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FINAL REPORT

MAPPING & VALUING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OF THE CRADLE COAST REGION, TASMANIA

With a focus on Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change, Tourism & Recreation and Quality of Life

Professor Jann Williams NRM Insights

February 2013

A report to Cradle Coast NRM, funded through the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country.

Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Executive Summary Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. During the past decade the United Nations used the concept to undertake a global review and assessment of ecosystem services to inform international investments in sustainable development. The concept of ecosystem services has subsequently been used by research and policy groups to consider the significance of ecosystems in several regions of the world. This project is the first use of the concept at a regional scale in Tasmania. Stage 1 of the project was undertaken during 2009 and presented an overview of approaches available to examine ecosystem services in the Cradle Coast Region. This report, which is part of Stage 2 of the project, was conceived as a ‘proof-of-concept’ study to demonstrate how selected ecosystem services could be quantified and mapped in the region across a number of themes to inform natural resource management. Stage 2 was undertaken during 2010 with a report on the Biodiversity Conservation theme completed in May 2010. The present report focuses on regional ecosystems and ecosystem services that are important for the following themes: Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change, Tourism & Recreation and overall Quality of Life. In addition, a comparative analysis of the ecosystems and ecosystems services in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine was undertaken. A range of variables were used to consider the nature and significance of the eight ecosystem service themes chosen for examination in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. The broad land cover types (‘ecosystem reporting categories’) for which spatial data was available for the Cradle Coast region included native vegetation, revegetation, protected areas, grazing, forestry, cropping and horticulture. Data was available at different scales and levels of aggregation. As a consequence, some services and themes are reported at a fine scale while others are presented at the level of administrative units such as Local Government Areas. Regional Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services The Cradle Coast region of Tasmania comprises approximately 2.26 million (M) ha of land and supports a diverse range of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Over 60% of the land resource in the region is dedicated to World Heritage, protected areas and other reserves. Food and fibre production in the region is based on a land resource of over 376,000 ha. In addition, a range of estuaries and marine ecosystems are used to support commercial and recreational fishing and aquaculture. Approximately 21,483 ha of land (6%) are used for cropping, 283,949 ha (74%) support grazing, 70,433 ha (19%) support forest plantations and 320 ha are estimated to support horticulture. Tourism is important in the region and is expected to grow in the future. A feature of the Cradle Coast region is the intact to variegated nature of its native ecosystems. Where possible, this project mapped and valued the services provided by the full suite of ecosystems found in the region, from relatively natural ecosystems to highly modified (simplified) ecosystems such as crops and introduced pastures. Assigning monetary values to ecosystem services or themes was undertaken where it could be done readily and unequivocally. Value transfer methods were not used in the study, with only financial data available directly from the region utilised. This information is reported under different themes where available. For example, the monetary value of many of the region’s ecosystems that support services such as food production and tourism and recreation were able to be quantified. These services are vital to the regional economy. Simply taken alone, these services generate annual economic turnover in the region approaching $1 billion in monetary value and underpin many thousands of jobs. Biodiversity conservation – The region supports a diversity of native ecosystems, biota and habitats. Many of these ecosystems remain relatively intact and provide a significant range of ecosystem services for human benefit. At the same time, a number of native ecosystems have been heavily modified as a result of human use and the biota reliant on these systems for habitat are threatened or increasingly exposed to major risks. The ability of all of these Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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ecosystems to sustain biodiversity and deliver services is reliant on prudent natural resource management and strategic investments to improve ecosystem condition and the quality of habitats. Food production & security – The simplified ecosystems of the Cradle Coast region (e.g. crops, introduced pastures) produce a broad range of services under this theme, including vegetables, fruit, grains, meat and dairy. The estimated total value of (land-based) food production in the Cradle Coast region in 2006 was approximately $430 M. Around 50% of the total value of this food production was derived from cropping, and 35% from livestock products. The total value of food production was highest in the Circular Head region at approximately $140 M and lowest in the West Coast region at <$0.3 M. Differences in food production across Local Government Areas (LGAs) reflect the spatial variation in natural resources that are able to support agricultural food production. The estimated economic value of annual crop production (per ha) was highest in the Devonport LGA (~$4,000 per ha). The highest estimated economic value of livestock production was approximately $1000 per ha in the Circular Head LGA. It is estimated that the ecosystem services provided by native vegetation in the Cradle Coast region underpin ~45% of the State’s annual (land-based) food production as measured in dollar terms. In 2006 the estimated total annual value of Tasmania’s agricultural production reliant on plant pollination was in excess of $350 M, with approximately 50% of this production value derived from the Cradle Coast region. Food production from wild fisheries such as rock lobster, abalone, giant crab and fish species, and aquaculture activities involving salmonoids, Pacific oyster, and mussel is significant in the region. The economic value of food produce from wild fisheries and aquaculture in the region is likely to well exceed $200 M per annum. The services provided by marine ecosystems underpin the majority of this production. The diversity of services provided by a range of terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region has important implications for regional food security. Water security − Freshwater in the Cradle Coast region is principally extracted from rivers/streams, groundwater and dams and used for energy production, food production, industrial purposes and domestic consumption. While simplified ecosystems such as crops and introduced pastures provide important provisioning services, in addition to affecting water supply and quality, the extraction of water for human use can influence the ability of freshwater systems and their catchments to provide other ecosystem services. Land use has an impact on both the quantity and quality of water available for humans, with intensive dairy production and cropping having the largest effect on nutrient levels in runoff. Management practices can be put in place to reduce the impacts of land management on water quantity and quality and thus help address water security. Coastal stability − In the order of 1,200 ha of urban areas are estimated to be located within one km of the coastline in the region. A significant proportion of this total area is found within the city boundaries of Devonport, Burnie-Somerset and Ulverstone-Penguin. The Mersey, Cam and Leven catchments were assigned a high ranking in terms of coastal vulnerability based on these data. Areas retaining significant estuarine naturalness are confined to those more remote sites of the west coast and far north-west coast of the Cradle Coast region. The degree of modification of coastal, native vegetation communities in the region is high and, as a consequence, the extent of vulnerable vegetation within one km of the coast in these areas is ranked as medium or high. These and other results show that the coastal stability provided by intact native ecosystems has been reduced in many of the catchments along the north coast of the Cradle Coast region. This has implications for the resilience of these systems to climate change, in particular to sea level rise. It can also affect the value of both agricultural and urban land through subsidence and the loss of other services provided by these ecosystems such as tourism and recreation. Tourism & recreation − A relatively high proportion of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems has natural values in the Cradle Coast region, with nature-based tourism being increasingly promoted. The estimated total number of visitors to Tasmania during 2009 was approximately 995,000 (854,400 interstate visitors, 140,600 international). Some 350,000 Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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people visited north-west Tasmania and 280,000 visited the western wilderness region during April 2009−March 2010. During the 2008−2009 financial year, the visitor count to Cradle Mountain was 171,025. If it is assumed that all annual visitors to north-west Tasmania make one-third of their total expenditure in this region (on average), then the total tourism expenditure in the Cradle Coast region during the 2008-2009 financial year would be in the order of $184 M. A significant proportion of this expenditure appears motivated by visitors enjoying nature-based experiences provided by the region’s natural heritage. Carbon - The large majority of carbon within the Cradle Coast region is found in native terrestrial ecosystems and the surrounding ocean and sea. The status of carbon stores on land is strongly influenced by land use and the quality of land management practices. Estimates of the range in above ground carbon for non-forest and forest native vegetation communities found in the region are 50−300 t per ha. The estimates of belowground carbon for these types of sites show considerable variability, ranging from 100−750 t per ha. More detailed data on both soil and vegetation is however required to accurately map carbon storage and sequestration in the region. The sustainable management of native forests and other native vegetation communities (such as remnant vegetation) on agricultural lands, as well as the simplified terrestrial ecosystems that largely produce food, is essential if carbon stores are to be conserved. Depending on how they develop, carbon markets have the potential to provide significant income for the provision of this ecosystem service. Resilience to climate change − The climate of the Cradle Coast region has, on average, become warmer and drier since records commenced in 1910. The rate of increase in mean annual temperature has become faster since 1990 and increased by 0.31°C between 1990 and 2007. Climate change and changes in land use and land management are likely to have important implications for the status of ecosystems and their ability to support a range of ecosystem services. These changes may affect the delivery of ecosystem services by changing the extent, condition and productivity of ecosystems and, as a consequence, modifying ecological processes and ecosystem functioning. The use of tools for exploring the reconnection of fragmented landscapes has the potential to increase the resilience of ecosystems to climate change and the ecosystem services they deliver. Quality of life − Ecosystems and the services they provide underpin the well-being of humans and their quality of life. Unlike many other parts of the world, it is possible for residents and visitors to the Cradle Coast region to enjoy a range of benefits locally. Local heterogeneity in terms of ecosystem service delivery improves the quality of life in much of the region. Ecosystems were shown to support a range of services that underpinned the well-being and quality of life of people, communities and human settlements in the region. For example, ecosystems provide the basic materials and resources required for people to have a viable livelihood and to raise a family. This form of security typically underpins the health of individuals and their families and communities. Ecosystem services support freedom of choice and action since they provide materials and resources that enable individuals to have more options to pursue a fulfilling lifestyle. Additional, spatially explicit data is required to model and map quality of life. Regional diversity of ecosystem services − Terrestrial ecosystems in the region vary in their ability to support different ecosystem services. Of the themes considered in the project it was estimated that approximately 60% of the land area of the region supports ecosystems contributing in a primary way to biodiversity conservation. A comparable percentage of land supports the ecosystem service themes of carbon, water security, and resilience to climate change. It was estimated that the extent of ecosystems primarily supporting tourism and recreation is around 850,000 ha or approximately one third of the land area of the region, while food production is primarily supported from ecosystems in the region with a combined area of some 300,000 ha. Around 60% of the region’s land area has ecosystems that support five or more of the ecosystem service themes considered in the project.

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The Leven Catchment and the Tarkine: a case study The Leven catchment covers an area of approximately 73,000 ha and supports a number of human settlements including the coastal town and port of Ulverstone. Major land uses include agriculture, forestry and nature conservation. Natural heritage is a significant feature of the catchment and supports a range of recreation and tourism activities. Compared to the Tarkine, a relatively high proportion of land area in the catchment is dedicated to human settlement and food production. The ecosystems found in the Tarkine are important for human activities such as tourism, recreation, mining and forestry. A diverse range of native vegetation communities and over 400 plant species exist within the Tarkine. A number of significant communities and plant and animal species are found, including the second largest extent of cool temperate rainforest in the world. More data is required on the diversity of non-vascular plants such as lichens and fungi which is also known to be high. The extent of modification of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems is a differentiating feature of the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. The ecosystems of both areas support water extraction for human use, particularly in the northern portion of the Leven catchment where water extraction for agriculture is high. Climate change will affect ecosystems in both areas. This project estimated that less than 25% of the land area of the Leven catchment supports more than five of the ecosystem services themes examined in this study. In contrast, over 75% of the Tarkine (by area) supports ecosystems that provide five or more of the ecosystem service themes considered here, including contributions to biodiversity conservation, carbon and resilience to climate change. The development of a holistic and integrated management framework for the Tarkine will be important to sustain key ecosystems, protect ecosystem service delivery and facilitate sustainable tourism. Integrating ecosystem services into natural resource management A number of important natural resource management implications emerge in relation to potential developments in the Cradle Coast region. On-going investments and management interventions to improve the condition of the region’s natural resource assets will be essential given the nature and rate of environmental change in the region. It is important that regional planning and management approaches are flexible and able to incorporate ecosystem services into natural resource management and decision making. Cradle Coast NRM (CCNRM) has an important role to play in working with a wide range of stakeholders involved in ecosystem and natural resource management in the region to support sustainable regional development and the on-going delivery of essential ecosystem services. In doing so, the full suite of ecosystems (from relatively natural to highly modified/simplified) should be considered. Recommendations This project was conceived as a ‘proof of concept’ for using ecosystem services to inform natural resource management in the Cradle Coast region. The findings demonstrate that the concept is indeed a useful one to utilise and build on. The services the ecosystems in the region provide underpin the region’s economy and the quality of life enjoyed by citizens and the community. Future investments in natural resource management should be developed with this setting in mind. It is recommended that:  CCNRM promotes planning and management decisions and investments in natural resource management that are consistent with the protection and sustainable management of the full suite of the region’s ecosystems and their ecosystem services.  CCNRM continues to promote the concept of ecosystem services to the community and industry.  CCNRM strengthens its capacity to work closely with planners, managers and other stakeholders in the region to sustain native ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide and promote best management practices in simplified ecosystems.

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 CCNRM strengthens its role as a ‘broker’ to ensure that all regional management bodies are aware of the significance of the ecosystem services delivered by the full suite of regional ecosystems, and by providing natural resource and environmental information to enhance management in these systems.  CCNRM strengthens its engagement with regional industry stakeholders and land managers to ensure that the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the region is undertaken with minimal risks to sustainability and the on-going delivery of ecosystem services in the region’s agricultural landscapes.  CCNRM continues to promote integrated and sustainable approaches to ecosystem management in areas such as the Tarkine where the diversity and importance of ecosystem services are distinctive.  CCNRM considers supporting a project that increases the ability to map and value Quality of Life as an important ecosystem service theme.

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Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the support and technical input and advice received from the staff of Cradle Coast NRM in undertaking the project. Alison Dugand and Sue Botting deserve a special mention for the support they provided. In particular, Sue Botting was very helpful during the finalisation of the draft report. Important spatial data were made available through the data share agreement between CCNRM and the Tasmanian State Government, especially the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. The input and advice from the project Reference Group, which consisted of Dr Petina Pert (CSIRO), Associate Professor Nick Reid (University of New England) and Professor Tony Norton (University of Tasmania), is also gratefully acknowledged. Nick Reid was especially diligent with his feedback on the draft report, which was much appreciated. Grant Dickins, Managing Director of Naturally Spatial P/L provided key support to the project and undertook the spatial analyses presented in the report.

Cover photos (from left to right): the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;heterogeneousâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Forth river valley, the iconic Cradle Mountain and the Western Explorer road through the Tarkine. All images taken by Jann Williams.

Citing the Report The report can be cited as: Williams, J.E. (2013). Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania. Final report to Cradle Coast NRM. Professor Jann Williams is Managing Director of NRM Insights P/L based in Tasmania. For more information, please contact: Professor Jann Williams Managing Director, NRM Insights P/L PO Box 3263 UMDC Ulverstone TAS 7315. E: jann@nrminsight.com.au M: 0419 520 776.

Disclaimer Care has been taken in the development of this report and the data presented herein. However, this does not guarantee that the report is without flaws or its conclusions and recommendations are wholly appropriate for all purposes or situations. Therefore, the author disclaims all liability for any loss or other consequence which may arise from reliance on any information contained in the report.

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Contents Page Executive Summary

2

Acknowledgements

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Citing the Report

7

Disclaimer

7

Contents

8

List of Tables

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List of Figures

10

List of Boxes

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Section1: Introduction 1.1 Definition of ecosystem services 1.2 Aims of study

14 14 16

Section 2: Data Collection, Spatial Analysis and Ecosystem Service Tools 2.1 Tools for mapping and valuing ecosystem services

18 20

Section 3: Mapping of Ecosystems Services 3.1 Regional Mapping 3.2 Leven catchment and the Tarkine

21 21 22

Section 4: Results and Discussion 4.1 Regional mapping 4.2 The Tarkine and the Leven catchment: a case study 4.3 Regional diversity of ecosystem services 4.4 Forecasts of regional land use change and implications for ecosystem services

23 23 41 46

Section 5: Conclusions and Recommendations 5.1 Ecosystem services and quality of life 5.2 Forecasting changes in the provision of ecosystem services 5.3 Investments in NRM and ecosystem services 5.4 Recommendations

52 54 55 55 56

Section 6: Ecosystem Services Theme Maps

57

Section 7: References

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48

Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3:

104 115 118

Notes

122

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List of Tables

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Table 1: Broad themes and related ecosystem services in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. 17 Table 2: Variables used to help quantitatively examine the nature and significance of ecosystem service themes in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. 21 Table 3: The area (ha) of cropping, grazing, plantation forestry and horticulture, as broadly defined, by LGA in the Cradle Coast region. 25 Table 4: The estimated economic value ($M) of agricultural production (total agriculture), crop production (total crops), livestock products, and agricultural production reliant on plant pollination in Tasmania. 27 Table 5: Extent of agricultural land per catchment, total area of remnant native vegetation on agricultural land in each catchment, and the proportion of remnant vegetation on agricultural land in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. 29 Table 6: Number of farm dams, total area of farm dams and percentage are of catchment supporting dams for the Cradle Coast region. 31 Table 7: Area of water catchment, area of native vegetation per catchment and percentage of native vegetation remaining in each catchment in the Cradle Coast. 32 Table 8: Total urban area (identified by settlement name and catchment location) estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline in the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting urban areas. 33 Table 9: Total area of intensive land use estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline in the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting intensive land uses. 34 Table 10: Total area (ha) of vulnerable vegetation estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline of each catchment within the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting vulnerable vegetation. 35 Table 11: Estimated annual number of visitors to major sites managed by the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service from 1 July 2004 through 30 June 2009 (source: DPIPWE 2010) 37 Table 12: Area of terrestrial ecosystems (absolute and % area of region in ha) estimated to support one or more of the 8 ecosystem service themes considered for the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Figure 34, above, for mapped distribution of regional ecosystems). 46 Table 13: Estimated minimum area (ha), and percentage of the region, with terrestrial ecosystems primarily supporting each ecosystem service theme considered for the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Note that the theme Quality of Life was not considered in this analysis. 48 Table 14: Estimated extent of different agricultural land uses (ha) and land used by major agricultural industries in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. 50

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List of Figures (Most of the figures are found in Section 6 of the report) Figure 1: The overarching ecosystem services framework used in this report.

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Figure 2: Water catchments (numbered 1–38) found in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. The region supports a significant number of the catchments found in the State. 19 Figure 3: Regional land cover found in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (red: intensive land uses; orange: agricultural production; yellow: native vegetation and forestry areas used for grazing; green: areas principally dedicated to conservation and natural environments) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 24 Figure 4: Food Production & Security − Distribution of lands used for cropping, dairy, grazing and forestry in the Cradle Coast region. Catchments boundaries are shown in black, LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 57 Figure 5: Food Production & Security − Estimated value of total food production in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 58 Figure 6: Food Production & Security − Estimated value of total crop production in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 59 Figure 7: Food Production & Security − Estimated value of total livestock products in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 60 Figure 8: Food Production & Security − Extent of marine areas supporting ecosystem services around Tasmania, including the Cradle Coast region. Integrated Marine and Coastal Biogeographic Regionalisation of Australia (IMCRA) regions in Tasmania (Source: the LIST).61 Figure 9: Food Production & Security − Spatial extent of native vegetation (green) remaining on agricultural lands (cream) in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 62 Figure 10: Food Production & Security − Remnant native vegetation remaining on agricultural lands in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region based on the area of agricultural land per catchment classed as <20%, 20−40%, and >40% (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 63 Figure 11: Food Production & Security − Distribution of native vegetation communities (orange) considered an important source of pollen and pollinators in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 64 Figure 12: Food Production & Security − Estimated value of total food production reliant on plant pollination in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 65 Figure 13: Water Security − Estimated degree of water extraction water within catchments of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light blue: balanced diversion and removals of water, dark blue: large net diversion of water into rivers, red: large net removal from rivers) (see Appendix 2 for methods) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 66

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Figure 14: Water Security − Estimated number of dams and artificial water bodies within catchments in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light blue: relatively low, blue: medium, dark blue: relatively high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 67 Figure 15: Water Security − Estimated water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on nitrate sampling (light blue: within accepted range, blue: above accepted range, dark blue: considerably above accepted range, grey: no samples available) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 68 Figure 16: Water Security − Estimated water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on turbidity readings (light blue: within accepted range, blue: above accepted range, dark blue: considerably above accepted range, grey: no samples available) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 69 Figure 17: Water Security − Degree of catchment disturbance (light blue: low, blue: medium, dark blue: high) found in the Cradle Coast region based on the extent of native vegetation and land cover modification (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 70 Figure 18: Coastal Stability − Estimated extent of coastal human infrastructure shown for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light grey: low, dark grey: medium, black: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 71 Figure 19: Coastal Stability − Estimated extent of intensive coastal land use for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light grey: low, dark grey: medium, black: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 72 Figure 20: Coastal Stability − Major estuaries in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania with an estimate of their naturalness (red: low, yellow: medium, green: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 73 Figure 21: Coastal Stability − Estimated degree of vulnerability coastal vegetation for each catchment within the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light green: low; green: medium; dark green: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 74 Figure 22: Coastal Stability − Estimated condition of coastal vegetation ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region. 75 Figure 23: Carbon − Extent of productive forests in Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 76 Figure 24: Carbon − Regional sub-catchments estimated to be in poor condition due to erosion (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 77 Figure 25: Carbon − Areas estimated to be of concern for soil carbon management.

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Figure 26: Resilience to Climate Change − Estimated frequency of occurrence of patches of remnant vegetation in catchments of the Cradle Coast region (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 79 Figure 27: An example of the analysis possible using Patch Data Viewer to examine buffering and increased connectivity between patches to increase resilience to climate change. 40 Figure 28: Extent of human infrastructure and settlements in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 80

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Figure 29: Extent of native vegetation and areas designated for conservation in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 81 Figure 30: Annual rainfall distribution in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 82 Figure 31: Biodiversity Conservation – Native vegetation communities in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. See text for additional information. 83 Figure 32: Biodiversity Conservation – The distribution of native grasslands and sedgelands in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 84 Figure 33: Biodiversity Conservation –The distribution of Priority and Threatened wetlands in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 85 Figure 34: Biodiversity Conservation – The distribution and type of listed threatened vegetation communities in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 86 Figure 35: Biodiversity Conservation – Number of listed Priority fauna in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 87 Figure 36: Food Production & Security - Distribution of lands used for cropping, grazing and forestry in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 88 Figure 37: Food Production & Security – The amount of remnant native vegetation on agricultural land in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 89 Figure 38: Extent of catchment disturbance in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 90 Figure 39: Water Security - Degree of water extraction in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 91 Figure 40: Carbon - Land use in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 92 Figure 41: Carbon - The extent of rainforest and eucalypt forest communities in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. 93 Figure 42: Number of ecosystem service themes supported as a result of existing land use in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 44, 94 Figure 43: Significant ecosystems estimated to occur in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment as a result of existing land use. 45, 95 Figure 44: Ecosystem service themes supported as a result of existing land use in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 47, 96 Figure 45: Four areas of potential land use intensification around Table Cape, Penguin, Ulverstone, and Wesley Vale-Sassafras (red circles) indicate areas where active ecosystem management appears particularly important (reproduced from NRM Insights 2010). 51

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Figure 46: Distribution of some significant ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region that support important ecosystem service themes such as food production, coastal stability, biodiversity conservation, tourism and recreation, and resilience to climate change (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). 53, 97 Figure 47: Poster created on the benefits provided by healthy shoreline wetlands in the Circular Head region (reproduced from Mount et al. 2010). 98

List of Boxes

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Box 1: Definitions of key terms for this report, based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005). 15 Box 2: Broad land cover types (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ecosystem reporting categoriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;) for which spatial data are available for the Cradle Coast region. 18 Box 3: Recommendations for NRM investments in biodiversity in the Cradle Coast region identified from an analysis of ecosystem services by Williams (2010). 25

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SECTION 1: Introduction During the last decade the concept of ecosystem services has been used to examine the value of nature’s contributions to human activities in several regions of the world (Costanza et al. 1997, EASAC 2009, Nelson et al. 2009, Reyer et al. 2009, Williams 2009). Although much of the focus has been on the theoretical aspects of ecosystem services, multidisciplinary research groups have begun to examine how information on these services can be developed as a useful decision support tool for policy and management directed to regional development and sustainability (Daily et al. 2009, Villa et al. 2009). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment published by the United Nations Environment Program in 2005 (MEA 2005) used the concept of ecosystem services to present the first global overview of the services provided by ecosystems to the benefit of humans. This information has subsequently been used to review and propose new targets for the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recently, several international and Australian programs have been completed that build on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report (Williams 2009). Quantitative information on ecosystem services has been used to inform natural resource management and to consider the implications of different land use scenarios at a regional level in North and Latin America, China, east Asia and Australia (Maynard 2009a, 2009b; Pert et al. 2010, Tallis and Polasky 2010, Williams 2010). Cradle Coast NRM (CCNRM) has identified ecosystem services as a useful concept to inform natural resource management policy and planning in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. NRM Insights P/L was contracted by CCNRM to scope and undertake a project to map and value the ecosystem services of the region. The overall activity was called the CCNRM Ecosystem Services project and two stages of research were identified for completion in 20092010. Stage 1 of the ecosystem services project presented an overview of approaches to mapping and valuing ecosystem services and provided direction on strategic planning needs for natural resource management in the Cradle Coast Region. Stage 1 was completed in December 2009 (see Williams 2009). Stage 2 of the project was conceived as a ‘proof-of-concept’ study to demonstrate how selected ecosystem services could be quantified, mapped and valued in the Cradle Coast region, and how this information could be used to inform natural resource management. The focus of the study was on eight themes − Biodiversity Conservation, Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change, Tourism & Recreation, and Quality of Life. In May 2010 a report was completed on Biodiversity Conservation as part of Stage 2 of the project (Williams 2010). The Biodiversity report is complementary to this one and where referenced should be accessed for details about that element of the project. The information presented below forms the second report for Stage 2 of the project. This report presents information relevant to seven of the themes − Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change, Tourism & Recreation, and Quality of Life - in the Cradle Coast region, and considers all eight themes as part of a comparative assessment of the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. The Tarkine encompasses a number of catchments or parts there-of including the Pieman, Arthur and Nelson Bay. The region’s boundaries being defined by a range of physical features described below. 1.1 Definition of ecosystem services A number of definitions and classifications have been developed to classify, describe and value ecosystem services (e.g. de Groot et al. 2002, Boyd and Banzhaf 2007, Fisher et al. 2009). The definition of ecosystem services used by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) was adopted for this project. Ecosystem services were defined as the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems and include the myriad of roles that ecosystems play in supporting biodiversity (Box 1).

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Box 1: Definitions of key terms used in this report, based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005). Ecosystems: Ecosystems are the dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit. They range from relatively undisturbed, such as natural forests, to landscapes with mixed patterns of human use and to ecosystems intensively managed and modified by humans such as agricultural land and urban areas. Humans are an integral part of ecosystems. Ecosystem services: The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. It includes the diversity within and between species and diversity of ecosystems. The conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning in order to maintain ecosystem services is a fundamental objective of sustainable management and the integrated management of land, water and biodiversity. However, there may not be a simple one-to-one relationship between ecosystem functions and ecosystem services since these services are typically produced through a complex interaction of processes. Understanding the ecological processes underpinning ecosystem services is important as it enables the linkages between ecosystem types and the services they provide to be clarified. This knowledge then provides the basis to identify the significance of different ecosystems at a catchment and regional level that provide services of special importance for human benefit. The different services provided by ecosystems have been grouped as four general types − regulating services (those that regulate and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems), provisioning services (those that provide products such as food, fibre and fresh water), supporting services (those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services (e.g. nutrient and water cycling)), and cultural services (those that enable opportunities for human fulfillment and cognitive development) (Williams 2009). ‘Locations’ are used as the basis for the overarching framework used for this report (Figure 1). This is because people relate to physical locations, they are what are mapped and discussed in the field (e.g. at field days) and different services are provided at different location depending on the ecosystems found at a site. In this model, natural capital (energy, earth, water, air and biota) underpins the delivery of ecosystem services and supports human capital. Four general types of ecosystem services (as described above and in Box 2) are related in various combinations to a number of overarching themes. ‘Supporting services’, which support the other service types, are linked to them by arrows. In the overarching framework (Figure 1) there is a two way interaction between human capital and the ecosystem services where ecosystems provide the services required by humans and in turn humans impact on the delivery of these services. Likewise, there can be two way interactions between ecosystem services provided at different locations. For example, the pollination services from native vegetation can influence the productivity of neighbouring crops. This framework, while drawing on the work of Constanza (e.g. Boumans and Costanza 2007) and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), differs from both of them. For example, the figure demonstrating linkages between ecosystem services and human wellbeing in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) shows them as separate entities with only one-way arrows between them. In contrast, in Figure 1, both ecosystem services and well-being sits within the overarching ambit of natural capital, with two way interactions between ecosystem services and human capital, which includes well-being. The well-being of humans can have an impact on ecosystem services in numerous ways, including the need to Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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deplete certain services (such as biodiversity) by converting natural systems to more simplified ones if basic human needs such as food and shelter (provisioning services) are not being met.

Figure 1: The overarching ecosystem services framework used in this report. 1.2 Aims of study The principal aims of the study were to undertake a spatial analysis of selected ecosystem services at a Cradle Coast regional scale, and to complement the regional assessment with a comparative analysis of ecosystem services in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. The Leven catchment supports a diverse range of land uses including rural lifestyle and coastal recreation while the Tarkine consists principally of native vegetation and supports a more limited range of direct human land uses. The boundary for the Leven catchment is based on the watershed boundary used by the State Government to define the catchment. The boundaries for the Tarkine are the Arthur River in the north, the Pieman River in the south, the west coast and the Murchison Highway in the east. The focus of the study was on quantifying and mapping ecosystem services that are recognised to be important for supporting Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change, Tourism & Recreation and Quality of Life (Table 1). A detailed analysis of the Biodiversity Conservation theme can be found in Williams (2010). The links between ecosystem services and human quality of life may be complex, diverse and context-dependent. Similarly, assessing the quality of life dimensions of ecosystem services may be complex as it requires considering who the beneficiaries are of these services, the nature of the benefits received from ecosystem services, and the relative importance of these Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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benefits. The study aimed to consider a number of these complexities as a basis to illustrate some of the relationships between natural ecosystems and quality of life in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Table 1: Broad themes and related ecosystem services examined in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Services marked with an asterisk are drawn from Reid et al. (2008) â&#x2C6;&#x2019; all the others are adapted from the MEA (2005). Parentheses indicate ecosystem services for which sufficient data could not be identified. THEME 1: BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

THEME 5: TOURISM & RECREATION

Regulating services Habitat provision* Dispersal of seeds, propagules and translocation of nutrients* Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience* Pollination Supporting services Maintenance of biodiversity* Evolution* Primary production

Cultural services Natural heritage and biodiversity conservation* Cultural identity and diversity

THEME 2: FOOD PRODUCTION & SECURITY Provisioning services Food and beverages Forage Fibre (e.g. wool) Timber and wood products Biomass fuel Regulating services Pollination Natural hazard regulation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; especially fire Air quality regulation Pest regulation Supporting services Nutrient cycling (aquatic resources)

Cultural heritage values Recreation and tourism (Aesthetic values) (Inspiration)

THEME 6: CARBON Regulating services Carbon sequestration* Provisioning services Timber and wood products Biomass fuel Fibre Supporting services Primary production Secondary production Soil formation

THEME 7: RESILIENCE to CLIMATE CHANGE Regulating services Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience* Carbon sequestration* Climate regulation

THEME 3: WATER SECURITY Provisioning services Fresh water Regulating services Surface water eco-regulation Groundwater eco-regulation Supporting services (Water cycling)

THEME 4: COASTAL STABILITY Regulating services Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience* Habitat provision* Coastal storm protection Erosion regulation Cultural heritage conservation* Natural heritage and biodiversity conservation*

THEME 8: QUALITY OF LIFE Provisioning services Fresh water Food and beverages Cultural services (Psychological health and well-being)* Cultural identity and diversity Recreation and tourism (Aesthetic values) (Inspiration) (Sense of place)

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SECTION 2: Data Collection, Spatial Analysis and Ecosystem Service Tools The type and sources of data employed to map selected ecosystem services within each theme considered in the study are shown in Appendix 1. Spatial data layers were derived using data sets considered adequate for the purposes of the study, and for which documented metadata were available. Data sourced from the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE) including that from the Land Information System Tasmania (‘theLIST’; http://www.thelist.tas.gov.au/) was obtained via Cradle Coast NRM using a data share/service agreement with that Department. Catchment boundaries follow that adopted by DPIPWE and used in theLIST (Figure 2) and sub-catchments follow the definition and boundaries used in the Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV) project (DPIW 2008). The broad land cover types (‘ecosystem reporting categories’) for which spatial data was available for the Cradle Coast region (Box 2) included native vegetation, revegetation, protected areas, grazing, forestry, cropping and horticulture. These categories cover the full suite of ecosystems in the region, from relatively natural to highly modified (simplified). Assigning monetary values to ecosystem services or themes was undertaken where it could be done readily and unequivocally. For example, many of the region’s ecosystems support food production and tourism and recreation, themes that are vital to the regional economy and which were able to be quantified. Value transfer methods were not used, with only financial data directly from the region utilised. Reid et al. (2008) demonstrated that even with a significant effort to collect data on the monetary value of ecosystem services from native vegetation in northern Victoria, the available data (both locally and from similar environments) was very patchy and often outdated. A scan of data for native vegetation in the Cradle Coast region found similar results. Despite these limitations, the monetary value of ecosystem service provision is reported under different themes where available. Examples include food production and tourism and recreation. Data was available at different scales and at different levels of aggregation. For example, some of the financial information available for crop and livestock production was available for Local Government Areas (LGA). Spatial data analysis and the production of maps were undertaken using geographic information system (GIS) software such as ESRI ArcInfo and ArcView (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA: www.esri.com), through the company Naturally Spatial P/L. Summary tabulations of analyses were stored as Microsoft Excel files and these were reproduced as maps, figures and tables in the project report, as appropriate. Box 2: Broad land cover types (‘ecosystem reporting categories’) for which spatial data are available for the Cradle Coast region. Native vegetation (TASVEG) Revegetation Protected areas Grazing (native vegetation) Grazing modified pastures Production forestry Plantation forestry Dryland cropping Irrigated modified pastures Irrigated cropping Irrigated horticulture Intensive uses

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Figure 2: Water catchments of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania used in this project (following the system adopted by DPIPWE and used in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;theLISTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). The Tarkine region includes a number of catchments, as described in Section 1.

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Map products were created to serve the research, public consultation and investment decision-making requirements of the project. All maps were produced in hardcopy and digital form. NRM data were accessed from a variety of government, academic and other sources including Cradle Coast NRM, NRM North, NRM South, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Private Forests Tasmania and the University of Tasmania. Several of the maps use classes of data to map catchments or themes of low, medium and high concern (or equivalent). The methods used for creating each of the map products presented in the report are outlined in Appendix 2. Map production recognises and acknowledges the base data from theLIST, Copyright State of Tasmania. 2.1 Tools for mapping and valuing ecosystem services Currently, no reliable ‘off-the-shelf’ tool is available that is suitable for mapping and valuing ecosystem services at multiple scales. Research groups at North American universities such as Stanford University (California) and the University of Vermont have been developing and testing tools for these purposes, but much more research and evaluation remains to be undertaken before these tools can be used reliably to inform policy and management. ‘InVEST’ (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) is the principal software tool for mapping ecosystem services that is under development at Stanford University (Tallis and Ricketts 2009, Karieva et al. 2011). This software tool is based on ESRI GIS software (i.e. ArcView and Spatial Analyst) and its use requires understanding of the Python computer scripting language to tailor to individual project circumstances and tasking requirements. Based on discussions with the InVEST team, it was concluded that it would take significant time and resources to adapt, test and deploy InVEST for use in a region such as north-western Tasmania. The five basic models that are currently available are either not relevant to the Cradle Coast region and/or that would require significant effort (including field data collection) to use even as a general guide. The philosophy underpinning InVEST, where biodiversity is not considered an ecosystem service, also does not align with this project. Another computer-based tool called ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services) is being developed by Dr Ferdinando Villa and colleagues at the University of Vermont, USA to map and value ecosystem services (Villa et al. 2009). This tool has been developed as a webbased platform using public domain mapping software developed and owned by Google. It is still very much in the development phase. A distinctive feature of this approach is the attempt to explicitly model the flow of ecosystem services to specific beneficiaries (Johnson et al. 2010). The future of ARIES remains uncertain as the development team at Vermont was disbanded in mid 2010 due to lack of on-going funding. Emerging regional approaches to ecosystem service evaluation are currently under development and evaluation in north east Queensland (e.g. Pert et al. 2010) and south east Queensland (e.g. Maynard et al. 2010). In Australia, one of the most active groups undertaking research and publishing on ecosystem services is based in Adelaide, as part of the CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems socio-economic group working on cultural, economic and environmental values associated with natural capital and ecosystem services (Crossman et al. 2010, Raymond et al. 2009, Yang et al. 2010). The group uses spatially explicit methods to examine ecosystem services, with a focus on agricultural landscapes in the southern MurrayDarling Basin. Despite these developments, at this stage no easily deployed tool is available for use in Tasmania. As a consequence, the present project has developed its own framework and approach (see Figure 1 and Box 2) to map ecosystem services and value the benefits they provide.

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SECTION 3: Mapping of Ecosystem Services A range of variables was used to consider the nature and significance of the eight ecosystem service themes chosen for examination in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (Table 2). Over 40 of the most pertinent maps are introduced below. The majority of the maps is found in Section 6, with a few key figures reproduced in the main report. Tables and maps of ecosystem services were considered at multiple scales including catchment (Figure 2), local government and landscape level. Digitised maps and data have been provided to CCNRM as part of the project. 3.1 Regional mapping Table 2 summarises the variables used to help quantitatively examine the nature and significance of ecosystem service themes in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Williams (2010) provides a detailed analysis of the Biodiversity Conservation theme. At the regional level the ecosystem services theme Food Production & Security was examined using a range of analyses (Table 2; Figure 3, and Figures 4â&#x2C6;&#x2019;12 in Section 6). These include: the extent of regional land cover dedicated to food production; the estimated monetary value of agricultural food production; the extent of native vegetation ecosystems remaining on agricultural lands that may contribute to production outcomes (such as providing shelter for livestock and habitat for native animal species involved in the pollination of agricultural crops and pest control); the distribution of native vegetation communities considered to be a potential important source of pollen and pollinators in the region and the estimated value of agricultural food production reliant on plant pollination. Table 2: Variables used to help quantitatively examine the nature and significance of ecosystem service themes in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Ecosystem Service Theme Biodiversity Conservation

Food Production & Security

Water Security Coastal Stability

Tourism & Recreation

Carbon

Resilience to Climate Change Quality of Life

Variables used for Mapping and Valuing Native vegetation extent across catchments, native vegetation communities across catchments, distribution of patches of native vegetation, modification of native vegetation across catchments, naturalness of estuaries across Cradle Coast Region, extent of kelp communities across Cradle Coast Region, extent of seagrass communities across Cradle Coast Region, native vegetation community richness of patches of remnant vegetation Land dedicated to food production, value of food production, extent of natural ecosystems remaining on agricultural land, ecosystems providing sources of pollen and supporting important pollinators, value of production reliant on pollination Extent of catchment disturbance, water quality, extent of water extraction and diversion used for human benefit, changing land use Extent of coastal settlements and infrastructure, extent of intensive land use near coast, naturalness of estuaries, condition and vulnerability of coastal vegetation ecosystems, changing land use Visitation rates for important natural heritage and cultural heritage sites, extent of terrestrial and marine protected areas supporting recreational activities and commercial tourism Nature of carbon stores above and belowground, extent of productive forests, status of soil carbon and potential for soil erosion, changing land use Naturalness of ecosystems, landscape connectivity, rainfall, environmental gradients, changing land use, diversity of ecosystems Regional richness of ecosystem services, combinations of other variables outlined above

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Information on the extent of water extraction in catchments (Figure 13 in Section 6), the number of dams and artificial water bodies within catchments (Figure 14 in Section 6), estimated water quality of catchments (Figures 15−16 in Section 6) and the degree of catchment disturbance (Figure 17 in Section 6) was used to consider the Water Security theme. The theme Coastal Stability was considered, in part, using spatial data estimating the extent of coastal human infrastructure in each catchment (Figure 18 in Section 6), the extent of intensive coastal land use for each catchment (Figure 19 in Section 6), the resource condition of major estuaries (Figure 20 in Section 6), the estimated degree of vulnerability of coastal vegetation for each catchment (Figure 21 in Section 6) (Table 2) and the estimated condition of coastal vegetation ecosystems (Figure 22 in Section 6). The theme Tourism & Recreation was considered, in part, using information on visitation rates for important natural heritage and cultural heritage sites, and information on the regional extent of lands dedicated to natural heritage and conservation (Table 2). The Carbon theme was considered using tabulated data sets and mapped data such as the extent of productive forests in the region (Figure 23 in Section 6), and catchments where soil management to protect belowground carbon stocks appears to be important (Figures 24−25 in Section 6). The theme Resilience to Climate Change was examined using factors such as the estimated degree of ecosystem modification of native vegetation (Figure 26), and the condition of coastal native vegetation communities (Figure 22, also used for the Coastal Stability theme) (Table 2). 3.2 The Leven catchment and the Tarkine The Leven catchment and the Tarkine support a diverse range of natural and humandominated ecosystems and important natural resource management assets. The ecosystem service themes supported by the Tarkine and the Leven catchment were considered using a range of variables shown in Table 2 to create Figures 28−41 in Section 6. A comparative discussion of the ecosystem service themes in these areas is presented in Section 4.2. The report on the Biodiversity Conservation theme by Williams (2010) was undertaken at the regional scale. Consequently, where relevant, some additional material on this theme is presented for the Leven/Tarkine case study.

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SECTION 4: Results and Discussion The Cradle Coast region of Tasmanian comprises approximately 2.26 million (M) ha of land and supports a diverse range of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human land uses (Figures 3 (below) and 8 (in Section 6)). Over 60% of the land resource is dedicated to World Heritage, protected areas and other reserves. These areas support ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, water security, tourism and recreation, and resilience to climate change. Around 17% of the land area of the region is currently used for food and fibre production (Figure 3). A range of ecosystem services in the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agricultural landscapes underpin food production and security. Human settlements in the region occupy a total land area of approximately 4,000 ha (Figure 3). The Cradle Coast region also supports an extensive area of marine, estuarine and in-shore ecosystems that deliver a range of regulating, provisioning and cultural services that underpin biodiversity conservation, food production and security, coastal stability, and tourism and recreation. Information on these ecosystems is less well documented compared to that for many terrestrial ecosystems in the region.

4.1 Regional Mapping Biodiversity Conservation A report to CCNRM was completed on the Biodiversity theme in May 2010 (Williams 2010). Readers are referred to that report for a detailed consideration of the ecosystem services supporting biodiversity at a regional scale. The report presented analyses of ecosystems services (regulating services such as habitat provision and maintenance of system stability and resilience; supporting services such as evolutionary potential) provided by biodiversity in the Cradle Coast region. This information was used to suggest some biodiversity priorities for natural resource management investment by CCNRM (Box 3). Some of the most significant biological features identified in the Cradle Coast region included: the Tasmanian West bioregion (featuring large tracts of near-natural ecosystems, significant areas of native and endemic vegetation, World Heritage); the King bioregion (significant wetlands, Ramsar Wetland, priority fauna species) the Northern Slopes bioregion (featuring important native vegetation ecosystems that are now fragmented, important lowland native grasslands listed as Nationally Threatened Ecological Communities); significant undisturbed coastlines (featuring wilderness, biodiversity, diverse tidal flats and seagrass communities, important communities with rare & threatened species); large and near-natural estuarine systems (featuring important ecosystems for biodiversity and breeding areas for a range of aquatic and marine taxa, key sites such as the Macquarie Harbour inlet) (also see Williams et al. 2010). A globally significant tract of large, natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems occurs in western Tasmania. This tract of native vegetation ecosystems exceeds 2 M ha in total area and provides resilience and evolutionary potential to a significant proportion of the terrestrial, estuarine and in-shore marine biodiversity in the Cradle Coast region and, indeed, to the State. The Tarkine was identified as an important part of the tract with largely intact native vegetation and significant biodiversity. Measures to protect biodiversity and sustain ecosystems such as those in the Port Davey, Wandererâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Giblin, Gordonâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Franklin, Nelson Bay and Arthur catchments were considered to warrant priority for natural resource management investment.

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Figure 3: Regional land cover found in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (red: intensive land uses including urban development; orange: agricultural production; yellow: native vegetation and forestry areas used for grazing; green: areas principally dedicated to conservation and natural environments). Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Box 3: Recommendations for NRM investments in biodiversity in the Cradle Coast region identified from an analysis of ecosystem services by Williams (2010).

Summary of Recommendations for NRM Investments to Increase Native Vegetation and Habitat Enhancing habitat of Lowland Grasslands Field assessment of the remaining extent, condition, threats and management options for lowland grassland communities is required. This information is considered essential for improving habitat. Habitat surveys for Giant Freshwater Crayfish New systematic field surveys of the Giant Crayfish are required to improve understanding of the present geographic distribution and habitat requirements of the species. Improving this information base is important for managing the habitat of the species including the subcatchments supporting habitat. Habitat models of priority fauna The data sets on priority fauna in the region need to be critically evaluated. Spatial habitats models of priority species should be developed, evaluated and (where appropriate) used to help protect and increase habitat for these species. Expanding habitat in biologically rich fragmented catchments The Leven is a fragmented catchment that is most notable in the region for the diversity of plant communities and threatened and priority flora and fauna it supports. This catchment warrants priority investment in new on-ground activities to protect and enhance biodiversity assets. Priorities for investment in these systems mirror those listed below for protecting and buffering intact ecosystems. Exploiting new decision support tools for habitat management New decision support tools such as Patch Data Viewer should be used to help protect, expand and link key remnant vegetation in fragmented catchments like the Leven. By increasing the habitat for threatened and priority species, an important ecosystem service will be enhanced. Protecting and enhancing habitats of large intact ecosystems New investment is required to improve the protection and buffering of large, intact terrestrial and coastal/in-shore marine ecosystems and the quality of habitats they support. New investments might include strategic re-vegetation/restoration that meets multiple objectives; enhancing native habitat through control of major weeds; support for appropriate grazing and fire regimes, through both on-ground management and education; baseline studies and monitoring to track changes due to management interventions and the impact of climate change; promoting sustainable practices for access and amenity to key habitats; and reviewing land use and land management in areas immediately adjacent to these intact ecosystems to improve the management of buffering habitats. New strategies for managing threatened and priority wetland habitats NRM investment is required to mitigate threats to threatened and priority wetlands, and their biota. Initially, new project funding is required to critically review the wetlands data sets and associated information. This review would examine the reliability of available data, identify key gaps in knowledge, and draft credible strategies to address the sustainable management of wetland ecosystems and habitats.

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Williams (2010) reported that a significant number of threatened native vegetation communities occur across the Cradle Coast region. The Cam catchment was found to be one of the most cleared in Australia with fewer than 1,000 patches of remnant native vegetation <50 ha in size remaining. King Island and the Inglis, Emu and Duck catchments were also identified to have native vegetation that is now highly fragmented. Because of the degree of vegetation modification in the region, Williams (2010) recommended that there was significant potential to secure, buffer and re-connect patches of remnant vegetation in several catchments. NRM investments that help to protect and sustain these ecosystems and their ability to deliver ecosystem services were considered very important. Examples of such investment included re-vegetation and restoration activities that can deliver multiple outcomes (e.g. enhance native habitat through control of major weeds, facilitate appropriate grazing and fire regimes, improve resilience of ecosystems to climate change) (Box 3).

Food Production & Security Food and fibre production from simplified ecosystems (e.g. crops and introduced pastures) in the region is based on a land resource of over 376,000 ha (Table 3). In addition, a range of estuaries and marine ecosystems are used to support commercial and recreation fishing and aquaculture. Approximately 21,483 ha of land (6%) are used for cropping, 283,949 ha (74%) support grazing, 70,433 ha (19%) only forest plantations and 320 ha are estimated to support horticulture (Figure 4 in Section 6). The large majority of forest plantations occur on private land in the region and comprises Eucalyptus species. The distribution of existing food and fibre production varies across the region and local government areas (LGAs) (Table 2). For example, a large proportion of King Island is used to support grazing (around 90,000 ha) compared to the West Coast local government area (around 2,000 ha) (Table 3). Table 3: The area (ha) of cropping, grazing, plantation forestry and horticulture by Local Government Areas (LGA) in the Cradle Coast region.

LGA

Cropping

Grazing

Plantation forestry

Horticulture

Total

Area of LGA

Burnie Central Coast Circular Head Devonport Kentish King Island Latrobe Waratah/Wynyard West Coast

1,399 7,974 1,602 1,888 1,447 0 4,322 2,851 0

11,886 24,447 85,314 3,487 25,133 91,164 16,087 24,529 1,902

1,5463 5,257 10,085 33 7,320 0 2,038 30,338 0

11 16 0 139 35 0 119 0 0

28,759 37,694 97,001 5,547 33,935 91,164 22,566 57,718 1,902

61,054 93,192 484,062 11,430 116,043 109,874 60,708 352,916 970,623

TOTAL

21,483

283,949

70,534

320

376,286

2,259,902

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The estimated total value of (land-based) food production in the Cradle Coast region in 2006 was approximately $430 M. This figure is based on the distribution of ecosystems such as crops, introduced pastures and plantations. Food production from native ecosystems such as honey is not included due to lack of data, so the figure is an underestimate. The total value of food production was highest in the Circular Head region at approximately $140 M and lowest in the West Coast region at <$0.3M. Around 50% of the total value of this food production was derived from cropping, and 35% from livestock products. Differences in food production across LGAs reflect the spatial variation in natural resources and ecosystem services that are able to support agricultural food production (e.g. AUSVEG 2010). Regional variation in the services (e.g. land-based food production) from simplified ecosystems can be illustrated by using a standardised measure such as the dollar value of production per ha in each local government area (Figures 5−7 in Section 6). Spatial variation in biophysical factors such as climate, topography and drainage, soil fertility and the availability of water for crops influences the distribution and inherent productive capacity of lands used for cropping in the region. This in turn influences the ability of these simplified ecosystems to provide services such as food production and support agriculture at the regional level. The significance of spatial variation in these factors is demonstrated by the large range in estimated economic value of annual crop production in the region. For example, the estimate for the West Coast was <$10 per ha compared to ~$4,000 per ha for the Devonport local government area. The estimated dollar value of crop production per unit area also is relatively high the Central Coast and Latrobe (e.g. Wesley Vale−Sassafras area) LGAs (Figure 6 in Section 6). The estimated economic value of livestock products in the Cradle Coast region varied across LGAs due to spatial variation in natural resources and ecosystem services provided by improved pastures and native vegetation (e.g. shade and shelter) (Figure 7 in Section 6). The highest estimated economic value of livestock production was approximately $1,000 per ha and this was reported for the Circular Head region (Figure 7 in Section 6). As observed for cropping lands, the ability of the Cradle Coast region to support livestock-based industries varies significantly depending on factors such as climate, local topography and land accessibility, and the ability of the local landscape to support pasture production. Table 4 summarises the economic value of annual agricultural production, crop production and livestock products in Tasmania, and illustrates the regional variation in these outputs based on the NRM regions. The natural resources and ecosystem services found in the Cradle Coast region underpin a significant proportion (~45%) of the State’s annual (land-based) food production as measured in dollar terms. Based on the 2006 agricultural census data available for Tasmania (ABS 2010), it was estimated that the total annual value of Tasmania’s agricultural production reliant on plant pollination was in excess of $350 M, with approximately 50% of this production value derived in the Cradle Coast region (Table 4). Table 4: The estimated economic value ($M) of agricultural production (total agriculture), crop production (total crops), livestock products, and agricultural production reliant on plant pollination in Tasmania based on the three NRM regions in the state.

Total agriculture Total crops Livestock products Production reliant on plant pollination

CCNRM

NRM North

NRM South

428.0 206.8 136.3 178.8

370.2 145.8 110.2 117.8

188.4 91.7 43.4 63.7

Figure 8 (in Section 6) illustrates the importance of the Cradle Coast for marine ecosystems, with four marine bioregions identified in the region. Food production from wild fisheries such as rock lobster, abalone, giant crab and fish species, and aquaculture activities involving salmonoids, Pacific oyster, and mussel is significant in the Cradle Coast region. The economic Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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value of food produce from wild fisheries and aquaculture in Tasmania exceeded $330 M in 2002 (ABS 2010) and is almost certainly significantly higher today. The relative economic contribution of the Cradle Coast region to the total economic value of fisheries and aquaculture production in the State is uncertain due to lack of data, but appears likely to be significant given the concentration of a number of marine resources and ecosystem services in the region that underpin this form of food production. For example, a significant proportion of the annual catch of rock lobster, abalone and giant crab is sourced from the region, and areas such as Macquarie Harbour support aquaculture activities such as salmon ‘farms’. As observed for land-based food production, it appears likely that around 50% of the total annual economic value of food production from Tasmania’s marine ecosystems is generated in the Cradle Coast region and this may have a monetary value in excess of $200 M. Williams (2010) included maps of kelp and seagrass communities in the Cradle Coast region, important marine ecosystems that deliver a range of ecosystem services. In a detailed study in the Circular Head region of north-west Tasmania, Mount et al. (2010) reported that shoreline, intertidal and subtidal habitats are primary producers on a significant scale, supporting foodwebs (and fisheries) in the immediate coastal areas and far beyond. Native vegetation ecosystems on agricultural lands provide a range of important ecosystem services to support food production and security of production including local meteorological conditions favourable to production, soil stability and soil erosion control, nutrient capture and recycling, and the provision of plant pollinators (MEA 2005, Box 1). The extent of native vegetation on lands used for food production can be used to indicate the status of these ecosystems and their potential ability to sustain ecosystem services of benefit to food production and the security of food production across the region. Measured at a catchment aggregate level, the extent of remaining native vegetation on agricultural land used to generate most of the agricultural production in the region is relatively limited (Figures 9 and 10, Table 5). The extent of native vegetation on agricultural land in most of these catchments is considerably less than 20% of that originally present. In reality, the extent of native vegetation on the most productive cropping and grazing lands is limited and most of this vegetation now occurs as small remnant patches (Williams 2010). As a consequence, an important source of ecosystem services provided by native vegetation ecosystems for food production comes from those native ecosystems that are least disturbed and occur on public and private land adjacent to farm land. The pollination of agricultural plants by native pollinators has been an important ecosystem service provided by native vegetation. The initial basic suite of models developed in InVEST includes the pollination of crops by wild bees (native and feral honeybees) (Tallis and Ricketts 2009) − a model that cannot easily be transferred to the Australian context due to lack of data. For the purposes of this report maps were therefore produced of native vegetation communities considered an important source of pollen and pollinators (Figure 11 in Section 6) and the estimated value of food production reliant on plant pollination (Figure 12 in Section 6).

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Table 5: Extent of agricultural land per catchment, total area of remnant native vegetation on agricultural land in each catchment, and the proportion of remnant vegetation on agricultural land in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Catchment

King−Henty Pieman Nelson Bay Arthur Montagu Duck King Island Welcome Black−Detention Forth−Wilmot Emu Cam Inglis Leven Blythe Rubicon Mersey

Total Agricultural Land per catchment (ha)

Total Remnant Veg on Ag Land per catchment (ha)

Proportion of Remnant Veg on Ag Land per catchment (%)

447.6 1,970.9 1,503.7 6,967.4 13,740.7 32,729.9 91,158.7 20,489.4 15,862.8 21,068.4 5,452.2 8,763.1 25,850.5 19,927.6 15,473.7 15,660.0 30,224.9

189.0 1,140.4 632.5 2,131.2 2,129.7 4,821.7 23,023.5 2,481.7 2,620.1 7,069.7 877.8 1,531.7 4,090.7 4,902.2 2,530.3 1,378.8 2,832.0

42.2 57.9 42.1 30.6 15.5 14.7 25.3 12.1 16.5 33.6 16.1 17.5 15.8 24.6 16.4 8.8 9.3

Food security is becoming of increasing concern (Beddington 2010, Cribbs 2010), particularly at the global level where there is an estimated population of 9 billion people by mid-century. The challenges associated with providing basic nutrition for so many humans are many. The increasing demand for food is likely to see more natural ecosystems converted to simplified ecosystems, a trend already identified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005). This will lead to a change in the range of ecosystem services provided by vegetation. Naeem et al. (2009) note that some of the impacts of the closer integration of world markets on local biota and the ecosystem services they provide through the indirect impacts of trade, transport and travel. This includes the increasing demand for resources in ‘emerging’ countries like China, with both local and global impacts, and the exploitation of open ocean fisheries by nations around the globe. Mount et al. (2010) reported that the shoreline, intertidal and subtidal habitats of the Circular Head region contribute to Australia’s food security and the health of people living in Tasmania’s north-west. The role that food production in the Cradle Coast region overall (both terrestrial and marine) will contribute to future food security is more uncertain, especially at the global level. Much of the produce in the region is currently exported, which is likely to continue in the short to medium term. This model of agricultural development, where locally grown food is exported, is a relatively recent phenomenon (Lawrence et al. 2010). Future developments such as increasing transport costs due to higher oil prices, market demands and conflicts over food (Cribbs 2010) may see the market focus return to a more local level. The ability to be relatively self-sufficient in food, fibre and beverages has many advantages (Lawrence et al. 2010). One potential scenario is that the region could provide food security for the Cradle Coast and Tasmania more widely rather than relying on exporting its products and importing others. The diversity of provisioning services currently provided in the region (e.g. food (dairy, meat, seafood, fruits, vegetables, grains), fibre, timber) could meet most demands locally and State-wide, harking back to an era before globalisation. Under this scenario, food security would be assured at a regional level due to the diversity of ecosystem services provided by both natural and modified ecosystems.

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Water Security The contribution of ecosystem services to the water security theme in the Cradle Coast region was assessed using a range of information on water extraction for human use, catchment hydrology, the degree of human modification of water catchments and water availability and quality. Freshwater in the Cradle Coast region is principally extracted from rivers/streams, groundwater and dams (e.g. Fenton 2010 when discussing water used for irrigation) and used for energy production, food production, industrial purposes and domestic consumption. The current understanding of levels of water extraction, diversion and quality are presented and then discussed in the context of ecosystem services. The extent of water extraction from rivers and streams at a local level for each catchment (Figure 13 in Section 6) was used in this report to highlight the degree of water use by humans for urban, industrial and agricultural purposes across the Cradle Coast. Surface water extraction was estimated to be very high in north coastal catchments (where most of the region’s population is located and where intensive land uses predominate) relative to other catchments in the region. The King−Henty is the other catchment where large net removal of water is recorded. In this case extraction is related to mining activities rather than agriculture. A detailed study by CSIRO (2009a, 2009b) considered water availability and levels of extraction for the Arthur-Inglis−Cam and Mersey−Forth regions as part of a major analysis of water resources in Tasmania. These publications reported the mean annual rainfall under historic climate for these two regions as 1,257 mm and 1,351 mm, respectively. Mean annual runoff under historical climate in the Arthur-Inglis−Cam region was 539 mm (43% of rainfall) and in the Mersey-Forth region it was 669 mm (50% of rainfall). Historically, the ArthurInglis-Cam region has had a mean annual stream-flow of about 4,789 GL per year, and a relatively low level of extraction of about 93 GL per year or ~2% of the total surface water in the region. The highest level of extraction noted by CSIRO (2009a) was the Emu catchment about 32 GL per year or 15% of its total surface water. In the majority of catchments, the amount of water extracted was estimated to be equal to or only slightly less than that allocated. The exception was the Black−Detention catchment, where extractions are, on average, 85% of the allocation under the historic climate. Groundwater extraction as a percentage of recharge was also estimated by CSIRO (2009a). Based on the limited information available, extraction was calculated as 12% averaged over all groundwater assessment areas in the region. This figure masks local variation in levels of extraction. For example, levels were considerably higher in the Mella and Togari groundwater assessment areas due to pumping of water for agricultural use. Groundwater extraction for the Arthur−Inglis−Cam region was estimated to be about 16 GL per year, with 11.5 GL per year occurring in the Smithton Syncline (CSIRO 2009a). In the Mersey−Forth region groundwater extraction as a percentage of recharge was estimated to be around 19% averaged over all of the groundwater areas assessed. This figure was estimated to be much higher in the Wesley Vale (95%) and Sheffield−Barrington (34%) groundwater areas (CSIRO 2009b). It was concluded by CSIRO (2009c) that there is a high risk of declining groundwater levels and possible reductions in groundwater inputs to streams in these areas due to increased agricultural demand for water and reductions in rainfall. The diversion and damming of water for agriculture and other human uses is widely practised in the Cradle Coast region. The establishment of dams is usually intended to secure water for local use and offset temporal changes in stream flow and the availability of surface water for use. Nearly 16,500 artificial freshwater dams are found in the region (Table 6). The density of dams in agricultural landscapes on King Island and in catchments such as the Welcome, Forth−Wilmot and Mersey is relatively high (Figure 14 in Section 6).

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Table 6: Number of farm dams, total area of farm dams and percentage area of catchment supporting dams for the Cradle Coast region. Catchment

Number of farm dams

Total area of farm dams (ha)

Total catchment area (ha)

% area of catchment

Wanderer−Giblin Gordon−Franklin King−Henty Port Davey Pieman Nelson Bay Arthur Montagu Duck King Island Welcome Black-Detention Forth-Wilmot Emu Cam Inglis Leven Blythe Upper Derwent Rubicon Mersey

192 193 697 18 1,102 187 630 173 551 4,416 1,106 452 1,132 246 531 1,338 850 656 10 569 1,450

13.1 17.0 74.4 1.6 61.7 11.9 45.5 19.5 73.9 295.5 61.0 84.0 145.7 41.2 71.4 193.6 152.8 116.5 0.9 126.0 243.0

176,771.1 335,266.1 179,659.7 38,511.4 413,532.8 86,242.4 251,864.6 58,186.9 55,721.7 109,672.1 66,223.8 65,638.7 81,378.6 24,982.6 29,218.7 61,286.2 72,392.5 37,319.3 357.3 45,209.6 72,756.0

0.01 0.01 0.04 0.004 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.13 0.27 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.17 0.24 0.32 0.21 0.31 0.25 0.28 0.33

TOTAL

16,499

1,850.2

2,262,192.1

0.08

About 25% of the sub-catchments in this region of the Cradle Coast are potentially impacted by changes in the flow regime due to recent climate (CSIRO 2009b). Changes in water availability were considered by the CSIRO study for prospective climate change through 2030. Reductions in rainfall, runoff, water flow, extractable water, and groundwater levels have been predicted for both the Arthur−Inglis-Cam and Mersey-Forth regions (CSIRO 2009a, 2009b). Forecast reductions in rainfall and run-off due to climate change may reduce water availability for extractive uses. For example, CSIRO (2009a) identified a risk of declining groundwater levels and reductions in groundwater inputs to streams as a result of current changes in climate. While freshwater availability is intimately tied to precipitation levels, once rainfall or snow reaches the ground the quantity and quality of water available can be markedly affected by the type of vegetation present, the geology of an area (e.g. the presence of aquifers) and land management practices in place. These factors can impact on the storage, release and purification of freshwater, which provides a number of ecosystem services including the supply of water, recreational opportunities, transportation and biodiversity (Postel and Carpenter 1997). Intertidal and subtidal ecosystems are also important for water supply and quality. Mount et al. (2010) for example reports that healthy saltmarsh and seagrass beds in the Cradle Coast region help keep water clean and clear, maintaining suitable conditions for a variety of human uses including aquaculture and recreational activities. The degree of catchment disturbance can be used as one measure to indirectly assess the status of a catchment and the potential contribution of ecosystem services to the Water Security theme. An analysis of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in surface waters across 34 catchments in Tasmania (Broad and Corkrey 2010) found that land use at the catchment scale is an important driver of nutrient loads in surface waters. Intensive land use was identified as a major driver of water quality, in particular dairy production and cropping. In contrast, native Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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systems such as native pastures, native vegetation and native production forests had much lower nutrient generation rates of total nitrogen and phosphorus. Building on this work, this report assessed the quality of water resources using limited data on nitrate concentration and water turbidity obtained from water samples from various rivers across the region (Figures 15 and 16 in Section 6). Well over half of the catchments in the region have been found to have relatively high levels of nitrate or turbidity. The majority of these are catchments where native vegetation has been removed principally to support agriculture (Figure 17 in Section 6, Table 7). The exception is the King−Henty catchment which has high nitrate and turbidity levels due to mining activities, even though the catchment is largely intact. Table 7: Area of water catchment, area of native vegetation (NV) per catchment and percentage of native vegetation remaining in each catchment in the Cradle Coast (light blue=low disturbance, blue=medium disturbance, dark blue=high disturbance). Catchment

Total catchment area (Ha)

NV Per catchment (Ha)

% NV per catchment

Wanderer−Giblin

176,771.1

175,538.0

99.3

Pieman

415,877.6

400,195.8

96.2

Nelson Bay

86,242.4

81,222.2

94.2

Port Davey

305,121.1

283,661.6

93.0

King−Henty

179,659.7

166,311.8

92.6

Arthur

251,864.6

222,963.7

88.5

Gordon−Franklin

618,897.0

533,748.5

86.2

Upper Derwent

352,441.2

288,808.0

82.0

Forth−Wilmot

117,896.8

92,392.0

78.4

Black−Detention

65,638.7

46,525.1

70.9

Welcome

66,223.8

43,101.7

65.1

Mersey

191,599.9

121,987.2

63.7

Leven

72,392.5

42,800.4

59.1

Montagu

58,186.9

33,750.7

58.0

Blyth

37,319.3

19,823.0

53.1

Tamar Estuary

117,422.0

61,082.5

52.0

Rubicon

73,148.2

35,646.8

48.7

Emu

24,982.6

10,312.1

41.3

Duck

55,721.7

22,944.1

41.2

Inglis

61,286.2

24,042.9

39.2

King Island

109,672.1

37,359.8

34.1

Cam

29,218.7

8,538.2

29.6

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These results indicate that while simplified ecosystems such as crops and introduced pastures provide important provisioning services, they can reduce the delivery of other ecosystem services such as the quantity and quality of freshwater. In addition to water supply, the extraction of water for human use will also influence the ability of freshwater systems and their catchments to provide other ecosystem services. Crossman et al. (2010) used spatially targeted planning and optimisation models to reconfigure agricultural land use in an irrigation district in South Australia. The goal of the study was to identify land use changes that would reduce agricultural water use and improve the provision of other ecosystem services such as environmental flows, carbon sequestration through revegetation and amenity values. Importantly, a potential increase in the net present value of ecosystem services of up to $A 347 M was identified if the proposed land use changes were made. While a number of assumptions were involved in this analysis, it has the potential to be a useful guide to land use decisions involving water allocation if adequate data is available. Elsewhere, it has been found that repairing ecosystems in the New York water supply catchment to produce cleaner water cost less than a fifth of the price of building a new water filtration facility (Chichilnisky and Heal 1998). For regions that have the option, leaving native vegetation in place in the first instance should help ensure water security. For agricultural catchments, certain management practices can be put in place to reduce the impacts of land management on water quantity and quality (e.g. Broad and Corkery 2010) which otherwise may affect the ability of each catchment to supply water of the required quality for human use.

Coastal Stability The theme Coastal Stability was assessed indirectly using potential indicators of the intactness of the near coastal zone, and measures of the amount of human development and infrastructure that may be located along the coast in the Cradle Coast region. As is observed in many other parts of Australia, many of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s human settlements are located on or very close to the coastline. In the order of 1,200 ha of urban areas are estimated to be located within 1 km of the coastline (Table 8). A significant proportion of this total area is found within the boundaries of Devonport, Burnie, Somerset, Ulverstone and Penguin. The Mersey, Cam and Leven catchments were assigned a high ranking in terms of coastal vulnerability based on these data (Figure 18, Table 9). A similar ranking was attributed to these catchments on the basis of the areal extent of intensive land use found within 1 km of the coastline in the region (Figure 19, Table 9). Table 8: Total urban area (identified by settlement name and catchment) estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline in the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting urban areas.

Urban Area name Devonport Burnieâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Somerset Ulverstoneâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Penguin Penguin Burnie Wynyard Devonport

Catchment

Total Urban Area in 1 km along coast

Mersey Cam Leven Blythe Emu Inglis Rubicon

394.5 373.9 344.5 158.2 136.9 84.1 2.0

Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

Ranking High Medium Low

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Table 9: Total area of intensive land us estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline in the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting intensive land uses.

Catchment Cam Mersey Leven Blythe Inglis King Island Rubicon Black-Detention Emu Forth-Wilmot Arthur

Total Intensive land use area in 1 km strip along coast (ha) 705.7 591.1 577.1 487.4 433.0 368.8 367.2 310.9 287.8 213.6 8.3

Ranking High (> 500 ha)

Medium (100â&#x20AC;&#x201C;500 ha)

Low (< 100 ha)

The extent and status of native vegetation communities, estuaries and in-shore marine ecosystems on the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coastline were used to indirectly estimate the biophysical nature of coastal stability. Mount et al. (2010), in a detailed study of the Circular Head region in northwest Tasmania, reported that coastal habitats and their vegetation (Melaleuca swamps, saltmarsh and seagrass) worked interdependently to protect coasts from erosion, damping the effects of waves, holding sand in place with their roots and building up soil along the shoreline. Williams et al. (2010) reviewed information on the naturalness of estuaries found within the region and reported that areas of significant estuarine naturalness are typically confined to those more remote sites of the west coast and far north-west coast of the region (Figure 20 in Section 6). Most estuaries and inter-tidal areas along the north coast of the region, especially those in catchments supporting agriculture, are now significantly modified (Figure 20 in Section 6). Similarly, the degree of modification of coastal native vegetation communities in these catchments is high and, as a consequence, the extent of vulnerable vegetation within 1 km of the coast in these areas was ranked as high or medium (Figure 21 in Section 6, Table 10). The estimated condition of coastal vegetation ecosystems (Figure 22 in Section 6) is based on the structural integrity at a site as a proportion of exotic or native cover. This figure shows similar patterns to Figure 19 (Section 6), with the Cam and Mersey catchments having the most structurally altered vegetation. These analyses demonstrate that the ecosystem service of coastal stability has been reduced in many of the catchments in the north coast of the Cradle Coast region (e.g. Mount et al. 2010). This has implications for the resilience of these systems to climate change, in particular to sea level rise. It can also affect the value of both agricultural and urban land through subsidence and the loss of the ecosystem services provided by intact vegetation communities.

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Table 10: Total area (ha) of vulnerable vegetation estimated to occur within the first 1 km of the coastline of each catchment within the Cradle Coast region. Rankings of low, medium and high were assigned on the basis of thresholds in the amount of hectares supporting vulnerable vegetation.

Catchment Black−Detention Duck Forth−Wilmot Welcome Inglis Rubicon Nelson Bay Mersey Cam Leven Arthur Blythe

Total Vulnerable Vegetation per Catchment (ha) 32.7 29.1 6.1 3.7 3.4 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.1

Ranking High (> 10 ha)

Medium (2−10 ha)

Low (< 2 ha)

Tourism & Recreation The ecosystem services theme Tourism & Recreation was considered by drawing on data and information from a range of sources including Tourism Tasmania, the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (DPIPWE), Tourism Australia and information from several regional tourism operators. The map of regional land cover in Figure 3 illustrates the substantial area of native vegetation in the Cradle Coast region, shown under the categories ‘Production: grazing of natural vegetation/forestry’ and ‘Conservation and natural environment’. Table 7 provides more detailed information on the amount of native vegetation per catchment, which for 12 of the catchments is greater than 60%. Over 60% of the land resource in the region is dedicated to World Heritage, protected areas and other reserves. (Figure 1 in Williams 2010), ranging from formally dedicated National Parks to conservation covenants on private land. In 2010, 73% of terrestrial native vegetation communities in the region were reserved (Source: theLIST, DPIWE). Within this overall figure, some vegetation communities had 100% reservation and some as low as 5%, with a range of percentages in-between. Currently, there is one Ramsar Wetland (on King Island) and no Marine Reserves in the region. The Boullanger Bay/Robbins Passage area, which has been identified as having important natural values (e.g. Bryant 2002), is listed in the Directory of Important Wetlands as are other wetlands in the area (Environment Australia 2001). Because of the relatively high proportion of land and sea with natural values, nature-based tourism is an important economic activity in the region.

The estimated total number of visitors to Tasmania during 2009 was around 995,000 (Tourism Tasmania 2010). This was dominated by interstate visitors while the estimated total number of international visitors was 140,600. The total number of nights spent by visitors in Tasmania was 8.72 M, and the average length of stay of visitors was 9.6 nights. This average was largely the result of a small number of visitors staying in excess of 3 months in the State. The number of ‘leisure’ visitors was 656,300. Expenditure by interstate visitors was estimated to be $1.3 billion and that for international visitors was around $273 M (Tourism Tasmania 2010). In general, around 75% of the annual visitors to Tasmania visit Hobart and the surrounding southern region, around half of the total visit Launceston and northern Tasmania, and around 40% visit the north-west of the State. In the order of 30% of all annual visitors go to each of the east coast region and the western wilderness region. The main income in Strahan, the only Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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town on the west coast and the gateway to the Gordon River and Franklin−Gordon World Heritage Area, comes from tourism (Bowman 2002). Activities such as Gordon River cruises, kayaking and fishing are largely based on natural ecosystems. Over the last decade, several nature-based tourism ventures have been supported in Strahan and more broadly in the Cradle Coast region (e.g. Parks and Wildlife Service 2001) to help improve the visitor experience. The Parks and Wildlife Service do not count visitors to every park or protected area in the State. Rather, data are collected principally on visitation rates to ‘reference sites’. In the Cradle Coast region these include Cradle Mountain (located in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area) and Narawntapu National Park as well as some other regional sites such as the Nut and Highfield House at Stanley and the Overland Track (also in a World Heritage Area). The majority of these sites are known for their natural heritage values, with iconic sites like Cradle Mountain having an international reputation. The number of visitors to a reference site is based on an actual count, where possible, combined with estimates of visitor numbers where a direct count is not feasible. For the period April 2009 to March 2010, the visitor count for the north-west region of Tasmania was approximately 350,000 and for the western wilderness region the number was around 280,000 (Tourism Tasmania 2010). Annual visitor numbers to Cradle Mountain have been around 170,000–180,000 since 2004 (Table 11). During the 2008-2009 financial year the visitor count was 171,025. This number is approximately one third of the total annual number of visitors arriving by the Spirit of Tasmania (Tourism Tasmania 2010), a ship that transports tourists and vehicles between Melbourne and Devonport. The annual number of walkers using the Overland Track has fluctuated around 8,500 for the past decade. Visitation to the historic site of the Nut and Highfield House State Reserve in the 2007−2008 financial year was 34,079 and 7,020, respectively (DPIPWE 2010). The Tarkine, which is covered in detail in the case study in this report, is another part of the region with high natural heritage values that is increasingly being marketed to tourists. The Tarkine Tourism Development Strategy (Cradle Coast Authority 2008) for example suggests that by 2017 the Tarkine has the capacity to generate $58.2 M per annum in tourist revenue and support approximately 1,100 jobs. The use of many other key sites in the Cradle Coast region for tourism and recreation is uncertain as visitation and other relevant data are not collected or are not readily available. As a consequence, it is not possible to reliably estimate the total contribution that the natural environment and ecosystem services make to the regional economy through tourism and recreation. If it is assumed that all annual visitors to the north-west region of the State make one-third of their total expenditure in this region, on average, the total tourism expenditure in the Cradle Coast region during the 2008−2009 financial year would be in the order of $184 M. It would appear reasonable to assume that a significant proportion of this expenditure is motivated by visitors wishing to enjoy nature-based tourism and recreational experiences provided by the region’s natural heritage. The scenic nature and diversity of agricultural areas in the region, with its patchwork of native vegetation, crops, pastures, rich red soils and (often) ocean views, is also likely to add to the tourist experience. Overall, the range of services provided by the ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region (e.g. maintenance of biodiversity, clean air and water, extensive areas with natural heritage values, food and beverages and recreational fishing opportunities) are likely to underpin tourism. To validate this relationship, detailed surveys of what motivates tourists to visit the region would need to be undertaken.

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Table 11: Estimated annual number of visitors to reference sites managed by the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, 1 July 2004−30 June 2009 (DPIPWE 2010).

2004−2005

2005−2006

Financial Year 2006−2007

2007−2008

2008−2009

184,945 98,133 206,436 39,309 128,959 47,135 43,568 14,911 -

170,120 92,810 203,046 40,899 116,547 45,329 46,809 14,600 -

176,059 93,434 208,045 40,899 109,347 39,896 46,018 14,554 -

177,040 92,764 207,225 35,243 115,490 41,488 46,388 8,664 12,554

171,025 89,557 207,225 35,100 116,170 41,238 50,589 7,483 16,951

763,395

729,760

728,203

724,303

718,388

Site Cradle Mt Lake St Clair Freycinet Hastings Caves Mt Field Narawntapu Mole Creek Maria Island Tamar Island Total

Local communities take advantage of the recreational opportunities provided by terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in the region. Popular activities include camping, bushwalking, kayaking and four-wheel driving – activities which are important to the quality of life in the region. These local uses of natural areas are not always accounted for in Tourism figures.

Carbon Data on land cover, land use, soil management and the potential for soil erosion was considered as part of the assessment of the ecosystem services theme of Carbon. The large majority of the carbon stored within the Cradle Coast region is found in native terrestrial ecosystems and the surrounding ocean and sea. The status of carbon stores on land is strongly influenced by land use and the quality of land management practices (Garnaut 2008). Regional changes in the use of native forests and agricultural land over the past two centuries have influenced carbon sequestration and carbon emissions to the atmosphere (Mackey et al. 2008). Estimates of the range in above ground carbon for non-forest and forest native vegetation communities found in the region are 50–300 t per ha (Dr Sandy Berry ANU, pers. comm.). The modeled estimates of belowground carbon for these types of sites range around 100−750 t per ha, with eucalypt forests having on average 280 t C per ha (Mackey et al. 2008). The standard deviation of 161 associated with this figure demonstrates the variability between sites. Cotching (2009) reported that the soils used for cropping in the region could support a belowground carbon biomass in the range of 200−400 t per ha. Mount et al. (2010) also estimated that coastal foreshore habitats in the north-west of the region made very

strong contributions to carbon sequestration. Subtidal seagrasses particularly had high rates of gross carbon production. Since the data and methods used to calculate above and belowground carbon stores remain inadequate, these estimates should be considered as preliminary. What is known however is that the proportion of carbon stored above and belowground will vary considerably given the variation in soil characteristics, vegetation types and management practices in the region. Modelling and mapping terrestrial carbon storage or sequestration requires detailed data on both vegetation and soil characteristics. Attempts to model above and belowground carbon storage in the eucalypt forests of south eastern Australia (Mackey et al. 2008) showed a large amount of variation in carbon stocks due to the influence of environmental variables, natural disturbance regimes and lack of field data. Smith (2010) collected such data to quantify carbon storage in 6 vegetation types in northern NSW using the general allometric equations generated by the Australian Greenhouse Office. While she was able to report differences in carbon storage between different vegetation types, Smith (2010) identified several limitations Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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associated with using equations not developed for specific vegetation types. The amount of time and data needed to calculate carbon storage specific to different vegetation communities is demonstrated by studies such as Berry et al. (2010) which was undertaken for the Great Western Woodlands in Western Australia. Because of the resources and data required to accurately map carbon storage, it was not possible to spatially represent this ecosystem service for native vegetation and soils in the Cradle Coast region. The widespread distribution of eucalypt and rainforests in the region (Figure 23 in Section 6) however point to high levels of carbon storage (Mackey et al. 2008, Smith 2010). Some land use and land management issues associated with the maintenance of above and belowground carbon stores in simplified ecosystems were also mapped (Figures 24 and 25 in Section 6). The Emu, Forth−Wilmot and Rubicon catchments were identified to have lands at risk of severe erosion due to intensive land uses on complex topography (Figure 23 in Section 6). Some landholders in these areas have identified erosion as a management issue (Fenton 2010), an important step in changing management practices. A relatively large number of areas within several regional catchments were identified where certain cropping and tillage practices have the potential to undermine the maintenance and replenishment of belowground carbon stores (Figure 25 in Section 6). In this case, the catchments identified with low organic carbon levels were the Forth−Wilmot, Rubicon, Leven and Inglis. In order to address further soil carbon loss in the region there is a number of catchments that could be targeted, with the Forth−Wilmot and Rubicon catchments a priority. The sustainable management of native forests and other native vegetation communities such as remnant vegetation on agricultural lands in the region is essential if carbon stores are to be conserved. For example, the sustainable use of soils, especially soils supporting cropping would appear important to reduce the potential for significant carbon loss to the atmosphere from this land use. Similarly, maintaining best practice in grazing industries such as dairy and beef require the continual improvement in soil and pasture management (e.g. Cotching 2009). Expansion of plantation forestry and mixed plantings of native vegetation will affect carbon stocks at a regional and catchment scale. Fire management is also likely to be a significant issue for native vegetation and forestry plantations in the region from the perspective of carbon emissions as well as economic and ecological considerations, and potential risks to human health and safety (Mackey et al. 2008, NRM Insights 2010). As noted in Williams (2009), carbon is one of the most common ecosystem services associated with native vegetation, along with water, timber production and tourism. Linking vegetation and soil management to carbon markets has the potential to bring considerable investment through a range of ‘purchasers’ in addition to government. Depending on the nature of future markets, the additional funds could change the scale of vegetation and soil management, particularly for revegetation and restoration programs. In order to promote the biodiversity co-benefits of carbon markets, plantings of native mixed species have been recommended rather than industrial-scale monocultures (Steffen et al. 2009, van Osterzee et al. 2010). There are already a number of players on the carbon market ‘stage’, with the Carbon Offset Guide Australia website (http://www.carbonoffsetguide.com.au/) aiming to provide an independent directory of Australian carbon offset providers. The Guide provides a useful overview of the players entering the market and the areas they specialise in. For example, not all providers link carbon offsets with vegetation management, with renewable energy schemes also being listed. The aim of the Guide is to improve the understanding of the offset market by Australian businesses, as well as the broader community, and facilitate better environmental and economic outcomes. Van Osterzee et al. (2010) describe a recent regional initiative in northern Queensland where multiple “small-scale” subprojects based on vegetation management, which are too small to be profitable by themselves in the carbon market, are aggregated. One of the challenges of integrating vegetation and soil management with carbon markets is being able to quantify the amount of carbon stored and sequestered and monitor changes over time. This challenge is relevant to both existing vegetation communities, such as the forests of Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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south eastern Australia that are storing carbon (Mackey et al. 2008) and revegetation programs and plantations that sequester carbon. Most of the information available on carbon sequestration to date has been for a relatively small number of commercial tree species. Mackey et al. (2008) were unable to provide even broad estimates of the carbon stored in rainforest communities in south eastern Australia due to lack of data. Things are starting to change however. Greening Australia for example is undertaking projects to examine carbon sequestration rates in a broader range of native species involved in multi-species restoration projects (Dr Robert Lambeck, Greening Australia, pers. comm). Any of the schemes that are aiming to link native vegetation and carbon markets are reliant on a price being put on carbon. As already noted, there are a growing number of groups entering the carbon market. The Carbon Offset Guide emphasises the complexity of dealing in these markets. Policy decisions at the national and international levels over the next 3â&#x2C6;&#x2019;5 years will have an important bearing on the directions that carbon markets take, particularly in relation to native vegetation management. While it is possible to map the potential economic value of carbon as an ecosystem service (e.g. Baral et al. 2009, Crossman et al. 2010), this was not considered appropriate for the Cradle Coast region without accurate data on carbon storage or sequestration for different vegetation and soil types.

Resilience to Climate Change The resilience of ecosystems to climate change depends on many factors including, importantly, the disturbance regime under which a system has evolved and adapted, and the current status of the ecosystem (Thomas et al. 2004). Human-induced stresses on ecosystems often include landscape disturbance and modification for development, and the extraction of natural resources such as water for agriculture and industrial manufacturing (MEA 2005). Combined with climate change, these stresses can degrade or destroy ecological processes and threaten organisms that support the delivery of essential ecosystem services (Williams 2010). The climate of the Cradle Coast region has, on average, become warmer and drier since records began to be collected in 1910 (BOM 2010). The rate of increase in mean annual temperature has become faster more recently. Climate forecasts to 2030 suggest that most of the region will experience an increase in mean annual air temperature and a decline in mean annual precipitation (BOM 2010). The rate of climate change over the medium term depends principally on the trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of climate change and variability, much of the region has experienced significantly drier conditions over the past decade. This situation has had a detrimental impact on agricultural production across industries in the region (e.g. Dairy Australia 2010). The CSIRO Tasmania Sustainable Yields Project was undertaken to consider changes in surface water and groundwater systems at catchment to regional scales under different climates (CSIRO 2009a). On average, under the forecast future climate to 2030, rainfall is predicted to decrease by 3% under the median extreme, and runoff is predicted to decrease by 5% (2009a). Rainfall and runoff was also predicted to decrease under the model used for longer term climate change in the region. Clearly, water management will become an increasingly important focus of regional development in Tasmania and factors that stress ecosystems and reduce their capacity to supply ample high quality water are to be avoided. As noted in the Coastal Stability theme, the modification and condition of coastal vegetation is also an important factor in managing the impacts of sea level rise. If sea levels continue to rise as predicted, Mount et al. (2010) identified changes to a number of ecosystem services in the Circular Head region that will have both economic and social implications. Ecosystem perturbation resulting from landscape modification is recognised internationally as another threat to ecosystem resilience (Thomas et al. 2004, MEA 2005). The Cradle Coast region includes a number of catchments that are intact and are more likely to be resilient to medium term climate change. However, the region also has several catchments that are relatively highly disturbed (Michaels et al. 2010) and are likely to be significantly impacted by Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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medium term climate change. For example, the Cam catchment is the most fragmented catchment in Tasmania (Figure 26 in Section 6) and has fewer than 1,000 patches of remnant native vegetation in the <10 ha and 10−50 ha size range, combined. The occurrence of very small patches of remnant native vegetation in this catchment is high and now confined to a relatively narrow elevation range. This situation will almost certainly increase the management challenges posed by climate change if these ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are to be maintained (Weins and Bachelet 2010). A new decision support tool called Patch Data Viewer (Lacey and Norton 2010) can be used to examine patches of remnant native vegetation in a selected catchment and to develop costeffective scenarios for increasing habitat by creating buffers of mixed plantings around existing patches and re-connecting fragmented vegetation (Williams 2010). This can help increase the resilience of native ecosystems to climate change. The Leven catchment, which is highlighted as a case study in this report, is used as an example to demonstrate the use of the tool (Figure 27). A section of the Leven catchment shows the number of small (<10 ha in size−red), medium (10−50 ha−blue), and large (>50 ha−yellow) patches of remnant vegetation currently found in the area. Patch Data Viewer can be used to calculate changes in the number and size of patches if buffers of 50 m and 100 m were planted around the existing patches. Various combinations of buffers and other revegetation options can be evaluated depending on the significance of patches for the provision of ecosystem services.

Figure 27: An example of the analysis possible using Patch Data Viewer to examine buffering and increased connectivity between patches to increase resilience to climate change.

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4.2 The Tarkine and the Leven catchment: a case study Introduction Williams (2009) recommended that a comparative spatial analysis be undertaken across two catchments of a comprehensive suite of ecosystem services, derived from the full spectrum of ecosystems (from relatively natural to highly modified). The Leven catchment and the greater Tarkine ecosystem were selected for this purpose. These represent a useful comparison as on the one hand there is a catchment with multiple land uses (the Leven catchment), and on the other hand a region that consists principally of native vegetation (the Tarkine). Both the Leven and Tarkine regions have important biodiversity values, with studies including the potential to reconnect vegetation patches in the Leven (Figure 27) and flora and fauna surveys in the Tarkine. To set the context for the following discussion, Figures 28−30 in Section 6 illustrate the extent of human infrastructure, native vegetation and areas in conservation reserves and annual rainfall in the two regions. The map of land use associated with the discussion on Food Production & Security (Figure 36 in Section 6) also provides context. In the material below, the regions are first discussed separately then a comparative assessment made. Some of the detail relevant to the discussion can be found in main part of this report and for the Biodiversity Conservation theme in Williams (2010). For the purpose of this report, the ecosystems of the Tarkine occupy an area bound by the Arthur River and its tributaries to the north, the Pieman River to the south, the Murchison Highway to the east and the Southern Ocean to the west (Figure 28 in Section 6). The Tarkine crosses several catchments and, depending on the boundaries used, has an area of at least 477,000 ha. The region has highly significant indigenous values and has been described by the Australian Heritage Commission as one of the world’s great archaeological regions (Cradle Coast Authority 2008). The name Tarkine comes from the tarkiner people who inhabited the Sandy Cape region for an estimated 35,000−40,000 years (Cradle Coast Authority 2009, Archer and Evans 2010). McFarlane (2008) provides a history of the north-western tribes in Tasmania until the 1850s, documenting the major impact of European occupation in the region. The recent Aboriginal Tourism Plan developed for the region (Cradle Coast Authority 2009) reflects changed attitudes and is an important step in working with in the Aboriginal community to identify culturally appropriate activities. The Tarkine is also becoming increasingly known for its natural heritage values. The area is being assessed for Natural Heritage listing after an emergency listing recently lapsed. Calls are also being made for a National Park to be declared in the region as well as World Heritage listing (see http://www.tarkine.org/tarkine_for_world_heritage.php). The Tarkine contains rainforest covering around 177,000 ha making it the second largest area of cool temperate rainforest in the world and the largest in Australia. The region also has a number of wild rivers, exposed mountains, magnesite cave systems and extensive coastal heathlands. The Tarkine ecosystems are important for human activities such as tourism, recreation, mining and forestry (Cradle Coast Authority 2008). These landscapes also provide a source of inspiration for photographers and other artists (see for example Ashton 2004, Archer and Evans 2010). The Leven catchment covers an area of approximately 73,000 ha and supports a number of human settlements including the coastal town and port of Ulverstone. Major land uses include agriculture, forestry and nature conservation. Natural heritage is a significant feature and supports a range of activities (Central Coast Council 2006). The Central Coast Council promotes tourism and recreation opportunities in the catchment under a ‘Coast to Canyon brand’ and has identified Ferndene, Mt. Montgomery, Mt Gnoman and Leven Canyon as important tourism sites (Central Coast Council 2010). The Council has also prepared a Central Coast Economic Development Plan to guide future investment (Central Coast Council 2010).

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Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services The Leven catchment and the Tarkine support a range of ecosystems and ecosystem services that contribute to all of the themes considered in this study (Figures 28−41 in Section 6). Because the report on the Biodiversity Conservation theme (Williams 2010) covered the whole Cradle Coast region, some additional comparative maps at a finer scale have been included in this report. These include native vegetation communities (Figure 31), grassland and sedgeland communities (Figure 32), Threatened and Priority wetlands (Figure 33), Threatened vegetation communities (Figure 34) and Priority Fauna species (Figure 35). The large number of vegetation communities means it was not possible to include a key with Figure 31). The Leven catchment for example has between 81−90 native vegetation communities (Williams 2010), while the Tarkine has well over 100. Over 400 plant species exist within the Tarkine including a number of significant species. Eucalypt forest, cool temperate rainforest and sedgelands (Figure 32) are the dominant communities in the Tarkine, with eucalypt forests dominating the Leven catchment (see Figure 41 in Section 6, under the Carbon theme). Both regions have priority fauna and Threatened/Priority wetlands, while the Leven catchment has more listed Threatened vegetation communities (all lowland grasslands). Regional infrastructure in the Leven catchment has been developed to facilitate land uses such as human settlement, agriculture, forestry and tourism (Figure 36). Food production from simplified ecosystems in the catchment is significant and makes an important contribution to the region’s economy (Figures 5−7and 36 in Section 6). Land uses such as cropping, grazing and dairy are significant in the northern part of the catchment where native vegetation on agricultural lands provides a number of ecosystem services (Figure 37 in Section 6; also see earlier Section on Food Production & Security for further discussion). Biodiversity Conservation and Tourism & Recreation are supported by the natural ecosystems found from coastal areas south to the Leven canyon and beyond (Figure 29 in Section 6). Other themes such as Water Security and Carbon are discussed further below. The Tarkine supports a diverse range of ecosystem services that contribute to biodiversity conservation, food production (e.g. wild fisheries, leatherwood honey), water security, tourism and recreation, carbon, coastal stability and resilience to climate change. Access to the region and local human infrastructure is relatively limited, particularly compared to that found in the Leven catchment (Figure 28). Unlike the Leven, land use such as grazing and plantation forestry is limited, and land used for cropping and dairy is absent (Figure 36). Native forests and related vegetation systems form the majority of the land area in the Tarkine and support a diverse range of biodiversity and the potential for carbon storage (Figures 31, 32 and section below). Most of the Tarkine’s land area is managed by Forestry Tasmania or the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service under State and Australian Government legislation, intergovernmental agreements and formal planning processes (Figure 29). Parts of the Tarkine fall under the statutory planning authority of the Circular Head, Waratah-Wynyard and West Coast councils. Significant natural areas in the Tarkine are protected to varying degrees in the Savage River National Park, Arthur Pieman Conservation Area, Pieman River and Hellyer Gorge State Reserves and Meredith Range Regional Reserve. Smaller areas are managed under a range of state, regional and forest reserves, conservation and recreation areas. As noted earlier, in order to provide greater protection, nominations for Natural Heritage listing, National Park and World Heritage status have been promoted, assessed or developed. The Arthur River, Temma and Sandy Cape in the Tarkine attract visitors for tourism and recreation activities such as sight-seeing, camping, bushwalking, boating, 4 wheel driving and mountain bike riding. Drive touring through the Tarkine occurs along the Western Explorer road, and an increasing number of off-road vehicles use tracks in the coastal areas and hinterland south of Arthur River and Temma (Figure 28). Increased vehicle access in these areas may lead to an increased risk of weeds, fire, erosion and damage to cultural and natural sites. The management of recreational, cultural and tourism sites in the Tarkine are a complex Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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issue that is reliant upon a co-operative approach by all land managers. Currently, no framework mechanism is in place for co-ordinating land use planning and management across the Tarkine and many of the existing arrangements have been designed around land uses other than tourism. The Cradle Coast Authority (2008, 2009) is addressing many of these issues through the Tarkine Tourism Development Strategy and the related Tarkine Aboriginal Tourism Plan. Work has also been underway for the last two years to document and assess the Tarkine in order to guide its development as a place of world renown. The extent of disturbance of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems is a differentiating feature of the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (Figure 38 in Section 6). The ecosystems of both areas support water extraction for human use, particularly in the northern portion of the Leven catchment where water extraction for agriculture is high (Figure 39 in Section 6). Climate change will affect the ecosystems in both areas. A significant gradient in mean annual rainfall occurs across the Leven catchment compared to the Tarkine (Figure 30 in Section 6) and ongoing climate change is likely to exacerbate many existing issues concerning water availability for extractive uses and water quality in the Leven catchment (Bennett et al. 2010). Coastal Stability (Figures 18â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20 in Section 6) and Resilience to Climate Change (Figure 25 in Section 6) is also diminished in the Leven catchment due to the modification and fragmentation of native vegetation. The main part of this report has an extended discussion on the Carbon theme and the current limitations in mapping carbon storage and sequestration due to the lack of appropriate data and models for the region. Despite these limitations, the Leven catchment and Tarkine illustrate some important issues and opportunities for carbon sequestration and the management of carbon stocks in the Cradle Coast region. As noted earlier, storage of carbon is related to (at least) soil characteristics, vegetation type, climate and land management practices (Figure 40 in Section 6). A significant amount of carbon is held above ground in the forested vegetation communities found in the conservation reserves and State Forests of the Tarkine (Figure 41 in Section 6). Similar forested ecosystems and sites in the Leven catchment are also important as carbon stores, as are the fertile soil ecosystems underpinning agricultural production in the area. One significant issue associated with the existing management of terrestrial ecosystems for carbon is the adoption of sustainable forest management practices that minimise forest disturbance and avoid fire regimes that may increase carbon losses to the atmosphere. Another issue is the adoption of sustainable land management and cropping practices to protect belowground carbon stores in areas used intensively for food production (Figure 40 in Section 6). The Leven catchment for example was identified as a catchment of concern with low organic carbon levels in the soil (Figure 24 in Section 6). The diversity of ecosystems in the Tarkine and Leven supporting ecosystem services was mapped using spatial data on land cover and land use (Figure 42). Over 75% of the Tarkine was estimated to support ecosystems that provide five or more of the ecosystem service themes considered in this report, including contributions to Biodiversity Conservation, Carbon, Tourism & Recreation, Water Security and Resilience to Climate Change. In contrast, the Leven catchment has a relatively high proportion of land area dedicated to human settlement and food production where the ability of ecosystems to provide a larger range of services to the benefit of humans is reduced. Less than 25% of the land area of the Leven catchment supports more than five of the ecosystem services themes examined here (Figure 42). Figure 43 is illustrative of the differences in ecosystem service provision between the two regions. It maps the economic value of food production provided by simplified terrestrial ecosystems such as crops and pastures and fibre from planted and native forests. It was not possible to map the economic contribution of tourism and other ecosystem services to both regions, so this map is an underestimate of the economic value of the services in the region. This figure also illustrates the importance of remnant ecosystems in providing services important for food production, a topic which is discussed in greater detail in the main report.

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Figure 42: Ecosystem service themes (lowâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;high) estimated to be supported as a result of existing land use in the Tarkine and Leven catchment. (Figure reproduced from Section 6).

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Figure 43: Significant ecosystems estimated to occur in the Tarkine and Leven catchment as a result of existing land use. (Figure reproduced from Section 6). Mapping & Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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4.3 Regional diversity of ecosystem services Figure 44 illustrates the heterogeneity of ecosystem services provided by ecosystems in the context of different land uses in the Cradle Coast region. Many native ecosystems continue to support a diversity of services across the region, including in coastal areas near human settlements and within and adjacent to landscapes used for food production and other intensive land uses. A diversity of food is produced by simplified ecosystems such as crops and pastures in the region including a range of vegetables, fruit, grains, meat and dairy. Seafood is another significant service provided by marine ecosystems. In terms of food security in an uncertain future, this diversity of services could be beneficial to the region (see â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Food Security & Productionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for greater detail). As noted in this report and elsewhere (e.g. the MEA 2005, Crossman et al. 2010), the focus on providing one or two ecosystem services such as food production can come at the expense of other ecosystem services. Smith (2010) also identified potential trade-offs between ecosystem service provision and land use. Promoting and supporting land uses that provide a diversity of ecosystem services is therefore important. In areas that focus on agricultural production, this means retaining native vegetation in the landscape. These variegated systems (McIntyre and Hobbs 1999) are found in several catchments in the north of the Cradle Coast region (Michaels et al. 2010). This local form of heterogeneity in terms of ecosystem service delivery improves the quality of life in these coastal areas since it is possible for residents and visitors to enjoy a range of benefits locally. In addition, the presence of remnant native ecosystems and the services they support help to underpin and sustain food production. Intact catchments (with native vegetation greater than 90% cover), of which there are five in the Cradle Coast region (Table 7), also make an important contribution to the delivery of ecosystem services, particularly for the Biodiversity Conservation, Resilience to Climate Change and Tourism & Recreation themes. This project has found that terrestrial ecosystems in the region vary in their ability to support different ecosystem services. It is estimated that around 60% of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land area has ecosystems that support five or more of the ecosystem service themes considered in the project (Table 12, Appendix 3). The interdependence of the services provided by different ecosystems is an area that requires future research. A total of over 20% (by area) of these ecosystems occur as remnants in landscapes now dominated by intensive land uses. Of the themes considered in the project, it was estimated that approximately 60% of the land area of the region supports ecosystems contributing in a primary way to biodiversity conservation (Table 13). A comparable percentage of land supports the ecosystem service themes of carbon, water security, and resilience to climate change. It was estimated that the extent of ecosystems primarily supporting Tourism & Recreation is around 850,000 ha or approximately one third of the land area of the region, while food production is primarily supported from ecosystems in the region with a combined area of some 300,000 ha (Table 13). Because an area is primarily associated with one of the themes identified in this report does not preclude it from contributing to the other themes. Table 12: Area of terrestrial ecosystems (absolute and % area of region in ha) estimated to support one or more of the eight ecosystem service themes considered for the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Figure 34, above, for mapped distribution of regional ecosystems). Number of Themes

Area of Ecosystems supporting Theme/s (ha)

Percent area (ha)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3862.6 130,355.6 303,708.8 194,124.6 1,292,054.2 20,649.6 44,838.8

0.2 5.8 13.4 8.6 57.1 0.9 2.0

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Figure 44: Ecosystem service themes supported as a result of existing land use in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). (Figure reproduced from Section 6).

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Table 13: Estimated area (absolute and % area of region in ha) with terrestrial ecosystems primarily supporting each ecosystem service theme considered for the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Note that the theme Quality of Life was not considered in this analysis.

Ecosystem Service Theme

Area of Ecosystems providing Primary Service (ha)

Percent area of Region (ha)

Biodiversity Conservation

1,550,000

60

Carbon

1,480,000

57

Water Security Resilience to Climate Change

1,480,000

57

1,350,000

52

Tourism & Recreation

850,000

33

Food Production & Security

300,000

12

Coastal Stability

65,000

0.3

The legacy of European land use in the region is significant in terms of the challenges and opportunities posed for the maintenance and enhancement of ecosystems to support the ongoing delivery of essential ecosystem services. As was observed in the comparative analysis of the Tarkine and the Leven catchment, it will be important to protect the intact and relatively less disturbed ecosystems found across the region to ensure that (at least) the current contributions to service delivery from these systems is maintained regionally and can be accessed and enjoyed locally. An important aspect of future management will be the identification of significant changes in land zoning, land uses and land management that may detrimentally impact on ecosystems and their ability to provide essential ecosystem services. 4.4 Forecasts of regional land use change and implications for ecosystem services Climate change and changes in land use and land management may have important implications for the status of ecosystems and their ability to support a range of ecosystem services. These changes may affect the delivery of ecosystem services by reducing the extent and condition of ecosystems and, as a consequence, modify ecological processes and ecosystem functioning (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005; Garnaut 2008). The climate of the Cradle Coast region has, on average, become warmer and drier since records began to be collected in 1910 (BOM 2010). The rate of increase in mean annual temperature has become faster since 1990 and increased by 0.31 °C between 1990 and 2007 (BOM 2010). Prior to 1990, the average rate of temperature increase per decade was a more modest 0.08 °C. As a result of climate change and climate variability, much of the region has experienced significantly drier conditions over the past decade. This situation is widely recognised as having impacted on agricultural production across industries in the region (e.g. ABARE 2010, Dairy Australia 2010). Forecasts of climate change until 2100 are currently under development for Tasmania and some preliminary results have been announced recently by Climate Futures for Tasmania (http://www.acecrc.org.au/Research/Climate%20Futures). Changes in land use and land management in Tasmania are currently the focus of much public debate, particularly in the context of irrigation and food production, forestry, energy production, tourism, and emerging markets in carbon and water (Australian Innovation Research Centre 2009, Australian Food News 2010, NRM Insights 2010, Williams 2010). Forecasts of the natural resource implications of agricultural change were developed for CCNRM recently by NRM Insights (2010). That research indicated the increasing role of globalisation and global competition on local agricultural industries. Competition and related market forces result in the need for enhanced productivity and efficiency within the agricultural sector and agricultural industries operating in the region aim to improve economies of scale,

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reduce the unit costs of production, progress agricultural land consolidation, and reduce risk by securing access to key resources such as water (see Beddington 2010). The major trends in agricultural change in the Cradle Coast region over the past decade reported by NRM Insights (2010) include an intensification of land use as a result of: a) more land being used for intensive agriculture, b) an increase in the intensity of cropping on some prime land, and c) greater competition for the use of agricultural land for purposes such as rural development. During the same period, industries such as dairy, pyrethrum and poppies consolidated their activities and increased the land base used for agricultural production. Until recently, the area of plantation forestry in the region also was increasing annually due to economic incentives provided through managed investment schemes supported by the Australian Government. As a result of these types of developments, both the extent and condition of remnant native ecosystems in many agricultural landscapes in the region have declined. At the same time, increased government funding and advances in landscape science and rural community engagement have helped to improve the management of natural resources on agricultural land and the status of some ecosystems. For example, improvements in weed management overseen by CCNRM and other parties have reduced the impact of these species on natural ecosystems in many parts of the region. NRM Insights (2010) developed indicative (aggregate level) forecasts for the major agricultural industries in the region for the next five years. All of the industries considered were forecast to either expand or have some possibility of expansion (Table 14). This table shows trends in the area of land used for agriculture for the period 2000â&#x2C6;&#x2019;2010 based on reported data and spatial analyses undertaken in this study. Forecast changes in land use by industry are based on past trends and, where available, reported information on new industry investments (reproduced from NRM Insights 2010). The beef industry was reported to be considering options for expansion. The dairy industry is forecasting annual growth of 3â&#x2C6;&#x2019;7% and is likely to experience further expansion of land use in the Circular Head district. The pyrethrum and poppy industries appear likely to continue to expand in the medium term. The opportunity to exploit more prime land for cropping will be subject to market demand for produce and the availability of suitable surface water or groundwater resources for irrigation. There is a significant area of prime agricultural land currently used for grazing that is close to existing cropping. Some of these areas may be consolidated to form more contiguous areas of crop land to gain production efficiencies from economies of scale (NRM Insights 2010).

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Table 14: Estimated extent of different agricultural land uses and land used by major agricultural industries in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (Source: NRM Insights 2010). Agricultural land use and industry

Current area (ha)

Trend

Forecast

2000−2010

2010−2015

Grazing

283,000.00

Expansion

Expansion overall

Beef

~157,000.00

Expansion in west/

Stable

decline in east Sheep

~70,000.00

Stable

Stable

Dairy

~46,000.00

Expansion in west/

Expansion in west

decline in east Other

~10,000.00

Not considered

Not considered

21,483

Expansion

Expansion overall

Vegetables

~8,000.00

Stable, but regional changes

Stable overall, but regional changes

Poppies

~7,000.00

Expansion

Stable-Expansion

Pyrethrum

~5,000.00

Expansion

Expansion in Central

Other

~1,500.00

Not considered

Not considered

Horticulture

320

Expansion

Stable−Expansion

Plantation forestry

70,534

Expansion

Stable−Expansion

Cradle Coast region

376,286

Expansion

Expansion in Circular Head district and central sub-region

Cropping

The CSIRO evaluation of water availability under different climate change scenarios indicated that the proposed Sheffield−Barrington and Wesley Vale−Sassafras irrigation schemes could be supported given that appropriate commercial arrangements were put in place (CSIRO 2009c). It was estimated by CSIRO that full demand for water could be met in 73%−81% of years for the Kindred/North Motton scheme and 85%−89% of years for the Forthside/Don scheme. Groundwater extraction as a percentage of recharge was increased to 25% by CSIRO (2009c) to model impacts of future development on groundwater in the Wesley Vale groundwater assessment area. Under those elevated levels of extraction it was estimated that only localised impacts on groundwater levels may occur in the irrigation areas (CSIRO 2009c). An increase in the extent and intensity of cropping appears certain in those areas selected for new irrigation development infrastructure. In this context, areas of potential significant impact for ecosystem management include around Table Cape, Penguin, Ulverstone and Sassafras−Wesley Vale (Figure 45). Changes in the use of prime agricultural lands from grazing to cropping in these regions may put remnant native ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide at greater risk. The status of native ecosystems on agricultural lands in the region is of concern due to the ecosystem services they provide and their contribution to the heterogeneity in services currently found. A total of 912 small to medium sized patches of remnant native vegetation,

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Figure 45: Four areas of potential land use intensification around Table Cape, Penguin, Ulverstone, and Wesley Valeâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Sassafras (red circles) indicate areas where active ecosystem management appears particularly important (reproduced from NRM Insights 2010). comprising a total area of some 580 ha, remains on prime agricultural land in the region (NRM Insights 2010). Only nine of these patches, representing a total area of around 3 ha, remain on land class 1 land in the entire region. Land class 2 and land class 3 land support 136 and 767 patches, respectively. The large majority of patches of remnant vegetation on prime land are very small, typically less than 1 ha in size. These remnant native ecosystems support a range of ecosystem services that contribute to themes such as Food Production & Security, and Biodiversity Conservation. The risk to native vegetation and habitat of priority fauna is likely to increase where these resources occur on lands used for cropping as opposed to grazing (NRM Insights 2010). Active management of sites that retain native ecosystems in the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agricultural landscapes will be important to help maintain ecological processes and functions so these systems can continue to provide ecosystem services. A number of important natural resource management implications emerge in relation to the proposed developments in the Cradle Coast region. For example, CCNRM can play an important role `in working with public and private land owners and land managers in the region to sustain native ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide. CCNRM may also have a role in promoting management practices for simplified ecosystems that supports the provision of certain ecosystem services (e.g. food production) while minimising the impact on others (e.g. water quality, habitat provision). Natural resource managers have an opportunity to work with the Tasmanian Irrigation Development Board and regional industry stakeholders and land managers to ensure that the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the region is undertaken with minimal risks to sustainability and the ongoing delivery of ecosystem services.

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SECTION 5: Conclusions and Recommendations The Cradle Coast region of Tasmania supports a diversity of ecosystems that are intrinsically important and valuable, and provides ecosystem services of importance to humans and the regional economy. By improving understanding of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems, the linkages and inter-dependencies between these systems and their services may be clarified and managed more effectively. This project identified a framework for the regional mapping of information about ecosystem services using eight themes (Biodiversity Conservation, Food Production & Security, Water Security, Coastal Stability, Tourism & Recreation, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change and Quality of Life). As identified in the overarching framework for this report (Figure 1), ecosystem services are location specific, with interactions occurring between locations in some circumstances. The different services provided by ecosystems have been grouped as four general types: regulating services (those that regulate and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems), provisioning services (those that provide products such as food, fibre and fresh water), supporting services (those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services (e.g. nutrient and water cycling)), and cultural services (those that enable opportunities for human fulfilment and cognitive development) regulating, provisioning, supporting and cultural services (Box 1, Appendix 1). A range of quantitative data and information was identified to help examine and map the ecosystem services associated with each theme. As a result, it was possible to identify different parts of the region that are important for the provision of individual ecosystem services and themes, or combinations of services and themes. The work builds on emerging regional approaches to ecosystem service evaluation under development and evaluation in north east Queensland (e.g. Pert et al. 2010) and south east Queensland (e.g. Maynard et al. 2010). Figure 46 is derived from composite data presented in several of the Figures shown in Section 6, and indicates some of the more significant terrestrial ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region that deliver ecosystem services that are important for the themes considered in this study. For example, agricultural food production from simplified terrestrial ecosystems is a significant part of the regional economy and is underpinned by a range of ecosystem services that provide natural resources as inputs to production and support plant pollination. Remnant native ecosystems on agricultural lands play an important role maintaining food production as well as providing a range of other ecosystem services. It is important therefore that these areas and the services they provide are suitably protected and enhanced.

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Figure 46: Distribution of significant ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region that support important ecosystem service themes such as Food Production, Coastal Stability, Biodiversity Conservation, Tourism and Recreation, and Resilience to Climate Change (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis) (Figure reproduced from Section 6).

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Coastal resilience to environmental change is supported by native terrestrial ecosystems and estuaries that remain relatively undisturbed and have intact ecological and biogeochemical processes (MEA 2005, Nelson et al. 2009). The protection and appropriate management of these coastal areas is important. This applies equally to marine ecosystems, which are relatively understudied and unprotected in the region. Of particular interest is how intact do these ecosystems need to be to maintain functions and the provision of services? The Cradle Coast region is fortunate to support a significant area of native vegetation communities that are relatively intact and support themes such as Biodiversity Conservation, Water Security, Carbon, Resilience to Climate Change and Tourism & Recreation. While individual management plans are in place for a number of these ecosystems, there is a need to strengthen the cooperation and coordination across the institutions and agencies responsible for management. This need has been identified for the Tarkine to support an integrated and sustainable approach to land use and tourism in that area. Similar issues arise in other parts of the Cradle Coast region supporting significant ecosystems where multiple agencies and stakeholders are involved in landscape planning and management. CCNRM has an opportunity to facilitate improved cooperation and coordination in this context by acting as a ‘broker’ to ensure that the various management bodies are aware of the significance of the ecosystem services delivered by these regional ecosystems, and by providing information to enhance the management of these systems. 5.1 Ecosystem services and quality of life The link between ecosystem services and human well-being was the primary focus of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005). In this current report, human well-being is referred to as quality of life – a term which has more local resonance. The links between ecosystem services and quality of life is complex, diverse, and context-dependent, and may change in space and time (MEA 2005, Daily et al. 2009). Unravelling this complexity involves identifying who the beneficiaries are of different ecosystem services, the kinds of benefits they receive, the processes through which benefits are delivered and received, and the relative importance of these services to human well-being and quality of life. Even where clear linkages are well recognised, it may be difficult to quantify and/or map these because of inadequate data and information, or because suitable techniques for synthesising this information in a meaningful way are just emerging (e.g. Villa et al. 2009). In addition to these challenges, scientists working on ecosystem services are often trained in ecology, hydrology or other biophysical disciplines. As a consequence, and because the science of ecosystem services is relatively young (Williams 2009), quantification and mapping of quality of life is still in its infancy. While the link is being made (e.g. Naeem et al. 2009), many of these publications still focus on discussing or analysing the services side of the equation. In order to better demonstrate the value of the ecosystem services to human-kind, the ecosystem services science community will need to invest more time in addressing quality of life. This will mean working more closely with social scientists, as done with the study on mapping community values in relation to ecosystem services in South Australia (Raymond et al. 2009). Working closely with local communities, both indigenous and non-indigenous, is an essential component of the ecosystem services approach if it is to be used as an effective planning and management tool. This provides important insights into what constitutes quality of life for different ‘beneficiaries’ of the services arising from different ecosystems. In some cases, community engagement occurs at the start of a project (e.g. InVEST - Tallis and Ricketts 2009 and Maynard et al. 2010). In the case of the Cradle Coast region, now that the concept has been demonstrated to be of benefit, engaging with the local community, visitors to the region and industry is recommended as an important next step. Communication tools such as the poster developed on the benefits provided by shoreline wetland habitats in the region (Figure 47 in Section 6, from Mount et al. 2010) are a promising start. In this report, the full spectrum of ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region was shown to support a range of services that underpinned the quality of life of people, communities and human Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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settlements. For example, ecosystems provide the basic materials and resources required for people to have a viable livelihood and to raise a family. This form of security typically underpins the health of individuals and their families and communities, and may facilitate productive social-cultural relations (MEA 2005). Importantly, the heterogeneity in terms of ecosystem service delivery in the Cradle Coast region improves the quality of life since it is possible for residents and visitors to enjoy a range of benefits locally. In this way ecosystem services support freedom of choice and action since they provide materials and resources that enable individuals to pursue a fulfilling life. Linking these benefits to health statistics could be a valuable area for future investigation. Monetary values were assigned to ecosystem services or themes in this report when it could be done readily and unequivocally. Many of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems support services such as food production and tourism and recreation that can be readily quantified. Simply taken alone, these services generate annual economic turnover in the region approaching $1 billion in monetary value and underpin many thousands of jobs. Studies (using economic techniques such as choice modelling and contingent valuation) were not available, however, to assess monetary values of ecosystem services currently not traded in formal markets. If such information was available at the regional level, the monetary value of the services provided by ecosystems in the region would be considerably higher. While some regional projects have decided not to put monetary values on ecosystem services (e.g. Maynard et al. 2010), the ability of ecosystems to contribute to the financial security of a region (and by association the quality of life) is an important consideration for local communities. 5.2 Forecasting changes in the provision of ecosystem services Changes in agriculture, forestry and tourism in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania have significant implications for terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and their ability to support a range of ecosystem services. For example, the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agricultural landscapes support a diverse and important range of ecosystems and natural resource assets. The long term trend in agriculture is expansion in the area of land used for primary production, and the intensification of land uses in particular landscapes where short to long term production outcomes can be sustained using various management practices. Increased government funding, new field research and advances in landscape science and rural community engagement have helped to improve the management of many natural resources on agricultural land. However, the intensification of land use has resulted in ecological impacts such as the loss of native vegetation and fauna habitat due to land clearing and led to reductions in water quality and the quality of aquatic environs in some catchments. It is important that land owners and land managers are aware of the services that the full spectrum of ecosystems (from simplified to relatively natural) provide, the importance of maintaining the heterogeneity of ecosystems and the impacts of their management practices on the provision of different services. In particular, understanding the location and significance of native ecosystems and natural resource assets under their stewardship is essential if these features are to be sustained. It is therefore important that these parties have access to adequate information for planning and management so that ecosystem services can be protected and maintained as part of an integral approach to regional sustainability. Similar information should be made available to those who benefit from the services provided by marine ecosystems as well. 5.3 Investments in NRM and ecosystem services A number of international studies have reported declines in the diversity and quality of ecosystem services in different regions of the world as a result of the adoption of land use practices that are not sustainable (MEA 2005). This situation often arises when policy and management decisions are taken without adequate consideration of all of the institutional settings likely to influence desired management outcomes. For example, ad hoc decisions taken in relation to regional strategic planning (e.g. land zoning, rural development, regional infrastructure investments for industry) will affect the status of ecosystems and their ability to Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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deliver services (e.g. Egoh et al. 2008, Nelson et al. 2009, Crossman et al. 2010). Likewise, the adequacy of local environmental planning, and environmental protection and enforcement may influence the sustainability of regional land management practices. Natural resource management organisations in Australia are strengthening their capacity to undertake strategic investments in environmental management that will deliver demonstrable improvements in the quality of ecosystem management and the condition of natural resource assets (e.g. Chan et al. 2006, Coffey and Pearson 2007). It is desirable that regional planning and management approaches are flexible and able to incorporate ecosystem services into natural resource management and decision making. Ongoing investments and management interventions to improve the condition of the region’s natural resource assets will be essential given the nature and rate of change in the region’s landscapes, particularly in agricultural regions. It is equally evident that these activities are likely to be most effective if conducted in a strategic and coordinated manner that promotes integrated approaches to regional land use planning and management both within and across catchments and land tenures. The quality of ecosystem management will strongly influence the ability of ecosystems to continue to deliver essential ecosystem services and sustain the quality of life enjoyed by the residents of, and visitors to the Cradle Coast region. CCNRM can play a key role in promoting strategic and coordinated approaches to ecosystem management and the monitoring of key ecosystems and natural resources across the region. In this context, significant opportunities are available to CCNRM to strengthen long-term partnerships with key industry stakeholders and land managers to advance regional sustainability. By taking a coordinated approach the potential to avoid conflicts in planning and management that may impact on ecosystem function and the delivery of ecosystem services should be enhanced. 5.4 Recommendations This project was conceived as a proof-of concept for using ecosystem services to inform natural resource management in the Cradle Coast region. The findings demonstrate that the concept is indeed a useful one to utilise and build on. The services the ecosystems in the region provide underpin the region’s economy and the quality of life enjoyed by citizens and the community. Future investments in natural resource management should be developed with this setting in mind. It is recommended that:

 CCNRM promotes planning and management decisions and investments in natural resource management that are consistent with the protection and sustainable management of the full suite of the region’s ecosystems and their ecosystem services.  CCNRM continues to promote the concept of ecosystem services to the community and industry.  CCNRM strengthens its capacity to work closely with planners, managers and other stakeholders in the region to sustain native ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide and promote best management practices in simplified ecosystems.  CCNRM strengthens its role as a ‘broker’ to ensure that all regional management bodies are aware of the significance of the ecosystem services delivered by the full suite of regional ecosystems, and by providing natural resource and environmental information to enhance the management in these systems.  CCNRM continues to promote integrated and sustainable approaches to ecosystem management in areas such as the Tarkine where the diversity and importance of ecosystem services are distinctive.  CCNRM consider supporting a project that increases the ability to map and value Quality of Life as an important ecosystem service theme.

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SECTION 6: Ecosystem Services Theme Maps

Figure 4: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Distribution of lands used for cropping, dairy, grazing and forestry in the Cradle Coast region. Catchments boundaries are shown in black, LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 5: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated value of total food production in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 6: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated value of total crop production in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 7: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated value of total livestock products in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 8: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Extent of marine areas supporting ecosystem services around Tasmania, including the Cradle Coast region. Integrated Marine and Coastal Biogeographic Regionalisation of Australia (IMCRA) regions in Tasmania. The different colours delineate separate bioregions (Source: theLIST),

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Figure 9: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Spatial extent of native vegetation (green) remaining on agricultural lands (cream) in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 10: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Remnant native vegetation remaining on agricultural lands in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region based on the area of agricultural land per catchment classed as <20%, 20â&#x20AC;&#x201C;40%, and >40% (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 11: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Distribution of native vegetation communities (orange) considered an important source of pollen and pollinators in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 12: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated value of total food production reliant on plant pollination in LGAs of Cradle Coast region ($ per ha) based on ABS 2006 Census data. LGA boundaries are shown in yellow (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 13: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated degree of water extraction water within catchments of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light blue: balanced diversion and removals of water, dark blue: large net diversion of water into rivers, red: large net removal from rivers) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 14: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated number of dams and artificial water bodies within catchments in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light blue: relatively low, blue: medium, dark blue: relatively high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 15: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on nitrate sampling (light blue: within accepted range, blue: above accepted range, dark blue: considerably above accepted range, grey: no samples available) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 16: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on turbidity readings (light blue: within accepted range, blue: above accepted range, dark blue: considerably above accepted range, grey: no samples available) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 17: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Degree of catchment disturbance (light blue: low, blue: medium, dark blue: high) found in the Cradle Coast region based on the extent of native vegetation and land cover modification (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 18: Coastal Stability â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated extent of coastal human infrastructure shown for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light grey: low, dark grey: medium, black: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 19: Coastal Stability â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated extent of intensive coastal land use for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light grey: low, dark grey: medium, black: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 20: Coastal Stability â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Major estuaries in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania with an estimate of their naturalness (red: low, yellow: medium, green: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 21: Coastal Stability â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated degree of vulnerability coastal vegetation for each catchment within the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (light green: low; green: medium; dark green: high) (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 22: Coastal Stability â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated condition of coastal vegetation ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 23: Carbon â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Extent of productive forests in Cradle Coast region of Tasmania (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 24: Carbon â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Regional sub-catchments estimated to be in poor condition due to erosion (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 25: Carbon â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Areas estimated to be of concern for soil carbon management (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis).

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Figure 26: Resilience to Climate Change â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Estimated frequency of occurrence of patches of remnant vegetation in catchments of the Cradle Coast region (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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The Tarkine and the Leven Catchment

Figure 28: Extent of human infrastructure and settlements in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 29: Extent of native vegetation and areas designated for conservation in the Tarkine and Leven catchment.

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Figure 30: Annual rainfall distribution in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 31: Biodiversity Conservation â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Native vegetation communities in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. The large number of vegetation communities means that a key on the map was not feasible. The key and additional information can be found in the text. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 32: Biodiversity Conservation â&#x2C6;&#x2019; The distribution of native grasslands and sedgelands in the Tarkine and Leven catchment. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 33: Biodiversity Conservation â&#x2C6;&#x2019; The distribution of Priority and Threatened wetlands in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 34: Biodiversity Conservation â&#x2C6;&#x2019; The distribution and type of listed threatened vegetation communities in the Tarkine and Leven catchment. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 35: Biodiversity Conservation â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Number of listed Priority fauna in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment.

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Figure 36: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Distribution of lands used for cropping, grazing and forestry in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 37: Food Production & Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; The amount of remnant native vegetation on agricultural land in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment.

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Figure 38: Extent of catchment disturbance in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 39: Water Security â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Degree of water extraction in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 40: Carbon â&#x2C6;&#x2019; Land use in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment.

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Figure 41: Carbon â&#x2C6;&#x2019; the extent of rainforest and eucalypt forest communities in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 42: Ecosystem service themes (lowâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;high) estimated to be supported as a result of existing land use in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment.

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Figure 43: Significant ecosystems estimated to occur in the Tarkine and the Leven catchment as a result of existing land use. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 44: Number of ecosystem service themes supported as a result of existing land use in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania.

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Figure 46: Distribution of some significant ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region that support important ecosystem service themes such as Food Production, Coastal Stability, Biodiversity Conservation, Tourism and Recreation, and Resilience to Climate Change (see Appendix 2 for method of analysis). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Figure 47: Poster created on the benefits provided by healthy shoreline wetlands in the Circular Head region (reproduced from Mount et al. 2010).

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SECTION 7: References ABARE (2010) Australia Commodities Outlook, June Quarter 2010. ABARE, www.abare.gov.au accessed July 2010. ABS (2010) Australia Farms – Production Data. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. Archer, J. and Evans, J. (2010) Tarkine Tasmania: Wild Unique Diverse. Print Applied Technology, Hobart. Ashton, R. (2004) (Ed) Tarkine. Allen & Unwin. Australian Food News (2010) A New Food Plan for Australia. www.ausfoodnews.com.au accessed August 2010. Australian Innovation Research Centre (2009) An Innovation Strategy for Tasmania. AIRC, University of Tasmania, October. AUSVEG (2010) Profile of Vegetable Production in Tasmania, 2010. AUSVEG, www.ausveg.com.au accessed June 2010. Baral, H., Kasel, S., Keenan, R., Fox, J., and Stork, N. (2009) GIS-based classification, mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in production landscapes: A case study of the Green triangle region of south-eastern Australia. In: Thistlethwaite, R., Lamb, D. and Haines, R. (Editors) Forestry: a Climate of Change. pp. 64−71. Proc. IFA Conf. Caloundra, Queensland, Australia. Beddington, J. (2010) Food security: contributions from science to a new and greener revolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 365: 61−71. Bennett, J.C., Ling, F.L.N., Graham, B., Grose, M.R., Corney, S.P., White, C.J., Holz, G.K., Post, D.A., Gaynor, S.M. and Bindoff, N.L. (2010) Climate Futures for Tasmania: Water and Catchments Technical Report. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania. Berry, S., Keith, H., Mackey, B., Brookhouse, M. and Jonson, J. (2010) Green carbon. The Role of Natural Forests in Carbon Storage. Part 2. Biomass Carbon Stocks in the Great Western Woodlands. ANU ePress, The Australian National University, Canberra. BOM (2010) Climate Change in Australia. Climate Forecasts for Tasmania. www.bom.gov.au accessed July 2010. Boumans, R. and Costanza. R. (2007) The multiscale integrated Earth Systems model (MIMES): the dynamics, modeling and valuation of ecosystem services. In: Van Bers, C.; Petry, D.; PahlWostl, C. (Editors). Global Assessments: Bridging Scales and Linking to Policy. Report on the joint TIAS-GWSP workshop held at the University of Maryland University College, Adelphi, USA, 10 and 11 May 2007. pp. 102−106. GWSP Issues in Global Water System Research, No. 2. GWSP IPO, Bonn. Bowman, S. (2002) Economic and Social Impact Analysis of the Effects of Plume Events on the West Coast Community. Regional and Business Development Branch. Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Division. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Boyd, J. and Banzhaf, S. (2007) What are ecosystem services? The need for standardised environmental accounting units. Ecological Economics 63: 616−626.

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de Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A. and Boumans, R.M.J. (2002) A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological Economics 41: 393−408. DPIPWE (2010) Visitation Data. Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Wildlife and Environment, www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au accessed July 2010. DPIW (2008) Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV) Project Technical Report. Water Resources Division, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. EASAC (2009) Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in Europe. Royal Society, UK. Egoh, B., Reyers, B., Rouget, M., Richardson, D., Maitre, D. and Jaarsveld, A. (2008) Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 127: 135−140. Environment Australia (2001). A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia, Third Edition. Environment Australia, Canberra. Fenton, M. (2010) Social Atlas: Cradle Coast NRM Benchmarking Landholder Survey. Report to Cradle Coast NRM, Tasmania. Fisher, B., Turner, R.K., and Morling, P. (2009) Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics 68: 642−653. Garnaut R. (2008) Garnaut Climate Change Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Johnson, G.W., Bagstad, K.J., Snapp, R.R. and Villa, F. (2010) Service Path Attribution Networks (SPANs): Spatially quantifying the flow of Ecosystem Services from landscapes to people. In: Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010. pp. 238-253. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Kareiva, P., Tallis, H., Ricketts, T.H., Daily G.C. and Polasky, S. (2011) Natural capital: Theory and Practice of Mapping Ecosystem Services. Oxford University Press. Lacey, M.J. and Norton, T. (2010) Patch Data Viewer – User Guide (Version 4.1). A Decision Support Tool for the Spatial Analysis of Native Vegetation. Landscape Logic, Hobart. Lawrence, G., Lyons, K. and Wallington, T. (2010) Introduction: Food security, nutrition and sustainability in a globalised world. In: Lawrence, G., Lyons, K. and Wallington, T. (Editors) Food Security, Nutrition and Sustainability. pp. 1−23. Earthscan. Mackey, B.G., Keith, H., Berry, S.L. and Lindenmayer, D.B. (2008) Green Carbon. The Role of Natural Forests in Carbon Storage. ANU ePress, The Australian National University, Canberra. Maynard, S. (2009a) SEQ Ecosystem Services Project Update. Circulated by email on September 21, 2009 to interested parties by Simone Maynard (smaynard@seqcatchments.com.au). Maynard, S. (2009b) The South East Queensland Ecosystem Services Project: Turning Concept into Practical Application for Land Use Policy and Planning. PowerPoint presentation at Land & Water Australia (LWA) workshop, March. (http://lwa.gov.au/products/pn30171) Maynard, S., James, D. and Davidson, A. (2010) The development of an ecosystem services framework for South East Queensland. Environmental Management 45: 881−895.

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McFarlane, I. (2008) Beyond Awakening. The Aboriginal Tribes of North West Tasmania. A History. Studies in the History of Aboriginal Australia. Fullers Bookshop and The University of Tasmania. McIntyre, S. and Hobbs, R.J. (1999) A framework for conceptualizing human impacts on landscapes and its relevance to management and research models. Conservation Biology 13: 1282−1292. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington DC. Michaels, K., Norton, T., Lacey, M. and Williams J. (2010) Spatial analysis of Tasmania’s native vegetation cover and potential implications for biodiversity conservation. Ecological Management & Restoration 11: 194−200. Mount, R., Prahalad, V., Sharples C., Tilden J., Morrison B., Lacey M., Ellison J., Helman M. and Newton, J. (2010) Circular Head Region Coastal Foreshore Habitats: Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Assessment [Boullanger Bay - Robbins Passage - Big Bay - Duck Bay]. Final Project Report to Cradle Coast NRM. School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart. Naeem, S., Bunker, D.E., Hector, A., Loreau, M. and Perrings, C. (2009) Can we predict the effects of global change on biodiversity loss and ecosystem functioning? In: Naeem, S., Bunker, D.E., Hector, A., Loreaur, M., and Perrings, C. (Editors) Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning and Human Wellbeing. pp 290−298. Oxford Biology, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Nelson, E., Mendora, G., Regetz, J., Polaksy, S., Tallis, H., Cameron, D.R., Chan, K.M., Daily, G.C., Goldstein, J., Kareiva, P.M., Naidoo, R., Ricketts, T.H. and Shaw, M.R. (2009) Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7: 4−11. NRM Insights (2010) Forecasting NRM Implications of Agricultural Change in the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania. Draft report to Cradle Coast NRM, August 2010. Parks and Wildlife Service (2001) Tasmania’s Nature based Tourism Program. Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania/Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Pert, P., Butler, J., Brodie, J., Bruce, C., Honzák, M., Kroon, F., Metcalfe, D., Mitchell, D. and Wong, G. (2010) A Catchment-Based Approach to Mapping Ecosystem Services: a Case Study from the Wet Tropics, Australia. CSIRO CSE, Cairns. Postel, S. and Carpenter, S. (1997) Freshwater ecosystem services. In: Daily G.C. (Editor) Nature’s Services. Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. pp. 195−214. Island Press. Raymond, C.M., Bryan, B.A., MacDonald, D.H., Cast, A., Strathearn, S., Grandgirard, A. and Kalivas, T. (2009) Mapping community values for natural capital and ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 68: 1301−1315. Reid, N., Williams, J. E. and Park, G. (2008) An Ecosystem Services Valuation of the Role of Native Vegetation across Northern Victoria. A report to the North Central Catchment Management Authority, Victoria. Reyer, S.B., O’Farrell, P.J.O., Cowling, R.M., Egoh, B.N., LeMaitre, D.C. and Vlok, J.H.J. (2009) Ecosystem services, land-cover change and stakeholders: Finding a sustainable foothold for a semiarid biodiversity hotspot. Ecology & Society 14 (1): article 38 (on-line) http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art38/ Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Smith, R. (2010) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Associated with Remnant Native Vegetation in an Agricultural Floodplain Landscape. PhD Thesis, University of New England. Steffen W., Burbidge A., Hughes L. et al. (2009) Australia’s Biodiversity and Climate Change: a Strategic Assessment of the Vulnerability of Australia’s Biodiversity to Climate Change. A report to the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council commissioned by the Australian Government. CSIRO Publishing, Canberra, Australia. Tallis, H. and Polasky, S. (2010) Assessing multiple ecosystem services: An integrated tool for the real world. Chapter 3. Assessing Ecosystem Services. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Tallis, H. and Ricketts, T. (2009) (Editors) InVEST 1.003 Beta User’s Guide: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs. A modelling suite developed by the Natural Capital Project to support environmental decision making. Stanford University. Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, B.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., Ferreira de Siqueira, M., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.S., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L. and Williams, S.E. (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145−147. Tourism Tasmania (2010) Latest Statistics. www.tourismtasmania.com.au/research accessed September 2010. van Osterzee, P., Preece, N. and Dale, A. (2010) Catching the baby: accounting for biodiversity and the ecosystem sector in emissions trading. Conservation Letters 3: 83−90. Villa, F., Ceroni, M., Bagstad, K., Johnson, G. and Krivov, S. (2009) ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services): a new tool for ecosystem services assessment, planning, and valuation. BioEcononomics 11: 1−10. Weins, J.A. and Bachelet, D. (2010) Matching the multiple scales of conservation with the multiple scales of climate change. Conservation Biology 24: 51−62. Williams, J.E. (2009) Mapping and Valuing the Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast Region of Tasmania. Phase 1 report. Cradle Coast NRM, Tasmania. Williams, J.E. (2010). Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Biodiversity). A report to Cradle Coast NRM, Tasmania. Williams, J.E, Dickins, G., Norton, T.W. and Jones, S. (2010) Spatial Analysis of Priorities for NRM Investment in Tasmania and Integrated Information and Data Management Systems - A Comparative Assessment of Tasmania’s Mapped NRM Assets. Research Report by RMIT University to Cradle Coast NRM, Tasmania. Yang, W., Bryan, B.A., MacDonald, D.H., Ward J. S., Wells, G., Crossman, N. and Connor, J.D. (2010) A conservation industry for sustaining natural capital and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. Ecological Economics 69: 680−689.

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Appendix 1: Data types identified in Stage 1 of the CCNRM Ecosystem Services project that were considered for the current study (adapted from Williams 2009).

Theme 1: BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION Regulating services

Data type

Data source

Habitat provision

1a. No. of vegetation types (incl. wetlands) per sub-catchment/catchment 1b. Area of vegetation per subcatchment/catchment 2a. Patch size of vegetation 2b. Degree of fragmentation 2c. Measures of vegetation connectivity 3a. Diversity of coastal ecosystems 3b. Naturalness of estuaries 4. Extent of inter-tidal zone 5a. Diversity of marine habitats 5b. Extent of kelp communities 5c. Extent of seagrass communities 6. Number of threatened species per subcatchment/catchment 1a. Extent of floristically-rich native vegetation communities 1b. Patch profile of floristically-rich native vegetation communities 2. Status of threatened flowering plants 3. Distribution of known taxa that disperse seeds and propagules

1. TASVEG 2. Spatial metrics of vegetation (Landscape Logic (LL)) 3. DPIPWE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CFEV 4. TIAR 5. TAFI 6. DPIPWE

Dispersal of seeds, propagules and translocation of nutrients

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. DPIPWE 3. Natural Values Atlas, DPIPWE

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Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience

Pollination

1a. Extent of natural land cover 1b. Intensity of land use 1c. Naturalness of ecosystems 1d. Patch profile of grasslands and sedgelands 1e. Status of alpine vegetation communities 1f. Status of fire-sensitive vegetation communities 2a. Extent of tree decline 2b. Status of natural ecosystems on islands 1a. Extent of floristically-rich native vegetation communities 1b. Patch profile of floristically-rich native vegetation communities 2. Status of threatened flowering plants 3. Distribution of known pollinators

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. DPIPWE

1a. No. of vegetation types (incl. wetlands) per subcatchment/catchment 1b. Area of vegetation per sub-catchment/ catchment 1c. Diversity of coastal ecosystems 2a. Patch size of vegetation 2b. Degree of fragmentation 2c. Measures of vegetation connectivity 3. Naturalness of estuaries 4. Diversity of marine habitats 1a. Patch size of vegetation 1b. Measures of vegetation connectivity 1c. Naturalness of landscape 2. Naturalness of estuaries 3. Condition of marine environment 1. Model of terrestrial primary production 2. Model of terrestrial marine production

1. TASVEG 2. Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 3. DPIPWE-CFEV 4. TAFI

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. DPIPWE 3. Natural Values Atlas

Supporting services Maintenance of biodiversity

Evolution (species diversity and population viability)

Primary production

1. Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. DPIPWE-CFEV 3. TAFI 1. TIAR and ANU 2. IMOS, Myriax and TIAR

Cultural services Existence value

To be determined

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Theme 2: FOOD PRODUCTION & SECURITY Provisioning services

Data type

Data source

Food and beverages

1. Area of land used for cropping & grazing 2a. Number of livestock (meat sheep/ cattle/ dairy cows/pigs/poultry) 2b. Number of salmon farms, oyster leases 3. Volume of production by industry & region (grain/vegetables/dairy products/ meat/ fruit/beverages/honey/native wildlife/ aquaculture & marine products/bull-kelp) 1. Distribution of pasture (introduced and native) 2a. Hay – dry feed 2b. Feed grains – (e.g. dairy, chickens) 2c. Annual pasture production 1. Number of wool sheep 2. Area of land supporting production

1. TASVEG and Land Capability data (TIAR) 2. AG Census database 3. AG Census database, ABARE, DAFF, Dairy Tasmania, HAL, MLA.

Forage

Fibre (e.g. wool)

Timber and wood products

Biomass fuel

1. Commodity production by forest region and industry 2a. Furniture manufacturing 2b. Paper production 2c. Housing construction 1. Volume of firewood collection 2. By-products from forestry 3. Bio-fuel production from farms 4. Ethanol production

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. TASVEG and TIAR 2. TIAR

1. AG Census database, ABARE 2. TASVEG and AG Census database, TIAR 1. AG Census database, DAFF regional data, ABARE data 2. To be determined 1. 2. 3. 4.

DPIPWE Forestry Tasmania and DAFF AG Census database AG Census database and ABARE

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Regulating services

Data type

Data source

Pollination

1a. Diversity of native vegetation communities adjacent to farming systems 1b. Perimeter length of native vegetation adjacent to farming systems 2. Extent of vegetation communities supporting apiary industry 3. Distribution of known pollinators 1. Fire hazard modelling 2. Coastal hazards 3. Climate change 4. Flooding

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. Ag Census database 3. Natural Values Atlas

Natural hazard regulation

Air quality regulation

Regional and urban air quality data

1. DPIPWE (Parks and Wildlife) models (David Taylor) 2. UTAS and NLWRA 3. BOM, CFT, IMOS 4. Hydro Tas, CC Water Authority BOM

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Supporting services Nutrient cycling (aquatic resources)

Status of riparian vegetation Naturalness of estuaries Erosion potential Water quality

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

TASVEG and TIAR CCNRM UTAS, NLWRA, LL, CFEV DPIPWE, UTAS, LL

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Theme 3: WATER SECURITY Provisioning services Data type

Data source

Fresh water

1a. Extent of fresh water resources 1b. Environmental flows 2. Water quality 3. Extent and timing of water extraction from waterways 4. Extent of groundwater extraction 5. Number of dams

1. Hydro Tasmania, DPIPWE, TIAR, Irrigation Development Board, DED 2. DPIPWE, UTAS, CCNRM 3. CCNRM, CFEV 4. DPIPWE, IDB 5. CCNRM, DPIPWE

1. Area of sub-catchment/ catchment with minimal disturbance 2. Area of sub-catchment/ catchment retaining natural land cover across rainfall gradients 1. Extent of groundwater systems with minimal disturbance 2. Extent of major recharge areas as % of subcatchment/catchment

1. TASVEG and Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. TIAR, TASVEG and Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL)

Regulating services Surface water eco-regulation

Groundwater eco-regulation

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. CCNRM, DPIPWE 2. DPIPWE, Hydro Tasmania

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Theme 4: COASTAL STABILITY Regulating services

Data type

Data source

Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience

1.

1. 2. 3. 4.

UTAS, NLWRA TASVEG Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) DPIPWE-CFEV

1. 2. 3. 4.

Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) CFEV TIAR TAFI

Habitat provision

Coastal storm protection

Diversity of coastal substrates 2a. Area of coastal vegetation 2b. Diversity of coastal ecosystems 3a. Patch size of vegetation 3b. Degree of fragmentation 3c. Measures of vegetation connectivity 4.Naturalness of coastal ecosystems 1a. Extent of coastal vegetation 1b. Patch profile of coastal vegetation 1. Naturalness of coastal ecosystems 2. Extent of inter-tidal zone 3. Diversity of marine habitats 1. Distribution of coastline systems exposed to storms and extreme events 2. Status of coastal systems where likelihood of storms and extreme events is high 3. Extent and status of

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. UTAS, NLWRA 2. Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 3. UTAS, NLWRA, DED

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Erosion regulation

human infrastructure on coastlines 1. Extent of intensive land uses in coastal regions most exposed to storms and extreme events 2. Status of coastal systems where likelihood of storms and extreme events is high

1. TIAR 2. Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL)

Cultural services Cultural heritage conservation Natural heritage and biodiversity conservation

To be determined 1. Status of protected areas 2. Status of priority species and communities in coastal areas 3a. Extent of coastal vegetation 3b. Patch profile of coastal vegetation 4. Naturalness of coastal ecosystems 5. Extent of inter-tidal zone 6. Diversity of marine habitats

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. TIAR, DPIPWE 2. CCNRM 3. Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 4. CFEV 5. TIAR 6. TAFI

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Theme 5: TOURISM & RECREATION Cultural services

Data type

Data source

Natural heritage and biodiversity conservation

1. Major natural heritage and biodiversity conservation supporting tourism and recreation 2. Status of reserve system 3. Iconic species, systems and places 1. Place of origin 1. Cultural heritage sites supporting tourism and recreation 2. Listed Natural Heritage sites 1a. Tourist visitation of World Heritage sites and National Parks 1b. Visitor nights by region related to nature-based tourism 2.Number of recreational fishing licenses (marine and FW) To be determined; not explicitly covered due to lack of data.

1. ABS Census database, Tourism Tasmania 2. TIAR, DPIPWE 3. DPIPWE, Tourism Tasmania

Cultural identity and diversity Cultural heritage values

Recreation, tourism and the arts

(Aesthetic values and inspiration)

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1. ABS Census 1. ABS Census database, Tourism Tasmania 2. Australian Heritage Database

1. 2.

ABS Census database, Tourism Tasmania DPIPWE

RFA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; project on the aesthetic value of forests (unable be located). UTAS

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Theme 6: CARBON Provisioning services

Data type

Data source

Timber and wood products

1. Commodity production by forest region and industry

1.

AG Census database, DAFF regional data, ABARE data

Biomass fuel

1. 2. 3. 4.

Volume of firewood collection By-products from forestry Bio-fuel production from farms Ethanol production

1. 2. 3. 4.

DPIPWE Forestry Tas and DAFF AG Census database AG Census database and ABARE

1a. Extent of natural land systems 1b. Area of productive forests 1c. Extent of deforestation 2a. Erosion potential of soils 2b. Carbon status of soils

1.

TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) TIAR

Primary production

1a. Extent of natural land systems 1b. Area of productive forests 2. Primary production by catchment

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. TIAR and ANU

Secondary production

1. Extent of intensive land uses by 1. sub-catchment/ catchment 1. Carbon capacity of soils 2. 3a. Erosion potential of soils 3. 3b. Carbon status of soils

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. TIAR, ASRIS 3. TIAR

Regulating services Carbon storage and sequestration

2.

Supporting services

Soil formation

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Theme 7: RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Regulating services

Data type

Data source

Maintenance of ecosystem stability and resilience

1a. Area of vegetation per sub-catchment/catchment 1b. Diversity of coastal ecosystems 2a. Patch size of vegetation 2b. Measures of vegetation connectivity 3. Naturalness of estuaries 4. Diversity of marine habitats 1a. Extent of natural land systems 1b. Area of productive forests 1c. Extent of deforestation 2a. Erosion potential of soils 2b. Carbon status of soils 1. Extent of natural land systems 2. Status of coastal waters

1. 2. 3. 4.

Carbon sequestration

Climate regulation

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

TASVEG Spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) DPIPWE-CFEV TAFI

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. TIAR

1. TASVEG and spatial metrics of vegetation (LL) 2. BOM, IMOS

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Theme 8: QUALITY OF LIFE Quality of life largely draws on data from the themes shown above. The ecosystem services shown in brackets are considered relevant to assessing quality of life, but adequate spatial data are not currently available.

Provisioning services Data type Fresh water Food and beverages

Data source

See Theme 3 See Theme 2

Cultural services Cultural identity and diversity Recreation and tourism Employment opportunities

See Theme 5 See Theme 5 1. Employment sector

(Aesthetic values) (Psychological health and wellbeing) (Inspiration) (Sense of Place)

See Theme 5

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

2. ABS Census

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Appendix 2: Summary of methods employed to create the map products and supporting tables shown in the report. Water catchments in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Water catchment boundaries based on CFEV database, LIST, Tasmanian Government. Regional land cover found in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Intersection of BRS land use layer (using broad land use classification codes) with catchment layer; frequency summary was performed to output each land use code by area per catchment . Distribution of lands used for cropping, dairy, grazing and forestry in the Cradle Coast region Intersection of BRS land use layer (using broad land use classification codes) with catchment layer. Dairy lands and their code classifications via Valuation Property Classificati on Codes 2009.doc, then these data were intersected with cadastre and catchments as above. A frequency summary was performed to output each land use code by area per catchment. The broad land use codes are used as descriptions in the map legend. Value of total food production in LGAs of Cradle Coast Monetary value of production obtained from ABS (2010) used to assign values per ha at the level of each LGA. Figure symbology used class breaks based on dollar values per hectare thematically. Value of total crop production in LGAs of Cradle Coast region Monetary value of production obtained from ABS (2010) used to assign values per ha at the level of each LGA. Figure symbology used class breaks based on dollar values per hectare thematically. Value of total livestock products in LGAs of Cradle Coast region Monetary value of production obtained from ABS (2010) used to assign values per ha at the level of each LGA. Figure symbology used class breaks based on dollar values per hectare thematically. Remnant native vegetation remaining on agricultural lands in the Cradle Coast region Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Classified catchments in terms of degree of modification of native vegetation Native vegetation layer intersected with catchments to determine remnant vegetation per catchment by area. Mapped thematically using pre-determined class breaks by percentage remnant vegetation per catchment. Value of total food production reliant on plant pollination in LGAs of the Cradle Coast region Monetary value of production obtained from ABS (2010) used to assign values per ha at the level of each LGA, based on crop production using flowering plants. Figure symbology used class breaks based on dollar values per hectare thematically. Degree of catchment disturbance found in the Cradle Coast region Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Intersected resulting data with CFEV catchments layer Figure thematically symbolised based on percent native vegetation remaining per catchment into pre-determined class breaks correlating with intact, variegated and fragmented vegetation cover. Water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on nitrate sampling Developed layer of water monitoring points from Five Rivers WaterWatch Figure thematically based on previous data indicating ’catchments of concern’ in the CC Region. Water quality of catchments in the Cradle Coast region based on turbidity readings Developed layer of water monitoring points from FRWW report Figure thematically based on previous data indicating ’catchments of concern’ in the CC Region. Number of dams and artificial water bodies within catchments in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Selected all farm dams (all water bodies 100 m2 – 10000 m2) from DPIPWE tas_wbdy shapefile Intersected this with water catchments layer. Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Degree of water extraction water within catchments of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Used CFEV RS_ABSTI_C (abstraction of water from river section, grouped into 8 classes) Selected the three highest classes (Moderate Long-term, Large Summer; Large Long-term, Major Summer; Major Long-term, Extreme Summer abstraction) Divided total stream length in each sub-catchment by the total length of high abstraction stream reaches, and displayed as a percentage. Extent of coastal human infrastructure shown for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region Used BRS land cover and Geoscience Australia (250K) data to map area of human settlements on coastline for each catchment ‘Urban’ areas were clipped using a 1km coastal strip and thematically mapped based on total hectares per catchment. Extent of intensive coastal land use for each catchment in the Cradle Coast region Used BRS land cover to determine area of land used for intensive land uses calculated to occur within 1 km of coastline. Major estuaries in the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania with an estimate of their naturalness Estuarine Naturalness category score was joined to the CFEV catchment layer Intersected resulting data with CFEV catchments layer Selections based on ES_NSCOR_C attribute from the CFEV Estuary dataset. Data intersected with both IBRA region and CFEV catchment datasets. Frequency summaries were used to output estuary data per catchment, by name and N Score, plus total % coverage of each estuary. Degree of vulnerability of coastal vegetation for each catchment within the Cradle Coast region Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Mapped degree of modification and vulnerability of coastal vegetation both thematically and by type (rare and/or vulnerable) Data based on prior analyses of vulnerable vegetation by Barker Associates indicating vegetation themes including Significance and Viability within 100 m of coastline Data extant for mainland Tasmania only (i.e. not King Island). Extent of productive forests in Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Mapped productive forests based on rainforest (TasVeg ‘R’) and eucalypt forest (TasVeg ‘D’ & ‘W’) vegetation communities. Regional sub-catchments estimated to be in poor condition due to erosion Selected percentage of sub-catchment with erosion risk above 7% from above layer Selected sub-catchments with above threshold turbidity measurement Figure thematically based on previous data indicating ’catchments of concern’ in the CC Region. Areas estimated to be of concern for soil carbon management. Based on spatial data on the organic carbon of soils from the Australian National Land Water Resources Audit Cropping assessment based on intersection of NLWRA soil organic carbon layer (classes <14 kg/ha of organic carbon) with BRS cropping layer Fire assessment – based on intersection of NLWRA soil organic carbon layer (classes >40 kg/ha of organic carbon) with public lands PLUC layer Figure thematically based on previous data indicating ’catchments of concern’ in the CC Region. Frequency of occurrence of patches of remnant vegetation in catchments of the Cradle Coast region Selections from native vegetation patch data (Veg05_PatchMetrics) using three area classes (<10, 10-50, >50 Ha) based on previously-generated raster data using FragStats. Frequency summaries were used to derive total patch class areas across the State, patch class areas per region/catchment, and frequencies (counts) of patch classes per region/catchment. Selected native vegetation from TasVeg and intersected with above layer to determine vegetation community richness of patches Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Mapped selected data for catchments subjected to significant landscape modification. Condition of coastal vegetation ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Mapped degree of modification of coastal vegetation Data based on prior analyses of coastal vegetation by Barker Associates indicating condition categories. Data extends 100 m from coastline only Data extant for mainland Tasmania only (i.e. not King Island). Distribution of lands used for cropping, grazing and forestry in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine. Intersection of BRS land use layer (using broad land use classification codes) with catchment layer; frequency summary was performed to output each land use code by area per catchment Dairy lands and their code classifications via Valuation Property Classification Codes 2009.doc, then these data were intersected with cadastre and catchments as above. Extent of native vegetation and areas designated for conservation in Leven catchment and the Tarkine Selected native vegetation from TasVeg Mapped extent of native vegetation communities and areas designated as protected Protected areas or conservation reserves from Tas Reserve Estate layer (June 2008), DPIPWE. Extent of catchment disturbance in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine Thematically mapped as Low (native vegetation from TasVeg - non-protected areas), Medium (protected areas - conservation reserves from Tas Reserve Estate layer), and High (remaining areas) disturbance classes. Degree of water extraction in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine Used CFEV RS_ABSTI_C (abstraction of water from river section, grouped into 8 classes) Selected the three highest classes (Moderate Long-term, Large Summer; Large Long-term, Major Summer; Major Long-term, Extreme Summer abstraction) Divided total stream length in each catchment by the total length of high abstraction stream reaches, and displayed as a percentage. Annual rainfall distribution in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine Mapped spatial variation in mean annual rainfall based on climate surfaces developed for Tasmania by Dr Gang-Jun Liu, RMIT. Land use and carbon in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine Assigned priorities for management of ecosystems and ecosystem services themes based on land cover classes. Number of ecosystem service themes in the Leven catchment and the Tarkine Assigned ecosystem services themes to different land cover classes to map richness of ecosystem services by area Layers processed (through iterative subtractions) to derive discrete areas of non-overlapping ecosystem themes. Data then ranked to indicate areas containing one or more contributing ecosystem benefits (classes 1-7 plus class 8 for areas â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;not consideredâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). Average number of ecosystem service themes supported as a result of existing land use in each catchment of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania Assigned ecosystem services themes to different land cover classes to map richness of ecosystem services by area. Distribution of some significant ecosystems in the Cradle Coast region Composite map based on above.

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Appendix 3: Extent of ecosystems supporting different ecosystem service themes in each catchment and the Tarkine region of the Cradle Coast region of Tasmania. Area in Region (ha)

Total Region Area (ha)

% Area of Region per Theme (ha)

2,262,624.0

0.2

Region Name

ES Theme

Cradle Coast

1

3,862.6

2

130,355.6

5.8

3

303,708.8

13.4

4

194,124.6

8.6

5

1,292,054.2

57.1

6

20,649.6

0.9

7

44,838.8

2.0

1

0

2

7,630.1

1.6

3

2,371.0

0.5

4

45,731.7

9.7

5

347,723.6

73.5

6

46.2

0.01

7 1

7,507.8

2

0

0

3

0

0

Tarkine

Wandererâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Giblin

Gordonâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Franklin

King-Henty

Port Davey

0

473,248.1

0

1.6 176,771.1

0

4

0

0

5

159,072.1

90.0

6

5.3

0.0

7

17,588.9

10.0

1

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

4

1,241.7

0.4

5

335,266.1

0

328,744.8

98.1

6

5.8

0.002

7

375.3

0.1

1

352.6

2

179,659.7

0.2

0

0

3

446.6

0.2

4

11,744.6

6.5

5

105,936.6

59.0

6

2,666.2

1.5

7

247.6

0.1

1

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

4

0.03

0.0001

5

37,217.31

96.6

6

0.01

0.00002

7

1,047.81

2.7

38,511.4

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

0

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Pieman

Nelson Bay

Arthur

Montagu

Duck

King Island

Welcome

1

0

2

6,086.13

1.5

3

1,904.15

0.5

413,532.8

0

4

13,601.24

3.3

5

328,218.72

79.4

6

2,195.34

0.5

7

1,215.21

0.3

1

0

2

0

0

3

1,440.76

1.7

4

3,095.08

3.6

5

70,907.11

82.2

6

63.01

0.1

7

7,956.22

9.2

1

0

2

22,714.27

86,242.4

251,864.6

0

0 9.0

3

6,499.00

2.6

4

49,306.37

19.6

5

126,217.40

50.1

6

310.82

0.1

7

744.01

1

0.1

2

1,249.8

2.1

3

13,570.7

23.3

4

9,442.3

16.2

5

7,634.8

13.1

6

2,708.4

4.7

7

0

0

1

168.7

0.3 58,186.9

55,721.7

0.0002

0.3

2

3,015.6

5.4

3

32,288.2

57.9

4

7,236.5

13.0

5

4,341.4

7.8

6

1,170.5

2.1

7

82.8

0.1

1

0

2

623.6

0.6

3

85,912.1

78.3

4

427.9

0.4

5

8,687.1

7.9

6

5,472.7

5.0

7

3,228.1

2.9

109,672.1

0

1

0

2

1,821.5

2.8

3

19,950.6

30.1

4

9,329.6

14.1

5

10,404.8

15.7

66,223.8

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

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Blackâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;Detention

Forth-Wilmot

Emu

Cam

Inglis

Leven

Blythe

6

3,191.5

4.8

7

8,994.6

13.6

1

0

65,638.7

0

2

3,857.0

5.9

3

14,147.5

21.6

4

17,631.3

26.9

5

13,761.1

21.0

6

1,555.7

2.4

7

1,436.0

2.2

1

0

2

8,948.9

11.0

3

17,403.3

21.4

4

12,772.9

15.7

5

31,585.6

38.8

6

60.1

0.1

7

19.9

0.02

81,378.6

0

1

242.5

2

9,501.2

38.0

3

5,116.1

20.5

4

2,357.8

9.4

5

4,547.8

18.2

6

75.4

0.3

7

8.4

0.03

1

621.9

2

12,702.5

43.5

3

7,631.4

26.1

4

1,985.2

6.8

5

1,972.1

6.7

6

77.7

0.3

7

43.5

0.1

1

199.3

2

13,948.6

22.8

3

23,390.4

38.2

4

7,312.9

11.9

5

7,187.4

11.7

6

239.9

0.4

7

483.4

0.8

24,982.6

29,218.7

61,286.2

1.0

2.1

0.3

1

494.4

2

18,260.7

25.2

3

15,903.8

22.0

4

9,992.9

13.8

5

18,981.6

26.2

6

56.0

0.1

7

22.5

0.03

1

146.9

2

5,704.2

15.3

3

13,316.3

35.7

72,392.5

37,319.3

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

0.7

0.4

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Upper Derwent

Rubicon

Tamar Estuary

Mersey

4

7,583.0

20.3

5

6,778.3

18.2

6

399.3

1.1

7

78.7

0.2

1

0

2

0

0

3

0

0

357.3

0

4

0

0

5

357.3

100.0

6

0

0

7

0

0

1

1.7

2

8,555.1

18.9

3

11,553.9

25.6

4

11,623.4

25.7

5

8,533.7

18.9

6

317.2

0.7

7

1,151.2

2.5

1

0

2

0

45,209.7

1,287.8

0.004

0 0

3

0

0

4

464.9

36.1

5

725.5

56.3

6

0

0

7

74.0

1

1,396.5

2

13,350.2

18.3

3

26,865.6

36.9

4

14,387.8

19.8

5

10,241.4

14.1

6

78.9

0.1

7

40.7

0.1

5.8 72,756.0

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

1.9

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NOTES

Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast region, Tasmania (Final Report)

Page 122

Profile for Cradle Coast Authority

Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast Region, Tasmania  

Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast Region, Tasmania_ NRM Insights_2013_Report

Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast Region, Tasmania  

Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services of the Cradle Coast Region, Tasmania_ NRM Insights_2013_Report