think is right. I want my child to succeed, but I don’t have the preparation that the teacher has. But, if she would show me I could help my son and her.] Parent 6 agreed by saying, “yes, if the teacher would show me too, I’d help her more and even better than what I do now. Because right now, I’m shooting in the dark.” Like Parent 6, Parent 3 felt the same, “I’d like to help in my child’s homework, but I don’t know the right way the teacher wants my child to do their class material.” Parent 17 shared that she not only wanted to get more involved, but also wanted the teacher to give her, as a parent, more opportunities to help. “Dame actividades académicas, o dime como hacer proyectos en casa…yo quiero ayudar, nada mas dime como. Guíame.” [Give me academic activities, or tell me how to do projects at home…I want to help, just tell me how. Guide me.] Parent 12 and 16 shared similar concerns in their dialogue when talking about having teacher communication. Parent 12 stated. “Dime cómo va el niño. También platícame de cómo va aprendiendo. Es importante saber cómo va el niño y saber que le interesa de verdad. Asi le puedo ayudar.” [Tell me how my child is doing. Also, talk to me about his learning. It’s important to know how my child is progressing and know what truly interests him. That way I can help her.] Parent 16 responded, “La maestra tiene que comunicarse con nosotros. Cuando la maestra no se presta eso afecta a los estudiantes. De hecho, mi esposo y yo íbamos a hablar con ella [la maestra] y


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se molestaba. Yo no me sentí cómodo en ese salón y eso afectó al progreso académico de mi hija ese año porque yo no le ayudé como debería. La maestra tiene que guiarnos. Ella es la que sabe. Que se presenten, que nosotros los padres estamos allí para ayudarles.” [The teacher needs to communicate with us parents. When the teacher does not work with the parents, this affects the students. As a matter the fact, my husband and I would go and talk to her [the teacher] and she would be bothered by it. I didn’t feel comfortable in that classroom and that affected my daughter’s academic development because I didn’t help her the way I should have. The teacher needs to guide us. She is the one that knows. Work with us parents, we are here to help you.] A total of 4 parents shared that they did not collaborate or make an attempt to get involved with academics. However, their reasons for not doing so were because of lack of transport to the school or work schedules that did not allow them to. When talking about this, one parent, Parent 8, brought up an interesting response. She stated: “Yo no le puedo ayudar a mi hijo con los estudios. Aunque sí sé que los padres y las maestras deben colaborar. Yo ayudo en que le doy consejos a mis hijos para que no tengan dificultad. Así es como yo le ayudo a la maestra.” [I cannot help my child with his homework. Even though I know that parents and teachers should collaborate. I help by giving my child advice, so they won’t have trouble. That is how I help the teacher.] The concept of consejos was reinforced by three other parents when the themes were presented to them after the focus group, noting it as a way of helping them get through their academics, but also preparing them for life by sharing lessons they have learned. As parents shared their ideas on raising a bilingual-bicultural child it became evident that, as stated in the literature, parents and teachers both have roles to play and each contribute


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valuable efforts in helping develop these EL children linguistically and academically. However, in reviewing the results there were several themes that emerged that warrant discussion. Discussion In reviewing the findings of this study, it became evident that the parent participants were lacking in the some of the areas of Epstein’s framework, thus warranting further discussion. Areas: Advocacy and Decision Making All 17 parents supported the idea of bilingualism and biculturalism; however, when we asked them to offer an explanation, the majority of them did not provide theory or research as support for their decision and based their choice solely on personal/family issues, as seen in Epstein’s parenting component. While it is understandable that parents wanting to raise a bilingual-bicultural child may make the choice based on personal decisions, once enrolled in school, the state requires districts to present to them information on the bilingual education program and the benefits (linguistic, cognitive, and affective) that are associated with said program(s). However, in speaking with these parents, it became evident that this was not done with them. On the contrary, the parents offered their blind trust to the teacher and the school administration noting that they “were the ones that studied for this.” Some of the parents unknowingly working against accepted theory that native language development is crucial to bilingual abilities and focused on the English language at home. The parent participants obviously have their heart in the right place and wanted the best for their children, as all parents do. However, it is important to point out that, parents will be able to do more for their child if they are well-informed. This district would benefit by making these parents knowledgeable advocates that are involved in decision making for their children, by default increasing their involvement at the school as Epstein (2011) would suggest. Conferences


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with parents at least once a year are one way to reach these goals (Epstein, 2011). Creating activities and events where parents can get involved that also validate and include the native language of these parents and EL students is yet another (Epstein, 2011). Having parent sessions that talk about topics that can inform and empower them (i.e. the bilingual program, state criteria for entering and exiting, district policies, the academic benefits of raising a bilingual-bicultural child, or the development of biculturalism, etc) should definitely be implemented. When parents trust the teachers blindly, as the parents of this focus group pointed out, it is the job of the campus to make sure that they do what is best for the children that are entrusted to them. Making advocates of these parents is part of that. Area: Active Involvement in School and Home Yet another point that is in need of discussion involved the parents lack of involvement at home, an area that Epstein (2011) suggests as crucial. Currently these parents are not involved at the campus, but express a sincere interest in their child’s education and having him/her reach the goal of being bilingual-bicultural and support this development through activities in the home. However, there exists a clear disconnect between the home and school. If guided, these parents have the potential to be very strong resources for the teachers that work with their children. By informing parents not only can they, with the help of the school, produce bilingualbicultural children, but also make an effort to close the academic gap that exists between Latino students and their monolingual, English speaking peers (Thomas & Collier, 2002). Larrotta and Ramirez (2009), as well as Wessels (2014), support the idea of training parents to positively impact their children’s success and should be considered in the case of these parents. After all, the more informed the parents, the more they can do for their child.

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Area: Communication In talking with the parent participants, it became evident that they were also working in silos. There is that lack of communication Epstein (2010) strongly encourages. Parents shared they wanted to get involved and asked for guidance from teachers on how to better help them serve their children. Parents shared that they did what they felt was best and helped the teacher the best way they knew how (i.e. reading at home, exposing the child to English via television, helping with homework). However, rather than complement each other by working together and bridging the home and school environment, they worked separately, with parents adopting a hitor-miss stance, hoping that what they did for their child would eventually help them academically in the classroom. In this case and for others experiencing the similar issues, so much more could be accomplished, if strong communication existed between school and home. As Sánchez, Plata, Grosso and Leird, (2010) stated, successful learning does not derive from the home or the school alone, but from the dynamic relationship between the two. While some parents shared they felt unwelcomed, others shared that the teacher did not communicate with them or offer them guidance on how to help bridge the home and school environments for their children, in essence leaving them as observers and not active participants in their child’s education (Epstein, 2011). Sadly, this happens too often and negatively affects EL children (Chavkin & Williams, 1993). Providing the parents the opportunity to get actively involved in the campus by volunteering, one of Epstein’s six major types of involvement would benefit these parents and others like them. Epstein (2011) states that schools need to recruit volunteers so that all families not just feel welcome, an issue some parents expressed, but more importantly, so that they make that positive impact academically for their children. In the case of EL students, parents can also help make a linguistic impact.


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It becomes evident that the teachers and parents in this scenario need to form that relationship so parents can take on that active role and help their child(ren) succeed academically. Parents play a crucial role in the linguistic development of their children (Brisk, 2010). For this reason, it is of a great importance that parents and teachers have good and constant communication. Unfortunately, for these set of parents, there are several areas that need to be addressed by the campus to help these parents maximize their full potential and help them meet their goals of raising a bilingual-bicultural child through the bilingual program the district offers. Conclusion While this study may bring direct results for the cooperating district/campuses, in truth, the findings of this study can serve beyond the district, thus, the need for similar studies to be conducted in districts where bilingual programs that have the bilingual-bicultural focus are being implemented. The findings of this research support the claim that Latino parents are often not sought out by teachers or used to their maximum potential (Chavkin & Williams 1993; Yosso, 2006; Zarate 2007), thus limiting access of the students’ familial capital (Yosso, 2006). With the population of EL students growing steadily and exponentially, one of the areas to focus on for these children’s success is the education and advocacy of their parents (Yosso, 2006). That way, they too, can have the tools to help guide and shape their child’s future beyond addressing their basic needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothes), but also to serve as advocates for their child’s academic and linguistic growth (Epstein, 2011). As parents become informed, so does the community. Now is the time to start discussions within districts that have high concentrations of EL students to see how parents are presently involved and how their knowledge and dedication


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to their children can be maximized; by having them work hand-in-hand with their child’s teacher, rather than side-by-side. Author Biographies Dr. Gina L. Garza-Reyna: I currently work as an Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University-Kingsville teaching undergraduate and graduate level courses in Bilingual Education. My research interests include dual language education, biliteracy development, and bridging the home and school environments for English Learner (EL) students. Prior to working in higher education, I worked as a classroom teacher, administrator, and independent consultant. Lorena Morales: I am currently a graduate student at Texas A&M University-Kingsville pursing my Master’s degree in Bilingual Education. I am also a full-time elementary classroom teacher. Through my work as a teacher, I became interested in learning how to effectively involve parents in their child’s schooling to positively impact their learning. Hortencia Morales: I am currently a full-time dual language teacher and graduate student at Texas A&M University-Kingsville studying Bilingual Education. I have an interest in learning how to better help the parents of my students get involved in their child’s education. I also have an interest in studying dual language programs and the challenges that teachers face when working in them. Xenia Barbosa-Centeno: I am currently a doctoral student and research assistant at Texas A&M University-Kingsville studying Bilingual Education. During my studies at Texas A&M University-Kingsville I developed research interests in the following areas: (1) instructional strategies that improve the academic achievement of Hispanic ELs, (2) the development of biliteracy, and (3) STEM education for Latino students.


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Esquinca, A., Araujo, B., & de la Piedra, M. T. (2014). Meaning making and translanguaging in a two-way dual-language program on the U.S.-Mexico border. Bilingual Research Journal, 37(2), 164-181. Fryrear, A. (2015). Survey response rates. Retrieved from: https://www.surveygizmo.com/survey-blog/survey-response-rates/ Gonzalez, L.M.; Borders, D.L.; Hines, E.M.; Villalba, J.A.; Henderson, A. (2013). Parental involvement in children's education: Considerations for school counselors working with Latino immigrant families. Professional School Counseling, 16(3), 185-193. Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82-110. Jeynes, W. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Education, 47(4), 706-742. Krueger, R.A., & Casey, M.A. (2015). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Larrotta, C., & Ramirez, Y. (2009). Literacy benefits for Latina/o parents engaged in a Spanish literacy project. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(7), 621-630. National Center of Education Statistics. (2016). English language learners in public schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp. O’Donnell, J., & Kirkner, S. L. (2014). The impact of a collaborative family involvement Program on Latino families and children's educational performance. School Community Journal, 24(1), 211-234.

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Orozco, G. L. (2008). Understanding the culture of low-income immigrant Latino parents: Key to involvement. School Community Journal, 18(1), 21-37. Rebell, M., & Wolff, J. (2012, March). Educational opportunity is achievable and affordable. Kappan, 93(6), 62-65. Ryan, C. (2013). Language use in the United States: 2011. American community survey reports. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acs-22.pdf Sanchez, C., Plata, V., Grosso, L., & Leird, B., (2010). Encouraging Spanish-speaking families' involvement through dichos. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(3), 239-248. Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Shah, P. (2009). Motivating participation: The symbolic effect of Latino representation on parent school involvement. Social Science Quarterly, 90 (1), 212-230. Smith, J., Stern, K., & Shatrova, Z. (2008). Factors inhibiting Hispanic parent’s school involvement. Rural Educator, 29(2), 8-13. Texas Administrative Code (2012). Chapter 89. Adaptations for special populations. Retrieved from http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter089/ch089bb.html Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students' long-term academic achievement. U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). The 2012 statistical abstract: The national data book Allegany County: NY. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2009/2009edition.html Valdez, C., Shewakramani, V., Goldberg, S, & Padilla, B., (2013). Parenting influences on Latino children’s social competence in the first grade: Parental depression and parent


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involvement at home and school. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), 646-657. Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Sinagub, J. (1996). Focus group interviews in education and psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Walker, J. M. T., Ice, C. L., Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2011). Latino parents’ motivations for involvement in their children’s education: An exploratory study. The Elementary School Journal, 111(3), 409-429. Walker, J. J. (2016). Realizing the American dream: A parent education program designed to increase Latino family engagement in children's education. Journal of Latinos & Education, 15(4), 344-357. Wessels, S. (2014). Supporting Spanish and English literacy through a family literacy program. School Community Journal, 24(2), 147-164. Yosso, T.J. (2006). Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York, NY: Routledge. Zarate, M.E. (2007). Understanding Latino parental involvement in education: Perceptions, expectations, and recommendations. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502065.pdf


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Table 1

Parents and Teachers’ Perceptions on Raising Bilingual Children through Home‐School  Collaborations   Focus Group Questions  * The following questions will be used to guide the focus group through the interview process. Background/General Knowledge: 1.

In your own words, explain to me the reasons why you decided to raise your child to be bilingual? ¿Cuál es la razón por el cual decidiste criar a tu hijo a ser bilingüe?

2.

Do you believe one of the languages you are raising your child to speak has a higher status then the other? Explain. ¿Crees que uno de los dos idiomas que su hijo habla tiene un estatus más alto que el otro? ¿Por qué?

3.

How do you think raising your child to be bilingual-bicultural will impact his/her future? ¿Cómo le impactará a tu hijo ser un individuo bilingüe-bicultural a lo largo del tiempo?

Knowledge: School Environment 1.

Do you know what bilingual program your child is currently in? Do you feel it is beneficial in guiding him toward your goal of raising a bilingual-bicultural child? If so, explain. ¿Sabes cuál programa bilingüe se implementa en la escuela de su hijo? ¿Crees que el programa la está beneficiando y ayudando alcanzar la meta de ser bilingüe-bicultural?

2.

What do you believe is your role in helping the school make your child a bilingual-bicultural individual? ¿Cuál es tu obligación en ayudar a la maestra desarrollar habilidades bilingües en su hijo?

3.

In your opinion, to what degree, if any, has the school helped your child develop their linguistic and literate skills in either language? En tu opinión, le ha ayudado la instrucción recibida en la escuela a su hijo desarrollar sus habilidades lingüísticas en los dos idiomas? ¿Es alfabeto en los dos idiomas? Knowledge: Home-to-School Connections 4.

What comes to mind when you hear the term “home-to-school” connection? ¿Qué se te viene a la mente cuando escuchas las palabras “colaboración entre los padres de familia y la maestra?”

5.

What are some of the successful strategies you use at home to help your child to be bilingual-bicultural? How does this tie into the classroom instruction your child receives? ¿Cuáles son algunas estrategias que usas en casa para ayudar a su hijo desarrollar sus habilidades en los dos idiomas? ¿Las estrategias que usas son como las que se usan en al salón o creas tus propias estrategias?

Do you believe there is a strong connection between your child’s school environment and your home environment? How has it helped your child become bilingual-bicultural? If so, explain. If not, what do you think would need to be different in order to bridge this gap? ¿Crees que existe entre tu hogar y la escuela una buena relación? ¿Sí o no? ¿Cómo le ha afectado esta relación a su hijo en su carrera educativa? ¿Hay algunas cosas que se pueden hacer diferentes para apoyarte mejor como padre de familia para que su hijo sea bilingüe?


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Table 2 Sources for Data Triangulation Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

Surveys with open-ended questions sent out to participants asking for their opinions on raising bilingual-bicultural children and the role the home and school environment plays in doing so.

Focus group discussion with randomly selected parents of students educated in the district’s bilingual program to gain insight into their opinions on raising bilingualbicultural children and the role the home and school environment plays in doing so.

Presentation of emerged themes to the focus group participants for their input/ consensus that the themes found reflected the conversation held during the focus group discussion.

Surveys were collected

Conducted within 2 weeks of the survey collection window closing.

Presented to participants within 10 days of conducting the focus group discussion.

over a period of 12 days.

 


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Table 3 Demographic Information: Parent Participants Characteristics Gender Male Female Age 18-24 25-35 36-45 46-55 Ethnicity Hispanic White Native Language Spanish English English/Spanish Language Spoken to Children Spanish English English/Spanish Years of Bilingual Education Services for their Children 0-2 3-5 6-8

Â

Participants (n=17)

Percent

1 16

6% 94%

1 6 9 1

6% 35% 53% 6%

15 2

88% 12%

11 0 6

65% 0% 35%

11 0 6

65% 0% 35%

8 7 2

47% 41% 12%


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Table 4 Participant Responses: The Impact of Participating in a Bilingual Program Focus Positive Comments Neutral Comments Negative Comments

Language

“Los maestros tratan lo mejor posible para ayudar a los niños. Así que perfeccione su idioma al 100%.” [The teachers treat the children the best possible. That way they can perfect their language to 100%.] (1)

“Stephanie habla puro español y le digo el inglés lo va aprender en la escuela y si lo está aprendiendo.” [Stephanie speaks only Spanish and I tell her that English she will learn at school and she is learning it.] (3)

“Mi hija está batallando en inglés, pero es que como la metí en el programa bilingüe yo creo que es la razón que está batallando con el inglés. La hubiera puesto en una clase de solo inglés y no los dos.” [My daughter is struggling with English and I think she is struggling because I put her in the bilingual program. I should have placed her in the Englishonly class and not in the bilingual one.] (12)

“Con este programa el niño va manejar los dos idiomas para una mejor presentación. Le ha ofrecido más seguridad a mi hijo.” [With this program my son will be able to communicate in two languages and better present himself. This program has offered my son security in who he is.] (5)

The other program was different. In the other program they’d focus in communicating more in English and in this one they focus on English and Spanish equally. (14)

“Traumático al inicio pero satisfactoria al final. Batalló bastante cuando entró en el programa bilingüe. Pero no era el nuevo que tienen ahora, era el viejo.” Traumatic at first but satisfactory in the end. Struggling a lot when first starting the bilingual program, but it wasn’t this new program they (the district) has now, it was the old one. (4)

“Yes, it is good for the children to learn both English and Spanish. I think I have made a good decision and it has impacted him positively.” (6) “Con el programa hablan dos idiomas y es bueno para ellos”. [With this program they speak two languages and that is good for them.] (7)


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It has impacted his life. He sometimes asks us how he can say some word in Spanish just because. He genuinely wants to know. It really has sparked his curiosity. (3)

Focus

Program Structure

Positive Comments “Me gusta que si el niño habla español, en ese idioma empiezan la enseñanza y poco a poco empiezan a introducir en inglés. Yo creo que esa es una buena manera de educar a los niños, usar su lengua materna.” [I like that because my child speaks Spanish, in that language they start giving him his instruction and Little by Little they start introducing English. I think that this is a good way of educating the children, using their mother tongue.] (2)

Neutral Comments

Negative Comments “Le están enseñando a mi hijo en español. No estoy de acuerdo por la razón que uno como padre puede enseñarle el idioma y la escritura en español. La escuela solo debe de dedicarse al inglés.”[They are teaching my child in Spanish. I do not agree with that because I can teach them Spanish at home and writing in Spanish. The school should only dedicate itself to English.] (4) “Me gustaría que empezarán desde PK con 10% en inglés nada más. Ya después pueden ir aumentando el inglés cada ano poco a poco, pero primero hay que superar al 100% el español.” [I’d like for the school to start with only 10% English instruction in PK. After they can increase English every year little by little, but first these children need to develop their Spanish to 100%.] (8)

Note: Participants’ assigned number included at the end of each direct quote.


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An Examination of the Relationship Between a Candidate’s Disposition Assessments from Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program to Completion of the Program Darolyn D. Seay Nebraska State College System – Peru State College Abstract The study focused on examining teacher education candidates’ perceptions of their dispositions and if those dispositions changed as they progressed through the teacher education preparation program. The purpose was to develop candidates who possess dispositions so they will be successful in the classroom and what to do about those candidates who do not possess those dispositions. The participants were all students admitted into the school of education who also completed their program of study prior student teaching in a small college in Midwestern United States. Three statements were chosen, numbers 7, 13, and 14, from the candidate disposition self-assessment survey, as those most closely aligned with the requirements of the accrediting bodies. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated on the pretest/posttest survey results for 95 candidates on each of the three statements. For statement 7, the p-value was .031747; for statement 13, the p-value was .00002; and for statement 14, the p-value was .009726 and all three were significant at p < .05 level. Further research was recommended to: add a third survey at the half way point of the teacher candidates’ education program to identify any concerns during the process; implement other strategies/opportunities to assess teacher education candidates’ dispositions; develop an intervention/remediation process for candidates who do not assess well; provide opportunities for candidates’ to reflect on their own dispositions to identify


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areas that may need to be strengthened; and to compare students self-perceptions of dispositions to faculty and practicum supervisors perceptions of disposition development. Keywords: Disposition, teacher education candidate, assessment, teacher preparation. Introduction The goal of teacher education preparation programs in higher education institutions is to produce teachers who display dispositional attitudes that are consistent with successful teaching and social interaction. It is not enough to possess the requisite knowledge and skills, nor is it enough to articulate the appropriate beliefs (Cantor, 1995). As Cantor (1995) stated, having is not necessarily doing. Katz and Raths (1986) gave the example of listening; it is likely that most children have listening skills, but they may or may not have the disposition to be listeners (Katz, 1986). The same holds true for future educators. They may possess the desired dispositional qualities, but are they able to consistently apply them? Our future educators will serve as role models for the students they serve. Zost (2014) states that having a disposition process in place will help communicate the overall expectations for teacher candidates, allow remediation and opportunities for growth, and support judging incompetence that would suggest that a teacher candidate is not qualified to teach in the regular classroom. In 2012, Mark Wasicsko, Director of the National Network for the Study of Educator Dispositions (NNSED), contended that disposition is often what people remember when they fondly reflect on the qualities of their favorite teacher. Wasicsko conducted a nationwide survey in which 5,000 stories were collected. Seventy-five percent of the time, when students think of their favorite teacher what they first think of is a disposition (Edick, Danielson, & Edwards, 2006). If these are the qualities that constitute an effective educator, it makes sense that teacher education institutions should screen for them. Carroll (2011) stated it is common sense that Â


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fundamental qualities of honesty, integrity, and caring are the foundation in teacher education work. These qualities usually find their way into admission screening procedures for a teacher education program. According to Carroll (2011), the purpose of screening is to prevent those who are unqualified to teach from gaining access to the classroom, or the purpose can be to determine if teacher educators have a responsibility to help prospective teachers develop dispositions. Some researchers suggested that if a teacher has an inclination to interact or behave in a certain way, then certain behaviors should be addressed and changed (Anderson & Brydges, 2010). Dispositions for teaching are under construction at all times and they have a significant impact on how teacher candidates perceive, come to understand, and learn to enact the role of teacher. This study specifically examined the candidates’ perceptions of their dispositions and if those dispositions changed as they progressed through the teacher preparation program. As teacher preparation institutions prepare candidates to become teachers and progress through the program from admission in their sophomore year to graduation in their senior year, there should be growth and improvement in candidates’ dispositions with regard to teaching. If a student is to improve and grow, he or she needs to be able to self-identify the required dispositions in themselves. Doing so will enable candidates to focus on and improve any areas of concern or needed growth. As they reach these goals, they can identify their progress. This study examined one institution’s teacher education program and using archival data from when the teacher education institution asked the candidates to self-assess their disposition at both the beginning and end of their program. The results of this study provided a clear picture of whether or not the process of going through the teacher preparation program had any impact on the candidates’ selfperceptions of their dispositions as related to teaching. This information is critical in moving


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forward in making decisions about the effectiveness of the institution in developing dispositions for teacher education candidates as they move through the program. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine if candidates’ disposition self-evaluations used by an institution preparing the teacher candidates were effective in improving candidates’ disposition as they progressed through their program. Were the disposition self-evaluations that were assessed when first being admitted to the program improving as they proceed through the program as measured by Candidate Disposition SelfEvaluation at the end of their program? The research examined the self-evaluation scores when the candidates began the program and again when the candidates completed the program. The significance of this project was that this research focused on the self-evaluation of teacher education dispositions. The emphasis on the importance of teacher candidate disposition should improve as the candidates’ progress through the program. This research examined that through the self-evaluation process. Were teacher education candidates seeing a difference in themselves as they proceeded through the program? The scores were compared to determine if there was a statistical significance between the two assessments. The participants were senior students who had just completed all of their course work just before their student teaching semester. The data were gathered from the Candidate Disposition Self-Evaluation instrument authored by the School of Education within a small, public teacher preparation college in Midwestern United States. Research Questions Student teachers complete a disposition self-evaluation instrument twice during their teacher preparation program, once after admission into the program and once at the completion of the program. These self-evaluations include a Likert-type scale with four options:


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outstanding, acceptable, evolving, and unacceptable. The two evaluations were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between the two assessments. Q1. Is there a statistically significant difference between the disposition self-evaluation assessment of teacher education candidates given at the beginning and again at the completion of the teacher education preparation program? Hypotheses H10. There is no significant difference between the disposition self-evaluation assessment of teacher education candidates given at the beginning and at the completion of the teacher education preparation program. H1a. There is a significant difference between the disposition self-evaluation assessment of teacher education candidates given at the beginning and at the completion of the teacher education preparation program. Literature Review The literature search strategy involved extensive research in the area of teacher education dispositions, standards, evaluation, identification, background, and recent trends and research. The search engines and library resources included EBSCOhost, ERIC, ProQuest, Educatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Reference Complete, LearnTech Lib, NCU library, Google Scholar, and Education World, as well as multiple journals including but not limited to: Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, Phi Delta Kappa, and Educational Leadership. The researcher also utilized identified research articles from listed references as research articles. Frederiksen, Cooner, and Stevenson (2011) conducted a study to determine whether there was a significant difference between the perceived dispositions in pre-service teachers in urban settings versus non-urban settings. This research once again points to the importance of Â


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examining candidate dispositions regardless of the setting, and if there is a difference between urban and non-urban settings, then what were they and why do they exist? Johnston, Almerico, Henriott, and Shapiro (2011) conducted research to assess and track dispositions of teacher education candidates even to the point of counseling candidates out of the teacher education program, if necessary. In their study, a modified interview protocol was implemented and candidates were rated as they went through the teacher education program. If the candidates scored below an acceptable level and did not show improvement over time, they were counseled out of the program. This process reinforces the importance of the disposition evaluation process in teacher preparation programs. The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) encourages institutions to evaluate candidates’ disposition; it is important enough that CAEP makes it a criterion for accreditation approval. This research addresses the impact or influence the program is having on students’ self-evaluation of their disposition. There is much published research on the importance of teacher dispositions, but research is lacking in assessing students’ selfperception of their individual dispositions. This self-reflection can be critical for identifying strengths and weaknesses in their own disposition and in preparing candidates for the classroom. Why Assess Dispositions What is the purpose of screening for dispositions for teaching? According to Carroll (2011), it can be to prevent those who were obviously unqualified to teach from gaining access to the classroom, or it can be to determine if teacher educators have a responsibility to help prospective teachers develop dispositions. As some research has suggested, if a teacher has an inclination to interact or behave in a certain way, then certain behaviors should be addressed and changed (Anderson & Brydges, 2010). Dispositions for teaching are under construction at all


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times, while also having a significant impact on how teacher candidates perceive, come to understand, and learn to enact the role of teacher. Mark Wasicsko, director of NNSED, contended that a disposition is often what people remember when they fondly reflect on the qualities of their favorite teacher. Wasicsko conducted a nationwide survey in which 5,000 stories were collected. The survey revealed that 75% of the time when they think of their favorite teacher, what they first think of is a disposition (Edick et al., 2006). Walker (2008) also found that students, when asked, refer to personal qualities (qualitative) of their most memorable teacher, not of the teacher’s academic qualifications (quantitative), underscoring the importance of said qualities (Serdyukov & Ferguson, 2011). If these were the qualities that constitute an effective educator, it makes sense that teacher education institutions should screen for such qualities. According to Da Ros-Voseles and Moss (2007), teacher preparation institutions are focusing on dispositions and send the message to future teachers that content knowledge alone will not suffice in the classroom today. According to Da Ros-Voseles and Moss, the educational process is about understanding the needs of their students. Da Ros-Voseles and Moss stated that a teacher’s disposition will set the tone for the classroom, which in turn, affects the overall climate for students to be successful. In other words, setting a climate for success depends largely on the dispositions of the teacher in the classroom. As most experienced educators know, teachers must support the emotional and social well-being of the students to facilitate an atmosphere conducive to learning. According to Da Ros-Voseles and Moss, “As NCATE mandates that dispositions of teacher candidates continue to be evaluated, teacher education programs must consider how to strengthen candidates’ desired dispositions, while discouraging dispositions that might


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negatively impact their teaching skills and practices” (p. 90). Dispositions such as critical reflection, perseverance, empathy, and compassion should be strengthened throughout the teacher preparation program. Conderman and Walker (2015) discussed a strong connection between a teacher’s disposition and the quality of student learning. The researchers discussed dispositions and standards that align to teacher behavior, especially those considered by NCATE. Communication, collaboration, and leadership are key characteristics teachers must obtain (Conderman & Walker, 2015). Teachers need to have a positive line of communication with all involved in the educational process. Teachers must talk with others and keep everyone on the same page about things happening in the classroom and at school, as a whole. These communication and collaboration skills will further develop leadership skills for the future. Conderman and Walker (2015) made an interesting point about teacher perceptions about disposition, including: perceptions about self, others, subject field, purpose and process of education, and one’s general frame of reference perceptions, and that teacher candidates should model these appropriate dispositions. Conderman and Walker demonstrated a rubric for acceptable and unacceptable dispositions for teachers where there are five different categories of acceptable disposition, including: caring, collaboration, creative and critical thinking, life-long learning and scholarship, and diversity. Schussler and Knarr (2013) researched moral sensibilities as a disposition in teaching. Their results were based on a case study viewed by three teacher candidates. The three candidates were selected from a pool of 43 candidates because they were at different levels in their teacher preparation and their views were representative of most candidates at each level of teacher preparation program. Each teacher was required to read a case study and respond to


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three questions: (a) What are the major issues of this case?; (b) What does Maria/Marcus need to be thinking about in relation to her/his teaching?; and (c) How should Maria/Marcus proceed? According to Schussler and Knarr (2013), the teacher that was starting his or her teacher preparation program did not respond well and the teacher that was near the end of his or her teacher preparation program responded much better. Schussler and Knarr attributed the practicums as the reason for the success. Teachers with more experience are more likely to have success. Schussler and Knarr (2013) described teacher disposition by placing teacher disposition into two categories, the external context, and the internal context. The external context dealt with the classroom and the content taught in the classroom. Here, they described the teaching in terms of varying instruction and assessment that would meet the needs of all students. One of the responses in the case study stated that it is not fair to leave the struggling students behind, but it is also unfair to make the excelling students wait around. The internal context dealt with understanding the environment (Schussler & Knarr, 2013). Teachers must recognize their own biases and understand that they are modeling behavior for their students. The best way they described this is through the building of relationships with students. This does not mean teachers need to be the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; best friend; rather, the teacher needs to understand the different circumstances that can occur and reflect on what it would be like to be the student. The Importance of Assessing Dispositions NCATE has increased its emphasis on teacher dispositions, while working with the candidates as they prepare for accreditation (NCATE, 2008). Researchers studied the method that was used and required interviews to be done and reviewed for consensus by a panel of experts for refinement (Johnston et al., 2011). Faculty were used to evaluate dispositions of the Â


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candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; completed self-evaluation assessment. If the candidate scored satisfactory or above, he or she was permitted to proceed through the program. If the candidate scored below satisfactory, he or she had to remediate and be re-evaluated later. This was the process implemented to meet the NCATE requirements for dispositions for this institution. According to Payne and Summers (2008), teacher preparation institutions need to look at the exploration of dispositions to safeguard schools and students by ensuring that teacher candidates not only were content knowledgeable but were also disposed toward creating a safe learning environment for all students. There appears to be some consistency across the research that is pointing at the importance of preparing teachers beyond just the content knowledge they will be teaching. Payne and Summers suggested that the effectiveness of the assessment process for dispositions is imperative for preparing future educators; most importantly, teacher educators should hold themselves accountable to the professional dispositions that they value. Servicelearning activities have also been explored in the K-12 classroom and how they could affect their teachers' sense of self-efficacy (TSE). Researchers discovered that pre-internship servicelearners increased significantly in their TSE (Stewart, Allen, & Bai, 2011). Meidl and Baumann (2015) suggested that community service can help teachers develop the characteristics that will lead to effective teaching. They examined a community service project for students that involved working for 2 days to help improve a needy school. The university involved hoped that this experience would help students develop attitudes that would help them be better teachers. There was no clear definition of teacher disposition, but generally, it was referred to as attitudes and behaviors that affect the ability to be an effective teacher. The goal of the program was to help develop the ability to care about other people and respond to their needs, as well as to be a situation for personal growth and reflection. The students had the opportunity to interact with teachers and parents at the school who were willing to give up a Â


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weekend to make their school a better environment for their students. The students were then asked to journal about their experiences. Meidl and Baumann found that the journals contained reflections that showed development of empathy, caring, and an understanding of the necessity of teamwork, compromise, and respect for others. Dispositions can be better assessed in the actual world rather than on paper, such as a what would you do test, according to research by Englehart et al. (2012). Their research was more about what teacher dispositions are and how to improve them in teachers. Englehart et al. described dispositions as “values, attitudes, and beliefs about children, subject matter, and the skills of teaching that cause teachers to act in positive or negative ways” (p. q26). They explained that it is very different to answer a question on paper than be faced with the same situation in real life. The researchers stressed the need for using both types of assessment to really have a good idea as to a teacher’s true disposition. When using both methods, teachers and their supervisors can have a better idea of what needs to be improved upon and how to go about the improvement. Measuring Dispositions Carroll (2011) stated that the fundamental qualities of honesty, integrity, and caring must be the foundation for teacher education work. These qualities usually find their way into admission screening procedures for a teacher education program, prompting the question: how should institutions measure dispositions? Moreover, can measuring teacher education candidates’ disposition be done effectively? If so, what are institutions doing to measure it? Notar, Riley, Taylor, Thornburg, and Cargill (2009) noted that a universal list of teacher dispositions for educational programs to follow does not exist. Although NCATE/CAEP chose to include dispositions as an important component of all teacher education programs, they have


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not provided any clear guidance regarding the assessment of dispositions (Stoddard, Braun, Dukes, & Koorland, 2007). NCATE (2008) defined dispositions as: Professional attitudes, values, and beliefs demonstrated through both verbal and non-verbal behaviors as educators interact with students, families, colleagues, and communities. These positive behaviors support student learning and development. NCATE expects institutions to assess professional dispositions based on observable behaviors in educational settings. The two professional dispositions that NCATE expects institutions to assess are fairness and the belief that all students can learn. Based on their mission and conceptual framework, professional education units can identify, define, and operationalize additional professional dispositions. (para. 15) Brewer, Lindquist, and Altemueller (2011) noted that some institutions have developed a way to assess dispositions; however, few have an improvement process in place to remediate undesirable dispositions. Perhaps the reason dispositions prove so elusive to measurement is that dispositions for teaching are under construction at all times. Candidates need assistance in building on the foundation of values, personal beliefs, ideals, and ideas they bring to teacher education, to construct a responsible professional identity and repertoire of practice (Carroll, 2011). Raths (2001) came to a similar conclusion; according to Rath, it may be tolerable to say to our candidates that our goal is to strengthen certain dispositions in our candidates, dispositions that almost surely already exist in our candidates. We would not be in the business of change, but of strengthening.

Â


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Portfolio development provides the opportunity for pre-service teachers to reflect on their beliefs about teaching and learning (Wenzlaff, 1998). By working through the portfolio, candidates have the opportunity to self-reflect and show growth, including their own disposition assessments. Recognizing areas for improvement can be enhanced by utilizing the portfolio process. This process of reflecting on the many elements involved in developing a portfolio helps pre-service teachers develop the habit of being reflective, an approach to problem solving and decision-making, and a basis for making evaluative judgments, which research suggests contributes strongly to being an effective teacher. It is as this self-reflection occurs during the portfolio development process that students realize their own beliefs about teaching. The goal is that once these dispositions are assessed and acknowledged, the teacher educators can better guide teacher education candidates through the teacher education program with an emphasis on fostering those dispositions, which leads to effective teaching. According to Johnston et al. (2011), assessing the dispositions of teacher education candidates while they are in field internship experiences has been increasing by those responsible for the education and training of the teacher education candidates. Researchers have already validated disposition indicators so now raters know what to rate. There is a growing need for clearer understanding and description of the indicators in each disposition characteristic. Clearer understanding would improve the consistency of rater agreements among raters. Johnston et al. believed that teacher education preparation programs should expand previous disposition assessment efforts by defining the characteristics so that the construct represented by each indicator to increase understanding by both raters and ratees. Johnston et al. wanted to develop a greater understanding of dispositions being assessed in teacher education programs by identifying characteristics, which focus on the meaning of a given disposition. Through this Â


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process, Johnston et al. developed an assessment tool to measure candidate dispositions in the field/clinical experience for teacher education candidates. Jarvis-Selinger and Pratt (2011) indicated that during the process of becoming teachers by successfully completing a teacher education program, students have the opportunity to be both student and teacher. This dual role allows them insight from both perspectives and challenges the teacher education candidates own beliefs on teaching and learning. Pratt noted it is a mix of field experience and coursework in most teacher preparation programs that allow for the combined perspectives. Serdyukov and Ferguson (2011) determined that dispositions have become a part of teacher education professional qualifications. Ferguson suggested that the growing concern over dispositions affects all those involved. As a result, teacher education institutions are having conversations about the various attributes related to teacher education candidate dispositions and ways to develop them more consistently. Fergusonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s research identified four different dispositional categories that included individual dispositions, candidates' perceptions of dispositions, and their change as the candidates move through their teacher education preparation program. Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Allier, Elish-Piper and Young (2011) stated that much research exists about the importance of dispositions for teacher education candidates and its relation with initial certification; however, Young contended that there is little or no follow up for attending to dispositions as teachers progress through their career. Young indicated this attention to dispositions can be done for advanced certification candidates. Advanced certification candidates can be those teachers seeking additional teaching endorsements or licensure and/or teachers seeking an advanced degree. Young asked, what dispositions are expected of advanced Â


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certification candidates? How can these dispositions be explicitly defined, observed, and evaluated? What can be done to encourage the development of these dispositions as candidates progress through the program? Young’s research led to the development of disposition evaluation rubrics that will be helpful to define, evaluate, and nurture the dispositions needed by teacher education candidates. The evaluation of the dispositions of teacher candidates has been mandated by NCATE and has been included in the accreditation standards for teacher education units. Da Ros-Voseles and Moss (2011) indicated that teacher education programs can help strengthen the dispositions of their teacher education candidates, as well as their teaching skills. Moss identified five dispositions of effective teachers: empathy, positive view of self, positive view of others, genuineness, and a meaningful purpose and vision. In Singh and Stoloff’s (2008) research, they discuss how teacher quality has become a top priority, not just for our schools of education, but also as reflected in our national education policy. Empirical evidence suggests that teacher inputs affect student outcomes, which only makes sense, but the empirical evidence to support that conclusion adds validity (Singh & Stoloff, 2008). Teacher dispositions are equally as critical for student achievement, as are teachers' pedagogical and content knowledge/ skills (Singh & Stoloff, 2008). NCATE and Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) require that teacher preparation programs assess the dispositions of their teacher candidates. Given that, Singh and Stoloff developed a dispositions evaluation tool, Eastern Teacher Dispositions Index (ESTDI), and administered it to 86 teacher candidates. Pang, Nichols, Terwilliger, and Walsh (2014) introduced a pre-service teacher disposition assessment system implemented at a state university. The goal was to increase the effectiveness


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of both its candidates and its program, including candidate disposition. The Teacher Disposition Checklist (TDC) was administered during the candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; last semester while student teaching. Three semesters of disposition assessment data were analyzed. The results indicated that preservice teachers at the university possess positive dispositions; there were minor deficits in the skills of collaboration and life-long learning, but not related to dispositions for effective teaching (Pang et al., 2014). Defining dispositions is necessary, if dispositions are to be measured and assessed (Cummins & Asempapa, 2013). Cummins and Asempapa asked if dispositions are fixed, meaning, are dispositions caught and inherent to personality, or can they be taught and can dispositions be fostered and learned? Different universities across the country use different definitions. Are dispositions based on perception of self, others, subject field, purpose of education, and process of education? Or are dispositions based on personality traits, such as responsibility, dependability, creativity, empathy, and professionalism? Cummins and Asempapa (2013) wanted to know if teachers became teachers because they automatically possessed the qualities desirable in a teacher, or if teachers learned them in the process of becoming a teacher. Are dispositions caught or taught? The hypothesis in their research study worked off the premise that dispositions can be fostered and supported through teaching interventions provided in teacher preparation courses. The study took place at an urban university in an early childhood program. Ninety-nine students were given a pretest on the topics before instruction began on day one and then again on the last day of class to see if there were any changes in these three categories. This test was much more reliable, as the number of students is greater and they were only being compared to themselves. Tests were coded and students were asked not to put their names in it. This omission increased the reliability as well, Â


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since the scoring was anonymous. Tests had 25 questions and were scored with 1 as the weakest knowledge of the concepts and 5 as the strongest. There were also three open-ended questions. The results of the study were not statistically significant, with p = .05167 on the t-test. There was a slight increase in both the mean scores of both collaboration and professionalism. The researchers also said that professionalism was slightly higher both before and after the test. Inclusion was the skill students struggled with on the pretest and somewhat on the posttest. Classroom practices that reflect this disposition may be new to many students, even those who may have come predisposed with the tendency and capability of being inclusive. Therefore, the teaching interventions may have had a greater impact because this disposition provided the greatest room for growth. It would also explain why this category had the most growth from pretest to posttest. When to Assess for Dispositions With the assertion that it is critical to measure disposition, the next question is when is the best time to measure? Welch, Pitts, Tenini, Kuenlen, and Wood (2010) found some teacher education programs assess dispositions of prospective students as a means to judge applicants for program acceptance, while others measure candidates at various points throughout the program itself. Serdyukov and Ferguson (2011) made a strong argument for both. They contended that teacher education should be concerned about not only what we want our candidates to know by the end of the program, but also about whom we are accepting into this profession and preparing to teach our children. Because dispositions for teaching are under construction at all times, they have a significant impact on how teacher candidates perceive, come to understand, and learn to enact the role of teacher (Carroll, 2011).

Â


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Teacher readiness and skills they need to acquire before going out into the field of education bring together some common, overall ethical standards in interactions and relationships, as noted by Choi, Benson, and Shudak (2016). According to Choi et al., teachers should have a variety of skills and knowledge in content areas; they identified personal characteristics for teachers to obtain. These include - responsibility, respect, integrity, caring/humanity, fairness, and belief that all children can learn. Choi et al.’s research indicated that teachers need to be dedicated, professional (clothing and disposition), clear and concise, time manageable, have positive communication, follow school district rules and procedures, react to diversity, accept feedback, be truthful, maintain confidentiality, listen to others’ ideas, fosters positive communication, be approachable, provide differentiated instruction, be encouraging, and hold high expectations for students. Even as early as preschool, there is a need for some consistency in dispositions as part of an early-childhood program (Peck, Maude, & Brotherson, 2015). Peck et al.’s (2015) interview study was conducted with preschool teachers who were asked about how they conveyed empathy in their classrooms. Several interviews were conducted with 18 preschool teachers in different preschool programs and their responses were analyzed and coded. Peck et al. (2015) concluded many things from their findings, but one particular salient portion of their findings was the disposition towards inclusion that all of the teachers had in common. All teachers discussed being willing to teach any student in their classroom, regardless of socioeconomic status, disability, or any other factor. This willingness sets preschool teachers apart from many other teachers in other grades because we begin to reach a point where students are leveled into classes or guided reading groups, students are pulled out for SPED, speech, or other things, or put into separate classrooms altogether. Broadly, preschool still has a hold on


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the inclusionary model, and this disposition is clearly communicated to students. One teacher, in her interview, discussed the inclusion of students’ families in the classroom. She believed that by knowing siblings’ names and greeting them in the same way she greets her own students, she communicates to her students that everyone is important in this classroom. Neugebauer’s (2011) research revealed similar findings from a national poll asking people what they thought was the most important qualification of a preschool teacher, including degrees, training, and dispositions. Neugebauer found that a nurturing disposition and a love of children is, indeed, very important in a preschool teacher. While it is important that teachers be fully trained in the pedagogy and theory behind what they are doing in the classroom, the focus at the preschool level in Neugebauer’s survey seems to emphasize the importance at a young age for a nurturing environment that helps create a safe environment and one that is conducive to learning. Methodology The methodology includes the research method and design implemented in the study. It also includes the data collection, processes, data analysis, and discusses the assumptions and limitations of the study, as well as the results and findings. Research Methods and Design(s) The research method was quantitative to determine if there is a statistical significance between the disposition self-evaluation at the beginning of the teacher education program and the disposition self-evaluation at the conclusion of the teacher education program. The sampling size included all 95 students in the teacher education program in their first teacher education course. This number included all students in the program for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015. The institution is a small regional college in the Midwest with a history as a teacher’s college.


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This sample size chosen included all students in the program at that time. The goal was to determine if there is a significant difference in teacher education candidate dispositions evaluations as they progress through the teacher education program. Teacher Education candidates completed the disposition self-evaluation in their first teacher education program course and then completed the same disposition self-evaluation during the conclusion of their teacher education program, which was typically during student teaching. Data Collection, Processing, and Analysis The study data were collected from the disposition self-evaluation instrument administered to the candidates enrolled in the teacher education preparation program. As the teacher education candidates were admitted to the teacher education program, they were required to take the teacher education candidate disposition self-evaluation; they were required to take the same evaluation at the end of their teacher education program, typically prior student teaching. The survey was developed by the teacher education faculty at the institution and was specifically designed for the purpose of evaluating teacher education candidates’ dispositions growth over time. The data gathered from the initial teacher education candidates’ self-evaluation were compared to data from the candidates’ self-evaluation gathered at the end of the candidates’ program. The data gathered from the candidates’ disposition self-evaluation at the start and conclusion of their preparation program were analyzed for statistical significance to determine if the candidates’ disposition changed during their teacher education preparation program. A copy of the evaluation instrument used by the institution was included (see Appendix A). The results of those surveys were examined to determine if there was a significant difference between the two and if, according to the students’ own perceptions, this method was effective.  


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The self-assessment disposition survey consists of 18 statements; the first four were identifier statements that had been left out of this research for that very reason. The remaining 14 statements had the teacher education candidates assess themselves on a 4-point scale, the options being: outstanding, acceptable, evolving, and unacceptable. For the purpose of this study, the statements that dealt directly with dispositions related to teacher education were identified. Those statements were: statement 7 – I demonstrate self-direction and initiative in my learning and practice; statement 13 – my decisions, interactions, and behaviors positively impact the culture and climate of the learning environment; and statement 14 – I demonstrate professional preparedness through organization, planning, and goal setting. This study examined the results of those surveys to see if there was a significant difference between the two to determine if, according to the students’ own perceptions, this method is effective. Assumptions The population for this study included all of the teacher education candidates that  completed their teacher education program at a small, public university system college in the  Midwestern United States.  One assumption for this study was that the need for assessing  dispositions for this type of population would continue to be emphasized by the accrediting  bodies, the institutions, and the public schools they serve.  This emphasis on teacher education  candidate dispositions has been increasing, due to accreditation standards that require some  evaluation process for dispositions (NCATE, 2008), and institutions the prepare teacher  candidates were having to show how dispositions were being addresses and/or evaluated. An assumption is that this study was objective, apart from the researcher, and the researcher was independent from what was being researched. The methodological assumption  


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was that this was a deductive process focused on statistical data to guide the results to explain and predict the results. Another assumption was that the respondents were honest in their evaluations on the measurement scale being utilized. Another assumption was that the population was representative of teacher education candidates at other institutions of higher education that prepare teacher education candidates for the classroom. Limitations This study was limited by the location of the study; the population of the study was the complete set of teacher education candidates from one higher education institution and therefore, was limited as to whether those candidates would be comparable to candidates in institutions across the country. The study used the evaluation tool devised by the institution being studied to evaluate their teacher education candidates. While the creators of the instrument are experts in their field, the tool had not been used in other educational institutions. This could lead to a limitation in validity of the instrument but has been addressed by applying the consistent usage of the instrument over time for several years. Delimitations The research questions were chosen and were within researcher control and are a delimitation of this study. These factors were within the researcherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control and were chosen to address the problem identified. The problem itself was a delimitation, as there could have been other problems drawn from the study population. This study could be generalizable to teacher education institutions located in the same region that prepare teacher education candidates and that need to provide evidence to their accrediting bodies. Results/Findings The findings of this study revealed that for the three statements chosen from the candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; selfÂ


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evaluation survey, a significant difference exists between the pretest and posttest data, thus supporting the institutional goal that the teacher education candidates show growth in their dispositions as they progress through the program. ANOVA for data for all three statements resulted in a statistically significant findings at p<.05. These results were expected, but not predictable, as this type of study had not been conducted previously. The results were expected because of the goal of the institutions process to have a significant impact on their candidates. The findings are even more significant because the data were based on the candidates’ self-evaluations. The findings reflect statistically significant growth in the perceptions of the teacher education candidates. This was encouraging as research supported the importance of dispositions; Edick et al. (2006) reported that 75% of the time when students think of their favorite teacher what they first think of is a disposition. These results can be utilized by leaders of other institutions who may be considering the option of implementing an assessment involving candidates’ self-evaluation. As Anderson and Brydges’ (2010) research states, if teachers have an inclination to interact or behave in a certain way, then certain behaviors should be addressed and changed. The belief is that the candidates are, to some degree, responsible for their own growth in the area of having the appropriate disposition to be successful in the classroom. If the candidates can identify those dispositions in themselves, then they can be better prepared for a future in education. Discussion The problem statement focused on analyzing the effectiveness of a teacher education program, in regards to improving the dispositions of their teacher education candidates as they progress through the teacher education program. The results of the study stated implications, recommendations, and conclusions based on the results of the analysis of data provided through


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the survey. This survey was the unique element of this study, in that; the teacher education candidates were self-assessing their own dispositions. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the comparison of the pretest and posttest assessments on each of the three statements. The data from 95 teacher education candidates includes all of the candidates at the institution involved in the study for the year 2013, 2014, and 2015. The three statements used in this study were the three that most closely aligned with the accreditation standards required for the institution. The three limitations of this study pertained to the location, the population, and the evaluation tool. The first limitation was the location of the study, which is a small rural state institution in the Midwest. The second was the population of the study, which was the complete set of teacher education candidates from one higher education institution. This population limited whether or not these same results would apply to a larger university with more candidates to assess. The third limitation was the evaluation tool, which was devised by the institution being studied and could have affected the validity of the instrument. This limitation was addressed by applying the consistent usage of the instrument over time for several years. The results demonstrate a statistically significant difference in all three statements, as applied to the research question. The results of this study were clear that there was statistical evidence that the teacher education program at this institution had a significant impact on the candidates’ perceptions of their own dispositions, as measured by the self-evaluation instrument. Recommendations were included, based on the results of the study. The first recommendation was to add a third survey at the half way point of the teacher candidates’ education program to identify any concerns during the process. The second was to implement other strategies/opportunities to assess teacher education candidates’ dispositions. The third


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recommendation was to develop an intervention/remediation for candidates who do not assess well. The fourth was to provide opportunities for candidates to reflect on their own dispositions to identify areas that may need to be strengthened. Additional recommendations were to research the comparison of students’ self-perceptions of dispositions to faculty and practicum supervisors’ perceptions of disposition development and continue to develop and improve the disposition process implementing a more systematic approach. As an educator for more than 25 years, it is my recommendation that the area of teacher education disposition become more of a focal point for teacher preparation institutions. I have experienced too many educators who are either burnt out or simply do not have the personality (disposition) to be working with students. Teacher education institutions have more than an opportunity to change this; they have a responsibility to provide the best future educators in the world. The impact a teacher has on a student is immeasurable and teacher education preparation programs should embrace this responsibility with the goal to reach and teach all students. No student should have to endure the disposition issues of a teacher, while trying to grow and learn. We should provide the most supportive educational environment possible.

Author Biography Dr. Darolyn Seay is an Assistant Professor of Education for Peru State College in the Nebraska State College System. Her research specialty is in teacher preparation, specifically, teacher education candidate dispositions and the college’s role in development and intervention of candidate’s dispositions. She has taught for Peru State College for 10 years, prior she taught for Northwestern Oklahoma State University and taught for public schools in Oklahoma.


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Anderson, D., & Brydges, B. (2010). Dispositional field of dreams: We built it and they came. Now what? Symposium on Educator Dispositions. Symposium conducted at Seventh Annual Symposium on Educator Dispositions, Northern Kentucky University, Newport, Kentucky. Anderson, D., & Brydges, B. (2010b). Successfully unsuccessful: An anlysis of multi-semester dispositional data to improve the transition of teacher candidate assessment from gatekeeping to a process of assisted performance. International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 31(11), 438-449. Brewer, R. D., Lindquist, C., & Altemueller, L., (2011). The dispositions improvement process. International Journal of Instruction, 4(2), 51-68. Carroll, D. (2011, Fall). Developing dispositions for ambitious teaching. Journal of Educational Controversy, 6(1), Article 7, 1-8. Choi, H.-S., Benson, N. F., & Shudak, N. J. (2016). Assessment of teacher candidate dispositions: Evidence of reliability and validity. Teacher Education Quarterly, 43(3), 71-89. Conderman, G., & Walker, D. A. (2015). Asessing dispositions in teacher preparation programs: Are candidates and faculty seeing the same thing? The Teacher Educator, 50(3), 215231. Cummins, L., & Asempapa, B. (2013). Fostering teacher candidate disposition in teacher education programs. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(3), 99119. Da Ros-Voseles, D., & Moss, L. (2007). The role of dispositions in the education of Â


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future teachers. Young Children, 62(5), 90-96. Edick, N., Danielson, L., & Edwards, S. (2006). Dispositions: defining, aligning and assessing. Academic Leadership Journal, 4(4), 37-40. Englehart, D. S., Batchelder, H. L., Jennings, K. L., Wilkerson, J. R., Lang, W. S., & Quinn, D. (2012). Teacher disposition: Moving from assessment to improvement. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 9(2), 26-44. Frederiksen, Cooner, and Stevenson (2011). Assessing teacher dispositions in preservice teachers. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 9(1), 39–52. Jarvis-Selinger, S., Pratt, D., & Collins, J. B. (2010). Journeys toward becoming a teacher: Charting the course of professional development. Teacher Education Quarterly, 37(2), 69-95. Johnston, P., Almerico, G. M., Henriott, D., & Shapiro, M. (2011). Descriptions of dispositions for assessment in pre-service teacher education field experiences. Education, 132(2), 391-402. Katz, L. G., & Raths, J. D. (1986). Dispositional goals for teacher education: Problems of identification and assessment. Paper presented at the 33rd World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching, Kingston, Jamaica. L’Allier, S. K., Elish-Piper, L., & Young, E. E. (2007). Evaluating candidate dispositions in advanced reading certification programs: The road ahead is here. Reading Research and Instruction, 46(2), 151-174. Meidl, T., & Baumann, B. (2015). Extreme make over: Disposition development of preservice teachers. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 8(1), 90-97.


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National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. (2008). NCATE glossary. Retrieved from http://ncate.org/Standards/NCATEUnitStandards/ NCATEGlossary/tabid/477/Default.aspx Neugebauer, R. (2011). TRENDS: Qualifications of preschool teachers: A hot issue in our field. Early Childhood Leaders, 33(6), 23. Retrieved from http://www.childcareexchange.com/article/qualifications-of-preschool-teachers-a-hot-issue-in-

our-field/5020223/ Notar, C. E., Riley, G. W., Taylor, P. W., Thornburg, R. A., & Cargill, R. L. (2009). Dispositions: Ability and assessment. International Journal of Education, 1(1), 1-14. Pang, Y., Nichols, K., Terwilliger, C., & Walsh, M. (2014). Assessment of pre-service teachers’ disposition for programmatic improvement. National Teacher Education Journal, 7(1), 53-60. Payne, M., & Summers, D. G. (2008). From thought police to thoughtful practice: The evolution of dispositions assessment in a teacher education program. Teaching and Learning, 23(1), 40-47. Peck, N. F., Maude, S. P., & Brotherson, M. J. (2015). Understanding preschool teachers’ perspectives on empathy: A qualitative inquiry. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(3), 169-179. Raths, J. (2001). Teachers' beliefs and teaching beliefs. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 3(1). Schussler, D. L., & Knarr, L. (2013). Building awareness of dispositions: Enhancing moral sensibilities in teaching. Journal of Moral Education, 42(2), 71-87.


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Serdyukov, P., & Ferguson, B. T. (2011). Teacher dispositions: What kind of candidates do we have in a teacher preparation program, and how can we make them better? Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 4(1), 106-119. Singh, D. K., & Stoloff, D. L. (2008). Assessment of teacher dispositions. College Student Journal, 42(4), 1169-1180. Stewart, T., Allen, K. W., & Bai, H. (2011). The effects of service-learning participation on preinternship educators’ teachers’ sense of efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57(3), 298-316. Stoddard, K., Braun, B., Dukes, L., & Koorland, M. (2007). Building professional dispositions in pre-service special educators: Assessment and instructional tactics. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 4(1), 28-39. Wasicsko, M.M. (2007). The perpetual approach to teacher dispositions: The effective teacher as an effective person. In M. E. Diez & J. Raths (Eds.), Dispositions in teacher education (pp. 53-88). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Welch, F., Pitts, R., Tenini, K., Duenlen, M., & Wood, S. (2010). Significant Issues in Defining and Assessing Teacher Dispositions, 45(3), 179-201. Wenzlaff, T. (1998). Dispositions and portfolio development: Is there a connection? Education, 18(4), 564-573.


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Tables and Figures Table 1 Summary of ANOVA Data for Statement 7 Summary of Data Pre

Post

Total

N

95

95

195

∑X

326

342

668

Mean

3.4316

3.6

3.5158

∑X2

1150

1254

2404

Std.Dev.

0.5771

0.4925

0.5417

Result Details Source

SS

df

MS

Between-treatments

1.3474

1

1.3474

Within-treatments

54.1053

188

0.2878

Total

55.4526

189

F = 4.68171

The f-ratio value is 4.68171. The p-value is .031747. The result is significant at p < .05. Table 2 Summary of ANOVA Data for Statement 13


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Summary of Data

Pre

Post

Total

N

95

95

195

∑X

339

367

706

Mean

3.5684

3.8632

3.7158

∑X2

1239

1429

2668

Std.Dev.

0.5584

0.3455

0.4861

Result Details

Source

SS

df

MS

Between-treatments

4.1263

1

4.1263

Within-treatments

40.5263

188

0.2156

Total

44.6526

189

F = 19.14182

The f-ratio value is 19.14182. The p-value is .00002. The result is significant at p < .05. Table 3 Summary of ANOVA Data for Statement 14


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Summary of Data

Pre

Post

Total

N

95

95

195

∑X

321

344

665

Mean

3.3789

3.6211

3.5

∑X2

1131

1276

2407

Std.Dev.

0.7023

0.5683

0.6486

Result Details

Source

SS

df

MS

Between-treatments

2.7842

1

207842

Within-treatments

76.7158

188

0.4081

Total

79.5

189

F = 6.823

The f-ratio value is 6.823. The p-value is .009726. The result is significant at p < .05.


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Incorporating Online Professional Development Materials in Teacher Education Coursework: Perceptions of Faculty and Pre-service Teachers

Kathy Smart University of North Dakota Cynthia Gautreau California State University, Fullerton Tommye Thomas Brenau University Abstract This exploratory case study examined teacher education faculty and pre-service teacher's perceptions of incorporating online professional development materials into academic coursework. Three institutions in the U.S. participated in a study to explore the incorporation of professional development materials, specifically online instructional modules, within programs in their Colleges of Education. Findings from faculty members indicated positive perceptions of the incorporating of the materials. The pre-service teachers reported their 21st-century knowledge, skills, and preparation for integration of technology in their teaching were enhanced through the completion of the online professional development materials.

Keywords: Teacher Preparation, Teacher Professional Development Materials, Technology Integration, Online Learning  


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The challenges facing colleges of education to build capacity for technology integration and implementation of programs for 21st century knowledge and skills for teacher candidates are formidable. In times of changing standards, such as the Common Core Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010), colleges of education are being called upon to transform their programs to better prepare preservice teachers for 21st century classrooms. While many colleges of education have begun a transformation process, many faculty members are still struggling to embed technology integration into their teacher preparation coursework. The inclusion of online professional development (PD) into coursework may be one strategy to aid technology integration in teacher preparation programs that could serve both faculty and pre-service teachers. Purpose, Rationale, and Research Questions The purpose of this exploratory case study (Yin, 2009) was to examine education faculty and pre-service teachers’ perceptions of incorporating existing online PD materials into coursework. The rationale for this study was to identify and document faulty perceptions of incorporating the online Intel Teach Elements PD materials into coursework and prepare recommendations for future use. Further, it was to gain an understanding of pre-service teacher’s perceptions of online PD within their coursework. The research questions that guided this study were: 1. What are teacher education faculty perceptions of incorporating online Teach Elements PD materials into coursework? 2. What are pre-service teacher's perceptions of the online Teach Elements PD materials in their coursework?


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3. What are teacher education faculty members' recommendations for future use of incorporating online Teach Elements PD in teacher preparation coursework? Literature Review Technology in classrooms is different today than it was even five years ago. Technology knowledge and skills are necessary for both teachers and students; keeping current is difficult. Specifically, rapid advances in technology present ongoing challenges for teacher preparation programs and teacher education faculty. Education standards reflect a shift in skill set with the inclusion of 21st century skills as reflected in Common Core State Standards framework (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010). Additionally, the International Technology Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Standards for Teachers (2008) continue to emphasize the need for technology competencies among teachers. All of these standards are often foundational components of teacher education programs. Frameworks and Standards for Educator Preparation The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2011) created a framework that defines the specific digital skills necessary for students. These readiness skills are divided into four areas: life and career skills; learning and innovation skills; information, media, and technology skills; and key subjects and 21st century themes. Examining each area in more depth reveals that these skills focus on "the ability to navigate the complex life and work environments" (p. 2) of a globally competitive society. The Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) outlines a set of core teaching standards for pre-service teachers regarding what they should know and do to

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prepare K-12 students for advanced study or the workforce. These measures are not specifically about technology, but instead are employed for evaluation. However, the ISTE Standards for Teachers (2008) focus on supporting learning with technology to prepare students to work in a digital and global society that is experiencing increased connectedness (ISTE, 2014). With these standards, there was a shift from ‘how to use to what the advantages’ or value of technology might be for learning. The attention was on supporting learning with technology. The preparation of pre-service teachers includes understanding and demonstrating these standards throughout their coursework and in student teaching. The five 2008 ISTE Standards for Teachers included: 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity; 2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments; 3. Model Digital-Age Work and Learning; 4. Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility; and 5. Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership. (pp.1-2)

Online and Blended Learning In support of ubiquitous learning, pre-service teachers should gain experience through blended and online learning during their academic program as a matter of course. Many residential teacher programs offer online courses as an option, yet often at an increased cost for the convenience. Preparing pre-service teachers ought to include learning experiences online to model sound instructional design and allow them to gain perspectives as an online learner. As we know, online learning and blended learning has transformed the traditional classroom environment and made learning ubiquitous (Allen, Seaman, Poulin & Straut, 2016). Online learning refers to mode of delivery that is readily available through a website, Learner


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Management System (LMS), or other digital system. Online learning typically is completed as an individual with some opportunities to interact and collaborate with a community of learners. One issue with online learning is the isolation that frequently occurs, due to the lack of physical interactions with other students. Blended learning addresses the participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs to interact with one another in a traditional learning environment. Based on recent research, the inclusion of a blended learning model promotes social interaction and collaborative learning among individuals. The blended learning approach may be facilitated by faculty who wish to include an online component to an otherwise face-to-face course. As a mode of delivery or a supplement to traditional face-to-face instruction, pre-service teachers should engage in blended education and online models of instruction (Beglau et al., 2011). A blended model of instruction includes teaching strategies delivered through online and face-to-face modes, typically through an LMS such as Blackboard or Moodle (Tallent-Runnels et al., 2006). The use of an LMS allows faculty to organize and sequence instruction in logical ways, while permitting users to interact with content and other students as they reflect on their experiences within the course (Mullinix & McCurry, 2003). With this body of evidence, it is imperative that colleges of education commit to offering online and blended experiences to their pre-service teachers. This will ensure new teachers know how to effectively create and deliver online courses and blended instruction to their future K-12 learners. Professional development is an ongoing concern related to technology integration. Since technology changes rapidly, it is imperative that K-12 educators remain current in the field to prepare students. Implementing online professional development options, such as the Intel Teach Elements, provide teacher educators with established and innovative curriculum. In

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addition, pre-service teachers are exposed to well-established content and experience online and blended instruction. The Online Professional Development Curriculum Used in the Study The online PD materials used in this study were the Intel® Teach Elements (hereafter referred to as the Teach Elements). The Teach Elements are online, just-in-time PD courses, and are available for free to educators worldwide. Background on the Teach Elements Intel® has a history of providing content PD for teachers and with reduced budgets in education, this aids them in staying abreast of new developments in education and technology. Current technology skills are a perpetual challenge for teachers. Recognizing this difficulty, Intel partnered with Ed Tech Leaders Online (ETLO) for the creation of the Teach Elements PD materials to empower K-12 teacher to engage students with digital learning content. ETLO is one program of the Educational Development Center, a not-for-profit organization addressing urgent challenges in education to develop PD materials for online learning opportunities for K12 teachers. Further, the modules content was designed in short sections, interactivity was maximized, and rich resources were provided within. While the Teach Elements were originally developed for online use with practicing K-12 teachers, there has been some exploration toward using them in a blended learning environment within teacher preparation programs. Costa and Shand (2010) found that, during an evaluation of the Teach Elements Faculty Review, a "hands-on review of content and design" (p. 2617) of the Teach Elements, faculty members felt that they were effective and worthwhile materials for use within teacher education.


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Faculty reported that their participation in the review of the Teach Elements built their capacity to use technology with the curriculum as they prepared pre-service teachers (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Faculty in Costa and Shand's study reported they were likely to use the Teach Elements in the teacher education courses with 92% stating they would recommend the Teach Elements to their colleagues. In a related study, Todorova and Osburg (2009) stressed the use of the Teach Elements as an implementation option. Todorova and Osburg (2009), in a partnership with IntelÂŽ, found that overall, teachers were pleased with the Teach Elements courses after using them. Teachers highlighted how the use of the Teach Elements enabled them to collaborate more with other teachers; several of these groups continued after the study concluded. Todorova and Osburg (2009) also determined that teachers who were more inclined or favored e-learning had a better experience than those who favored other mediums of learning. The technical skills of teachers who use technologies in their instruction improved, while teachers with lower technical abilities experienced more positive gains in their technical abilities. There was a slight improvement in teacher instruction and an indirect effect where students were more motivated, when engaged in tech-enhanced lessons. Methodology The exploratory case study (Yin, 2009) method was to examine the perceptions of teacher education faculty and pre-service teachers regarding incorporating online PD materials into academic coursework. Further, a focus on building capacity for technology integration and enhancing 21st century knowledge and skills in teacher preparation programs was explored. The constant comparative method (Glasser & Strauss, 1967) was used to analyze individual responses and coded for themes.

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Participants In this exploratory study, three institutions that were members of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) by way of the Innovation and Technology Committee commenced a study focused on integrating the Teach Elements modules into teacher preparation coursework. To ensure a diversity of institutions and geographic regions, the participating colleges of education were in the Southeast, Midwest, and West regions of the United States, respectively. There were 3 faculty members who participated in the study. The agreement for the multiple site study of the three intuitions included: 

The incorporation of a minimum of one module from a Teach Elements course in their teacher preparation coursework during an academic semester.

The participation of a dean (or another department leader) and two faculty participants each of whom received ETLO online facilitator training.

The commitment from one faculty participant from each institution to attend all webinars and online forums convened by AACTE and the participating institutions for collaboration. Sharing of curricula design, syllabi, tools or other artifacts related to the use of the Teach Elements modules.

Participation in AACTE Annual Conference sessions and collaboration by sharing the findings of the evaluation and recommend next steps with AACTE and their respective colleges.

Module Selection The faculty participants had the option of using the entire Teach Element course (5 modules) or individual modules, mixing and matching. The Teach Elements intend to empower "teachers to integrate technology effectively into their existing curriculum, focusing on their


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students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration, which are...the skills required in the high tech, networked society in which we live" (Intel®, 2014). The Teach Elements courses covered key areas of instruction, including: Project-Based Approaches, Assessment of 21st Century Skills, Educational Leadership, Thinking Critically with Data, Collaboration, Science Inquiry, and Designing Blended Learning. They have been provided through participating statewide entities, such as Intermediate Service Agencies, free of charge to educators (Intel®, 2014). For this study, the Teach Elements course modules were translated from their original online format into a series of files that could be incorporated into any learning management system and made available to the faculty for this study. This process facilitated the individual module selection by the study faculty and easily integrated in academic coursework. Data Collection Data were collected from faculty participants and pre-service teachers through multiple means as a method of triangulating the findings. Data were collected from faculty participants through two sources. The first source was a Level of Use Survey (see Table 1). The second source was a set of four open-ended reflective prompts about faculty member’s integration of the Teach Elements in their courses (see Appendix A). Data were collected from pre-service teachers about the online PD Teach Elements materials in their courses. Pre-service teacher and faculty perceptions of the Teach Elements were analyzed, along with themes that emerged during the data analysis. Analysis In case studies, units of analysis must be established to focus the inquiry (Yin, 2009). In this study, the units of analysis included: faculty use of the Teach Elements material in their teacher education course(s); pre-service teacher's perceptions of the Teach Elements material in


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their coursework; faculty perceptions of the Teach Elements materials; and faculty recommendations for future use of incorporating Teach Elements materials in teacher preparation coursework to enhance technology integration and enriching 21st-century skills. The constant comparative method (Glasser & Strauss, 1967) was used to analyze individual responses and then coded for themes. Two reviewers completed coding independently, compared results, and negotiated differences. Findings The findings and recommendations of this study focus on the faculty use of the Teach Elements, the perceptions of pre-service teachers, and the perceptions of faculty. These findings are analyzed and summarized in the following paragraphs, with specific recommendations for the future use of the Teach Elements in relation to 21st century skills. Faculty Use of the Teach Elements Each of the Teach Elements courses contained five modules. Faculty participants integrated the Teach Elements courses in their entirety or selected modules to augment their existing academic courses at their respective institutions. Faculty participants varied considerably in their implementation of the Teach Elements content using from one to all five Teach Elements modules, with five teacher education courses using all five modules. In total, 38 modules were used within the three institutions piloting the Teach Elements incorporation into academic coursework (see Table 1). Faculty participants were able to integrate all Teach Elements courses, or as few as one into their education courses. The study allowed for freedom of choice of entire courses or individual modules among the faculty participants, to provide optimum flexibility for each institution to determine what was best for their programs and courses. The faculty selections are Â


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displayed in Table 1, the number of modules varied for each faculty member at the different institutions. Perceptions of Pre-service Teachers The pre-service teacher responses (as analyzed by faculty) were based upon the reflective prompts. Themes emerged from the pre-service teacher perceptions of the Teach Elements courses or modules that were used in coursework. Overall, pre-service teachers’ perceptions were positive and related to content and module design. There was agreement among participants that the Teach Elements module objectives were attained. Pre-service teachers perceived that effective strategies were modeled in the Teach Elements modules and the design of the Teach Elements modules were visually appealing and easy to navigate. Furthermore, pre-service teachers remarked that the Teach Elements modules incorporated extensive and valuable content resources and included concrete, real-world classroom examples. One pre-service teacher stated, “I thought the additional resource material was very beneficial for future reference.”   Pre-service teachers perceived the Teach Elements modules improved their content knowledge and increased their skill level. Learning about the 21st century skills were addressed by the pre-service teachers as valuable content. Regarding collaboration, one participant stated, “I found the modules helpful in learning new ways to teach in a collaborative environment.” Another responded that data should be presented as “thoughtful, systematic, thorough, and unbiased.” Data could be used to teach critical thinking skills by analysis of data, organizing data in a logical manner, and “comparing and contrasting data from all subjects.”  Another pre-service teacher commented, “That kids we will be teaching are expecting different education tools than we did when we were in school. We need to blend technology  


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with our traditional ways to help engage students in the classroom.” Another stated, “I really understand how technology can be used to help set personal goals that are different for each student instead of class goals. This way, everyone is learning at their own pace and being challenged at their level.” The pre-service teacher’s perceptions provided a lens for faculty to view the Teach Elements modules in relation to content and modules’ design. Perceptions of Faculty The faculty participants’ responses analyzed by the researchers were based upon the reflective prompts. Several themes emerged, based on the faculty perceptions of the Teach Elements courses or modules from their feedback. First, faculty members remarked that the Teach Elements modules and courses were effective resources to promote technology integration and build capacity among pre-service teachers. Second, faculty found that the Teach Elements course and module content and activities promoted 21st century skills, including critical thinking and reflective practices. Third, the modules and courses possessed consistent design and materials to support instruction. Technology integration is a continuous process. Students need support and exposure to technology in a blended learning environment to understand the dynamics of online learning and instruction. Using the Teach Elements, students were able to experience blended learning. One faculty member commented that the Teach Elements were a "great way to introduce blended learning to candidates." Other faculty commented that the "[Teach Elements] seems to be the best match for advancing [pre-service] teacher knowledge and collaboration." In support of the Teach Elements content, yet another professor commented that it was an "ideal environment for integration of technology" and "we [faculty] needed to include preparing candidates to teach in online/blended environments, and the Intel® Course [Teach Elements] was a perfect fit."  


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The theme of promoting 21st century skills, including critical thinking and reflective practices, emerged from faculty comments and feedback. One faculty member remarked, "The thinking critically aspect offered insight into 21st century skill development, a topic that I stress in my courses." Another faculty member commented, "Enhancing technology and focusing on the needs of 21st century teachers is addressed directly in the modules." The inclusion of the Teach Elements modules was consistent with the intent of building 21st century knowledge and skills by students and faculty. Faculty all agreed that the Teach Elements courses and modules provided pre-service teachers the opportunity to experience online and blended learning in their residential programs. Finally, a theme which emerged from faculty comments was focused on the Teach Elements content. Overall, faculty found that the Teach Elements modules and courses supported existing course goals and learning objectives. A faculty member noted the, "Content supports course goals and provides resources and examples." Another faculty noted this and commented, "[the Teach Elements] includes effective strategies, reinforcement, and modeling" and it "corresponded to the current curriculum." Further, yet another faculty member observed, "I found the content of the module very thorough and relevant" and "I find these modules to be highly valuable to teacher preparation." The Teach Elements modules and courses were consistent with the course goals and objectives as supported by faculty comments and feedback. Faculty provided insight about the integration of the Teach Elements in future courses. Recommendations for Practice and Future Research Based on this study and reflection by the participating teacher education faculty, several recommendations were suggested for refining the use of the Teach Elements and next steps, Â


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including future research. The recommendations were focused on professional development, 21st century skills, and continued use and integration of the Teach Elements. Professional Development and Effective Instructional Design The Teach Elements provided a model of effective instructional design and demonstrated the appropriate integration of education technology and resources. Faculty noted that the increased opportunities for them to engage in professional development was beneficial. Specifically, facilitator training by ETLO on blended and online instruction, completion of each Teach Element course, and the inclusion of meaningful reflective practice that supports instruction. The Teach Elements provided the tools and opportunities for faculty PD. Regarding course design and the inclusion of the Teach Elements modules in coursework, the pre-service teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience and skill level should be considered. At the graduate level, faculty should consider the abilities of in-service teachers who have the background knowledge to apply the content and require less scaffolding to successfully work with modules. In contrast, undergraduate students may require more scaffolding and often as they may possess limited classroom experience. Faculty may need to provide pre-service teachers with supplemental instruction and support to ensure clear comprehension of content. 21st Century Skills The inclusion of 21st century skills and ISTE Standards for Teachers were evident in the Teach Elements modules and provided another resource to reinforce these essential skills that pre-service teachers should possess to meet the demands of teaching. The Teach Elements modules enhanced students' critical thinking and knowledge. Faculty recommended that students need numerous experiences learning in digital networks and collaborative endeavors, as well as applying concepts. The Teach Elements modules, interspersed in the face-to-face course, Â


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provided concrete examples presented in a scenario-based format provided students to be observers of conversations exhibiting critical thinking, collaborative problem solving, and decision making. All of the aforementioned equipped students with learning experiences outside of their typical instruction. Continued Use of the Teach Elements Faculty unanimously expressed interest in continued use of the Teach Elements PD courses to leverage their experience and provide a blended learning opportunity for pre-service teachers. Faculty indicated that when considering the inclusion of the Teach Elements, careful and thorough review all modules and their course content for optimal placement of in their courses as essential. The faculty reported that integrating the Teach Elements modules into their coursework initially was an experience they will use to refine the placement of the modules within the course and in determining enhanced scaffolding pathways. All faculty participants expressed a strong desire to continue using the Teach Elements modules to leverage lessons learned to increase pre-service teacher preparation for 21st century teaching. Future Research Replication of the study with a larger sample size is recommended to determine if results would be consistent. Conducting the study at additional universities in both rural and urban settings may contribute to understanding the viability of incorporating PD materials and online learning experiences into academic coursework to improve teaching and learning. Further, the revised ISTE Standards for Educators released in June 2017 identify key areas of impact and research of the Teach Elements incorporation into coursework with the new standards needs to be explored.

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Faculty and students' perceptions of incorporating the Teach Elements, overall, were positive. The pre-service teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perceptions were positive about the Teach Elements content of critical thinking, collaboration, 21st century skills, design, and the resources included. For pre-service teachers who had not taken an online or blended course, this provided an introduction and experience for them. All faculty participants indicated that the Teach Elements modules or courses used enhanced teacher preparation programs at their respective universities. The Teach Elements modules and courses appeared to provide experiences in a blended learning environment, while modeling best practices in teacher education preparation. The use of sound instructionally designed modules and the ability to select individual modules for integration into a course helped in a move toward a blended and online instructional delivery method that otherwise may not have occurred. Further, faculty who had not taught in a blended or online environment gained valuable perspectives and experience, which will enable them to leverage their new expertise to move forward in expanding offering for students. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded through a grant from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education Committee on Innovation and Technology. Author Biographies Dr. Smart is a faculty member in the Department of Teaching, Leadership, and Professional Practice at the University of North Dakota. She is a tenured professor with over twenty-five years of experience as a university administrator in faculty development and as a

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faculty member. In her current role, she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the area of educational technology integration. Dr. Gautreau currently is the Director of the Instructional Design and Technology Master of Science Program at CSU Fullerton. She is a tenured professor with over twenty years of experience as an educator. Her research focuses primarily on instructional design and technology related resources. Dr. Thomas is a Professor and Associate Dean of Accreditation and Assessment in the College of Education at Brenau University located in Gainesville, Georgia. She is currently a member of the Board of Directors of the Georgia Educational Technology Consortium. In her current role, she is focused on working with faculty and P-12 teachers to integrate technology into the learning process and implement effective online teaching strategies in higher education. References Allen, E.A., Seaman, J., Poulin, R., & Straut, T.T. (2016). Online report card: Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/ survey_report/2015-online-report-card-tracking-online-education-united-states/ AACTE & P21. (2010). 21st century knowledge and skills in educator preparation. Washington, DC: Greenhill, V & Petroff, S. Beglau, M., Craig Hare, J., Foltos, L., Gann, K., James, J., Jobe, H., … Smith, B. (2011). Technology, coaching and community: Power partners for improved professional development in primary and secondary education (pp. 1–23).  California Standards for the Teaching Profession. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.ctc.ca.gov/educator-prep/standards/CSTP-2009.pdf 


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Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Johnson, C. W. (2008). Disrupting class: How disruptive innovation will change the way the world learns. New York: McGraw Hill. Costa, V., & Shand, K. (2010). The INTEL® Teach faculty review: Developing the capacity of teacher educators to prepare pre-service teachers to use technology to improve teaching and learning. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010 (pp. 2616–2620). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.  Council of Chief State School Officers. (2011). Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue (pp. 1–24). Washington, D.C.  Danielson, L. M. (2009). How teachers learn: Fostering reflection. Educational Leadership, 66(5), 5-9.  Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future. New York: Teacher College, Columbia University.  EdTech Leaders Online (2014). Building capacity through online learning. Retrieved from http://www.edtechleaders.org/  Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.  Griffin, M. L. (2003). Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in preservice teachers. Reflective Practice, 4(2), 207-220.  Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional planning activity types as vehicles for curriculumbased TPACK development. In C. D. Maddux (Ed.), Research highlights in technology http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/education/k12/teach-Teach Elements.html and  


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teacher education (pp. 99–108). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology in Teacher Education (SITE). Retrieved from http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/HarrisHofer-TPACKActivityTypes.pdf Intel®. (2014). Intel Teach Elements: Online professional development. Retrieved from   International Society for Technology in Education. (2008). ISTE standards. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/docs/pdfs/20-14_ International Society for Technology in Education. (2014). ISTE standards. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/explore/ArticleDetail?articleid=17 Kay, K. (2010). 21st century skills: Why they matter, what they are, and how we get there. In J. A. Bellanca & R. S. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp. xiii-xxxi). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.  Larrivee, B., & Cooper, J. M. (2006). An educators guide to teacher reflection. Retrieved from http://cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4004/Education%20Modules/ gd%20to%20teach%20refl.pdf  Light, D., McMillan Culp, K., Menon, R., & Shulman, S. (2006). Preparing teachers for the 21st century classroom: Current findings from evaluations of the Intel Teach to the Future Essentials course (pp. 1–44). Retrieved from ftp://download.intel. co.jp/ education/EvidenceOfImpact/IntelTeach-Essentials-2005-GlobalEvalReport.pdf  Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2009). Evaluation of evidencebased practices in online learning (pp. 1–66). Washington, D.C.  Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006. 00684.x   


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Mullinix, B. B., & McCurry, D. (2003). Balancing the learning equation: Exploring effective mixtures of technology, teaching, and learning. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from http://technologysource.org/article/balancing_the_learning_equation/ National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common core state standards. Washington DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers  Papert, S. (1987). A critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future. Retrieved from http://www.papert.org/articles/ACritiqueofTechnocentrism.html  Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2011). Framework for 21st century learning (pp. 1–2). Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/ 1.__p21_framework_2-pager.pdf  Tallent-Runnels, M. K., Thomas, J. A., Lan, W. Y., Cooper, S., Ahern, T. C., Shaw, S. M., & Liu, X. (2006). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 93–135. doi:10.3102/00346543076001093  Todorova, A., & Osburg, T. (2009). Intel® Teach-advanced online: Teachers’ use of and attitudes toward online platform for professional development. In International Conference on Interactive Computer-aided Learning 2009 (pp. 732–740). Villach, Austria.       


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Table 1: Level of Use Survey Results  Institution

Teach Elements Course

Southeast

Assessment in 21st Century Classrooms

5a

Thinking Critically with Data

1

Collaboration in the Digital Classroom

5a

Designing Blended Learning

4

Thinking Critically with Data

3

Assessment in 21st Century Classrooms

1

Collaboration in the Digital Classroom

5a

Assessment in 21st Century Classrooms

5a

Designing Blended Learning

4

Project-Based Approaches

5a

West

Midwest

a

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Number of Modules Implemented

There were five modules in each of the Teach Element online PD courses.


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Table 2. Thematic Analysis of Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions Categories

Themes

Content

Pre-service teachers perceived the module objectives were clear and attained in the modules Effective instructional strategies were modeled Concrete, real-world examples were provided that were useful Materials were easy to navigate and visually appealing The content enhanced their knowledge and instructional planning practices

Collaboration

Collaborative environments and learning additional ways to accomplish learning will be helpful to them as new teachers Collaboration is a method to share with others to meet the needs of students and their expectations of technology

21-Century Skills

Improved their understandings of 21st century skills Learning more about 21st century skills was valued

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Table 3. Thematic Analysis of Faculty Perceptions Categories

Themes

Course and Module Content

Scenario-based learning which promotes critical thinking Consistent design in courses and modules Supports existing education course goals and objectives Illustrated the benefits of collaboration Build capacity for 21-centry skill and technology integration

Promotion of 21-Century Skills

Critical thinking Reflective practice Problem solving

Design, Delivery Method & Accessibility

Provided blended and online learning experience Introduction of professional development available Future resource for pre-service teachers Model for solid instructional design Available any-time anywhere for just-in-time learning

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Volume 9, Page 166 Appendix A

Open-Ended Reflective Prompts for Education Faculty 1. Which Teach Elements courses/modules were used by faculty and in what teacher education courses? 2. How did faculty perceive the utility of the Teach Elements courses? a. How did instructors customize the Teach Elements courses/modules to fit their goals within their coursework? b. What changes did faculty need to make to make it work? 3. What were the results in terms of the Teach Elements incorporation to promote technology integration and build capacity among pre-service teachers for 21st century knowledge and skills? a. What did you find? 4. What would you do in the future? a. What are your recommendations for future incorporating or use of the Teach Elements in teacher education coursework? b. What recommendations do you have for how to contextualize the use of the Teach Elements courses/modules in teacher education coursework?  


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Examining Pedagogy Rubrics to Influence and Enhance Instruction Joseph W. Spadano Rivier University Abstract Teaching methodology is often influenced by the way we were taught. Reform initiatives recommend a pedagogy that is learner-centered with an increased emphasis on problem solving in the mathematics classrooms. This qualitative research study investigated elementary and middle school pre-service teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; beliefs of mathematics education and examined the use of pedagogy rubrics in their mathematics methods courses. The purpose of the study was to analyze the pedagogy rubrics and provide valid inferences about how the rubrics influenced and enhanced the pre-service candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mathematics teaching and learning. Research data were collected in the form of classroom discourse and learning experiences, as well as reflective writings that examined learner outcomes associated with the use of the pedagogy rubrics. The data indicated that, when students became increasingly familiar with each rubric and its application, pre-service teachers communicated more precisely about teaching and learning as processes and were able to identify and advance desirable mathematical behaviors consistent with current reform recommendations.

Keywords: Pedagogy Rubrics, Teaching and Learning Mathematics, Problem Solving Educational Orientations.

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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education

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In education, rubrics are commonly referenced as assessment tools. Typically, scoring rubrics are crafted to focus on measuring stated outcome-based objectives in the areas of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and performance. Rubrics are often used by teachers, and students, to monitor academic progress and promote growth. A rubric may also be used in setting goals and guidelines for teachers and students to evaluate complex and subjective criteria. In this study, three pedagogy rubrics were designed for the purpose of highlighting and evaluating the complex endeavor of teaching mathematics in elementary and middle school. The criteria measured in the pedagogy rubrics included Mathematical Practice and Process Standards, with an increased emphasis on the process of Problem Solving. Twenty undergraduate students enrolled in the course, Teaching Elementary and Middle School Mathematics (Grades 4-8), and four graduate students enrolled in the course, Teaching Mathematics in Grades PreK-3, participated in a qualitative study to examine and analyze the use of pedagogy rubrics through a rich variety of classroom activities and problem-solving situations. Pedagogy scoring rubrics used in classroom learning experiences provided students with a basis for methodology investigation, self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. These studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; efforts contributed to the data used for this qualitative study. The reason for this research study was to enhance pre-service teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; understanding of pedagogy in the mathematics classroom. The goal of this research project was to investigate and promote the importance of methodology on learner outcomes. The intent of the study was to provide pre-service teachers with a focused emphasis on the knowledge, skills, and behaviors surrounding mathematics pedagogy that is heavily influenced by mathematics practice and process standards. Â


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Literature Review The use of rubrics has its origins in medicine and business as a means to evaluate programs and personnel. The appearance of rubric use in education began mildly in the late 1970s and blossomed in popularity during the 1990s. The rubric has become a popular educational tool for both teachers and students because it provides clarity of evaluative criteria and a visible evaluative scheme. This literature review will briefly trace the chronologic evolution of rubrics in education and discuss their purposes that directly influence and enhance teaching and learning behaviors. The growth in popularity of rubrics in the 1990s answered a valid educational need: How do teachers formally and publicly share their evaluative schemes? The basic framework of the rubric answered this question. The structure of a rubric often contains three major categories: evaluative criteria, quality definitions for those criteria, and a scoring strategy (Herman, Aschbacher, & Winters, 1992; Popham, 1997). Scoring rubrics are usually, and purposefully, public. The visible nature of rubric criteria may inform students of assignment expectations and provide opportunities for students to self-evaluate. Goodrich (1996) explains rubrics may help students to examine their own work, as well as the work of others, providing a basis for reflection and peer-editing. Goodrich further states that scoring rubrics can also improve scoring consistency. At the turn of the new millennium, education invested in accountability with comprehensive, state-mandated, testing. For most states, these comprehensive tests were given at early grade levels and, in some states, passing the tests was a condition of graduation. Comprehensive test answers and solutions to open-response questions on these tests were often released after the tests were administered. The solutions to the open-response questions included Â


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scoring rubrics and varied levels of response exemplars ranging from low-to-high quality. These scoring rubrics and response exemplars were valuable in comprehensive test preparation. In test or assignment preparation, teachers can reference a rubric in discussions with students about assignment criteria and related evaluative schemes. With clear criteria and exemplars of quality work, grading may become more reliable while advancing understanding (Jonsson & Svingby, 2007; Stevens & Levi, 2013). Rubrics have many purposes and corresponding results for both teachers and students. Teachers use rubrics in grading or evaluating student efforts and are used by students when planning their work (Dawson, 2015). Typically, rubrics are either holistic or analytic. Holistic rubrics are used to evaluate a product or process as an overall, collective measure using a rating scale with general meaning, such as, approaching standard - on standard â&#x20AC;&#x201C; proficient. Analytic rubrics address specific aspects of an on-going project and, although they may use the same rating scale as holistic rubrics, each identified dimension of the product or process is measured separately (Brown, Irving, & Keegan, 2014). Grubb (1981) advocates holistic rubric use when scoring practices or standards associated with a product, process, or performance. The holistic rubric suggests the development, or sophistication, of the degree to which a standard has been met, a strategy has been used, or practices have led to performance. Thus far, the literature review has discussed rubric criteria and use in K-12 public or private education. This review has focused on how the teacher may use a rubric to share assignment criteria and exemplars of work and to grade or evaluate student efforts, as well as, how rubrics may used by students when planning their work. The literature review offers an insight into rubrics designed by teachers to inform and evaluate students. In short, the rubric design has been limited to serve and evaluate student performance. What about rubrics that are Â


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designed to serve and inform teacher performance? What professional development growth rubrics or models are available to teachers? In the late 1990s, Japanese lesson study began as a voluntary approach for teachers to observe and reflect on their colleaguesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; classrooms. Japanese lesson study is a professional development model and methodology for improving teaching through collaborative research. The Japanese lesson study is a circular flow of Plan-Observe-Reflect. The improvement of Japanese elementary mathematics instruction has been credited to their teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; use of lesson study (Doig & Groves, 2011). Japanese lesson study was introduced into the United States in the early 2000s. As a professional development model, it was intended to investigate and improve the teaching of a particular topic (Lewis & Hurd, 2011). The methodology of lesson study rests on the premise that when colleagues are supportive and share instructional materials and successful practices, they learn and grow professionally (Grandau, 2005; Lewis, Perry, & Hurd, 2009; Peng, 2007; Schorr & Koellner-Clark, 2003; Ticha & Hospesova, 2006). Undeniably, supportive professional development advances growth in education, but how is the value of instructional materials or best practices measured? Summary Examining well-planned and well-implemented pedagogy rubrics in mathematical methods courses is worthy of consideration. The research lacks clarity on rubrics measuring pedagogy or methodology. What does a well-planned and well-implemented pedagogy rubric look like in the mathematics methods classroom? This research project addressed this question by investigating evaluative criteria, quality definitions for those criteria, and a scoring strategy for mathematics pedagogy rubrics. The holistic rubric seemed to be the best fit for this research Â


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study of pedagogy. The pedagogy rubrics used for this research involved mathematics process standards, a problem-solving framework or strategy, and mathematics practices. As advocated by Grubb (1981), holistic rubric use is recommended when scoring the development, or sophistication, of the degree to which a standard has been met, a strategy has been used, or practices have led to performance. In addition, this study contributed to the knowledge base of pedagogy used in teaching mathematics methods courses that may advance the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics vision of shifting teacher-centered classrooms to ones that are more learner-centered (NCTM, 2000; NCTM, 2007). Methodology This research study investigated reasonable evaluative criteria, quality definitions for those criteria, and an appropriate scoring strategy for pedagogy rubrics. The qualitative methodology examined a structured approach that compartmentalized mathematics practice and process standards into pedagogy rubrics. In this research, three pedagogy rubrics were introduced to pre-service teachers to provide a basis for valid inferences about how the rubrics influenced mathematics teaching and learning. Twenty undergraduate students enrolled in the course, Teaching Elementary and Middle School Mathematics (Grades 4-8), and four graduate students enrolled in the course, Teaching Mathematics in Grades PreK-3, participated in a qualitative study to examine and analyze the use of pedagogy rubrics through a rich variety of classroom activities and problem-solving situations. The methodology of this study involved an emergent design with grounded theory. This researchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emergent methodology involved students in generating, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating data through the use of the pedagogy rubrics. The emergent design capitalized on the adaptability of the human-as-instrument by utilizing natural skills of listening, observing, Â


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inferencing, discussing, and judging (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). This research was investigative and attempted to facilitate and illuminate the phenomena surrounding the use of pedagogy rubrics in mathematics learning experiences. The data that emerged were student efforts from classroom assignments, reflective writings that analyzed the application of the rubrics, and through classroom discourse. Along with the researcher, students in the methods courses mutually shaped data to guard against deliberate or subconscious distortions by providing feedback through individual and classroom discussions as well as peer-reviewed, reflective writing assignments. The focus of inquiry was students’ reactions to, and reflections on, rubrics measuring mathematics practices and processes embedded in a problem-solving educational orientation. This generated grounded theory, theory that follows from data rather than preceding them, and produced working hypotheses worthy of educational consideration (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). On the first day of class, methods students were given a brief survey related to their beliefs about the teaching and learning of mathematics (see Appendix A, Mathematics Knowledge and Dispositions Survey). The pre-service students’ responses were used to generate discussions of academically productive thought through clarification, elaboration, and redirection techniques, as well as eliciting feelings. In a general sense, notes related to these responses were useful as the beginning of developmental data points in the study. After the survey was completed and discussed, students were introduced to the structure of three pedagogy rubrics through the rubrics’ three major categories (see below). 1. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Process Standards Rubric a. Evaluative Criteria: 5 Process Standards 1) Communication


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2) Connections 3) Reasoning and Proof 4) Representation 5) Problem Solving b. Quality Definitions for those Criteria: As operationally defined in the book, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). c. Scoring Strategy for Evaluating those Criteria: Identifying artifacts or aspects of learning that evidence a standard has been addressed.

Process Standards are ways students acquire knowledge (NCTM, 2000). If we accept that acquiring knowledge is synonymous to learning, these Process Standards are means by which students learn. For pre-service teachers, the answer to the question, “How do students learn?” is fundamental in understanding their profession of teaching, as it is arguably as important for inservice teachers. Familiarizing pre-service teachers with the Process Standards, as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000), addressed not only how students learn, but also provided evaluative criteria for how to measure teaching. Evidence of Process Standard use in the design and delivery of classroom learning experiences required students to identify artifacts or aspects of learning that recognized a standard had been addressed. 2. Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric

a. Evaluative Criteria: Polya’s 4 Problem Solving Phases 1) Understanding the Problem 2) Devising a Plan 3) Carrying Out the Plan 4) Looking Back


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b) Quality Definitions for those Criteria: As operationally defined in the book, How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method, (Polya, 1988). c) Scoring Strategy for Evaluating those Criteria: Identifying artifacts or aspects of learning that evidence a strategy has been used, or practices have led to performance.

Where the Process Standards Rubric introduced students to “what” was to be pedagogically learned, Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric introduced students to “how” it was to be learned. Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric provided a framework or strategy for teaching. Familiarizing pre-service teachers with The Problem Solving Method Rubric, as defined by the Polya (1988), emphasized Problem Solving as a Process. Classroom learning experiences were designed to be delivered in a Problem Solving Educational Orientation. Problems became the focal point of inquiry and Polya’s four problem solving phases were used to navigate from the problem state to the solution state. Evidence of Polya’s Problem Solving framework use in the design and delivery of classroom learning experiences required students to identify artifacts or aspects of learning that recognized problem solving activity. 3. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice Rubric a) Evaluative Criteria: 8 Standards for Mathematical Practices 1) Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them 2) Reason Abstractly and Quantitatively 3) Construct Arguments and Critique Reasoning 4) Model with Mathematics 5) Use Appropriate Tools Strategically 6) Attend to Precision 7) Look for and Make Use of Structure 8) Look for and Express Regularity in Repeated Reasoning


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b) Quality Definitions for those Criteria: As operationally defined in the book, Common Core State Standards for School Mathematics (CCSSO, 2010). c) Scoring Strategy for Evaluating those Criteria: Identifying artifacts or aspects of learning that evidence a standard has been addressed, a strategy has been used, or practices have led to performance.

The Process Standards Rubric introduced students to “what” was to be pedagogically learned, Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric introduced students to “how” it was to be learned, and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice Rubric introduced students to “performance” related to learning in the classroom. Quality definitions for the 8 Standards for Mathematical Practices were used as operationally defined in the book, Common Core State Standards for School Mathematics (CCSSO, 2010). Evidence of Practices being used in classroom learning experiences required students to identify artifacts or aspects of learning that recognized when practices were performed. Data were generated during classroom learning experiences in the methods courses. As the lesson was delivered, and/or upon later reflection, students were asked to identify artifacts or aspects of learning that evidenced where… 1. a Process Standard had been addressed using the Process Standard Rubric, 2. the 4 Problem Solving Phases had been addressed using Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric, and, 3. the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice led to performance.

The teaching methodology used in the methods courses was problem-based. Classroom learning experiences were implemented in a problem solving educational orientation. Given a problem to solve, students were expected to navigate the problem solving process using Polya’s (1988) problem solving framework. The phases of this framework were the evaluative criteria in


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Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric. Students were given assignments to identify artifacts or aspects of learning within each phase of the problem solving framework. Students’ efforts in identifying and compartmentalizing artifacts were considered to be the scoring strategy for evaluating those criteria. In similar assignments, students were expected to make pedagogy judgments by identifying and compartmentalizing artifacts or aspects of learning within the evaluative criteria of the NCTM Process Standards Rubric and the Standards for Mathematical Practice Rubric. Students were also asked to develop, present, analyze, critique, and revise their own lesson plans, as well as those of others, using these pedagogy rubrics. Coursework efforts were collected, analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated through semi-structured personal conversations, class discussions, and reflective journal entries. Reflective journal writings were peer-edited to triangulate data and to refine the understanding of the focus of inquiry, examining pedagogy rubrics. The coursework efforts elaborated on content and themes through students’ interpretations and judgments of the pedagogy rubrics. The strength of the phenomenological descriptions involved the specific experiences as conveyed by the students. There were no rewards or penalties for participation in this study. There were no risks or discomforts associated with this research project beyond that which might be considered typical risks or discomforts associated with learning. There were no direct benefits to students for taking part in this study beyond that which might be considered typical benefits or rewards associated with learning. This study was considered experimental, insofar as learning experiences and students’ efforts, in any educative course of study, are considered experiments in the practice of teaching.


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Results/Findings The purpose of the study was to analyze pedagogy rubrics and provide valid inferences about how the rubrics influenced and enhanced the pre-service candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mathematics teaching and learning. Research data were collected and emerged in the form of classroom discourse and learning experiences, as well as reflective writings that examined learner outcomes associated with the use of the pedagogy rubrics. The data indicated that, when students became increasingly familiar with each rubric and its application, pre-service teachers communicated more precisely about teaching and learning as processes and were able to identify and advance desirable methods of mathematical instruction consistent with contemporary reform initiatives. As identified in the Mathematics Knowledge and Dispositions Survey (see Appendix A) administered at the beginning of the study, none of the pre-service teachers were familiar with NCTMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Process Standards (2000). The data from the Mathematics Knowledge and Dispositions Survey also revealed that every student agreed that they solved problems in mathematics classes, but when asked to identify a problem solving framework, none were able to recall ever being introduced to, or taught, a methodology for solving problems. In addition, the data from the Mathematics Knowledge and Dispositions Survey confirmed that, although the students were familiar with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice from their early field experiences in area schools, none could list any of the 8 Practices. Since the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice were required use in lesson plan objectives during early field experiences, a case study assignment was given to the methods students to further acquaint students with the operational definitions of the State Standards (see Appendix B, The 8 Mathematical Practices Case Study Assignment).

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With the repeated use of the pedagogy rubrics, students became conversant with the content of each rubric. This elevated their glossary of pedagogical terms, methodologies, and practices while advancing a professional, working vocabulary of teaching and learning as processes. During weeks of varied problem solving learning experiences, as students identified artifacts or aspects of learning that evidenced a standard had been addressed, a strategy had been used, or practices led to performance, they recognized recurring or common themes within each rubric. For example, students highlighted artifacts or aspects of learning that frequently appeared within the 4 phases of Polya’s Problem Solving Method Rubric (see below). 1. Understanding the Problem: restating the problem in different terms; listing given information; identifying conditions or constraints in the problem; stating the problems’ connections to previous problems or prior understandings; creating diagrams, charts, or pictures to analyze and represent the problem. 2. Devising a Plan: defining resources or algorithms necessary to solve the problem, communicating a strategy for navigating from the problem state to the solution state; making meaningful mathematical connections using prior knowledge to build new knowledge. In this phase thinking or reasoning is essential and a necessity in problem solving. 3. Carrying out the Plan: engage plans to effect solutions. 4. Looking Back: carefully checking each step of their solutions; confirming or verifying the result of their problem solving efforts with each other.

Often, these recurring artifacts or aspects of learning within the 4 problem-solving phases included identifying Process Standards (highlighted in bold above). Students’ continued efforts with these rubrics enabled them to readily identify mathematical behaviors and practices in the context of learning as a process. The problem solving emphasis in classroom learning experiences and activities exposed significant pedagogy


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parameters. These learner outcomes resulted in students reflecting on the evaluative criteria of the rubrics that identified measurable artifacts beyond mathematical content to include measuring the processes of both teaching and learning. In classroom discussions and written reflections, each methods student recognized and confirmed the importance of mathematical process and practice standards in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The data suggested that student efforts in isolating and identifying evaluative criteria within pedagogy rubrics highlighted teaching as a conscious and deliberate skill. The consensus was, summarily, that process and practice standards were ways students effectively acquired knowledge. The data evidenced that NCTM Process Standards and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice became visible within Polya’s (1988) problem solving framework during problem solving activities. The data suggested that students engaged in a problem solving educational orientation (PSEO) were active agents, central to the learning process. The data also evidenced a PSEO was a useful model of teaching for identifying the overlapping nature of process and practice standards. The participants of the study all agreed that problembased lessons required shifting various educative roles and responsibilities from the teacher to the students. The data indicated that a PSEO advanced learners’ ownership of understanding and represented a productive learning environment. In classroom discussions and written reflections, students recognized and confirmed that artifacts generated within process and practice standards rubrics became measureable learner outcomes. This suggested that knowledge of “process” as well as “content” became observable in the evaluative scheme of the pedagogy rubrics. The educative activity of identifying mathematics knowledge or resources within process and


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practice standards was considered most effective and appropriate in their methods-of-teaching study. Discussion Our personal experiences as students in mathematics classrooms may conjure images of teachers directing lessons that “mechanically apply the algorithm of the day”. In these, classrooms solving exercises was considered learning mathematics. An alternate vision of teaching and learning mathematics presents a problem to be solved as the focal point of inquiry and emphasizes process and practice standards as continuous and coherent activities in instruction. This research substantiates the importance of methodology on learner outcomes. The study also suggests implementing a PSEO highlighted mathematics process and practice standards and served as a well-planned, well-structured pedagogical approach. Perhaps more importantly, the mathematical pedagogy and classrooms in this research study stood in stark contrast to the pedagogy and classrooms pre-service candidates may have experienced. This raises the possibility that a new vision of mathematics teaching and learning may be advanced. The data of this research suggests an emphasis on well-planned and well-implemented pedagogy may influence and enhance the methodology used by pre-service teacher candidates in their future classrooms. The strength of this study was the use of pedagogy rubrics derived from research-based standards and practices. The operationally defined evaluative criteria of the rubrics were public, a strategic element to this study for triangulating data. The holistic scoring rubrics provided a basis for data collection in students’ self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. This structured approach may be worthy of consideration by classroom teachers and for future research.


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This research may have implications beyond the mathematics classroom to include other content disciplines. The degree to which this research is transferable may depend on the rubrics’ universal appeal in the contexts of process and practice standards as 21st century skills. Teachers, business people, and behavioral science personnel may find this research useful or educationally significant if they wish to explore complex evaluative criteria or client understanding through rubrics associated with process and practice standards. This research contributed to the educative knowledge base and may be a catalyst for future educational consideration. There are limitations to this study. The findings from this research pertain to particular events for a specific time, place, and situation. Although methods of triangulation and mutual shaping were used to safeguard against possible bias, it should be noted that an additional limitation of this research involved self-reporting in its methodology. Further research may include a field-tested study in a K-12 educational setting. Future pedagogy research may also explore a quantitative analysis of academic and professional growth over a longer period of time. This study was intended to introduce pedagogy rubrics as a means of influencing and enhancing the methodology used by pre-service candidates in the elementary and middle school classroom. For “students of teaching” that would soon become “teachers of students”, the examination of pedagogy rubrics, as a means of improving instruction and supporting learning, provided insights and propositions of practical working hypotheses that may be worthy of further educational consideration. Author Biography Joseph Spadano received a Bachelor of Science degree from Fitchburg State University and a Master’s Degree and Doctorate from the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Dr. Spadano


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taught mathematics at Westford Academy and presently holds a dual appointment as Associate Professor in the Division of Education and Department of Mathematics at Rivier University. Dr. Spadano was a 2001 recipient of the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching, a 2002 recipient of the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, and is a National Board Certified Teacher. He is also a proud member of Pi Sigma Upsilon. References Brown, G. T. L., Irving, S. E., & Keegan, P. J. (2014). An introduction to educational assessment, measurement, and evaluation: Improving the quality of teacher-based assessment (3rd ed.). Auckland, NZ: Dunmore Publishing. Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Common core state standards. Retrieved from http://corestandards.org Dawson, P. (2015). Assessment rubrics: Towards clearer and more replicable design, research and practice, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Educatio, 42:3, 347-360. Doig, B. & Groves, S. (2011). Japanese lesson study: Teacher professional development through communities of inquiry. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development. 13.1, 77-93. Goodrich, H. (1996). Understanding rubrics. Educational Leadership, 54(4), 14-18. Grandau, L. (2005). Learning from self-study: Gaining knowledge about how fourth graders move from relational description to algebraic generalization. Harvard Educational Review, 75(2), 202-221. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI Grubb, M. (1981). Using holistic evaluation. Encino, CA: Glencoe Publishing Company.

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Herman, J. L., Aschbacher, P. R., & Winters, L. (1992). A practical guide to alternative assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Jonsson, A., Svingby, G. (2007). The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity and educational consequences. Educational Research Review, 2(2), 130–144. Lewis, C., Perry, R., & Hurd, J. (2009). Improving mathematics instruction through lesson study: A theoretical model and North American case. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 12(4), 285-304. Google Scholar, Crossref Lewis, C., & Hurd, J. (2011). Lesson study step by step: How teacher learning communities improve instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Google Scholar Lincoln Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2007). Mathematics teaching today: Improving practice, improving student learning. Reston, VA. Peng, A. (2007). Knowledge growth of mathematics teachers during professional activity based on the task of lesson explaining. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 10(4-6), 289-299. Google Scholar, Crossref Perry, R. R., & Lewis, C. C. (2011). Improving the mathematical content base of lesson study summary of results. Retrieved from http://www.lessonresearch.net/IESAbstract10.pdf Google Scholar Polya, G. (1988). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


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Popham, J. W. (October 1997). What’s wrong-and what’s right-with rubrics. Educational Leadership, 55(2), 72–75. Schorr, R. Y. & Koellner-Clark, K. (2003). Using a modeling approach to analyze the ways in which teachers consider new ways to teach mathematics. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(2-3), 191-210. Google Scholar, Crossref Stevens, D. & Levi, A. J. (2013). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. Ticha, M. & Hospesova, A. (2006). Qualified pedagogical reflection as a way to improve mathematics education. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9(2), 129-156. Google Scholar, Crossref


Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education

Volume 9, Page 186 Appendix A

Mathematics Knowledge and Dispositions Survey: Examining the Use of Pedagogy Rubrics    1. Using a scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree), how would you rate your level  of agreement related to each of the following statements?  You may also choose to answer, 0 (No Opinion), for  any of the following statements. 

a. Mathematics should be learned as sets of algorithms or rules. b. Solving mathematics problems often involves making conjectures, testing, and modifying findings. c. Learning mathematics mainly involves memorizing. d. There are different ways to solve most mathematical problems. e. Teaching the Process of Problem Solving is a valuable tool in learning mathematics. f. It is important for student learning to make connections between mathematics and other subject areas. g. Students master and retain mathematical algorithms more efficiently through repeated practice than through the use of applications and simulations. h. It is important for students to represent mathematics in pictures, tables, charts, or diagrams. i. It is important for students to learn basic mathematics skills before solving problems. j. All students can learn challenging content in mathematics. k. It is possible to evaluate student reasoning. l. Students should be taught to precisely communicate mathematics in written and symbolic language. m. Students generally learn mathematics best in classes with students of similar abilities.

2. Using a scale ranging from 1 (Very Low) to 5 (Very High), how would you rate your level of confidence related to each of the following statements? You may also choose to answer, 0 (No Opinion), for any of the following statements. a. In your mathematics knowledge with respect to helping students investigate naturally occurring data patterns? b. In your mathematics knowledge to assist students in understanding mathematical formulas and concepts through visual representations? c. In your ability to support student learning through reasoning? d. In your ability to facilitate discussions with students by varying pedagogy strategies? e. In your ability to connect mathematics concepts to real-world applications? f. In your ability to help students recognize patterns, make generalizations, and solve problems?    


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 Examining the Use of Pedagogy Rubrics Please list the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Process Standards that you know. You may answer NONE if you know none.

Please list the Steps or Phases of a Problem Solving Framework that you know. You may answer NONE if you know none.

Please list the Standards for Mathematical Practice that you know. You may answer NONE if you know none.

Please list Pedagogy Models (or strategies for teaching) that you know. You may answer NONE if you know none.

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The Eight Mathematical Practices from the Common Core State Standards Case Study Assignment

As “Students of Teaching Elementary and Middle School Mathematics”, we will analyze and examine how “pedagogy supports the teaching and learning of mathematics”. Pedagogy is the art or profession of teaching. The science of teaching involves making informed pedagogical decisions that influence and enhance education in the mathematics classroom. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) research suggest that when teaching methodology addresses professional standards for teaching mathematics, students become proactive learners, central to the learning process, and they advance their ownership of understanding. An important theme throughout this course of study will be examining and reflecting on pedagogy rubrics.

Case Study Assignment

As a student of Teaching Elementary and Middle School Mathematics, our central learning theme, examining pedagogy rubrics, is intended to highlight Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Using the Case Study Problem discussed in class as a guide, please write a brief case study for each of the eight Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practices (CCSS).


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Case Study Assignment Guide Identify the Common Core State Standard illustrated below. Explain your reasoning.

During a classroom discussion of how to solve a problem, Maxx offers a possible solution. The teacher asks Maxx for additional information and to further explain her solution in more detail. The teacher asks the class for their thoughts about Maxx’s plan. Two students question the validity of Maxx’s solution and the teacher facilitates a classroom discussion/debate to remedy the mathematical imbalance.


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Strategic Leadership Development through Energy Management Mary L. Tucker Ohio University Andrew Pueschel Ohio University Ana Rosado-Feger Ohio University Amy Taylor-Bianco Ohio University This research is supported by The Robert D. Walter Center for Strategic Leadership at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Abstract University students are increasingly more involved as they juggle managing life away from family, making time for coursework, fulfilling organizational commitments, and honoring social engagements as well as, for many, holding full-time jobs. At a time when studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives are more intense than ever, many are at a distinct disadvantage because of inadequate energy management. This research will examine the energy management (or lack thereof) of participating students, while testing the effectiveness of various interventions used to communicate well-being and energy management. This research extends the 2012 study by Spreitzer and Grant that used the Energy Audit as an intervention to assist students in increasing their energy management. To enhance the validity of the previous study, we operationalized it into a three-cell, quasi-experimental design analysis supporting the research hypothesis that Â


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students will increase their self-awareness and well-being when primed through helpful, positive interventions. Findings support Spreitzer & Grant's premise; the results of this study indicate that priming students though systematic interventions may decrease their perceived stress and enhance their self-awareness and energy management.

Keywords: Energy management, energy audit, business pedagogy, university students

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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education

Volume 9, Page 192 Introduction

Technological advances have enhanced productivity; in fact, since 1960 “productivity has increased almost 30 fold” (Martin, 2018). At the same time that technology has assured increased individual access to knowledge and promoted faster job performance, the National Center for Health Statistics reports the overall suicide rate has increased 24 percent from 19992014 (Tavernise, 2018). Researchers project that the downside of increased productivity expectations of today’s workers has resulted in decreased energy levels. In the rush to get more and more accomplished, optimal energy renewal is not being maintained by 74 percent of today’s employees, resulting in plummeting physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual energy renewal. If not corrected, depression, sickness, and burnout may occur (Lohr & Schwartz, 2003; Sarner, 2018). Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Singer, 2017) report an increase in teenage depression from 8.3 percent in 2008 to 10.7 percent in 2013. Since more than 60 percent of people who die by suicide suffer from depression, this may be a factor in suicide becoming the second leading cause of death among young adults. Most troubling is the idea that one in twelve college students make a suicide plan (Neuman University, 2018). Thus, it becomes paramount to consider the unhealthy distress that today’s university students may struggle through and to devise mechanisms that allow students to maximize their energy to enhance their well-being. Incoming college freshmen are entering one of the most exciting times of their youngadult lives. For the first time, they are allowed to set their own schedules, make their own decisions, and make new friends. Conversely, there is a great deal of anxiety and fear as they become members of a community where they blend instead of standing out. The reality of


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leaving friends and family back home, juggling life on their own, scheduling classes differently, handling challenging coursework, balancing social and organizational commitments, and, for an increasingly large number of students, holding full-time jobs can become stressful and overwhelming. It is easy to surmise that, while students are experiencing this life-changing event, many develop inadequate energy management habits that put them in a distinct disadvantage for short-term, as well as live-long personal and professional success. In fact, Schwartz and McCarthy (2007) posit that “managing energy, not time, is the key to enduring high performance as well as to health, happiness, and life balance. Whereas our time is limited and finite, energy can be renewed via four main wellsprings in human beings: the body, mind, emotions, and spirit” (p. 2). Spreitzer and Grant (2012) applied Lohr and Schwartz’s (2003) energy management concepts into the university classroom and found qualitative evidence of success. This paper adapted a similar method to prime students to take control of their well-being through energy management of their body, mind, emotions, and spirit. Thus, the current research involved collection of data to determine whether students introduced to ways of renewing their energy would report significant benefits from this intervention. Literature Review “Managing energy, not time, is the fundamental currency of high performance. Performance is grounded in the skillful management of energy.” (Loehr & Schwartz, 2003, p.17) Intuitively, it is easy to agree that technology is creating more rapid change. Thus, our daily workload is intensifying because of the speed in which our lives are moving. Most workers today are experiencing ever-present distractions that encourage task switching. The results of this work environment perpetuate stress and often result in being busy vs being productive.


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Today’s business landscape reveals company closures, mergers, downsizing, and reorganizing. This often results in job responsibilities changing and increasing for remaining workers who may need to extend working hours in an effort to maximize performance. Thus, time management became the mantra for training workers to achieve new and extended performance goals through daily, weekly, and monthly to-do lists. Then, Lohr and Swartz in 2001 asserted that managing energy (not time) was the better way to maintain high performance and personal renewal. Ericsson and colleagues in 1993 published research that studied expert musicians to determine how their energy is expended and replenished. Using this idea of the flow between intense practices and intermittent rest, Loehr and Schwartz first began to apply the concept in the sports arena to enhance the performance of expert athletes and branched out to consulting with and training leaders in all types of organizations. Their training programs are bolstered by the concept that “if sustainable great performance requires a rhythmic movement between activity and rest, it also depends on tapping multiple sources of energy” (Schwartz, 2010, p. 7). Thus, Loehr and Schwartz, along with colleagues, encourage the management of energy instead of time. Whereas time is finite, energy can be utilized and replenished, enabling an enhanced capacity to get things done. This results in maximized performance and an enhanced quality of life (Loehr & Schwartz, 2001; 2003; Mason et al., 2018; Schwartz, 2010, Schwartz & McCarthy, 2007). Loehr and Schwartz proffer that we are, indeed, in an energy crisis. At the same time, “great leaders are stewards of organizational energy. They begin by effectively managing their own energy. As leaders, they must mobilize, focus, invest, channel, renew and expand the energy of others” (Loehr & Schwartz, 2003, p. 17). In order to renew energy, Loehr and Schwartz (2001) identify four sources that must be maintained for optimal positive energy:


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Physical Energy: Regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and appropriate levels of sleep are positive fuels for maintaining heighted energy levels. Student awareness of their current physical energy levels along with how to regulate this dimension will minimize a “possible crash and burn.”

Mental Energy: Setting short-term and long-term productivity goals, focusing on a single task at a time (decreasing multi-tasking), and taking short breaks are key to regulating and achieving increased mental energy.

Emotional Energy: Building enthusiasm for tasks throughout the day requires a positive mindset. Starting the day with a positive disposition assists in overcoming times of negativity, depression, and stress.

Spiritual energy: The is ability to be mindful and thankful can be enhanced through self-talk, gratitude journals, meditation and a sense of one’s life purpose, which will increase spiritual energy and gratefulness. (p. 123)

Across college campuses, university faculty strive to provide graduates with the technical knowledge for their fields, as well as some breadth of knowledge across the arts and sciences. It is important that, as the leaders of tomorrow, our students become more adept in the skillful management of their energy. Energy management may well be the competitive advantage that sets students apart from peers in work/life balance and career advancement. In fact, Wamp (2009) challenges schools to create a culture of movement and recovery to manage student energy at optimal levels. To this end, Spritzer and Grant (2012), drawing from the work by Loehr and Schwartz (2001), and recovery from work demands literature, introduced energy management into the classroom. They asserted that “the more we can help students develop healthy habits around energy while still in school, the better we can help them sustain their


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energy for high performance for a lifetime” (2012, p 16). Their longitudinal, qualitative study indicated that respondents reported better understanding of the energy depleting forces (77%). Over two-thirds (69%) stated they had a better understanding of specific strategies to improve their energy management. The respondents represented every academic discipline within the college. This research draws from Loher and Schwartz’s energy management literature (2001; 2003) along with Spreitzer and Grant’s classroom interventions (2012), to introduce energy management into freshman introductory business courses. This paper extends the research by adding data collection to determine statistically whether students’ self-report assessment will show significant growth after the energy management audit. To enhance the validity of the previous study, the research was operationalized it into a three-cell, quasi-experimental design analysis supporting the research hypothesis that students will increase their self-awareness and well-being when primed through helpful, positive interventions. Methodology Participants The Energy Audit Survey was offered to three sections of students who were enrolled in the same course in the College of Business at a large university in the Midwest. Volunteer respondents enrolled in each of these sections completed the survey (see Appendix A) twice: at the beginning of the course before any interventions, and at the end of the course after the interventions were implemented. The goal of the interventions was to assist students in managing their energy across four dimensions: physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual. Each of the three sections received different levels of intervention as described previously, with Section 1 receiving minimal exposure and Section 3 receiving the most comprehensive set of


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interventions. Section 1 (8:30 a.m.) consisted of 35 respondents; section 2 (9:30 a.m.) had 46 respondents, and section 3 (10:30 a.m.) had 75 respondents. As noted in Table 1, All sections averaged 19.7, 19.6, and 19.8 years of age, respectfully. Design This study sought to determine whether students (Section 3) who were primed for enhanced energy management through self-awareness (energy management pre-test), selfanalysis and reflection (energy audit), intervention and plan for change (lecture and activity), and energy management post-test would have greater post-test energy management scores than students (Section 2) who received all but the intervention. Sections 2 and 3 findings could also compare with Section 1, who received only the pre- and post-test. See Table 2 for an overview of the methodology of this study including section times and the possible activities including the 5 phases of engagements conducted in this study included a pre-test survey, energy audit administration, energy audit collection, intervention, and post-test survey. Procedures: 5 Phases of Engagement Phase 1. The first phase consisted of the pre-test survey and overview of the study. Introduction to the pre-test survey was communicated through the explanation of the positive impact that each student could make on the study of well-being and professional development. Students received the printed survey that, instead of place for names, included a random 4-digit number written on the top right of the survey. Students were asked to email themselves or take a picture of the 4-digit number for their own records to use on their post-test. Students were then encouraged to close their computers, put away their cellular phones, and take notes for the remainder of the session. The survey itself was explained to the students in 3 sections. The first section consisted of general information such as gender, class year, major, and expected grade Â


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that the student thought they would receive in the course. The students were then told that the middle of the survey would consist of information on their current practices and thoughts in regard to the management of their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual energy. They were not given any information to explain each dimension at this time. The final section of the survey, the students were told, were open-ended questions that they should answer to the best of their ability. Students were given ample time to complete the survey in class. Those not participating were encouraged to simply remain quiet in their seats with the electronic devices remaining away. The surveys were then collected and later given to the data analyst. After collection, the extent of the study was then explained to students. Conversation about the study was not engaged in before the survey was given out as not to allow student to give answers based on what they thought the study was looking for. Phase 2. The second phase consisted of the energy audit administration for Sections 2 and 3. Students were once again encouraged to close their computers and put away their cellular phones for the explanation of the energy audit. Once administered, all dimensions of the energy audit were clearly communicated, as the students followed along and asked questions, if desired. The 2-day time duration of the energy tracking audit was first communicated, in order to give the students a finite scope for the project. The first page of the audit was an overview that gave specific instructions on the times in which to track their energy, how to document their levels, and what to do if they were unable to exactly track their levels at the times instructed. If unable to document their levels at a specific time, students were instructed to recall what their energy level was during the missed log-in and return to the next specified time, in order to get back on track. Â


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The second page of the audit gave students the opportunity to actually track their levels of energy throughout the day in one-hour increments. The left column tracked their morning energy levels and the right column tracked afternoon and evening energy levels. Both sides allowed the students to track their energy levels from 1-10 with 10 being the highest. The third page of the audit was created to show a graphic representation of the data that the students documented throughout their two-day study of their energy levels. As helpful hints to the students, it was suggested to set hourly alarms on their phones to remind them to track their energy levels. It was also suggested they could track energy levels on a task-list via their phone and transfer the data to the audit tool at the end of each day. Once completed, students were asked if there were any questions pertaining to the energy audit tool. Phase 3. The third phase consisted of the energy audit collection for Sections 2 and 3. Two days after being given the energy audit, students who participated in the data collection were thanked for their participation and were asked questions pertaining to their experience while tracking their own energy levels. Conversations centered on studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new self-awareness about their energy web and flow. Other comments included the ease of the documentation, as well as the challenges associated with the project, resulting in constructive brainstorming on ways in which students could better monitor their habits and self-awareness. The uses of digital devices (phone, apps, ipad, etc.) were suggested, in order to remind students of their energy levels. Phase 4. The fourth phase consisted of the intervention for Section 3. All students (even those who did not participate in the data collection) participated in a full, class time lecture (50 minutes) that reintroduced and further explained the four dimensions of energy management, including physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual energies. After the introduction of each Â


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dimension, students were given a template for their own “personal development plan.” This plan suggested ideas specific for the four energy management dimensions and also allowed them space to write in supportive activities that were specific to their own energy management needs. The timing of this intervention was such that the students were getting ready to end their semester. Conversations were extended to include ideas surrounding successful tips for ending the semester and being productive over the summers, as well as into their future. Phase 5. The fifth and final phase consisted of the post-test for all Sections. Students received the printed survey and included their 4-digit number on the top right of the survey. Once administered, the students were again encouraged to close their computers, put away their cellular phones, and take notes for the remainder of the session. Those who did not participate were once again encouraged to simply remain quiet in their seats with the electronic devices remaining away. The surveys were then collected and given to the data analyst. The students were thanked for their time and participation in the study. Results/Findings To determine the impact of interventions, we first evaluated whether the respondents started out with similar perceptions or at the same “base level” in the four dimensions of interest. To test this, we used independent-sample t-tests between all section pairs. This analysis resulted in a significant difference in one item, the measure of regular breaks, between Sections 1 and 2 and Section 3. Section 3 had an initial level in this item, which was higher than either of the two sections, and was quite high at a mean of 4.13/5.0. It was difficult for Section 3 to show any positive change in this item, regardless of intervention, though it would be possible to show a negative change.


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To test the hypothesis that interventions made a difference in how students managed their energy, we compared the pre- and post-survey responses for the students in the three sections. We used SPSS Statistics 23 to conduct the analysis, using paired-sample t-tests. The null hypothesis was that there was no significant difference between the student’s response to the preand post-surveys. Results are summarized in Table 3 and descriptive statistics for each item are given in Table 4. The results suggest that the interventions had an effect in the students’ responses. Significant differences were observed between the pre- and post-intervention surveys. For reference, positive differences indicate that the post-intervention result was higher than the pre-intervention result, negative differences indicate the reverse. 

In the measures of Physical energy management, Section 2 respondents reported significant negative changes in two items (sleep duration and exercise frequency), and negative (but not significant) changes in two items (breakfast and small meals). Section 3 respondents reported mixed results, with significant negative changes in exercise frequency, but significant positive changes in eating small meals.

In the measures of Mental energy management, Section 2 respondents reported significant positive changes in taking regular breaks and multitasking. Respondents in Section 3 did not report any significant changes in this dimension, but we note again that their initial level of “regular breaks” was quite high. The increase in multitasking, however, was a significant difference between these two groups.

In the measures of Emotional energy management, respondents in Section 2 did not report significant changes in any of these measures. Respondents in Section 3 reported significant decreases in measures of being perceived as a positive person and helping others in need.


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In the measures of Spiritual energy management, respondents in both Section 2 and Section 3 reported significant positive changes in writing goals and creating a vision board.

All sections reported positive changes in the summative measures for leadership and “tricks and tips.” Sections 2 and 3 reported positive change in the measure regarding stress.

These results were not affected by gender or age of the respondents. The analysis was conducted using both standardized and non-standardized variables, and there was no difference in results. Discussion

The purpose of our study was to collect data to validate the intervention proposed by Spreitzer and Grant (2012). The results suggest that these interventions had an impact on student responses regarding their energy management practices and perceptions. In this section, we will discuss the implications of the survey results for each dimension of energy management and for the summative questions. While the individual energy dimensions showed significant impact from the energy management interventions, it is the global measures regarding course outcomes that truly show their impact. Spreitzer and Grant (2008) suggested that managing energy could result in better stress management. The students in these courses did not receive any specific direct stress reductions or stress assessment interventions. However, the respondents in the sections that participated in the energy management intervention reported a significant positive change in their level of stress (higher levels on this item indicate less stress). This result supports the proposition by Spreitzer and Grant and presents evidence of the value of energy management in


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contributing to stress reduction and student well-being. For students training to be leaders and managers, awareness of energy management may result in more effective human management practices and an improved work atmosphere. These statements are preliminary and will require future study, particularly longitudinal analysis to determine whether these effects are maintained over time. The first dimension of energy management is physical energy. Students recorded decreases in their rating of items referring to sleep and exercise. On first glance, the significant negative effects seem counterproductive: one does not manage one’s energy better by reducing sleep and exercise. However, these results need to be considered within the context. Students responded to the surveys at the beginning and end of the academic semester. The final two weeks of the semester is a known “crunch time” when students tend to have projects or exams that require more time to complete or prepare, and thus tend to get less sleep and have less time for exercise. On the other hand, the energy audit seems to have raised awareness and a desire to monitor and adjust, with students commenting that they used naps to refresh their energy. Students in Section 3 reported an increase in managing their energy by eating smaller meals throughout the day. There was evidence from the medical literature that more frequent small meals can help maintain steadier levels of blood glucose, which is beneficial to maintaining steady energy, instead of experiencing surges and crashes (Caudwell et. al, 2013). Mental energy is the second dimension of energy management. Once again, there was evidence that the interventions had impact on students’ perceptions and actions. Respondents in section two reported higher levels of taking short breaks and increased multitasking. While the short breaks were a tool to manage and maintain energy, multitasking was considered detrimental to energy management. Once again, it was possible that the timing of the survey at


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the end of the term had an influence on this result, but notably, there was not a significant change in these items in the section that did not receive the energy management interventions. Section 3, which received the highest levels of intervention, also did not show a difference, however, we note that the average starting levels of the positive items (frequent breaks, quiet places to do work) were already quite high (4.13 and 4.08 out of 5, respectively), which made it difficult to demonstrate a statistically significant increase given our sample size. Section 3 also had moderate levels of multitasking, which did not show a significant change. Emotional energy was gauged in terms of the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception of their positive outlook and how others viewed their outlook, as well as the level of helpfulness to others. Interestingly, the only significant change in this dimension was in Section 3, which received the highest level of interventions regarding energy management. Unexpectedly, the significant changes in this dimension were negative, indicating lower levels of perceived positivity and perceived helpfulness. This result was somewhat puzzling and deserves further study. It is possible that the students had internalized the concept of self-energy management and were more focused on their individual energy, rather than in how others were affected. However, it is also possible that the students have increased their awareness of how their actions and attitudes affected others, and became more self-critical as a result. We suggest future research to tease out which of these, or perhaps an alternate explanation, is behind this unexpected result. Perceptions regarding spiritual energy were described by gratitude, goal-setting, and vision-boarding. These items tap into an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sources of motivation. While gratitude journals did not make an impact on any of the respondents, students exposed to the energy management intervention reported significant positive changes in the formulation of written goals and the use of vision boards. Creating a personal vision is one way to begin formation of a Â


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life purpose, which contributes to the spiritual dimension of energy management. Together, these two elements assisted students in identifying, clarifying, and codifying their personal goals, as well as creating a path towards achieving them. Limitations and Future Study Although the results of this study are very promising, there are limitations to the ability to generalize from these results. One important limitation is that participation in this study was completely voluntary and students received no incentive to participate. This may have resulted in respondent bias from self-selection, where students who were already more highly motivated and proactive were more likely to respond to both surveys. A second limitation comes from the timing of the survey administration, which may be confounding intervention effects with time/end-of-term effects, particularly in the items relating to time management, sleep, and exercise. Finally, the sample frame used was a sample of convenience, and may have underlying characteristics that drew students to a particular institution of higher learning. Suggestions for future study can strengthen the research by re-running the experiment at better time during the semester (possibly the first two week of class) with further thought on the impact of increasing the length of duration to maximize student impact. Additional suggestions for future study include the aforementioned longitudinal follow-up to explore the longevity of the effects, particularly for graduates entering the workforce. Energy management could also be a tool for individuals throughout their careers, and a study of the impact of these interventions at different ages and life stages would help pinpoint which elements might be emphasized differently throughout different career stages for continued positive impact on well-being and effectiveness. Finally, an extended respondent sampling that allows for further analysis of Â


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individual characteristics and their influence on the results of the interventions would also help tailor interventions for maximum impact. References Caudwell, P., Finlayson, G., Gibbons, C., Hopkins, M., King, N., Näslund, E., Blundell, J.E. (2013). Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97:1, 7- 14. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.029975 Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Romer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100:3, 363-406. Loehr, J. & Schwartz, T. (2001). The making of the corporate athlete. Harvard Business Review, 79, 119-128. New York: Free Press. Loehr, J. & Schwartz, T. (2003). The Power of Full Engagement. New York: Free Press. Martin, W. (2018). This chart shows every major technological innovation in the last 150 years—and how they have changed the way we work. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/barclays-how-technology-has-changed-the-world-20184?utm_source=pocket&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=pockethits Mason, S.T., Cater, E.W., Wang, C., Goodlett, B.D., Bedrosian, R., Nikolovski, J., Bucher, A. (2018). The Life Benefits of Managing Energy [White paper]. Retrieved from https://www.jjhpi.com/files/JHPI34144%20Managing%20Energy%20White%20Paper% 20NEW%20BRANDING%201-25-2018.pdf Neuman University. (2018). National Data on Campus Suicide and Depression. Retrieved from https://www.neumann.edu/life/counseling/mental_health/suicide/national_data.htm


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Sarner, M. (2018, 21 February). How burnout became a sinister and insidious epidemic. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/feb/21/howburnout-became-a-sinister-and-insidiousepidemic?utm_source=pocket&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=pockethits Singer, J. (2017). Increase in Suicide Rates and Teen Depression. PsychCentral. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/lib/increase-in-suicide-rates-and-teen-depression/ Sprietzer, G. M., & Grant, T. (2012). Helping students manage their energy: Taking their pulse with the Energy Audit. Journal of Management Education, XX(X), 1-25. Schwartz, T. (2010). The way we’re working isn’t working. New York: Free Press. Schwartz, T., & McCarthy, C. (2007). Manage your energy, not your time. Harvard Business Review. Reprint R07108. Tavernise, S. (2016). U.S. suicide rate surges to a 30-year high. The New York Times, A1. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/22/health/us-suicide-rate-surges-to-a30-year-high.html Wamp, Z. (2009). Creating a culture of movement: The benefits of promoting physical activity in schools and the workplace. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 55-56.


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Table 1: Respondent demographics

Section

Total Respondents

Male/Female Ratio (in %)

Average Age

1

35

37/63

19.7

2

46

39/61

19.6

3

75

41/59

19.8

Table 2: Methodology Overview

Section

Time

Pre-Test

Energy Audit

Intervention

Post-Test

1

8:30 a.m.

Yes

No

No

Yes

2

9:30 a.m.

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

3

10:30 a.m.

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Table 3. Hypothesis testing

Mean

PHYSICAL

Â

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

SECTION 3

Paired Differences

Paired Differences

Paired Differences

Std. Error Mean

p

Mean

Std. Error Mean

Sig.

Mean

Std. Error Mean

(2-tailed)

Sig. (2tailed)

I get 7-8 hours of sleep most nights

.000

.255

1.000

-.469

.220

.041

-.118

.133

.382

I eat breakfast every day.

.125

.184

.503

-.355

.210

.102

-.137

.112

.227

I eat 5-6 small meals a day.

.042

.185

.824

-.161

.174

.362

.260

.121

.036

I work out at least 3 times a week.

.083

.225

.714

-.581

.273

.042

-.412

.132

.003


Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education MENTAL

EMOTIONAL

SPIRITUAL

CONCLUSION

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I take regular breaks throughout the day.

-.083

.119

.491

.406

.167

.021

.060

.108

.583

I find quiet places to do my work.

-.125

.125

.328

.194

.157

.226

.020

.112

.860

I find myself multitasking rather than focusing on one task at a time.

.167

.197

.405

.387

.178

.037

-.041

.162

.802

I perceive myself to be a positive person most of the time.

-.083

.180

.647

.156

.143

.282

.078

.122

.522

Others perceive me to be a positive person most of the time.

.083

.146

.575

.167

.128

.202

-.235

.117

.051

I often help others in need.

-.083

.119

.491

.290

.187

.130

-.235

.114

.044

I utilize a gratitude journal daily.

.208

.199

.307

.226

.231

.335

.039

.122

.749

I write out my goals.

.375

.275

.185

.667

.232

.007

.373

.190

.055

I have a vision board and post it where it can be easily viewed.

.583

.361

.120

.563

.237

.024

.549

.176

.003

I am more informed about leadership.

.826

.257

.004

.484

.130

.001

.306

.134

.027

I have learned tools and tricks to aid me.

.565

.273

.050

.581

.221

.014

.265

.148

.079

My level of stress and concern is lessened.

.348

.386

.377

.594

.118

.000

.449

.134

.002


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Table 4. Descriptive statistics SECTION 1 N PHYSICAL

MENTAL

EMOTIONAL

SPIRITUAL

CONCLUSION

Â

Start

SECTION 2 End

N

SECTION 3

Start

End

N

Start

End

I get 7-8 hours of sleep most nights

24

3.38

3.38

32

3.78

3.31

53

3.68

3.53

I eat breakfast every day.

24

2.75

2.88

32

2.56

2.23

53

2.42

2.29

I eat 5-6 small meals a day.

24

2.04

2.08

32

2.06

1.84

52

2.25

2.50

I work out at least 3 times a week.

24

4.04

4.13

32

3.75

3.13

53

3.72

3.27

I take regular breaks throughout the day.

24

3.46

3.38

32

3.63

4.03

53

4.13

4.22

I find quiet places to do my work.

24

4.13

4.00

32

3.88

4.03

53

4.08

4.10

I find myself multitasking rather than focusing on one task at a time.

24

3.29

3.46

32

3.19

3.61

53

3.49

3.45

I perceive myself to be a positive person most of the time.

24

4.04

3.96

32

4.13

4.28

53

4.04

4.12

Others perceive me to be a positive person most of the time.

24

3.92

4.00

31

4.16

4.30

53

4.09

3.86

I often help others in need.

24

4.21

4.13

32

4.06

4.32

53

4.28

4.06

I utilize a gratitude journal daily.

24

1.54

1.75

32

1.69

1.90

53

1.60

1.67

I write out my goals.

24

2.58

2.96

32

2.28

2.93

53

2.28

2.61

I have a vision board and post it where it can be easily viewed.

24

1.88

2.46

32

2.03

2.59

53

1.74

2.29

I am more informed about leadership.

24

3.38

4.17

32

3.66

4.25

51

3.84

4.29


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I have learned tools and tricks to aid me.

24

3.67

4.22

32

3.75

4.23

51

4.04

4.35

My level of stress and concern is lessened.

24

2.92

3.35

32

3.09

3.65

51

3.22

3.49

Appendix A: Energy Management Survey Tool The purpose of this survey is to assess the effectiveness of “Taking your pulse with the Energy Audit”. Collected will be analyzed for reoccurring themes to validate theory. 1. Gender

Male = Code 1 Female = Code 2 Other = Code 3

2. Age

18 = Code 1 19 = Code 2 20 = Code 3 Over 21 = Code 4

3. Job status

Full Time = Code 1 Part Time = Code 2 No Job = Code 3

4. What is your area of study:

Education = Code 1 Accounting = Code 2 Finance = Code 3 Marketing = Code 4 Management Information Systems = Code 5 Sports Administration = Code 6 Management = Code 7 Other = Code 8

5. Group Name

M/W 8:30 a.m. = Code 1 M/W 9:30 a.m. = Code 2 M/W 10:30 a.m. = Code 3

6. What grade do you think you will get in this class:

A = Code 1 B = Code 2 C = Code 3 D = Code 4 F = Code 5


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On a scale ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree, please place an “X” in the box that best describes how you feel about your accelerated dissertation process. For statements for which you do not have any knowledge, or statements that do not apply to you, place an “X” in the box labeled NA for not applicable. (Managing Physical Energy, Questions 7-10) 7. I get 7-8 hours of sleep most nights Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

8. I eat breakfast every day Strongly Disagree Disagree  

Neutral Agree  

Strongly Agree N/A 

9. I eat 5 to 6 small meals a day Strongly Disagree Disagree  

Neutral Agree  

Strongly Agree N/A 

10. I work out at least 3 times a week (20-30 minutes) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

(Managing Mental Energy, Questions 11-13) 11. I take regular breaks throughout the day Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

12. I find quiet places to do my work Strongly Disagree Disagree  

Strongly Agree N/A 

13. I find myself multitasking rather than focusing on one task at a time Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree N/A     

(Managing Emotional Energy, Questions 14-16) 14. I perceive myself to be a positive person most of the time Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree N/A     

Neutral Agree  

15. Others perceive me to be a positive person most of the time Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree N/A


Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education 

16. I often help others in need Strongly Disagree Disagree  

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Neutral Agree  

Strongly Agree N/A 

(Managing Spiritual Energy, Questions 17-19) 17. I utilize a gratitude journal daily Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

18. I write out my goals Strongly Disagree Disagree  

Strongly Agree N/A 

19. I have a vision board and post it where it can be easily viewed Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree N/A     

(Conclusion, Questions 20-22) 20. I am more informed about leadership Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

21. I have learned tools and tricks to aide me Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

22. My level of stress and concern is lessened Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree    

Strongly Agree N/A 

Neutral Agree  

Open Ended Question: 23. Average hours slept over the past week: 24. When is your energy the highest? What were you doing at those times? 25. When is your energy the lowest? What were you doing at those times? 26. What insights do you have about how to better manage your energy?


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Students’ Perceptions of Technology Tools: An Interdisciplinary Approach Courtney Wiest, Ed.D. Saint Leo University Keya Mukherjee, Ph.D. Saint Leo University Rhondda Waddell, Ph.D. Saint Leo University Debra Mims Saint Leo University Felicia Wilson Saint Leo University Lin Carver, Ph.D. Saint Leo University Holly Atkins, Ph.D. Saint Leo University Abstract As technology has emerged, we see institutions utilizing technology in teaching across all learning platforms. There are multiple platforms and tools available to instructors. This article provides an overview of various technology tools utilized across disciplines at Saint Leo University. This article also evaluates the students’ perceptions of these technology tools utilized in the courses within the School of Education and Social Services (SESS). Overall, the findings express a high level of satisfaction with the technology tools in the courses. However, further research is needed to fully understand the students’ view on the technology tools.


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Keywords: Technology, teaching tools, students’ perception Introduction Since computers were introduced into the school setting in the 1970s, educators have extensively discussed their potential for helping to increase academic growth and student engagement (Hew & Brush, 2007). The endless possibilities of computers and digital technology have not been realized because of the limited availability of these devices in the classroom setting. The ratio of students to computers in 1983 was estimated at 168 to 1 (Anderson & Ronnkvist, 1999). As schools have attempted to meet the needs of 21st century learners, they have significantly increased the number of digital devices available. The school days of the chalkboard, pencil, and paper; students raising their hands to answer questions; and students going to the library to gather research are pages in history compared to the modernized classroom of students today. Classified by Deep Patel (2016) of the Huffington Post as the generation of individuals who have grown up with the constant bombardment of connectivity, today’s Generation Z students are more digital and tech-savvy than previous generations. Also, with an estimated 60 million Generation Z-ers (individuals between 15-20 years of age) presently among the elementary to college-age students, they are expected to quickly surpass both the Millennials (Generation Y) and the Baby Boomers (Monster, 2016). Generation Z-ers have never known a world without a rapidly moving environment of constant connectivity and advancing technology. Generation Z-ers have grown up multitasking in the fast-paced world of the Internet, networking on social media, iPads, laptops, smartphones, Google, and video streaming sites. Often, Generation Z-ers long for and appreciate alternative forms of learning experiences rather than the restrictive ancient technology of their parents’ generation. Many of today’s


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Generations Z-ers are reevaluating traditional formal education and are choosing instead to be homeschooled, attend alternative-learning classrooms, or participate in massive online courses (MOOCS). Technology has changed the way we live and offers us opportunities to enhance our teaching methods. The never-ending question remains: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Are we using the best approaches to engage the student and help the learning process?â&#x20AC;? (Kirchner & Razmerita, 2015; Paholsky, 2012). Through the use of technology in the classroom, students are becoming further educated about different problems in society via social media posts, blogs, websites, television, presentation tools, gaming, and more. Educational tools that help students implement their ideas to create solutions to problems and inform others are impactful. Technology can be considered good or bad, depending on the perspective and how it works on any given day. However, most professors agree that our main goal in creating instructional environments is to focus on learning, and that technology is another way to engage students and add to the learning objectives of their chosen subject. Student engagement is a significant issue for instructors in the K-12 setting, as well as in higher education. The issue of engagement is compounded when preparing future teachers through the online setting to address the needs and engagement of their future K-12 students. This paper will review the current technology tools utilized at Saint Leo University by instructors in multiple programs and various platforms (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Overview of Technology in the Classroom In 2010, it was reported that 97% of teachers in the United States had access to at least one classroom computer every day, with 93% of those computers having Internet access (Institute of Education Sciences [IES], 2010). The National Center for Education Statistics Â


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found that the ratio of students to computers was 5.3 to 1 (IES, 2010). The increased availability of computers seems like it should have increased daily use of technology in K-12 instruction; however, only 40% of the teachers interviewed in their study reported using computers often during their instruction. However, digital resources have been expanded to include more than just computers. The various types of information and communication technologies available have increased. Most K-12 schools in the United States currently have access to high-speed Internet as well as other digital resources such as printers, video projectors, digital whiteboards, iPads, iPods, and smartphones. The educational digital landscape is being transformed through these additional resources (Al-Abri, Jamoussi, Kraiem, & Al-Khanjari, 2017; Mukherjee et al., 2017; Robinson, McKenna, & Conradi, 2012). The anticipated increase in academic performance resulting from the expanded technology usage has not materialized. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2013) reported reading and mathematics test scores that are at about the same level as they were 40 years ago. This seems to support Kozma’s (2003) observation that a positive impact of technology on achievement does not occur automatically. Instead, the impact of technology is determined by how teachers use the digital resources in their classroom instruction, not just whether they have access to the educational technology. Instead, rigorous professional development needs to accompany the new monetary investments in purchasing the technology to help build “skills that have not historically been in the teacher toolbox” (Walker, 2015, para. 18). Teachers need support and encouragement to keep up with the fast-paced global technology, especially as innovation explodes throughout our world (Kopp, 2015). Consequently, instructors in higher education need to expose future teachers to a variety of digital resources so that they have opportunities to develop confidence in using and


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infusing these digital resources into their instruction. They need to see how these digital resources can be used to enhance their instruction so that they can meet the learning needs of their students. Technology is an integral component of how students learn and process information (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Literature Review This literature review attempts to present a framework of useful educational technologies arising from the literature to inform the discussion among educators about their applied use in creating complex interactions in learning environments. This is not the first research review of creativity and technology used in education; for example Banaji, Burn, and Buckingham (2010) undertook a systematic research synthesis in new technologies and learning, whilst Banaji and Burn (2006) and Banaji et al. (2010) have reviewed a range of literature from which nine “rhetorics” of creativity emerged: creative genius; democratic and political creativity; ubiquitous creativity; creativity for social good; creativity as economic imperative; play and creativity; creativity and cognition; the creative affordances of technology; and the creative classroom (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Bandura (1991) described social learning as cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors, which foster a level of learning for the participant. In Bandura’s (1977) original work, he identified four learning components: attentiveness, symbolic coding, motor retention processes, and motivation (Al-Abri et al., 2017; Wiest, 2015). Bandura’s (1977) studies dispelled past theories that observational learning is simply passive; rather, learners make a conscious choice known as human agency and cognitively process activities and make behavioral changes.


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According to social learning theory, learning is an active process between all participants. Students need to be engaged with each other and the instructor to gain the desired outcomes. Learning is not viewed in a vacuum, but rather seen as an exchange of ideas and knowledge, which results in greater knowledge for all participants (Vygotsky, 1978; Wiest, 2015). Instructors are expected to foster and engage students as active participants. This engagement is accomplished through collaborative learning activities and use of multiple technology avenues in the current online, grounded, and blended classroom platforms. Through the collaborative social learning process, students can develop skills, think critically, and acquire new knowledge among peers (Bell, Urhahne, Schanze, & Ploetzner, 2010; Mukherjee et al., 2017; Wiest, 2015). In addition, engagement theory has emerged from the examination of online learning. The theory focuses on the level of student engagement in the learning process. Kearsley and Shneiderman (1999) and Kearsley (2005) noted that the fundamental principle is that students must be meaningfully engaged in the learning process through challenges, activities, and peer interaction. The theory examines the role of technology and the ability to promote student engagement through a variety of tools, such as discussion boards, group projects, videos, web tours, web live classrooms, and problem-based learning. These various technological learning tools promote engagement for all learning styles; however, traditional settings do not always allow the slower thinkers to process and engage in the learning process (Kearsley, 2005; Kearsley & Shneiderman, 1999; Mukherjee et al., 2017; Wiest, 2015). There are three basic principles of the engagement theory: 1. Group context (i.e., collaborative teams); 2. Project-based; and Â


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3. Real-world focus (Kearsley & Shneiderman, 1999; Kirchner & Razmerita, 2015). This emerging theory differs from past technology theories where the emphasis has been on the individual learning process or instruction method. Rather, this model focuses on the group collaboration process (Kearsley & Shneiderman, 1999; Wiest, 2015). This theory highlights the use of technology in the new academic arena to engage students in the learning process (Al-Abri et al., 2017; Mukherjee et al., 2017). Prezi One of the most well-known presentation tools used for presenting completed projects by students in the classroom is PowerPoint, which was designed as a computer-generated slide presentation tool. It was later sold as a Microsoft Windows-based version and used in a wide variety of settings such as business, entertainment, and education. Like other presentation tools such as Prezi, PowerPoint has been designed to tell a story or to make a report come alive by illustrating a core message. Both are considered to be graphics and not word processing programs, using slides as visual aids to help the speaker project his or her message and connect with the audience (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Description. Prezi is an Internet presentation software that stores presentations in the cloud, allowing for more flexibility and collaboration than with PowerPoint (Settle, Abrams, & Baker, 2011). Prezi is accessible via Internet access, which allows users to locate their Prezi. Prezi software has a free educational-use only application for students and faculty with an .edu address, which provides an adequate space to create, allowing for the easy insert of YouTube videos, images, PDF files, and other objects to enhance the presentation. Prezi presentations can be edited at any place and time among multiple users when they are provided editing access through the Internet. A link is available that will allow others to Â


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view the presentation, and any changes made to the presentation will be reflected in what the viewer sees. As a result, students can use Prezi much more easily to work collaboratively on projects (Strasser, 2014). Ultimately, these features allow Prezi to offer increased creativity in designing and using the presentation tool for both instructors and students. A fascinating feature of Prezi is its ability to zoom in on items in the presentation (Settle et al., 2011). This can be visually appealing when not overused and emphasized to cause disequilibrium. This feature tends to capture the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention and provides the professor an opportunity to embed discussion questions and hidden answers into the slide, creating an easy review for forthcoming exams. If one wants to highlight the connections between topics and desires a very visually oriented presentation, then Prezi is the correct choice (Harris, 2011). It is important to explore the different features of Prezi to fully utilize them to create a well-designed presentation. The topic needs to be viewed in multiple perspectives from interconnected parts to the whole visual picture. The best Prezi presentations use both perspectives to create an excellent learning experience (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Application. Prezi offers both professors and students the opportunity be creative, demonstrate relationships among concepts and objects, allow for interesting visualization, and engage in active learning opportunities. Most classroom projects, whether research projects or experiential learning activities, require students individually or in groups to create a presentation to share their work, findings, and reflections. Creativity can be encouraged and facilitated when students use Prezi to design their presentations. Prezi can emphasize how different relationships among the assignment topics are linked together. A timeline, a theory, and general applications showing steps of progression can be highlighted easily using Prezi and are made interesting by inserting images, graphics, articles, pictures, YouTube videos, and more. These visual aids help Â


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to draw a picture to capture the audience’s interest and engage them in the process unfolding before their eyes. The collaboration among students happens when each group member is able to help design the Prezi and contribute to a dynamic presentation (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Gamification As educators, we need to recognize that Generation Z-ers are from a world that is rapidly evolving, and as such, we cannot expect them to be educated in the same manner as past generations. It is our job to advance their learning capabilities by acquiring new skills that will foster a productive environment for motivated and critically thinking individuals, so they will be able to succeed in their chosen careers. The integration of technology into the classroom curriculum to enhance learning is rapidly advancing, and it is imperative that instructors learn to implement lessons and activities that will facilitate the scholastic environment, while engaging and motivating its learners. One movement that is being used quite effectively in today’s classroom environment to increase motivation and learning while sustaining student interest is the use of gamification. Broadly defined, gamification is an educational approach to learning that implements the use of video-designed games to motivate and influence behavior that will stimulate and inspire students to learn, while in a classroom environment (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011). In today’s digital generation gamification has become a popular tactic to encourage specific behaviors, and increase motivation and engagement. Though commonly found in marketing strategies, it is now being implemented in many educational programs as well, helping educators find the balance between achieving their objectives and catering to evolving student needs. (Huang & Dilip, 2013, p. 5)


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Scott and Ghenia (2013) advocated the use of gamification in the classroom to encourage attendance, increase student collaboration, and enhance focused attention. A gamified classroom provides an active learning environment in which students are required to engage, critically think, and problem solve. Ben Leong, Assistant Professor at the School of Computing, National University of Singapore, has recommended that there should be a clear understanding that gamification is independent of knowledge or skills. Gamification directly affects engagement and motivation and indirectly leads to acquiring more knowledge and skills. Gamification encourages students to perform an action; for example, motivating students to practice computer programming will increase their skill and motivating students to memorize consistently can increase their knowledge (Huang & Soman, 2013, p. 15). The implementation of gamification in the classroom becomes the instrument for content learning. Instructors who apply gamification as an alternative to their traditional instructional content will discover studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; increased attention and engagement within the classroom, while heightening studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motivation to analyze alternative solutions to problem-solving. While successfully implementing gamification in the classroom environment is not exactly an easy task, it can be very beneficial, and when instigated properly can be a powerful tool in which to enhance the education process. When developing curriculum for a classroom and deciding how to include gamification, it is important to understand that the curriculum is not built around the game, but the games are developed around the curriculum. In order to adequately implement gamification in the classroom, an instructor must first consider the makeup of the students, their technological skills, and their learning styles (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Application. One such game that has been effectively used in the classroom for engaging students with smartphones and tablets is Kahoot. Through the use of Kahoot, the Â


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professor can create a fun game made from a series of multiple-choice questions. It also allows for videos, images, and diagrams to be inserted, in order to enhance the learning potential for the audience. Kahoot is best played in groups involving the entire classroom, with students using their own technological devices such as smartphones, laptops, or tablets. Players respond to the questions shown on a large screen to the entire class, which unites the class in play and encourages players to see how others responded to the questions without identifying students by name. This game promotes social learning, regardless of whether the players are in the on-ground classroom or online classroom. It also offers students a chance to create their own Kahoots to deepen their understanding of the course material and share it in a round of game play. Designing a game that will effectively enhance the learning environment and accomplish the instructorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goals may require some initial investment in time, in order to adequately plan and organize the curriculum assignment and assessments. However, once the process is complete, the instructor will discover that gamification, when implemented properly, can be a very effective educational tool for enhancing the learning objectives of the classroom. By providing an active learning environment, motivating students to critically think and problem solve, and increasing student engagement, gamification is another way in which to reach the new generation of Z-ers (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Graphics and Infographics Information graphics, or infographics, are resources teachers can use to present information, graphics, or other content quickly and clearly through the visual modality. Free software, such as easel.ly (2017), PiktoChart (2017), and Canva (2017), provide many editable, fully customizable templates, which make these visual posters easy to create. The online

Â


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tutorials make it easy for even a first-time user to adjust the text, background, images, and layout (De Alzpurua, 2016; Mukherjee et al., 2017). Application. Teachers enrolled in a graduate online course identified a lesson with a significant amount of content presented through connected text. They then attempted to revise this content to better address the needs of visual learners. The teachers used the infographic software of their choice to create an infographic to help their students better understand and engage with the content. One future teacher shared the following comments about his experience: I found the tool had an easy learning curve. I could create an infographic fairly quickly. I am not artistically inclined, and I am sure this infographic is elementary at best. But the tool easel.ly was not difficult to use. The pros of the software were the ease of instruction. I found a video on YouTube that was quite helpful. Another teacher stated: I could definitely use an infographic such as the one I used for this lesson. easel.ly is easy to use with many tutorials for each step. I love all the templates that you can choose from or you can start from scratch. There is a toolbar where you can add color, font, pictures, and lots of other extras with tutorials on how to add them. The visual along with text makes infographics a great learning tool. This supports the following observation by Kopp (2015): “As long as teachers have a topic to teach, the Internet is an instructional resource to connect students in the classroom to the world around them” (p. 108).


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Blackboard Collaborate Online learning has become a popular model of learning in higher education. Allen and Seaman (2016) reported that 5.8 million students are enrolled nationally in online higher education courses. This rising trend necessitates the use of good pedagogical principles along with relevant, complete, and accurate content. One aspect of good pedagogy is building online learning community through opportunities for interaction and engagement through synchronous communication. Rovai (2002) identified two dimensions for successful online learning community: social dimension (connectivity) and learning dimension (academic). Synchronous classrooms are virtual classrooms that connect the social and the learning dimensions through an e-conferencing system that helps build a learning community. Blackboard Collaborate is a platform that combined the capabilities of industry leaders Wimba and Elluminate. Blackboard Collaborate provides a comprehensive online learning and collaboration platform designed specifically for education. It is helping thousands of higher education, K-12, professional, corporate, and government organizations worldwide deliver a more effective learning experience through blended and mobile learning online collaboration tools. In addition, it will help to open up allnew aspects of real time, or anytime, learning to engage more students and improve outcomes (BlackboardCollaborate website, n.d.; Mukherjee et al., 2017). Application. Synchronous sessions remove social isolation and provide opportunities for collaboration and real-time interaction. Designing e-learning involves bringing together accurate and relevant content with effective instructional design elements for self-paced learning without the need for instructor presence; however, according to Moore (2014), student success with learning in an online setting is frequently connected to the instructor. Online instructors an Â


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thoughtfully and intentionally create a learning environment to engage students with course materials. Assumptions in an online environment are often about students learning at their own pace, in their own space, and in their own time. However, when the online environment provides a structured yet communicative environment, when students feel a sense of belonging, when the classroom allows for learners to collaborate meaningfully, when there are opportunities for free and open communication, and when students can build community and participate openly and freely in learning activities, then there is deeper learning, course success, and satisfaction (Ascough, 2007; Moore, 2014). Synchronous classes provide direct access to instructors and peers in real time, and gratify the social side of learning for students who are often separated geographically. Palloff and Pratt (1999) observed that failure to build a learning community directly results in unsuccessful learning (Mukherjee et al., 2017). In an online learning environment, synchronous sessions provide a way for students to connect and engage with peers in real time on a variety of learning activities, such as direct instruction, seminars, student-led discussions, group projects, in-class presentation, topic discussions, and resource sharing. As in face-to-face classrooms, these discussions provide enriching and empowering learning experiences and help students engage with content. Cooperative learning strategies like jigsaw or desk critiques used in the whole classroom or in breakout rooms allow learners to interact, collaborate, and engage actively in a low affect environment with their learning. Ascough (2007) noted that when students feel that they belong to a community, there is student engagement, increased motivation, greater productivity, and deeper learning. According to Park and Bonk (2007), the major benefits of utilizing the synchronous classroom in online Â


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classes include providing and receiving immediate feedback, exchanging varied perspectives, and increased social presences, all of which foster a sense of emotional support in an otherwise isolated experience (Mukherjee et al., 2017). To engage students, technology is incorporated into the course. This allows students an opportunity to review content prior to class and utilize the content as a resource week to week. When preparing for a course, the professor must carefully create lessons that will allow students to grow and understand content. Part of this process involves integrating appropriate technology to support student learning. According to Frick, Chadha, Watson, Wang, & Green (2009), 1) Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems; 2) Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge; 3) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner; 4) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner; and 5) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world. (pp. 707-707) These five principles allow the professor to build on student knowledge, expose them to new content, and move them from remembering to evaluation (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Currently, at Saint Leo University, Blackboard Collaborate is embedded in the LMS platform. Instructors and students can access the system for face-to-face office hours, collaboration on group projects, and live class sessions. In the Graduate Social Work program, Collaborate is used weekly for live classes. In these sessions, instructors use an active learning model to conduct small group activities, role play demonstration of clinical skills, and foster group discussion (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Â


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Video Conferencing Over the years, technology has infiltrated academia and pushed the institution to expand education and its parameters. Because of fiscal responsibility efforts and expanding the institution’s reach, professors are being charged with integrating technology to reach and teach students who are not seated in a traditional classroom. One modality to address this shift is synchronous video conferencing (VC), which has been in existence for 50 years (Anastasiades, 2009). It is important to recognize that VC is synchronous learning, which means that all participants are gathered together at the same time. The variation with VC is that this gathering can take place in numerous geographical locations. “Videoconferencing offers people who are at different locations worldwide the opportunity to communicate and collaborate, regardless of their geographical position” (Anastasiades, 2009, p. 3). VC is a solid tool that can be utilized to teach and engage students, while reducing stress and anxiety for the professor. In many schools, the necessity of expanding education to rural areas is a key focus. This focus is connected to their core values and missions. In addition to reaching rural areas, many organizations are opening to the idea of educating their employees their business centers. Both options provide great opportunities for education institutions to expand their reach and go beyond the traditional classroom. As such, it is essential that educators begin to assess this option as a delivery tool option. This section will focus on the advantages of VC, as well as potential issues for professors and students. In addition, the best practices framework will be provided to guide the implementation of VC (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Application. Participation in training and practice teaching via VC differs greatly from face-to-face class time. To properly prepare, professors must take time to engage in training. It


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is equally important to practice working in front of the camera (New York University, 2014). During the first class session, provide training for students. Remember, this is new for them as well. They need to understand the basic process. It would be helpful to create an information sheet. This is also a great time to let students know how to access you outside of class. This is necessary because they will not have access to the professor at the end of class sessions (Mukherjee et al., 2017). This is key to ensure you have covered all the session components. “Time should be taken to organize and think about how to make the teaching interactive. Crucially, the lecturer will need to look at ways to encourage the audience to interact with him/her and each other” (Gill et al., 2005, p. 574). Unfortunately, there is no room for spontaneity with VC (Shephard, 2016). Think through how to engage off-site students. The timetable needs to be formatted in a manner that allows the professor to engage all students (Mukherjee et al., 2017). Develop assessments for technology. This is especially important during the first launch phase. Receiving feedback on student experiences will help address concerns for future courses. “Develop a simple evaluation tool for assessing student satisfaction, with the course delivery method and suggestions for the course. You will be able to modify your course structure and delivery if needed from the students’ responses” (New York University, 2014, p. 2). Methodology Problem Statement The use of technology tools has drastically increased over the past 10 years. Past research demonstrated mixed findings related to students’ perceptions on the use of technology in the classroom (Wiest, 2015). The researchers investigated these findings further by


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completing an exploratory pilot study evaluating the students’ perceptions of the technology tools utilized in the classroom. The researchers utilized innovative technology tools (Blackboard, VTT, Gamification, Prezi, and Avatars) at a nonprofit Catholic University in Florida to evaluate the students’ perceptions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the students’ perception of the various tools utilized in the classroom of the School of Education and Social Science (SESS) at a nonprofit Catholic school in Central Florida. Hypotheses The researchers had two hypotheses for the study: 1. The researchers hypothesized that the students’ comments on the final course evaluations would express a positive benefit to engagement and student learning in the course. 2. The researchers hypothesized that the students’ course ratings on the technology tools in the classroom would be a 3 or higher on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Population The population of interest for the study was comprised of six instructors’ courses over the academic year 2016-2017 in the School of Social Service, which has programs in Criminal Justice, Social Work, Education, and Human Service. The study examined the students’ perception of the technology tools utilized in the classroom. Sample The sample size for the current study was based on current enrollment in the nonprofit Catholic institution’s courses for the six instructors in this study in the School of Education and Social Service. This was a purposeful sample (Creswell, 2009). There were a total of 64 end-of


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course evaluations for the academic year 2016-2017; however, not all end-of-course evaluations had specific qualitative comments related to technology (Dr. Susan Kinsella, personal communication, August 26, 2017). Sample Demographics The demographic variables for this study were the enrollments in the School of Education and Social Services at the nonprofit Catholic institution for Fall 2016-Spring 2017. The four programs in the SESS have similar student demographics. The School serves not only traditional students, but adult learners as well. The programs in SESS are located in over 40 states. The School has both male and female students (Saint Leo University website, n.d.). The current age range of the School is 20 years old to 65-plus years old. Various ethnicities are represented in the two programs, including Caucasian, Hispanic, African American, Jamaican, Russian, Polish, Haitian, and other. Students in both programs have various employment statuses as well. Along with employment diversity, students in the School have diverse families (married without children, married with children, single with children, single without children, divorced with children, divorced without children, cohabitating; Wiest, 2015). Lastly, the nonprofit Catholic institution serves a large veteran population, so some students in the School are active or retired veterans from all service branches (Saint Leo University website, n.d.). Methodology A pilot study was completed to examine the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perception of the teaching technology tools utilized in the classroom. An exploratory postsurvey model was conducted. A mixed-method approach was implemented to evaluate the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; qualitative comments and overall rating of technology in the course on the end of course evaluations. The end-of-course evaluations were reviewed for the last academic year (2016-2017). The end-of-course Â


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evaluations have a 4-point scale (1–strongly disagree, 2–disagree, 3–agree, and 4–strongly agree) which contains questions related to the resources in the class, the instructor, the technology in the class, and the overall learning experience. For this study, the researchers only examined the questions related to the technology tools used in the class and students’ satisfaction on the 4point scale. In addition, the researchers examined the qualitative remarks on the end-of-course evaluations to examine and find specific themes related to students’ perceptions of the specific technology tools in the course. Procedure The researchers reviewed their end-of-course evaluations for the course in which they utilized the specific technology tools examined in the article. The researchers aggregated the score of the question related to the overall satisfaction of technology tools used in the course. The average rating for each discipline was obtained (1–strongly disagree, 2–disagree, 3–agree, and 4–strongly agree). Next, the researchers examined the qualitative comments for each discipline’s end-of-course evaluations to discover any themes related to students’ perception of the technology tools implemented for the course. The researchers extracted the comments from the evaluations, which discussed the use of technology in the course. Then comments were coded into categories. Next, the data were reviewed and analyzed based on themes related to technology tools in the classroom. Data Analysis The researchers reviewed the end-of-course evaluation for Fall 2016-Spring 2017. The average rating was calculated for the question related to technology satisfaction on the end-ofcourse evaluations. The question examined the satisfaction of the technology tools utilized in the classroom. In addition, the qualitative comments on the evaluations were reviewed. The


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researchers extracted the comments from the evaluations, which discussed the use of technology in the course. Comments were then coded into categories. Next, the data were reviewed for themes related to technology tools in the classroom. Findings In the table below, the mean scores for each program (human services, education, social work, and criminal justice) related to the technology tools utilized in the classroom are conveyed. Overall, each program score was greater than 3 for the tools in the classroom, which assisted in the learning process. According to these findings, Hypothesis 2 was accepted. Table 1 School of Education and Social Services Program

Average rating on Technology question on the end-of-course evaluation (1-4 scale)

Criminal Justice n = 16

3.5 average rating

Human Services n = 17

3.6 average rating

Social Work n = 15

3.4 average rating

Education n = 16

3.6 average rating

As for the qualitative comments on the evaluation, feedback was limited. However, there were several comments, which suggested the technology tools enhanced the learning process and allowed the students to grasp the materials with greater insight. For instance, the education students utilizing Blackboard Collaborate noted, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Collaborating with peers was helpful because it gave me more insight, ideas, and a level of comfort knowing I was not alone.â&#x20AC;? Overall, the students expressed positive feedback for the technology tools. Students believed they were more Â


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connected with peers and the instructor. Students also noted that the tools allowed them to expand their knowledge through the implementation of the technology, unlike course offerings without the technology options. Some of these comments were as follows: 

“It allowed me to confirm contact information and gain added knowledge from my peers. It gave me real-time interaction that I miss online.”

“Blackboard allowed for instructors and the students to interact, share ideas, and give additional insight.”

“It allowed for peer input and thoughts which builds on the learning experience.”

“I was kept engaged and ready to learn.”

“Made the concepts from the book visual and helped me learn.”

These comments highlight the students’ positive feedback regarding the course tools. However, the students also conveyed challenges with the technology tools, which were considered as well. For example, students noted there were too many materials via technology and would have preferred more discussion. In addition, several students noted technology issues with the tools implemented in the course. These issues caused frustration and obstructed the learning process. Discussion While the findings express a high level of satisfaction via the end-of-course evaluations for the technology materials in the course, the pilot study provided limited insight. Reviewing the qualitative feedback sheds some light on the students’ perception of the various technology tools implemented. Students noted more connection and learning insight from these technology materials than the traditional platform in other courses. More importantly, this pilot study supports the need for more targeted research with a validated and reliable scale to fully examine students’ satisfaction with and perception of the course technology tools. Along


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with a specific scale, qualitative focus groups will further illuminate the views of the students on the technology tools utilized in the classroom. Conclusion In summary, the goal of integrating technology with education is to increase students’ understanding and retention of course concepts. Some studies have indicated “a positive effect on learning and the overall improvement on the students’ level of understanding of materials” (Bolliger & Supanakorn, 2011, p. 471). All of the programs involved in this study require students to retain and competently apply course concepts. With multiple modalities being utilized to support student learning, educators are increasingly integrating effective classroom technology to support learning outcomes. This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of technology integration as a support tool for student learning. The qualitative responses highlight students’ engagement and deepened classroom experience as a result of integrating technology. Each program had an average mean score of 3 for technology end-of-course questions, which indicates a positive experience with technology integration. VTT, gamification, Blackboard Collaborate, and Prezi are some of the tools that, with the implementation of best practices, can support growth for institutions, professors, and students. Openness and flexibility must be maintained during the implementation phase. In addition, remember that students are the target audience. The end goal is for them to leave with knowledge and understanding. Maintaining a focus on their growth will assist with planning course delivery through multiple technology tools. In this article, an overview of these tools in various learning platforms is presented. Lastly, the pilot study examined the students’ perception and satisfaction with the course technology tools. The


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study indicated a high satisfaction with the tools; however, further investigation is needed to fully understand all aspects of the students’ views and perceptions. Author Biographies Courtney Wiest, Ed.D. Assistant Professor, Associate Director of Graduate Social Work. Saint Leo University. Dr. Wiest has a Doctorate in Education from Argosy University, a Master’s in Social Work from the University of Central Florida, and a Bachelor’s in Social Work from Saint Leo University. She is currently a full-time Assistant Professor in the Graduate Social Work program at Saint Leo University in Dade City, Florida. Along with her teaching duties, she is the Associate Director for the Graduate Social Work program. She has been at Saint Leo University for the past 11 years. Before she was a full-time instructor at Saint Leo University, she was a Behavior Specialist for the local high school in Dade City, Florida. Her earlier career was spent in the field of social work working with children and families in the dependency system. Dr. Wiest’s current research interests are higher education and online learning, particularly related to “sense of community” in the online environment, as well as online program development and student engagement. Rhondda Waddell, Ph.D. Associate Dean and Professor of Social Work. College of Education and Social Services. Saint Leo University. Dr. Waddell is an Associate Dean and Professor in Social Work at Saint Leo University College of Education and Social Services. She has been a member of the Saint Leo University (SLU) community since August, 2010. She received her Bachelor’s degree from the University of Florida in Sociology and her Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Social Work from Florida State University. She previously worked as a medical social worker and taught an interdisciplinary family health course with Shands Hospital and the University of Florida in Gainesville for a combined 19 years of service. Her research


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interests include interdisciplinary collaborations on social justice topics to include community health, humane education, and human-animal bond topics of study. She enjoys her family, which includes two daughters, Sarah and Maggie; two grandsons, Richard and Easton; four dogs; and a pot-bellied pig. Felicia Wilson, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Undergraduate Human Services. Saint Leo University. Dr. Wilson received her Doctorate in Human Services from Capella University, Master’s in Social Work from Florida State University, Master’s in Business Administration from Saint Leo University, and Bachelor’s in Social Work from Alabama State University. She also holds a certificate in Contemporary Theory in Addictive Behavior. She is a licensed master social worker in the state of Georgia, a Certified Anger Management Specialist (CAMS-II), and a Certified Professional Life Coach. Prior to her arrival at Saint Leo University, she worked in nursing homes as an assistant administrator/director of social services, as a therapist with abused children who were victims of sexual exploitation, and as a director of customer services with a healthcare technology company. Dr. Wilson has written numerous articles and has a strong presentation repertoire. She served as the secretary for the Southern Organization of Human Services. In addition, she is a member of the Pi Gamma Mu honor society and is affiliated with the National Organization of Human Services, Southern Organization of Human Services, National Association of Social Workers, and National Organization of Social Workers–Georgia chapter. Her research interests include job burnout antecedents and prevention, teaching pedagogy, student engagement, anger management, and domestic violence. Dr. Debra A. Mims. Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice. School of Education and Social Services. Saint Leo University. Dr. Mims is an Assistant Professor/Instructor of Criminal Justice and a member of the Saint Leo community since 2011. Dr. Mims received her


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degree in Business Administration with a concentration in Criminal Justice from Northcentral University. Dr. Mims has taught at both the Pasco-Hernando State College Police Academy and the Hillsborough Community College Police Academy. Dr. Mims is a retired Tampa Police officer where she served on the Mounted Patrol Unit and Bicycle Unit, and worked as an Undercover and Community Service Officer. She was also a child abuse, elderly abuse, and domestic violence investigator. Dr. Mims is a certified firearms instructor and CPR/BLS instructor. Dr. Mims teaches a variety of criminal justice courses within the Department of Criminal Justice. Her research passion is the animal/human bond and animal-assisted interventions that contribute to health and well-being in the lives of individuals, both young and old. Holly Atkins, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Chair, Undergraduate Education. Saint Leo University. Dr. Atkins joined the Saint Leo University faculty in 2011; prior to coming to Saint Leo, she was a middle grades language arts teacher for the Pinellas County School District. She teaches the Education Technology, Methods course for English Education majors, as well as courses in middle/secondary school curriculum, Philosophy and Teaching the Adolescent Learner for the undergraduate teacher preparation program, and the teacher inquiry course for graduate education. Dr. Atkins is the principal investigator for the digital backpacks grant and the director of Saint Leo Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Teacher Technology Summer Institute. She has initiated an Avatar classroom in her education courses using the Teach Live! interactive technology and has worked with other faculty in the school to assist in the development of Avatars for other disciplines. She was recognized at a White House event in 2016 for her innovative work in education. Her research interests include adolescent literacy, technology pedagogy, and adolescent identity development. In 2014-2015, she was a Saint Leo University Quality Â


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Enhancement Program Faculty Fellow, and an Instructional Technology Fellow in 2013-2014. Dr. Atkins has presented at the state, national, and international levels and is a contributing author to the text, The Apple Shouldn’t Fall Far from Common Core. Lin Carver, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Graduate Education. Saint Leo University. Dr. Carver received a Bachelor’s degree from Wheaton College, Master’s in Education from the College of New Jersey, and Doctorate degree from Walden University. Prior to her arrival at Saint Leo University, she was a literacy coach and taught for more than 20 years in the K-12 public school system. Dr. Carver specializes in reading and instructional leadership. She currently teaches reading, instructional leadership, exceptional education, and educational specialist courses in the Education department. When she is not in the classroom, her research interests include literacy, technology, and assessment. Dr. Carver has coauthored 3 books: Teaching Syllable Patterns, Reading Basics for All Teachers, and Coaching: Making a Difference for Students and Teachers. She regularly presents at state, national, and international conferences on literacy and technology. Dr. Carver is an active member in AMLE (Association of Middle Level Educators, ILA (International Literacy Association), and FRA (Florida Reading Association), and is the Reading Program Administrator. Keya Mukherjee, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Graduate Education. Saint Leo University. Dr. Mukherjee received a Bachelor’s and Master’s in English Literature from Calcutta University, India; a Master’s in Applied Linguistics; and a Doctorate degree from the University of South Florida in Curriculum and Instruction. Prior to her arrival at Saint Leo University she taught at the University of South Florida. Dr. Mukherjee specializes in ESOL, multicultural education, and instructional design. She is currently the Program Administrator for the Master’s in Instructional Design Program at Saint Leo University where she teaches courses on learning


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theory, instructional design, e-learning tools, emerging trends in instructional design, and ESOL methodology courses. Her current research interests and professional interests include the role of the learner in the design process, online teaching innovations, cultural factors that affect online learning, student engagement with online learning, competency-based training, and academic language development for English learners. Dr. Mukherjee presents and publishes her work each year at several national and regional conferences, in their proceedings, and in other journals. Presentations at these conferences are on her current topics of interest: innovative and research-based instructional design practices, such as gamification; MOOC facilitation; leadership through instructional design; and academic language development in English language learner. Dr. Mukherjee is an active member in the AECT, SLOAN-C, and ATE (Association of Teacher Education) organizations, and currently serves on the board of the SSTESOL (Sunshine State TESOL) organization. Dr. Mukherjee has vast experience in curriculum development, and has most recently reshaped the MSID program in the School of Education to make it a signature program for the school and in the field. She has participated in three instructional design service projects since 2016 with the nonprofit organization Designers for Learning to facilitate MOOC projects on open basic education resources. For her work with the service project, she won the prestigious 2016 Outstanding Practice Award for Open ABE Service-MOOC award at the AECT convention with the facilitating team. References Al-Abri, A., Jamoussi, Y., Kraiem, N., & Al-Khanjari, Z. (2017). Comprehensive classification of collaboration approaches. Elearning, Telematics and Informatics, 34(6). doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.08.006

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Allen, E., Seaman, J., Poulin, R., & Taylor Straut, T. (2016). Online report card â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/read/onli ne-report-card-tracking-onlineeducationunitedstates-2015/ Anastasiades, P. S. (2009). Interactive videoconferencing and collaborative distance learning for K-12 students and teachers : Theory and practice. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Anderson, R. E., & Ronnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Teaching, Learning, and Computing: 1998 Survey Report. Irvine, CA: Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations. Ascough, R. S. (2007). Welcoming design: Hosting a hospitable online course. Teaching Theology and Religion, 10(3), 131-136. Banaji, S., & Burn, J. (2006). The rhetorics of creativity: A review of the literature. London: Creative Partnerships. Banaji, A., Burn, D., & Buckingham. (2010). The rhetorics of creativity: A literature review (2nd ed.). London: Creativity, Culture and Education. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bell, T., Urhahne, D., Schanze, U., & Ploetzner, R. (2010). Collaborative inquiry learning: Models, tools, and challenges. International Journal of Science Education, 32(2). Retrieved from u/docview/880188245/abstract?accountid=34899 Berger, R., Stein, L., & Mullin, J. B. (2009). Videoconferencing: A viable teaching strategy for social work education? Social Work Education, 28(5), 476-487. doi:10.1080/02615470802308625 Â


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Blackboard Collaborate website. (n.d.). Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Colla borate/Overview.aspx Bolliger, D. U., & Supanakorn, S. (2011). Learning styles and student perceptions of the use of interactive online tutorials. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 470-481. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01037.x Brooksfield, S. (1995). Adult learning: An overview. In International encyclopedia of education. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. Canva. (2017). Canva.com. Retrieved from https://www.canva.com/ Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. De Alzpurua, M. (2016, May 1). Communicating with infographics. InCite, 37(5/6), 16. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “gamification.” Paper presented at the15th International MindTrekConference. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/2181037.2181040. easel.ly. (2017). easel.ly. Retrieved from https://www.easel.ly/ Frick, T., Chadha, R., Watson, C., Wang, Y., & Green, P. (2009). College student perceptions of teaching and learning quality. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(5), 705-720. doi:10.1007/s11423-007-9079-9 Gill, D., Parker, C., & Richardson, J. (2005). Twelve tips for teaching using videoconferencing. Medical Teacher, 27(7), 573-577. Harris, D. (2011). Presentation software: Pedgological constraints and potentials. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, and Tourism Education, 10(1), 72-84.


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Hew, K., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research & Development, 55(3), 223-252. doi:10.1007/s11423-006-9022-5 Huang, W. H-Y., & Dilip, S. (2013). A practitionerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s guide to gamification of education. University of Toronto: Rotman School of Management. Institute of Education Sciences. (2010). Fast facts: Educational technology. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=46 Institute of Education Sciences. (2013). National assessment of educational progress. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ Kearsley, G. (2005). Online learning: Personal reflections on the transformation of education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Kearsley, G., & Shneiderman, B. (1999). Engagement theory: A framework for technologybased teaching and learning. Retrieved from http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/engage.htm Kirchner, K., & Razmerita, L. (2015) Collaborative learning in the cloud: A cross-cultural perspective of collaboration. Proceedings of the 26th ACM Conference on Hypertext & Social Media, ACM, 333-336. Knipe, D., & Lee, D. (2002). The quality of teaching and learning via videoconferencing. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 301-311. Kopp, K. (2015). Integrating technology into the curriculum (2nd ed.). Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education. Kozma, R. B. (2003). Technology and classroom practices: An international study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(1), 1-4. Â


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Kurshan, B. (2016). Games must be incorporated into the learning process, integrated with the curriculum rather than an afterthought. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/barbarakurshan/2016/02/11/the-intersection-of-learningand-fungamification-in-education/ Moore, J. (2014). Effects of online interaction and instructor presence on studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; satisfaction and success with online undergraduate public relations courses. Journalism & Mass Communication, 69(3), 271-288. doi: 10.1177/1077695814536398 Monster Survey. (2016). The Monster multigenerational survey. New York: TNS Global Research Agency. Mukherjee, K., Wiest, C., Waddell, R., Mims, D., Wilson, F., Carver, L., & Atkins, H. (2017) Engaging students through technology an interdisciplinary approach. GETF Conference Proceedings on EeL, 7, 13-21. doi: 10.5176/2251-1814_Eel17.19 New York University. (2014). Videoconferencing best practices & tips for instructors. Retrieved from https://www.nyu.edu/content/dam/nyu/facultyResources/documents/ESMITS/VideoConf erencing_BestPractices_March_2014.pdf Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Paholsky, K. (2012). Death by PowerPoint: Updating your classroom teaching skills. Retrieved from https://www.amtamassage.org/uploads/cms/ Parks, B. (2012). Death to PowerPoint. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://businessweek.com/documents/paholsky_handout_death_by_po wer_point_for_2012_convention_110.pdf. Â


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Park, Y. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2007). Is online life a breeze? A case study for promoting synchronous learning in a blended graduate course. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(3), 307-323. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no3/park.htm Patel, D. (2016). Eight ways to prepare for Generation Z in the workplace. The Huffington Post. PiktoChart. (2017). PiktoChart.com. Retrieved from https://piktochart.com/ Robinson, R. D., McKenna, M. C., & Conradi, K. (2012). Issues and trends in literacy education (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Rovai, A. P. (2001) Building classroom community at a distance: A case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(33), 33-48. Scott, M., & Ghinea, G. (2013, March 6). Integrating Fantasy role-play into the programming lab: Exploring the “projective identity” hypothesis. ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. ACM, 119-122. doi:10.1145/2445196.2445237. Settle, Q., Abrams, K., & Baker, L. (2011). Using Prezi in the classroom. NACTA Journal, 55(4), 105-106. Shephard, N. (2016). The wonderful world of teaching via videoconferencing. Agora, 51(4), 74-76. Strasser, N. (2014). Using Prezi in higher education. Journal of College Teaching & LearningSecond Quarter, 11(2), 95-98. Walker, T. (2015, January 8). Technology in the classroom: Don’t believe the hype. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2015/01/08/technologyclassr oom-dontbelieve-hype/


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Wiest, C. (2015). Sense of classroom community in online social work. Journal of Education and Human Development, 4(2/1). doi:10.15640/jehd.v4n2_1a3 Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Utilizing Inquiry and Discourse to Engage Diverse Stakeholders and Promote Cultural Competence in a Strategic Planning Process Sharon Wilbur University of Oklahoma Sharon Dean University of Oklahoma Tyler Bridges University of Oklahoma Abstract This case study examined the structures and processes provided by a strategic planning organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s communication design that resulted in an equitable generation of knowledge and individual efficacy, or engagement competence, for all diverse stakeholders. The study was grounded in the theoretical frameworks taken from studies on democratic schools, collaborative strategic planning, and engagement competence. Data were collected from multiple school districts that had completed year-long strategic planning processes, which included diverse stakeholder groups including parents, students, teachers, community members, school board members, and administrators. Data sources included interviews, feedback forms, artifacts, and field notes. Findings revealed six communication structures and/or processes that supported the development of inquiry and discourse skills for all participants, so that there was equitable engagement in the decision-making process. The findings resulted in a model of scaffolding for diverse cultural engagement competence. Keywords: cultural competence, strategic planning, inquiry and discourse Â


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Schools within a democracy should be democratic entities in which the public is invited and expected to participate in the decisions, implementation, and evaluation processes. Democracy is composed of five basic principles of (1) representation: individuals are represented on issues affecting their lives; (2) participation: individuals are involved in the decision-making process; (3) rights: entitlements which are protected and common to all individuals; (4) equity: the fair and equal treatment of individuals and groups; and (5) informed choice: providing the necessary tools and information to make informed decisions (Davies, 2002). Yet, participation is hampered by unequal power relations, a lack of confidence and expertise caused by a lack of training, and/or poor sharing of information (Mncube & Naicker, 2011). Strategic planning is a decision-making process utilized by many schools for future implementation and evaluation. However, despite the possible transformative nature of strategic planning, its drawbacks lie in its lack of stakeholder involvement or involvement that rests in power relations between elites and non-elites. This imbalance of power is often due to the differences in language and knowledge systems (Fischer, 2001). Only when the balance of power is distributed across all stakeholders will all individuals be able to engage effectively with competence. As educators seek to reimagine ways to contribute to the development of what public education can and must be for today’s children and communities, researchers must stop and ask, “Who constitutes the public?” and “How are the voices and efforts of those in the community empowered to make informed decisions?” How do we build stakeholders’ engagement


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competence through the necessary knowledge and capacity? These questions need additional research. This case study examined the structures and processes provided by a strategic planning organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s communication design that resulted in an equitable generation of knowledge and individual efficacy, or engagement competence, for all diverse stakeholders. The research question for the study is: 1. What communication structures and processes support the development of equitable cultural competence across diverse stakeholder groups? Literature Review Democratic Schools The goal of every public school in the United States is to ensure that students become contributing citizens of a democratic society (Glickman, Gordon & Ross, 1998). In a democratic society, all other goals become secondary to this main one. However, the political left and right are redefining the term democracy, as each party struggles over the seemingly counter focus on the common good for all versus the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pursuit of happiness, or the we versus the I. People bring to any discussion or decision their own tightly held beliefs about democracy and democratic schooling, making it difficult for each to understand the varying positions that people take. Only by being more inclusive in our educational understanding and analysis can we promote what Apple (Hopkins, 2014) called thick democracy in which all parties are able to express their own opinion, while also remaining open to the perspective of others. Glickman, Gordon and Ross-Gordon (1998) wrote that to live out these democratic values, citizens must be able to identify, analyze, and solve problems that face not only themselves, but the greater community. He adds that citizens must also be willing to take part Â


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and assume leadership roles in the process. As part of this process, citizens must be able to freely engage in an ongoing exchange of ideas, valuing diverse opinions and persons, while communicating their own ideas. This type of collegiality and support are part of what O’Hair, Williams and Cate (2009) termed inquiry and discourse. Citizens within a democracy must be able to ask tough questions about an issue, learn from others, and come to decisions that will be good for all. While holding to a commitment to the greater good, individuals are also able to fulfill their needs and aspirations. Thus, each citizen can enjoy life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness while also contributing to the success of others, as a whole. Dewey (1916) wrote that the purpose of a democratic society is to examine the desirable traits which exist and use them to identify and criticize undesirable traits leading to improvement of individuals and society. This purpose aligns with the process of strategic planning discussed in this study. Collaborative Strategic Planning Strategic planning refers to the facilitation of continuous learning among decision makers and implementers to boost resilience and respond to change more effectively (Bafarasat, 2014). Strategic planning provides direction for organizing expertise, systems, and resources to create a management system that promotes the stakeholders’ current and future expectations and performance requirements (Ewy, 2009). The contribution of community members to the discourse and activities of policymaking must therefore, be addressed. Additionally, stakeholder’s input ends with data collected through an initial community survey (Ewy, 2009). In place of democratic participation, Ewy (2009) proposed that the decision-making be left to “those people within the school district who will have the greatest responsibility for deploying the plan” (p. 14). However, if participation lies at the core of


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democracy and justice (Torre & Fine, 2006), why should it stop with preliminary data collection? Community members have key interests in improving their schools and should have the opportunity to contribute beyond serving as data sources (Bafarasat, 2014). All members of a school community--professional educators, parents, local activists, and students--should have a say in school governance and policy-making (Apple & Beane, 2007). During strategic planning, diverse stakeholders can and should work collaboratively with teachers and administrators to improve teaching and learning (Warren, 2011). In fact, groups of mixed perspectives have the potential to be more innovative and transforming than homogenous groups (Fischer, 2001). Schools that promote collaborative strategic planning foster and respond to the participation of community members, parents, and students. These stakeholders work with school leaders in making the decisions that frame the purpose of education, as well as about what and how students should learn (Shogren, McCart, Lyon, & Sailor, 2015). To overcome the barriers of a more inclusive decision-making process during strategic planning, educational leaders can look to the abundance of research across multiple disciplines on the correlation between knowledge generation and confidence or efficacy (Abbitt, 2011; Mehta, Trivedi, Maldonado, Saxena, & Humphries, 2016; Srivastava, Bartol, & Locke, 2006). The program of this study was able to show the same correlation as diverse participants gained knowledge and efficacy as part of their district’s strategic planning process. Diverse stakeholders from outside of the educational arena, and their ability to provide meaningful input into a district’s five-year plan, begs the question, “What communication structures and processes were employed to overcome the aforementioned barriers?” This study provides an in-depth look at the value of public engagement as part of strategic planning.


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Engagement Competence Since stakeholder involvement is a precondition for the sustainability of a districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strategic plan (Ewy, 2009), it is crucial to involve diverse types of stakeholders throughout the planning process to address their specific needs. However, historically, there are marginalized groups of stakeholders whose voices are seldom heard during the strategic planning process. Some groups have varied abilities to articulate their concerns and therefore, some may falter in comparison to other more competent groups. These groups include ethnic minorities, young people, the elderly, the disadvantaged, people with low literacy, and apathetic groups (BohlerBaedeker, 2014). Equitable participation reflects the overall integration of citizens and groups in the strategic planning processes, as well as the resulting sharing of power (Bohler-Baedeker, 2014). This shift of roles in decision-making as part of school districtsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; strategic planning presents new problems and opportunities of the varied stakeholders. These stakeholders have multiple, even competing stakes in the process, as well as varied levels of knowledge, expertise, and confidence in public discourse (Aakhus & Bzdak, 2015). In order to work collaboratively as a democratic decision-making body, these varied individuals require professionals to develop their engagement competence. Engagement competence is defined as a communication practice where competence and expertise are found in the concepts, skills, and methods that were once difficult, impossible, or unimagined (Aakhus, 2012). To enhance engagement competence, leaders must incrementally and collaboratively build a shared understanding of the task at hand (Fischer, 2001). Communication processes that focus on inquiry and discourse provide the foundation upon which stakeholders come to understand and act upon shared tasks and opportunities. Inquiry is Â


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the cyclical process in which learning communities engage in translating data into actions that inform instruction (Jimerson & McGhee, 2013). By leveraging relevant data sources (Carlson, Borman, & Robinson, 2011) and new knowledge in the form of research and external expertise (Anderson, Leithwood, & Strauss, 2010) participants generate and implement innovation (Hamilton, Halverson, Jackson, Mandinach, Supovitz, Wayman, Pickens, Martin & Steele, 2009). These innovations improve learner achievement, engagement, and/or empowerment (Mandinach & Gummer, 2013). Discourse brings participants together in intentional conversations as part of a high-trust community to share and examine their practice in a continuous cycle of improvement for all learners. Therefore, members of heterogeneous groups must learn to communicate with and learn from others by interacting through a shared reference and skills that are meaningful to all individuals. Engagement competence as part of strategic planning emphasizes cooperation and mutual creativity. Effective facilitators of strategic planning create learning and working environments in which social creativity can emerge through the interaction of diverse stakeholders. Communication activities that generate relevant knowledge, action, and commitments around the needs and expectations of the community for the school district provide the foundation for engagement competence (Aakhus & Bzdak, 2015). This study adds to the previous research by providing specific communication activities through inquiry and discourse that enabled diverse participants to collaborate successfully in the development of their districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strategic plan. Methodology Context This study examined the work, perspectives, and feedback from participants and Â


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facilitators involved in a year-long strategic planning process in multiple school districts. Each school partnered with the Continuous Strategic Improvement (CSI) model created by researchers at the K20 Center for Educational and Community Renewal at the University of Oklahoma in collaboration with the Oklahoma State School Boards Association. This model consists of four phases: Phase I (Engage); Phase II (Plan); Phase III (Action); and Phase IV (Achieve). The school district begins the process by informing the community of the process and how they can be involved in the various phases. Promotional materials such as flyers, newspaper releases, and web page designs are provided by the consulting firm. Phase I, seeks community input through an online survey, as well as through multiple face-to-face forums. At the forums, a formal presentation provides stakeholders with the purposes and principles of the strategic planning process and leads them through a series of focus questions that assist stakeholders in providing learner expectations, core educational beliefs, and core values that will support the work of the district. The data from Phase I is analyzed and added to other school data to provide a basis for future decisions. During Phase II, teams of heterogeneous stakeholders representative of the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demographics are chosen by school district leaders. These teams include teachers, parents, administrators, community members, and students who meet to discuss and analyze multiple data sources and identify goal areas and objectives. Phase III utilizes the same stakeholder teams to examine research that addresses the objectives in each of the goal areas. From this research, teams put forth initiatives, action steps, and performance measures that will be used to determine the success of the plan. Additionally, the teams develop a five-year implementation timeline, which provides a structure to minimize an overload of district human and financial resources. During Phase IV, each school site develops a year-one implementation Â


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plan in support of the district plan. Goal area chairs are elected from the teams to oversee the five-year implementation and to serve as the monthly spokesperson to the administration and/or the board of education. Upon completion of each phase of the strategic planning process, participant feedback provides evidence that objectives are successfully met and that participants are actively and meaningfully engaged throughout as contributing members. By participating in the process, members report an increase in knowledge and efficacy. Questions on the surveys are aligned to the objectives of each day and ask both knowledge and efficacy-based questions. For example in Phase I, participants are asked to respond to the statement, “I understand the purpose of strategic planning.” The response to this statement is indicative of the participants’ knowledge. Statements aligned to efficacy include, “I fulfilled an important role in the development of the district’s strategic plan.” All questions are on a Likert scale of “Strongly Agree”, “Agree”, “Disagree”, and “Strongly Disagree”. There is a positive correlation between knowledge learned and participants’ belief in their ability to provide meaningful input into their district’s strategic planning decisions. This feedback provides empirical evidence that diverse stakeholders, who represent parents, students and community members, can effectively work collaboratively with school personnel in strategic planning. This quantitative analysis leads to the current study to explain “how” stakeholder competence was achieved. A case study was the chosen methodology for this research project. A distinguishing feature of case study is the belief that human systems develop a characteristic wholeness or integrity and not simply a loose collection of traits. Case study provides an in-depth investigation of the interdependencies of parts and of the patterns that emerge (Bassey, Swan &


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Pratt, 2003). This study examined the diverse human systems found within and among stakeholder groups and how together, with the school districts and the facilitators, they form an interdependency to create a strategic plan. A case study is the appropriate methodology because the research comes from a study within a bound system of one strategic planning program across multiple school districts, within a two-year period (Hyett, Kenny & Dickson-Swift, 2014). Qualitative data were coded and themed around the research question (Saldana, 2015). The limitations of utilizing a case study for our research may include the inability to generalize findings to a wider population. Additionally, as each school district is unique in their needs and stakeholder makeup, a case study approach can be difficult to replicate. Lastly, a case study is subject to researcher bias or subjective influence, which may influence the overall findings. The researchers were the facilitators of the process and made efforts to remove any preconceived personal beliefs and/or bias from the data analysis (Schwandt, 2014). Data Sources Qualitative data came from the feedback surveys, artifacts, field notes, and interviews collected throughout the four phases over a two-year period (Patton, 2015). The feedback from 1,165 surveys included Likert-type scale questions aligned to the objectives for each day, as well as a section for open-ended comments. Artifacts included the working documents produced during each phase of the strategic planning process, as well as the final strategic plan from each district. Field notes were collected by outside observers, as well as facilitators. Eighteen interview participants were intentionally selected to ensure district demographics were equitably represented. All interview participants signed consent forms before taking part in a semistructured interview. Â


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Data Analysis All data were analyzed to uncover communication tools and/or processes, as well as for knowledge gained and efficacy of empowerment. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for coding and theming. To eliminate the possibility of researcher bias, coding was first conducted individually by multiple researchers, including both facilitators and non-facilitators. Researchers then looked for commonalities across codes for recurrent themes to emerge. The themes that resulted from the interviews were triangulated with data from artifacts and field notes to ensure the reliability of the information presented by participants. Based on the previous research on engagement competence, it was the intent of the researchers to uncover the interdependence of various communication structures and processes that generated knowledge and increased efficacy for stakeholders, while also being open to other contributing sources. Results/Findings The data analysis led to the discovery of specific communication structures, processes, and tools that were found to be beneficial to stakeholders in their acquisition of knowledge and efficacy. These included (1) scaffolding of phases and facilitation, (2) ensuring diverse participation, (3) using team protocols to develop trusting relationships, (4) providing data notebooks, (5) providing inquiry and discourse guides for data analysis, and (6) providing educational research. Step-by-Step Process From the beginning of the development stage, the CSI organization realized the importance of scaffolding the process into specific phases to allow time for acquisition and processing of new learning by all team members. Participants acknowledged this step-by-step process was crucial to their sense of efficacy. One participant emphasized, â&#x20AC;&#x153;They (the Â


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facilitators) have always said, ‘respect the process.’ Step back and really just start slow, step-bystep.” Another shared how this process made the activities “easy to follow” because it was presented in a “step-by-step” process. A school board member added how the process was the, “most organized and well laid out process” he had experienced. Another participant summarized the effect of the step-by-step process on participants’ sense of efficacy by stating, “The way it was broken down, the way the steps were followed, it was easy for all of us to have a say. We had students that were very impressive who would stand up and speak for their table and be the lead!” Breaking the learning and activities into specific steps was also aided by the length of time planned for the entire process. A community member participant shared that at first she was “a little bit bashful, not wanting to speak up.” However, because of how phases were scheduled over “a long period of time with two days scheduled in a row…I think that helped quite a bit.” Participant diversity. When scheduling community forums each school district, working with CSI facilitators, addressed the importance of diversity. School districts were encouraged to offer at least two times and places for community forums, but most exceeded that expectation in an effort to reach as many school stakeholders as possible. One district administrator shared, “I believe it is important to reach out to your community, reach out to your student body or teachers and that way you can make a collective decision that benefits everybody.” This feeling was echoed by an administrator of another school district, “Our goal was to have a lot more of a varied representation of the groups of our students’ population, our city population. We went to all of those places…we went to the east side. We went to the Cheyenne Arapaho tribal complex. We went to the Catholic church.” Districts also went to


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great lengths to publicize their community forums. A district administrator explained, “We put it out in every medium we possible could. Put it out in multiple times. Did all-calls and advertisements and letters and newsletters and call blasts.” During the community forums, participants provided their input digitally using https://www.polleverywhere.com. This structure provided anonymity which many believed helped to increase the comfort level for some. “I think the format was good because you could just type it in and nobody knew where it was coming from.” It became apparent that districts wanted and valued community input into important school decisions. However, districts also understood the reality of involving everyone. “It’s just hard to get people to come to those sort of things. Sometimes they may not feel comfortable and that’s why we have tried to go and meet them where they are.” Another participant shared how her involvement as a planning team member allowed her to be a voice for others in her community who “feel like their voice is not heard.” She shared how she is now committed to “go back and say to those people in the community that we (the school) do want your input and feedback.” The diversity of planning teams organized and utilized during the planning process was also an important factor in the development of participant knowledge and efficacy. Each team was made up of one administrator, one teacher, one parent, one student, and one community member (one of the community members in the whole group can be a school board member). A school board member who had participated on other strategic planning programs, commented on the importance of a “good cross section of stakeholders to get valuable thoughts” during the process. He compared this team diversity as better than when only “preconceived ideas” came from the organization’s leadership.


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Team Protocols With this diversity of backgrounds and knowledge levels, the CSI facilitators spent intentional time up front to build relationships and to establish communication protocols. Team protocols were placed on each table, referred to often, and include: Be Respectful of Time: • Attend meetings. • Be on time. • Honor the schedule. Be Respectful of Each Other: • Everyone has an equal voice. • One person speaks at a time. • Be open to learning from each other. • Listen to and show respect for others opinion. • Cell phone on silent and set aside. • Hold side conversations during break. Be Respectful of the Process • Discuss ideas instead of people. • Feel free to ask questions. • Maintain confidentiality. • Use consensus protocol. Participant Efficacy With these guidelines understood and practiced, participants quickly gained new knowledge and grew in their efficacy to contribute in meaningful ways. A parent and community member shared, “It’s been a real learning experience because everyone at your table is from a different area…so you learn to see things from a different angle and that’s good.” A district administrator confirmed this by stating, “They (community members) are learning as well, and that’s been one of the good things.” He later added how the administration also learned from the community members, “It’s kind of surprising sometimes to see the things that they hold as extremely valuable.” A parent participant commented on the value of having representatives from a diverse stakeholder group. “You know, if you’re not in the know or you


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don’t have a close connection to one of those people (school people) then there’s really not any way for you to know those kinds of things.” Sharing school knowledge became a valued outcome for several community participants. One shared how involvement in the teams also led to an increase in the level of participants’ efficacy to provide input. The more you involve them (the community and students), the more comfortable they become with the process…just getting them used to our procedures and protocols and how things work here so that they feel that they can be beneficial and can provide input and be a value to our system. It is important to note that the district superintendents were asked to not serve on any specific team. One superintendent summarized the reason for this decision. “It’s time for me to step back and give other people some input into where we go next…I want it to be a plan of the people…I have stayed out of it because I want their input and I want them to feel comfortable in giving their input without you looking over their shoulders.” However, the superintendents were in attendance during the sessions to provide clarity to questions that arose. Participants acknowledged the importance of the presence of district leadership, “The superintendent and assistant superintendent were here to answer and to clarify any question that we had.” This sharing of knowledge greatly increased the diverse participants’ efficacy and empowerment. Data Notebook Each team member was also provided with a data notebook compiled by district leadership. The data were organized into data types including student achievement data, demographic data, programs data, resources data, and perception data. Adequate time was spent during the first day of Phase II to familiarize participants with these five types of data and how


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they provide an overall picture of where the school district was currently and how the different data types were supportive of each other. The facilitators provided varied activities for team members to become acquainted with the organization of the notebook and the different types of data within the notebook. One activity emphasized the importance of intersecting data types to gain the big picture and determine root causes. The data sets were divided across teams so that no one team was responsible for all data. All teams analyzed a specific section of the student achievement data. The remainder of the data sources were divided equally across teams for analysis. By “dividing and conquering”, the teams examined and analyzed all of the data in a timely fashion. However, to also maintain the big picture for all team members, time was taken to share individual team results with all participants. Participants were regularly reminded of their role as advocates for the entire plan. A school board member commented on the importance of having access to large amounts of data and using it to drive the decision-making process. “Our decisions were truly driven by data, as opposed to opinions. Data we can stand behind.” The same board member added how the data and the performance measures derived from them will provide “measurable marks” during implementation to decide “if we are making real progress...we will have real facts to work from.” Data Analysis Guides Few people outside of school systems have the necessary expertise to analyze large data sets. The facilitators, therefore, developed Inquiry and Discourse Guides for Data Analysis. Each data set in the notebook had its own data analysis guide, which provided step-by-step instruction on which data to examine, specific questions to be discussed by the group, and how to recognize and record areas of concern identified through the discussions.


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Several participants were pleasantly surprised by their ability to contribute to such indepth analysis. A participant from one school remarked at the end of Phase III how the facilitators had made it easy for them to make sense of the data by providing the data analysis guides and dividing the data between teams so that it was manageable. The participant noted how she felt “empowered” by contributing to the process. A community member summarized the success of the data analysis process by stating, “You guys did a wonderful job of introducing data analysis to many who had never experienced it! That's not easily done in two crash-course sessions - but you made it work very well!” Research Documents After the data were analyzed and goal areas were identified from the data, teams were charged with developing initiatives and actions steps to address those areas. Again, the levels of expertise on educational research-based practices is not common knowledge for the public. New knowledge in the form of research and external expertise (Anderson, Leithwood, & Strauss, 2010) was provided through an annotated research document. This document helped participants to generate and implement innovations (Hamilton et al., 2009) to improve learner achievement, engagement, and/or empowerment (Mandinach & Gummer, 2013). Following another inquiry and discourse process of root cause analysis, teams narrowed their focus for research and then consulted the research document for initiatives to implement in their goal area. This process was again supported by the diverse members placed on each team. During this time of focused inquiry and discourse around the research, questions and answers were addressed from the perspectives of teachers, parents, administration, and students. Participants from outside the school especially found the research helpful to gain an understanding of the “best practices” to consider for initiatives to put forward as part of the plan.


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Parents and students made numerous comments about different articles they read and then shared with their team. At one school, it was two high school students who enthusiastically shared, “Listen to what this research says!” A superintendent noted, “They (community members) are learning as well, and that’s been one of the good things.” The research document provided a source of needed information so that the knowledge level of the team was more equitable, which contributes to increased efficacy and empowerment of the team members. Discussion The research question for the study was, “what communication structures and processes support the development of equitable cultural competence across diverse stakeholder groups?” The data analysis provided ample evidence that the structures and processes that are effective included (1) scaffolding of phases and facilitation, (2) ensuring diverse participation, (3) using team protocols to develop trusting relationships, (4) providing data notebooks, (5) providing inquiry and discourse guides for data analysis, and (6) providing educational research. Through these communication structures, important decisions for the growth of respective public school districts were made by the supporters and participants from across the public sector. Equitable participation within supportive conditions allowed diverse citizens in the strategic planning processes to share the power (Bohler-Baedeker, 2014) with confidence in public discourse (Aakhus & Bzdak, 2015). To work collaboratively as a democratic decisionmaking body, these varied individuals required professionals to develop concepts, skills, and methods that were once difficult, impossible, or unimagined (Aakhus, 2012). Facilitators incrementally and collaboratively built a shared understanding of the task at hand (Fischer, 2001). Communication processes the were focused on inquiry and discourse provided the


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foundation upon which stakeholders began to understand and act upon shared tasks and opportunities. The following graphic, derived from our research, shows the relationship between specific inquiry and discourse processes and structures which supported the development of engagement competence among diverse participants throughout the strategic planning process. These communication activities, rooted in inquiry and discourse structures, allowed diverse participants to collaborate and contribute with competence in the democratic development of a district strategic plan.

Using scaffolded structures and processes to enhance participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; inquiry and discourse skills, stakeholders from diverse cultural backgrounds are able to engage with competence in the decision-making process of collaborative strategic planning. This inclusive participatory process yields what Apple and Beane (2007) declared as thick democracy in which all parties can express their own opinions, while also remaining open to the perspective of others. Each level provides the necessary supports so that citizens can identify, analyze, and solve problems that face not only themselves, but also the greater community. The study revealed structures and processes found effective for developing engagement competence included (1) scaffolding of Â


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phases and facilitation, (2) ensuring diverse participation, (3) using team protocols to develop trusting relationships, (4) providing data notebooks, (5) providing inquiry and discourse guides for data analysis, and (6) providing educational research. Implications and Significance This study had implications for public school district level leadership as they considered and choose strategic planning processes. The study provided school leadership with the confidence to reach beyond the school walls to become more inclusive of citizen participation in the decision-making processes involved in strategic planning. The study also had implications and significance to higher education leadership programs as they develop future leaders for public education systems. Lastly, the study had implications and significance for other strategic planning organizations outside of the education realms by providing procedures and practices applicable to any decision-making context in which democratic principles are upheld. Further research is needed to identify additional structures and processes to build engagement competence, as well as to generalize findings to broader contexts. Author Biographies Dr. Sharon Wilbur is a retired Associate Director for Leadership at the K20 Center for Educational and Community Renewal at the University of Oklahoma. She has over forty years of experience in public schools as a classroom teacher, K-12 administration, professional development provider, and researcher. She holds degrees from Southwestern Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma. Sharon Dean brings expertise from 45 years of public school teaching and administration, working at the site, district, and state level in data analysis and short- and long-term goal setting. She is currently Associate Director for Leadership at the University of Oklahomaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s K20 Center Â


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for Educational and Community Renewal. At the Center she has served as a project director for both a rural and an urban USDE GEAR UP grant and currently provides professional development for school leaders and facilitates strategic planning with school districts across the state. Tyler Bridges currently serves as the Associate Director for School and Community Partnerships for the K20 Center for Educational and Community Renewal. He has been in the field of public education for 14 years in the capacity of an English Language Arts teacher, Principal, Assistant Superintendent, and Superintendent. Mr. Bridges holds degrees from the University of Central Oklahoma, Southern Nazarene University, and is a Doctoral student at the University of Oklahoma. References Aakhus, M. (2012). Communication as design. Communication Monographs, 74(1), 112-117. Aakhus, M., & Bzdak, M. (2015). Stakeholder engagement as communication design practice. J. Public Affairs, 15, 188â&#x20AC;&#x201C;200. Abbitt, J. T. (2011). An investigation of the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs about technology integration and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) among preservice teachers. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(4), 134-143. Apple, M., & Beane, J. A. (Eds.). (2007). Democratic schools: Lessons in powerful education Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Anderson, S., Leithwood, K., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading data use in schools: Organizational conditions and practices at the school and district levels. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 9, 292-327. Â


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Bafarasat, A. (2014). Reflections on the three schools of thought on strategic spatial planning. CPL Bibliography, 30(2), 132-148. Bassey, M., Swann, J., & Pratt, J. (2003). Educational research in practice: Making sense of methodology (Case Study). London, Continuum. Bohler-Baedeker, S. (2014). Citizen and stakeholder involvement: A precondition for sustainable urban mobility. Transportation Research Procedia, 4, 347-360. Carlson, D., Borman, G., & Robinson, M. (2011). A multistate district-level cluster randomized trial of the impact of data-driven reform on reading and mathematics achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33, 378-398. Davies, J. (2002). The governance of urban regeneration: A critique of the “governing without government” thesis. Public Administration, 80(2), 301–22. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan. Ewy, R. (2009). Stakeholder-driven strategic planning in education. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. Fischer, G., (2001). Communities of interest: Learning through the interaction of multiple knowledge systems. Center for Lifelong Learning and Design, 1-14. Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (1998). Supervision of instruction: A developmental approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Hamilton, L., Halverson, R., Jackson, S. S., Mandinach, E., Supovitz, J. A., Wayman, J. C., Pickens, C., Martin, E., & Steele, J. L. (2009). Using student achievement data to support instructional decision-making. United States Department of Education, Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/279


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Hopkins, N. (2014), The democratic curriculum: Concept and practice. Journal Philosophy of Education, 48, 416–427. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.12088 Hyett, N., Kenny, A., & Dickson-Swift, V. (2014). Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 9, 23606. Jimerson & McGhee (2013). Leading inquiry in schools: Examining mental models of data-informed practice, Educational Psychologist 47(2), 71-85. Mandinach, E. & Gummer, E. (2013). A systemic view of implementing data literacy in educator preparation. Educational Researcher, 42(10), 30-37. Mncube, V. S., & Naicker, I. (2011). School governing bodies and the promotion of democracy: a reality or a pipe-dream? Journal of Education Studies, 10(1), 142-161. Mehta N. V., Trivedi M., Maldonado L. E., Saxena D., & Humphries D. L. (2016). Diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy among rural women in Gujarat, India. Rural and Remote Health, 16:3629. O’Hair, M. J., Williams, L., & Cate, J. (2009). The boundary-spanning role of democratic learning communities: Implementing the IDEALS. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37(4), 452-472. Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Los Angeles: SAGE. Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative research, 3rd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Schwandt, T. (2014). The sage dictionary of qualitative inquiry, 3rd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


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Shogren, K. A., McCart, A. B., Lyon, K. J., & Sailor, W. S. (2015). All means all: Building knowledge for inclusive schoolwide transformation. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 40(3), 173-191. Srivastava, A., Bartol, K., & Locke, E. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance, The Academy of Management Journal 49(6), 1239-1251. Torre, M., & Fine, M. (2006). Researching and resisting: Democratic policy research by and for youth. Beyond Resistance, 269-285. Warren, M. R. (2011). Building a political constituency for urban school reform. Urban Education, 46(3), 484-512.

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Storytelling through Documentaries: An Innovative, Culturally Diverse Practice in Preparing Pre-Service Teachers Gary Cheeseman, University of South Dakota

Is There Space for Co-mingling Mexican Parents’ Learned Mathematical Knowledge with Their Children’s School Learned Ways of Thinking and Doing Mathematics? Gilbert Dueñas, Auburn  University Montgomery Luke Alexander Smith, Auburn University Montgomery Latino Parents’ Perceptions on Educating Bilingual-Bicultural Children through Effective Home-school Collaborations Dr. Gina L. Garza-Reyna, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Lorena Morales, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Hortencia Morales, Texas A&M University-Kingsville Xenia Barbosa-Centeno, Texas A&M University-Kingsville An Examination of the Relationship between a Candidate’s Disposition Assessments from Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program to Completion of the Program Darolyn D. Seay, Nebraska State College System – Peru State College Incorporating Online Professional Development Materials in Teacher Education Coursework: Perceptions of Faculty and Pre-service Teachers Kathy Smart, University of North Dakota Cynthia Gautreau, California State University, Fullerton Tommye Thomas, Brenau University Examining Pedagogy Rubrics to Influence and Enhance Instruction Joseph W. Spadano, Rivier University Strategic Leadership Development through Energy Management Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Ana Rosado-Feger, Ohio University Amy Taylor-Bianco, Ohio University Students’ Perceptions of Technology Tools: An Interdisciplinary Approach Courtney Wiest, Saint Leo University Keya Mukherjee, Saint Leo University Rhondda Waddell, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Debra Mims, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Felicia Wilson, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Lin Carver, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Holly Atkins, Ph.D., Saint Leo University Utilizing Inquiry and Discourse to Engage Diverse Stakeholders and Promote Cultural Competence in a Strategic Planning Process Sharon Wilbur, University of Oklahoma Sharon Dean, University of Oklahoma Tyler Bridges, University of Oklahoma

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ISSN: 2330-6564 (online) ISSN: 2330-6556 (print)

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education, Fall 2018  
Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Education, Fall 2018  
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