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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business

Volume 9, Page 1

                       

 

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry:  

Business           Business Edition, Volume 10, Issue 1

Fall 2019    

   

Published by: Center for Scholastic Inquiry, LLC ISSN: 2330-6807 (online) ISSN: 2330-6815 (print)


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ISSN: 2330-6807 (online) ISSN: 2330-6815 (print)

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business

Fall 2019

 

Volume 10, Issue 1

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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business The Center for Scholastic Inquiry (CSI) publishes the Journal of Scholastic Inquiry to recognize, celebrate, and highlight scholarly research, discovery, and evidence-based practice. Academic research emphasizing leading edge inquiry, distinguishing and fostering best practice, and validating promising methods will be considered for publication. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method study designs representing diverse philosophical frameworks and perspectives are welcome. The JOSI publishes papers that perpetuate thought-leadership and represent critical enrichment. The JOSI is a rigorously juried journal. If you are interested in publishing in the JOSI, feel free to contact our office or visit our website. Sincerely,

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JOURNAL OF SCHOLASTIC INQUIRY: Business Fall 2019, Volume 10, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief Dr. Dennis Lamb

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Shirley Barnes, Alabama State University Joan Berry, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor Brooke Burks, Auburn University at Montgomery Timothy Harrington, Chicago State University Michelle Beach, Southwest Minnesota State University Kenneth Goldberg, National University Linda Rae Markert, State University of New York at Oswego Lucinda Woodward, Indiana University Southeast Arina Gertseva, Washington State University Robin Davis, Claflin University

PEER REVIEWERS V. Brooks Poole Jason Styles Joan Berry William Holmes

 

Andrew Pueschel Mary Tucker Robin Davis Colin Gabler

Lisa Knowles Katherine Hartman Robert Mason


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publication Agreement and Assurance of Integrity Ethical Standards in Publishing Disclaimer of Liability Research Manuscripts

7

8-96

The Effects of Fostering the Global Mindset into the Introduction to Business Undergraduate Curriculum Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Katherine Hartman, Ohio University Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Janna Chimeli, Ohio University

8

Exploring Grit: Relationships among Grit, Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy and Mindset Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Mary Tucker, Ohio University Katherine B. Hartman, Ohio University

19

Global Learning in Short-Term Study Abroad: Assessing Business Students after Global Consulting Program Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Katherine Hartman, Ohio University Colin B. Gabler, Ohio University

32

The Human Resource Managers’ Perceptions of Workers with Learning Disabilities Jason Styles, Regent University Lisa Knowles, St. Thomas University

47

Receptiveness of Healthcare Workers with Stress, Anxiety, or Depression to Use a Web-Based MBCT Therapeutic Intervention Joni A. Koegel, Cazenovia College

76

Manuscript Submission Guide

96

Why Read Our Journals

98

       


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PUBLICATION AGREEMENT AND ASSURANCE OF INTEGRITY By submitting a manuscript for publication, authors confirm that the research and writing is their exclusive, original, and unpublished work. Upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication, authors grant the Center for Scholastic Inquiry, LLC (CSI) the sole and permanent right to publish the manuscript, at its option, in one of its academic research journals, on the CSI's website, in other germane, academic publications; and/or on an alternate hosting site or database. Authors retain copyright ownership of their research and writing for all other purposes. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN PUBLISHING The CSI insists on and meets the most distinguished benchmarks for publication of academic journals to foster the advancement of accurate scientific knowledge and to defend intellectual property rights. The CSI stipulates and expects that all practitioners and professionals submit original, unpublished manuscripts in accordance with its code of ethics and ethical principles of academic research and writing. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY The CSI does not endorse any of the ideas, concepts, and theories published within the JOSI: B. Furthermore, we accept no responsibility or liability for outcomes based upon implementation of the individual author’s ideas, concepts, or theories. Each manuscript is the copyrighted property of the author.          

 


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The Effects of Fostering the Global Mindset into the Introduction to Business Undergraduate Curriculum Andrew Pueschel Ohio University Katherine Hartman Ohio University Mary L. Tucker Ohio University Janna Chimeli Ohio University

Abstract Rapidly changing technology is impacting organizations and businesses, allowing employees to conduct business at any time and any location. Ironically, at the same time, the rise in isolationism is impacting the levels of cross-cultural engagement both locally and globally. As such, in an educational environment that prepares students for future success, it is imperative that students are encouraged to engage in a global-mindset so that they can take advantage of opportunities that arise throughout their professional journey. One way of fostering the global mindset may be to introduce international business concepts early in students’ business curriculum. This study discusses the impact of the inclusion of global interventions in an undergraduate introduction to business course. Results affirm interventions positively influence students’ self-reported knowledge of international business concepts. Keywords: IB Education, IB Teaching

 


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Introduction Many undergraduate students, when continuing their higher-educational journey, are at a disadvantage when it comes to global experiences. Luxuries such as traveling across borders, positive exposure to social and business best-practices, and engaging with other young adults from areas outside of their home country, county, or even town are not consistent among individuals. At a time where students are polarized with constant biased world-wide media footage and limited home-town views of our global society, what would happen if we prioritized a cross-cultural educational component to the introduction to business curriculum, early on, within the first year of college? Literature Review Technology has fed the speed of globalization and impacted every person, organization, company and country in myriad ways. For example, economic activity in one country results in a ripple effect that moves from one geographic region’s economy to around the globe. Thus, domestic, international, and multinational corporations transcend international boundaries and create a more global society (Black, Gregersen, & Mendenhall, 1999; Tucker, Gullekson, & McCambridge, 2011). Yet, current political crises, cybertheft, protectionism, and increasing trade barriers have fed a growing nationalistic view (Deresky, 2018) that adversely impacts cross-cultural harmony. According to Bremmer (2014; 2018), we are now experiencing “guarded globalization” with widening divides. This is the reality our graduates will face in their new careers. Now more than ever before, there is a need for educators to assure that students and future employees have the requisite global learning and mindset for career success (Cruz. 2010; Gutierrez & Bhandari, 2009; Hovland, 2009; Zernike, 2010). In fact, the Institute of International Education (2009a) reminds us that “To succeed and prosper in a global economy and interconnected world, U.S. students need international knowledge, intercultural communications skills, and global perspectives” (p.5). This is echoed by administrators, faculty, and students who recognize that building skills to successfully manage intercultural business interactions effectively is paramount to career success (Tuleja, 2006).  


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Students entering the college of business can develop a foundation for global learning in the introduction to business class. Traditionally, this course provides students with an introduction to the world of business by investigating a wide array of issues and phenomena that business executives face while conducting their work. Overall goals for the course are to introduce participants to the context of business in general, to discuss the challenges people face as they try to lead and navigate their organization(s), and to lay a foundation for personal growth and development in business-related studies. All of the issues encountered will appear again in more depth through a variety of core courses as students complete their business degree. Changing current students’ mindset from domestic to global can be a major challenge with this student body, especially when the majority of the participants have not been exposed to a variety of cultures. Yet, arguably, this is the perfect time to instill students’ global awareness as they acclimate to a campus life that offers opportunity to interact with other cultures. Thus, this research seeks to determine whether the inclusion of global interventions, within the undergraduate introduction to business curriculum, positively enhances the student knowledge base specific to international business. The following section provides further details about the research study. Research Study This research addresses whether or not the inclusion of a global intervention in an undergraduate introduction to business course positively enhances students’ self-reported knowledge of international business. To determine the extent of impact, the research examined self-reported 1) knowledge of international business practices and 2) importance of engagement between domestic and international students. Two sections of an introduction to business course (taught by the same instructor) were used to measure the effectiveness of the integrated crosscultural business curriculum. The introduction to business course included traditional topics for students to learn about a generalized overview of functional areas within business. The global interventions were one-slide country spotlights about a strategically selected country. Slides were introduced at the end of select lectures; the total number of slides introduced during the course of the semester was 19. Each one-slide spotlight included information about the country’s currency, economy type, imports, exports, and cultural value  


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dimensions (i.e., high context vs. low context). In addition, the flag of the spotlighted country was also presented on each slide. The selection of the countries chosen to spotlight was a result of asking the college administration for a list of those countries representing the student body. The intervention created a brief opportunity to introduce students to the diverse culture in the college and assist them in understanding global perspectives. The intervention utilized in this study was created to be purposeful, to be concise, and to immediately be impactful for the students. A key benefit of this particular intervention is the ease in which new concepts can be introduced within an existing curriculum. By being consistent in both format and topics throughout the semester, the intervention created a predictive and repetitive activity during class that allowed for better possible student knowledge recognition and retention. Methodology The research design was a quasi-experiment with a treatment group and control group. Students were enrolled in one of two sections of the course (section T or C). Students in section T were the experiment group; they were provided with the global intervention designed to increase student attitudes toward global understanding. Students enrolled in section C were the control group; they were not shown the one-slide country spotlights. Measures Undergraduate students enrolled in an introduction to business course were surveyed using Qualtrics. Measures were collected at the beginning (pre-) and end (post-) of the semester. (See Table 1: Means of Items by Group and Time.) Measures were matched by survey respondent to examine changes in self-reported attitudes and knowledge. Measures included selfreported items about: 

the general importance of international business education (3 items);

comfortableness and importance of interacting with people from other countries (4 items); and

perceived knowledge of international business topics (6 items).

All items were measured using a five-point, Likert-type scale (where 5 represented strongly agree and 1 represented strongly disagree).  


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Sample The total population included 215 undergraduate students enrolled in one of two sections of an introduction to business course. After excluding responses with excessive missing data, the final samples included 170 respondents (79% response rate). The treatment group (n = 84) was primarily male (62%), between 18-21 years old (89%), and from the US (92%). Similarly, the control group (n = 86) was primarily male (64%), between 18-21 years old (93%), and from the US (97%). The first and second measure were deemed important, as with no real change, which created a baseline understanding to the importance of international business. Results suggest that learning about global business practices is important to the students themselves. In addition, we measured the extent to which students were comfortable in interacting with other students from around the globe. The high initial score (above 4.0) as reported by both groups indicated that there was no significant difference between groups and pre/post. Data Analyses Data were analyzed to test two hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted that student knowledge of international business would increase after taking the course. Specifically: H1: Student self-reported knowledge of international business will increase after taking an introduction to business course. H1 was tested using dependent sample t tests to compare pre- and post- measures within both the treatment and the control group. Table 1 provides the means for the pre-test and posttest measures by group. The results of the dependent sample t tests found significant differences between the preand post-tests measures of knowledge of international business for both the treatment group and control group, p < .05. For the treatment group, the results found large, significant increases in students’ knowledge of other countries’ currencies (t(83)= 5.53, d= 0.60), economies (t(83)= 7.15, d= 0.78), imports (t(83)= 8.67, d= 0.95), exports (t(83)= 9.27, d= 1.01), cultural business practices (t(83)= 10.57, d= 1.15), and countries represented in the college (t(83)= 8.00, d= 0.87), p < .001. For the control group, the results found small to moderate, significant increases in students’ knowledge of other countries’ currencies (t(85)= 2.72, d= 0.29), imports (t(85)= 4.59, d= 0.49), exports (t(84)= 4.32, d= 0.47), cultural business practices (t(85)= 6.00, d= 0.65), and  


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countries represented in the college (t(83)= 3.80, d= 0.41), p < .01. As expected, H1 is supported; student self-reported knowledge about international business increased for both the control group and the treatment group. The second hypothesis predicted that knowledge gains of international business would be greater for the treatment group as compared to the control. Specifically: H2: The inclusion of global interventions in an undergraduate introduction to business course positively enhances the student knowledge base specific to international business. H2 was statistically tested by comparing the differences between the post-measures of treatment group and the control group using independent sample t tests. The results of the independent sample t tests found the average self-reported gains in knowledge for the treatment group as compared to the control group were moderately and significantly larger for knowledge of other countries’ economies (t(168)= 2.88, d= 0.44), imports (t(168)= 3.05, d= 0.47), exports (t(168)= 3.06, d= 0.47), cultural business practices (t(168)= 3.12, d= 0.48), and countries represented in the college (t(168)= 2.52, d= 0.39), p < .01. As such, H2 is supported; student self-reported gains of knowledge about international business was larger for the treatment group as compared to the control group. Discussion The results suggest that changes need to be made in today’s introduction to business courses to share various perspectives from around the globe. In addition, this sends the message to our students from outside the United States that we are, in fact interested in their culture, their lives, and how they conduct business. Although both groups of students reported increased knowledge after taking the course, the inclusion of a brief intervention that shared simple characteristics of another country produced larger gains in students’ self-reported knowledge of international business topics. Given the necessity of global awareness, the return-on-investment for instructors is noteworthy. The results of this study confirm the opportunity for increased engagement when enhanced by cross-cultural education. This intended use of easily inserted, inlecture applications, and country-highlighted activities within curriculum may help students broaden their global business knowledge.  


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Limitations and Future Study While this study’s population limits the generalizability of the study, it can be easily replicated to include a wide variety of participants in both educational and professional settings. The self-reporting of the data by the students is the main limitation of this study. Those who have completed the survey are subject to biases. However, former research concludes that selfreported data are useful for understanding the participants’ psychological experience and are not as strongly limited as we assume, because people often realistically perceive their social environment (Balzer & Sulsky, 1992; Funder, Kolar, & Blackman, 1995; Murphy, Jako, & Anhalt, 1992; Spector, 1994). The high-level of self-reporting of data in regard to the importance of international business suggests that students are coming into the classroom with inflated ideas of their current knowledge base. Future studies could include a test that records factual knowledge testing of the countries’ data that was highlighted throughout the semester. Another limitation of the study could be the possibility that the professor was more enthusiastic when introducing the intervention and, therefore, possibly impacted the students’ positive response. Future studies could investigate whether lecture is a more reliable way to introduce international business into the undergraduate introduction to business curriculum in order to positively enhance students’ global mindset. “Flipping the classroom” (the reversal of time allotment for lecture and homework) has become a common pedagogical tool for active learning (Brame, 2013; Berrett, 2012) and has largely replaced the standard format where the professor lectures and students take notes (Hughes, 2012). Various studies have supported significant learning gains using this method of instruction (Crouch and Mazur, 2001; Deslauriers et al., 2011; Hake, 1998). In fact, a preponderance of research favors an active-learning classroom environment over a lecture approach for enhanced student learning. Additional study could also include the inclusion of technology-based gaming within the undergraduate introduction to business curriculum to determine whether this technology positively enhances students’ ability to increase their engagement in the classroom. These findings could raise the question whether global mindset can be changed by introducing a mini-lecture coupled with the use of hands-on gaming during each class to introduce students to the cultures of international students on campus.  


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Author Biographies Andrew Pueschel (Ph.D., Robert Morris University) is the Director of the Emerging Leaders program at the Robert D. Walter Center for Strategic Leadership, and an Assistant Professor of Instruction in the Management Department of the College of Business at Ohio University. His research includes Leadership, Well-Being, and Organizational Culture Change. Katherine Hartman (Ph.D., Indiana University) is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Marketing Department in the College of Business at Ohio University. She teaches marketing strategy, marketing research, and consumer behavior. Her teaching and learning research interests include assessment, accreditation, problem-based learning, general education, and intercultural competency. Mary L. Tucker (Ph.D., University of New Orleans) is a Professor of Management at Ohio University. Her dissertation research focused on Transformational Leadership. Current research interests include leadership, management pedagogy, and assessing learning. She has provided leadership training for both private and public-sector organizations, including the American Association of Highway Transportation Officials, 3M, and State Farm. Janna Chimeli (Ph.D., Ohio University) is an Assistant Professor of Instruction Analytics and Information Systems Department. Current research interests include rationality and choice models; particularly the ones that assess and predict information search, judgment heuristics, in addition to the final choice. Applying her research interest to her teaching, Dr. Chimeli employs analytics techniques that can be used both to form judgments and to make data-driven decisions. This paper is submitted for consideration for publication in the Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business. This research is supported by The Robert D. Walter Center for Strategic Leadership at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. References Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., Mendenhall, M. E., & Stroh, L. K. (1999). Globalizing people through international assignments. Reading, MA: Addison Inc. Balzer W. & Sulsky, L.M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 975-985. Berrett, D. (2012). How ‘flipping’ the classroom can improve the traditional lecture. The  


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Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb. 19, 2012. Brame, C. (2013). Flipping the classroom. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/. Bremmer, I. (2014). The new rules of globalization. Harvard Business Review, 92(1/2), 103-107. Cruz, G. (2010). Holding colleges accountable: Is success measurable? Time Magazine Online. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1948175,00.html Crouch, C.H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics 69: 970-977. Deresky, H. (2017). International Management: Managing across borders and cultures, 9E. Boston: Pearson. DesLauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science 332: 862-864. Funder, D.C., Kolar, D.C., Blackman, M.C. (1995). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 656-672. Gutierrez, R., & Bhandari, R. (2009). The value of international education to U.S. business and industry leaders: Key findings from a survey of CEOs. An IEE Briefing Paper. New York, NY: Institute of International Education. Retrieved May 2010 from http://www.iie.org/ResearchEvaluation Hake, R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics 66: 64-74. Hovland, K. (2009). Global learning: What is it? Who is responsible for it? Association of American Colleges and Universities Peer Review, 11(4), 4-7. Hughes, H. (2012). Introduction to flipping the college classroom. In T. Amiel & B. Wilson (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia 2012--World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 2434-2438). Denver, Colorado, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/41097/ Institute of International Education (IIE). (2009). Americans studying abroad in increasing numbers, Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/en/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors  


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Murphy, K.R., Jako, R.A., & Anhalt, R.L. (1992). Nature and consequences of halo error: A critical analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 218-229. Spector, P.E. (1994). Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 385-392. Tulejha, E. A. (2006). Aspects of intercultural understanding through an MBA Study Abroad Program. Proceedings of the 2006 Association for Business Communication Annual Convention, 1-27. Tucker, M. L., Gullekson, N. L., & McCambridge, J. (2011). Assurance of learning in shortterm, study abroad programs. Research in Higher Education Journal, 14. Zernike, K. (2010). Making College ‘Relevant’. New York Times on the Web, Published January 3, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.

Table 1 Means of Items by Group and Time

Treatment

Control

Item Engagement between domestic and international students is important

Pre 4.38

Post 4.46

Pre 4.48

Post 4.37

Increasing my knowledge of international business practices is important

4.57

4.55

4.51

4.44

Identifying and analyzing ethics in international business is important

4.54

4.57

4.47

4.52

I am aware of the currencies of other countries

3.37

3.98*

3.20

3.50*

I am aware of the economies of other countries

3.15

3.89*

2.96

3.19

I am aware of the imports of other countries

2.98

4.02*

2.70

3.23*

I am aware of the exports of other countries

2.98

3.99*

2.76

3.26*

 


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I am aware of the cultural business practices of other countries

2.87

4.15*

2.38

3.13*

I know all the countries in which the COB has students * p < 0.05

2.08

3.12*

1.79

2.34*

 


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Exploring Grit: Relationships among Grit, Goal Orientation, SelfEfficacy and Mindset Andrew Pueschel Ohio University Mary Tucker Ohio University Katherine B. Hartman Ohio University This research is supported by The Robert D. Walter Center for Strategic Leadership at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Abstract Students, especially those preparing to enter the workforce, should be primed for long-term success, in order to decrease the gap between their self-perception of employee readiness and the reality of their future employers’ expectations. Yet, many students and young adults entering the workforce may be crippled by their inability to see beyond their immediate needs and fears of failure. This study explored the relationships among grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset in undergraduate students. Should these theories be included in the undergraduate curriculum to help positively influence academic achievement? Results suggest that the constructs and their sub-components are related, yet independent. Although the causality is unclear, teaching the importance of grit may enable educators to influence student academic achievement across the curriculum. Keywords: Business education, grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, mindset

 


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Imagine a world where success was accomplished through short-term and long-term goals and failure was not only an option but was accepted, appreciated, and expected. What could classroom and professional environments achieve if mentors encouraged engagement not based on correctness but on the ability to contribute to the conversation at hand? While these notions sound both realistic and logical to most adults, many students and young adults entering the workforce may be crippled by their inability to see beyond their immediate needs and fears of failure. A study conducted in 2014 (Hill et al.,) found that the simple act of focusing on a purpose and passion in life may further develop the characteristic needed to achieve long-term goals. This study measures the relationships among grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset in undergraduate students and introduces suggested practical ideas for immediate impact to assist in maximizing individual success. The following literature review further discusses the theories of grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset. Literature Review Positive psychology has ushered in research into such theories as grit, goal orientation, selfefficacy, and mindset. Each of these theories encapsulates ways to improve student success through building passion and perseverance for achieving a goal, developing tasks to achieve the goal, believing in the ability to complete the task to reach the goal, and having a growth mindset that welcomes failure as a way to learn while working toward the goal. This section provides a brief overview of these theories.

Grit Angela Duckworth, in her book GRIT (2017), discusses students’ role in their own failure to learn. She goes further to state that a mix of passion for long-term goals and perseverance are the qualities that drive success, which differ from the traditional notion that IQ is the main driver for accomplishment. Hodge and colleagues (Hodge, Wright, & Bennett, 2017) concluded that engagement leads to greater academic productivity and that those with increased levels of grit are more likely to have higher engagement. Students need to realize that it is not enough to simply achieve the goals assigned to them through minimum engagement and effort. The utilization of resources and maximum mental capacity to achieve success over time may also contribute to a  


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sense of long-term accomplishments (Wolters, & Hussain, 2014). After graduation, students who have developed a “grittier” attitude toward learning and goal achievement may transfer this trait for greater success in their professional and personal lives. It is also encouraging to note that previous studies show that grit can increase over time (Duckworth, 2017; Seligman, 2012); in fact, Seligman (2012) found that those over 65 have more grit than those who are younger. Goal Orientation Achievement or Goal Orientation researchers posit that individuals who have an interest in a topic or task are more likely to persist, be emotionally involved and focus their attention more easily on the task (Horvath, Herleman, & McKie, 2006; Lacoma, 2008; Midgley, Kaplan, Middleton, Maehr, Urdan, Anderman, Anderman, & Roesner, 1998). Thus, goal orientation is “the degree to which a person or organization focuses on tasks and the end results of those tasks. Strong goal orientation advocates a focus on the ends that the tasks are made for instead of the tasks themselves and how those ends will affect either the person or the entire company. Those with strong goal orientation will be able to accurately judge the effects of reaching the goal as well as the ability to fulfill that particular goal with current resources and skills” (Horvath, Herleman, & McKie, 2006; Lacoma, 2008). Midgley and colleagues (1998) delineate goal orientation into three conceptually different goal orientations: 1) the goal to develop ability (task goal orientation), 2) the goal to demonstrate ability (ability-approach goal orientation), and 3) the goal to avoid the demonstration of lack of ability (ability-avoid goal orientation). This study looks at each of these three goal orientations. Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy encompasses an individual’s belief in her or his ability to accept a challenge and successfully complete a task (Akhtar, 2008; Ackerman, 2018). Thus, Bandura (1993) states, “Students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation, and academic accomplishments” (p.117). In other words, those with high self-efficacy who are confident in their ability to perform needed actions will be more likely to succeed. Research indicates that individuals who believe they are capable of completing a certain task will exert extra effort and are more  


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productive, while those with low self-efficacy exert less effort and are less productive (Bandura, 1993; 1997; Wood Bandura, & Bailey, 1990). Mindset Based on Dweck’s research (2006; 2012), the concept of the growth mindset is one’s ability to compensate for repercussions associated with failure in ways to promote positive growth over time. Thus, heightened levels of learning can be achieved through a growth mindset as opposed to a fixed mindset where the individual is closed off to the ability to see opportunity through failure. The utilization of the phrase “Not Yet” can be one of the most powerful steps that can help develop a greater sense of growth potential and a sense of personal and/or professional achievement. In other words, those using a growth mindset look at failure as a learning experience: although success is “Not Yet” achieved, learning from incremental failure leads to greater learning and greater success in reaching goals. Thus, the inclusion of failure in the process of growth and achievement is critical to the long-term success associated with academic development. The following section details the methodology of the study, including the measures, sample description, and a detailed data analysis. Methodology The purpose of this study is to explore relationships between grit, goal orientation, selfefficiency, and mindset. Data were collected using an online survey through Qualtrics. Participants were recruited from a subject pool of students enrolled in one (or more) of 20 marketing courses. Participation was anonymous; students were provided with course credit for participation. On average, the survey took less than 10 minutes to complete (M = 504 seconds; SD = 241 seconds). Measures Three concepts were measured using five-point, Likert-type scale items. Grit was measured using eight items measuring consistency of interest (four items) and perseverance of effort (four items) from Duckworth and Quinn (2009). Cronbach’s alpha demonstrated good scale reliability for consistency of interest (α = .76) and adequate scale reliability for  


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perseverance of effort (α = .63). Goal Orientation was measured using 17 items (Midgley et al., 1998). Statements included three goal orientation sub-scales: task (six items), ability-approach (five items), and ability-avoid (six items). Cronbach’s alpha demonstrated good scale reliability for task (α = .85), ability-approach (α = .84), and ability-avoid (α = .87). Self-efficacy was measured using eight items from Chen, Gully, and Eden (2001). Cronbach’s alpha demonstrated good scale reliability (α = .89). Mindset (two items) was measured using a five-point, Likert-type scale. Using the average of the items, groups were generated for growth mindset, mixed mindset, and fixed mindset. Demographic data collected included gender, age, class rank, international student status, first-generation student status, college major, and GPA. Sample The initial sample consisted of 368 respondents. Forty-six respondents with excessive missing data or data errors were dropped; the final sample was 322 respondents. Respondents were between 18-21 years old (85%), sophomores or juniors (72%), majoring in business (60%), and with a 2.76 or higher GPA (90%). Respondent gender was almost evenly split (50.8% male). Approximately 20% of respondents claimed first-generation status. Very few respondents reported having international student status (2%). Respondents’ self-reported mindset was primarily a growth mindset (61%) followed by mixed (22%) and fixed (17%). Data Analysis Data from the full sample were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis. Sub-sample data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVA. Exploratory Factor Analysis Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the latent constructs underlying the measurement variables. Initially, the factorability of 33 items was examined. First, both the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (.86) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (χ2 (465)= 4327, p < .001) of the data indicated suitability for structure detection. The diagonals of  


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the anti-image correlation matrix also exceeded the recommended 0.5. Given these overall indicators, factor analysis was deemed suitable with all 33 items. Principal axis factoring was used due to violations of multivariate normality (Costello & Osborne, 2005). An oblique rotation (Promax) rotation was used to allow for expected correlations among the constructs (Fabrigar et al., 1999). Extraction was based on eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Item loadings from the pattern matrix were evaluated using a minimum of .40 (Costello & Osborne, 2005). Two items from the perseverance of effort Grit sub-scale did not meet the minimum level and were removed from the analyses. The remaining 31 items produced six factors with item loading means exceeding .60. The subjects-to-variables (STV) ratio was 10.78, which exceeds the recommended minimum of 5 (Bryant & Yarnold, 1995). The six factors explained 60.1% of the variance. Factors were consistent with the intended concepts and were labeled as task goal orientation (6 items), ability-avoid goal orientation (5 items), ability-approach goal orientation (6 items), consistency of interest (4 items), perseverance of effort (2 items), and self-efficacy (8 items). Composite scores were created for each of the six factors. Correlation Analysis Pearson r correlation analyses were conducted to explore bivariate relationships among the composite scores. Consistency of interest had positive relationships with self-efficacy (r(322)= .32) and task (r(322)= .20) and a negative relationship with ability-avoid (r(322)= -.38), p < .01. Perseverance of effort had positive relationships with self-efficacy (r(322)= .54), task (r(322)= .35), and ability-approach (r(322)= .21), p < .01. Table 1 provides the correlation coefficients among the composite scores. Linear Regression Analysis Multiple linear regressions were conducted to predict composite scores from the two factors for the grit sub-scales: consistency of interest and perseverance of effort. Independent variables were composite scores from the factors for self-efficiency, task goal orientation, ability-avoid goal orientation, and ability-approach goal orientation.  


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Overall, the multiple regression predicting consistency of interest was significant, F (4,317)= 22.03, p < .01, R2 = .22. Of the predictors, both self-efficacy (= .18, t= 3.36) and task (= .12, t= 2.30) positively influenced consistency of interest, while ability-avoid negatively influenced consistency of interest (= -.36, t= -6.42), p < .05. Ability-approach was not a significant predictor, p > .05. Overall, the multiple regression predicting perseverance of effort was significant, F (4,317)= 41.94, p < .01, R2 = .35. Of the predictors, self-efficacy (= .46, t= 9.07), task (= .18, t= 3.82), and ability-approach (= .17, t= 3.40) positively influenced perseverance of effort, p < .01. Ability-avoid was not a significant predictor, p > .05. Sub-Samples Analyses To compare differences among sub-samples, means for composite scores for each of the six constructs were analyzed using either independent sample t-tests or one-way ANOVAs. For ANOVAs, Tukey’s post hoc procedures were used when Levene’s test assumed homogeneity of variances; Games-Howell was used when homogeneity of variances was not assumed. The results suggest no significant differences for means of the six constructs by business major status, first-generation student status, or class rank, p > .05. For gender, the results of the independent sample t-tests suggest no differences for five of six constructs, p > .05. However, the mean for ability-avoid goal orientation was significantly higher for females (M= .16, SD= .89) than males (M= -.17, SD= .89), t(319)= 3.17, p < .01. The effect size (d= .35) was moderate-weak (Cohen, 1988). For GPA, the results of the one-way ANOVAs suggest no differences for four of six constructs, p > .05. Composite score means for consistency of interest varied by GPA, F(2, 242)= 5.17, p < .01. Tukey’s post hoc procedure indicated that students reporting a 3.51 or higher GPA had significantly higher composite scores (M= .21, SD= .81) than those reporting 3.00 or less GPA (M= -.14, SD= .85) and those reporting 3.01-3.50 GPA (M= -.18, SD= .97), p < .01. Composite score means for perseverance of effort also varied by GPA, F(2, 242)= 15.15, p < .01. Games-Howell post hoc procedure indicated that students reporting a 3.51 or higher GPA

 


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had significantly higher composite scores (M= .38, SD= .59) than those reporting 3.00 or less GPA (M= -.29, SD= .99) and those reporting 3.01-3.50 GPA (M= -.13, SD= .84), p < .01. For mindset, the results of the one-way ANOVAs suggest significant differences for four of the six constructs, p < .05. Composite score means for self-efficacy varied by mindset, F(2, 241)= 6.70, p < .01. Games-Howell post hoc procedure indicated that students with a mixed mindset had significantly lower composite scores (M= -.44, SD= 1.14) than those with a growth mindset (M= .08, SD= .86) and those with a fixed mindset (M= .98, SD= .93), p < .01. Composite score means for ability-avoid varied by mindset, F(2, 241)= 4.41, p < .01. Tukey’s post hoc procedure indicated that students with a growth mindset had significantly lower composite scores (M= -.08, SD= 1.01) than those with a fixed mindset (M= .44, SD= .92), p < .01. Composite score means for task varied by mindset, F(2, 241)= 3.83, p < .05. Tukey’s post hoc procedure indicated that students with a mixed mindset had significantly lower composite scores (M= -.27, SD= .98) than those with a fixed mindset (M= .28, SD= .75), p < .01. Composite score means for ability-approach varied by mindset, F(2, 241)= 7.85, p < .01. Games-Howell post hoc procedure indicated that students with a growth mindset had significantly lower composite scores (M= -.14, SD= 1.04) than those with a fixed mindset (M= .50, SD= .71), p < .01. The following section discusses the results of this study and provides implications for immediate impact into the educational arena. Discussion The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among grit, goal orientation, selfefficiency, and mindset, in undergraduate students. The results suggest the constructs and their sub-components are related yet independent. Both dimensions of grit have positive relationships with self-efficacy, which suggests relationships among students’ perseverance and passion for long-term goals and their belief in their ability to succeed in specific situations. Likewise, both dimensions of grit have a positive relationship with task goal orientation, which suggests relationships among students’ perseverance and passion for long-term goals and students’ goals to develop abilities. However, students’ goal to avoid demonstrating lack of ability was negatively related to the consistency of interest sub-dimension of grit. This indicates that students whose goal is to  


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avoid demonstrating lack of ability may find it difficult consistently follow-through with tasks and projects. Arguably, this could be a concern that educators could address. For example, educators would make efforts to minimize concerns about demonstrating lack of abilities such as encouraging questions, actively engaging students throughout the learning process, and recognizing students’ fears about being perceived as inadequate. The results also suggest the need to address the potential consequences of students’ ability-avoid goals may be more pronounced in certain student populations. For example, females were much more likely than males to report ability-avoid goals. Arguably, this implies a heightened concern about female students’ need to avoid demonstrating lack of ability that may have an impact on grit. Likewise, students with lower GPAs had lower scores for both dimensions of grit. Although the causality is unclear, teaching the importance of grit may enable educators to influence student academic achievement across the curriculum. Following this section is a brief discussion of the limitations of the study as well as possible future ideas for continued research opportunities associated with grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset, in undergraduate students. Limitations and Future Study The major limitation of this study concerns the self-reporting data by the student respondents, which, therefore, renders the results subject to biases. However, some researchers suggest that self-reported data are not as strongly limited as some automatically assume because self-reported data are useful for understanding the participants’ psychological experience. In fact, people often realistically perceive their social environment (Balzer & Sulsky, 1992; Funder, Kolar, & Blackman, 1995; Murphy, Jako, & Anhalt, 1992; Spector, 1994). While the generalizability of the study is limited to the study’s population, it can be replicated to include a wide variety of participants. Future studies may further explore relationships among grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset in undergraduate students. Such research might include pre- and post-test analyses where interventions promote grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset. Additionally, this study could also compare classrooms with interventions versus classrooms with no intervention.  


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Longitudinal studies could assess student growth from their first year of undergraduate education through to their senior year and at intervals after graduation. The analysis of dropouts would be an interesting take on the existing data collection, which primarily focuses on top performers. An additional study might focus on non-traditional students and the external factors beyond the classroom that may impact their success. Finally, it would be interesting to study student success where instructors demonstrate grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency and mindset vs. those who do not. Future studies could also help us better shape the levels in which grit, goal orientation, self-efficiency, and mindset are included in the undergraduate education curriculum. Creating a climate for optimal learning is important as we search for ways to enhance student success through self-awareness about and development of grit, goal orientation, self-efficacy, and mindset.

References Ackerman, S. (2018). What is self-efficacy theory in psychology? Definitions & Examples. Positive Psychology Studies. Retrieved from https://positivepsychologyprogram.com/self-efficacy/ Akhtar, M. (2008). What is self-efficacy? Bandura’s 4 sources of efficacy beliefs. Positive Psychology UK. Retrieved from http://positivepsychology.org.uk/self-efficacy-definitionbandura-meaning/ Alper, S., Tjosvoold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy, and performance in organizational teams. Personnel Psychology, Inc., 53, 625-642. Balzer, W., & Sulsky, L. M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 975-985. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28,117-148. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Bobko. L. C. (1994). Self-efficacy beliefs: Comparison of five measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 364-369.  


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Bryant, F. B., & Yarnold, P. R. (1995). Principal components analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In L. G. Grimm & R. R. Yarnold (Eds.), Reading and understanding multivariate statistics , 99-136. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Chen, G., Gully, S., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4(1), 62–83. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9. Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (Grit-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174. Duckworth, A. (2017). Grit. NY: Vermilion. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: the New Psychology of Success. NY: Ballantine Books. Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindset: Changing the way you think to fulfil your potential. London: Little Brown Book Company. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272-299. Funder, D. C., Kolar, D. C., Blackman, M. C. (1995). Journal of personality and social psychology. 69, 656-672. Hill, P. L., Burrow, A. L., & Bronk, K. C. (2014). Persevering with positivity and purpose: An examination of purpose commitment and positive affect as predictors of grit. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 257-269. doi:10.1007/s10902-014-9593-5 Hodge, B., Wright, B., & Bennett, P. (2017). Research in higher education,1-13. Springer: Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-017-9474-y Horvath, M., Herleman, H.A., & McKie, R.L. (2006). Goal orientation, task difficulty and task interest: A multilevel analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 171-178. Lacoma, T. (2008). What is Goal Orientation? Psychology Today. Retrieved  


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from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/dont-delay/200809/goal-orientationtask-difficulty-and-task-interest-effects-setting-personal Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., Middleton, M., Maehr, M. L., Urdan, T., Anderman, L. H., Anderman, E., & Roeser, R. (1998). The development and validation of scales assessing students’ achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(2), 113-131. Murphy, K.R., Jako, R.A., Anhalt, R.L. (1992). Nature and consequences of halo error: A critical analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 218-229. Seligman, M. E. (2012). Flourish. North Sydney, NSW: Random House Australia. Spector, P.E. (1987). Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 438-443. Spector, P.E. (1994). Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 385-392. Wolters, C. A., & Hussain, M. (2014). Investigating grit and its relations with college students’ self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Metacognition and Learning, 10(3), 293-311. doi:10.1007/s11409-014-9128-9 Wood, R., Bandura, A,, & Bailey 'I. (1990). Mechanisms governing organizational performance in complex decision-making environments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46, 181-201.

 


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Table 1 Correlations among Composite Scores Measure 1. Self-Efficacy 2. Ability-Avoid Goal Orientation

3

4

5

-

.33*

-.04

-

.08 .37*

.05

-

5. Grit: Consistency of Interest

.32* .38* .20*

-.05

6. Grit: Perseverance of Effort

.54*

4. Ability-Approach Goal Orientation

* p < .01

2

-.26*

3. Task Goal Orientation

1

-

-.07 .35* .21* .42*


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Global Learning in Short-Term Study Abroad: Assessing Business Students after Global Consulting Program Mary L. Tucker Ohio University Katherine Hartman Ohio University Colin B. Gabler Ohio University

Abstract Business schools are increasingly conducting study abroad programs as a way to build student knowledge and skills, enhance intercultural communication, expand global knowledge, and instill a multicultural awareness and appreciation for diversity. Given the increase in short-term study abroad programs and the belief that such programs have practical benefits for students, assessing the learning is critical. Our analysis uncovers strong correlations among important learning outcomes. For example, students who demonstrated strong knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks demonstrated a strong ability to solve real-life problems in a global context. Likewise, students who demonstrated strong cultural diversity demonstrated strong drive and the ability to adopt a different perspective. We argue that the relationship among the former relationship requires a knowledge-centric focus, while the latter requires an attitudecentric focus, and then explore implications of these relationships Key Words: Short-Term Study Abroad, assessing learning, business students

 


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Introduction “To succeed and prosper in a global economy and interconnected world, U.S. students need international knowledge, intercultural communications skills, and global perspectives” (Institute of International Education, 2007, p. 5). The global community is now a reality; the charge for educators is how to best prepare students and future employees for success (Gutierrez & Bhandari, 2009; Hovland, 2009; 2014). Consequently, business schools are increasingly conducting study abroad programs in an effort to develop international and cultural competencies, as well as a general appreciation for diversity inside and outside the classroom (Mintzberg & Gosling, 2002). The Institute of International Education (IEE, 2017) reports that 325,339 U.S. Students studied abroad for academic credit in 2015-2016; 20.9% of were business students. The majority of these study abroad programs (63 percent) were short-term (eight weeks or less). These programs are often promoted as a differentiator when interviewing for employment and career advancement. Indeed, IEE reports that study abroad contributes positively to required 21st century job skills and career success, including intrapersonal, cognitive, and interpersonal competencies (Farrugia & Sanger, 2017). The increase in short-term abroad programs coupled with the presumed benefits requires an assessment tool to ensure that student growth is actually taking place. For example, according to Varela (2017), study abroad research has assessed students’ cultural learning (Varela & Gatlin-Watts, 2014), changes in students’ attitudes and affect (Gullekson, Tucker, Coombs, & Wright, 2011, Gullekson & Tucker, 2012) and how students acclimate to new cultures and customs (Savicki, 2010, Wood & St. Peters, 2014). The current paper extends these techniques and presents a post-trip guided reflection paper as a means to assess global learning. It is important to note how this study defined global learning and the next section details this performance metric. Global Learning Definition and Dimensions While assessing the Global Competiveness Program at Ohio University, we were guided by two key undergraduate objectives from the College of Business: 1) “our graduates will have competencies in socio-cultural skills relevant to the business profession,” and 2) “our students  


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will demonstrate the ability to critically analyze and engage complex, interdependent, global systems and to evaluate their implications for social and market contexts” (https://business.ohio.edu/academics/our-commitment-to-you/). We advance that this second objective, Global Learning, is particularly relevant to short-term study abroad programs. Derived from the AAC&U Global Learning VALUE (Rhodes, 2010), there are six performance dimensions measuring global learning: 1. Cultural Self-Awareness. Ability to understand one's own identity within a local and global community. 2. Knowledge of Cultural Worldview Frameworks. Ability to understand and analyze complex, overlapping worldwide social systems (e.g., cultural, economic, and political systems). 3. Drive and Perspective Taking. Ability to engage and learn from perspectives and experiences different from one’s own and to understand how one’s place in the world both informs and limits one’s knowledge. 4. Cultural Diversity. Ability to recognize the origins and influences of cultural heritage as well as its limitations in providing all that one needs to know in the world. 5. Personal and Social Responsibility. Ability to recognize ethical responsibilities to society - locally, nationally, and globally within individual societies. 6. Application of Knowledge to Global Contexts. Ability to apply knowledge to real-life problem-solving methods that demonstrate a systematic understanding of different perspectives associated with complex challenges facing cultures and societies on the local and global levels. These global learning objectives were developed for the short-term global consulting program, which is described in the following section. Overview of College of Business Global Competiveness Program The Global Competitiveness Program (GCP) is a short-term (2-3 week) international program in which Ohio University (OU) students conduct a consulting project abroad. Specifically, OU students work with host national students to complete a consulting project for a local company in one of seven countries: China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, and  


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Spain (countries may change year to year). The project is designed to be consistent with the cluster project all business majors complete at the home (Athens) campus in their sophomore year. The cluster is a problem-based holistic teaching approach where students apply crossdiscipline concepts to solve real-world problems. The GCP learning goals are: 

To apply your business training and skills learned at Ohio University to address an international business consulting problem

To develop project management, team and interpersonal skills in a challenging environment

To learn how to interact with clients and manage relationships with them

To develop tolerance for ambiguity and adversity

To gain new perspectives on conducting business in an international setting

To develop an appreciation and respect for the country’s culture

To learn and practice proper business etiquette in the context of a different culture

To learn to create meaningful and high-quality deliverables

To have a great learning experience in a foreign country

Upon returning home, students complete a guided reflection paper (See Appendix A) that is used to assess their global learning from the GCP experience. Methodology Data were collected using evaluations of student reflection paper assignments after the study abroad experience. Variables were created using a six-point scale for each of the performance dimensions. Measurement Instrument Assessment development for the study abroad program followed AACSB recommendations for direct assessments. Specifically, assessments must be evidence of learning demonstrated at the individual level, which are then evaluated by a qualified assessor. To capture  


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students’ learning, the reflection paper assignment (see Appendix A) and corresponding rubric (see Appendix B) were developed. Students were also encouraged to keep a journal of their experiences during the program to facilitate in the final reflection. Reflection papers asked students to answer the following questions (using an essay format): 1. Describe what you learned about yourself through the GCP experience, including but not limited to your cultural self-awareness, your growth in knowledge of other cultures, and your ability to see things from different cultural perspectives. How do you think this experience will impact your behavior in the future, both personally and professionally? 2. Based upon what you learned during your GCP context, identify three environmental and/or sociocultural factors (e.g., history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, lifestyle, etc.) that were different in the international culture, as compared to your native culture? How did these factors influence business operations and/or people living in this society? 3. Describe at least two specific examples in which you engaged in and learned from the perspectives and/or experiences of people from a culture different then you own. If any, how did these influence your abilities to (1) use multiple perspectives to assess situations, (2) understand how perspective impacts problem-solving and (3) recognize the limitations/biases of your own perspectives? 4. What did you learn about the impact of social institutions/systems (e.g., cultural, economic, and political systems) on solving business or societal issues? How do you now see your ethical responsibilities to society (locally, nationally, and globally)? 5. Discuss the intercultural challenges (team, local, and global perspectives) you experienced and how these were addressed. Assess how what you learned (in completing your GCP project) will help you going forward in your college experience and in your professional career? 6. Describe in detail the most meaningful experience (i.e., had the greatest impact on you as a person) that happened to you during the entire GCP program. What did you learn? How will it affect the way you behave or approach new experiences in the future? Reflection papers were collected and organized by the Director of Assurance of Learning. The Director of the Global Consulting Program met individually with faculty members leading  


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study abroad programs to emphasize the importance of Global Learning, to share the learning objective and corresponding performance dimensions, and to plan the reflection paper assignment. Reflection papers were evaluated by a trained, independent assessor who was not a participant in the study abroad program. Sample and Variables The sample included students participating in one of thirteen short-term study abroad summer business consulting programs through Ohio University College of Business. Country destinations include cities in China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. Prior to the in-country experience, students took a semester-long course to learn about the country, language, culture, and the business consulting techniques. The length of the short-term studyabroad programs ranged from two weeks to four weeks. Each team of U.S. students partnered with university students in country to complete a consulting project with a local organization. Two-hundred and thirty-six students participated in the programs either in summer 2016 (48%) or summer 2017 (52%). All students were undergraduates, including freshman (11%), sophomores (35%), juniors (34%), and seniors (19%). Student majors were primarily business and included accounting (13%), finance (19%), information systems/analytics (10%), international business (9%), management (7%), marketing (21%), sports (6%), and non-business (13%). After excluding students with missing data, the final sample used for analysis was 200 students. Six variables were collected using a six-point scale ranging from below expectations (1) to outstanding (6). As expected, average performance ratings were above expectations: cultural self-awareness (M= 5.23, SD= 0.94), knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks (M= 5.26, SD= 0.86), drive and perspective taking (M= 4.98, SD= 0.92), cultural diversity (M= 4.90, SD= 1.07), personal and social responsibility (M= 4.62, SD= 1.54), and application of knowledge to global contexts (M= 5.30, SD= 0.83). Results We implemented correlation analysis and one-sample t tests to determine the impact of our global consulting program on the learning outcomes. Because major, class rank, and program  


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year provided no significant differences among the groups, we reported results for the full sample. The six variables are noted as self-awareness, knowledge, perspective, diversity, responsibility, and application. One-Sample t Tests One-sample t Tests were employed to determine whether or not the sample means for each of the six performance dimensions differed significantly from a hypothesized mean (μ). Based on exceptions for student achievement of learning, the hypothesized mean for each of the six variables was 5.00 (i.e., meets expectations). There were no significant differences between the hypothesized mean and the mean of perspective and the mean of diversity, p > .05. Student performance for three variables significantly exceeded the hypothesized mean: self-awareness, knowledge, and application, p < .01. Student performance for responsibility was significantly less than hypothesized, p < .01. Table 1 provides the results of the six one-sample t tests.

Table 1 One-Sample t Test Results for Global Learning Performance Dimensions Measure

μ

M

SD

df

t

Self-Awareness

5.00

5.23

0.94

199

3.47*

Knowledge

5.00

5.26

0.86

199

4.29*

Perspective

5.00

4.98

0.92

ns

ns

Diversity

5.00

4.90

1.07

ns

ns

Responsibility

5.00

4.62

1.54

199

-3.54*

Application

5.00

5.30

0.83

199

5.05*

* p < .01

 


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Correlations Next, we used Pearson correlation analysis to determine the strength of the relationships among the six performance dimensions. As expected, all correlation coefficients were positive, p < .01. The strongest correlation was between diversity and perspective (r(200)= .66); the weakest correlation coefficient was between knowledge and responsibility (r(200) = .48). Table 2 provides the correlation matrix.

Table 2 Correlations Between Global Learning Performance Dimensions Measure

M

SD

1

2

3

4

5

7. Self-Awareness 5.23 0.94 8. Knowledge

5.26 0.86 .49* -

9. Perspective

4.98 0.92 .52* .51* -

10. Diversity

4.90 1.07 .57* .52* .66* -

11. Responsibility

4.62 1.54 .50* .48* .50* .57* -

12. Application

5.30 0.83 .61* .65* .60* .57* .60*

* p < .01

Discussion Given the rise in study abroad programs and the need for higher education to be held accountable to learning outcomes, assessment of student achievement of learning from study abroad education is paramount. One method for meaningful, authentic assessment is to use evaluations of semi-structured reflection papers that allow students an opportunity to demonstrate achievement of learning goals. Using AAC&U’s Global Learning VALUE rubric (Rhodes, 2010), programs may assess student achievement of abilities related to cultural awareness, cultural self-awareness, knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks, drive and  


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perspective taking, cultural diversity, personal and social responsibility, and application of knowledge to global contexts. The results of the one-sample t tests suggest that students met expectations of learning for drive and perspective-taking and for cultural diversity, and even exceeded expectations for cultural self-awareness, knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks, and application of knowledge to global contexts. However, students did not achieve learning expectations for personal and social responsibility. We argue that real growth in personal and social responsibility may require more time. Therefore, these outcomes may see stronger influence from a long-term study abroad program, allowing more time to adequately adjust, develop, and mature to the cultural environments. The results of the correlation analysis suggest strong relationships among related learning outcomes. For example, students who were able to understand complex worldwide social systems demonstrated a strong ability to apply knowledge to real-life problems. Likewise, students who could recognize the origins and influences of cultural heritage were better suited to engage and learn from perspectives and experiences different from their own. These findings may suggest a difference between knowledge-centric and attitude-centric learning outcomes. Conclusion The business world is increasingly a global marketplace, and therefore, for universities it is no longer a question of “Are there benefits to studying abroad?” Instead, the question is, “What is the optimal learning potential from a study abroad program?” This paper tackles this question in two ways. First, we introduced an assessment tool that could be adapted to many different contexts to uncover student growth. Second, we revealed concrete implications for colleges and faculty looking to integrate global learning into their curriculum. We found that short-term study abroad programs developed some very important skills among undergraduate students. Specifically, through just a few weeks, these students exhibited self-awareness, knowledge, and application of this knowledge in a global context. Further, students seemed to achieve high growth across several related outcomes, which shows the added benefits to these programs. However, we also note areas where 2-4 weeks was simply not enough time or exposure to truly influence student outcomes.  


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Our findings suggest that significant development of personal and social responsibility require a longer-term program. Perhaps the final takeaway is that there is no “one-size-fits-all” strategy for study abroad programs, which represents an important area of future research for pedagogical research. Scholars should continue to investigate the advantages and disadvantages to all lengths of study abroad programs. Just as there is no perfect program, there is no perfect student to experience it. There is, however, the perfect program for every student, which represents a viable future research agenda. Author Biographies Mary L. Tucker is a Professor of Management at Ohio University. She teaches management, organizational behavior, and cross-cultural leadership and management. Current research interests include leadership, management pedagogy, and assessing learning. She has provided leadership training for both private and public-sector organizations, including the American Association of Highway Transportation Officials, 3M, and State Farm. Katie Hartman (Ph.D., Indiana University) is the Fox Associate Professor and Chair of the Marketing Department in the College of Business at Ohio University. She teaches marketing strategy, marketing research, and consumer behavior. Her research interests include assessment, accreditation, problem-based learning, general education, and intercultural competency. Colin B. Gabler is an Associate Professor of Marketing in the College of Business at Ohio University. He is also Director of the Center for International Business. He teaches professional selling, sustainability & marketing, and global consulting. His teaching and research investigate how organizations manage the competing demands of multiple stakeholders and how this impacts the triple bottom line. References Farrugia, C., & Sanger, J. (2017). Gaining an employment edge: The impact of study abroad on 21st century skills & career prospects in the United States. Report for Institute for International Education Center for Academic Mobility Research and Impact. Retrieved from: https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Publications/Gaining-an-EmploymentEdge---The-Impact-of-Study-Abroad.  


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Gutierrez, R., & Bhandari, R. (2009). The value of international education to U.S. business and industry leaders: Key findings from a survey of CEOs. An IEE Briefing Paper. New York, NY: Institute of International Education. Retrieved May 2010 from http://www.iie.org/ResearchEvaluation. Gullekson, N. L., & Tucker, M. L. (2012). An examination of the relationships between emotional intelligence and intercultural growth for students studying abroad. Journal of the Academy of Business Education, 13, 162-178. Gullekson, N. L., Tucker, M. L., Coombs, G., & Wright, S. (2011). Examining intercultural growth for business students in short-term study abroad programs: Too good to be true? Journal of Teaching International Business, 22, 91-106. Hovland, K. (2009, Fall). Global learning: What is it? Who is responsible for it? Association of American Colleges and Universities Peer Review, 11(4), pp. 4-7. Hovland, K. (2014). Global learning: Defining, designing, demonstrating. A Joint publication of NAFSA: Association of International Educators and the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/sites/default/files/files/Global/global_learning_2014.pdf Institute for International Education. (2017). Open doors 2017: Fast facts. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Fact-Sheets-andInfographics/Fast-Facts Mitzberg, H., & Gosling, J. H. (2002). Reality programming for MBAs. Strategy and Business, 26(1), 288888-31. Rhodes, T. L., Editor (2010). Assessing outcomes and improving achievement: Tips and tools for using rubrics. Association of American Colleges and Universities. Savicki, V. (2010). Implications of earlier sociocultural adaptation for study abroad students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad students, 19, 205-223. Varela, O. E. (2017). Learning outcomes of study-abroad programs: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Learning & Education,18(4), 531-561. Varela, O. E., & Gatlin-Watts, R. (2014). The development of the global manager: An empirical study on the role of academic international sojourns. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13, 187-207.  


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Wood, E.D. & St. Peters, H. Y. (2014). Short-term cross-cultural study tours: Impact on cultural intelligence. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25, 558-570.

 


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APPENDIX A GCP Reflection Paper Assignment (with Learning Objectives Noted) It is strongly recommended that you keep a journal of your experiences while you are abroad. This information will assist you when completing the reflection paper. Each student must complete a reflection paper that addresses the issues listed below. Reflections files will be posted to Turnitin on the GCP Blackboard and emailed to your country faculty. Name your file using your last name and your site location, for example: Taylor Jones Reflection Paper. Each topic discussion should have 2-3 well-developed paragraphs. The paper should be 12-point font and single spaced with double spacing between paragraphs. Typical length is 4-5 pages. 1. Describe what you learned about yourself through the GCP experience, including but not limited to your cultural self-awareness, your growth in knowledge of other cultures, and your ability to see things from different cultural perspectives. How do you think this experience will impact your behavior in the future both personally and professionally? (LO #1: Cultural Self-Awareness) 2. Based upon what you learned during your GCP context, identify three environmental and/or sociocultural factors (e.g., history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, lifestyle, etc.) that were different in the international culture as compared to your native culture? How did these factors influence business operations and/or people living in this society? (LO #2: Knowledge) 3. Describe at least two specific examples in which you engaged in and learned from the perspectives and/or experiences of people from a culture different than you own. If any, how did these influence your abilities to (1) use multiple perspectives to assess situations, (2) understand how perspective impacts problem-solving, and (3) recognize the limitations / biases of your own perspectives? (LO #3: Perspective Taking) 4. What did you learn about the impact of social institutions/systems (e.g., cultural, economic, and political systems) on solving business or societal issues? How do you now see your ethical responsibilities to society (locally, nationally, and globally)? (LO #4: Personal & Social Responsibility) 5. Discuss the intercultural challenges (team, local, and global perspectives) you experienced and how these were addressed. Assess how what you learned (in completing your GCP project) will help you going forward in your college experience and in your professional career? (LO#5: Application) 6. Describe in detail the most meaningful experience (i.e., had the greatest impact on you as a person) that happened to you during the entire GCP program. What did you learn? How will it affect the way you behave or approach new experiences in the future? 7. What could have better prepared you for your project, traveling and cultural experiences?  


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APPENDIX B Global Learning Rubric Evaluation Criterion Cultural selfawareness

Below Expectations (Rating 0 or 1) Shows minimal awareness of own cultural rules and biases (even those shared with own cultural group(s)) (e.g. uncomfortable with identifying possible cultural differences with others.)

Meets Expectations (Rating 2 or 3) Identifies own cultural rules and biases (e.g. with a strong preference for those rules shared with own cultural group and seeks the same in others.)

Exceeds Expectations (Rating 4 or 5) Recognizes new perspectives about own cultural rules and biases (e.g. not looking for sameness; comfortable with the complexities that new perspectives offer.)

Knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks

Demonstrates surface understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Demonstrates partial understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Demonstrates adequate understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices.

Drive and Perspective Taking Motivated to engage and learn from perspectives and experiences different from one’s own and to understand how one’s place in the world both informs and limits one’s knowledge

Fails to address perspectives/experience s different from one's own OR recognizes different perspectives yet maintains a value preference for own perspective without understanding or critical analysis.

Identifies and explains perspectives/experie nces different from one's own yet fails to demonstrate an understanding about how one's own position informs or limits knowledge

Identifies, explains, and synthesizes perspectives/experience s different from one's own and demonstrates a basic understanding about how one's own position informs or limits knowledge

Cultural Diversity and Strategy Ability to recognize the origins and influences of one’s own cultural heritage as well as

Fails to recognize the origins and influences of one's own cultural heritage OR describes the experiences of others primarily through one cultural

Explains and connects two or more cultures with some acknowledgement of power structures; demonstrates

Analyzes connections between the worldviews, power structures, and experiences of multiple cultures, incorporating an understanding of

 

Outstanding (Rating 6) Articulates insights into own cultural rules and biases (e.g. seeking complexity; aware of how her/his experiences have shaped these rules, and how to recognize and respond to cultural biases, resulting in a shift in self-description.) Demonstrates sophisticated understanding of the complexity of elements important to members of another culture in relation to its history, values, politics, ommunication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices. Identifies, evaluates, and applies perspectives/experie nces different from one's own to complex subjects and demonstrates a comprehensive understanding about how one's own position informs or limits knowledge even in the face of multiple and even conflicting positions Adapts and applies a deep understanding of multiple worldviews, experiences, and power structures while initiating


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its limitations in providing all that one needs to know in the world

Personal and Social Responsibility Ability to recognize one’s ethical responsibilities to society - locally, nationally, and globally within individual societies

Application of Knowledge to Global Contexts Ability to apply knowledge to reallife problemsolving that demonstrates a systemic understanding of different perspectives associated with challenges facing cultures and societies on the local and global levels

perspective; demonstrates very limited openness to varied cultures and worldviews.

limited yet respectful interaction with varied cultures and worldviews.

respectful interactions with other cultures.

Fails to recognize one's ethical responsibilities to a society OR identifies only basic ethical dimensions of some local or national decisions that have global impact.

Explains the ethical, social, and environmental consequences of local and national decisions on global systems yet does not address individuals' ethical responsibilities

Analyzes the ethical, social, and environmental consequences of global systems and identifies a range of actions informed by one’s sense of personal and civic responsibility.

Fails to define global challenges OR defines global challenges in basic ways using a single perspective.

Formulates practical yet simplistic solutions to global challenges that use only one or two disciplinary perspectives (such as cultural, historical, and scientific); does not effectively consider either local or global perspectives.

Formulates practical and comprehensive solutions to global challenges that are appropriate to contexts using multiple disciplinary perspectives (such as cultural, historical, and scientific); effectively considers local or global perspectives.

meaningful interaction with other cultures to address significant global problems. Identifies informed and responsible action to address ethical, social, and environmental challenges in global systems and evaluates the local and broader consequences of individual and collective interventions.

Formulates practical and sophisticated solutions to global challenges that are appropriate to contexts using interdisciplinary perspectives; effectively considers local and global perspectives.

Source: Excerpted with permission from Assessing Outcomes and Improving Achievement: Tips and tools for Using Rubrics, edited by Terrel L. Rhodes. Copyright 2010 by the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

 


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The Human Resource Managers’ Perceptions of Workers with Learning Disabilities Jason Styles Regent University Lisa Knowles St. Thomas University Abstract In this qualitative research, a phenomenological research method design utilized a cross-sectional industry approach investigating information gleaned from human resource professionals’ views on the impact of individuals with learning disabilities in public and private work environments in Nassau, New Providence The Bahamas. Learning disabilities are a global phenomenon, and due to globalization, organizations are forced to interact with individuals from diverse cultures, beliefs and backgrounds more than ever before. Furthermore, for an organization to accomplish success, leadership is crucial to implementing and promoting diversity policies to attain disability equality with efficient and effective job performance. To retrieve this information, indepth interviews with open-ended questions utilized data collection from ten (10) senior human resource professionals with a minimum of ten (10) years of experience in the workforce. Overall, the findings of this study shed light on the phenomenon of learning-disabled workers in Bahamian society from human resource managers’ emic perspective.

Keywords: Human Resource Management, Learning Disabilities, Leadership, Diversity, The Bahamas, Workforce Introduction Life in organizations is packed with happenings that can be interpreted in a number of ways (Bolman & Deal, 2017). Due to the globalization, organizations cross-culturally are being forced to interact with individuals from diverse cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds more than ever before (Sam & Berry, 2010). According to Schein (2006), leadership is a critical variable in defining success or failure of organizations and every leader has a responsibility to make sure  


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that when the organization changes it not disruptive (Preziosi, 2009). Indeed, companies’ public and private sectors are recognizing that diverse employee backgrounds enhance competitiveness in the global economy (Ball, Monaco, Schmeling, Schartz, & Blanck, 2005). An illustration of a particular group growing in the work environment are employees with learning disabilities (LDs) and may be considered a widespread phenomenon in modern societies. Kulkarni and Gopakumar (2014) reported statistics from International Labor Organization (ILO) on how a tenth of the world population or 650 million people, live with a disability and 470 million are of working age. However, learning disabled groups remain excluded from organizations, underutilized, or understudied in terms of their career management, because, given an enabling environment, one’s disability becomes secondary to ability of the focal employee (Ibid, 2014). Also, managing careers for those with a disability may seem tougher than for their counterparts without a disability (Ibid, 2014). Creating a work culture of inclusiveness and diversity comes down to focus and persistence of the human resources management department (Bolman & Deal, 2017; Kulkarni, Boehm, & Basu, 2016) and top management’s leadership (Boehm & Dwertmann, 2015). Literature Review Leadership Leadership has been a topic of interest, speculation, and a highly valued commodity for a long time (Yukl, 2013; Northouse, 2010; Ivanevich, Matteson & Konopaske, 2018). Yukl (2013) mentions that leadership is of great importance since it defines direction regarding traits; influences interactions, behaviors, and role relationships; and identifies the occupation of an administrative position. Furthermore, Yukl (2013) alludes understanding leadership as a “shared process in groups, teams, and organizations and defines what is effective or ineffective in the organization” (p. 2). Ivanevich, Matteson and Konopaske (2018) state how leadership encompasses three crucial variables: “the people who are led; the task that people are performing; and the environment in which the people exist” (p.402). Northouse (2010) postulates how leadership encompasses particular central components: “1) leadership is a process 2) leadership involves  


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influence 3) leadership occurs in groups, and 4) leadership involves common goal” (p.3). Moreover, Northouse (2010) theorizes that these components help define leadership. Conversely, Silva (2016) discusses the concept of leadership as difficult because it is evolving and encompasses an influence interaction process occurring in a given context, whereby some individuals accept someone as their leader to attain common goals. With this in mind, Gardner, Lowe, Moss, Mahoney, and Cogliser (2010) reveal how leadership resurged, while behavioral science scholars introduced popular contemporary leadership theories. For instance, leader-member exchange (LMX) (Dansereau, Graen & Haga, 1975; Graen & Cashman, 1975; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) transformational leadership (McGregor, 1978; Bass, 1985), charismatic leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1987; House, 1977; House & Aditya, 1997), spiritual leadership (Fry, 2003), and servant leadership (Greenleaf, 1977), which emphasize leadership in worldwide organizations, are among these contemporaries. According to Ivancevich, Matteson, and Konopaske (2018), leadership must be practical and not generalized in a global context. In comparison, Carroll, Levy, and Richmond (2008) state how leadership-as-practice (LAP) focuses on the everyday practice of leadership including its moral, emotional, and relational aspects, rather than its rational, objective, and technical issues. Raelin (2011) eruditely explains how leadership-as-practice concerns less about what one person thinks or does and is more concerned about what people may accomplish together. “It is paramount that leaders are concerned with what is most meaningful for people, and they try to get people to agree about important things to be done” (Yukl, 2013, p.6). Schein (2006) declares how leadership is a critical variable in defining success or failure of organizations. Leaders have the impact on the lives of followers and the fate of organizations; depending on how they use their power, preferably wisely and effectively, as the determining factor for integrity or ethics (Yukl, 2013). Likewise, Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy (2009) indicate how leaders face dilemmas that require choices competing for sets of values and priorities. However, “effective leaders recognize and are confronted with a commitment to do what is right or ethical” (p.132). Also, Hughes et al. (2009) highlight how leaders should “internalize a strong set of ethics, principles of right conduct or a system of values” (p.133). Winston and Patterson (2006) further posit how leaders must  


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exemplify ethical means by seeking the greater good of the follower(s) in the process of action steps, such as personal, emotional and physical development. Vis-à-vis, the leader also achieves this same state as a leader exemplifies personal growth, renewal, regeneration, and increased stamina (mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual) through the leader-follower interactions. (Ibid, 2006, p.7) Leadership has been studied in a variety of contexts in private and public sectors, as well as social organizations, ranging from the national, military, and business (Yukl, 2013). Learning Disabilities Büttner and Hasselhorn (2011) report learning disabilities (LDs) are a widespread phenomenon in modern societies whereby reading, writing, and arithmetic are necessary skills in everyday life. According to Zhao, Zhang, and Yu (2008), the related stigma of learning disabilities has a profound impact on individuals, which leads to possible discrimination and rejection during their social interactions. Büttner and Hasselhorn (2011) cite the most prominent assumption about causes of LDs is that some individuals have biological based cognitive deficits that hinder their performance. However, for a number of reasons, it is difficult to identify those causes empirically. Respective literature identifies cognitive deficits as closely associated with specific LDs, while it remains unclear whether the identified cognitive deficits are causal factors or a mere consequence or even a covariate of the disability (Ibid, 2011). Penney (2018) defines LDs concerning deficits in various psychological processes that affect certain areas of academic achievements, such as working memory and attention. Additionally, Penney (2018) adds how learning disabilities are seen as being neurological disorders in various mental processes that make it challenging to acquire specific skills, notably in reading and mathematics. However, Penney (2018) discusses how the terms “disorder” and “disability” are inept and misinforming. A point often overlooked, Klassen, Neufeld, and Munro (2005) assert how operational definitions of learning disabilities are undergoing a slow, but critical shift in North America. Correspondingly, Fletcher, Coulter, Reschly, and Vaughn (2004) and Barrera, (2006) all reveal an increasing concern expressed in the United States about common definitions and procedures  


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for identifying students with learning disabilities. Barrera (2006) also mentions, from the inception of Public Law 94-142 through its current version with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004, provoking disagreements. Kozey and Siegel (2008) disclose how in the USA, policy definition and process of LD identification historically has been highly politicized and heavily regulated. Furthermore, there are many attempts to refine and revise the definition (Barrera, 2006). Interestedly, crossculturally, Canadian D'Intino (2017) specifies how the meaning of LD varies according to province and territory and it lacks a consistently applied definition of LDs in Canada. According to Raja and Kumar (2011), this phenomenon is found across all ages and in all socio-economic classes, affecting individuals differently at different stages of life from early childhood, elementary school years, adolescence, and on into adulthood. Important to realize, the causes of LDs are complex and not well understood, which cultivates confusion regarding the origins of LDs (Raja & Kumar, 2011). In comparison, Sparks and Lovett (2009) substantiate that the definitions of LDs offered by many professional associations do not include any guidance concerning assessment or classification criteria at the level of detail useful for diagnosticians. However, Rao (2005) discovers that learning disabilities are created by educational, physiological, psychological, or environmental factors. Barber (2014) triangulates what LDs are not: a mental illness; a result of sin, or a sign that the person is holy or saintly; nor catching; and is not something to be feared. In detail, Sparks and Lovett (2009) specify how the rise in learners with learning disabilities pursuing postsecondary education rose compared to other disability groups. Furthermore, Sparks and Lovett (2009) present how, in 2000, more than 40% of first-year college students with disabilities had a diagnosis of either a LD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Bellanca and Pote (2013) signify and cite how researchers found that children with ADHD, depression, and LDs are stigmatized, which lowers peer status of those without such difficulties. All and all, most of the LD literature focuses on children, but it establishes that LDs affect individuals throughout their lives, and in some cases, some symptoms become worse over time (Luria, Kalish, & Weinstein, 2014). Luria, et al. (2014) concludes that LDs are relevant to  


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personal and organizational psychology because almost one-fifth of employees may have LDs that may influence their performance. Learning Disabilities in the Work Environment Salge (2018) reports that U. S. Census Bureau, in 2015, estimated approximately 12.6% of the total non-institutionalized American population reported having some disability. According to Studer, Lichtenauer, Wyder, and Parpan-Blaser (2017), populace with disabilities in the work or employment environment have several meanings: engaging in meaningful activity, experiencing self-affirmation and competence, establishing social contacts, having a structured daily routine, and strengthening social status (as cited in, Kradorff & Ohlbrecht, 2010). Interestingly, Salge (2018) highlights how Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 to protect the rights of people with disabilities and to prevent discrimination. Wooten and James (2005) mention this because of the circumstances of the ADA signed by Bush, organizations grapple with creating a work environment that accommodates the needs of their employees with disabilities, while leveraging their talents and skills. The ADA and Title I concerns people with disabilities in the workplace, while preventing employers from discriminating against individuals with disabilities in all areas of employment; e.g., hiring, promoting, termination, compensation, training, and employee benefits (Salge, 2018). Employment and disability support policies have done little to rectify the underrepresentation in mainstream workforces of disabled people (Hemphill & Kulik, 2017). Another critical point, as long as the individual with a disability is qualified and proficient during the hiring situation, the employer cannot ask job applicants if they have a disability or ask questions about the nature or severity of a disability (Salge, 2018). Gutierrez (2014) and Wehman (2011) both postulate that employment presents many benefits for adults with LDs because it enhances communication, socialization, academics, physical health, and community skills and promotes the economic well-being of people with disabilities. To emphasize, Wehman (2011) alludes how employment increases chances for monetary stability and self-sufficiency for workers with disabilities. Conversely, Gutierrez (2014) and Barnow (2008) both noted that while employment rates for people with disabilities remain low, it  


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is important to recognize that particular barriers and challenges exist for adults with LDs in the workforce. Kulkarni and Gopakumar (2014) provide that globally, people with disabilities (PWD) continue to be underemployed as compared to their counterparts without a disability, whereby many experience a destitute living. As an illustration, in the USA about 20% of those with disabilities obtain full-time work, as compared with about 50% in the general population exhibiting a financial gap of $10,500 of the median earnings (Ibid, 2014). In another illustration, the National Commission for Persons with Disabilities (2015) in the Bahamas report more than 10,000 persons with disabilities in the last census. However, the organization also mentions that by applying the WHO’s formula, approximately 35,000 to 45,000 persons in The Bahamas live with a disability (National Commission for Persons with Disabilities, 2015). Indeed, LDs may affect and influence an individual’s life negatively. However, Luria, Kalish and Weinstein (2014), Love (2011), and Landin (2017) all imply how LDs affect successful managers and company founders of our time. For instance, Steve Jobs (Apple), Henry Ford (Ford Motor Company), John Chambers (Cisco Systems), Ted Turner (Turner Broadcasting), Bill Hewlett (Hewlett Packard), Richard Branson (Virgin Group), and Charles Schwab (Charles Schwab Corporation) all succeeded in their traditional business and/or education and went on to become corporate leaders despite their learning differences. Children with ADHD, depression, and LDs are stigmatized, which lowers peer status of those without such difficulties. All and all, much LD literature focuses on children, but it has established that LDs affect individuals throughout their lives. And, in some cases, some symptoms become worse over time (Luria, Kalish, & Weinstein, 2014). Luria et al. (2014) conclude how LDs are relevant to personal and organizational psychology, since almost one-fifth of employees may have some LD that may influence their performance. Diversity According to Jones and George (2008), “one of the most critical management issues to merge over the last 30 years has been increased workforce diversity” (p.171). Moreover, Jones and George (2008) and Yukl (2013) both define diversity as dissimilarities or differences in race,  


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age, gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, education, experience, physical appearance, capabilities/disabilities. Perhaps a most inclusive definition by Arrow, McGrath, and Berdahl (2000) reveals the following: Members of groups could be diverse on a broad assortment of attributes, including knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); values, beliefs, and attitudes (VBAs); personality, cognitive and behavioral styles (PCBs); and demographic attributes such as sex, age, race, religion, and ethnicity, plus attributes that indicate a person’s standing or role in a particular social context, for instance, status, immigrant versus native-born, or reputation in a professional community. (p.76) Yukl (2013) adds how diversity has increased in the USA and Europe, and it raises important ethical and social responsibility issues. Moreover, in the last decade, diversity has increasingly been seen as including employees with different forms of disabilities (RuggeriStevens & Goodwin, 2007). Everyone is unique; however, managers forget that they need to recognize the individual differences in their employees as they capitalize on workers’ unique strengths. Robbins and Judge (2018) categorize diversity into two levels. The first is surface-level diversity, defined as the differences in easily perceived characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, age or visible disability. Deep-level diversity is defined as differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively important for determining similarity as people get to know one another. Furthermore, Robbins and Judge (2018) differentiate how surface-level diversity assists with activating stereotypes and assumptions about others from various backgrounds. Deep-level diversity focuses on sharing essential characteristics rather than concerning demographic differences (Ibid, 2014). According to Green, López, Wysocki, and Kepner (2002), diversity is beneficial to both associates and employers, because even though associates remain reliant in the workplace, respecting differences can increase productivity, thus helping to reduce lawsuits and improve marketing opportunities, recruitment, creativity, and business image (Green et al., 2002). Also, Roberson, (2006) excoriates how organizations in the 21st century realize that demographic  


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workforce changes effectively and efficiently manage because it affects organizational functioning and competitiveness. Indeed, diversity is beneficial. In contrast, Green, et al (2002) reveals challenges: managing diversity is more than merely acknowledging differences in people, but it involves recognizing the value of differences, combating discrimination, and promoting generality. Additionally, Vega and Colón-Berlingeri (2016) also conjecture how workforce diversity should not be based exclusively on achieving representation of different groups, but the value of integration and contribution of those from different backgrounds, including those from the majority culture, in the quest to succeed. Leading Diversity through Innovation Eagly and Chin (2010) mention how there are many processes through which diversity can affect leadership. Indeed, diversity challenges and opportunities impact all nations around the world to one extent or another (Visagie, Linde, & Havenga, 2011). Winston and Patterson (2006) state that to lead diverse followers one must recognize the diversity of the follower(s) by achieving the unity of shared values and directions without destroying the uniqueness of the person. By the leader utilizing innovative and flexible means, such as education, training, support, and protection, he/she can provide each follower with the necessities within the reason and scope of the organization’s resources and accommodations will enhance the organization’s objectives, as well as the growth of the follower (Winston & Patterson, 2006). Visagie et al. (2011) similarly states being successful in today’s market, companies need a competent, flexible and dedicated workforce, flexible and innovative management, and the capability to hold on to developed talent. As a result, Dreachlin (2007) indicates how a leader’s skills are tested at a deep and personal level in this new era of diversity management. Hesselbein and Goldsmith (2009) establish that diversity has a direct connection to innovation, which leads to the creation of new wealth. Innovation is considered the cornerstone of continual growth and sustainable competitive advantage in large global firms (Mors, 2010). Tremblay (2010) signifies that to create a work culture of inclusiveness and diversity, leaders need to follow five steps: a) communicate the importance of diversity;  


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b) disseminate accountability and responsibility among senior and middle managers throughout the organization; c) mandate inclusive hiring practices; d) advocate respect through sensitivity training and mission statements; and e) value, recognize, and reward contributions. (p.36) Uniquely, Andriopoulos and Lewis (2010) claim that diversity increases the breadth of capabilities and experiences within a group, thus facilitating idea exchange that encourages further individual expression. Leadership Role of Human Resources Management Jin, Lee, and Lee, (2017) reveal how rapidly increasing diversity in the US workforce has prompted a need for public and private sector organizations to acknowledge diversity management in their human resource management practices. Moreover, Jin, et al (2017) posits how the involvement of managers and team leaders is vital for diversity management efforts to be active and further promote an inclusive organizational climate. Human resource managers must be actively involved in managing diversity issues since they determine and oversee the details of practice implementation. Overall, Bebbington and Özbilgin (2013) emphasize how effective leadership and management counter challenges and achieve disability equality. Managing and valuing diversity is a critical component for effective people management, which can improve workplace productivity (Kulkarni & Gopakumar, 2014). Promoting diversity comes down to focus and persistence of the human resource departments (Bolman & Deal, 2017) and top management leadership (Boehm & Dwertmann, 2015). Furthermore, Boehm and Dwertmann (2015) explain how top managers are responsible for strategic decisions that affect the direction, operations, and performance of the whole company. In the context of disabilities, inclusive HR practices must exemplify flexibility and adaptation to particular needs (Ibid, 2015). Also, when leaders create a culture where organizational members are encouraged and rewarded for thinking systematically, the organization effectiveness rises (Wooten & James, 2008). Visagie, et al (2011) surmises that to  


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achieve objectives, a company needs a talented HR department with vibrant, top management leadership so as to accomplished particular corporate goals. Research Question Padgett (2017) and Patton (2015) both posit how qualitative research questions pave the way for qualitative study. Padgett (2017) mentions how qualitative research questions assume two forms: central and associated sub questions. Agee (2009) and Padgett (2017) both imply how the purpose of qualitative research questions articulate what a desired researcher seeks to represent from the complex worlds of respondents in a holistic, grounded manner. To demonstrate, Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls, and Ormston (2013) list how research questions need to meet a number of requirements: clear, intelligible and unambiguous; focused, but not too narrow; capable of being researched through data collection; not too abstract, or questions which require the application of philosophy rather than of data; relevant and useful, whether to policy, practice or the development of social theory; informed by and connected to existing research or theory, but with the potential to make an original contribution or to fill a gap; feasible, given the resources available; be of at least some interest to the researcher. (p.48) Important to realize, a qualitative research question paves the way for a qualitative study. (Padgett, 2017). In conclusion, our research question becomes: How do human resource professionals in the Bahamas view workers with learning disabilities in the workplace? Methodology Corbin and Strauss (2015) defend qualitative research whereby the “researcher not only collects and interprets their research”, but they are part of the research project as they keep an “open and flexible design” (p. 4). Patton (2015), Padgett (2017), and Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls, and Ormston (2013) reveal qualitative findings are based on three kinds of data: in-depth interviews; direct observation; and written communications. The qualitative design chosen is the phenomenological approach. Moustakas (1994) indicates that “the phenomenological approach is concerned with ideas and essences” (p.46). Likewise, Patton (2015) stated how “phenomenology  


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aims at gaining a deeper understanding of the nature or meaning of our everyday experiences” (p.115). The chosen method for data collection is in-depth interviews, which Moustakas (1994) explains as, “phenomenological interviews involving an informal, interactive process that utilizes open-ended comments and questions” (p.114). An in-depth interview is ideal for profoundly exploring respondents holistically (Guion, Diehl, & McDonald, 2001) and (Patton, 2015). Similarly, Creswell and Creswell (2018) indicate how in-depth interviews are exceptional for intensely exploring the interviewee’s holistic understanding of their perspective because as Patton (2015) specified, it is suitable for investigative analysis. This qualitative research also seeks to provide praxis, since “it is knowledge that is infused with human organizations and human interest, as represented in the situation under study,” (Evered & Louis, 2001, p. 390). The implications of learning disabilities within the workplace are often infused and not directly or separately identified, as is the case of this research. Population and Sample Cozby and Bates (2018) disclose particular APA ethics codes to follow that “actively promote ethical practice while conceptualizing, planning, executing, and evaluating research” (pp.49-50). Furthermore, Cozby and Bates (2018) suggest how “ethical principles support and nurture healthy sciences” (p.50). The selected participants in this research are senior human resource professionals (HRPs) who have worked in human resources for at least ten (10) years in Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas. However, before the study commences, Creswell and Creswell (2018) and Cozby and Bates (2018) both expound on how a researcher gains permission from the gatekeepers, the individuals who give access and permit to them to conduct research. Permission was obtained through invitation to department heads, open calling, social media, newspaper classified ads, and flyers posted on bulletins that an experimental research design was commencing, and meant to attract particular HRPs. Moreover, Cozby and Bates (2018) highlight that the HRPs were presented with a detailed consent form outlining study parameters and authorizing participation following the APA five ethics principles. Upon receiving written consent, the study commenced  


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and the restricted sample of (10) ten respondents generated this in-depth information utilizing the phenomenological approach. Data Collection The data collection began by collecting information through unstructured or semistructured observations and interviews. Padgett (2017) alludes to basic types of interviews, observations, and documents. However, interviews are the linchpin of success for qualitative studies. Moustakas (1994) specifies when preparing a phenomenological study, “the researcher must review professional and research literature connected with the research topic by assessing prior relevant studies, so as to distinguish their designs, methodologies, and findings from the own investigator’s study to indicate new knowledge” (p.111). For example, finding an HRP addressing how learning disabilities (LDs), in particular, are increasing in the workforce and how the HRP must strategize to diversify, accommodate, and include such in the job culture. The interviewer prepared an interview guide with a list of openended questions to be included in the course of the interviews. The proposed open questions are: 1)

What are your views on learning disabilities?

2)

Have you ever encountered any employee with a learning disability (ies)?

3)

Do you believe individuals with a learning disability can add to the diversity of thought that brings a fresh perspective and innovation to the workplace? If so can you give me an example of a situation in the workplace?

4)

Do you believe an individual with a learning disability could be a workplace leader?

5)

What accommodations have been incorporated into the workplace to facilitate the productivity of persons with a learning disability?

6)

As a senior HR professional, what measures can be implemented to improve the HRP’s industry knowledge of LDs in the Bahamian workforce?

According to Patton (2015), the researcher is the instrument in the study, and importantly, Guion, Diehl, and McDonald (2001) clarified how the interviewer must be open-minded, flexible and responsive, patient, observant, and a good listener. Padgett (2017) postulates, “a good interviewer must encourage participants to speak without interruptions” (p.109). Moustakas (1994) indicates that the researcher should “provide the participants with information and  


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instructions to help the participants gain an understanding of the subject under study” (p.103). Additionally, while conducting in-depth interviews, the interviewer records responses only by the consent of the interviewee, along with notes written in a secured notebook. Padgett (2017) and Patton (2017) both recommended debriefing time after each sitting. All data retrieved from the tape recording were transcribed on a computer via Bluetooth, SD card, or USB drive. The names of the interviewees were not disclosed during the tape-recorded interview, but rather were coded by the researcher. The method selected a cross-sectional or one point in data collection due, to time and inexpensiveness (Cozby & Bates, 2018). Interviews occurred during one week of data collection with ten respondents consisting of nine females and one male participated in this qualitative study on improving awareness of disabilities in the Bahamas workforce. Table 1 below identifies respondents’ characteristics. Most of the interviews took place at the prospective respondent’s place of employment, lasting between 15 and 30 minutes. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Questions were informal, open-ended, and focused on experiences from actual daily life situations. The interviewer invited the participants to describe their professional experiences and how they managed particular situations they chose to describe. After each interview, the researcher recorded observations and reflections related to the participant’s professional performances and descriptions of experiences, noting discrepancies, and applying coding techniques identifying data. The researcher’s follow-up notes facilitated an understanding of the participants’ experiences during analysis of the interviews. Overall, Paradis, O’Brien, Nimmon, Bandiera, and Martimianakis (2016) postulate how the interview data collected generates themes, theories, and models. While 90% of the respondents were female, according to the Department of Statistics for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, HR managers are 85% female, compared to the U.S. statistic of 73% female. Data Analysis According to Patton (2015), we live in an interview society. Each interview for this study was recorded by Otter voice app software on the Mac laptop. The researcher transcribed interviews and made appropriate grammatical modification to the interviews as the transcription  


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was created and exported. Furthermore, the selected software name Otter is a smart note-taking app for English only that creates quick voice notes that combine audio, transcription, speaker identification, inline photos, and key phrases. Once the data was collected and aggregated, all typed transcriptions were saved as Microsoft Word documents by the researcher. After the interviews were transcribed, the researcher analyzed the data using a phenomenological analysis. This analysis sought to grasp and elucidate the meaning, structure, and essence of the lived experience of a phenomenon for an individual (Patton, 2015). According to Padgett (2017) in the phenomenological study, the researcher must in the first step, epoche, whereby the researcher engages in removing prejudices, viewpoints, or assumptions regarding the phenomenon under investigation. Patton (2015) adds how this step is a primary and necessary phenomenological procedure that epitomizes the data based, evidential, and empirical research orientation of phenomenology. Furthermore, Patton (2017) described the steps of phenomenological analysis as follows: 1) Epoche, that is to remove all judgment; and 2) Phenomenological Reduction which identifies data in its purest from to include interpreting key phrases and their meaning (p.576). For this data set, the researcher reads and listens to all of the research interviews repeatedly to identify significant statements in the data and group these into themes by giving each statement equal value. Moustakas (1994) emphasizes this procedure as “horizontalization, whereby the data creates meaningful units and then is clustered in common themes removing overlapping statements, and lastly, develop the textual descriptions of the experiences” (p.119). Whitehead (2002) expounds how the thematic analysis is designed to uncover meaning, promote understanding, and interpret arising themes, while closely scrutinizing the transcripts, studying other sources of literature and self-reflection of personal experience. Equally important, analyst triangulation also utilizes to reduce potential bias that comes from a single researcher (Patton, 2015; Padgett, 2016). Furthermore, moving between the data, the collected research, and understanding until a meaningful interpretation of the actual experiences of the selected respondents evolves. The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership impacted workers with learning disabilities in the Bahamas. The experiences that the HRPs encountered while working  


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with the Bahamian workforce were evaluated on how they rectified employees with learning disabilities. Overall, corresponding Tham, Borell and Gustavsson (2000) state establishing trustworthiness and limit bias, each step of the analysis and each interpretation is subject to peer examination performed by the other researcher not present during the interview process. Findings Five themes emerged from the analysis of the transcribed data. They were: discrimination, sensitivity/confidentiality/distrust, leadership, lack of training, and diversity. Figure 1 below identifies these themes. Discrimination Biases exist when we select candidates simply because of selfish or self-induced reasons. 70% of the respondents report that that some form of discrimination exists when it comes to hiring people with learning disabilities in the Bahamas. “Persons with learning disabilities are at disadvantage when it comes to looking for a job…in the Bahamas” (R1). While another respondent reported, “Recognize them for who they are, don’t sort of make pre-judgments about what they can do or what they may not be able to do,” (R7). “It’s very discouraging for someone who has a learning disability…but they are really an excellent worker,” (R4) Biases exist not just from the employers’ perspective, but from the potential workers themselves, according to several human resource managers’ perspectives. “For several reasons learning disabled employees don’t want to be labeled because they don’t want to be discriminated against,” (R5). This is further supported by yet another respondent: “I have been in the field and I knew I have one worker with dyslexia, but no one volunteers that information,” (R8). And finally, We can also have learning disabilities simply because we want to be prejudice towards someone who has a disability, and that person might not be able to open up to you because of the way you treat that person, (R9).

 


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Sensitivity/Confidentiality/Distrust There are several stories of people who do not trust those in the HR department; their lack of confidentiality level yields caution, as reported by several respondents. Clearly 50% of the human resource professionals revealed that they perceived workers as being insensitive, lacking confidentiality, and overall distrust for the HR professional. There is also the perception that HR is more pro-company than pro-employee, although HR should be the balance between both, but you are viewed as bad HR (by the firm) when you are considered pro-employee, (R2). Another respondent shared a more detailed perspective offering how a lack of confidentiality or sensitivity is perceived causing distrust: Whenever we see somebody with a disability, we get defensive, . . . we don’t know how to handle it and it makes the whole situation uncomfortable; I think its insensitivity and lack of exposure; and reality we are not very sensitive; and I think people need to be more sensitive; need to be human, because like, I said, once you become a part of executive team, they lose sense of humanity; not treating people like they should, (R3). And yet another respondent revealed that: Most of our actions are based on emotion, so we really need to take time to analyze situations, try to be objective. When we’re looking at a situation, we are looking at an individual, (R4). Distrust is clearly identified by this respondent’s view of a learning-disabled worker: “We don’t trust each other, there is no trust and I am talking about what I have seen in the company where I worked” (R9). And finally, another respondent elaborated: I think we need to be a little more sensitive about people. That, I found, to be a serious challenge. People tend to not be sensitive to people…we must stop looking at titles, that doesn’t make a person. We have to be sensitive on how we handle people today. We have to be very mindful of our environment and situations…we must learn to talk positive… we can talk positive. I must be sensitive to the person. I must be sensitive to the need. And, one of the things that I have to guard very carefully is confidentiality, which seems to be a problem today, (R10).  


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Leadership among Learning Disabled Workers Interestingly, all human resource managers (100%) believed that leadership potential transcends any learning disability. Responses include: “Yes, I think anyone can be a leader,” (R6). Another respondent had a very inclusive view of leadership: “We certainly can…We can't seem to be segregating disability from the person who has the ability,” (R10). Other HR managers shared their views on leadership among workers with learning disabilities that include: Someone with a learning disability could be an awesome leader in that they may be someone who can do public speaking, who can do all of these things, but their ability to learn is just different, (R1). I think we know of people who are leaders now in the world and their various professions who profess to have a learning disability like dyslexia or something else, okay. They are running multimillion-dollar companies and they are speaking publicly and they've been able to master it, you know, many of them, (R2). I think that we are all leaders in our right, and similarly, if we have that person that might not be as academic as the other it does not mean that they don’t have anything to offer … And so I think that when we start to look at disabilities, especially learning disabilities, we're thinking about academics purely. When I think about a learning disability, I'm also thinking about the fact that you might have some other enhancement and we can’t cross them out, (R3). So a person with a learning disability could be a leader in the workplace and leadership is comprised of a lot of things . . . emotional intelligence. Leadership is comprised of someone who can make good decisions. . . able to influence others…a learning disabled has the ability to coach and mentor new employees. And so the reality is . . . people with learning disabilities definitely can be leaders in the workplace, (R5). Learning and Development/Lack of Training Half of the human resource managers believed that a lack of training on the part of the overall workforce affects perspectives of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. “Learning and development is another thing we don’t focus on in fact …tailor the learning and  


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development towards employees with learning disabilities to help them grow,” (R1). Some saw their role in HR as the impetus for growth here: We have a need to make this a consideration, especially for those of us in the learning and development within HR, because we would be the ones who will come in contact with persons and understanding how they learn, along with the management teams that the frontline managers and supervisors that will work with people directly…we need to, first of all, understand what learning disabilities are, how they may show up at work, and then how we ought to deal with it. What are the strategies that managers can use? What are the strategies that learning and development professionals can use to assist those persons to play a role within their organization as contributing employees? So I think this is a really great project to bring this awareness, (R2). The view that HRPs need additional training is captured below: I think we need to do a better job with placing people in HR . . . you have to be a good listener, you have to be compassionate, you got to be able to input empathy, and so we have a lot of people who say they want to work in HR but they cannot work with people or deal with people, (R4). Again, training is vital as this respondent states, “in addition to learning disabilities, there are other areas as well...organizations do not accommodate,” (R5). And finally, “I would say communication…if they want the company to succeed…It's a win-win situation for both.” (R6). Diversity Finally, the issue of diversity and how the company and the employees benefit by all aspects of diversity were expressed by half of the human resource managers. Special individuals who tend to think, I call it, from the left side of their brain, or, you know, because a regular person would operate from the right, but they're able to, you know, shed light on things that you may not even have thought of as a company. Or if they can diversify the company on the whole, like, I've seen individuals who come in, you know, you just never thought about it, and they brought something to the table (R1).  


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I also strongly believe that everyone can learn and so for me, I don't see learning disabilities as limitations. It's just different ways that people learn… but I guess strategies on how to approach how they process information so that they can excel. (R2). I believe with diversity, its strength. And a learning-disabled employee can add to the workplace because, you know, when you can really see the difference in people and what they bring to the table. While I might have strength in one area, somebody else might have that weakness until we can help each other out. And similarly, I think that we if we embrace that type of diversity, especially with the disabled, we can get back because I think everybody has something to do that they have to give (R3). I guess the unique thing about working in the public services that we have to accept and work with everybody. We don't get to choose who we work with…we find persons, colleagues in the public service who have learning disabilities (R4). Discussion It appears that the ever-evolving climate of knowledge development in human resource settings is demanding ‘higher-order skills’ of professionals, due to globalization and diversity. The feature in this discovery process, represented by ten participants by this phenomenological analysis, provides the emic perspective toward workers with learning disabilities. The results were collected from various types of industry (private, quasi-government, and public service) providing an overall view of how learning-disabled employees are viewed in the workforce. Not all of the respondents knowingly encountered employees with LDs on the job because they were not aware it was a problem, unless it was physical. When questioned, a few respondents’ views on LDs allude to physical disabilities, which reveal they view all disabilities similarly and may not be aware of the subject matter in such a definitive way. As it was mentioned by 70% the interviewees, the Bahamas workforce discriminates against LDs. This may be because they are not aware of what it is and its effects on the workforce. One of the respondents said that corporate may not have caught up this specific disability yet. However, interestingly, all the respondents agreed that an individual with an LD could be a leader in the workplace. Also, employees with LD’s can bring diversity to any environment, which can assist with new innovative thinking and creativity.  


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Furthermore, half of the respondents expressed how there are no accommodations in the Bahamas for LD employees. While interviewing, a few clients were emotionally moved because of the unfairness of how individuals are treated in the workplace. Further research should investigate the impact of how post-colonialism affects this workforce. Several respondents mentioned the impact of post-colonial perspectives and how HRPs view their employees. Moreover, these HRPs perceive that employees exemplify distrust towards human resource departments because of a lack of confidentiality and sensitivity. Globalization is impacting our society, forcing companies to compete on an international level, and if companies do not adopt policies and initiatives to help them stay competitive, then the HRPs will face increasing challenges, due to lack of understanding and knowledge. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides evidence that everyday discrimination does occur in the workplace and that it negatively affects LD employees. Moreover, the results of this study highlight the fact that the HRPs in the Bahamas are not aware of addressing learning disabilities in the workforce in a most efficient way. As researchers are beginning to turn their attention toward understanding the experience of LDs employees, a target of discrimination when hiring, should not be ignored. Overall, human resource managers in the Bahamas need to embrace diversity, enhance training and development and make workplaces welcoming workplaces to employees with learning disabilities. References Agee, J. (2009). Developing qualitative research questions: A reflective process. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22:4, 431-447, doi: 10.1080/09518390902736512 Andriopoulos, C., & Lewis, M. W. (2010). Managing innovation paradoxes: Ambidexterity lessons from leading product design companies. Long range planning. 43(1), 104-122. Arrow, H., McGrath, J., & Berdahl, J. (2000). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.  


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Tham, K., Borell, L., & Gustavsson, A. (2000). The discovery of disability: A phenomenological study of unilateral neglect. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 54(4), 398-406. Tremblay, L. (2010). Inclusion of persons with disabilities in the workplace (Order No. MR69051). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (840629016). Vega, I. E., & Colón-Berlingeri, M. (2016). Diversity is inclusion. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education. 14(2), E20. Visagie, J., Linde, H., & Havenga, W. (2011). Leadership competencies for managing diversity. Managing Global Transitions. 9(3), 225-247. Wehman, P. H. (2011). Employment for persons with disabilities: Where are we now and where do we need to go? Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 35(3), 145-151. Whitehead, D. (2002). The academic writing experiences of a group of student nurses: A phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 38(5), 498-506. Winston, B. E., & Patterson, K. (2006). An integrative definition of leadership. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 1(2), 6-66. Wooten, L. P., & James, E. H. (2005). Challenges of organizational learning: Perpetuation of discrimination against employees with disabilities. Behavioral sciences & the law, 23(1), 123-141. Yukl, G. A., (2013). Leadership in organizations. New York, NY: Pearson. Zhao, J. Y., Zhang, B., & Yu, G. (2008). Effects of concealable stigma for learning disabilities. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(9), 1179-1188.

 


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Table 1 Respondents Characteristics Number of Minimum of Years Respondents 1 10

 

Type of Industry

Gender

Private

Female

2

25

Private

Female

3

20

Public Service

Female

4

15

Public Service

Female

5

13

Private

Female

6

20

Private

Female

7

35

Quasi-Government

Female

8

25

Quasi-Government

Male

9

15

Private

Female

10

35

Quasi-Government

Female


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Figure 1. Percentages of common responses of the participants.

 

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Receptiveness of Healthcare Workers with Stress, Anxiety, or Depression to Use a WebBased MBCT Therapeutic Intervention Joni A. Koegel Cazenovia College

Abstract Workplace absenteeism and presenteeism has become pervasive and costly to American businesses, due in large to mental disorders such as stress, depression, and anxiety. Occupations that are highly interactive caring for others, as is the case for healthcare workers, were reported to have the highest rates of absenteeism and presenteeism (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). The purpose of this quantitative, ordinal regression study was to predict of the receptiveness of healthcare workers to use a web-based mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention to help reduce stress, depression, and anxiety. The outcome of this research has established workers in the sample had a positive attitude toward using web-based MBCT programs to help alleviate anxiety, stress, and depression. Future research may include an analysis of the attitudes and thoughts of healthcare employers, since this researcher was unable to find a healthcare facility to allow this research. Keywords: Absenteeism, presenteeism, stress, anxiety, depression, MBCT There was a claim U.S. workers are the most productive around the world (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). However, an estimated 23% of the productivity loss in the U.S. economy or an estimated $118 billion annually was attributed to absenteeism due to illness (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). Presenteeism was estimated to cost the U.S. economy $180 billion annually. These statistics suggest an absent worker may cost less than an employee that reports working ill or distracted (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). A reoccurring theme regarding absenteeism and presenteeism is mental disorders (Joyce, et al., 2016). The United States Center for Disease  


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Control (2016) reported depression alone accounted for an estimated 200 million lost work days each year costing American businesses from $17 billion to $44 billion dollars annually. Healthcare workers are among those that had the highest rates of absenteeism or presenteeism (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). Anxiety disorders, panic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, and separation anxiety disorders were the most common of all mental disorders found throughout the U.S. (World Health Organization, 2013). This research was focused on only the three most common mental disorders: stress, anxiety, and depression. This dilemma is symptomatic of the much broader problem of an increase in workers with stress, anxiety, and depression (Twenge, 2015). Twenge reported an exceptionally high rate of depression in the U.S. whether it is somatic (physical), chronic depression, or suicidal idealization. In 2017, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) reported one-in-five adults in the U.S. experience a mental illness episode in a given year. In 2014, healthcare workers topped the list of professionals feeling stressed as 69 percent reported feeling stressed, and 17 percent highly stressed (Ricker, 2014). Stress, anxiety, and depression adversely impact the ability of workers to attend work and perform to their optimum capacity (Joyce et al., 2016). Studies report approximately 25% of all U.S. adults have a mental disorder and that nearly one-half of U.S. adults will develop at least one mental disorder during their lifetimes (United States Center for Disease Control, 2015). This translates to a greater need for intervention. Technology is continuously transforming the manner that individuals perform daily tasks, allowing for greater communication, and a host of other modalities (Budney et al., 2015). Technology also may be a viable solution to deliver real-time mental health therapy to workers during work hours or at home (Ali, Krevers, Sjöström, & Skärsäter, 2014). There were 11.8 million people in the U.S. employed in the healthcare industry in 2014, of those, only 3.8 million worked in hospitals (Fayer & Watson, 2015). The U.S. Department of Labor Statistics (USDLS) lists 14 of the 20 fastest-growing professions projected from 2014 to 2020, all of which are in the healthcare industry and include occupations such as home health aides, physical therapy assistants, and nurse practitioners to name a few (2015). The increase in healthcare jobs equate to a greater need for delivery of intervention for employees with stress,  


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anxiety, and depression (Sipe & Eisendrath, 2012). Based on the interpretation of the results of their studies, Budney et al., 2015; Eellis, Barrett, Wright & Thase, 2014); Kobak, Craske, Rose, & Wolitsky-Taylor, 2013, claimed there is value in using web-based treatment regarding cost and efficiency. Various web-based modalities have been proven to be effective in relieving recurring relapses of stress, anxiety, and depression (Budney et al., 2015; Budney et al., 2011; Kobak et al., 2013; Kuyken et al., 2015; Eellis et al., 2014). Although studies indicate web-based interventions have been useful, workers may not be receptive to participation for a variety of reasons. Lack of computer savvy or access also may be a deterrent to using web-based therapies or cultural differnces (Anderson & Titov, 2014). Use of web-based allows MBCT therapy in real time and is accessible via the internet, thus removing barriers to treatment such as time, cost of treatment, transportation, and privacy (Sipe & Eisendrath, 2012). Technology is continuously transforming the manner that individuals perform daily tasks and may also be a viable solution to deliver real-time mental health therapy to workers during work hours or at home (Ali et al., 2014). The problem is workers may not be receptive to utilizing a web-based treatment to reduce stress, anxiety, or depression if employers were to offer it. The purpose of this quantitative, regression study was to predict receptiveness of healthcare workers who have experienced stress, anxiety, or depression in the past five years to use a web-based MBCT intervention. Implementing programs places additional financial burdens on operational costs for an organization, particularly when the programs are not used. Web-based interventions make it possible to receive therapy (at home, at work, or both), based on the variables of gender, generational cohorts, education level, and ethnicity. Without evidence workers are interested in using web-based MBCT programs, employers are not likely to invest in such programs to improve workers’ mental health. Therefore, this research has provided a statistical analysis of the receptiveness to using web-based interventions among workers with stress, anxiety, and depression and included variables reflecting gender, generational cohort, education level, and ethnicity. The generational cohorts included the Silent Generation (1928-1945); Baby Boomers (1944-1964); Generation X,  


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also referred to as Gen X (1965-1980); and Millennials, also referred to as Generation Y (19811995) (Stewart, Oliver, Cravens, & Oishi, 2016).

Literature Review The Literature Review explored existing literature as it pertains to costs and loss of production due to absences and presenteeism (Bonner, 2016). Workplace absenteeism was defined as not attending work or an unplanned leave of absence (Baxter et al., 2015; Rhodes & Collins, 2015) while presenteeism was defined as being at work while ill or distracted (Rhodes & Collins, 2015; Yıldız, Yıldız, Zehir, & Aykac, 2015). Woven into the fabric of this research are contributing factors of why absenteeism and presenteeism are so prevalent (Joyce et al., 2016). Changing demographics, an emphasis on higher education, the rush to train new employees as older workers leave a vast hole in the workforce, and the everyday pressures contributed to the explosive need for therapies to address stress, anxiety, and depression (Witters, Liu, & Agrawal, 2013). The problem was heathcare workers might not be receptive to utilizing a web-based treatment to reduce stress, anxiety, or depression if employers were to offer it. Mental disorders such stress, anxiety, and depression as are a recurring theme found in statistics when analyzing causes of absenteeism and presenteeism (Joyce et al., 2016). Between 2011 and 2012, workers diagnosed with depression alone cost U.S. employers an estimated $23 billion in lost productivity, due to workers’ inability to adequately produce and engage in their work (Witters et al., 2013). In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) claimed, 6.7% of adults in the U.S. had experienced an occurrence of major depression in the previous 12 months (2013). By 2016, The Center for United States reported depression was estimated to cost U.S. employers approximately 200 million lost workdays annually, resulting in an expense ranging from $17 to $44 billion. Workplace anxiety results from demands and pressures created by the job, workplace rivalries, bullying, harassment, supervisor or management expectation fulfillment, and safety issues. These were only a few dimensions that characterize the scope of anxiety-causing elements in the workplace (Muschalla, 2016).  


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External forces such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, or economic instability also may be the cause of stress, anxiety, and depression (Charara, El Bcheraoui, Kravitz, Dhingra, & Mokdad, 2016). Estimates of depression and anxiety rise significantly to one-in-five people during times of emergencies. Occupations that involve caring for others or ones that are highly interactive, as is the case for healthcare workers were reported to have the highest rates of absenteeism and presenteeism (Rhodes & Collins, 2015). The U.S. Department of Labor Statistics (USDLS) lists 14 of the 20 fastest-growing professions projected from 2014 to 2020, all of which are in the healthcare industry and include occupations such as home health aides, physical therapy assistants, and nurse practitioners (2015). According to 2016, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 77.8% of workers currently in the U.S. healthcare industry were women. The growing need for healthcare professionals, particularly the most vulnerable, may indicate a growing need for alternative methods to deliver therapy for stress, anxiety, and depression. Although studies indicate web-based interventions such as Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been useful, workers may not be receptive to participate for a variety of reasons. Lack of computer savvy or access also may be a deterrent to using web-based therapies compared with other types of trials conducted for research and regular clinics (Anderson & Titov, 2014). Cultural differences may also be a barrier as stigmas surrounding stress, anxiety, and depression exists among various cultures (Anderson & Titov, 2014). The belief systems of African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos differ regarding the causes of mental illness, mental healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and selected characteristics of healthcare providers (Jimenez, Bartels, Cardenas, Daliwal, & Alegría, 2012). Research shows success using web-based technologies to deliver various types of interventions to treat an array of health concerns (Budney et al., 2015; Budney et al., 2011; Dimidjian, Beck, Felder, Boggs, Gallop, & Segal, 2014; Eellis et al., 2014; Kobak et al., 2013; Kuyken et al., 2015). Other researchers reported success with mobile technologies (Callan, Wright, Siegle, Howland, & Kepler, 2016). There are also those researchers that have not had satisfactory outcomes based on their interpretations of the results of their study (Geraedts et al., 2014a; Geraedts et al., 2014b; Spijkerman, Pots, & Bohlmeijer, 2016; Volker et al., 2015). In a similar study conducted in China, participants were receptive to the possibility of a web-based intervention for mental illness (Yao, Li, Arthur, Hu, & Cheng, 2014).  


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While a web-based intervention may not be an acceptable or appropriate delivery method for all generational cohorts, it may be useful for younger cohorts already in the workplace or entering the workplace. The Pew Research Center reported that as of the first quarter of 2015, the millennial generation, and Gen X members were the largest generations in the workforce (Stewart et al., 2016). Researchers Rickwood, Bradford, and Hale (2016) found that technology is effective in engaging young people in their mental health care. One aspect of the research revealed young people are comfortable providing feedback on tablets and tracking outcomes (Rickwood et al., 2016). Therefore, web-based interventions may be effective in an increasing number of workplaces, since younger cohorts are more receptive to various uses of technologies. Behavioral therapy is used extensively to treat an array of psychological disorders, including stress, anxiety, and depression disorders (Corey, 2013). MBCT is derived from behavioral theory and is used extensively in therapeutic interventions to change behavior (Corey, 2013). MBCT evolved from the tenets of cognitive behavioral therapy and considered holistic in nature. MBCT integrates mind and body by the use of breathing techniques, stretching, and media, such as calming pictures or music (Corey, 2013). MBCT was originated by Kabat-Zinn (1990) as a mindfulness stress reduction program as a preventative health care measure and is general application targeting relapse prevention for patients with depressive disorders. The intent was to target risk factors associated with depressive orders, reoccurrences, and opportunities for those afflicted with depressive disorders (Idusohan-Moizer, Sawicka, & Dendle, 2015). The efficacy was thought to be similar to antidepressants (Sipe & Eisendrath, 2012). Additional benefits of MBCT were improved sleeping, increased concentration (Boggs, Beck, Felder, Dimidjian, Metcalf, & Segal, 2014); Bostanov, Keune, Kotchoubey, & Hautzinger, 2012), dysfunctional attitudes (Boggs et al., 2014). In a study conducted by the Cisco Corporation in 2011, one-third of the college students who participated (the millennial generation at the time of the survey) indicated a high reliance on the internet, while Gen X was much more reserved in their assessment of their need for technology (Stewart et al., 2016). As the millennial generation continues to infiltrate the workforce, there will be a greater reliance on technology and less reliance upon human interaction, making web-based therapeutic interventions more desirable (Stewart et al., 2016).  


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Methodology The purpose of this quantitative, regression study was to predict receptiveness of healthcare workers who have experienced stress, anxiety, or depression in the past five years to use a web-based MBCT intervention (at home, at work, or both), based on the variables of gender, generational cohorts, and education level. Ordinal regression was used to statistically explore the workers most likely to use web-based MBCT intervention, classified by the demographics of the generational cohort, education level. A priori statistical analysis was calculated using G*Power 3.1.9.2 to determine a sample size of 85 (n=85) with a 95% confidence level, 5% confidence interval, and a margin of error of (±) 5% (see Appendix A: G*Power Calculation of Sample Size for results of the priori analysis) (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang & Buchner, 2007). There were 91 survey instruments returned, of those 13 were eliminated due to missing information. The actual sample size was 78. A web-based survey used in this study consisted of nine questions in all. Four demographic questions in the survey related to the participant's gender, age, education level, and ethnicity. The remaining five questions were intended to determine participants’ interest in using web-based therapies to reduce anxiety, stress, and depression, availability of using the internet privately, where participants would most likely use the therapy (at home or work), and if participants would use the web-based therapy if their employers were not able to identify them. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0 was used to perform all statistical calculations. The first two research questions were addressed using ordinal regression to explore the predictors of online use by gender, generational cohort, education level, and ethnicity. Ordinal regression, like other types of regression, can use interactions between independent variables to predict the dependent variables. RQ3 and RQ4 were addressed using descriptive statistics to describe the basic features of the study. The quantitative deductive approach was chosen because it acts as a blueprint for the collection of data, measurement, and statistical analysis related to the research questions (Gray, 2009). A deductive approach identified the outcome of the hypothesis. An ordinal regression measured the relationship between the outcome variable (agreeing to use web-based MBCT interventions and one or more predictor for variables (gender, generational cohorts, education level, or ethnicity).  


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A linear snowball sample recruitment strategy was used in this research study. A request to participate in the survey was posted on sociasl media (Facebook). A survey questionnaire link to Qualtrics Software was embedded into the Facebook posting. The consent form pre-empted the survey questionnaire. An approval button served as the signature to continue forward to the survey. The theoretical population in this study shared common characteristics and included: (1) participants must not be acquainted with the researcher; (2) are currently employed in the healthcare industry; (3) have experienced stress, anxiety, or depression in the past five years; and (4) must be 18 years or older to participate. The Facebook posting requested followers to forward information on the research study to those that might be interested in participating. The independent predictor variables were gender, generational cohorts, educational levels, and ethnicity. The nominal values include gender and ethnicity, and the ordinal values include generational cohort and education level. The statistical test used for gender was Chi-square because it was nominal or dichotomous (male or female) (Introduction to SAS. UCLA: Statistical Consulting Group (n.d.). The statistical test used for generational cohort and education level was an ordinal regression. The dependent or outcome variable is receptiveness to using a web-based MBCT intervention. Through inferential statistics, associations were made among variables, such as age cohort or ethnic group in combination with other variables (education levels or gender) in this sample was most likely to use web-based MBCT therapy. The ordinal regression approach allowed the data to be based on statistics rather than stereotyping. For this study, preparation for the ordinal regression analysis required collapsing the frequency of various demographics because the values were below five. When the data was collapsed, it created a tighter dataset and made it more useful (Lared, 2013). The education level as shown in Table 3, for example, was collapsed into four categories high school/associate degree 21 (26.9%), bachelor 34 (43.6%), master 19 (24.4%), doctoral degrees, and post-grad 4 (5.1%). Ethnic categories, as seen in Table 1, also were collapsed into five categories. The ethnicity categories used included Asian 5 (5.1%), African American 5 (7.7%), Hispanic 1 (1.3), White 63 (80.8%), and Other 5 (5.1%).

 


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Results The statistical evidence in this study illustrates healthcare workers in this sample were receptive to using web-based MBCT interventions to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression no matter the gender, age cohort, educational level, or ethnicity. According to the criteria to be a participant in the study, participants had to have been stressed, anxious, or depressed. The study revealed receptiveness to using web-based MBCT therapy across all independent variables (gender, age cohorts, educational level, and ethnicity). There were 48.7% (38) participants in this study that indicated they would utilize an MBCT web-based program if their employers were not able to identify them when using the MBCT intervention. An additional 34.6% (27) responded they might perhaps use an MBCT intervention if their employer could not identify when using the MBCT intervention. The combined totals equaled 83.3% and were consistent with research conducted by Purcell and Rainie (2014) uncertainty of employers blocking access to certain websites or uncertainty of the employer’s controls and rules. Privacy may also account for the high percentage of workers choosing to use a web-based MBCT therapy as researchers found various stigmas related to the treatment of mental health issues concerning gender-based and cultural attitudes (Hanisch, Twomey, Szeto, Birner, Nowak, & Sabariego, 2016). At the end of a four-week period, 91 questionnaires were received, of those, 13 questionnaires were not complete, yielding 78 useable survey questionnaires. The 13 incomplete surveys were removed from the dataset. Four questions determined demographic information and will be discussed first, followed by the survey responses, evaluation of the data, and a summary. Predictive relationships or the independent variables (gender, age, education level, and ethnicity) were used in the study to determine correlations between variables. The dependent variable was Survey Q7 on the questionnaire (Based on what you have just read regarding MBCT, would you be likely to use a web-based program to help you once you begin to feel stress, anxiety, and depression?). The age cohorts, education, and survey questionnaire Survey Q7 are ordinal variables as they have a categorical ordering. Of the 78 participants, 63 (80.8%) were female, and 15 (19.2%) were male making a notable difference in the sample. There were no participants from the generation born between 1928-1945. There were 21 (26.9%) participants born between 1946-1964, 24 (30.8%)  


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participants were born between 1965-1980, one participant was born after 1995 (1.6%), and 32 (41%) participants were born between 1981-1995. The levels of education of the participants included high school 5 (6.4%), associate degree 16 (20.5%), bachelor degree 34 (43.6%), master degree 19 (24.4%), doctoral degree 3 (3.8%), and post-graduate one (1.3%). The ethnicity of participants included one American Indian, one Hispanic, one Middle Eastern, one bi-racial, one Native Hawaiian, 4 (5.1%) Asians, 6 (7.7%) African Americans, and White 63 (80.8%), resulting in a homogenous count. Discussion The snowball sampling was not the optimal choice or the first choice for this study. However, the linear snowball sampling technique was chosen as a result of numerous attempts to solicit healthcare organizations to allow employees to participate in this study. Healthcare organizations hesitated to allow workers to participate for a variety of reasons and are considerations for future research. The ratio of female (80.8%) participants was nearly four times that of male (19.2%) participants. According to 2016, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 77.8% of workers currently in the U.S. healthcare industry was women. In this sample, there were 19.2 % male participants and 80.8% female participants. Therefore, this study’s sample, with regard to gender distribution, closely aligned with the population of healthcare workers. Secondary research has revealed gender influences stress, anxiety, and depression as women are more predisposed to experience stress, and anxiety: for example, studies tend to show women measure higher on factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression, as compared to men (Albert, 2015; Neitzke, 2016). According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), from puberty until the approximate age of 50, women were twice as likely to experience anxiety, than do men (n.d). Anxiety disorders also occur earlier in women than men and most exhibit co-occurring depression. This may account for the unusually high percentage of women participants in this study, as one of the criteria to be a participant was having experienced anxiety, stress, or depression in the past five years.

 


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Author Biography Dr. Koegel has a diversified work history as her work experiences include an extensive background in direct manufacturing at two Fortune 500 Companies, in the alcohol and substance abuse field, and in human resources. Dr. Joni A. Koegel is currently an Assistant Professor at Cazenovia College located in Upstate New York. Dr. Koegel has completed a Doctorate of Business Administration at North Central University, an MBA at LeMoyne College, Master of Adult Education at Elmira College, and is a three-time alumnus from Cazenovia College. References Ali, L., Krevers, B., Sjöström, N., & Skärsäter, I. (2014). Effectiveness of web-based versus folder support interventions for young informal careers of persons with mental illness: A randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling. 94(3). doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2013.10.020 Anderson, G., & Titov, N. (2014). Advantages and limitations of Internet-based Interventions for common mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 13(1), 4-11. doi:10.1002/wps.20083 Baxter, S., Campbell, S., Sanderson, K., Cazaly, C., Venn, A., Owen, C., & Palmer, J. (2015). Development of the Workplace Health Savings Calculator: A practical tool to measure economic impact from reduced absenteeism and staff turnover in workplace health promotion. BMC Research Notes, 8457. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1402-7 Boggs, J. M., Beck, A., Felder, J. N., Dimidjian, S., Metcalf, C. A., & Segal, Z. V. (2014). Web-based intervention in mindfulness meditation for reducing residual depressive symptoms and relapse prophylaxis: A qualitative study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(3), e87. doi:10.2196/jmir.3129 Bonner, P. A. (2016). The impacts of financial stress on your workers. Plans & Lol; Trusts, 34(6), 18-24. Bostanov, V., Keune, P.M., Kotchoubey, B., & Hautzinger M. (2012). Event-related brain potentials reflect increased concentration ability after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a randomized clinical trial. Psychiatry Research, 30;199(3):17480. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.05.031.  


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Budney, A. J., Fearer, S., Walker, D. D., Stanger, C., Thostenson, J., Grabinski, M., & Bickel, W. K. (2011). An initial trial of a computerized behavioral intervention for cannabis use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 11574-79. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.10.014 Budney, A. J., Stanger, C., Tilford, J. M., Scherer, E. B., Brown, P. C., Li, Z., & ...Walker, D. D. (2015). Computer-assisted behavioral therapy and contingency management for cannabis use disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), 501-511. doi:10.1037/adb0000078 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Deparmtent of Labor, The Economics Daily, Health care employment increased 407,000 over the year ended November 2016 on the internet. Retrieved from: https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2016/health-care-employment-increased407000-over-the-year-ended-November-2016.htm Callan, J. A., Wright, J., Siegle, G. J., Howland, R. H., & Kepler, B. B. (2016). Use of computer and mobile technologies in the treatment of depression. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2016.10.002 Charara, R., El Bcheraoui, C., Kravitz, H., Dhingra, S. S., & Mokdad, A. H. (2016). Houston, J.B. (2013). Long-term sociopolitical effects of 911 television \viewing: Emotions and parental conversation in U.S. young adults who were children in 2001. Communication Research Reports, 30(3), 183-192. doi: 10.1080/08824096.2013.806251 Corey, G. (2013). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Dimidjian, S., Beck, A., Felder, J. N., Boggs, J. M., Gallop, R., & Segal, Z. V. (2014). Webbased mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for reducing residual depressive symptoms: An open trial and quasi-experimental comparison to propensity score matched controls. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6383-89. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2014.09.004 Eellis, T.D., Barrett, M.S., Wright, J.H. & Thase, M., (2014). Computer-assisted cognitivebehavior therapy for depression. Psychology, 51(2), 191-197. doi:1037/a0032406 Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175-191.  


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Fayer, S. & Watson, A. (2015). Employment and wages in healthcare occupations. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2015/employment-andwages-in-healthcare-occupations/pdf/employment-and-wages-in-healthcareoccupations.pdf Geraedts, A. S., Kleiboer, A. M., Twisk, J., Wiezer, N. M., van Mechelen, W., & Cuijpers, P. (2014a). Short-term results of a web-based guided self-help intervention for employees with depressive symptoms: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(7), e168. http://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3539 Geraedts, A. S., Kleiboer, A. M., Wiezer, N. M., Cuijpers, P., van Mechelen, W., &Anema, J. R. (2014b). Feasibility of a worker-directed web-based intervention for employees with depressive symptoms. Internet Interventions, 1(3), 132-140; (2014), (3), 132. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2014.07.001 Gray, D. E. (2009). Doing research in the real world. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Hanisch, S. E., Twomey, C. D., Szeto, A. H., Birner, U. W., Nowak, D., & Sabariego, C. (2016). The effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 161-11. doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0706-4 IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Idusohan-Moizer H., Sawicka A, Dendle J, Albany M. (2015). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for adults with intellectual disabilities: An evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Journal of Intellect Disability Research. 59(2):93-104. doi: 10.1111/jir.12082 Jimenez, D. E., Bartels, S. J., Cardenas, V., Daliwal, S. S., & Alegría, M. (2012). Cultural beliefs and mental health treatment preferences of ethnically diverse older adult consumers in primary care. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(6), 533–542. http://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e318227f876

 


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Joyce, S., Modini, M., Mitchell, P. B., Harvey, S. B., Christensen, H., Mykletun, A., & Bryant, R. (2016). Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic metareview. Psychological Medicine, 46(4), 683. doi:10.1017/S0033291715002408 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. Dell Publishing; New York. Kobak, K., Craske, M., Rose, R., & Wolitsky-Taylor, K. (2013). Web-based therapist training on cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: A pilot Study. Psychotherapy, 50(2), 235-247 Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., & ...Dalgleish, T. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behavior Research and Therapy, 481105-1112. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.003 Laerd.Statistics.com. (2015). How to perform an ordinal logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics | Laerd Statistics. [online] Available at: https://statistics.laerd.com/spsstutorials/multiple-regression-using-spss-statistics.php [Accessed 23 March, 2017]. Muschalla, B. (2016). Negative work perception not changed in a short work-anxiety-coping group therapy intervention. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 22(4), 321–324. doi:10.1080/10773525.2016.1238663 National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/LearnMore/Mental-Health-By-the-Numbers Neitzke, A. B. (2016). An illness of power: Gender and the social causes of depression. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 40(1), 59-73. doi:10.1007/s11013-015-9466-3 Purcell, K. & Rainey L. (2014). Technology’s impact on workers. The Pew Institute Center Internet, Science, & Tech. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/12/08/betterinformed/ Ricker, S. (2014). Stress is part of the job for health care workers. Retrieved from http://www.careerbuilder.com/advice/stress-is-part-of-the-job-for-health-care-workers Rickwood, D., Bradford, S., & Hale, T. (2016). Putting young people at the forefront of their mental healthcare through technology for holistic assessment and routine outcome tracking. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(12),1. doi:10.2196/iproc.6049  


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Rhodes, S. M., & Collins, S. K. (2015). The organizational impact of presenteeism. Radiology Management, 37(5), 27. Sipe, W., & Eisendrath, S. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theory and practice. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry-Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, 57(2), 6369. doi:10.1177/070674371205700202 Spijkerman, M., Pots, W., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2016). Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 45102-114.doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.009 Stewart, J. S., Oliver, E. G., Cravens, K. S., & Oishi, S. (2016). Managing millennials: Embracing generational differences. Business Horizons doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2016.08.011 Twenge, J. (2015). Time period and birth cohort differences in depressive symptoms in the U.S., 1982-2013. Social Indicators Research, 121(2), 437-454. doi:10.1007/s11205-014-06471 United States Center for Disease Control. (2016). Workplace Health Promotion. Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/index.html United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment projections program: Employment by industry, occupation, and percent distribution, 2014 and projected 2024; 2014-2024 matrix. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/emp/ United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). Occupational Handbook. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social.../social-workers.htm United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2015). Employment projections - 2014-24. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ecopro.pdf Volker, D., Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M., Anema, J., Beekman, A., Brouwers, E., Emons, W., & ... van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. (2015). Effectiveness of a blended web-based intervention on  


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return to work for sick-listed workers with common mental disorders: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(5). Witters, D., Liu, D. Agrawal, S., (2013). Depression costs U.S. workplaces $23 billion in absenteeism. Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/163619/depressioncosts-workplaces-billion-absenteeism.aspx World Health Organization, Depression: A Global Public Health Concern, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012 Yıldız, H., Yıldız, B., Zehir, C., & Aykaç, M. (2015). The antecedents of presenteeism and sickness absenteeism: A research in Turkish health sector. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207(11th International Strategic Management Conference), 398403. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.10.109 Yao, X.-Y., Li, Z., Arthur, D., Hu, L-L, Cheng, G. (2014). The feasibility of an internet-based intervention for Chinese people with mental illness: A survey of willingness and attitude. Science Digest, 1(1), 28–33. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.02.008

 


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Tables and Figures Table 1 Demographic Information Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Gender Male

15

19.2

19.2

Female

63

80.8

00.0

Born between 1928-1945

0

0

0

Born between 1946-1964

21

26.9

26.9

Born between 1965-1980

24

30.8

57.7

Born between 1981-1995

32

41.0

98.7

1

1.3

1.0

5

6.4

6.4

Associates Degree

16

20.5

26.9

Bachelors Degree

34

43.6

70.5

Masters Degree

19

24.4

94.9

Doctoral degree

3

3.8

98.7

Post Grad

1

1.3

American Indian

1

1.3

1.3

Asian

4

5.1

6.4

Age

Born after 1995 Education Level High School Degree

100.0

Ethnicity

 


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African or African-American

6

7.7

14.1

Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin

1

1.3

15.4

Middle Eastern or North African

1

1.3

16.7

Native Hawaiian

1

1.3

17.9

63

80.8

98.7

1

1.3

100.0

White Bi-racial

______________________________________________________________________________ Table 2 Chi-Square Values for Tests of Multicollinearity (Tests for independence between each of the independent variables). Value

df*

p

Ethnicity by gender

27.747

7

.000

Age by gender

.966

2

.617

Age by education

1.513

4

.824

Age by ethnicity

15.070

14

.373

Ethnicity by education

13.521

14

.486

Education by gender

3.931

2

.140

Independent Variables

Note. *Degrees of freedom

 


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Table 3 Test of Parallel Linesa Model Null Hypothesis

-2 Log Likelihood Chi-Square

df

Sig.

127.680 General 114.355b 13.324C 30 .996 Note. Link function: Logit. The log-likelihood value cannot be further increased after a maximum number of step-halving. The log-likelihood value cannot be further increased after a maximum number of step-halving. The Chi-square statistic was computed based on the loglikelihood value of the last iteration of the general model. The validity of the test was uncertain.

The PLUM procedure continued despite the above warning(s). Subsequent results shown are based on the last iteration. The validity of the model fit was uncertain (IBM SPSS, 2014)”. The message indicated a cross-validation, meaning the variables were highly correlated (Lared, 2013). This would be anticipated in consideration of the high percentage of female (80.8% and White (80.8%) participants in the sample.

 


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Appendices

Power (1-β err prob)

Appendix A: G*Power Calculation of Sample Size

Table A1 Q*Power Calculations t tests - Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, single regression coefficient Analysis: Compromise: Compute implied α & power Input: Tail(s) = Two Effect size f² = 0.15 β/α ratio = 1 Total sample size = n= 85 Number of predictedors = 2 Output: No centrality parameter δ = 3.5707142 Critical t = 1.9529715 Df = 82 α err prob = 0.0542342 β err prob = 0.0542342 Power (1-β err prob) = 0.9457658

 


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MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION GUIDE   

GENERAL FORMATTING            

Maximum length: 10 pages American Psychological Association (APA) Sixth Edition Publication Guidelines Microsoft-Word or compatible format (Do not send your manuscript as a PDF or it will be declined) Letter-size (8.5 x 11 inches) format 1.50 spaced text Times New Roman, 12-point font One-inch margins Two spaces following end punctuation Left justification Single column Portrait orientation First-person

MANUSCRIPT ORDER (Please Note: Do not add a running head or page numbers.)

Cover Page: (This page will be removed prior to peer review.)  Manuscript Title o The first letter of each major word should be capitalized. o The title should be in font size 20 and bold.  Author(s) Name o First Name, Middle initial(s), and Last name (omit titles and degrees) o The names should be font size 12. No bold  Institutional Affiliation o Education affiliation – if no institutional affiliation, list city and state of author’s residence o This educational affiliation should be on the line directly under the author’s name. o If there are multiple authors, please place a space between them each set of information (name and affiliation).  Author Biography o If there are multiple authors, please label this section Author Biographies    


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o Please be sure to indent the paragraph before the biography begins. If there are multiple authors, please begin a new paragraph for each author. Manuscript: (From this point forward, please be sure your manuscript is FREE of any identifying information.) 

 

Abstract o The abstract (150-word maximum) should effectively summarize your completed research and findings. o The word “abstract” should be bold. Keywords o This line should be indented. The word “Keywords” should be italicized and followed by a colon and two spaces. o Following the two spaces, list 3 or 4 keywords or key phrases that you would use if you were searching for your article online. o Only the first key word should be capitalized. The actual keywords are not italicized. Body of Paper (sections) ALL of the following sections MUST be present or your manuscript WILL be rejected. o Introduction o Literature Review o Methodology o Results/Findings o Discussion References –this heading is NOT bolded within the manuscript o Manuscripts should be thoroughly cited and referenced using valid sources. o References should be arranged alphabetically and strictly follow American Psychological Association (APA) sixth edition formatting rules. o Only references cited in the manuscript are to be included. Tables and Figures o If tables and figures are deemed necessary for inclusion, they should be properly placed at the end of the text following the reference section. o All tables and figures should be numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals, titled, acknowledged, and cited according to APA guidelines. o If graphs or tables are too wide for portrait orientation, they must be resized or reoriented to be included. Appendices (if applicable) o Must be labeled alphabetically as they appear in the manuscript. o Title centered at the top.


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The Effects of Fostering the Global Mindset into the Introduction to Business Undergraduate   Curriculum Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Katherine Hartman, Ohio University Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Janna Chimeli, Ohio University Exploring Grit: Relationships among Grit, Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy and Mindset Andrew Pueschel, Ohio University Mary Tucker, Ohio University Katherine B. Hartman, Ohio University Global Learning in Short-Term Study Abroad: Assessing Business Students after Global Consulting Program Mary L. Tucker, Ohio University Katherine Hartman, Ohio University Colin B. Gabler, Ohio University The Human Resource Managers’ Perceptions of Workers with Learning Disabilities Jason Styles, Regent University Lisa Knowles, St. Thomas University Receptiveness of Healthcare Workers with Stress, Anxiety, or Depression to Use a WebBased MBCT Therapeutic Intervention Joni A. Koegel, Cazenovia College

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Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business, Fall 2019  

Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business, Fall 2019  

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