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crossbill guides

Finnish Lapland including kuusamo


crossbill guides

Finnish Lapland including kuusamo


Crossbill Guides: Finnish Lapland including Kuusamo Initiative, text and research: Dirk Hilbers Additional text: Kim Lotterman, Albert Vliegenthart Editing: John Cantelo, Brian Clews, Cees Hilbers, Riet Hilbers, Maarit Kyöstilä, Kari Lahti, Olli Lamminsalo, Kim Lotterman, Matti Määttä, Päivi Paalamo, Manuela Seifert, Pekka Sulkava, Tarja Tuovinen Illustrations: Horst Wolter Maps: Dirk Hilbers, Hienke Sminia, Horst Wolter Type and image setting: Gert Jan Bosgra Print: GVO / Ponsen en Looijen, Ede ISBN 978 90 501 1337 3 © 2010 Crossbill Guides Foundation, Arnhem, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by print, photocopy, microfilm or any other means without the written permission of the Crossbill Guides Foundation. This book is published in association with Metsähallitus, WILDGuides, KNNV Publishing and the Saxifraga Foundation. This book is created with the financial support of Metsähallitus, the Finnish Forest and Park Service. www.crossbillguides.org www.outdoors.fi www.wildguides.co.uk www.knnvpublishing.nl www.saxifraga.nl

SAXIFRAGA foundation


crossbill guides foundation This guidebook is a product of the non-profit foundation Crossbill Guides. By publishing these books we want to introduce more people to the joys of Europe’s beautiful natural heritage and to increase the understanding of the ecological values that underlie conservation efforts. Most of this heritage is protected for ecological reasons and we want to provide insight into these reasons to the public at large. By doing so we hope that more people support the ideas behind nature conservation. For more information about us and our guides you can visit our website at: www.crossbillguides.org


highlights of finnish lapland

4

Highlights of Finnish Lapland

1

Experience the vastness of the Lapland wilderness on long treks through the forests, the mires and over the fells.

2

Go birdwatching in May and June, when the lakes and peatlands are alive with birds.

3

Learn about the Sรกmi culture, the Lapland indigenous people, at the excellent Siida museum and at the Reindeer Roundups.

4

Experience the gentle quietude of the midnight sun at a lakeside cabin.


highlights of finnish lapland

5

5

Take a refreshing Finnish Sauna after a long day’s walk (the plunge in the lake afterwards is obligatory).

6

Witness the stunning displays of the Northern lights and ‘Tykky’ snow in mid-winter.

7

Enjoy the flaming autumn colours during the ‘Ruska’ season in September.

8

Find the northern wildflowers and butterflies of Lapland’s mires and fells. Twinflower Heath* (Cassiope tetragona).


about this guide

6

About this guide This guide is meant for all those who enjoy being in and learning about nature, whether you already know all about it or not. It is set up a little differently from most guides. We focus on explaining the natural and ecological features of an area rather than merely describing the site. We choose this approach because the nature of an area is more interesting, enjoyable and valuable when seen in the context of its complex relationships. The interplay of different species with each other and with their environment is simply mind-blowing. The clever tricks and gimmicks that are put to use to beat life’s challenges are as fascinating as they are countless. Take our namesake the Crossbill: at first glance it’s just a big finch with an awkward bill. But there is more to the Crossbill than meets the eye. This bill is beautifully adapted for life in coniferous forests. It is used like a scissor to cut open pinecones and eat the seeds that are unobtainable for other birds. In the Scandinavian countries where pine and spruce take up the greater part of the forests, several Crossbill species have each managed to answer two of life’s most pressing questions: how to get food and how to avoid direct competition. By evolving crossed bills, each differing subtly, they have secured a monopoly of the seeds produced by cones of varying sizes. So complex is this relationship that scientists are still debating exactly how many different species of Crossbill actually exist. Now this should heighten the appreciation of what at first glance was merely a plumb red bird with a beak that doesn’t close properly. Once its interrelationships are seen, nature comes alive, wherever you are. To some, impressed by the “virtual” familiarity that television has granted to the wilderness of the Amazon, the vastness of the Serengeti or the sublimity of Yellowstone, European nature may seem a puny surrogate, good merely for the casual stroll. In short, the argument seems to be that if you haven’t seen some impressive predator, be it a Jaguar, Lion or Grizzly Bear, then you haven’t seen the “real thing”. Nonsense, of course. But where to go? And how? What is there to see? That is where this guide comes in. We describe the how, the why, the when, the where and the how come of Europe’s most beautiful areas. In clear and accessible language, we explain the nature of Finnish Lapland and refer extensively to routes where the area’s features can be observed best. We try to make Finnish Lapland come alive. We hope that we succeed.


how to use this guide

How to use this guide This guidebook contains a descriptive and a practical section. The descriptive part comes first and gives you insight into the most striking and interesting natural features of the area. It provides an understanding of what you will see when you go out exploring. The descriptive part consists of a landscape section (marked with a red bar), describing the habitats, the history and the landscape in general, and of a flora and fauna section (marked with a green bar), which discusses the plants and animals that occur in the region. The second part offers the practical information (marked with a purple bar). A series of routes (walks) is carefully selected to give you a good flavour of all the habitats, flora and fauna that Finnish Lapland has to offer. At the start of each route description, a number of icons give a quick overview of the characteristics of each route. These icons are explained in the margin of this page. The final part of the book (marked with blue squares) provides some basic tourist information and some tips on finding plants, birds and other animals. There is no need to read the book from cover to cover. Instead, each small chapter stands on its own and refers to the routes most suitable for viewing the particular features described in it. Conversely, descriptions of each route refer to the chapters that explain more in depth the most typical features that can be seen along the way. We have tried to keep the number of technical terms to a minimum. If using one is unavoidable, we explain it in the glossary at the end of the guide. There we have also included a list of all the mentioned plant and animal species, with their scientific names and translations into German and Dutch. Some species names have an asterix (*) following them. This indicates that there is no official English name for this species and that we have taken the liberty of coining one. For the sake of readability we have decided to translate the scientific name, or, when this made no sense, we gave a name that best describes the species’ appearance or distribution. Please note that we do not want to claim these as the official names. We merely want to make the text easier to follow for those not familiar with scientific names. When a new vernacular name was invented, we’ve also added the scientific name. An overview of the area described in this book is given on the map on page 14. For your convenience we have also turned the inner side of the back flap into a map of the area indicating all the described routes. Descriptions in the explanatory text refer to these routes.

7 walking route

beautiful scenery interesting geology historical and cultural significance interesting flora interesting invertebrate life interesting reptile and amphibian life interesting birdlife visualising the ecological contexts described in this guide


table of contents

8

Table of contents Landscape Geographical overview Geology Climate The Kuusamo area at a glance Pyhä-Luosto National Park at a glance Inari Lapland at a glance Kevo and Utsjoki at a glance Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park at a glance Kilpisjärvi and the Käsivarsi Wilderness at a glance Habitats Boreal forests Mires, bogs and fens Lakes and rivers Fells and mountain heathlands Fields, villages and meadows – man-made habitats History Nature conservation Flora and Fauna Flora Mammals Birds Reptiles and amphibians Insects and other invertebrates Practical Part Routes in the Kuusamo area Route 1 The Riisitunturi trail Route 2 Hiidenlampi and Oulanka waterfalls Route 3 The Rytisuo nature trail Route 4 Oulanka canyon Route 5 Valtavaara – Searching for the Red-flanked Bluetail Route 6 Närängänvaara aapa mire and old-growth forest Other routes and sites in the Kuusamo area Routes in Pyhä-Luosto National Park Route 7 The Isokuru gorge Route 8 The fells and mires of Luosto Other sites in and Pyhä-Luosto Routes in Inari Lapland

11 16 17 19 22 24 25 27 28 29 30 34 41 47 52 56 59 69 75 78 93 96 108 109 117 118 119 122 124 126 128 129 132 133 134 137 140 142


table of contents

Route 9 The fells of Raututunturit Route 10 The Tankavaara nature trail Route 11 The Pielpajärvi wilderness church Route 12 The Lemmenjoki nature trail Route 13 The reindeer round-up of Sallivaara and nearby bogs Other routes and sites in Inari Lapland Routes in Kevo and Utsjoki Route 14 The Kevo gorge Other sites in Kevo and Utsjoki Routes in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park Route 15 The mighty Pallastunturi fell Route 16 From the visitors’ centre to the Mäntyrova day hut Route 17 The Pyhäjoki nature trail Route 18 The Varkaankuru gorge Route 19 The fell and virgin forest of Aakenustunturi Route 20 The aapa mire of Teuravuoma Other routes and sites in Pallas-Yllästunturi Routes in Käsivarsi and Kilpisjärvi area Route 21 The Malla Strict Nature Reserve Route 22 Rounding Saana fell Other routes and sites in Kilpisjärvi Tourist information and observation tips Glossary Acknowledgements Picture and illustration credits Species list and translation

143 146 148 150 152 155 157 158 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 177 180 181 182 184 186 189 208 210 211 212

List of Text boxes Lapland and Sámi – the land and its people The northern lights The northern cycles – a bit of history repeating Birch, Dwarf Birch or dwarfed birch Fast facts about Reindeer and reindeer herding Protected areas in Lapland Collapse of the rodent cycles Berry picking Reindeer – Lapland animals par excellence Siberian Jay – your inquisitive companion in the north Crazy Capercaillie

13 20 32 46 62 71 72 90 95 97 105

9


Landscape

11

Finnish Lapland and the Kuusamo area For most of us, the name ‘Lapland’ conjures up romantic images of vast forests, empty peat lands and rugged, treeless uplands - an endless land where bears and wolves roam and the word ‘nature’ is a euphemism for wilderness. Such images are usually too romantic, but this time, they are not too far from the truth. Finnish Lapland has indeed vast expanses of nearly untouched land, where forests are ‘virgin’ and the mires have never been drained, harvested or otherwise touched by Man. Of course there are also areas that have been altered, but these are the exception rather than the rule. In the north, most of the land surface has a protective status that ensures the preservation of the wilderness character (see page 71). Travelling to such a pristine region is obviously a privilege for any visitor, but – like in any proper wilderness – this beauty comes with a price. For the name Lapland conjures up two other images that are not far from the truth either: a severe climate and clouds of mosquitoes. It is either the one or the other: the insects come only a few weeks after the weather improves. Fortunately, modern travelling enables us to take away the edge of these hardships (see page 195). Lapland covers northern Finland and adjacent Sweden, Norway and Russia. The Finnish part of Lapland forms the northernmost province of Finland (but see text box on page 13). This is the land of the taiga, an originally Russian word for the northern coniferous forest. Taiga typically consists of vast, silent expanses of pine and spruce forests, broken by similarly extensive areas of lakes and mires. In Finnish Lapland the taiga is complemented with extensive fell systems: sudden but gently rolling hills that are treeless and lie like islands of tundra amidst a sea of taiga. Finnish Lapland is probably the best region in Europe to see and enjoy the nature and wildlife of the boreal region. Birdwatchers come here in search

landscape

A Lappish lake in the evening sun. Due to the low position of the sun the light in the north has a special charm.


landscape

12

Fells, peatlands and boreal forests form the main ingredients of the Lappish landscape.

of rarities such as Hawk Owl, Pine Grosbeak and Little Bunting –species that within Europe are only found here. As can be expected from a region with large wilderness areas, all great predators – Bear, Wolf, Lynx and Wolverine – are present as well. Those interested in plants, butterflies and dragonflies may find the specialist species of the far north. But whatever people come in search for, no one fails to be enchanted by the sheer vastness of the landscape. Even from the roads one can witness an almost continuous spectacle of ancient forests and peatlands in which the natural processes typical of pristine landscapes continue unimpeded. Lapland is not only the home of plants and animals, but also that of the Sámi, the indigenous inhabitants of this land. For centuries they have lived from what nature brought forth: fish, game, hides and herds of half domesticated reindeer. Even today, although in a modernised way, the Sámi live in and with the Lappish landscape. It is this combination of unique species, a vast, superb and untouched landscape and the Sámi culture that makes Finnish Lapland a must-see region. This guidebook describes and explains the landscape and the processes that shape it and the flora and the fauna that populates it. From page 117 onwards it also describes a number of routes and provides a series of observation tips that enable you to explore Finnish Lapland by yourself.

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finnish lapland including kuusamo


landscape

Lapland and Sámi – the land and its people Lapland is one of those regions everyone has heard of, but is confusingly difficult to define. Taken literally, Lapland is the land of the Laps. Lapland however, is not a country. Fittingly, for a culture that long pre-dates the ‘nation state’, the Laps defy modern ideas of international borders; hence Lapland stretches out over northern parts of Sweden, Norway and Finland and on into north-west Russia. The term ‘Lap’ was a label that settlers from the south put on the indigenous people of Lapland. Originally, ‘Lap’ was a synonym for hinterland and the ‘Laps’ simply the people from the northern backwoods of Scandinavia. This somewhat negative word has now been replaced by the word ‘Sámi’, which literally means ‘people’. Sámi is the word the indigenous people use to refer to themselves. The Sámi, like the indigenous peoples of North America, are a ‘nature people’. They traditionally live a semi-nomadic life in which reindeer herding plays a central role. In a modified way, this is the lifestyle practised to this day. The Lappish word for Lapland – the Sámi homeland – is Sápmi. So far, the semantics are pretty straightforward. The confusion begins when talking about Finnish Lapland. This is not, as would be logical, a synonym to Finnish Sapmi. Finnish Lapland is the northernmost province of Finland. It is an administrative region, much larger than the present-day homeland of the Sámi. The province’s name is not entirely ill-chosen though, because it roughly corresponds with the historical extent of the Sámi homeland within Finland. Today however, the Sámi villages and herdsmen are all up in the northern part of Finnish Lapland. Vuotso (north of Sodankylä) is the southernmost Sámi community. This guidebook covers the entire province of Lapland, plus the Kuusamo area, which is largely situated in the Oulu province. The Sámi culture is found in the northern Parks described in this book.

landscape

13

One of the many special bird species of the boreal forest is the Pine Grosbeak.


geographical map

14

1

Lemmenjoki National Park (2800 km2) Huge northern wilderness, important Sámi herding grounds. Limited number of trails, information hut. Routes 12 - 13

norway

2

Kilpisjärvi and Käsivarsi Wilderness area (2206 km2) Fells, tundra, lakes and the highest altitudes in Finland. Limited number of trails. Routes 21 - 22

kilpisjärvi

2

hetta

3

Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park (1020 km2) Comprises all Lapland habitats, particularly fells. Well developed network of trails, three visitors’ centres. Routes 15 - 19

4

Pyhä-Luosto National Park (142 km2) Southernmost fell system, rich Sámi history and impressive gorges. Numerous trails and a visitors’ centre. Routes 7 - 8

3 muonio

kittilä

sweden

rovaniemi

5

Riisitunturi National Park (77 km2) Spruce forests and unique sloping bogs. Limited number of trails. Route 1 Gulf of Bothnia

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finnish lapland including kuusamo


geographical map

15

Varanger

6

Kevo Strict Nature Reserve (710 km2) Huge, tundra-like fell system with a large river gorge. Restricted access, only one multiple day hiking trail. Route 14

utsjoki

6

inari

7

Lake Inari

1 ivalo

russia 7

8

Oulanka National Park (206 km2) Wild rivers, spruce and pine forests, bogs and lakes. Great area for walking, with many short and long trails and a visitors’ centre. Routes 2 - 4

lapland sodankylä

4 kemijärvi

5

9

Syöte National Park (299 km2) Luxuriant Spruce forest, sloping bogs and ancient meadows. Good walking infrastructure and a visitors’ centre.

8 kuusamo

oulu province

Urho – Kekkonen National Park (2550 km2) After Lemmenjoki, the largest wilderness with fells, forests and aapa mires. Popular park with many hiking and skiing trails and a visitors’ centre. Routes 9 - 10

9

landscape


geographical overview

16

Geographical overview Finnish Lapland is the northernmost, largest and least populated province of Finland and lies between Swedish Lapland to the west, Arctic Norway to the north and the Murmansk region of Russia to the East. Finnish Lapland covers about 100,000 km2 which is over 40% the size of the whole UK, but is sparsely populated with on average only 1 inhabitant to 2.1 km2. To put this in perspective, the UK average is 247 inhabitants per km2 (over 500 times as crowded) and the Netherlands, with 480 people per km2, is over a thousand times more densely populated. The larger part of Lapland lies above the Arctic circle and thus experiences a period of midnight sun and midwinter darkness. Nuorgam, the northernmost village of Finland, lies 400 kilometres above the Arctic circle and has no less than 71 ‘nights’ of midnight sun. Several different regions can be distinguished within Finnish Lapland. Central Lapland is the most inhabited part of the province. Here lies the capital of Lapland, Rovaniemi, which is with 58,000 inhabitants a fair town. It forms a triangle with the towns of Kemijärvi to the east (10,000 inhabitants) and Sodankylä to the north (9,000 inhabitants). In between lies Pyhä-Luosto National Park (see page 24). In the northwest lies Fell Lapland, which is the highest part of the whole of Finland. Kittilä (6,000 inhabitants), Muonio (2,500) and Hetta (800) are the main settlements in the area. In this area lies the famous Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park (page 28) and the Käsivarsi Wilderness Area, with the tiny village of Kilpisjärvi in the extreme northwest as the main centre. In the northeast lies Inari Lapland (page 25), where the villages of Ivalo (4,000) and Inari (500) form the bipolar epicentre. They both lie on the huge Inari Lake, which takes the 6th position in the list of Europe’s largest lakes. In the Inari area, there are two National Parks, Lemmenjoki and Urho Kekkonen and a large strict nature reserve, Kevo (page 27), but almost everything in between has the status of Wilderness Area (see page 71). The town of Kuusamo (18,000) lies just on the border of the Finnish province of Lapland and its southern neighbour, Oulu. Kuusamo (page 22) lies close to the Russian border and is connected with Kemijärvi to the northwest and Oulu on the Gulf of Bothnia. There are several reserves and National Parks nearby, such as Oulanka, Riisitunturi and Syöte.

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finnish lapland including kuusamo


geology

Geology

17

Interesting geological features associated with the ice ages are most prominent in fell areas, like Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Kevo and Pyhä-Luosto National Park. Beautiful examples of eskers (see glossary) are found on routes 12 and 14. Kevo’s gorge (route 14) is a spectacular example of a fault line, rounded by glacier movement into a U-shaped valley. Drumlins are prominent in Oulanka and kettle-holes in Pyhä-Luosto (route 7). Fossilized marine sand ripples, dating back millions of years, are also found on route 7.

Finland is, for the largest part, an undulating lowland. One third of the country’s surface lies below 100 metres and nine tenths lie below 300 metres above sea level. The higher areas and the more dramatic scenery are found in Finnish Lapland, but even here, no great altitudes are reached. The fells of Kevo in the north and Pallas in the west reach 640 and 807 metres, respectively. Only the very northwest, the region of Kilpisjärvi and Käsivarsi (page 29) are truly mountainous, with 10 peaks over 1,000 metres high. Most of the land of Finnish Lapland is, like all Scandinavian lowland, very old, dating back as far as the Archaean era. Archaean rocks are at 2.5 billion years B.P. the oldest rocks on the earth’s surface. They were formed when the continents had only just started to form and the only life on earth was bacterial. During the following 2.5 billion years, erosion and sedimentation has flattened the surface of the Scandinavian shield. In its long history, the Lapland bedrock has been inundated to form a shallow sea, and has subsequently risen to form a high mountain chain, the Svekokarelids. At times during this early period, there was also strong volcanic activity. Some of the hills (Vaara in Finnish) are ancient volcanoes. Today’s fells comprise the weathered stumps of these ancient mountains. Much later, in the Caledonian geological period (during which the Scottish Mountains were formed), the Norwegian Mountains or Caledonides rose west of Lapland. On Finnish territory, only the north-western protrusion – Käsivarsi – was affected by this tectonic activity and today it is still much higher than the rest of Lapland. Most of the geological features encountered today are much younger though. They stem from the various ice ages when the Scandinavian shield was covered with ice. During the Quaternary, Lapland was ice-coated three times. In fact, the last ice sheet withdrew from Lapland only 11,000 years ago. The ice ages effectively erased nearly all previous soils and scrubbed the original bedrock, consisting of hard, acidic quartzite, clean from the

landscape


geology

18

Eskers are natural dams that may be tens of kilometres long. They are residues of rivers underneath the former icecaps that covered Scandinavia.

weathered layers that once covered them. So you could say that the Lapland soil is both very old – because the surfacing bedrock is – and very young – because new soils only started to form when the last ice retreated. When glaciation was at its peak, the ice reached a thickness of over two kilometres. The pressure of two kilometres of ice is gigantic and under this weight, the lower layers of ice became a tough, viscose, almost rubbery substance, which allowed the glacier as a whole to flow, albeit slowly (this is how today’s glaciers flow). In its motion, the ice took with it numerous rocks, thereby acting effectively as a giant and very coarse-grained sandpaper. Thus during the Ice Ages, ancient mountain ranges were ground into the rounded highlands or fells you see today. The ice retreated towards the south-west in northern Lapland and in to the north-west in southern Lapland, leaving gullies and ridges (called drumlins) behind. Drumlins are formed when large rocks were left behind by the ice. Behind the rock, where the ice flow could not scrape away the sediments, soil remains, leaving a typical elongated hill with the steep scarp of the hard rock on one side and a gradually flattened hillock on the other. These effectively point towards the direction of the retreating ice. Another typical ice age feature are eskers: long, raised dykes that can be tens or even hundreds of kilometres long. They are remains of rivers that veined the land ice. Sediments deposited by these rivers are now left as ribbons of sand and gravel throughout the Lapland landscape. In some areas, like in Lemmenjoki, they became important travel routes for humans and animals alike, and good places to trap wild Reindeer.

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finnish lapland including kuusamo


climate

Climate

19

Finnish Lapland has a boreal climate with, for European standards, a distinctly continental edge. This translates into very cold winters with an average minimum daytime temperature of -18°C, but with frequent drops in temperature to -45 °C or below. In winter, it is one of the coldest areas in Europe. Kilpisjärvi, on the border of Finland and Norway is the coldest spot in continental Europe, with a mean annual temperature of -2.3 °C. The Norwegian mountain range effectively shields Lapland from the ameliorating effects of the warm Atlantic gulfstream, rendering the winters bitterly cold. A testimony to this is is the fact that the people of the Kilpisjärvi – Enontekiö region in the far northwest of Finland travel north to the coast of northern Norway to enjoy the first signs of spring. At the coast, the onset of spring is several weeks earlier. However, the diminished influence of the sea also allows temperatures to rise much higher in summer. It may come as a surprise, but prolonged temperatures of 20 to 25 °C are not exceptional in south and central Lapland. The open, windy fells of the north are not nearly as warm though. The Norwegian mountains also shield Finnish Lapland to a certain degree from the Atlantic rain fronts. Rovaniemi has an average annual precipi-

The piling up of snow and ice on the trees and bushes is known to the Finns as ‘tykky’. During the Tykky season (December- early February) Lapland is the scene of one of the most surreal landscapes of Europe.

landscape


climate

20

tation of 535 mm, whereas Narvik on the Norwegian coast receives 830 mm (in comparison, London receives 586 mm and Amsterdam 760 mm on average per year). In Finnish Lapland precipitation falls fairly evenly throughout the year. The 24 hours of darkness in winter and the 24 hours of sunshine in summer increase the winter and summer extremes. The Arctic circle runs more or less through Rovaniemi, which means that most of Lapland lies above it and thus has 24 hours of sunshine in summer. During the nights, the sun stays low on the horizon and the land bathes in a beautiful, soft light. The 24 hours daylight also means that the vegetation is able to grow uninhibitedly. This makes up for the short growing season. During the night, it gets cooler, but there is no large drop in temperature.

The Northern Lights Imagine the dark winter of Lapland. A thick layer of snow turns the spruces into ice sculptures. The landscape is bathed in a spooky bluish light of snow reflecting the light of the moon and stars. It is cold and empty and no sound whatsoever is to be heard… It is in this setting of pure and desolate beauty that the Northern Lights appear. At first a mere faint glow on the horizon, but soon the light intensifies and takes on the shape of vast swirls that dance across the skies overhead, restlessly shifting shape in huge curtains of greenish or reddish light. Watching the Northern Lights, or Aurora Borealis, is a hauntingly beautiful and humbling experience. The vast, surreal strokes the Aurora paints over the empty winter landscape leaves a memory that is not easily forgotten. The Northern Lights are flares of light created very high in the atmosphere, where magnetically charged particles – electrons and protons – collide with atmospheric gases like oxygen and nitrogen. These particles originate from the sun and move towards the earth in what is called a ‘solar wind’ – a mighty flow of particles travelling with the unreal speed of about 400 km per second – and that is on quiet days! The stream is blocked by the earth’s magnetosphere and diverted towards the magnetic poles, where they enter the atmosphere and crash into the atmospheric molecules like oxygen and nitrogen. The energy released in these crashes produces light. Collisions with oxygen molecules create a greenish light, while nitrogen produces reddish-purplish lights. When thousands of particles collide at the same time, it becomes visible from the ground as an ethereal glow of light – the Aurora Borealis.

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climate

21 Because the flow is diverted towards the poles and roughly enters the atmosphere on the northern hemisphere near the Arctic Circle, the Aurora Borealis is usually only visible there. However, during periods of strong solar activity, the lights can be seen much further south. The force of the solar winds and the density of particles in it, furthermore determine the intensity of the Aurora. Before science came along with its physical explanations of the Aurora, the northern peoples had their own views of its meaning and genesis. And anyone who has experienced this alienating and vast display of colours and shapes will understand that these lights must have something to do with the spiritual world. There were several explanations for the northern lights in Sámi lore. The lights were thought to be the place where the souls of the deceased now dwell – the lights as the ancestral matter of which the afterlife is made. Other explanations render the lights a divine power. Other Sámi thought of the Aurora as a giant fox that swishes its tail over the dark taiga. The Finnish word for the Aurora, revontulet, comes from this idea. It literally translates ‘fox fire’. The activity of the northern lights varies from year to year and from season to season. In principle, the lights are present throughout the year, but the midnight sun makes them invisible in the summer season. Tips about watching the Aurora Borealis are given on page 201.

landscape

The northern lights or Aurora Borealis.


the kuusamo area at a glance

22

The Kuusamo area at a glance For visitor information and routes, see page 118.

The Little Bunting is one of the avian highlights of the Kuusamo area.

The town of Kuusamo lies close to the Russian border in the southeast of the area covered by this guidebook, just south of the province of Lapland. The Kuusamo area is sometimes referred to as Finnish Siberia, because of its rugged terrain, its tall and lush forests and its wild rivers. There are various protected areas in the vicinity of the town, including three National Parks: Oulanka, Riisitunturi and Syöte. Oulanka forms one uninterrupted protected area with the Russian Paanajärvi National Park. The management of both parks work closely together – a bilateral agreement that is remarkable and praiseworthy given the challenging relations between Russia and the west. The terrain in Oulanka is hilly, with steep slopes and canyons through which the two larger rivers, the Oulankajoki and the Kitkajoki force their way. Lakes and mires interrupt the forest cover and give the region a pleasant and diverse topography. The soil of Oulanka is predominantly calcareous – a soil type that is rare in Finland and gives the park a special attractiveness. Oulanka is one of the very few places in Finnish Lapland where you can find rare orchids like Lady’s Slipper and Fairy Slipper (or Calypso Orchid), together with a large number of other rare wildflowers. Riisitunturi lies just northwest of Kuusamo, near the village of Posio. It is with 77 km2 only a small park. The park’s unique feature are the sloping bogs, which run down from the two ranges of hills that dominate the park. The bogs support a special flora and have been subject of extensive and long running ecological studies of the university of Oulu. The higher ground in the park is just high enough to support some fell plants which are here at the southernmost edge of their range. Riisitunturi is also famous for its Tykky (tree crown snow load) phenomenon, which is said to be exceptionally beautiful here (see page 19 and 38). The hills in the park catch more ice crystals than other parts of Lapland, because they are the first real elevations the moist air from the west encounters. Consequently, the amount of snow accumulating on the branches here is extremely high.

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finnish lapland including kuusamo


the kuusamo area at a glance

23

SyÜte is located 100 km southwest of Kuusamo. It consists of four separated areas, in which hills covered in old-growth Spruce forest alternate with flowery peatlands and hay meadows. The number of mires and meadows distinguishes SyÜte from other protected areas nearby. In the park, there are many traces of the former slash-and-burn land use that is typical of Finland to the south of Lapland. This region was for a long time part of Finland’s northern frontier, where the Finns lived a hard life trapping fur, logging forests and raising livestock (see page 63). Today, the meadows support important populations of rare plants (such as Marsh Saxifrage) and butterflies, while un-harvested areas of virgin forests still cover the hills. Smaller snippets of primeval spruce forests are found all over the Kuusamo area. They have special protective status and are very interesting places to visit (e.g. Valtavaara (route 5) and Iivaara (page 132). There are also several aapa mire reserves in the area. The combination of large trees, hilly terrain and the eastern location on the Russian border, makes the Kuusamo area a hotspot for birds and thus for birdwatchers. Eastern delights like Little and Rustic Buntings and Redflanked Bluetail mix here with Lapland attractions like Siberian Jay, Siberian Tit and various owl and grouse species. Oulanka is also a popular destination for hikers and a bit busier than the other two parks. Oulanka and Kuusamo make it the perfect starting point of an exploration of Finnish Lapland.

A lake in Oulanka National Park.

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Birds For watching birds of boreal forest, routes 1, 5, 6, 8, 16, 17, 18 and 19 are recommended, as is Iivaara (page 132). To find the birds of the mires and wetlands, try routes 6, 13 and 20, plus the additional sites mentioned on pages 140 and 186. Fell birds are found on routes 9, 14, 15, 19, 21 and 22 and in the Utsjoki area (pages 162-163) and Ounastunturi fells (page 180) Further information on birdwatching is given on page 202 and onwards.

Waders, such as this Greenshank (right) and Snipe (bottom), breed in the mires of Lapland. They frequently perch on trees to display or alarm.

Owls, and waders, Red-flanked Bluetails and Long-tailed Skuas – Finnish Lapland has a unique and superb birdlife. With roughly 143 species of breeding birds, Lapland’s birdlife measures up with that of the better sites in southern Europe – quite amazing at this latitude. Many of them can only be found in Lapland, since the alternative sites in interior Russia are too hard to reach. No wonder this region draws both Finnish and foreign birdwatchers. The thing that spoils the birding feast somewhat is the elusiveness of many of Lapland’s specialities. Densities of birds are naturally low in this region. For various reasons (see page 75 and box on page 32) the bogs and forests are uncertain and usually frugal providers. As a consequence, birds either roam vast territories or have adopted a nomadic lifestyle, moving to those areas where food is available. Moreover, the season in which birds are active is very short. But if you get the timing right, you are in for an extraordinary birding experience. This makes Finnish Lapland a real challenge and every observation all the more enjoyable. For finding the really difficult species, such as owls and grouse, you are advised to seek assistance from local birdwatchers or birding companies (See page 203 for details).

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Siberian Jay – your inquisitive companion in the north The Siberian Jay is THE bird of the old-growth forest of Lapland. Unlike other birds of the crow family, the Siberian Jays hasn’t traded in its original habitat for parks and villages. The few birds that do breed near settlements have little luck in rearing their young because other members of the crow family rob the nests too frequently. Despite, or perhaps because of, its preference for remote areas, Siberian Jays are not shy and even show an explicit interest in the activities of hikers, particularly when there is the prospect of finding something edible. You will find Siberian Jays most likely at a shelter or hut in the middle of the forest. They appear suddenly and silently as they glide from branch to branch towards the camp. Siberian Jays are not afraid of fire and may pick out crumbs of bread from the edge of the fireplace. Only when they have young, during June, are they shy and remain in the woods, afraid to disclose the location of their offspring. In July, when the young are able to fly, the new family noisily combs the forest for food. Maybe it is this inquisitive behaviour that gave the Kuukkeli, as the Finns call this bird, its many nicknames. They are known as birds of fortune to the Sámi hunter. When a jay appears, the hunt is blessed. Only when you find a jay’s nest, you are in trouble. You are not to disturb the nest, according to Sámi lore, since, if you do so, misfortune will strike you or your family. Like other members of the crow family, Siberian Jays are smart birds. Recently, researchers discovered that this bird has developed an ingenious predator alarm system, with different calls to identify the type of predator. Siberian Jays warn each other when there is an owl or a Goshawk around. Furthermore, they even have different calls to qualify the threat level of the predator. A perched Goshawk invokes a different and tamer alarm than a hunting hawk. The research does not tell us whether jays have a special call reserved for humans. If they have, it must mean something like ‘potential food source detected’. So come prepared – that is, have some crumbs reserved – and you’ll find the Siberian Jay to be a faithful companion on your hikes.

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Siberian Jay


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Birdlife at a crossroads

A typical spring walk in the boreal forest. Bramblings and Redwings are singing everywhere. Their choir is enriched by the songs of Siskins and Chaffinches. When crossing a forest stream, you are greeted by the pleasant melody of Song Thrush, the subtle calls of Waxwing, Treecreeper, Bullfinch and – less subtle – those of Black and Three-toed Woodpeckers. In the forest, typically northern birds live side by side with those familiar from our temperate regions. Interestingly, the northern and southern species do not seek out different habitats. Of course the southern tinge does gradually wear off as one travels north, but the best sites for birds of the boreal forest – e.g. Pine Grosbeak, Siberian Jay, Three-toed Woodpecker – are also the places to search for southern rarities (!) like Robin and Wren: the herb-rich forests. Some familiar species of temperate Europe occur in Lapland in different habitats. Parkland birds like Redstart and Pied Flycatcher turn out to be very common in dry pine taiga. In the Mountain Birch scrub, far away from their reed and willow haunts of temperate Europe, Willow Warblers and Bluethroats (the red-spotted Scandinavian race) are plentiful. Besides birds of the boreal and temperate regions, Lapland’s avifauna is enriched by species from the Arctic and the Siberian regions. The Arctic bird community is restricted to the open fells. Long-tailed Skua, Lapland and Snow Buntings, Dotterel, Longtailed Duck, Ptarmigan and Bar-tailed Godwit are all representatives of the northern birdlife. The most common fell bird however, is again a well-known species that you would not directly associate with the Arctic regions: take your hat off for the little Meadow Pipit, whose cheerful song brightens up even the most barren, remote fell top. The birds that belong in Siberia, rather than Europe, are few in number. Just five songbirds reach Finland at the very western end of their range: Red-flanked Bluetail, Little and Rustic Buntings and Greenish and Arctic Warblers. They are fairly rare in Lapland. Not because the terrain isn’t suitable for them, but because they migrate all the way to South-east Asia in winter. The journey to and from Finland is a long and dangerous one and, as a consequence, the populations of Lapland fluctuate. Both buntings used to be much more common in Lapland – as old bird books indicate – but the intensification of Chinese bird trapping has caused these species to decline strongly. Red-flanked Bluetail and Greenish Warbler do rather well.

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Lapland’s specialities

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Some groups of birds are especially well-represented in Finnish Lapland. These are the waders, the ducks, swans and geese, the owls and the grouse.

Waders

The aapa and palsa mires are among the prime breeding grounds of waders in Europe. Many of the Ruffs, Wood Sandpipers, Spotted Redshanks and Greenshanks, familiar from the wetlands of Europe and Africa, come from Lapland. For example, roughly 50% of Europe’s Wood Sandpipers and Spotted Redshanks breed in Lapland. With regard to the Broad-billed Sandpiper, an estimated 78% of the European population is found in Finnish Lapland! In the first half of May, when the snow has barely melted from the mires, waders arrive in huge numbers. For a few weeks, the bogs are alive with these agitated birds. After that, they tend to the young and stay silent. Waders leave Lapland as soon as the young can fend for themselves, almost as if they came against their will. But when they are there, Lapland is a magical place. There are 20 species of waders in Lapland. Wood Sandpiper is the most numerous. Its noisy presence is hard to miss. Like most waders, Wood Sandpipers ‘sing’ from tree tops – an unusual sight for visitors from the south. Snipe is another common wader. The male Snipe makes a typical sound of friction of wood on wood (kwi-kuu, kwi-kuu, kwi-kuu), like a squeaking bed. They also perform a spectacular series of diving flights, during which they produce a sound that vaguely resembles a distant whinnying horse or bleating goat. The sound is produced by the stiff tail feathers which vibrate as the air flows through them. Curlew, Ruff, Broadbilled Sandpiper, Greenshank

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Dotterel is, together with the more common Golden Plover, a breeding bird of the dry fell heathlands.


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Temminck’s Stint in a lichen heathland in Kevo.

and Spotted Redshank mostly breed in large aapa mires. In spring it is easy to find them because they fly up as soon as you approach. Later in the season, when the birds are quiet, they are not so easily seen. If you are lucky a raptor flies over and the birds erupt into action. From all over the mire, waders fly up to attack the intruder, suddenly revealing how many birds are hidden in what seemed to be an empty bog. The Ruff is a silent bird. The males occupy ‘leks’ – specific sites where they display for the females and which they occupy year after year. The dance for the females is a spectacular sight. The females themselves skulk around the lek site and are very difficult to observe. The Broad-billed Sandpiper and Jack Snipe breed in the wettest, most impenetrable parts of the mire. Both species are very secretive, making them the hardest to find of all the waders. Jack Snipe are more easily heard. They make a unique sound that is described as a horse walking over a wooden bridge. Not all mires support high numbers of waders. It is difficult to predict which ones will be bird-rich and which not, but in general, the larger the mire and the further north you go, the higher the densities of birds. The north also supports a higher diversity of waders. Here you may come across Bar-tailed Godwit, Red-necked Phalarope, Dunlin and Temminck’s Stint. The latter breeds on lakeshores with low grassy or lichen-rich vegetation. Wading birds are not restricted to wetlands. When you cross the open fell heath, sooner or later you’ll hear the forlorn call of the Golden Plover. Despite its smart, gold-spangled upperparts and black underparts, in this habitat its plumage is astonishingly cryptic. Were it not for its plaintive call it would be easily overlooked. When excited, the Golden Plover repeats its call more often, making it sound like an eerie, heart-felt Oh-Noooo! Oh-Noooo! reflecting the empty, and desolate landscape. Golden Plovers share the open landscape with the noisy Whimbrels and the less vocal but similarly wellcamouflaged Dotterel. The latter is much more uncommon than the Golden Plover. The Dunlin is a coastal species that is rare in Lapland. It only breeds on the far northern fells. Common and – in the south – Green Sandpipers inhabit the riversides. On pebble beaches, Ringed Plover can be found.

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Waterfowl – Divers, Ducks, Geese and Swans

No less than fifteen species of ducks breed in Lapland, some in very high numbers. Almost two-thirds of the European Goldeneye breed in Finland, the majority of which in Lapland. The region also supports a considerable chunk of Europe’s ‘sawbills’ – Goosander, Red-breasted Merganser and Smew. Goldeneye and Tufted Duck are Lapland’s most common ducks. Most pools and rivers in Lapland harbour at least a pair, and often more, of these birds. Goosander and Red-breasted Merganser are found mostly on the rivers, while dabbling ducks, such as Pintail, Wigeon, Mallard and Teal seek out the shallower, sedge-fringed waters. Velvet and Common Scoters are more frequent on the northern fell lakes. Scaup and Long-tailed Duck are even restricted to the far north. Divers are more numerous in the northern part of Lapland as well. The Blackthroated Diver is the most common of the two species and seeks out large, nutrient-poor lakes with little vegetation. Red-throated Diver, in contrast, prefers smaller lakes with sedge marshes. Like the waders, the waterfowl in Lapland arrives almost overnight. May sees a spectacular, but short, courtship period. As soon as the ducklings are born, the drakes (male ducks) disappear, leaving the rearing of the young to the females. Around mid-June, the drakes gather on the larger lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia to moult. The other waterfowl in Lapland are Whooper Swan, Bean and Lesser White-fronted Goose. The latter bird is one of the most threatened birds of Europe. It breeds on lakeshores in northern Lapland and winters in North-east Greece and along the Black and Caspian Seas. The numbers have dropped dramatically over the last century for reasons that are not fully understood, but involve heavy hunting during migration through southern Russia. The European population is estimated at 25 pairs only. A happier story can be told of the Whooper Swan. This majestic bird also nearly disappeared as a result of heavy hunting. Since being protected, Whooper Swans have recovered and are again a frequent sight in Lapland.

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The Goldeneye is the most numerous of the fourteen species of duck in Lapland.


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Hawk Owls hunt during the day and evening. They often perch in solitary trees.

Owls and other birds of prey

Owls are the jewel in the crown of Finnish birdlife. Ten species occur in the country, of which eight – the most sought after – inhabit Lapland. These are Eagle, Ural, Great Grey, Hawk, Snowy, Pygmy, Tengmalm’s and Short-eared Owls. Most of them breed in old pine and mixed forests with plenty of voles. The

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numbers fluctuate dramatically from year to year, depending on the availability of prey (see box on page 32). Southern Lapland and the Kuusamo area usually see the highest densities of owls. Tengmalm’s Owls are most common, but Eagle, Great Grey, Ural and Pygmy Owls occur in the forest as well. The latter two reach their northern limit in southern Lapland. The handsome Hawk Owl also breeds in Lapland, but tends to be more numerous in the northern forest region. It hunts from perches close to fields and mires. The owl with the most northern distribution is Snowy Owl. This Arctic bird reaches its southern limit on the fells of northern Lapland. It is an erratic breeder, doing so only in years with sufficient Lemmings. To find owls, you’d best contact a local guide (see page 203). Only Short-eared Owl is found with relative ease. It is sometimes seen hunting over the mires at dusk. The list of other predators is impressive too, amounting to 11 species plus, stretching the term ‘bird of prey’ a little, Long-tailed Skua. The latter is a relative of the gulls and feeds on rodents. It shares its habitat of open fells with Rough-legged Buzzard, Kestrel, Hen Harrier, Golden Eagle and Gyrfalcon. Except for the latter two, these predators rely on rodents for food. Their numbers consequently fluctuate with the abundance of prey. The populations of Merlin, Peregrine, Goshawk and Sparrowhawk are more stable, because birds, whose numbers fluctuate little, are their staple diet. Merlins, particularly, are fairly common and are typically seen in a flash as they dash by to hunt for passerines. The Lappish Peregrines breed in large mires where they hunt waders. Finally, there are two wetland raptors: White-tailed Eagle and Osprey. White-tailed Eagles are mostly found in the far north, becoming increasingly common towards the Arctic Ocean in Norway, whereas Osprey is a fairly rare breeding bird of fish-rich lakes in the south.

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The Grouse

Lapland is also the land of grouse. There are five species: Black and Willow Grouse, Hazel Hen, Ptarmigan and Capercaillie. Each inhabits its own preferred habitat. Capercaillie prefers old, open forests. Black Grouse inhabits southern birch groves, old meadows and dry peatlands with scattered pines and spruces. Hazel Hen seeks out dense willow and birch thickets, usually close to streams. Willow Grouse is mainly found in open birch heathlands while Ptarmigan, the most Arctic of them all, has a peculiar preference for the coldest, most windswept fell summits. All grouse are adapted to living in cold conditions. They have feathered legs and dig themselves into the snow during the cold winter nights. Like voles and lemmings, grouse are a favourite prey for many animals. Their numbers fluctuate, as do those of their predators, but at the time of writing, their numbers were much lower than usual. The reasons for this are not fully understood (see also box on page 72). Climate change, parasites and the disappearance of old-growth forest seem to have affected the grouse populations negatively.

The numbers of Willow Grouse vary strongly over the years.

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Crazy Capercaillie The sun shines brightly on the crystal snow and day-time temperatures rise to a ‘comfortable’ just above zero. It is April and courtship time! Although the migrant birds have not yet arrived and not a single blade of grass sticks out of the snow, the grouses already anticipate the upcoming season. In their arenas they fight their battles for the females. The hormones transform Capercaillie cocks from shy and secretive birds to boisterous machos. In a perpetual state of agitation the birds strut around with their tails fanned out and their heads held upwards in an attempt to out swagger the competition. In this state the cocks are so self-absorbed that they have lost all fear for humans (a state that hunters have known and abused for centuries). Remote villages are sometimes visited by Capercaillies which parade, tail at full spread, along the main street. There are stories of cross country skiers being attacked by these huge birds because the trail happened to come too close to a display site. In general, though, the Capercaillies are not aggressive. In Pelkosenniemi, there was once a Capercaillie that visited a garden so often that it befriended the people of the house. It was a family with a young child in a pram. After a while the Capercaillie started to protect the pram from intruders. Any visitor would first receive a warning in the form of a raised neck and a raised tail. If that wasn’t enough the cock would peck anyone who came too close (except, fortuntely, the child’s mother). This continued a few days and then the Capercaillie was gone. The hormones had run out. No more playing hero, no more Mr. Niceguy – that season is over. Back to the seclusion of the forest.

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Displaying cock Capercaillie.


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Birding seasons

A typical feature of the birdlife of Lapland is that it changes drastically in the course of the seasons. In winter there are very few birds around. Without insects and with the seeds being buried deep underneath the snow, there is little food – yet this is the time that energy is most desperately needed to combat the severe cold. Only few birds can face the hardships of winter. Therefore, the silence in the taiga in winter is absolute. The few residents – predominately tits and finches – are drawn to the feeders in the gardens. Lapland´s specialities – birds of which a large part of the European population breeds in Lapland Whooper Swan, Bean Goose, Lesser White-fronted Goose, Pintail, Goldeneye, Smew, Willow Grouse, Capercaillie, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Jack Snipe, Bar-tailed Godwit, Whimbrel, Wood Sandpiper, Greenshank, Spotted Redshank, Ruff, Red-necked Phalarope, Long-tailed Skua, Hawk Owl, Tengmalm’s Owl, Great Grey Owl, Three-toed Woodpecker, Waxwing, Bluethroat, Red-flanked Bluetail, Siberian Tit, Arctic Warbler, Siberian Jay, Two-barred Crossbill, Parrot Crossbill, Pine Grosbeak, Lapland Bunting, Little Bunting, Rustic Bunting Other common or frequent species Red-throated Diver, Black-throated Diver, Wigeon, Teal, Tufted Duck, Common Scoter, Velvet Scoter, Goosander, Redbreasted Merganser, White-tailed Eagle, Osprey, Golden Eagle, Hen Harrier, Rough-legged Buzzard, Sparrowhawk, Goshawk, Kestrel, Merlin, Peregrine, Ptarmigan, Black Grouse, Hazel Hen, Crane, Ringed Plover, Dot-terel, Golden Plover, Temminck’s Stint, Common Sandpiper, Green Sandpiper, Curlew, Snipe, Common Tern, Cuckoo, Eagle Owl, Short-eared Owl, Black Woodpecker, Great Spotted Woodpecker, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Sand Martin, Tree Pipit, Meadow Pipit, Yellow Wagtail, Dipper, Dunnock, Common Redstart, Whinchat, Wheatear, Song Thrush, Mistle Thrush, Redwing, Fieldfare, Ring Ouzel, Spotted Flycatcher, Pied Flycatcher, Great Grey Shrike, Raven, Brambling, Redpoll, Siskin, Bullfinch, Crossbill, Reed Bunting, Yellowhammer Southern birds – birds of southern Finland which are rare or localised in Lapland Red-necked Grebe, Garganey, Shoveler, Honey-buzzard, Redshank, Green Sandpiper, Little Gull, Ural Owl, Pygmy Owl, Skylark, Grey Wagtail, Eurasian Treecreeper, Greenish Warbler, Common Rosefinch Northern birds – birds of Arctic environments which are rare or localised in Lapland Scaup, Long-tailed Duck, Gyrfalcon, Snowy Owl, Arctic Tern, Shore Lark, Red-throated Pipit, Arctic Redpoll, Snow Bunting

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Cranes are beautiful but shy breeding birds of the peatlands.

In the light of this, it is quite amazing that Lapland does have one winter visitor. The Arctic Redpoll breeds in Arctic Norway and Russia and spends the winter in Lapland, where it joins the Common Redpolls on the feeders. The summer, in contrast, brings plenty of food and 24 hours of daylight in which to search for it. Insects are plentiful and so are seeds and, later in the season, berries. The only problem is that the season is short. The first plants grow and start to flower no earlier than the second half of May. Around early April the first migrants already arrive – Whooper Swans gather on the still frozen lakes, Redwings and Waxwings start to occupy their territories in the forest. In early April, when snow still covers most of the forest floor and the lakes and mires are still frozen, resident birds like Capercaillies, Hazel Hens and all the owls are calling and Siberian Tits singing. In mid-May, the other migrants arrive. The males immediately start their hunt for the females. Some birds, such as Ruff, have already started their courtship on migration from their winter quarters. In late May, Lapland is alive with bird songs and display flights – a magical time after the long and silent winter. But the liveliness is short-lived. As soon as the eggs have been laid, the birds become more quiet. The chicks are born at the start of the insect season, when food is present in abundance. They leave the nest around mid-July, which makes the middle of summer again a fine time to watch birds. Once the young are fully fledged, summer is coming to an end and they move south, to escape the cold, leaving Lapland to sink again into its winter peace.

flora and fauna


route 5: valtavaara

- searching for the red-flanked bluetail

Route 5: Valtavaara – Searching for the Red-flanked Bluetail

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Mosquitoes can be a nuisance

1 ½ hours moderate Best site for Red-flanked Bluetail Beautiful old spruces and great views over the boreal landscape of Kuusamo Habitats: Old-growth spruce forest Selected species: Red-flanked Bluetail, Siberian Jay

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The Red-flanked Bluetail breeds on steep spruce-clad hills, such as Valtavaara.

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Valtavaara hilltop

This route visits the best site of one of the most sought-after birds of Finland, the handsome Redflanked Bluetail. But since the Bluetail seeks out scenic sites to breed, there is more to see on Valtavaara than just this bird. The steep hillside is covered with an old, mossy spruce forest, which forms a perfect habitat for other taiga birds. The views from the hilltop are excellent.

The Bluetail can be located on the short circular bird route (Lintupolku in Finnish). Listen for its pleasant, clear and short song (somewhat reminiscent of Common Redstart). It often sings from the top of a tall Spruce and is most active in the early hours (around 4 o’clock in the morning). If the bird loop fails to produce the target bird, then follow the trail to the top of the hill (part of the Bear’s trail). Other birds that may be found here are Pine Grosbeak, Bullfinch, Siberian Jay, Capercaillie, Black and Three-toed Woodpeckers Common and Parrot Crossbills. Rustic and Little Buntings and even Greenish Warbler!

Additional remarks

If Valtavaara wasn’t successful, try your luck at Iivaara (see page 132).

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route 6: närängänvaara aapa mire and old-growth forest

Route 6: Närängänvaara aapa mire and old-growth forest

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5 hours easy-moderate Beautiful example of an aapa mire, including its rich flora and fauna Habitats: Aapa mire, spruce forest, pine mire Selected species: Rannoch-rush, Lesser Twayblade, Wood Sandpiper, Curlew, Greenshank, Beautiful Demoiselle

The trail to the Närängänvaara hill lies some distance away from the other routes. It is worth the drive over from Kuusamo because it is such a good and accessible example of an aapa mire. The aapa mire is rich in breeding waders, but difficult to explore. On this route you are able to traverse such a mire on a boardwalk, providing excellent opportunities to see its flora and fauna. Moreover, from the hilltop on the other side, you have excellent views over the mire. The hill itself is clad in a splendid spruce forest and some remarkably old stands of pine.

Departure point From Kuusamo follow the number 5 highway south and turn left after 29 km onto the 8421, signposted Murtovaara and Hossa. Just before the sign ‘Hossa 20 kilometres’ a track, signposted Hyöteikkö, branches off to the left (don’t mistake it for the better signposted track towards Näränkä, which splits off the road some 20 metres further on). Follow the track to Hyöteikkö for almost 6 kilometres until you reach a car park on your right. From the car park follow the trail signposted ‘Närängänreitti 15 km’.

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The first part of the track follows a low sandy ridge through a pine mire. Look for dragonflies, such as Small and Ruby White-faces, Azure and Bog Hawkers and various Emeralds.

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Bogbean


route 6: närängänvaara aapa mire and old-growth forest

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Once you leave the ridge, you arrive in open peatland. The string structure of the Aapa mire is very visible here. Little pines grow on the ‘dams’ and form perfect perches for Grey-headed (Yellow) Wagtails, Wood Sandpipers, Spotted Redshanks and other waders. Dragonflies often land on the boardwalk itself to soak up the sun. From the boardwalk, various wildflowers can easily be admired, including Heath Spotted-orchid and in the wetter parts, Rannoch-rush and Sundews. Further ahead, the peatland’s hydrology becomes influenced by nutrientrich water from the little stream that runs at the foot of the hill. Here, Early Marsh-orchids take the place of the Heath Spotteds. After crossing the brook, you come to a woodland and onto a forest track which you cross. The trail soon comes to a T-junction. Go left here, following the sign Närängän Tila.

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Your ascent to the hilltop leads to a beautiful old spruce forest with the occasional Goat Willow, Trembling Aspen and Grey Alder mixed in. Check the moss by the path carefully for the diminutive Lesser Twayblade – a tiny orchid. Dwarf Cornel, Common and Small Cow-wheats, Chickweed and Round-leaved Wintergreens are easily found. Beautiful Demoiselles flutter by on open patches. The wooded hillside here looks like perfect habitat for birds of the boreal forest (e.g. Pine Grosbeak, Redflanked Bluetail).

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route 6: närängänvaara aapa mire and old-growth forest

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Närängän Tila is an old farm surrounded by a meadow that is actually a sea of Wood Crane’s-bill. The track proceeds right of the main house back into the woods. At the top of the hill you come to two vantage points. The first faces north-east. The hills on the horizon are Russian territory. The next viewpoint provides glorious views over the aapa mire you have just crossed.

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The trail through the aapa mire of Närängänvaara. White-faces (bottom) frequently rest on the boardwalk in June.

Next you come to a crossing where you have the option to turn left and extend your trip by rounding the lake, or to go right and follow the trail back to the departure point. In the latter case, you zigzag down to a car park on a main track. From the car park go straight ahead over the grassy track until, after 500 metres, you find the track back over the mire (look carefully, because it is somewhat hidden).

practical part


tourist information & observation tips Travelling in and to Finnish Lapland

The easiest way to travel around Finnish Lapland is by road, which gets you to where you want to go in the shortest possible time. There are petrol stations in most towns and villages, although they are not as frequent as elsewhere in Europe. So we advise you to fill up when you have the opportunity (and to carry sufficient cash since the petrol stations are often unmanned and foreign credit cards are not universally accepted). There are car rental companies, easily contacted via the internet, in all major cities. A convenient and not-too-expensive way of travel is to take the train to Rovaniemi and rent your car there (rather than taking the expensive and polluting plane out to Kuusamo, Kittilä, Rovaniemi or Ivalo). Finland has an excellent public transportation system. The train takes you, swiftly and conveniently, to Oulu, Kolari or Rovaniemi. For train schedules and bookings in English, visit www.vr.fi/eng. Long distance buslines (called pikavuorot) serve the major routes whilst the regional buses (vakiovuorot) follow the more local road network. Most departure points mentioned here and National Parks are reachable by comfortable, punctual, and regular buses. For schedules and bookings, visit matkahuolto.fi/en. To find the correct lines and bus stops for the individual parks and reserves visit outdoors.fi and search under the national park of your choice in the menu (see under ‘directions’ and ‘maps’). The adventurous cyclist will enjoy Finnish Lapland. The relatively flat terrain, the quiet atmosphere and the opportunity for ‘wild camping’ , makes this area ideal for cycling, although distances between towns and services are great. It is possible to take your bike on the train as well as on long-distance buses.

When to go

The growing season in Lapland maybe short, but the visiting season isn’t. Winter has its special appeal. The ‘days’ are so short that the sun doesn’t even rise above the horizon in northern Lapland. During this Kaamos period, only a dim glow can be seen at midday, but the clear skies and moonshine reflecting on the snow create a beautiful and unreal atmosphere. This is also the Tykky time (pronounced with the y’s as the ‘e’ as in lewd): Tykky refers to the huge snow load that accumulates in winter and turns the trees into surreal sculptures that stand out on the horizon. It lasts until late February, then the wind picks up and frees the trees of their heavy burden. During this time, the northern lights glow over the winter landscape adding to the mystical feeling. Obviously, winter is cold, but the good Finnish infrastructure and the ample provision of saunas (even in rented cottages) makes a winter visit not uncomfortable. Spring arrives in April. However, the Finns have a different association with spring than people from temperate and southern Europe. It is not the time the wildflowers appear (that

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would be summer) but the time in which temperatures climb above zero during the day. With perfect snow conditions, April is a popular month in Finland for outdoor activities. Cross-country skiing is the preferred mode of transport at this time. In mid April, the birding season starts with displaying grouse, the hoot of owls and a chorus of other resident birds like Siberian Jay and Siberian Tit and Pine Grosbeak. Around early May, the thaw sets in for earnest and migrant birds start to arrive, with the second half of May being the brief but superb peak period for birdwatching. Some lakes may still be frozen, but the ones with open water are chock-a-block with birds and the bogs are alive with displaying Ruff and other waders. When the peatlands are still frozen, the migrant birds all gather in river mouths and rapids where the ice breaks first. This magical period is short though, for in June the birds become quiet, tending first to their eggs and then to their young. But during this time, wildflowers, butterflies, dragonflies (and mosquitoes!) are starting to emerge. From mid June to early August the wildflowers, dragonflies and butterflies are in full swing (Note that this is the complete opposite of southern Europe where the wildflower season precedes the bird season). July is not a bad season for birdwatching either, because the young are fledging and can often be seen on the branches begging for food. September is the season of the Ruska, another popular time for the Finns to be out and about. The ruska refers to the autumn colours of the birches and the aspen, but also that of the Alpine Bearberries and other bushes. During a good ruska, complete hillsides turn flaring red and yellow. Late August is a good bird season again, with breeding birds having increased their numbers and migrating birds getting ready for the journey south. The autumn departures are much more spread out than the spring arrivals, however, so autumn isn’t as exciting a time for birding as spring. After late September the days shorten very quickly and the landscape prepares for the winter silence.

Lapland – the east and west routes

Lapland is too large to cover in one holiday. We advise you start in the south and gradually move north, so you see the landscape change gradually from the forest to the more rugged fell landscape. If you have the time, continue into Norway to end at the Arctic Sea. On your return south set aside time for further exploration. Because the season passes so quickly in the north, you’ll see that things have changed since you were last here. Plants that were not in flower when you started out, are now in bloom. Due to the layout of the road network and the location of the interesting sites, there are two main routes you can choose: the western and the eastern routes. The western route starts in Rovaniemi in the south and goes from Pyhä-Luosto to Pallas-Yllästunturi and on to Kilpisjärvi into Norway. The eastern route starts in Kuusamo and travels from Oulanka to PyhäLuosto, then up to Inari (with Urho Kekkonen and Lemmenjoki National Parks), continues to Kevo and Utsjoki and then further up into Norway. Both routes are beautiful trips with many old-growth forests, mires and fells. The western route is a bit shorter and yet more diverse. It is a little more productive for finding wild-

crossbill guides

finnish lapland including kuusamo


flowers and butterflies (particularly in the Kilpisjärvi area). The eastern route, in contrast, is slightly better for birdwatchers with the Kuusamo area and the fells of Kevo and Utsjoki being very rich. Kuusamo has the advantage of being visited a lot by birders, so it is easier to arrange an owl-finding trip here. The major difference between the two trips is your entrance point into Norway. Adjacent to Kilpisjärvi (the western route), lies a region with spectacular fjords and high, glaciated mountains, providing breathtaking scenery and interesting wildflowers and butterflies. Your entrance point in Utsjoki brings you to Varanger: the only part of mainland Europe that lies within the Arctic ecoregion. Varanger and surrounding peninsulas sport a bleak but beautiful tundra landscape with a superb and unsurpassed birdlife. A two week visit is, in our opinion, the minimum time you need to get a decent understanding of Lapland – a three or four week visit would be better still.

191 Varanger utsjoki

kilpisjärvi inari

west route

east route

rovaniemi kuusamo

Travelling in the snow

From early November to mid May, Finnish Lapland is covered by a white blanket. This is an enchanting period, but travelling in the snow requires extra care, both when driving from site to site as well as when walking (or skiing) in the countryside. Be aware that using snow chains are not allowed in Finland. Instead, you need snow tyres, which are equipped with small studs for extra grip. Rental cars have them fitted already. Driving in wintertime does take more time and concentration than in summer, but the tyres give you a remarkably good grip on the icy surface. In wintertime, boots are useless – you need cross country skis or snow shoes to get around. If you do not have these, you can rent them at the larger tourism centres, such as Ruka (near Kuusamo), Pyhätunturi, Pallastunturi and Saariselkä. Skis are best, because you travel faster and with less noise, but snow shoes are easier to use, so if you are an inexperienced skier, these are recommended. A waterproof coat and overtrousers using a breathable material such as Goretex is important. Winter trails usually follow a different route than summer trails, because the latter are too steep and windy for skis. Winter trails, however, cannot be travelled in summer, since they cross the (frozen) lakes and mires. In this book we describe summer routes only.

Enjoying the Ruska

The Ruska (autumn) is one of the most popular times for the Finns to go out for long walks.

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species list & translation The following list comprises all species mentioned in this guidebook and gives their scientific, German and Dutch names. Some have an asterisk (*) behind them, indicating an unofficial name. See page 7 for more details.

Plants

English Scientific German Dutch Alder, Grey Alnus incana Grau-Erle Witte els Angelica, Garden Angelica archangelica Echte Engelwurz Grote engelwortel Arnica, Narrow-leaved* Arnica angustifolia Alpen-Arnika Alpenvalkruid* Aspen, Trembling Populus tremula Espe Ratelpopulier Asphodel, Scottish Tofieldia pusilla Kleine Simsenlilie Moerasbieslelie Avens, Mountain Dryas octopetala Silberwurz Achtster Azalea, Trailing Loiseleuria procumbens Alpenazalee Alpenazalea Baneberry, Red Actaea erythrocarpa Rotfrüchtiges Christophskraut* Rode gifbes* Bartsia, Alpine Bartsia alpina Alpenhelm Alpenhelm Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Echte Bärentraube Berendruif Bearberry, Alpine Arctostaphylos alpina Alpen-Bärentraube Alpenberendruif Bedstraw, Fen Galium uliginosum Moor-Labkraut Ruw walstro Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus Blaubeere Blauwe bosbes Bilberry, Bog Vaccinium uliginosum Rauschbeere Rijsbes Birch, Downy Betula pubescens Moor-Birke Zachte berk Birch, Dwarf Betula nana Zwerg-Birke Dwergberk Birch, Kiilopää* Betula pubescens var. apressa Kiilopää Moor-Birke* Kiilopääberk* Birch, Mountain Betula pubescens czerepanovii Fjell Moor-Birke* Fjellberk* Birch, Silver Betula pendula Hängebirke Ruwe berk Bistort, Alpine Persicaria vivipara Knöllchen-Knöterich Levendbarende duizendknoop Bladderwort, Common Utricularia vulgaris Gewöhnlicher Wasserschlauch Groot blaasjeskruid Bladderwort, Intermediate Utricularia intermedia Mittlerer Wasserschlauch Plat blaasjeskruid Bladderwort, Lesser Utricularia minor Kleiner Wasserschlauch Klein blaasjeskruid Bogbean Menyanthes trifoliata Fieberklee Waterdrieblad Bramble, Arctic Rubus arcticus Allackerbeere Noordse braam Bramble, Stone Rubus saxatilis Steinbeere Steenbraam Bulrush Typha sp. Rohrkolben Lisdodde Butterbur, Lapland* Petasites frigidus Fjell Pestwurz* Poolhoefblad Buttercup, Lapland Ranunculus lapponicus Greniers Berg-Hahnenfuss Laplandboterbloem* Buttercup, Pygmy Ranunculus pygmaeus Zwerg-Hahnenfuss Dwergboterbloem

crossbill guides

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Buttercup, Snow Ranunculus nivalis Schnee-Hahnenfuss Sneeuwboterbloem Butterwort, Alpine Pinguicula alpina Alpen-Fettkraut Alpenvetblad Butterwort, Common Pinguicula vulgaris Gewöhnliches Fettkraut Gewoon vetblad Butterwort, Small* Pinguicula villosa Zwerg-Fettkraut* Dwergvetblad* Campion, Moss Silene acaulis Stengelloses Leimkraut Stengelloze silene Cat’s-foot Antennaria dioica Gewöhnliches Katzenpfötchen Rozenkransje Catchfly, Alpine Lychnis alpina Alpen-Lichtnelke Alpenpekanjer Cherry, Bird Prunus padus Gewöhnliche Traubenkirsche Gewone Vogelkers Cinquefoil, Alpine Potentilla crantzii Zottiges Fingerkraut Donzige ganzerik Cinquefoil, Marsh Potentilla palustris Sumpf-Blutauge Wateraardbei Cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus Moltebeere Kruipbraam Clubmoss, Alpine Diphasiastrum alpinum Alpen-Flachbärlapp Alpenwolfsklauw Clubmoss, Fir Huperzia selago Tannen-Bärlapp Dennenwolfsklauw Clubmoss, Interrupted Lycopodium annotinum Berg-Bärlap Stekende wolfsklauw Clubmoss, Issler’s Diphasiastrum complanatum Gewöhnlicher Flachbärlapp Vlakke wolfsklauw Clubmoss, Running Lycopodium clavatum Keulen-Bärlapp Grote wolfsklauw Club-rush Schoenoplectus sp. Teichbinsen Mattenbies Coralroot Corallorhiza trifida Korallenwurz Koraalwortel Cornel, Dwarf Cornus suecica Schwedischer Hartriegel Zweedse kornoelje Cotton-grass, Broad-leaved Eriophorum latifolium Breitblättriges Wollgras Breed wollegras Cotton-grass, Common Eriophorum angustifolium Schmalblättriges Wollgras Veenpluis Cotton-grass, Hare’s-tail Eriophorum vaginatum Scheiden-Wollgras Eenarig wollegras Cotton-grass, Red Eriophorum russeolum Braunes Wollgras Rood wollegras* Cotton-grass, Scheuchzer’s Eriophorum scheuchzeri Scheuchzers Wollgras Scheuchzers wollegras* Cotton-grass, Slender Eriophorum gracile Schlankes Wollgras Slank wollegras Cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea Preiselbeere Rode bosbes Cow-wheat, Common Melampyrum pratense Wiesen-Wachtelweizen Hengel Cow-wheat, Small Melampyrum sylvaticum Wald-Wachtelweizen Boshengel Cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccus Gewöhnliche Moosbeere Kleine veenbes Cranberry, Small Vaccinium microcarpum Klein-Torfbeere Dwergveenbes* Crane’s-bill, Wood Geranium sylvaticum Wald-Storchschnabel Bosooievaarsbek Crowberry Empetrum nigrum Krähenbeere Kraaihei Crowberry, Alpine Empetrum (nigrum) Zwittrige Krähenbeere Alpenkraaihei hermaphroditum Crowfoot, Glacier Ranunculus glacialis Gletscher-Hahnenfuss Gletsjerranonkel Cudweed, Highland Gnaphalium norvegicum Norwegisches Ruhrkraut Noorse droogbloem* Currant, Lapland Red* Ribes spicatum lapponicum Lappland Ährige Lapland aalbes* Johannisbeere* Diapensia Diapensia lapponica Diapensia Diapensia* Diplazium* Diplazium sibiricum Diplazium* Diplazium*

species list & translation

213


214

Eyebright Euphrasia sp. Augentrost Ogentroost Fern, Alpine Lady Athyrium distentifolium Alpen-Frauenfarn Alpenwijfjesvaren* Fern, Beech Phegopteris connectilis Gewöhnlicher Buchenfarn Smalle beukvaren Fern, Lady Athyrium filix-femina Wald-Frauenfarn Wijfjesvaren Fern, Northern Buckler Dryopteris expansa Feingliedriger Wurmfarn Tere stekelvaren Fern, Oak Gymnocarpium dryopteris Eichenfarn Gebogen driehoeksvaren Fern, Ostrich Matteuccia struthiopteris Straußenfarn Struisvaren Fern, Parsley Cryptogramma crispa Rollfarn Gekroesde rolvaren Fern, Scented Male* Dryopteris fragrans Wohlriechender Wurmfarn Welriekende mannetjes- varen* Fleabane, One-flowered Erigeron uniflorus Einköpfiges Berufkraut Eenhoofdige fijnstraal Forget-me-not, Fell Myosotis decumbens Niederliegendes Liggend vergeet-mij Vergissmeinnicht nietje* Gentian, Snow Gentiana nivalis Schnee-Enzian Sneeuwgentiaan Globeflower Trollius europaeus Trollblume Trollius Goldenrod Solidago virgaurea Gewöhnliche Goldrute Echte guldenroede Grass-of-Parnassus Parnassia palustris Herzblatt Parnassia Harebell Campanula rotundifolia Rundblättrige Glockenblume Grasklokje Hawk’s-beard, Alpine Hieracium alpinum Alpen-Habichtskraut Alpenhavikskruid Heath, Blue See Mountain Heath Heath, Moss Cassiope hypnoides Moosige Schuppenheide Mosheide Heath, Mountain Phyllodoce caerulea Blauheide Blauwe heide* Heath, Twinflower* Cassiope tetragona Maiglöckchenheide Klokjesheide* Heather Calluna vulgaris Heidekraut Struikhei Helleborine, Dark-red Epipactis atrorubens Braunrote Stendelwurz Bruinrode wespenorchis Herb-paris Paris quadrifolia Einbeere Eenbes Horsetail, Water Equisetum fluviatile Teich-Schachtelhalm Holpijp Horsetail, Wood Equisetum sylvaticum Wald-Schachtelhalm Bospaardenstaart Jacob’s-ladder, Lapland* Polemonium acutiflorum Lappland-Himmelsleiter* Lapland jakobsladder* Juniper Juniperus communis Gewöhnlicher Wacholder Jeneverbes Lady’s-tresses, Creeping Goodyera repens Netzblatt Dennenorchis Larch , Siberian Larix sibirica Sibirische Lärche Siberische Larix Leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata Torfgränke Turfheide* Lichen, Reindeer See Moss, Reindeer Lichen, Beard Usnea sp. Bartflechte Baardmos Lily, May Maianthemum bifolium Schattenblume Dalkruid Loosestrife, Tufted Lysimachia thyrsiflora Straussblütiger Gilbweiderich Moeraswederik Lousewort, Fell* Pedicularis hirsuta Behaartes Läusekraut Harig kartelblad Lousewort, Lapland Pedicularis lapponica Lapland-Läusekraut Lapland kartelblad* Lousewort, Marsh Pedicularis palustris Sumpf-Läusekraut Moeraskartelblad

crossbill guides

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Marigold, Marsh Caltha palustris Sumpf-Dotterblume Dotterbloem Meadow-rue, Alpine Thalictrum alpinum Alpen-Wiesenraute Alpenruit Meadow-rue, Kemi* Thalictrum kemense Kemense-Wiesenraute* Kemense ruit* Mezereon Daphne mezereum Gewöhnlicher Seidelbast Rood peperboompje Milk-vetch, Alpine Astragalus alpinus Alpen-Tragant Alpentragant Milk-vetch, Frigid* Astragalus frigidus Gletscher-Tragant Gletschertragant* Moss, Hair Polytrichum sp. Widertonmoos Haarmos Moss, Peat Sphagnum sp. Torfmoos Veenmos Moss, Reindeer Cladonia rangiferina Echte Rentierflechte Echt rendiermos Moss, Yellow Moosedung Splachnum luteum Parasolmoos* Parasolmos* Orchid, Blood Marsh Dactylorhiza cruenta Blutrotes Knabenkraut Bloedvlekkenorchis Orchid, Bog Hammarbya paludosa Sumpf-Weichorchis Veenmosorchis Orchid, Calypso See Fairy Slipper Orchid, Early Marsh Dactylorhiza incarnata Fleischfarbenes Knabenkraut Vleeskleurige orchis Orchid, False Chamorchis alpina Zwergorchis Dwergorchis Orchid, Fragrant Gymnadenia conopsea Mücken-Händelwurz Grote muggenorchis Orchid, Frog Dactylorhiza viride Hohlzunge Groene nachtorchis Orchid, Ghost Epipogium aphyllum Blattloser Widerbart Spookorchis Orchid, Heath Spotted Dactylorhiza maculata Geflecktes Knabenkraut Gevlekte orchis Orchid, Lapland Marsh Dactylorhiza lapponica Lappländisches Knabenkraut Lapland orchis Orchid, Lesser Butterfly Platanthera bifolia Weisses Breitkölbchen Welriekende nachtorchis Orchid, Dactylorhiza traunsteineri Traunsteiners Knabenkraut Smalbladige orchis Narrow-leaved Marsh Orchid, Pseudorchis straminea Strohgelbe Höswurz Noordse muggenorchis* Northern Small White* / Weisszüngel Oxytropis, Yellow Oxytropis campestris Alpen-Spitzkiel Gele spitskiel* Oysterplant Mertensia maritima Austernpflanze Oesterplant Pine, Scots Pinus sylvestris Waldkiefer Grove den Poplar Populus sp. Pappel Populier Primrose, Straight Primula stricta Aufrechte Schlüsselblume Stijve sleutelbloem Rannoch-rush Scheuchzeria palustris Blumenbinse Veenbloembies Reed, Common Phragmites australis Schilfrohr Riet Rhododendron, Lapland Rhododendron lapponicum Lappland-Alpenrose Laplandroosje* Rosemary, Bog Andromeda polifolia Rosmarinheide Lavendelheide Rose-root Rhodiola rosea Rosenwurz Rozenwortel Rowan Sorbus aucuparia Eberesche Wilde lijsterbes Rush, Three-leaved Juncus trifidus Dreispaltige Binse Driebladige rus* Saw-wort, Alpine Saussurea alpina Gewöhnliche Alpenscharte Echte alpenschaarde Saxifrage, Alpine Saxifraga nivalis Schnee-Steinbrech Sneeuwsteenbreek Saxifrage, Bulbil* Saxifraga foliolosa Bulbillen-Steinbrech* Schubsteenbreek

species list & translation

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216

Saxifrage, Marsh Saxifraga hirculus Saxifrage, Purple Saxifraga oppositifolia Saxifrage, Starry Saxifraga stellaris Saxifrage, Yellow Saxifraga aizoides Sceptre, St.-Charles Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum Sedge, Bottle Carex rostrata Sibbaldia Sibbaldia procumbens Slipper, Fairy Calypso bulbosa Slipper, Lady’s Cypripedium calceolum Sorrel, Mountain Oxyria digyna Sow-thistle, Alpine Cicerbita alpina Speedwell, Long-leaved Veronica longifolia Spruce, Norway Picea abies Spruce, Siberian Picea abies obovata Sundew, Great Drosera anglica Sundew, Round-leaved Drosera rotundifolia Tea, Labrador Ledum palustre Thistle, Melancholy Cirsium helenioides Thyme, Tana* Thymus serpyllum tanaensis Twayblade, Lesser Neottia cordata Violet, Dwarf Marsh Viola epipsila Violet, Marsh Viola palustris Violet, Yellow Wood Viola biflora Willow, Goat Salix caprea Willow, Net-leaved Salix reticulata Willow. Dwarf Salix herbacea Wintergreen, Chickweed Trientalis europaea Wintergreen, Common Pyrola minor Wintergreen, One-flowered Moneses uniflora Wintergreen, Round-leaved Pyrola rotundifolia Wintergreen, Serrated Orthilia secunda Yellow-rattle Rhinanthus minor

Moor-Steinbrech Gegenblättriger Steinbrech Stern-Steinbrech Fetthennen-Steinbrech Karlszepter

Bokjessteenbreek Zuiltjessteenbreek Stersteenbreek Gele bergsteenbreek Karelscepter

Schnabel-Segge Alpen-Gelbling Norne Frauenschuh Säuerling Alpen-Milchlattich Langblättriger Ehrenpreis Gemeine Fichte Siberische Fichte* Langblättriger Sonnentau Rundblättriger Sonnentau Sumpf-Porst Verschiedenblättrige Kratzdistel Tana-Thymian* Kleines Zweiblatt Torf-Veilchen Sumpf-Veilchen Zweiblütiges Veilchen Sal-Weide Netz-Weide Kraut-Weide Siebenstern Kleines Wintergrün Moosauge Rundblättriges Wintergrün Nickendes Wintergrün Kleiner Klappertopf

Snavelzegge Sibbaldia* Bosnimf Vrouwenschoentje Bergzuring Alpensla Lange ereprijs Fijnspar Siberische spar Lange zonnedauw Ronde zonnendauw Moerasrozemarijn Ongelijkbladige distel

Mammals English Badger Bat Bear, Brown

Scientific Meles meles Chiroptera Ursus arctos

crossbill guides

German Dachs Fledermäuse Braunbär

Tana tijm* Kleine keverorchis Turfviooltje* Moerasvioolje Tweebloemig viooltje Boswilg Netnervige wilg Kruidwilg Zevenster Klein wintergroen Eenbloemig wintergroen Rond wintergroen Eenzijdig wintergroen Kleine ratelaar

Dutch Das Vleermuizen Bruine beer

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Deer, Roe Capreolus capreolus Dog, Raccoon Nyctereutes procyonoides Elk Alces alces Fox, Arctic Alopex lagopus Fox, Red Vulpes vulpes Hare, Mountain Lepus timidus Lemming, Norway Lemmus lemmus Lemming, Wood Myopus schisticolor Lynx Lynx lynx Marten, Pine Martes martes Mouse, House Mus musculus Otter Lutra lutra Reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus Reindeer, Forest Rangifer tarandus fennicus Squirrel, Flying Pteromys volans Squirrel, Red Sciurus vulgaris Stoat Mustela ermina Vole, Field Microtus agrestis Vole, Grey Red-backed Myodes rufocanus Vole, Northern Red-backed Myodes rutilus Vole, Root Microtus oeconomus Weasel Mustela nivalis Wolf Canis lupus Wolverine Gulo gulo

Reh Marderhund Elch Polarfuchs Rotfuchs Schneehase Berglemming Waldlemming Luchs Baummarder Hausmaus Fischotter Rentier Europäisches Waldrentier Gleithörnchen Eichhörnchen Hermelin Erdmaus Graurötelmaus Polarrötelmaus Sumpfmaus Mauswiesel Wolf Vielfrass

Birds English Blackcap Bluetail, Red-flanked Bluethroat Brambling Bullfinch Bunting, Lapland Bunting, Little Bunting, Reed Bunting, Rustic Bunting, Snow Buzzard, Rough-legged Capercaillie Chaffinch

Scientific Sylvia atricapilla Tarsiger cyanurus Luscinia svecica Fringilla montifringilla Pyrrhula pyrrhula Calcarius lapponicus Emberiza pusilla Emberiza schoeniclus Emberiza rustica Plectrophenax nivalis Buteo lagopus Tetrao urogallus Fringilla coelebs

German Mönchsgrasmücke Blauschwanz Blaukehlchen Bergfink Gimpel Spornammer Zwergammer Rohrammer Waldammer Schneeammer Rauhfussbussard Auerhuhn Buchfink

species list & translation

Ree Wasbeerhond Eland Poolvos Vos Sneeuwhaas Berglemming Boslemming Lynx Boommarter Huismuis Otter Rendier Bosrendier Vliegende eekhoorn Gewone eekhoorn Hermelijn Aardmuis Rosgrijze woelmuis Kleine rosse woelmuis Noordse woelmuis Wezel Wolf Veelvraat

Dutch Zwartkop Blauwstaart Blauwborst Keep Goudvink IJsgors Dwerggors Rietgors Bosgors Sneeuwgors Ruigpootbuizerd Auerhoen Vink

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218

Cormorant, Great Phalacrocorax carbo Crane Grus grus Crossbill Loxia curvirostra Crossbill, Parrot Loxia pytyopsittacus Crossbill, Two-barred Loxia leucoptera Crow, Hooded Corvus corone cornix Cuckoo Cuculus canorus Curlew Numenius arquata Dipper Cinclus cinclus Diver, Black-throated Gavia arctica Diver, Red-throated Gavia stellata Dotterel Charadrius morinellus Duck, Long-tailed Clangula hyemalis Duck, Tufted Aythya fuligula Dunlin Calidris alpina Dunnock Prunella modularis Eagle, Golden Aquila chrysaetos Eagle, White-tailed Haliaeetus albicilla Eider Somateria mollisima Eider, King Somateria spectabilis Eider, Steller’s Polysticta stelleri Fieldfare Turdus pilaris Flycatcher, Pied Ficedula hypoleuca Flycatcher, Spotted Muscicapa striata Gadwall Anas strepera Garganey Anas querquedula Godwit, Bar-tailed Limosa lapponica Goldcrest Regulus regulus Goldeneye Bucephala clangula Goosander Mergus merganser Goose, Bean Anser fabalis Goose, Lesser White-fronted Anser erythropus Goshawk Accipiter gentilis Grebe, Red-necked Podiceps grisegena Greenfinch Carduelis chloris Greenshank Tringa nebularia Grosbeak, Pine Pinicola enucleator Grouse, Black Tetrao tetrix Grouse, Hazel See Hazel Hen Grouse, Willow Lagopus lagopus

crossbill guides

Kormoran Kranich Fichtenkreuzschnabel Kiefernkreuzschnabel Bindenkreuzschnabel Nebelkrähe Kuckuck Grosser Brachvogel Wasseramsel Prachttaucher Sterntaucher Mornellregenpfeifer Eisente Reiherente Alpenstrandläufer Heckenbraunelle Steinadler Seeadler Eiderente Prachteiderente Scheckente Wacholderdrossel Trauerschnäpper Grauschnäpper Schnatterente Knäkente Pfuhlschnepfe Wintergoldhähnchen Schellente Gänsesäger Saatgans Zwerggans Habicht Rothalstaucher Grünling Grünschenkel Hakengimpel Birkhuhn

Aalscholver Kraanvogel Kruisbek Grote kruisbek Witbandkruisbek Bonte kraai Koekoek Wulp Waterspreeuw Parelduiker Roodkeelduiker Morinelplevier IJseend Kuifeend Bonte strandloper Heggenmus Steenarend Zeearend Eider Koningseider Steller’s eider Kramsvogel Bonte vliegenvanger Grauwe vliegenvanger Krakeend Zomertaling Rosse grutto Goudhaan Brilduiker Grote zaagbek Rietgans Dwerggans Havik Roodhalsfuut Groenling Groenpootruiter Haakbek Korhoen

Moorschneehuhn

Moerassneeuwhoen

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Gull, Black-headed Larus ridibundus Lachmöwe Gull, Common Larus canus Sturmmöwe Gull, Greater Black-backed Larus marinus Mantelmöwe Gull, Herring Larus argentatus Silbermöwe Gull, Lesser Black-backed Larus graellsii Heringsmöwe Gull, Little Larus minutus Zwergmöwe Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus Gerfalke Harrier, Hen Circus cyaneus Kornweihe Hen, Hazel Bonasa bonasia Haselhuhn Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus Wespenbussard Jay Garrulus glandarius Eichelhäher Jay, Siberian Perisoreus infaustus Unglückshäher Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Turmfalke Lapwing Vanellus vanellus Kiebitz Lark, Shore Eremophila alpestris Ohrenlerche Magpie Pica pica Elster Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Stockente Martin, House Delichon urbica Mehlschwalbe Martin, Sand Riparia riparia Uferschwalbe Merganser, Red-breasted Mergus serrator Mittelsäger Merlin Falco columbarius Merlin Osprey Pandion haliaetus Fischadler Ouzel, Ring Turdus torquatus Ringdrossel Owl, Boreal See Tengmalm’s owl Owl, Eagle Bubo bubo Uhu Owl, Great Grey Strix nebulosa Bartkauz Owl, Hawk Surnia ulula Sperbereule Owl, Pygmy Glaucidium passerinum Sperlingskauz Owl, Short-eared Asio flammeus Sumpfohreule Owl, Snowy Bubo scandiacus Schnee-Eule Owl, Tengmalm’s Aegolius funereus Rauhfusskauz Owl, Ural Strix uralensis Habichtskauz Peregrine Falco peregrinus Wanderfalke Phalarope, Red-necked Phalaropus lobatus Odinshühnchen Pigeon, Feral Columba livia f. domestica Stadttaube Pigeon, Wood Columba palumbus Ringeltaube Pintail Anas acuta Spiessente Pipit, Meadow Anthus pratensis Wiesenpieper Pipit, Red-throated Anthus cervinus Rotkehlpieper Pipit, Tree Anthus trivialis Baumpieper

species list & translation

Kokmeeuw Stormmeeuw Grote mantelmeeuw Zilvermeeuw Kleine mantelmeeuw Dwergmeeuw Giervalk Blauwe kiekendief Hazelhoen Wespendief Gaai Taigagaai Torenvalk Kievit Strandleeuwerik Ekster Wilde eend Huiszwaluw Oeverzwaluw Middelste zaagbek Smelleken Visarend Beflijster Oehoe Laplanduil Sperweruil Dwerguil Velduil Sneeuwuil Ruigpootuil Oeraluil Slechtvalk Grauwe franjepoot Stadsduif Houtduif Pijlstaart Graspieper Roodkeelpieper Boompieper

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Plover, Golden Plover, Ringed Ptarmigan Raven Redpoll Redpoll, Arctic Redshank Redshank, Spotted Redstart, Common Redwing Robin Rosefinch, Common Ruff Sandpiper, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Common Sandpiper, Green Sandpiper, Wood Scaup Scoter, Common Scoter, Velvet Shoveler Shrike, Great Grey Siskin Skua, Long-tailed Skylark Smew Snipe Snipe, Jack Sparrow, House Sparrowhawk Stint, Temminck’s Swallow, Barn Swan, Whooper Swift, Common Teal Tern, Arctic Tern, Common Thrush, Mistle Thrush, Song Tit, Blue

Pluvialis apricaria Charadrius hiaticula Lagopus mutus Corvus corax Carduelis flammea s.l. Carduelis hornemanni Tringa totanus Tringa erythropus Phoenicurus phoenicurus Turdus iliacus Erithacus rubecula Carpodacus erythrinus Philomachus pugnax Limicola falcinellus Actitis hypoleucos Tringa ochropus Tringa glareola Aythya marila Melanitta nigra Melanitta fusca Anas clypeata Lanius excubitor Carduelis spinus Stercorarius longicaudus Alauda arvensis Mergus albellus Gallinago gallinago Lymnocryptes minimus Passer domesticus Accipiter nisus Calidris temminckii Hirundo rustica Cygnus cygnus Apus apus Anas crecca Sterna paradisaea Sterna hirundo Turdus viscivorus Turdus philomelos Parus caerulus

crossbill guides

Goldregenpfeifer Sandregenpfeifer Alpenschneehuhn Kolkrabe Birkenzeisig Polarbirkenzeisig Rotschenkel Dunkler Wasserläufer Gartenrotschwanz Rotdrossel Rotkehlchen Karmingimpel Kampfläufer Sumpfläufer Flussuferläufer Waldwasserläufer Bruchwasserläufer Bergente Trauerente Samtente Löffelente Raubwürger Erlenzeisig Falkenraubmöwe Feldlerche Zwergsäger Bekassine Zwergschnepfe Haussperling Sperber Temminckstrandläufer Rauchschwalbe Singschwan Mauersegler Krickente Küstenseeschwalbe Flussseeschwalbe Misteldrossel Singdrossel Blaumeise

Goudplevier Bontbekplevier Alpensneeuwhoen Raaf Barmsijs Witstuitbarmsijs Tureluur Zwarte ruiter Gekraagde roodstaart Koperwiek Roodborst Roodmus Kemphaan Breedbekstrandloper Oeverloper Witgat Bosruiter Topper Zwarte zeeeend Grote zeeeend Slobeend Klapekster Sijs Kleinste jager Veldleeuwerik Nonnetje Watersnip Bokje Huismus Sperwer Temmincks strandloper Boerenzwaluw Wilde zwaan Gierzwaluw Wintertaling Noordse stern Visdief Grote lijster Zanglijster Pimpelmees

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Tit, Coal Parus ater Tannenmeise Tit, Crested Parus cristatus Haubenmeise Tit, Great Parus major Kohlmeise Tit, Siberian Parus cinctus Lapplandmeise Tit, Willow Parus montanus Weidenmeise Treecreeper, Eurasian Certhia familiaris Waldbaumläufer Wagtail, Grey Motacilla cinerea Gebirgsstelze Wagtail, Grey-headed (Yellow) Motacilla (flava) thunbergi Schafstelze Wagtail, White Motacilla alba Bachstelze Warbler, Arctic Phylloscopus borealis Wanderlaubsänger Warbler, Blyth Reed Acrocephalus dumetorum Buschrohrsänger Warbler, Booted Hippolais caligata Buschspötter Warbler, Garden Sylvia borin Gartengrasmücke Warbler, Greenish Phylloscopus trochiloides Grünlaubsänger Warbler, Sedge Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Schilfrohrsänger Warbler, Willow Phylloscopus trochilus Fitis Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus Seidenschwanz Wheatear, Northern Oenanthe oenanthe Steinschmätzer Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Regenbrachvogel Wigeon Anas penelope Pfeifente Woodpecker, Black Dryocopus martius Schwarzspecht Woodpecker, Great Spotted Dendrocopos major Buntspecht Woodpecker, Lesser Spotted Dendrocopos minor Kleinspecht Woodpecker, Three-toed Picoides tridactylus Dreizehenspecht Wren Troglodytes troglodytes Zaunkönig Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella Goldammer

Zwarte mees Kuifmees Koolmees Bruinkopmees Matkop Taigaboomkruiper Grote gele kwikstaart Gele kwikstaart Witte kwikstaart Noordse boszanger Struikrietzanger Kleine spotvogel Tuinfluiter Grauwe fitis Rietzanger Fitis Pestvogel Tapuit Regenwulp Smient Zwarte specht Grote bonte specht Kleine bonte specht Drieteenspecht Winterkoning Geelgors

Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish

English Adder Frog, Grass Frog, Moor Lizard, Viviparous Stickleback Toad, Common Trout

Scientific Vipera berus Rana temporaria Rana arvalis Lacerta viviparia Gasterosteidae Bufo bufo Salmo trutta

German Kreuzotter Grasfrosch Moorfrosch Bergeidechse Stichling Erdkröte Forelle

Insects English Ants, Wood

Scientific Formica sp.

German Waldameisen

species list & translation

Dutch Adder Bruine kikker Heikikker Levendbarende hagedis Stekelbaars Gewone pad Forel

Dutch Bosmieren

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Argus, Geranium Eumedonia eumedon Storchschnabel-Bläuling Zwart blauwtje Blackfly Simuliidae Kriebelmücken Kriebelmuggen Blue, Arctic Plebejus aquilo Arktischer Bläuling Arctisch manschildblauwtje Blue, Common Polyommatus icarus Hauhechel-Bläuling Icarusblauwtje Blue, Cranberry Plebejus optilete Hochmoor-Bläuling Veenbesblauwtje Blue, Holly Celastrina argiolus Faulbaum-Bläuling Boomblauwtje Blue, Idas Plebejus idas Ginster-Bläuling Vals heideblauwtje Bluet, Arctic Coenagrion johanssoni Nordische Azurjungfer Noordse waterjuffer Bluet, Common Enallagma cyathigerum Gemeine Becherjungfer Watersnuffel Bluet, Crescent Coenagrion lunulatum Mond-Azurjungfer Maanwaterjuffer Bluet, Dark Coenagrion armatum Hauben-Azurjungfer Donkere waterjuffer Bluet, Spearhead Coenagrion hastulatum Speer-Azurjungfer Speerwaterjuffer Brimstone Gonepteryx rhamni Zitronenfalter Citroentje Brown, Arran Erebia ligea Weissbindiger Mohrenfalter Boserebia Brown, Northern Wall Lasiommata petropolitana Braunscheckauge Kleine rotsvlinder Chaser, Four-spotted Libellula quadrimaculata Vierfleck Viervlek Comma Nymphalis c-album C-Falter Gehakkelde aurelia Damsel, Large Red Pyrrhosoma nymphula Frühe Adonisjungfer Vuurjuffer Darter, Black Sympetrum danae Schwarze Heidelibelle Zwarte heidelibel Demoiselle, Beautiful Calopteryx virgo Blauflügel-Prachtlibelle Bosbeekjuffer Emerald, Alpine Somatochlora alpestris Alpen-Smaragdlibelle Taigaglanslibel Emerald, Brilliant Somatochlora metallica Glänzende Smaragdlibelle Metaalglanslibel Emerald, Downy Cordulia aenea Gemeine Smaragdlibelle Smaragdlibel Emerald, Northern Somatochlora arctica Arktische Smaragdlibelle Hoogveenglanslibel Emerald, Treeline Somatochlora sahlbergi Polar-Smaragdlibelle Toendraglanslibel Fritillary, Arctic Boloria chariclea Arktischer Perlmuttfalter Arctische parelmoer vlinder Fritillary, Bog Boloria eunomia Randring-Perlmutterfalter Ringoogparelmoervlinder Fritillary, Cranberry Boloria aquilionaris Hochmoor-Perlmutterfalter Veenbesparelmoervlinder Fritillary, Dark Green Argynnis aglaja Grosser Perlmutterfalter Grote parelmoervlinder Fritillary, Dusky-winged Boloria improba Dunkeler Perlmutterfalter* Donkere parelmoervlinder Fritillary, Freyja’s Boloria freija Freija-Perlmutterfalter Freija’s parelmoervlinder Fritillary, Frigga Boloria frigga Frigga-Perlmutterfalter* Frigga’s parelmoervlinder Fritillary, Lapland Euphydryas iduna Lappland-Scheckenfalter Geelbonte parelmoer vlinder Fritillary, Mountain Boloria napaea Ähnlicher Perlmutterfalter Bergparelmoervlinder Fritillary, Pearl-bordered Boloria euphrosyne Frühlings-Perlmuttfalter Zilvervlek Fritillary, Polar Boloria polaris Polar-Perlmutterfalter* Poolparelmoervlinder Fritillary, Boloria selene Braunfleckiger Perlmutter- Zilveren maan Small Pearl-bordered falter

crossbill guides

finnish lapland including kuusamo


Fritillary, Thor’s Boloria thore Alpen-Perlmutterfalter Thor’s parelmoervlinder Grasshopper, Forest Podisma pedestris Gewöhnliche Gebirgsschrecke Bergsprinkhaan Grasshopper, Mountain Melanoplus frigidus Nordische Gebirgsschrecke Noordelijke bergsprinkhaan Grasshopper, Chorthippus montanus Sumpfgrashüpfer Zompsprinkhaan Water-meadow Grayling, Arctic Oeneis bore Arktischer Samtfalter Pooltoendravlinder Grayling, Baltic Oeneis jutta Baltischer Samtfalter Baltische toendravlinder Grayling, Norse Oeneis norna Nordischer Samtfalter* Noordse toendravlinder Groundhopper, Two-spotted Tetrix bipunctata Zweipunkt-Dornschrecke Bosdoorntje Hawker, Azure Aeshna caerulea Alpen-Mosaikjungfer Azuurglazenmaker Hawker, Bog Aeshna subarctica Hochmoor-Mosaikjungfer Noordse glazenmaker Hawker, Moorland Aeshna juncea Torf-Mosaikjungfer Venglazenmaker Heath, Large Coenonympha tulia Grosser Heufalter Veenhooibeestje Horsefly Tabanidae Bremsen Dazen Mayflies Ephemeroptera Eintagsfliegen Eendagsvliegen / Haften Midge Ceratopogonidae Gnitz Knut Mosquito Culicidae Stechmücken Steekmuggen Moth, Autumnal Epirrita autumnata Birken-Moorwald- Novemberspanner Herbstspanner Red-eye, Large Erythromma najas Grosses Granatauge Grote roodoogjuffer Ringlet, Arctic Erebia disa Nordischer Mohrenfalter* Noordse erebia Ringlet, Arctic Woodland Erebia polaris Polar-Mohrenfalter* Poolerebia Ringlet, Dewy Erebia pandrose Graubrauner Mohrenfalter Gewone dauwerebia Ringlet, Lapland Erebia embla Lappland-Mohrenfalter Siberische erebia Skipper, Alpine Grizzled Pyrgus andromedae Alpen-Würfel-Dickkopffalter Bergspikkeldikkopje Skipper, Checkered Carterocephalus palaemon Gelbwürfeliger Dickkopffalter Bont dikkopje Skipper, Grizzled Pyrgus malvae Kleiner Würfel-Dickkopffalter Aardbeivlinder Skipper, Northern Grizzled Pyrgus centaureae Nordlicher Würfel- Noords spikkeldikkopje Dickkopffalter* Spreadwing, Common Lestes sponsa Gemeine Binsenjungfer Gewone pantserjuffer Spreadwing, Robust Lestes dryas Glänzende Binsenjungfer Tangpantserjuffer White, Peak Pontia callidice Alpen-Weissling Bergresedawitje White, Small Pieris rapae Kleiner Kohlweissling Klein koolwitje Whiteface, Ruby Leucorrhinia rubicunda Nordische Moosjungfer Noordse witsnuitlibel Whiteface, Small Leucorrhinia dubia Kleine Moosjungfer Venwitsnuitlibel Yellow, Moorland Clouded Colias paleano Hochmoorgelbling Veenluzernevlinder Yellow, Northern Clouded Colias hecla Skandinavischer Gelbling Noordse luzernevlinder Yellow, Pale Arctic Clouded Colias tyche Polar-Gelbling* Vale luzernevlinder

species list & translation

223


crossbill guides foundation Finnish Lapland is one of the last great wildernesses of Europe. Huge expanses of silent coniferous forests, impenetrable bogs and vast open fells comprise the awe-inspiring landscape of Lapland. It is a paradise for hikers and adventurers who wish to experience nature in the raw. This Lapland wilderness is by no means empty, though. Many sought-after bird species enliven the forests, fells and peatlands, making Finnish Lapland a paradise for European birdwatchers. The collection of rare wildflowers, dragonflies and butterflies and the presence of large predators like Wolf and Brown Bear confirms Finnish Lapland as a must-see destination for nature lovers. This nature guide is part of the Crossbill Guides series for nature enthusiasts. The Crossbill Guides combine interesting and insightful accounts with up-to-date and practical tourist information and tips on observing wildlife. Detailed descriptions of hiking trails are conveniently linked to information on everything you want to know about the wheres, whats, and whys of the splendid nature of Finnish Lapland.

ISBN 9789050113373

9

789050 113373

Finnish Lapland - Including Kuusamo | www.crossbillguides.org  

Finnish Lapland is one of the last great wildernesses of Europe. Huge expanses of silent coniferous forests, impenetrable bogs and vast open...

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