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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Table of Contents Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................. 3 Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 4 1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Background ................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Description of the study area ........................................................................................................ 5 1.3 Location map ................................................................................................................................ 6 1.4 Little Penguin Life Cycle and Habitat Use .................................................................................... 6 2 Survey Methodology ............................................................................................................................ 8 2.1 Background Research .................................................................................................................. 8 2.2 Vegetation Survey and Little Penguin Habitat Assessment ......................................................... 8 2.3 Limitations ..................................................................................................................................... 8 3 Site Assessment ................................................................................................................................. 9 3.1 Vegetation Communities............................................................................................................... 9 3.1.1 Acacia longifolia coastal scrub .............................................................................................. 9 3.1.2 Coastal Scrub ........................................................................................................................ 9 3.1.2 Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland ............................................................................. 10 3.2 Little Penguin Habitat .................................................................................................................. 11 3.3 Plant Species of Conservation Significance ............................................................................... 13 3.4 Fauna Species of Conservation Significance ............................................................................. 13 3.5 Weed invasions .......................................................................................................................... 13 4 Threats to Little Penguin Habitat and Management Recommendations ........................................... 14 4.1 Maintenance of good condition vegetation ................................................................................. 14 4.2 Native vegetation loss and degradation ..................................................................................... 14 4.3 Access tracks and recreational use ............................................................................................ 15 4.4 Dog and cat control ..................................................................................................................... 16 4.5 Weeds ......................................................................................................................................... 18 4.6 Erosion ........................................................................................................................................ 19 4.7 Encroachment on to Public Reserve .......................................................................................... 19 4.8 Rubbish tipping (including garden refuse) and litter ................................................................... 20 4.9 Dieback ....................................................................................................................................... 20 4.10 Tree removal and pruning......................................................................................................... 20 4.11 Fire risk ..................................................................................................................................... 21 4.12 Water Quality ............................................................................................................................ 21 4.13 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise ........................................................................................ 21 4.14 Works in Little Penguin colonies ............................................................................................... 22 5 Management Zones and Actions ....................................................................................................... 24 5.1 Management zones .................................................................................................................... 24 5.2 Management Actions Common to all Zones............................................................................... 24 5.2.1 Community involvement ...................................................................................................... 24 5.2.2 Dog control .......................................................................................................................... 25 5.2.3 Track closure ....................................................................................................................... 25 5.2.4 Weed control ....................................................................................................................... 25 5.2.5 Revegetation ....................................................................................................................... 27 5.2.6 Control of rubbish dumping ................................................................................................. 29 5.2.6 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................ 29 5.3 Summary of Management Zone On Ground Priority Actions ..................................................... 31 Priority Actions .................................................................................................................................. 31 5.4 Management Zone 1 West Ulverstone Beach ............................................................................ 32 Actions Zone 1 West Ulverstone Beach ....................................................................................... 33 5.5 Management Zone 2 Caravan Park (north) Picnic Point ............................................................ 34 Actions Zone 2 Caravan Park (north) at Picnic Point ................................................................... 35 5.6 Management Zone 3 Black Gum remnant Picnic Point hill ........................................................ 36 Actions Zone 3 Black Gum remnant Picnic Point hill ................................................................... 36 5.7 Management Zone 4 Caravan Park (south) Picnic Point Beach ................................................ 37 Actions Zone 4 Caravan Park (south) Picnic Point Beach ........................................................... 37 5.8 Management Zone 5 Recreation Area ....................................................................................... 38 Actions Zone 5.............................................................................................................................. 38


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.5 Management Zone 6 Tennis Court Bush .................................................................................... 39 Actions Zone 6.............................................................................................................................. 39 6 References ......................................................................................................................................... 40 7 Appendices ........................................................................................................................................ 42 Appendix 1 Plants found at West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve, Ulverstone .................................... 42 Appendix 2 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. ............................................. 44 Appendix 3 Threatened fauna known or possible on site ................................................................. 45 Appendix 4 Some native species that resemble weeds ................................................................... 46 Appendix 5 Weed control recommendations .................................................................................... 47

Acknowledgements Bushways thanks the following people who provided assistance or were consulted in the preparation of this report: Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM; Mark Fordham, Parks and Wildlife Service; Haylee Anderson, Central Coast Council; Perviz Marker, Penguin Monitoring Group; Drew Lee, DPIW; Alex Buchanan, Tasmania Herbarium; Fred van den Enden, Central Coast Council; Scott Livingston; Raelee Turner.

Mapping data in this draft has been taken from the TASMAP Series, DPIW Natural Values Atlas, The List, TASVEG, Cadastral data supplied by Central Coast Council and field work conducted by Bushways.

Authors Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania 175 Glenford Farm Rd, Underwood, TAS 7268. Email: bushways@intas.net.au Ph: 6395 4429, Mobile: 0429 197 671

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Summary Cradle Coast NRM engaged Bushways Environmental Services - Tasmania to provide a draft management plan for Little Penguin habitat at West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve in northern Tasmania. The West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve, managed by Central Coast Council and Parks and Wildlife, is a narrow strip of land between the Three Sisters-Goat Island Coastal reserve and the township of Ulverstone. Field surveys were conducted on 3rd and 26th March 2009 by Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan, of Bushways. The coastal reserve vegetation is Coastal Scrub (TASVEG code SSC), Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG Code SAC) and Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland (TASVEG Code DOV). There is evidence that Little Penguins use most or all of the study area as habitat. Many threats to penguin habitat were identified during the survey and from discussion with local people and experts. Dog control is a major issue for the protection of Little Penguins. Other issues include loss and fragmentation of native vegetation due to multiple factors such as high numbers of informal tracks through the habitat area, weed invasions, erosion, clearing and encroachment of land use onto the reserve, tree removal and pruning of vegetation, and fire damage. Further threats to habitat condition here were identified as littering, dieback, potential predation by cats, water quality issues and climate change and sea level rise. Works of any kind in Little Penguin habitat may be disturbing unless implemented strategically with respect for the penguins’ life cycle and seasonal stage. Management recommendations are made according to current knowledge regarding penguin behaviour and include proposing further dog restrictions than currently exist, track rationalisation, weed control and revegetation, monitoring and community involvement and liaison with stakeholders. Management zones have been defined based on environmental characteristics, habitat condition, habitat recovery potential and the actions required to improve penguin habitat. Actions recommended to be carried out in all zones include: modification of the present dog control regimes, the closure of all informal tracks, weed control, revegetation, controlling rubbish dumping, stimulating community involvement and carrying out monitoring programs. •

• • • • •

Management zone 1 covers the area along West Ulverstone Beach. The priority actions required this zone are to close all informal tracks, control the weeds, increase dog control and signage, revegetation, storm water management, and a continuation of the Sea Spurge control. Management zone 2 covers the Caravan Park area at Picnic Point. The priority actions in this zone are to restore the coastal reserve vegetation, control water quality, close all informal tracks, and install interpretation signage. Management zone 3 covers the hill south of Picnic Point. In this zone the priority actions are to control the prolific weeds, close all informal tracks, increase dog control and signage, clean up and control litter. Management zone 4 covers the vegetation between the Caravan Park and Picnic Point Beach. The priority actions in this zone include weed control, closing illegal vehicle access and designating one formal walking access. Management zone 5 covers the recreational area next to Picnic Point Beach. In this zone the priority actions are to control the weeds and revegetate in burnt areas, install educational signage, and increase dog control and signage. Management zone 6 covers an area of between the tennis courts and Picnic Point Beach. The priority actions in this zone are weed control, regeneration, some revegetation, and to increase dog control and signage.

While the present threats to Little Penguins in this reserve are significant, a concerted effort from all stakeholders, by implementing the actions detailed in this management plan will hopefully ensure that this penguin population has every chance of being preserved and maintained into the future.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

1. Introduction 1.1 Background Cradle Coast NRM1 engaged Bushways Environmental Services - Tasmania to provide a management plan for Little Penguin habitat at West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve in North WestTasmania. The West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve, managed by Central Coast Council, Crown Land Services and Parks and Wildlife, is a narrow strip of crown land between the Three SistersGoat Island Nature Reserve and the township of Ulverstone. This management plan identifies threats and sensitive areas to the Little Penguin colony and provides management recommendations that address these issues and zoned work plans based on a broad vegetation assessment of the coastal reserve. The plan refers to Guidelines for Works in Areas of Little Penguin Habitat (Marker and Wind revised 2008) and the Guide to Rehabilitation by Drew Lee, Marine Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries and Water. It is prepared with reference to the Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants (Lawrence, 2004), and in liaison with specified stakeholders.

1.2 Description of the study area The West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve is located at Ulverstone on the North West coast of Tasmania, between the Three Sisters - Goat Island Nature Reserve and the township of Ulverstone. Most of the study area is vegetated with native coastal scrub fronting West Ulverstone Beach and Picnic Point Beach. A Caravan Park, tennis court and picnic area is situated within the study area with some paved walkways, viewing platforms and formal beach accesses. A residential area, railway line and roads border the reserve on the southern side. The area has a northerly aspect and the Leven River enters Bass Straight at the eastern end of the reserve. The area can be found on the Ulverstone TASMAP 1:25000 map sheet no: 4244. This area is in the Northern Slopes bioregion. It is an important recreational area for swimming, walking, fishing and boating and has high scenic values for residents and visitors. As the north coast of Tasmania is a popular tourist destination, it must be acknowledged that this area has significance for locals, national and international visitors. A location map of the area is overleaf.

1

Cradle Coast NRM operates as a business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

1.3 Location map

1.4 Little Penguin Life Cycle and Habitat Use Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are the smallest penguins in the world and, fortunately, a considerable number of their colonies exist along the North West, North, East and South coasts of Tasmania (Watts 1999, Marker and Wind 2003). Little Penguin colonies occupy a wide variety of habitats including rock crevices, deep burrows or simply scrapes in the sand, beneath a dense vegetation canopy. Their habitat often extends from near the coast line, to over 100 metres above sea level (a.s.l.), and many colonies occupy the offshore islands of Tasmania (Pemberton et al. 2001). Fig 2 Little Penguin (photo by Anna Wind)

Little Penguin habitat generally occurs in coastal vegetation dominated by native plant species such as Boobyalla (Myoporum insulare), Coastal wattle (Acacia longiflora subsp. sophorae), Bower Spinach (Tetragonia tetragonoides), Coastal saltbush (Rhagodia candolleana) and Native fuchsia (Correa alba and C. backhouseana). Nevertheless, Little Penguins have regularly been recorded utilising habitat dominated by introduced species such as African boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum), Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), Mirror bush (Coprosma repens), and Cape ivy (Delairea odorata). Hence, weed management in Little Penguin colonies must allow for this, as Little Penguins may make use of any suitable habitat whether it is dominated by weeds or native plants (Marker and Wind 2003).

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Adult birds may be present in a colony at any time throughout the year, although their numbers generally fluctuate in response to various stages of their life cycle. Pairs of birds breed annually and a clutch of two eggs may be laid as early as May, or as late as November. Male penguins return to the colony to renovate or dig their burrows between May and August, and as the female birds return, mates are chosen through noisy male courting displays. While Little Penguins select a single mate, they may not remain paired for life. An adult pair share incubation shifts of one-two days and hatching usually takes place within 3337 days. At five weeks old the chicks are left unguarded by parents and at night can be seen outside burrows waiting to be fed. At an age of seven to eight weeks the chicks are ready to take to the sea where they will mature and then return to their original colony to begin breeding as young two year old birds. Once chick rearing is complete adult birds return to the sea to feed for about 15 -21 days before returning to commence moulting. Moulting takes place between February and April and can take up to 15 days to shed the old feathers and grow their replacements. During this time the penguins remain entirely in their burrows or on land, living off their food reserves (Marker and Wind 2003). Fig 3 Little Penguins moulting (photo by Anna Wind)

Little penguins are most susceptible to human disturbance during the chick raising and moulting periods. Furthermore, survey results have indicated that breeding in the colonies can be quite variable, reflecting variations in seasonal conditions and food supply. Hence, there is often only a small window of opportunity to undertake works such as revegetation, weeding and construction in little penguin colonies.

Fig 4 Penguin Life Cycle Calendar

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

2 Survey Methodology 2.1 Background Research An initial site visit was conducted on 3rd March 2008 with Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan (Bushways), Mark Fordham, PWS, Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM and Haylee Anderson, Central Coast Council, and management issues were identified. A Natural Values Report was conducted through the Natural Values Atlas (DPIW) in March 2008 for all threatened flora and fauna records within 5 kilometres of the site, as well as TASVEG communities. “Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook” (Bryant & Jackson 1999) was used to identify any other threatened fauna found within the area of the Ulverstone mapsheet 4244.

2.2 Vegetation Survey and Little Penguin Habitat Assessment Field surveys were conducted on 3rd and 26th March 2009 by Helen and Sam Morgan. Vegetation communities and flora species, including weeds, and the general condition of the vegetation were identified. Evidence of Little Penguins including burrows, feathers, tunnels, tracks, carcasses and scats, were noted during the course of the survey. Issues arising from recreational use and other threats to vegetation and Little Penguin habitat were noted. Particular attention was paid to the apparent areas of Little Penguin habitat and the type and distribution of impacts including weeds, dog and cat control, informal tracks, vehicular access, erosion and loss of native vegetation. Ecological vegetation communities were ground truthed and described according to TASVEG Version 1.0 classifications (Harris & Kitchener 2005). All botanical names are in accordance with the recently updated “A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania” (Buchanan, 2008). Specimens of native flora were taken for the purpose of identification in accordance with Permit No. TFL 09005 (Threatened Species Unit). Locations were recorded with a handheld GPS, using datum WGS84 (equivalent to GDA94). 2.3 Limitations Determining burrow or population density of the Little Penguin colony on this site is beyond the scope of this project. However, once knowledge and data pertaining to these is available it may be necessary to review the management aims and recommendations made in this document to ensure best possible outcomes for the penguins. A survey of this type can be expected to identify the vegetation communities and most vascular plant species. However any sampling technique is limited in what can be recorded during one or two visits. Some species vary in abundance from year to year. In particular many orchids emerge in different seasons or sporadically under conditions as yet poorly understood. Bryophytes and lichens were not surveyed. No threatened lower plants were recorded on the Natural Values Atlas as occurring within 5 km. A full fauna survey was not carried out.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

3 Site Assessment 3.1 Vegetation Communities The coastal reserve vegetation has been classified by TASVEG as Coastal Scrub (TASVEG code SSC) and Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG Code SAC). This was found to be accurate with Coastal Scrub occurring along West Ulverstone Beach and Acacia longifolia coastal scrub along Picnic Point Beach at the eastern end of the site. An additional community of Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland (TASVEG Code DOV) is at Picnic Point, situated on higher ground, behind the Caravan Park. The native plant species found across the site are listed in Appendix 1, with introduced plants listed in Appendix 2. The vegetation communities are described in summary here. 3.1.1 Acacia longifolia coastal scrub Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG Code SAC) extends along the Picnic Beach dunes from Picnic Point to the mouth of the River Leven and is dominated by dense Coast Wattle, 2-3 metres tall. Plant diversity is low with Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach (Ice Plant) providing most of the ground cover climbing over logs, stumps, dunes and low branches of shrubs in many places to form an understorey canopy that provides habitat for penguins. Along the foredune is an almost continuous swathe of introduced Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass, Sea Spurge and occasional Sea Rocket with a few patches of Blackberry, most often near access tracks. There are distinct areas of disturbance from fire, weeds and spraying of native plants (possibly mistaken) in the scrub around the tennis court and the recreation area. Fire has had a considerable impact in places, leaving areas devoid of vegetation, open to erosion and weed invasion, which is occurring. Mirror Bush, Cape Ivy, and Cotoneaster are the main weeds here, but there are many more weed species in this community and some with high invasive potential (see 3.5 Weeds). The scrub near the tennis courts is in good condition, being a larger patch of bush with fewer weeds, fewer tracks and generally less disturbance than the scrub in the recreation area that has been more impacted by illegal burns, subsequent weed invasion and edge effects. Towards the Caravan Park weed invasion increases and the condition of the native scrub declines. The scrub between the southern end of the Caravan Park and the beach has several informal tracks for beach access but otherwise is in fair condition. At Picnic Point where the rocky headland changes the topography and drainage Boobyalla becomes evident as a codominant in the Coastal Reserve vegetation which grades in to Coastal Scrub. Here, at the northern end of the Caravan Park, many tracks access the beach and the vegetation is reduced to a narrow strip or is non – existent in places.

3.1.2 Coastal Scrub The West Ulverstone Beach habitat is an almost continuous tract of Coastal Scrub (TASVEG code SSC) (See Figure 1 front cover). Predominantly native, it is narrower at the Goat Island end (2m width) than the eastern end near Josephine and Amy Streets (>12m width).

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Boobyalla and Coast Wattle dominate the Coastal Scrub here, with other native shrubs including White Correa and Coast Beardheath. Other prevalent native species include Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach that provide good understorey cover and penguin habitat throughout. There were some small areas of good condition native vegetation, (i.e. no weeds, burnt areas or informal tracks), but a high number of informal tracks occur regularly through the vegetation from the road to the beach with associated erosion, burnt areas, weed invasion and gaps in the canopy. These areas are vulnerable to sand blows and further loss native vegetation and weed invasion. The shrubs are interspersed with scattered weeds, the most dominant weed being Mirror Bush throughout most of this area, which provides canopy and habitat for penguins as many are mature bushes. Other weeds include a dense patch of Aeonium sp. on the fore and mid-dunes, and Pelargonium sp., Cotoneaster, Briar Rose and Deadly Nightshade closer to the railway line. Sea Rocket occurs along the foredune with Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass and Sea Spurge (currently being controlled here and mostly evident as seedlings). The gradient from the dunes to the beach is steeper here than at Picnic Point Beach. Storm erosion was clearly a feature on the foredune with evidence of active sediment removal and replacement. Vegetation loss and recolonisation are occurring here and it is a dynamic zone for penguins to inhabit. Storm and track erosion combine in places resulting in significantly more disturbance. Exposed roots and fallen trunks of some quite large shrubs are evident on the steep foredunes. 3.1.2 Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland Eucalyptus ovata (Black Gum) forest and woodland (TASVEG Code DOV) is listed as a threatened vegetation community (DPIW 2005). A remnant of Black Gum forest (1.4 ha) occurs on the hill behind Picnic Point, adjoining the Caravan Park. Mature Black gums are dominant with some White Gum and Stringy Bark. The understorey is diverse containing Coast Paperbark, Coast Beardheath, Coast Wattle, Banksia, Sagg, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach with regenerating Black Gums. This community is extremely weedy here, containing many invasive weeds that pose a significant threat to the health of the Coastal Reserve vegetation.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

3.2 Little Penguin Habitat Little Penguins nest in burrows in banks above the high tide mark, under vegetation and in rocky crevices (pers com. Perviz Marker). Here the habitat is mostly sandy or vegetative with some rocky habitat at Picnic Point. There is evidence that Little Penguin’s use most or all of the study area as habitat. Tunnels and burrows were found in Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach throughout the site and it is likely that this type of low, dense, understorey cover is preferred habitat. Tracks were found on the beach from the water to the vegetation, tunnels and runways are visible through the vegetation, scats were seen on the beach and footpaths, while feathers and nests were found randomly throughout the site. Two carcasses were found at the western end, one on the railway track and one in the dunes.

Fig 5 left Moulted feathers in a burrow at West Ulverstone Beach and below Fig 6 burrows below Bower Spinach near the Tennis Courts.

Fig 7 Scats on foredune rocks

Fig 8 (right) Scats on the footpath Fig 9 (below) runways leading into Coast Wattle Scrub.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Penguin habitat at West Ulverstone Beach is a continuous tract of vegetation (see Fig 1 front cover). This is under threat from multiple tracks that will cause fragmentation with continued use. The vegetation here provides good understorey and canopy cover for penguin nesting. The structure and cover provided by Boobyalla, Coast Wattle, Bower Spinach, Coastal Saltbush, seems ideal for penguin habitat in which they can tunnel and nest throughout. It is likely that the most prevalent woody weed, Mirror Bush, is also important for habitat here. Other woody weeds are established here and are likely to be contributing to dune stabilisation and shelter for penguins. This habitat area is under threat from erosion and sea level rise as it is narrow and confined by the railway line and the road. A penguin fence has been installed between the vegetation and the railway line at West Ulverstone Beach to prevent penguin deaths on the road and railway line. However, parts of the fence have been taken or damaged between Amy St and Westland Drive. Fig 10 Penguin fence, in need of repair.

From Picnic Point to the Leven River mouth penguin habitat is more fragmented and impacted by land use and associated disturbances. The vegetation at Picnic Point, in the caravan park, dominated by Coast Wattle and Boobyalla, is very narrow and habitat here is fragmented. This area however, has the potential to be important for penguin habitat in the future as it is higher ground than the surrounding habitat and, as it is rocky, has some protection from erosion. According to one caravan owner, penguins may be seen at night crossing the caravan park on their way to nest in the Black Gum area on the hill. This bush is degraded by multiple tracks, litter and weeds. Fig 11 Penguins cross the caravan park here to access the bush behind the vans.

The Coastal Scrub habitat between the Caravan Park southern section and Picnic Point Beach is in quite good condition with a width of 12-15 m in places, dense native vegetation and few weeds. However, a dense swathe of Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass and Sea Spurge runs for most of the length of Picnic Point Beach fringing the coastal reserve habitat area. Penguins are likely to be navigating this as they evidently use the footpaths in the Recreation Area to access habitat in the reserve backing on to gardens. They are also known to cross the road and open mown grass areas to bush patches opposite the Recreation Area. Penguin habitat in the Recreation Area has been degraded by fire and presently weeds such as Cape Ivy, Cotoneaster, Mirror Bush and Blackberry are invading this area. These weeds have the potential to become more significant as future penguin habitat if they are allowed to remain. Rabbits were seen here in and out of the scrub. Natural regeneration is occurring here now and revegetation is planned to assist restoration. Many threats to penguin habitat were identified during the survey and in discussion with local people and experts. These are discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. 12


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

3.3 Plant Species of Conservation Significance No threatened flora species were found on site. Threatened flora species that were recorded as occurring in the vicinity are listed in Appendix 2. Some threatened plants, especially orchids, may not have been visible at the time of the surveys.

3.4 Fauna Species of Conservation Significance Little Penguins are not listed as threatened but are considered of high conservation significance. Threatened fauna species that were recorded as occurring in the vicinity are listed in Appendix 3. 3.5 Weed invasions Weeds were noted throughout the site during the survey, (see Appendix 2 Weed List) and those recorded are mapped in the management zones (see Section 5). Many weeds on site are integrated with the vegetation in such a way that they are important for Little Penguin habitat either by providing shelter and refuge from predators or nesting sites beneath foliage and roots. Weeds are also playing a role in controlling erosion in places. There are many weed sources nearby including house and caravan gardens, the railwayroad plantings, and the very weedy understorey in the Black Gum remnant on Picnic Point hill. The most established woody weeds in the penguin habitat areas include Mirror Bush, Blackberry, Cape Ivy, Cotoneaster and Hawthorn. Other weeds that presently exist in smaller numbers but have high invasive potential include; Sweet Pittosporum, Boneseed, Spanish heath, Silver Birch, Radiata Pine, Holly and Banana Passionfruit. Bridle Creeper has been noted near the Josephine St access and re-invading a burnt patch in the Recreation Area (pers. com. Anna Wind). Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass and Sea Spurge form an almost continuous swathe along the sandy foredune areas of Picnic Point Beach and are scattered along the foredune of West Ulverstone Beach but are not established around the rocks at Picnic Point. All species are invading areas of foredune where the native vegetation has been opened up by tracks or erosion. The full invasive potential of Sea Wheat Grass is still unknown but it was noted invading the edge of the native bush at the Leven River end. Sea Spurge is especially vigorous at the eastern end, along Picnic Point Beach but is currently being successfully controlled at West Ulverstone Beach. Fig 12 Picnic Point Beach, foredune weeds Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass and Sea Spurge between the penguin habitat in the Coastal Reserve and the beach.

Weeds are invading the coastal vegetation in burnt areas, along tracks, from garden edges and along the foredunes. Weed species found during the survey are listed in Appendix 5.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

4 Threats to Little Penguin Habitat and Management Recommendations 4.1 Maintain areas of good condition vegetation Some sections of the coastal reserve are in good condition and these should be maintained like this as a priority. Good condition coastal vegetation has a dense canopy, sloping with wind shear from the sea and protecting the sand from wind blow. It can appear to be layered from the base of the foredunes, up the dunes to the back dunes. The main aim should be to keep the structure of the vegetation in place allowing protection of the ground layer for Little Penguin habitat. Weed control, access track formation and maintenance should take into consideration prevailing winds, storm conditions and other disturbances likely to impact vegetation structure. Maintain the good condition areas and work out from these to the surrounding areas is a high priority. Close any tracks in or proximal to these areas first and integrate weed control activities in adjacent areas. Fig 13 Good condition coastal vegetation, Coast Wattle and Coastal Saltbush, keeping Marram Grass to the edge.

During any works the existing native vegetation should be retained and all damage avoided. Bearing in mind public risk considerations, trees should be left as much as possible to mature and to develop hollows as habitat for hollow dependant fauna. Fallen branches, dead limbs on living trees, dead standing trees and fallen logs are also important wildlife habitat and should be retained as much as possible. 4.2 Native vegetation loss and degradation Coastal vegetation provides critical ecological functions in the landscape, including water quality protection, erosion control, and provision of wildlife habitat and corridor between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It provides a buffer zone between land and water, filtering nutrients and sediments, and providing weather protection. They are very rich habitat areas, critical to the life cycle of many living organisms. Therefore, there are usually a range of management issues to address in maintaining these values and functions. On this site the coastal vegetation is critical as habitat for the Little Penguin. A primary aim should be to maintain the natural canopy and understorey cover and diversity, thereby providing the habitat niches and structure required for penguin habitat. Additionally, aim to retain and enhance maximum width and connectivity of vegetation wherever possible to provide optimum refuge and nesting areas. At West Ulverstone and Picnic Point Beaches loss of native vegetation is occurring as a result of multiple degrading and interactive forces including fragmentation, fire, erosion, weed invasion, removal of vegetation for views, lopping and pruning, dieback, soil compaction from vehicles etc.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Fragmentation of vegetation, dieback, weed invasion and erosion are insidious while others may result from a single event such as fire and storm surge erosion. Re-establishment of cover of native plants is important for long-term weed and erosion control, as well as for habitat and shelter. However allowing natural regeneration is a good option. Restoring vegetation here can be achieved through promoting natural regeneration and revegetation accompanied by weed control, and maintenance of works over time. Public awareness-raising will be critical for engendering community involvement and a caring and responsible culture to ensure success. Developing a program for revegetation will be necessary where natural regeneration is not likely to be successful, or where particular issues require early action i.e. track closure, burnt areas. Areas to be targeted as a priority for revegetation include the burnt sites in the Recreation Area and informal tracks to be closed on West Ulverstone Beach. There are other areas recommended in Chapter 5 for revegetation in all management zones.. Local native plants and plants suitable for penguin habitat should be utilised. Weed control will be important for successful rehabilitation, but it will be necessary to adopt penguin sensitive control methods that considers their habitat and life cycle requirements (see section 4.4 and the Weed Management Table in Chapter 5). Regular (annual) inspection is necessary, with ongoing removal of weeds that have grown. Extra care will be needed in follow-up weed control, to avoid damage to native seedlings and penguin habitat. Hand-pulling and cut-and-paint methods are more appropriate than spraying for follow-up weed control amongst regenerating native plants. Many of the other issues and management solutions connected with loss and degradation of native vegetation will be addressed separately under the following relevant headings.

4.3 Access tracks and recreational use This is a popular area for walking. Fig 14 Formal beach access reduce impacts such as erosion and weeds

Formal tracks have been constructed at Westland Drive, Amy St, Josephine St, and Picnic Point. Formal paths and beach access from the Recreation Area near the tennis courts are evidently successful in keeping foot traffic to these designated areas. Fig 15 Informal beach access promotes erosion and weed invasion.

There are many informal tracks through the bush from Penguin Rd to the West Ulverstone Beach, clearly used by local people. Some of these tracks are eroding significantly from foot traffic both on the foredunes and in the middle of the dunes. Compounding factors like vegetation loss and wind blow increase the impacts. Some tracks are more lightly used and are regenerating in places, 15


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

evidence of the recovery potential here, given the opportunity. The main issue is the number of informal tracks, which have the potential to eventually become worn and lead to large-scale erosion, weed invasion and fragment penguin habitat as well as cause disturbance to penguin nests. Disturbance to penguin behaviour and life cycle could also occur if public use increased. Additionally, people walking their dogs using informal access tracks, or randomly stepping over the penguin fence at any point, miss reading the dog control signage, placed at formal access points and containing important messages about seasonal and daily restrictions for dogs. The Caravan Park needs formal access identified. There is no formal access from the Caravan Park to the beach but both small and large informal tracks are currently being used. There is a network of unnecessary tracks through the Black Gum forest community on the Picnic Point hill and many tracks through the sparse vegetation on Picnic Point from the Caravan Park to the beach. The Caravan Park needs some formal beach accesses at the north and south end. Vehicle access to the beaches here is illegal, and is damaging to habitat, but there are signs of vehicles on beaches and some access tracks from the Caravan Park are clearly large enough for cars. Placement of extremely large rocks is recommended at these accesses. This will block illegal access points. Fig 16 One of the two beach accesses enlarged by vehicle use

Most of the informal tracks could be closed, and revegetated. Closing informal tracks and providing fewer formal walking tracks will have many benefits for penguin habitat such as: a) reducing erosion and weed invasion opportunities; b) more effective delivery of dog control information; c) enhancing regeneration and revegetation of native plants; d) improving connectivity of the native vegetation and therefore better refuge for penguins; e) reducing litter and fire risk; f) ceasing vehicular activity on the beach. 4.4 Dog and cat control Dog control represents the main management issue for the Little Penguin colony (pers. com. Mark Fordham PWS) as evidenced by dog kills in January 2009, which reduced the penguin population by an estimated 50% (The Advocate 20.1.09). Public access with a dog to this reserve is regulated by the Dog Control Act 2000 and the Dog Control Regulations 2001, which are administered by the Central Coast Council. Dogs are prohibited from accessing Picnic Point Beach, an area extending from Picnic Point to the retaining wall in the mouth of the Leven River, close to the tennis courts. An area of the West Ulverstone Beach, from Josephine Street to Westland Drive, has a restricted level of dog access. This restriction states that dogs are required to be on a lead, and can only access the beach, from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm, from November to March. Dog access in the Goat Island Reserve, located along the coast west of Westland Drive, is prohibited. Although this 16


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

area is not included in the scope of this management plan, the prohibition here increases the demand for dog walking activity on West Ulverstone Beach. Dogs in the Public Reserve (ie, penguin fence to high water mark) are subject to Division 2 of the Crown Lands Regulations 2001. There is scope for the “managing authority” (Crown Land Services, DPIW) to install signage at informal access tracks under this legislation to restrict dog access through the reserve to approved points (ie the Council walkways opp Westland drive, etc). Public education regarding dog access laws within the reserve have been conducted by the council at several levels. Signage has been erected at the majority of formal access points, a letter box drop has occurred within the community, the West Ulverstone primary school has received an educational talk, and a “dog’s breakfast” has been held within the reserve to educate dog owners to their responsibilities. However, in spite of these actions, the effectiveness of current dog regulations remains questionable, particularly considering the significant penguin kills that occurred during summer of 2008 / 2009. These kills were attributable to loose, uncontrolled dogs at night. Some dog owners are not adhering to the restrictions during daytime walks. Several dogs were seen in the company of their owners, off lead in prohibited areas on both days of this site assessment. Dogs roaming around off lead, even in the company of their owners not only threaten penguins at that time but create smells through the bush which will attract more dogs at other times. A significant portion of the reserve, from Josephine St to Westland Drive, is not subject to any dog restrictions from March to November. During this time period Little Penguins undergo their annual moult, spending time on land, where they are susceptible to dog attacks. From May they can be laying eggs and from early August the initial stages of chick rearing occurs, a time when the birds are also susceptible to dog attacks. There is no time in the year when the penguin colony is safe from disturbance from dogs. Fig 17 Dogs prohibited from beach but not clearly from nesting habitat as people and dogs have walked through a lot of habitat before they get to this sign

Furthermore, there are problems identified with the dog control signage: a) It is not clear where the restricted areas are within the reserve, b) the signage is sometimes difficult to read and confusing (see Section 5.4) c) there are currently many unsigned access points so the message is missed by dog walkers d) signs are placed within habitat areas instead of on the outside edge. Cats, both feral and domestic, are a potential threat to the penguin colony. Dog and cat control could be improved considerably in this reserve by: a) complete prohibition of dogs from all penguin habitat; b) in areas adjacent to penguin habitat, restrict dogs at all times to lead only, on formal tracks and roads only, not off lead at any time; c) concerted policing of dog restriction laws; d) raising fines for impounded dogs; e) clearer message on signs and more effective placing of signs; (see below, re joint agency signage strategy) 17


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

f) continuing eduction and awareness raising programs for dog and cat owners; g) continuing cat trapping program. h) Enforce the No Dogs in the Caravan Park, especially with overnight campers. A joint signage strategy for dog control could be developed by Council & DPIW for the whole area, or at least Zone 1, covering needs identified in this report within the context of both sets of legislation. Parks and Wildlife Rangers are available to assist with this.

4.5 Weeds Weed invasion is one of the greatest threats to dry coastal vegetation in Tasmania (Kirkpatrick and Gilfedder 1999) and to the long term health of this reserve at present. Weeds invade by wind and animal vectors, by spread of garden plants, through dumping of garden refuse and other rubbish, and through transport on vehicles of seeds and vegetative material. The proximity of flourishing house and caravan gardens to the reserve, the road-railway line plantings of mainly exotic species, the mature Sycamores near the Caravan Park entrance and the weedy Picnic Point hill bush provide an ongoing source of invasive plants to the coastal reserve. Garden escapes are apparent in the reserve, especially in the Recreation Area south of the Caravan Park, and some gardens are encroaching onto the reserve with planted, mulched plants. These gardens need restricting and weeds should be controlled. A concerted effort to educate residents to stop gardening coastal reserves and planting invasive species on the railway reserve is recommended. A letter box drop of the Creeping Backyards brochure would help to raise awareness of this issue among residents. Successful Sea Spurge control on West Ulverstone Beach has resulted in only a few seedlings currently evident. At the other end of the site at Picnic Point Beach Sea Spurge is more rampant and will continue to invade this foredune area. It has the potential to spread through the dunes so a similar control effort is recommended for Sea Spurge at this end of the reserve. Penguins have been known to nest in Marram Grass at nearby Somerset and Cooee (pers. com. Anna Wind) but no sign of nesting and few penguin runways were observed through Marram Grass here. Marram Grass may be difficult for penguins to navigate (Kirkpatrick and Gilfedder 1999). The potential of Sea Wheat Grass to invade dunes and existing vegetation is not known but it is clearly invading areas with Marram Grass and Sea Spurge along the foredune, edges of the coastal reserve and areas of tracks and open ground. Past burning (some known to be vandalistic pers. com. Mark Forham) has damaged native vegetation as coastal vegetation burns very hot and recovery has been slow or non-existent. Weeds have invaded some of these areas, especially Cape Ivy, Mirror Bush and Cotoneaster. Revegetation planned for these areas should include weed control efforts for best results. The worst weed areas occur in the Black Gum Forest, in patches along West Ulverstone Beach, and on the southern side of the Caravan Park in the recreation area. The bush near the Tennis Court and the southern end of the Caravan Park was in quite good condition and the few weeds here could be easily removed to maintain this bush in good condition. Weeds provide nesting habitat for Little Penguins, offer protection from predation and control erosion in places. Issues such as whether to remove them at all, the timing of removal and techniques for removal must be considered carefully prior to works. A weed management 18


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

table can be found in the next chapter with a weed map and management recommendations. 4.6 Erosion Some storm erosion is evident along the foredunes, especially on West Ulverstone Beach, where storm events have eroded the dunes under existing vegetation. Where track erosion and vegetation loss combines with storm erosion significant sand loss has occurred. Some of these foredune areas are almost devoid of vegetation cover, such as between the formal access at Amy St and Josephine St. Erosion has the potential to exacerbate natural regeneration and revegetation attempts and reduce available habitat for Little Penguins. Two large storm water pipes were noted along the West Ulverstone Beach. It appears that these structures may have exacerbated coastal erosion in their vicinity, most likely through modified hydrological regimes that have changed the geomorphology of the coast line’s foredune area. In addition, a large leak was observed in the most north-western storm water pipe. This leak had led to a considerable area of erosion and an exposure of the underlying bedrock. This erosion, as previously mentioned, has the potential to threaten existing Little Penguin habitat and revegetation. Figure 18 Large leak in the storm water drain on West Ulverstone Beach associated with coastal erosion.

Closing informal tracks, restricting random access to the dunes from the beach and strengthening dune vegetation with revegetation and regeneration will help to reduce the effects of erosion. 4.7 Encroachment on to Public Reserve In some areas the boundaries between the Public Reserve and leased or private land are not clear. For instance, sections of the coastal reserve that border the Caravan Park have become very sparse and further cleared for camping use. This reduces penguin habitat and the ability of the vegetation to regenerate. Overnight campervan and motor homes should be kept away from penguin colonies as penguins nightly activities, like chick feeding, can be disturbed (Thorp 2005). Definition of the public reserve boundary and liaison with the Caravan park managers should be undertaken to take camping areas back from the vegetation and penguin habitat. Revegetation should be carried out, close informal accesses, nominate one as a formal beach access and install interpretation signage to gain co-operation of visitors. Where penguins are nesting in close proximity to overnight camping areas, consider seasonal restriction of these camp sites to “quiet� campers i.e. tents only, cyclists with tents.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

4.8 Rubbish tipping (including garden refuse) and litter Litter and rubbish, including garden refuse, was apparent throughout the coastal reserve. This is unsightly and is also a threat to Little Penguins, their habitat and natural regeneration. Garden clippings, plastic bags, bottles and tins have all been dumped here and may harm penguins. Garden refuse is of great concern as it leads to considerable weed invasion in the bushland. If dumping continues, many more significant weed species are likely to invade. • • •

Letter box drops to the nearby residents informing them of this issue and requesting their support in caring for penguin habitat is recommended. Closing tracks and restricting access to formal tracks should also help with this issue. Include this issue on interpretation signs to raise awareness and ask people to take their rubbish with them.

4.9 Dieback There is some dieback evident in the reserve associated with more exposed areas, and where the vegetation has been burnt. Damage to the canopy and loss of trees at the edge increases exposure of remaining trees to salt winds, as well as other edge effects such as weed invasion. These are some of the factors known to lead to dieback. Strengthening vegetation through weed control and track closure will help promote natural regeneration and improve condition. Revegetation in strategic places will also help long term viability of bush.

4.10 Tree removal and pruning Lopping of vegetation occurs along the railway line annually as part of their maintenance program. Over-zealous maintenance activity may occur here; taking too much live material from the vegetation and reducing its viability and robustness, and possibly allowing weed species to become more vigorous as a result. Railway authorities should be communicated with to ensure they understand the significance of this vegetation, its importance to Little Penguin habitat and the aims of the Penguin Management Plan. It is critical that maintenance is not undertaken during penguin moulting and nesting season and so timing of works is avoid these periods is very important Fig 19 Penguin fence and vegetation growing along the railway line requires maintenance

In healthy bush dead trees and limbs, fallen branches and logs are important habitat features. For instance, dead trees are used as vantage points by birds, reptiles use fallen logs as basking sites and all decomposing material supports invertebrates and detritivores. From a habitat perspective, the coastal reserve should be allowed to age naturally where possible, with dead and fallen wood left to provide habitat. Public perceptions that dead wood should be “tidied up” may also be an issue. Illegal removal of trees may be occurring for views. This removes habitat, increases light levels to the understorey and exposes the dunes to wind, and can increase weed invasion and dieback. It can also result in increases in noise and wind for local residents.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Liaison with land managers, awareness raising of these issues, through signage, letter box drops and field days are recommended.

4.11 Fire Any bushland has the potential to burn. Coastal vegetation is especially vulnerable to bushfire due to the dryness of the environment, the volatile oils in the salt hardy plants, and often windy conditions. The Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit (Kirkpatrick & Gilfedder 1999) recommends that fire be excluded from coastal vegetation. Random access and proximity of the bush to urban areas increases the risk of accidental fire, arson, and intentional burning off. Fire in this coastal vegetation has severely damaged penguin habitat, and increased potential for erosion and weed invasion. The vegetation is burnt out completely in places. In some places natural regeneration is occurring but revegetation is planned to restore the vegetation and hasten recovery. Rabbits were present here and are likely to be competing for habitat although their interaction is not well understood (pers com Mark Fordham). Rabbits will be a browsing pest for the revegetation projects. Access for fire control is good here with roads and driveable pathways to most areas of the coastal reserve. Liaison with land managers and nearby residents and awareness raising of fire prevention through signage, letter box drops and field days are recommended. Increase fines for arson. Fig 20 Burnt vegetation in the Recreation area, Management Zone 5, the skeletons of burnt branches etc are ideal to re-establish Coastal saltbush over for penguin habitat. Coast wattle is here regenerating already.

4.12 Water Quality As previously mentioned, storm water pipes have been constructed to feed storm water out to sea from the nearby roads and residential area. This may be an issue for the penguins if the storm water is not treated or filtered. Oils, plastics, sediment and nutrients may be flushing out to sea and impacting penguins. Waste water piped from caravans through the dunes and vegetation to the beach could create pollution issues for penguins and the coastal environment. Monitoring of storm water quality is recommended and ensuring that no untreated waste or storm water is piped out to the sea. 4.13 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise The Little Penguin habitat at West Ulverstone is likely to be affected by sea level rise and climate change in ways that we cannot be certain yet. As this habitat area is located on a Bass Straight beach at the mouth of the Leven River, there will be changes from the estuarine system and the marine system that are likely to affect penguin habitat. Estuarine ecosystems around Tasmania are likely to change markedly over the next century as a consequence of climate change (Edgar et al 1999), and the River Leven and is probably no exception. Climate change can affect estuarine ecosystems through three mechanisms (Edgar et al 1999):

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

• Increased water temperature - because of the position of Tasmania at the southern extremity of Australia, a relatively slight increase in water temperature may result in species extinctions because of the lack of a land mass further south into which species adversely affected by warm water can retreat. • Modified rainfall patterns - increased rainfall in some areas of the state will reduce salinity in local estuaries, while decreased rainfall in other areas will allow saline water to penetrate further up estuaries and promote barrier formation. • Sea level rises - rising sea levels will flood low lying areas within estuarine basins. These changes will alter estuarine and marine nutrient regimes, water quality, and, possibly, food availability. The vulnerability to climate change of the North West Tasmanian coastline and infrastructure has been assessed (Sharples 2006) and flooding and erosion due to sea level rise and storm tides are identified threats. There is little that can be done under this management plan to address climate change, but awareness of the potential issues may influence prioritisation of other actions. For example, protection of the dune vegetation is even more important given its vulnerability to erosion. The rocky nature of Picnic Point and higher ground here may become more important for penguin habitat in the future considering potential threats to the lower sandy habitats from sea level rise, storm surge and associated erosion.

4.14 Works in Little Penguin colonies Works, including revegetation and weed control, will cause disturbance to Little Penguins. Timing of works in penguin colonies will need to coincide with the least sensitive periods within their life cycle and there will only be small windows of opportunity to conduct works. Breeding and moulting are the most sensitive times for penguins so avoid these times. Plan works for May to July and have the site checked by a Biologist from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch or a Parks and Wildlife ranger to be sure of the birds’ activity stage at that time (Marker and Wind 2003). Weed removal must be considered carefully as weeds may be providing or protecting habitat. Penguins are known to nest under Cape Ivy, Blackberry and Mirror Bush and all these are on site and in areas where nests occur. Removal techniques can ensure that least disturbance occurs: • Kill weeds in situ, leave roots in the ground and leave the dying tops standing and plant quick growing native climbers like Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach over them. • Be sure, with this method, to cut, bag and remove from the site fertile vegetative parts like flowers or seeds. Dispose of them properly. • Hand pull weed seedlings before they grow and become an issue. Plant a vigorous native in place. • In areas where weeds are dense plan staged control so that there is minimum disturbance to canopy and habitat. Replant natives where weeds have been removed at the same time. • Do not use chemicals before checking that there are no penguins there. • Use specific chemicals and preferred methods like cut and paint, drill and fill, and frilling and avoid foliar spraying as much as possible • If foliar spraying is used do so in wind free conditions, using a careful operator so that there is no risk of spray drift affecting surrounding natives. • Follow up control will be necessary as some vigorous weeds can reshoot. 22


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Revegetation should be planned specifically for penguin habitat requirements: • Plant using penguin habitat species propagated from local seed • Plant species similar to those present in surrounding penguin habitat • In burnt sites, plant vigorous climbers, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach, near remaining stumps and branches as frames for understorey canopy. Plant taller shrubs for overstorey canopy.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5 Management Zones and Actions 5.1 Management zones Management zones have been defined based on topographical and vegetative characteristics, habitat condition, habitat recovery potential and the kind of actions required to improve penguin habitat. Land tenure has also been considered.

Figure 21 Management Zone map for West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve

5.2 Management Actions Common to all Zones 5.2.1 Community involvement Community involvement is already effective here as evidenced by the involvement of Cradle Coast NRM, Central Coast Council, Parks and Wildlife, NW Coastcare Association of Tasmania and the Penguin Monitoring group in the development of this management plan. Several awareness-raising activities have been held and there is interest within the local community. It will be necessary to increase and sustain community involvement and responsibility, especially that of the local residents, in order to accomplish the aims of protecting and conserving Little Penguin habitat here. News stories, field days, educational events will all help to involve and maintain community interest. Involve local people in special events and related project activities such as bird surveys, working bees, monitoring activities, etc.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Letter box drop to local residents about the Penguin Habitat Management Plan and include brochures on Creeping Backyards, Coastal Weeds of the Cradle Coast Region, Grow Local, etc. Interpretation signage about the Little Penguin habitat and the aims of this project should be installed at several strategic points, eg: Toilet Block at Caravan Park, Picnic Point Beach viewing platform and Picnic Point. Regenerating bush signs should be placed where informal tracks are closed and revegetated. 5.2.2 Dog control (high priority) It is necessary to increase the level of dog control in all areas, either by completely prohibiting dogs from all penguin habitat area or by increasing the level of restrictions. Either way, a significant change in behavior will be required from dog owners. Communication with dog owners and users of the reserve will need to be increased and targeted towards improving dog control. Signage for dog control needs to be easier to read and relocated in more effective positions. (See previous Section 4.4 re joint agency strategy.)

5.2.3 Track closure (high priority) In all zones there are informal walking tracks recommended for closure in order to rehabilitate and protect penguin habitat. This will require signage, replanting, weed control and community co-operation not to continue using them. 5.2.4 Weed control Scrub and forest communities There are weeds in these communities in all the management zones but control and eradication will be more easily achieved in zones 2, 4 and 6 than in zones 1, 3 and 5 where a strategic, staged approach will be necessary. In Zones 2, 4 and 6 weeds are scattered as isolated individuals and, when removed and replaced with native habitat plants, the bush in these areas will be in good condition. Individual weed control methods are detailed in the Weed Management Table (Appendix 6), and it is important that any weed control is performed in adherence with the guidelines outlined in section 4.14 (Works in Little Penguin colonies). Generally, it is important that isolated weed individuals are targeted primarily, rather than attempting to control large clumps of weeds growing amongst native vegetation. These are to be controlled strategically by killing individuals using the appropriate methods and leaving them in-situ. Native species should then be planted in their place. If the weed is obviously critical as penguin nesting habitat (indicated by the presence of scats) use the cut and paint method to maintain the structure of the vegetation and plant native climbers such as Bower Spinach and Coastal Salt Bush to revegetate the site. Fig 22 Penguin parent with chicks, very vulnerable at this time, (photo by Raelee Turner)

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Additionally, it is important to assess the susceptibility of a site to erosion and particular care should be taken when controlling weeds that are growing in erosion prone areas. Preferably, revegetation with native species should be performed in erosion prone sites prior to weed removal. If this is not possible then the weeds should be removed incrementally and native plants planted in their place. Foredune weeds A foredune weed in this management plan refers to the species Marram Grass, Sea Spurge and Sea Wheat Grass. These three weeds are the most devastating weeds found on Tasmanian beaches (Rudman 2003). Foredune weeds are common throughout the coastal reserve in all management zones, except zone 2. In zones 3, 4, 5 the foredune weeds occupy the majority of the foredune creating an almost continuous swath of weed-dominated vegetation. Management zone 1 has a scattered distribution of these weeds. This is primarily due to a concerted weed control effort that has been performed in this area, particularly of Sea Spurge. Controlling Marram Grass and Sea Wheat Grass has proven to be very difficult, and most management recommendations simply say that the best control method is to prevent population expansion through maintaining healthy native vegetation condition and control small isolated populations and those that are newly established (Rudman 2003) (see Weed Management Table Appendix 5 for further details regarding control methods). Sea Spurge, on the other hand, can be effectively controlled by manually pulling smaller plants and seedlings, and digging out larger individuals. Caution should be taken to avoid contact with the poisonous sap (Rudman 2003). Sea Spurge is the primary species to control in the foredune of all infested management zones, as a single effort from a large group hand pulling can produce very good results, as exemplified by the low numbers of Sea Spurge individuals in zone 1. This not only benefits the health of the reserve, but also strengthens community spirit, when a positive improvement can be clearly seen after a concerted effort. It is recommended that the foredune weeds be controlled secondarily to the weeds in the scrub and forest communities, as they pose less of a direct threat to the condition of the Little Penguin’s habitat. Furthermore, foredune weeds do not provide suitable nesting habitat for Little Penguins (Fordham M. pers com). Hence, the primary management aim for foredune weeds should be to ensure that they do not invade the scrub and forest vegetation, which is the most suitable penguin habitat. Weed proof matting can be used in Marram Grass for penguin runs, ensuring runways are available from the beach to nesting habitat (Lee 2003). Fig 23 Aeonium sp. in Management zone 1, a dense clump occurring within otherwise good condition native vegetation

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Table 1 Weeds occurring in the study site – including declared weeds

Species name

Acacia baileyana Acer pseudoplatanus Aeonium sp. Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis Agonus flexuosa Aloe vera Ammophila arenaria Asparagus asparagoides Betula pendula Cakile edentula Chrysanthemoides monilifera Clematis vitalba Coprosma repens Cotoneaster glaucophyllus Crataegus monogyna Erica lusitanica Euphorbia paralias Foeniculum vulgare Hedera helix Ilex aquifolium Osteospermum sp. Pelargonium domesticum Phormium tenax Pinus radiata Populus alba Pseudopanax lessonii Rosa rubiginosa Rubus fruticosus Solanum nigrum Vinca major

Common name

sycamore

marram grass bridal creeper silver birch American searocket boneseed travellers joy mirrorbush cotoneaster hawthorn Spanish heath sea spurge fennel ivy holly

New Zealand flax radiata pine white poplar sweet briar blackberry nightshade blue periwinkle

Management Declared Weeds Zones (those weeds which property managers are required to control by law) 5 3,5 1 1

5 1 All 1 5 All 3 6 All 1,3,5 1,3,5 3 All 5 5 3 1,3,4 1,3,4 1 5 5 5 1 All All 3

Declared

Declared

Declared Declared

Declared

5.2.5 Revegetation Revegetation is recommended for all zones, to be done in stages during May, June and July according to penguin sensitivity, integrated with the weed removal program and in liaison with stakeholders. Overleaf is a list of local native species and zones in which they are likely to be suitable, based on the vegetation survey undertaken for this management plan.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Table 2 Species locally present suitable for revegetation Species name Carpobrotus rossii

Tetragonia implexicoma Einadia nutans subsp. nutans Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana Leucopogon parviflorus Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

Common name native pigface bower spinach (ice plant) climbing saltbush coastal saltbush coast beardheath

Comments Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant throughout all zones Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant throughout all zones

Myoporum insulare

coast wattle common boobialla

Hardy shrub plant zone 1, 2, 3. Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant throughout all zones Excellent penguin habitat understorey plant throughout zones 1, 2, 3.

Eucalyptus obliqua

stringybark

Forest tree plant zone 3

Eucalyptus ovata

black gum

Forest tree plant zone 3

Eucalyptus viminalis subsp. viminalis

white gum

Forest tree plant zone 3

Banksia marginata

honeysuckle

Hardy shrub plant zone 3

Bursaria spinosa

prickly box yellow needlebush

Hardy shrub plant zone 1 and 3

Hakea nodosa Correa alba var. alba

Spinifex sericeus

white correa knobby clubsedge coast speargrass Australian saltgrass hairy ricegrass beach spinifex

Dianella tasmanica

flax lily

Dianella brevicaulis

flax lily

Ficinia nodosa Austrostipa stipoides Distichlis distichophylla Ehrharta distichophylla

Hardy shrub plant zone 2 and 3 Hardy shrub plant zone 1, 2, 3. Rush, plant zone 5 and 6 Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds Dune plant, excellent ground cover, use to replace foredune weeds

Key points for successful revegetation: • In grassy sites, spot spaying prior to planting will be necessary as grass is a very strong competitor. Spot spray 1 metre around where the plant will go. • Water plants well following planting as the coast is a very dry site for them to establish in. • Planting should be done from autumn to early spring, to ensure adequate soil moisture during establishment. • When planting, ensure that the plant’s roots are deeply planted, sand/soil is firm around the plant, and ideally a small “dish” remains in the soil surface, to assist water penetration to the plant. • Stake and guard plants against browsing and wind damage to ensure success and minimise reworking the area.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

• •

Do not remove bracken, a native plant which many consider a weed. It is essential here for erosion control. Not advisable to plant Coast Tea Tree, even though a native, it can be invasive.

5.2.6 Control of rubbish dumping A range of techniques may be considered by council to prevent rubbish dumping. Signage, community education, fines, and even hidden cameras have been used by councils to attempt to reduce rubbish dumping.

5.2.6 Monitoring There is always an immense amount of monitoring that could be undertaken to better inform projects such as this. Monitoring is important for providing baseline information and to show trends over time. It can be invaluable to guide the progress of projects as well as measuring achievements. Effective and meaningful monitoring requires dedication over time and collection of sound data that can be stored and used later. For this management plan there are several parameters that could be monitored to give useful information. The scope of monitoring, however, may be more than volunteers can manage so prioritising monitoring efforts will probably be necessary. Expert advice and support from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch, Parks and Wildlife and Penguin Monitoring Group should be sought for Little Penguin monitoring. Monitoring of the Little Penguin population and the way in which they use habitat would provide valuable information to guide management of the habitat area. Such as: • The numbers of penguins here and how they use the habitat area: o density and distribution of burrows o locations of runways and tunnels o preferred vegetation structure and species for nests. Variables to monitor for habitat condition using straightforward methods could include: Track and burnt areas recovery – • Establish photo points and take photos of site before and one year after track closure. Erosion • Establish photo points and take photos of sites on a regular basis, annually, unless a catastrophic event needs recording. • Measure eroding rates with stakes (but not in volatile areas where more damage may occur from the stake). Weeds: • Take photos of site before, during and after weed control activity. • Take notes of species and extent of weeds and of native vegetation before weeding. • Keep records of weed control methods used, especially any herbicides used. • Inspect sites annually, take photos, and program follow-up weed control. Revegetation: • Keep records of plants planted, site preparation, date etc • Take photos of site at planting and as plants grow

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

• • •

Check weed growth in early spring, especially within the 1 metre circle around each plant. Check survival of plants (e.g. after summer). Consider cause of deaths and replant if possible. Plan management and re-plantings accordingly. Take photos of site as plants grow.

Habitat condition: • Photos can be taken every five years of various representative sites (fixed photo points are particularly useful for comparison), and notes taken of apparent condition. • For measures of bushland condition such as species diversity, structural complexity, and regeneration of trees and shrubs, various simple monitoring methods are available. Bushways can assist with setting up monitoring systems. Pest animals: • rabbit presence, numbers and burrow density and distribution • cats trapped, numbers and locations, feral or domestic • dogs on site off lead or unattended Water quality monitoring of storm water and in the Leven River - liaise with Central Coast Council and Cradle Coast NRM regarding current water quality monitoring procedures and further opportunities for monitoring storm water and the Leven River or for accessing existing data.

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.3 Summary of Management Zone On Ground Priority Actions Table 3 Management Zones Zone Current Priority Actions Condition Zone 1 Good Closing informal tracks, West weed control, increase dog Ulverstone control and signage, Beach revegetation, storm water management, and continue Sea Spurge control. Zone 2 Poor Restoring coastal reserve Caravan vegetation, water quality Park control, close informal foot north tracks, interpretation signage. Zone 3 Poor Weed control, close tracks, Picnic Point increase dog control and hill Black signage, clean up and Gum control litter. remnant Zone 4 Good Weed control, close illegal Caravan vehicle access, designate Park south one formal walking access. Zone 5 Poor Picnic Point Recreation Area

Weed control and revegetation in burnt areas, educational signage, increase dog control and signage.

Zone 6 Tennis Court Bush

Weed control, regeneration, some revegetation, increase dog control and signage.

Good

31

Penguin Habitat Recovery Potential Excellent if weed control practiced, informal tracks closed and revegetated.

Moderate if informal tracks closed, caravan park-coastal reserve boundary reinstated to benefit revegetation. Moderate if and weed control practiced and tracks closed.

Excellent if weed control practiced, informal tracks closed and revegetated. Good if revegetation and weed control carried out. Maintenance and follow up weed control will be critical to success. Excellent if weed control and sound follow up is carried out.

Priority

High

High

Low

High

Medium

High


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.4 Management Zone 1 West Ulverstone Beach

32


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Actions Zone 1 West Ulverstone Beach 1. Continue to maintain the successful Sea Spurge control. 2. Identify good condition habitat areas and work out from these with weed control and revegetation. 3. Weed eradication along dunes especially including Aeonium sp., Mirror Bush, Cotoneaster, and Blackberry, (see Weed Table for specific advice). 4. Close multiple unnecessary informal tracks. 5. Place “Regeneration Area” signage along penguin fence where required to guide walkers to formal beach access points. 6. Repair penguin fence. 7. Revegetate with local native species along closed tracks, in burnt areas, eroded areas and on foredunes. 8. Clarify dog control signage and exclude dogs from the bush area. Use arrows instead of “east and west” plain words and more pictures on signs. 9. Liaise with Railway Authorities regarding vegetation management along the track. 10. Repair leak in storm water pipe on beach.

Fig 24 This side of the sign faces walkers as they approach the formal access, and is already within penguin habitat area

Fig 25 People may not read the other side and if they do, it is difficult to read and potentially confusing. Use arrows instead of east and west, plain words and pictures and simplify restrictions as recommended.

33


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.5 Management Zone 2 Caravan Park (north) Picnic Point

34


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Actions Zone 2 Caravan Park (north) at Picnic Point 1. Define boundary of Caravan Park and Coastal Reserve and liaise with the Caravan Park managers to widen and restore the native vegetation as penguin habitat, especially at the Picnic Point rocky foreshore area. 2. Revegetate where needed to connect and widen the habitat area. 3. Close the multiple tracks from the Caravan Park to the beach and guide users to the formal tracks with signs. 4. Install interpretive signs to educate visitors and residents as to requirements for penguin habitat and the aims of the Penguin Habitat Management Plan. 5. Ensure that untreated wastewater is not piped onto the beach and/or out to sea. 6. Coast tea tree is growing here, watch that it does not become invasive, may need to be controlled.

35


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.6 Management Zone 3 Black Gum remnant Picnic Point hill

Actions Zone 3 Black Gum remnant Picnic Point hill 1. Weed control of Cape Ivy, Banana Passionfruit, Blackberry, Pittosporum, Sycamore, Cotoneaster, Holly, Spanish Heath and Boneseed etc (See Weed Table) 2. Close multiple tracks from the road to the beach, a fence along the road may be necessary. 3. Revegetate on the foreshore following Cape Ivy removal. 4. Control weeds between road and railway (liaise with railway authorities). 36


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.7 Management Zone 4 Caravan Park (south) Picnic Point Beach

Actions Zone 4 Caravan Park (south) Picnic Point Beach 1. Install large rocks to close vehicle access points. 2. Revegetate these areas and connect vegetation. 3. Weed control in the coastal scrub, (check for more along caravan side). 4. Close one of the two informal walking tracks and make one a formal walking track for use by caravan park residents. 5. Interpretation signage and revegetation at the toilet block. 6. Initiate a Sea Spurge control program here. 37


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.8 Management Zone 5 Recreation Area

Actions Zone 5 1. Revegetation is planned here in autumn (2009) to restore burnt and weedy areas and habitat connectivity. 2. Revegetation could be continued in stages over the next 2- 3 years to connect existing vegetation and better utilise this area for penguin habitat. 3. Retain barbeque areas, footpaths etc and install interpretation signage here. 4. Weed control in burnt areas is a priority eg Cape Ivy and Cotoneaster. 5. Initiate a Sea Spurge control program here. 38


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

5.5 Management Zone 6 Tennis Court Bush

Actions Zone 6 1. Weed control – eradicate small isolated areas of Marram Grass, Sea Wheat Grass and Sea Spurge. Kill Blackberry and introduced Clematis. 2. Track closure – one walking track to close, being invaded by Marram Grass and introduced lawn grasses. 3. Revegetate closed track, burnt area, sprayed natives, and weed control area with Coast wattle, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach. 4. Revegetate gap on break-water side. 5. Revegetate burnt area using remains of burnt stumps and branches as frames to grow Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach over. 39


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

6 References Bryant, S. L. and Jackson, J. (1999), Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Buchanan, A.M. (2007), A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, Tasmanian Herbarium website, www.tmag.tas.gov.au/Herbarium/TasVascPlants.pdf DPIW (2005), Threatened Native Vegetation Communities List (Version 6.0). Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, November 2005. Edgar, G.J., N.S. Barrett and D.J. Graddon (1999). A Classification of Tasmanian Estuaries and Assessment of their Conservation Significance using Ecological and Physical Attributes, Population and Land Use. Technical Report number 2. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, (2005) Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Strategy, Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, Burnie. Guidelines for the Listing of Species under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LBUN-59X7G2?open Harris, S and Kitchener, A (2005), From Forest to Fjaeldmark: Descriptions of Tasmania’s Vegetation. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Printing Authority of Tasmania. Hobart. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and Gilfedder, L.A. (1999), Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lawrence, N. (2004), Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lee, D., (2003), A guide to rehabilitation of Little Penguin habitat, Wildlife Marine Conservation Section, Biodiversity Conservation Branch DPIW, Hobart. Marker P. and Wind A., (2003, Revised 2008), Guidelines for works in areas of Little Penguin habitat, Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, Hobart Muyt, A., (2001) Bush Invaders of South East Australia: a guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South East Australia R.G and F.J. Richardson PO Box 42 Meredith, Victoria 3333 Australia Natural Values Atlas, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart. www.naturalvaluesatlas.dpiw.tas.gov.au Pemberton D., Pryor H. and Halley V. 2001, Tasmania’s Offshore Islands: seabirds and other natural features, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart Rudman T. 2003. Tasmanian Beach Weed Strategy for marram grass, sea spurge, sea wheatgrass, pypgrass & beach daisy. Nature Conservation Report 03/2, Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Sharples, C., 2006: Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: Explanatory Report (Second Edition); Consultant Report to Department of Primary Industries & Water, Tasmania, 173 pp., plus accompanying electronic (GIS) maps. The Advocate Tuesday 20th January 2009 p7 Penguin protection patrols turn high-tech. Thorp, V. (2003), Community Coastcare Handbook – caring for the coast in Tasmania. Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart. Watts D., 1999, Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds, New Holland Publishers, Sydney

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Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

7 Appendices Appendix 1 Plants found at West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve, Ulverstone Survey conducted by Bushways, 3rd and 26th March 2009 Vascular plants only surveyed. Key: i = introduced and naturalised in Tasmania; eT= endemic in Tasmania Threatened species in boldTasmanian status (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995): en = Endangered; x = Presumed Extinct; v = Vulnerable; r = Rare Commonwealth status (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999): EX = extinct; CR = Critically Endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable. Family ACERACEAE AIZOACEAE ALOEACEAE APIACEAE APOCYNACEAE AQUIFOLIACEAE ARALIACEAE ASTERACEAE

Species name Common name Dicotyledons - Broad Leaved Plants Acer pseudoplatanus sycamore Carpobrotus rossii native pigface Tetragonia implexicoma bower spinach Aloe vera Foeniculum vulgare fennel Vinca major blue periwinkle Ilex aquifolium holly Hedera helix ivy Pseudopanax lessonii Cassinia aculeata dolly bush Delairea odorata cape ivy Onopordum acanthium scotch thistle Osteospermum sp.

BETULACEAE BRASSICACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE

EPACRIDACEAE ERICACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE GERANIACEAE MIMOSACEAE MYOPORACEAE MYRTACEAE

PITTOSPORACEAE

Senecio angulatus Betula pendula Cakile edentula Einadia nutans subsp. nutans Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana Suaeda australis Sarcocornia quinqueflora Leucopogon parviflorus Erica lusitanica Euphorbia paralias Pelargonium domesticum Acacia baileyana Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae Myoporum insulare Agonis flexuosa Eucalyptus obliqua Eucalyptus ovata Eucalyptus viminalis subsp. viminalis Leptospermum laevigatum Melaleuca ericifolia Bursaria spinosa Billardieria longiflora 42

south african daisy scrambling groundsel silver birch American searocket climbing saltbush coastal saltbush southern seablite glasswort coast beardheath Spanish heath sea spurge Cootamundra wattle coast wattle common boobialla

Endemism i

i i i i i i i i i i i i

i i i

i stringybark black gum white gum coast teatree coast paperbark prickly box purple appleberry


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

PLANTAGINACEAE PROTEACEAE RANUNCULACEAE

Plantago lanceolata Hakea nodosa Clematis vitalba

ROSACEAE

Cotoneaster glaucophyllus cotoneaster Crataegus monogyna hawthorn Rosa rubiginosa sweet briar Rubus fruticosus blackberry Coprosma repens mirror bush Correa alba var. alba white correa Populus alba white poplar Solanum nigrum nightshade Monocotyledons – Narrow leafed Plants Phormium tenax New Zealand flax Ficinia nodosa knobby clubsedge Agapanthus praecox subsp. orientalis Asparagus asparagoides bridal creeper Dianella tasmanica forest flaxlily Ammophila arenaria marram grass Austrostipa stipoides coast speargrass Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon couchgrass Distichlis distichophylla Australian saltgrass Ehrharta distichophylla hairy ricegrass Holcus lanatus yorkshire fog Paspalum vaginatum saltwater couch Spinifex sericeus beach spinifex Themeda triandra kangaroo grass Lomandra longiflora sagg Gymnosperms - Conifers and Pines Pinus radiata radiata pine Pteridophyta - Ferns and Fern Allies Pteridium esculentum bracken

RUBIACEAE RUTACEAE SALICACEAE SOLANACEAE

AGAVACEAE CYPERACEAE LILIACEAE

POACEAE

XANTHORRHOEACEAE PINACEAE DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

ribwort plantain yellow needlebush travellers joy

43

i i i i i i i i i i

i i i i

i i

i


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Appendix 2 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. (Natural Values Atlas March 2008)

Key: Tasmanian status (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995): e = endangered; x = presumed extinct; v = vulnerable; r = rare; pv/pr = protected as vulnerable/rare (This taxon is either a component of a vulnerable/rare taxon, or the name has changed from that which appears in the official legislation.) Commonwealth status (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999): EX = extinct; CR = Critically Endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable.

Scientific name

Common name

Conservation Status State Cwth

Cynoglossum australe

Australian hound' s tongue

r

Doodia caudata

Small rasp fern

v

Epilobium pallidiflorum Juncus prismatocarpus Lachnagrostis punicea subsp. filifolia

Showy willowherb Branching rush

r

Narrowleaf blowngrass

r

Limonium australe

Sea lavender

r

Lotus australis

Austral trefoil

r

Myriophyllum integrifolium

Tiny watermilfoil

v

44

Comments Not found. Probably not sufficiently open habitat. Not suitable. Key site on R. Leven (upstream), in clay mossy banks at high water level. Not suitable. Not found. Prefers swampy places. Not found. Little known and easily overlooked. Not suitable. Likes coastal mudflats and saltmarshes. Not found. Poa tussock grassland, low coastal shrubbery and dunes. Potential habitat here. Not suitable.


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Appendix 3 Threatened fauna known or possible on site Species that have been recorded within 5 km of the site (Natural Values Atlas March 2008), or that may occur in similar habitat on the Ulverstone mapsheet (Bryant & Jackson 1999). Common name

Scientific name

Tas. status TSPA 1995

Cwth status EPBC 1999

Australian Grayling

Prototroctes maraena

v

VU

Eastern Barred Bandicoot

Perameles gunnii

Giant Freshwater Crayfish

Astacopsis gouldi

v

Masked Owl (Tasmanian)

Tyto novaehollandiae castanops

e

Swift Parrot

Lathamus discolor

e

EN

Wedge-tailed Eagle

Aquila audax fleayi

e

EN

White-bellied Seaeagle

Haliaeetus leucogaster

v

White-fronted Tern

Sterna striata

v

VU

45

VU

Comments

Recorded within 5km. Likely in river here. Riparian vegetation important. No diggings seen in this survey. Dense vegetation adjacent to grassy areas may provide potential habitat. River is too estuarine here. Recorded upstream. Nests in tree hollows. Recorded within 5km, forages in eucalypt forest. Likely here, though paucity of hollows may limit breeding. May feed on White Gum and Black Gum blossom here. Recorded within 5km. Most breed on east coast. Require tree hollows and prefer Blue Gum for nesting. No nesting habitat here, but recorded within 5km Likely to forage along river and coastline here, could rest in reserve. Unlikely to nest on site. Unlikely coastal visitor, (seen in 1969 locally), breeds mainly in New Zealand and some on Furneaux Islands.


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Appendix 4 Some native species that resemble weeds Weeds known to be on site are in bold. It is important to be sure of the identification of a plant before removing it as a weed. Below is a selection of native species that are sometimes mistaken for weeds. The Tasmanian Herbarium can assist with plant identification. Figure: Boneseed leaves (on left) can be mistaken for native boobyalla leaves (on right), but notice the serration on boneseed leaves. The flowers of each species are quite different.

WEED African Box-thorn (Lycium ferocissimum) Banana Passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima) Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.)

NATIVE PLANT Prickly Box (Bursaria spinosa) Native Clematis (Clematis aristata)

Bluebell Creeper (Billardiera heterophylla, was Sollya heterophylla) Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) Canary/Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana) English/Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius)

Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster spp) Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) Gorse (Ulex europaeus)

Marram Grass (Ammophila arenaria) Travellers joy (Clematis vitalba) Pampas Grasses (Cortaderia spp) Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

Sallow Wattle (Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia) Serrated Tussock (Nassella trichotoma) and Chilean Needle Grass (Nassella neesiana) Spanish Heath (Erica lusitanica)

46

Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) Native Appleberry creepers (Billardiera longiflora, B. mutabilis, etc). Boobyalla (Myoporum insulare)

Goldentip (Goodia lotifolia) and other bushpeas Drupe Bush (Leptomeria drupacea), Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea) and Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada). White correa (Correa Alba ) Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) Native Gorse (Daviesia ulicifolia), Tree Violet (Melicytus dentatus) & many other prickly native plants Coast Fescue (Austrofestuca littoralis) Native Clematis (Clematis aristata) Cutting Grass (Gahnia spp.) Fireweed (Senecio linearifolius) and 20 other native Senecio daisies. Coastal Wattle / False Boobyalla (Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae) Various tussock grasses (Poa species) and spear grasses (Austrostipa species). Various Epacrids, such as Common Heath (Epacris impressa)


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Appendix 5 Weed control recommendations (Rudman 2003; Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit 2006; Marker and Wind 2003; Muyt 2001)

ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING HERBICIDES AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS. Weed Treatment Cape Ivy, English Cut and paint large vines and those intertwined with native vegetation and leave Ivy, Banana to die hanging. Passionfruit, and Paint foliage with herbicide if necessary rather than spraying. Beware of drips. Introduced Clematis Pull up smaller seedlings. Spray regrowth and those clear of native vegetation (travelers joy) Blackberry, Briar Cut and paint (with glyphosate) accessible individuals and those around and rose intertwined with native veg. Leave to die standing where they are providing habitat and wind protection etc. Foliar spraying: Metsulfuron Methyl (e.g.Brush Off速, Brush Killer速 etc) is the most effective herbicide to use for blackberry growing within grasses like Marram. Take every care to use away from any wet area and do not risk any run off or spray drift into water or onto native plants. Spraying in summer/autumn would limit water exposure in damp bushland. Blackberry control and maintenance is likely to be an ongoing and long term management activity. Mirror bush Frill cut and poison and leave to die standing. This will reduce the risk of fruit or broken twigs re-establishing if removal was attempted and also retain some wind protection. Cut and paint individuals in dense bushland. Leave tops standing up supported by surrounding vegetation Use only Roundup Biactive速 or Weedmaster Duo速 near the water. Hand pull all small plants and seedlings. Use glyphosate on all these plants All Sweet pittosporum, these plants can be killed by cutting and painting the stumps, or frill cut if it is Cotoneaster, judged best to leave them standing to die. Any ripe fruit/seeds should be Sycamore, Holly, Aeonium, Hawthorn, removed carefully (e.g. in bags). Silver birch, Boneseed, Spanish heath, Pseudopanax lessonii 47

Follow up Pull up new seedlings while small. Cut and paint suckers evidently still growing in follow up years.

In follow up years spray clumps that are free of native vegetation or in the roadside zone. Foliar spray regrowth and new seedlings while small. Continue to follow up where needed every year.

Check every year and continue to poison until all are eradicated and hand pull or spray new seedlings.

Check for seedlings and regrowth every year and follow up with treatment


Little Penguin Habitat Management Plan West Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2009

Daisies, Agapanthus

Dig up and remove

Radiata Pine

Cut it down or drill and fill as it will seed prolifically. Cutting at the base will prevent any further growth. Hand pull any seedlings

Periwinkle

Spray clumps with glyphosate every year until it is dead and gone

Continue spray annually until eradicated.

Bridal creeper

Has been recorded near Josephine St Access. If seen again Contact DPIW Regional Weeds Officer 64217654 for immediate control.

Monitoring and follow up control will be essential for success.

Sea spurge

Pull out using gloves as the sap may be toxic. Start with isolated clumps and eradicate in stages. Small sea spurge infestations can be eradicated by manually removing the plants. Small plants hand pull easily , large plants will need to be dug out. Seedlings may be present in large numbers. These are best left until large enough to pull, but before flowering or they may be raked or buried. Protective clothing must be worn to protect skin and eyes from the milky sap, which is toxic. Follow-up will be required to address subsequent seed germination or re-sprouting from broken taproots. An effective herbicide treatment is available where disturbance from hand pulling is unacceptable. Consult PWS and DPIWE if contemplating herbicide use. Contain large areas as much as possible. Manually dig out rhizomes from small isolated areas to a depth of 50cm if possible and repeat every 3 or 4 weeks until the rhizomes stop growing through to the surface. The use of machinery can greatly increase the area that can be treated. All requirements for herbicide application must be referred to Parks and Wildlife Service that hold an off-label permit for chemical control of Marram grass. Digging out the rhizomes can control small areas of sea wheatgrass. Care must be taken to remove as much as possible and monitor regularly for re-emerging plants. Effective aquatic registered herbicides are available for use on sea wheatgrass. Contact PWS or DPIW. Dig out small plants make sure to get all crowns and roots, cut and paint larger plants.

Follow up pulling out any plants that appear annually before they seed. Substantial declines in density of sea spurge can be achieved by this method but it may take 3 or 4 years of concerted effort. Occasional seedlings may reappear for up to ten years

Marram Grass

Sea Wheat Grass

Fennel, New Zealand Flax

48

Continue every year until eradicated. Follow up hand pulling seedlings diligently.

Monitoring and follow up control will be essential for success.

Monitor annually for germinating seedlings until no further plants are found for a few years running Monitoring and follow up control will be essential for success.

Profile for Cradle Coast Authority

West Ulverstone Penguin Habitat Management Plan  

Penguin Habitat Management Plan for West Ulverstone. Bushways Environmental Services - Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan. April 2009.

West Ulverstone Penguin Habitat Management Plan  

Penguin Habitat Management Plan for West Ulverstone. Bushways Environmental Services - Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan. April 2009.