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East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan

Buttons Beach at East Ulverstone and Dial Ranges in the background

Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Author “Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania” Helen Morgan and Anna Povey, 175 Glenford Farm Rd, Underwood TAS 7268. Email: bushways@intas.net.au Mobile: 0429 197 671 © Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania th 20 July 2010 Prepared for: Cradle Coast NRM, A business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority, P.O. Box 338, Burnie TAS 7320.

Acknowledgements This project is supported by Cradle Coast NRM, through funding from the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country. Bushways thanks the following people who provided assistance or were consulted in the preparation of this report: Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM; Rachael Eberhardt and Haylee Alderson, Central Coast Council; Vince Dudink, resident; Robyn and Kevin Parker, residents; Sharon Dennis, Ulverstone Coastcare Group; Perviz Marker. Mapping data in this draft has been obtained from the TASMAP Series, DPIPWE Natural Values Atlas, The List, TASVEG, and field work conducted by Bushways.


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Table of Contents Summary ........................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Background............................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Description of the study area .................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Location map ............................................................................................................................ 7 2 Methodology .................................................................................................................................. 8 2.1 Background research................................................................................................................ 8 2.2 Vegetation survey and habitat assessment.............................................................................. 8 2.3 Consultation .............................................................................................................................. 8 2.4 Limitations................................................................................................................................. 8 3 Site Assessment............................................................................................................................ 9 3.1. Site Assessments .................................................................................................................... 9 3.1.1 Dial Street Reserve ............................................................................................................ 9 3.1.2 Buttons Beach West........................................................................................................... 9 3.1.3 Buttons Creek .................................................................................................................. 11 3.1.4 Buttons Beach East.......................................................................................................... 12 3.1.5 Fish Pond ......................................................................................................................... 12 3.2 Vegetation communities ......................................................................................................... 14 3.2.1 Coast Wattle scrub........................................................................................................... 14 3.2.2 Saltmarsh ......................................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Plant species of conservation significance ............................................................................. 16 3.4 Fauna, especially species of conservation significance ......................................................... 16 3.5 Weed infestations ................................................................................................................... 17 3.6 Existing revegetation .............................................................................................................. 17 4 Threats and Management Recommendations.......................................................................... 18 4.1 Native vegetation and habitat loss.......................................................................................... 18 4.2 Threatened fauna habitat........................................................................................................ 19 4.3 Weed invasion ........................................................................................................................ 19 4.3.1 Very weedy areas ............................................................................................................ 19 4.3.2 Foredune weeds .............................................................................................................. 19 4.3.3 Scattered environmental weeds....................................................................................... 20 4.3.4 Weed control principles.................................................................................................... 20 4.4 Access tracks and recreational use ........................................................................................ 21 4.5 Erosion.................................................................................................................................... 22 4.6 Dog and cat control................................................................................................................. 22 4.7 Vegetation removal and pruning............................................................................................. 23 4.8 Fire.......................................................................................................................................... 23 4.9 Climate change and sea level rise.......................................................................................... 23 5 Management Zones and Actions ............................................................................................... 24 5.1 Management zones ................................................................................................................ 24 5.1.1 Protection Zone – Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond .................................................... 30 5.1.2 Beach Rehabilitation Zone – Buttons Beach West and East........................................... 33 5.1.3 Focussed Revegetation Zone – Buttons Creek West and East ...................................... 38 5.1.4 Very Weedy Zone eastern end of Buttons Beach East and Fishpond ............................ 42 5.2 Revegetation........................................................................................................................... 45 5.2.1 Revegetation sites............................................................................................................ 47 5.3 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................... 49 5.4 Community involvement ......................................................................................................... 50 6 Strategic Priorities ...................................................................................................................... 51 7 References ................................................................................................................................... 52

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

8 Appendices .................................................................................................................................. 53 Appendix 1 Native plants found at East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve.......................................... 53 Appendix 2. Plants suitable for revegetation ................................................................................ 54 Appendix 3 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. ......................................... 55 Appendix 4 Threatened fauna known or possible on site............................................................. 56 Appendix 5. Buttons Creek revegetation list................................................................................. 57 Appendix 6. Weeds found at East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve. ................................................. 59 Appendix 7. Some native species that resemble weeds .............................................................. 60 Appendix 8. Weed control recommendations ............................................................................... 61 Appendix 9. Some useful resources ............................................................................................. 64 Appendix 10. Picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn .......................................................................... 65

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Summary Cradle Coast NRM, through funding from the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country, engaged Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania to provide a vegetation management plan of the Coastal Reserve at East Ulverstone from Dial Street Reserve to Fish Pond. The vegetation in the coastal reserve was mostly Coast Wattle Coastal Scrub, with a remnant of White Gum Coastal Forest in the Dial Street Reserve and a small area of Saltmarsh vegetation on rocky shores at Fish Pond. Threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoots occur here. Diggings and scats likely to be of this species were found in the open grassy areas of Dial St Reserve, and the species is known to residents. There are also some protected Little Penguins at Fish Pond. Threats to coastal habitat were identified during the survey and from discussion with local people and experts. Issues include human disturbance, such as clearing and mowing of vegetation, informal tracks through the coastal reserve, weed invasions, dog and cat control and fire threat. Sea level rise is likely to impact the coastal habitat on this site, with associated issues such as loss of habitat, erosion and increased storm water flows. Management recommendations include revegetation and habitat restoration, track rationalisation, weed control, monitoring, community involvement and liaison with stakeholders. Four management zones have been defined based on environmental characteristics, habitat condition, habitat recovery potential and the actions required to improve habitat considering the major impacts identified and likely to occur. They are: • Protection Zone: Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond – highest priority • Beach Rehabilitation Zone: Buttons Beach, West and East • Focussed Revegetation Zone: Buttons Creek, West and East • Very Weedy Zone: eastern end of Buttons beach The Buttons Creek Rehabilitation Plan addresses revegetation and weed control for this public area. Other areas to be targeted for revegetation include: 1. Buttons Creek West and East, (Buttons Creek Rehabilitation Plan see section 5.1.3) 2. Site opposite Oz Rock Inn (see Appendix 10), 3. Site on Buttons Beach East, at the stormwater outlet, and 4. Backdunes and roadside of Buttons Beach West and East. Throughout the area it is important to consider and protect fauna, especially threatened and protected wildlife such as shorebirds, Eastern Barred Bandicoots and Little Penguins. Strategic Priorities have been identified as: 1. Protect Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond and maintain the good condition of vegetation. 2. Weed control at Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond. 3. Identify and provide formal beach accesses - and close informal access tracks. 4. Focussed rehabilitation of Buttons Creek. 5. Revegetation at the lookout car park, at site opposite Oz Rock Inn and at the stormwater outlet on Buttons Beach East. 6. Revegetation of gaps in scrub and the back dunes of Buttons Beach East and West. 7. Control Sea Spurge, Sea Wheat Grass and sparse invasive weeds across the site. 8. Do follow-up maintenance of plantings (e.g. address fallen guards, control weeds around plantings, water in summer). 9. Involve the community by a. engaging stakeholders in implementing actions, b. providing educational signage, brochures, and other resources, and c. conducting community education and awareness events, etc. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 5


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1

Cradle Coast NRM engaged Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania to provide a vegetation management plan of the Coastal Reserve at East Ulverstone Beach from Dial Street Reserve to Fish Pond, in northwest Tasmania. The study area is coastal reserve leased from the Crown by Central Coast Council. This vegetation management plan identifies threats to the native habitat and vegetation of the coastal reserve, and provides management recommendations and zoned work plans based on a broad vegetation and fauna habitat assessment. The plan refers to the Central Coast Council’s Vegetation Management Strategy and Vegetation Management Policy (Central Coast Council 2009). It is prepared with reference to the Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants (Lawrence, 2004), and in liaison with specified stakeholders.

1.2 Description of the study area The Coastal Reserve of East Ulverstone Beach and Buttons Beach is located on the North West coast of Tasmania. The study area extends east of the River Leven (E 430253, N 5444242) to the east of Fish Pond (E 433103, N 5444101) for ~ 3 km. Most of the study area is vegetated with native coastal scrub with some areas dominated by Marram Grass. South of the reserve is the residential area of East Ulverstone with Leighland Christian and Sacred Heart schools in the near vicinity. The area has a northerly aspect and the River Leven enters Bass Straight at the western end of the reserve. The area can be found on the Ulverstone TASMAP 1:25000 map sheet no: 4244. The coastal reserve is an important recreational area for Central Coast residents and has high scenic values for both residents and visitors. A location map of the area is overleaf.

1

Cradle Coast NRM operates as a business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

1.3 Location map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

2 Methodology 2.1 Background research A Natural Values Report was conducted through the Natural Values Atlas (DPIPWE, March 2010) for all threatened flora and fauna records within 5 kilometres of the site, as well as TASVEG communities. “Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook” (Bryant & Jackson 1999) was used to identify any other threatened fauna found within the area of the Ulverstone mapsheet 4244 that would be likely to occur in the study site. On site meetings were held with Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM and Rachael Eberhardt from Central Coast Council. 2.2 Vegetation survey and habitat assessment th

Field surveys were conducted on 9 March 2010 by Anna Povey, Helen Morgan and Sam Morgan of Bushways. Anna Wind, Cradle Coast NRM, and Rachael Eberhardt, Central Coast Council, were met on site and explained some issues. Vegetation communities and major flora species, including weeds, and the general condition of the vegetation were identified. Evidence of fauna was noted during the course of the survey. Issues arising from recreational use and other threats to vegetation and habitat were noted. Ecological vegetation communities were described according to TASVEG Version 1.0 classifications (Harris & Kitchener 2005). All botanical names are in accordance with the recently updated “A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania” (Buchanan, 2009). Locations were recorded with a handheld GPS, using datum WGS84 (equivalent to GDA94). 2.3 Consultation Initial consultation was made during the first field visit, with information provided by Cradle Coast NRM and Central Coast Council. A draft vegetation management plan was then provided to Cradle Coast NRM and land managers Central Coast Council and Crown Land Services for comment. Comments and additional information were incorporated into a second draft. This was made available for public comment, with a letter from council sent to all residents and businesses within close proximity of the site as well as other relevant stakeholders (such as Ulverstone High School). Copies of the document were available from the council. Copies were also provided to the Ulverstone Coastcare Group. Any feedback was addressed and incorporated into this final vegetation management plan. 2.4 Limitations A survey of this type can be expected to identify the vegetation communities and most vascular plant species. However the flora survey was not intended to be comprehensive and any sampling technique is limited in what can be recorded during one or two visits. Some species vary in abundance from year to year. Bryophytes and lichens were not surveyed. No threatened lower plants were recorded on the Natural Values Atlas as occurring within 5 km. A full fauna survey was not carried out.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

3 Site Assessment 3.1. Site Assessments 3.1.1 Dial Street Reserve The Dial Street Reserve is located at the far western end of the study site. This site is flanked on its western side by the River Leven; it extends east from this river to the Dial St Beach Shop (approx. 500m). This section of the coastal reserve is relatively wide (approx. 200m). The site includes a modified wetland area (classified as a Bird Sanctuary) with a small body of water that drains westwards into the River Leven. Much of the Dial St Reserve is maintained as open parkland and is mowed regularly. The Ulverstone Soundshell is situated at the centre of the site, which is utilised for entertainment purposes. Several well-maintained walking tracks ramble through the reserve and there are many BBQ and picnic facilities. An informal track which rambles through the scrub is known as the “Nature Trail” to residents, and should be considered as an official track, provided no damage to vegetation occurs. A large tract of coastal scrub is present in the Dial St Reserve between the modified wetland and the sea. This scrub is dominated by Coastal Wattle, Boobialla, White Correa, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach. The scrub is in good condition, with few weeds. There is an area of scrub dieback at the western corner bordering the river. Marram Grass and Sea Spurge dominate the foredune along the entire length of the Dial St Reserve. Between the Soundshell and the Dial St Beach Shop the coastal scrub is restricted to a thin strip (~ 20m). This strip has a much higher proportion of weeds and is fragmented by numerous informal beach access points. There is also evidence of fires lit by vandals. Figure 2 ”Nature trail” through native vegetation in the Dial Street Reserve.

A large formal beach access point is located near the Dial St Beach Shop with clear dog control signage. Dogs are permitted west of this access point to the River Leven, but they are prohibited east of this point along Buttons Beach. 3.1.2 Buttons Beach West The coastal scrub in this whole section is narrow (10 – 20 metres wide), and dissected by numerous informal tracks accessing the beach, pushing back the native vegetation and exacerbating erosion. This beach is used for recreation, and there are also recreation and camping facilities on the other side of the road. There are numerous picnic areas and barbeque sites between the back-dune and the road. Presently people are parking their vehicles on the coastal reserve to access these picnic areas. The native vegetation here could be enhanced by weeding and planting, without limiting recreational use. Gaps could be filled by more coastal scrub plantings, including some more diversity, and the vegetation would be better if wider, with fewer informal tracks. The scrub is dominated by Coast Wattle, Boobialla, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach, but is affected by weed invasion. There is some dieback throughout this zone. Some erosion was noted, while the inland edge is constrained by a wide mown verge and road, which makes this scrub vulnerable to impacts from both sides. There are areas of good native vegetation, especially between the Surf Club and west Buttons Creek, which is wider, has fewer weeds and more native diversity (including the only White Gums Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 9


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

west of Dial St Reserve), and almost no informal tracks. Good vegetation such as this is a priority to maintain. Weeds are mostly Mirrorbush, Blackberry and Cape Ivy, but also Marram Grass, Sea Spurge, Harestail Grass and others. Weeds are generally scattered, and could be greatly improved by weed control, but there are some dense weed patches (e.g. at creeks) which will require more management effort. Figure 3 Typical coastal scrub of Buttons Beach has various native shrubs, some weedy Cape Ivy and some gaps, with dieback affecting some trees.

East of the Dial St Beach Shop the Coastal Reserve is restricted to a thin strip (~ 20 m) of coastal scrub in poor condition, between the road and the sea. This tract of vegetation is further divided by numerous mown grassy areas between the back-dune and the road. The foredune here is dominated by weedy Marram Grass and Sea Spurge. A car park / lookout area is located approximately equidistant between the Dial St Beach Shop and the East Ulverstone Surf Club. This car park spans across half of the thin coastal reserve, and much of the native coastal vegetation between the car park and the sea has been cleared for views. An old beach vehicle access point has been blocked east of this car park with large rocks. The majority of people are accessing the beach from the car park using this old track. A currently utilised vehicle access track passes through the coastal reserve (with council permission) and accesses some sheds behind the Ulverstone Waterslide. The “All Age Playground”, “Hang Ten Skatebowl” and Caravan Park south of the road lead to considerable people-pressure on the coastal reserve in that area, with many informal tracks. A formal track is essential here, with closure of informal ones. The Surf Club also attracts a large number of people for activities, and has a formal access. Immediately around the Surf Club the native vegetation has been completely removed, with lawn, picnic tables and BBQ provided. Figure 4 At the Surf Club, landscaping with low native plants such as Pigface and Cushionbush could be appreciated, and shade could be provided by Sheoaks.

An open area between the Surf Club and Oz Rock Inn has some Boxthorns and Poplar suckers which should be removed. Sandy mounds here should be planted with native shrubs, and White Gums should be planted, to add to those at Oz Rock Inn. Figure 5 Trees in this picnic area are subjected to greater wind pressure where scrub has been removed.

The area opposite Oz Rock Inn requires special attention. Here are the only eucalypts in the coastal reserve east of Dial St Reserve, but the vegetation is affected by the cutting and mowing which has occurred. The sheltering effect of shrubs has been removed, and is leading to dieback of trees. This area has picnic tables, and views and access to the beach. It is understandably kept open for amenity, but this needs to be balanced with maintaining the trees in good health. The dense lawn grass is holding the Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 10


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

sand together at present, but any further decline in vegetation may lead to erosion in this area. The northern edge of this area consists of Marram Grass and Sea Spurge, which should be controlled and replaced by low native shrubs. There are some non-native trees here, but they do not appear to be invading the native vegetation. Planting of native shrubs should be done on the dune mounds and either side of this area, so that vegetation is strengthened, but leaving open grassy areas and views. Recommendations are made in Appendix 10 on plantings which can achieve this balance. The White Gums spaced alongside the road east of Oz Rock Inn would benefit from plantings of native scrub species and more eucalypts to widen the vegetation here. Space for parking near the picnic shelter will need to be left open, however. Figure 6 One of the healthiest White Gums in the reserve is still surrounded by coastal scrub.

Towards Button Creek’s formal beach access track, the native vegetation is in good condition, and has had some revegetation done recently along the edge. There is sufficient room here that more plantings could widen the scrub around this area and still leave a large area open. 3.1.3 Buttons Creek The western side of Buttons Creek is managed as a picnic area, with several picnic tables and a large open grassy area for recreation. At the formal beach access track from this picnic area, weeds become dense. Although there is some good native scrub (Coast Wattles, Saltbush and Bower Spinach) at the beach edge, most of the rest of the vegetation from the track to the creek consists of weeds. The area is dominated by Mirrorbush and White Poplars, with Blackberries, Cape Ivy, a species of palm, Cotoneaster, Trailing Daisy and some Sea Spurge. The White Poplars were originally planted in the picnic area but are clearly now invading the native vegetation. There is an area of Sea Wheatgrass, a very serious beach weed, at the northeast corner of the vegetation. Lombardy Poplars line the road, but do not appear to be encroaching on the native vegetation. Despite the trees here, the picnic area was surprisingly windy during this assessment, with wind coming from the southwest through a gap between trees at the railway line crossing and between the bare trunks of the poplars. Figure 7 Poplars, Mirrorbush and other weeds now dominate much of the coastal scrub at Buttons Creek.

Buttons Creek itself is lined by native Common Reed where the creek widens below the bridge. Apart from the Reed, however, there is almost no native riparian vegetation. The banks are steep and largely bare at the picnic area near the bridge, which allows view of the water and some access (difficult) to the creek. One section has a concrete edge. The creek has high E.coli levels possibly due to farming activities upstream (A.Wind, pers.comm.) so that swimming is not recommended in Buttons Creek. There are also issues at times with the creek blocking upstream due to branches etc, but a platypus has been seen in the creek above the bridge adjacent to Willoway Motel (A. Wind, pers.comm.). Figure 8 Native Common Reed and some Coast Wattle line Buttons Creek and beach, but Poplars and other weeds form the main backdrop, and there is a patch of invasive Sea Wheatgrass (grey, at front).

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

The eastern side of Buttons Creek is also very weedy, dominated by large Poplars and Mirrorbush, and with dense Blackberries and Periwinkle and almost no native plants near the bridge. A small informal track has been blocked by a boulder, but still provides some access to the reedy part of the creek. There are native Coast Wattles, Saltbush and Bower Spinach towards the beach, but this vegetation is very degraded by invasion of multiple aggressive weeds including Blackberry, Cape Ivy, Periwinkle and Mirrorbush. These weeds are mingled amongst the natives, so that management in this section will be complex. This zone ends at the formal beach access track. 3.1.4 Buttons Beach East The sandy beach continues east from Buttons Creek for 1.2km backed all the way by a narrow dune covered mostly with Coast Wattle scrub in better condition, with Coast Wattles, Boobialla, White Correa, Coastal Saltbush, Bower Spinach and some Spinifex. The Caravan park occupies the land behind the dune for approximately 350 metres east of Buttons Creek and the native vegetation has been somewhat modified by planted poplars that are now wind pruned, and by mowing and trimming for neatness as well as informal tracks. Marram Grass dominates an area of foredune vegetation from the formal access at the western end of the Caravan Park and is present throughout the scrub at the front edge and in gaps between shrubs. Sea Spurge is also present scattered along the foredune and is invading over the dune in the cleared area behind the stormwater outlet. However, regeneration of Coast Wattle is present almost continuously along the foredune offering some natural structure and habitat value. Cape Ivy is present mostly in invasive patches or scattered isolated individuals between which the native vegetation is in fair to good condition. Mirrorbush occurs mostly as scattered individuals on the back dune. Figure 9 Buttons Beach East

Informal beach access has formed many tracks through the vegetation creating gaps that are encouraging erosion and weed invasion. Foredune erosion increases towards the eastern end of the beach. The section of coastal reserve vegetation at the most eastern end of the beach near the Sea Kist Lodge is extremely weedy with invasions from many garden escapes and weedy species possibly planted intentionally. Blue Gums have been also been planted by nearby residents. Some revegetation has been attempted near the formal access opposite the school. This has been a Schools Caring for the Coast project involving Leighland Christian School, Cradle Coast NRM and the Central Coast Council. A road runs behind the dune for most of the extent of the beach. There are several schools over the road. There are several open mown areas presumably used for parking and vehicle turning between the Caravan Park and the end of the road. 3.1.5 Fish Pond Buttons Beach develops a cobbled and rocky foreshore at the eastern point which extends around the bay that forms Fish Pond. The western side of the Fish Pond vegetation is in poor condition; invaded by weeds and fragmented by informal access to the bay including informal vehicle access. Garden plants are Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 12


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

aggressively replacing the native vegetation on the western side of Fishpond and the point at eastern end of Buttons Beach. Some of the native vegetation on the coastal reserve may have been cleared intentionally. Figure 10 Fishpond

Sea Spurge has established in a foreshore swale and Radiata Pine, Poplars, Cotoneaster, Blackberry and Mirrorbush dominate the nearby vegetation. The vegetation on the eastern side of Fish Pond is in much better condition with continuous and dense coastal scrub containing an intact Boobialla and Coast Wattle midstorey with emergent White Gums. Coast Speargrass, Coast Tussockgrass and Australian Saltgrass line the rocky foreshore adjoining a saltmarsh community. Caper Spurge is present scattered on the foreshore. There is evidence of fire here with burnt Boobialla bushes. There are a couple of pairs of Little Penguins resident here (R.Parker, pers.comm. 14/7/10), and this area provides good habitat. In time and with protection, the Penguin population here may increase. Any works in this vegetation, including weeding and planting, should consider the Penguins so that disturbance can be avoided. Eastern Barred Bandicoots are also known in this area (R.Parker, pers.comm. 14/7/10). The water quality of the Fish Pond itself appears to have been impacted by the stormwater drain. Residents say that since the drain was installed here, the bay and sand have become dirtier, algae has increased around the outlet and tidal flushing is inadequate (R. Parker, July 2010).

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

3.2 Vegetation communities The narrow native vegetation along this coast consists almost entirely of Coast Wattle scrub (“Acacia longifolia coastal scrub�, Tasveg code SAC), as is typical of coastal dunes in Tasmania. There are also small patches of Saltmarsh (Tasveg code AUS) at Fish Pond where rocks reduce wave action and produce a sheltered microsite which is inundated occasionally by high tide. The few marram grass-dominated patches along west and east Buttons Beach are small areas of introduced Marram grassland (Tasveg code FMG), which supports few native species and will not be described further, apart from to suggest revegetation into these patches. None of these is listed as a threatened vegetation community (DPIW 2005), but they do provide essential environmental services, including protection of coastal sands from erosion, shelter of inland vegetation and residences, and habitat for fauna such as Bandicoots and others. Remnant White Gums, such as at Dial St Reserve, indicate that White Gum coastal forest (Tasveg code DVC) would have covered the area behind the dunes prior to urban development. That vegetation community is listed as rare and vulnerable. Although no intact areas of this community now exist in the study area, revegetation could aim to re-establish this community where possible. The native plant species found across the site are listed in Appendix 1, with introduced plants listed in Appendix 6. The vegetation communities are described in summary here. 3.2.1 Coast Wattle scrub Coast Wattle and some Boobialla dominate this scrub, with Bower Spinach and Coastal Saltbush the major groundcovers. These species dominate because they are adapted to the harsh conditions of the coastal zone, with its dry, low nutrient and shifting sands, and strong salty winds. Some other hardy coastal natives also occur, especially in areas of wider native vegetation and where weeds have not taken over, such as Dial St Reserve and at Fish Pond. Other species include Coast Beardheath, White Correa, Spreading Flaxlily, Common Buzzy, Native Pigface, Kangaroo Apple and Knobby Clubsedge. Coast Speargrass and Coastal Tussockgrass, and occasional Beach Spinifex, are found to the seaward edge of this vegetation along east Buttons Beach and Fish Pond. White Gums are scattered behind the coastal scrub at Dial St Reserve and opposite Oz Rock Inn. Usually more species would occur behind the foredunes, sheltered by this scrub, and probably forming White Gum coastal forest, but this vegetation has been replaced by roads and urban development. Figure 11 Most of the coastal scrub consists of native Coast Wattle, Coast Saltbush and other shrubs, but isolated White Gums indicate that White Gum Coastal Forest would once have been present behind the dune scrub.

Weeds, especially Mirrorbush, Marram Grass, Sea Spurge, Blackberry, Cape Ivy and Harestail Grass, are scattered throughout most of the coastal scrub. In places Marram Grass and Sea Spurge dominate the foredune. Creeks are hotspots for weeds, especially Buttons Creek, and so is the western part of Fish Pond. Other weeds such as Broom, Cotoneaster, Three-cornered Garlic, Sea Wheatgrass, Trailing Daisy, Boxthorn and Periwinkle occur in isolated patches or as individual plants. This coastal scrub is in reasonably good condition, especially considering its narrow width and proximity to urban areas. Weeds occur throughout but generally are scattered rather than dense. There does not appear to be much problem with vegetation cutting for views, apart from at the lookout area and opposite Oz Rock Inn. Where this has happened, there is some dieback of shrubs and trees due to exposure to coastal winds. An excess of informal tracks, mowing and Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 14


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

coastal erosion are impinging on this narrow coastal scrub. Native shrubs are generally healthy and regenerating, although there is a need to fill gaps in the vegetation, widen it, and increase the diversity of native plants. 3.2.2 Saltmarsh Tiny patches of saltmarsh occur around Fish Pond, where they are sheltered by rocks and inundated occasionally by high tide. These patches are dominated by Beaded Glasswort, Southern Seablite and Shrubby Glasswort (as well as the weedy Creeping Orache) so are “succulent saline herbland� (Tasveg code ASS), a type of saltmarsh. Other plants to be found in these patches include Australian Saltgrass and Coast Speargrass on the inland edge. These saltmarsh patches are in good condition, and should be left alone. However, they may benefit from removal of Creeping Orache.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

3.3 Plant species of conservation significance No threatened flora species were found on site. Threatened flora species that were recorded as occurring in the vicinity are listed in Appendix 3. Some threatened plants, especially orchids, may not have been visible at the time of the surveys, but it is unlikely that this coastal dune environment would support such threatened plants.

3.4 Fauna, especially species of conservation significance Eastern Barred Bandicoots, listed as Vulnerable (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999) have been recorded in the area and bandicoot diggings and scats were found at Dial Street reserve during the survey which are probably of this species. Other threatened fauna species such as Sea Eagle, Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tasmanian Devil and Masked Owl may hunt on site while moving through the landscape. Shorebirds such as Pied Oystercatchers occur here (survey results). Pied Oystercatchers are generally declining in numbers due to disturbance while nesting (Lawrence, 2004). Other shorebirds such as Hooded Plovers and migratory birds listed under international agreements are subject to similar threats and may also occur in the study site. Little Penguins occur at the eastern part of Fish Pond, with a couple of pairs known to be resident there (R. Parker, pers.comm.). There may have been more Penguins in this area before disturbance by dogs in previous years. There were no Penguins here during the 1999/2000 survey (P.Marker, pers.comm.), which was probably due to local dog predation at that time (R. Parker, pers.comm.). With protection from such disturbance, and with protection of the good vegetation as habitat here, the Penguin population may increase in time. There is good habitat on site for other animals such as wallabies, brushtail and ringtail possums, reptiles, echidnas, many birds and invertebrates. A platypus has been seen in Buttons Creek, upstream of the bridge. All these fauna species should be considered during management of the site. Sizeable populations of rabbits and feral cats exist on site, which impact the vegetation and fauna of the reserve. There have been some problems with Galah populations on site, as numbers have increased due to feeding by local residents, and council is trying to address this problem (R. Eberhardt, pers.comm.).

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

3.5 Weed infestations Weeds occur throughout the site (see descriptions in section 4.3 and list in Appendix 6) and are noted in site descriptions above (section 3.1). The most established weeds in the Coastal Reserve include Cape Ivy, Marram Grass, Blackberry, Mirrorbush, Sea Spurge, and Periwinkle. Cape Ivy is especially concerning as it is found throughout the reserve and often invading good native vegetation. Sea Wheat Grass occurs near Buttons Creek and should be eradicated if possible. There are many other weeds that presently exist in smaller numbers but have high invasive potential, such as Boxthorn, Broom, Cotoneaster, Aeonium, Wormwood, Caper Spurge, Radiata Pine, Trailing Daisy and New Zealand Flax. These should be targeted for control. The storm water outlets and creeks are apparent hot spots for weeds. In these moist areas weeds such as Periwinkle, Cape Ivy, Sea Spurge and Blackberry are prevalent. Other widespread weeds are also present at these spots.

3.6 Existing revegetation Revegetation efforts by school groups, Cradle Coast NRM and Central Coast Council have been undertaken on the back dunes of Buttons Beach near the Buttons Creek picnic area and near a formal access opposite the school on Buttons Beach East. Revegetation has had varied results. Some of these plants have died, perhaps due to the very dry summer and a lack of post-planting watering. However, the plantings are certainly worth maintaining and continuing. At Buttons Creek picnic area, the species which appear to have survived best include Coastal Saltbush (excellent survival), Sagg, Tussockgrass and Flaxlily. Many White Gums, Banksias and Coast Beardheath seedlings had died. These species do have a better chance of survival if given some assistance in the year after planting.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

4 Threats and Management Recommendations 4.1 Native vegetation and habitat loss The native vegetation along the coast at most of the sites is extremely narrow, and cannot afford to become any narrower. Narrow coastal vegetation is very vulnerable to dieback and erosion, so that incremental degradation of vegetation here (such as by clearing and excessive tracks) can lead to substantial losses in the end. Loss of coastal vegetation removes habitat, and exposes the coast to wind and risk of dune erosion, with possible impacts on infrastructure. Coastal vegetation is essential for protection of the dune and adjacent natural areas. The bushland in Dial Street Reserve and the coastal vegetation at Fish Pond were identified as the areas of best condition vegetation with highest diversity and few weeds. The scrub between the Surf Club and west Buttons Creek picnic area is also in significantly better condition than the rest of the Buttons Beach vegetation. Loss of native vegetation has occurred in the past and very recently, as a result of: • clearing and mowing – Buttons Beach West and East • weed invasion – entire site affected; and weed hotspots at Buttons Creek and eastern end of Buttons Beach • informal access development – especially Caravan Park and West Buttons Beach opposite the Skatepark • removal of vegetation for views – Buttons Beach West, including opposite Oz Rock Inn • “tidying up” of dead trees and fallen branches – Buttons Beach West, including opposite Oz Rock Inn • random burning – Fish Pond, Dial Street Reserve and Buttons Beach East • encroachment onto the coastal reserve at the eastern end of Buttons beach and near Fishpond by replacement of native vegetation with garden plants (“creeping backyards”) and informal vehicle and foot access • erosion – west of Surf Club, and increases at eastern end of Buttons Beach • rabbits – high numbers browse native seedlings and other plants, with noticeable impacts at Dial St Reserve. These issues are specifically addressed in following sections. A primary aim for coastal vegetation management should be to maintain a mix of canopy species and understorey cover and diversity, thereby providing habitat niches and structural integrity. •

Retain existing native vegetation and avoid damage.

Leave fallen branches and logs and dead standing trees as important wildlife habitat.

Maximise width and connectivity of vegetation wherever possible, by reducing mowing and cutting, and by active revegetation.

Maintain the good condition areas (Dial St Reserve, Fish Pond, sections between Surf Club and west Buttons Creek) as a first priority. Work out from these to the surrounding areas, and reinforce poor areas. Protect these good areas from degrading impacts such as weed invasions, informal track development and other impacts

Council could implement a rabbit control program, especially in Dial St Reserve.

Revegetation should focus on replacing vegetation in mown areas, informal access points, gaps in the native vegetation and weedy areas, and on widening vegetation where possible.

Revegetation can be used to address vegetation and habitat loss, and is discussed in section 5.2. Areas are recommended in Chapter 5 for revegetation in all management zones. Local native plants should be used (see Appendix 2). Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 18


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

4.2 Threatened fauna habitat Scats and diggings likely to be of Eastern Barred Bandicoot found at Dial Street Reserve indicate that they use the open grassy space for foraging and utilise the nearby bushland as refuge. Some Little Penguins occur at Fish Pond. Cats are a potential threat to Eastern Barred Bandicoots as they are likely to be prowling at the times when these animals forage, i.e. at dusk and during the night. Dogs may also be a threat. Both cats and dogs are a threat to Little Penguins. •

Dog control should restrict dogs to exercise on leads through the bushland and park to keep dogs away from refuge areas.

It is important to provide more refuge vegetation at the Dial St Reserve for bandicoots, in the form of Saggs, Tussockgrass and dense, low shrubs.

Coastal vegetation should be maintained and enhanced with plantings, to provide habitat for Little Penguins.

Cat owners should be encouraged to keep their cats at home and a feral trapping program should be established. Local residents should be discouraged from feeding feral cats.

Any works in coastal vegetation should consider and avoid disturbance to Penguins and Bandicoots.

4.3 Weed invasion Weed invasion is one of the greatest threats to dry coastal vegetation in Tasmania (Kirkpatrick and Gilfedder 1999). Weeds are present throughout the study site in various densities, and are summarised below. Isolated or patchy occurrences of weeds in the study site are noted on the management maps (sections 5.1.1 to 5.1.4) to assist with location and control. Some weeds are more widespread, so all locations could not be marked individually (e.g. Cape Ivy). All weeds recorded during the survey are listed in Appendix 6 and recommendations for weed control are in Appendix 8. Note that there are some native species which resemble weeds but should be avoided. These are listed in Appendix 7. The highest priority weeds for control ASAP include: • Sea Wheat Grass at Buttons Creek • Sea Spurge at Fish Pond and Buttons Beach West • Weeds in vegetation at Dial Street Reserve (inc. Mirrorbush, Boneseed, Boxthorn and Cape Ivy). • Isolated occurrences of weeds throughout (e.g. Boxthorn and Broom) 4.3.1 Very weedy areas There are very weedy areas identified at Buttons Creek and the eastern end of Buttons Beach. •

The Buttons Creek Rehabilitation Plan details a weed control approach for this site in conjunction with revegetation.

Control and containment of the weeds at the eastern end of Buttons Beach is a priority. A staged weed removal and revegetation approach over the long term is recommended.

4.3.2 Foredune weeds Marram grass is present in continuous swathes and scattered on the foredune along Buttons Beach. Controlling Marram Grass has proven to be very difficult, and is not considered necessary here, but planting into the Marram could be of benefit. Most management recommendations simply say that the best control method is to prevent population expansion through maintaining healthy native vegetation condition and to control small isolated populations and those that are newly established (Rudman 2003). Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 19


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Sea Spurge is scattered continuously along the beach and is invading across the dunes at the stormwater outlet on Buttons Beach east and opposite Oz Rock Inn. There is a patch of Sea Spurge at Fish Pond. Sea Wheat Grass occurs in a patch at Buttons Creek west. This is a serious beach weed which was not found elsewhere at East Ulverstone, so is a high priority for removal. These are the three most devastating weeds found on Tasmanian beaches (Rudman 2003). Foredune weeds are found in all management zones, most densely at Buttons Beach East. Where these weeds are currently sparse, control them as much as possible. •

Hand pulling of Sea Spurge is an effective control method and would be beneficial for controlling this weed before it becomes more established here.

Control Sea Wheat Grass at Buttons Creek west (see Appendix 8, and obtain assistance from Weeds Officer at Cradle Coast NRM).

Control isolated and sparse Marram Grass populations, and any new outbreaks.

Plant into gaps in Marram Grass.

4.3.3 Scattered environmental weeds Cape Ivy is present throughout the site, at times in very dense patches and smothering natives. Periwinkle is most apparent and highly invasive in native vegetation at east Buttons Creek. Patches isolated within the lawn are not a threat, however. Blackberries are present in many places across the site, but are densest around Buttons Creek. Mirrorbush is mostly scattered individuals along the dunes of Buttons Beach West and East and clustered at the parkland end of the Dial Street Reserve. There is dense Mirrorbush on both sides of Buttons Creek. There were isolated occurrences of some invasive weeds such as Broom, Boxthorn, Radiata Pine and Cotoneaster, which should be targeted for control immediately, while easily eradicated. 4.3.4 Weed control principles •

Target isolated or sparse weeds as soon as possible, as minimal effort now can prevent further invasion (see maps in sections 5.1.1 to 5.1.4).

Follow-up control of weed regrowth is almost always necessary. After control (and follow-up control) of weedy patches, natives should be planted if natural regeneration is not likely to occur.

Refer to Appendix 8 for appropriate control methods.

Focus efforts on preventing weed invasion of good native vegetation, before working towards weedier, more degraded areas.

If using foliar spray, ensure spray does not drift onto nearby native vegetation. especially important when weeds are tangled amongst natives.

In areas where weeds are tangled amongst native vegetation, they should be controlled using more sensitive techniques (e.g. cut-and-paint or stem-scrape method). Consult Weeds Officers for advice on techniques. These sites are a high priority where the weeds are still sparse so control can be most effective.

Some swathes of continuous weeds can be easily targeted, as herbicide spray may be used cost-effectively without excessive damage to native plants. These areas can then be

This is

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

revegetated, so that long-term benefits are gained. Do not spray large areas of weeds unless they are going to be revegetated. •

Care must be taken when controlling weeds around waterways, so that herbicide and surfactant do not enter the water; see Appendix 8.

Take care when controlling weeds in erosion prone areas. Preferably revegetate with natives prior to weed removal, or stage removal and revegetation.

Where planting into Marram Grass, plant natives into gaps and then ensure follow-up maintenance for their best chance of survival.

4.4 Access tracks and recreational use Formal access points are designated within the study area at: • the eastern end of Buttons Beach, with two in the Caravan park; • Buttons Creek West and East; • Opposite Oz Rock Inn; • Dial Street reserve; and • Buttons Beach West. Informal access to the beach occurs along most of Buttons Beach from the eastern end of Dial Street Reserve to the eastern end of Buttons Beach and around the corner in the very weedy part of Fish Pond. There is an informal vehicle access at Fishpond in the good native vegetation zone. These tracks contribute to native vegetation degradation, erosion, weed invasion and a loss of habitat. The native vegetation in these places is already extremely narrow, thus further fragmentation as a result of informal tracks degrades its integrity. The main informal track winding through bushland in Dial Street Reserve, known as the “Nature Trail” by residents, should be retained. Current known locations of informal accesses are marked on the management maps (sections 5.1.1 to 5.1.4). There are no obvious access tracks through the good vegetation at Fish Pond or the western end of the Dial Street Reserve bushland. There are also no obvious tracks between Oz Rock Inn and west Buttons Creek. This lack of access contributes to the good condition of these areas and development of informal accesses here should be monitored and restricted. There are a number of informal accesses from the Caravan Park to the beach, even though there are several formal accesses provided. Some informal tracks have been formed right next to formal boardwalks. These should be revegetated as a priority and the campers requested to use them. •

New formal accesses could be constructed at the lookout car park and opposite the playground and skatepark on Buttons Beach West.

The Dial Street Reserve “Nature Trail” should be maintained as a formal but modest bush track, with any further damage to vegetation prevented and any informal side trails closed.

Community consultation and local expertise (Cradle Coast NRM and Central Coast Council) will help with decisions on where to place any new formal access points.

It is recommended that informal accesses are closed as a high priority. Revegetation, bollards and rock barriers can be used to close informal tracks. Signage may also be helpful.

Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond should be monitored, to prevent new informal access tracks and maintain the good condition of the vegetation at these sites.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

4.5 Erosion Generally, there was not a significant erosion problem in most of the study area other than at some informal access areas. However, there is erosion occurring west of the Surf Club, and erosion increases at the eastern end of Buttons Beach, especially on the foredune on the point behind the rocky foreshore with steeper banks and exposed roots of dune vegetation. In this area neither natives nor weeds are holding the dune against the wave action. While sand may be replaced on these foredunes during some seasons, ongoing sea level rise will continue to exacerbate erosion. However, in the meantime some actions can be carried out to promote vegetation cover as long as possible. •

Closing informal tracks, restricting random access to the dunes from the beach and strengthening dune vegetation with revegetation will assist in reducing the effects of erosion.

4.6 Dog and cat control Dog and cat control is an important management issue for shorebirds and other animals that occupy coastal habitat. The threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot, present in places across the site, and the protected Little Penguin, present at Fish Pond, are both vulnerable to interference from dogs and cats. Public access with a dog to this reserve is regulated by the Dog Control Act 2000 and the Dog Control Regulations 2001, which are administered by the Central Coast Council. Dogs are permitted on the beach at the western end of the Dial Street Reserve and east of Buttons Creek. A number of roaming cats were noted in Dial Street Reserve during the field work for this survey. Some residents feed feral cats in the reserve (H. Alderson, pers.comm., and local resident on site, pers.comm.), which probably increases their population and thus their impact on local wildlife. •

Dogs should be kept on leads through the Dial Street bushland but may be allowed off-lead on the beach at the western of Dial Street Reserve and eastern end of Buttons Beach.

Any new formal accesses that are constructed should have clear dog signage regarding the regulation for that area.

Dog signage should be checked regularly and replaced if necessary.

Holding “Dogs Breakfasts” has proved successful in raising awareness of dog control on beaches.

Cat owners should be encouraged to keep their cats at home and a feral trapping program should be established. Local residents should be discouraged from feeding feral cats.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

4.7 Vegetation removal and pruning Mowing and spraying of native vegetation along with weeds is apparent in the Caravan Park and near Oz Rock Inn. Along the back dunes of Buttons Beach, beside the road, areas have been mown to create picnic areas, beach access and car parks. This has resulted in the native vegetation being reduced and greater fragmentation and edge effects occurring. Over zealous use of sprayed herbicides along the edges of native vegetation and weedy areas in the Caravan Park results in loss of native vegetation. •

Revegetate back dune areas along roadside (in conjunction with closing informal access) to widen coastal vegetation.

Reduce mowing at picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn, and revegetate some patches while retaining amenity (see plan, Appendix 10).

Greater care should be taken to spray only the weeds, and not to spray natives in the coastal reserve while maintaining grassed camping areas.

4.8 Fire Any bushland has the potential to burn. Coastal vegetation is especially vulnerable to bushfire due to the dryness of the environment, volatility of some coastal plants, and often windy conditions. The Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit (Kirkpatrick & Gilfedder 1999) states that fire is not necessary to maintain dry coastal vegetation, and excluding fire or reducing its frequency is recommended to improve vegetation condition. Random access and proximity of the bush to urban areas increases the risk of accidental fire, arson, and intentional burning off. There is evidence of random burning at Dial Street, Fish Pond and along Buttons Beach which presents a threat to the vegetation and habitat. •

Every effort should be made to avoid fires in coastal vegetation by raising community awareness of the threats from fire and irresponsible behaviour.

4.9 Climate change and sea level rise This area is likely to be affected by sea level rise and climate change in ways that we cannot yet be certain. The vulnerability to climate change of the North West Tasmanian coastline and infrastructure has been assessed (Sharples 2006) and flooding and erosion due to sea level rise and storm tides are identified threats. Buttons Beach is classified as “open sandy shores backed by soft sediment plains – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability” (Sharples 2006). There is little that can be done under this management plan to address climate change, but awareness of the potential issues may influence prioritisation of other actions. For example, identifying higher sites for long term habitat provision and protection of the dune vegetation are even more important given vulnerability to erosion. •

The beach can be monitored, using the Tasmanian Shoreline Monitoring Project (TASMARC). Contact Nick Bowden (Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, ph: 62267694) for assistance.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2010

5 Management Zones and Actions Management actions for specific threats have already been outlined in chapter 4. Here actions are prioritised under zones. Some actions (Revegetation, Monitoring and Community Involvement) common to all zones and which address most of the above threats are described further below.

5.1 Management zones Four management zones have been defined based on environmental characteristics, habitat condition and recovery potential, benefits to be gained and the type of activity required. •

Protection Zone: Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond – Highest Priority Priority actions: maintain good condition native vegetation, control weeds, maintain ”Nature Trail”, enhance Eastern Barred Bandicoot and Penguin habitat, continue dog control, install interpretive signage, consider extension of stormwater outlet beyond Fish Pond, monitor for impacts such as formation of informal tracks, loss of native vegetation etc.

Beach Rehabilitation Zone: Buttons Beach, West and East Priority actions: protect good vegetation areas, revegetate gaps and mown areas, revegetate specific sites as recommended, control weeds, close informal tracks, provide formal access, engage the stakeholders and community in management actions and raise community awareness of conservation of the coastal reserve.

Focussed Revegetation Zone: Buttons Creek West and East Priority actions: control weeds and revegetate, retain shelter and amenity for recreational users during staged rehabilitation, landscape with natives.

Very Weedy Zone: eastern end of Buttons beach Priority actions: avoid damage to existing native vegetation during works, contain weeds, stage weed control and revegetation as resources allow, engage stakeholders and community in management actions and raise awareness of conservation of the reserve.

Figure 12. Map of management zones


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve April 2010

Table 1. Management Zones Zone

Name

Current Condition Good large tract native vegetation with scattered weeds Mirrorbush and Cape Ivy. Informal track runs through the bushland.

Dial Street Reserve

Good habitat values, likely threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot here and potential habitat for other fauna.

Protection Zone

Issues Walking and bike track management Recreational use of park – crowds and dogs Weeds – foredune (Marram and sea spurge) and bushland (Mirrorbush and Cape Ivy)

Manage for conservation and recreational values. Enhance habitat for Eastern Barred Bandicoot. Prevent weed invasions, track formation and other impacts from degrading naturalness of area.

Informal tracks to close

Mostly very good vegetation with a few scattered weeds.

Fish Pond

Diverse habitat with tidal zone, rocky foreshore, sheltered bay, saltmarsh patches. Evidence of fire– burnt shrubs Relatively low human impact Little Penguins and Eastern Barred Bandicoots here.

Priority Actions Rationalise tracks – upgrade and maintain main track through bush - close excess tracks and revegetate Control weeds (see Appendix 8). Revegetation for Eastern Barred Bandicoot habitat. Install interpretive signage.

Threatened fauna habitat Cats roaming and/or feral

Highest Priority

Management Aims Protect and enhance native vegetation and habitat

Encroachment onto the coastal reserve from “creeping backyards” and informal access Irresponsible burning Highly invasive weed species present and nearby (Sea Spurge, Caper Spurge, Radiata Pine, Shrubby Daisybush, Mirrorbush, Cape Ivy) and rabbits present. Water quality issues from stormwater outlet.

Education of residents re cat control and impose control of cats. Dogs only on leads in the bushland

Potential for wetland habitat restoration as a community engagement project. Protect and enhance native vegetation and habitat and rehabilitate impacted areas. Maintain area in current good condition and aim to improve it. Control weeds and prevent invasion of weeds from nearby Very Weedy Zone.

Monitor condition regularly - check for weeds, new tracks, etc Eradicate Sea Spurge and Caper Spurge and other scattered weeds. Monitor regularly for weed invasion and informal access formation. Exclude fire and engage local community to conserve the natural values. Prevent disturbance of Little Penguins and Eastern Barred Bandicoots by dogs, cats or people. Consider extending stormwater outlet north beyond Fish Pond.


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Zone

Name

Current Condition Thin strip of coastal vegetation, weakened by scattered weeds, mown grass intrusions, multiple informal tracks, with associated erosion and weeds. Marram grass and Sea Spurge invasion of foredune with associated erosion.

Buttons Beach West

Dieback is affecting Coast Wattle in some places.

Issues Picnic areas intruding into native vegetation alongside road and opposite Oz Rock Inn. Garden waste dumping creating weed problems Weeds including Blackberry, Mirrorbush, Broom, Cotoneaster, Boxthorn, NZ Flax, Cape Ivy (very invasive) mainly on the back dune.

Management Aims Rehabilitate coastal vegetation to provide more connected habitat, increase biodiversity and strengthen the integrity of the dune vegetation.

Priority Actions Close and revegetate informal tracks.

Reduce threat of weed invasion.

Barbeque area needs a formal beach access and revegetation. Bollards to restrict car parking.

Reduce erosion potential. Sea Spurge control a priority as there is little in this zone. Weed control of other weeds Cape Ivy, Mirrorbush, Blackberry, Boxthorn, Broom (see Appendix 8)

Weeds such as Sea Spurge and Marram Grass on foredune.

Beach Rehabilitation Zone

Revegetate mown grassy areas to strengthen coastal vegetation. (See Appendix 2.)

Open drain - eroding and weedy area. Many informal access points

Buttons Beach East

Mostly quite good vegetation with Coast Wattle dominant and regenerating consistently along the foredune

Weeds - Foredune area contains Sea Spurge and Marram Grass all along the beach.

Variable weed density: scattered and dense patches.

Back dune - Cape Ivy dense in places and Mirrorbush scattered

Marram Grass areas. Cape Ivy scattered and rampant

Informal tracks exacerbating erosion and

At the lookout car park formalise existing blocked vehicle access for use and revegetate the dune with low grasses, sedges and shrubs.

Rehabilitate coastal vegetation to provide more connected habitat, promote biodiversity and strengthen the integrity of the dune vegetation.

Revegetate parts of picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn, so that amenity is retained but vegetation is bolstered. Close and revegetate informal tracks along the beach. Weed control, especially Sea Spurge, and revegetation needed behind stormwater outlet and across dune. Revegetate open areas not needed for parking between the back dune and the road.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

in places, Mirrorbush mostly scattered on back dune. Some areas of exposed dune and eroding tracks vulnerable to further weed invasion

loss of vegetation More formal access is needed from Caravan Park to beach Evidence of fire – burnt shrubs Rabbits moving into bare areas and causing further erosion and vegetation loss. Revegetation needed in places - on dune at stormwater outlet, open areas between back dune and road, gaps in coastal vegetation and informal tracks.

Control Sea Spurge and revegetate foredunes with Pigface, Spinifex, etc Revegetate exposed top dune areas in Caravan Park and along the beach. Create more Formal Access from the Caravan Park to the beach and revegetate around these. Close nearby informal tracks. Maintain existing revegetation area near Formal Access 2 and school, replace dead plants, increase regular maintenance of stakes and bags, and follow up weeding and watering for several years until established. Not essential to remove poplars at this stage, they are wind pruned and providing shelter. Control any suckers to prevent invasion. Signage in strategic places regarding rehabilitation program and to encourage community participation and responsible beach use.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Zone

Name

Current Condition Very, very weedy (Poplars, Mirrorbush, Palm, etc). Better coastal scrub towards beach. Lack of riparian vegetation at southern end of bank. Sea Wheatgrass patch.

Buttons Creek west

Issues Recreational use of picnic area. Poplars, Mirrorbush etc provide shelter and shade. Some entanglement of natives with weeds in coastal scrub. Lack of shelter from SW wind. Powerlines amongst trees. Steep river bank section.

Focussed Revegetation Zone

Management Aims Removal of weeds, (including planted Poplars in stages), and replacement with appropriate coastal scrub species.

Buttons Creek east

Zone

Name

Rest of zone also very weedy, but tangled amongst the few native species present.

Existing shelter provided by Poplars and Mirrorbushes.

Remove all weeds in area 1a ASAP, avoiding native species. Control Sea Wheatgrass ASAP.

Retention of some Poplars for shelter of picnic area until later stage.

Plant wider coastal vegetation in area 1a, promptly after weed removal.

Landscaping with natives.

Plant low riparian vegetation on steep bank (batter section of bank?), keeping some view of water.

Improving riparian vegetation, while retaining some view of water from picnic table.

Plant scattered White Gums and Sheoaks in area 1b, to develop shade. Remove remaining Poplars (areas 2, 3) once other plantings are providing shelter. Replace with native plants.

Improve shelter for picnickers, but retain some open areas. Patch of Poplars and Mirrorbushes near road.

Priority Actions Consult council arborists over removal of trees around powerlines.

Removal of Poplars and Mirrorbushes and quick establishment of native vegetation and shelter.

Better coastal scrub towards beach.

Rest of zone: Difficult to treat mingled weeds/natives successfully, without loss of native plants.

Rest of zone: Containment of weeds and staged rehabilitation over time.

Some habitat value for birds, invertebrates, reptiles etc. Current Condition

Issues

Management Aims

Details in section 5.1.3 and Appendix 5 Remove Poplars and Mirrorbush near the bridge. Revegetate ASAP. Rest of zone: Contain main weedy area. Once resources are available, stage weed removal and revegetation with hardy coastal species. Details in section 5.1.3 and Appendix 5

Priority Actions Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Very weedy vegetation with many invasive species planted and invading dunes and Coastal Reserve.

Very Weedy Zone

Eastern end of Buttons Beach and Fishpond

Many weeds planted and escaped into Coastal Reserve – Aeonium, Pine, NZ Flax, Wormwood, Cordyline, Blackberry, Cotoneaster, Gazania, Broom. Erosion severe on the point where rocks likely to be intensifying wave speed and strength. Evidence of fire– burnt shrubs

At least contain the bad weeds within this area. Undertake weed control program and rehabilitate area with native species. Strengthen native vegetation with plantings to reduce erosion and improve habitat.

Engage stakeholders to undertake weed control in the Coastal Reserve. Replant with local native species suitable to the site, e.g. White Gum and coastal scrub species A specific weed control and revegetation plan is recommended for this area. Discourage further plantings of environmental weeds. Formalise beach access and close and revegetate informal tracks.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.1.1 Protection Zone – Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond This zone is the highest priority as it: • contains the highest biodiversity in the study area, • has the best condition vegetation, • provides excellent habitat • provides threatened fauna habitat at Dial Street Reserve and at Fish Pond • offers the best value for conservation. The native vegetation is in very good condition and every effort should be made to maintain this by controlling the few weeds that are present and by managing the area for conservation. Actions recommended for Dial Street Reserve are: 1. Maintain “Nature Trail” through bush. 2. Close and revegetate informal tracks. 3. Eradicate these priority weeds: Mirrorbush, Boneseed, Cape Ivy, Cotoneaster, Sea Spurge. 4. Revegetate burnt area near stage and dieback area near river in south east corner of the reserve. 5. Revegetate gaps in native vegetation, informal accesses and following weed control using species in Appendix 2. 6. Plant understorey clumps in the parkland as refuge for Eastern Barred Bandicoot especially using Saggs, Silver Tussock grasses and other dense shrubs. 7. Do not allow any burning of the coastal vegetation. 8. Restrict dog use of the bushland in Dial Street Reserve to on lead only. 9. Education of residents re cat control and impose control of cats. 10. Install interpretive signage. 11. Hold educational walks in this lovely area, to raise community awareness of the values of the reserve. 12. Monitor regularly and deal with any impacts (e.g. vegetation clearing or new tracks). 13. Consider rabbit control program. Additionally, there is potential to develop a wetland habitat improvement project to combine community engagement and habitat restoration in the reserve. Figure 13 Dial Street Reserve wetland and bushland

Actions recommended for Fish Pond 1. Eradicate Sea Spurge and Caper Spurge and other isolated or scattered weeds. 2. Monitor regularly for weed invasion and informal access formation. 3. Close informal vehicle access. 4. Exclude fire and engage local residents and community to appreciate and conserve the natural values. 5. Protect Penguin and Eastern Barred Bandicoot habitat and avoid disturbance to these species. 6. Consider extending stormwater outlet beyond Fish Pond. Figure 14 Good native vegetation at Fish Pond

For Fish Pond maps see section 5.1.4 Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 30


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 15 Dial Street Reserve - access

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 16 Dial Street Reserve - weed map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.1.2 Beach Rehabilitation Zone – Buttons Beach West and East The whole zone is characterised by very narrow coastal vegetation, numerous informal tracks and weed invasions. General management aims should be to rehabilitate native vegetation and close informal tracks. Revegetate mown grassy areas (on back dunes and flats behind the dunes) to strengthen coastal vegetation. Spaces could be left at picnic tables or parking areas as needed, but the rest of these large open strips beside the road should be revegetated. Actions recommended: 1. Provide formal beach access at Buttons Beach West lookout car park and revegetate the dune with low grasses, sedges and shrubs. 2. Barbeque area needs a formal beach access and revegetation. Install bollards to restrict car parking. 3. Provide formal access opposite the Skatebowl/Playground on Buttons Beach West and the Caravan Park on Buttons Beach East. 4. Sea Spurge control is a priority on Buttons Beach West as there is little in this area. 5. Close and revegetate all informal tracks. 6. Maintain existing revegetation. 7. Revegetate gaps in the dune vegetation and mown areas on the back dunes and behind the dunes to widen vegetation for habitat enhancement and erosion control. 8. Revegetate sites opposite Oz Rock Inn (see Appendix 10) and at the stormwater outlet (see picture in section 5.2.1 p48). 9. Weed control of Mirrorbush and Cape Ivy, Boxthorn, Cotoneaster, Sea Spurge, Blackberry. Weed hotspot areas are at the Caravan park and the creek east of the lookout car park (see map). 10. Install educational signage to guide responsible use of the coastal reserve. 11. Engage stakeholders and community to be involved in actions. 12. Engage Ulverstone High School students to participate in plantings opposite the Skatebowl. Plantings should consist of coastal species recommended in Appendix 2.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 17 Buttons Beach West - access

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 18 Buttons Beach West - weed map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 19 Buttons Beach East – access

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 20 Buttons Beach East - weed map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.1.3 Focussed Revegetation Zone – Buttons Creek West and East This zone needs considerable weed control and revegetation to restore health to the coastal scrub and riparian zone, but public use of the space must be considered. As some of the park trees are invading the scrub, it is recommended these are removed and replaced with native vegetation. However some trees should be retained to provide shade and shelter while plantings are becoming established. They may then be removed and plantings completed. Native plants can provide beauty, shade, shelter and habitat. Some trees are touching powerlines. Council advice should be sought before removal. The diagram below shows the stages and recommendations for each area here. Revegetation species and numbers for the site have been recommended in the Appendix 5 table, allowing for: • weed control stages, • encouraging biodiversity, • low plants where views need to be maintained, • taller plants for shelter from wind and sun, and • trees to improve visual amenity. The aim here is to remove invasive White Poplars, Mirrorbush and other weeds, and some Lombardy Poplars, and to replace them with appropriate local native plants. Be sure to leave the existing native species wherever possible, especially along the coastal edge of this area.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 21 Buttons Creek Beach - access

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 22 Buttons Creek - weed map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Buttons Creek Rehabilitation Plan Legend X existing weeds to get rid of - - plant out to here

Retain native coastal vegetation Move some picnic tables. Place some in sun, some in shade and shelter

Control Sea Wheat Grass

Area 1a Remove weeds. Plant and widen coastal vegetation

Area 3 Leave roadside poplars till other plantings have grown. Later replace with White Gums, Banksias and varied native plants in garden bed, with barrier.

Very bad weedy area, leave until later when techniques and resources allow

Retain Common Reed

Area 1b Remove large White Poplars near powerlines. Plant scattered White Gums and Sheoaks for shade, leaving room for mowing.

Area 1c Remove large poplars etc. Revegetate with Paperbarks at bottom, others above.

Buttons Creek

Area 3 (SW corner) Plant dense Coast Wattle as windbreak.

Area 1a (south) Remove weeds. Plant widened riparian strip, including some Blackwoods.

Area 2. Retain trees for shade until other plantings grown. Then replace with grove of sheoaks.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.1.4 Very Weedy Zone eastern end of Buttons Beach East and Fishpond Environmental woody weeds and weedy climbers have invaded the coastal reserve at the eastern end of the dune vegetation. Containment of the weeds to this area is a priority and a staged weed removal and revegetation approach is recommended for control. Engaging stakeholders will be necessary for successful implementation as a concerted effort over time will be required to achieve rehabilitation. Revegetation at in this zone should aim to re-establish good condition native vegetation. The eastern side of Fishpond provides an excellent representative area to emulate. Attention should be paid to the structure with grasses, sedges and saltbushes on the foreshore, and lower shrubs followed by the higher growing shrubs behind. The plants in Appendix 2 are suitable for this zone. Actions recommended are: 1. Engage stakeholders in planning a strategic approach to rehabilitation of the coastal reserve. 2. A specific weed management and revegetation program for the site would be beneficial. 3. Identify and protect existing good native vegetation from further weed invasion and clearing. 4. Undertake weed control and revegetation in areas of best condition first. 5. Contain weeds in the most highly infested area by preventing them from spreading. 6. Eradicate weeds that have the highest potential to spread and invade the coastal vegetation e.g. Pines, Cotoneaster, and other weeds spread by birds. 7. Plant locally native White Gums rather than Blue Gums. 8. Discourage further plantings of environmental weeds in nearby gardens and re-plant only local native species in the coastal reserve. 9. Create formal beach access and close and revegetate informal tracks. 10. Educate residents and community about “creeping backyards� and the values of local native species for habitat protection.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 23 Very Weedy Zone - access map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figure 24 Very Weedy Zone - weed map

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.2 Revegetation Revegetation is recommended for most zones. It should be integrated with the weed removal program and done in liaison with stakeholders. Priority sites for revegetation are 1. Buttons Creek West and East, (see Buttons Creek Rehabilitation Plan, section 5.1.3) 2. Buttons Beach – picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn (see Appendix 10), 3. Buttons Beach East at the stormwater outlet and 4. Buttons Beach West and East - gaps in scrub and the back dunes near the road. The species in the Coastal Scrub vegetation community should guide revegetation efforts. Site specific revegetation lists have been provided in Appendix 5. The characteristics of each site, such as type of soil and level of moisture, will determine the most appropriate species and which are hardiest. A mix of plants should be used, as they have various values for coastal stability and shelter, and for habitat for fauna. For example, Coast Wattle is a very drought-hardy plant, provides wind shelter and improves the microclimate for other plants, helps slow erosion, and provides food for insects etc. However, there is already considerable Coast Wattles on site, while other plants (such as Boobialla and Coast Beardheath) are sparser and could be planted to improve diversity. Appendix 2 is a list of suitable local native species. Plantings should be continued into native vegetation gaps, particularly at informal access points and large gaps in the coastal vegetation, as well as to widen narrow vegetation. It is also important to promote natural regeneration wherever possible; this can be achieved by reducing mowing, closing informal access points, controlling competitive weeds and reducing opportunity for erosion. Maintenance of plantings is critical for success, including watering during the following summer if possible, straightening of guards and some weeding. Key points for successful revegetation: • In introduced grass sites, spot spaying prior to planting will be necessary as grass is a very strong competitor. Spot spray 1 metre around where the plant will go. •

In Marram Grass sites, plant into bare patches, or spotspray or dig to create a 1 metre bare area. Continue to remove Marram Grass that grows into plant guards, until plants are well established.

Water plants well following planting.

Planting should be done from autumn to early spring, to ensure adequate soil moisture during establishment.

When planting, ensure that the plant’s roots are deeply planted, sand/soil is firm around the plant, and ideally a small “dish” remains in the soil surface, to assist water penetration to the plant.

Stake and guard plants against browsing and wind damage to ensure success.

Monitor survival and plan future plantings accordingly.

It is not advisable to plant Coast Tea Tree anywhere, even though a native, as it can be invasive and is not currently on site.

Follow up weed control is absolutely essential for successful revegetation. A minimum of once every 12 months is required for re-spraying around bags in grassy areas.

For best results check on plants two or three times a year to straighten bags, re-stake, water if possible, weed inside bags and generally monitor the health of the revegetation site.


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Use existing good native vegetation as reference areas for planning revegetation. The structure and integration of different species for groundcovers, climbers and canopy is illustrated in the picture below. Plantings should try to emulate this structural diversity as much as possible.

Figure 25 Ideal coastal vegetation with diversity and structural integrity to emulate in revegetation

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.2.1 Revegetation sites Figure 26 Dial Street Reserve needs understorey patches planted (saggs, tussock grasses and shrubs) for bandicoot habitat

Figure 27 Dieback area in Dial Street Reserve to revegetate with a diversity of species. Figure 28 Burnt area north of the Soundshell to revegetate with ground covers, sedges and shrubs

Along Buttons Beach West and East, the back dunes and areas beside the road are suitable for revegetation sites to fill in gaps in the scrub and to widen the dune vegetation.

Figure 29 Back dunes of Buttons Beach west need revegetation and Boxthorn control

Figure 30 Eucalypts behind the dunes on Buttons Beach West need revegetation with understorey plants to support them with wind protection and bird and invertebrate habitat.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Figures 31 and 32 Behind the dunes of Buttons Beach east of the Caravan Park - Looking west (left) and east (right), large open areas like this can be revegetated to widen the dune vegetation

Figure 33 Gaps in the scrub like this can be revegetated to close informal tracks.

Figure 34 Revegetation site at formal access opposite school on Buttons Beach East

Maintenance of revegetation sites is critical. This site above and the one at Buttons Creek have lost some plants due to dryness and weed competition. These were partially successful but need more regular maintenance – weeding, replanting, guards and watering in summer.

Figure 35 Buttons Creek (west) focussed weed control and revegetation site; see 5.1.3 for details.

Figure 36 Revegetation site on dunes behind stormwater outlet. Sea Spurge and grass control necessary first. Plant a complete diversity of dune vegetation to fill the gap and replace weeds. Renew fence behind the dune to keep vehicles out and close informal access. Good ground preparation and maintenance will be essential.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.3 Monitoring Monitoring is important for providing baseline information and to show trends over time. It can be invaluable to guide the progress of projects as well as measuring achievements. Comprehensive monitoring, however, may be more than volunteers can manage so prioritise monitoring efforts. At the very least, keep a record of activities. Cradle Coast NRM may be able to assist with developing a monitoring program, providing guidelines and templates or facilitating training to improve community group’s skills. Where possible, GPS mapping of activities is considered good practice. A series of waypoints (at each significant turn) can be used to represent areas of revegetation or weed control, or lines of fencing or tracks closed. Variables to monitor for habitat condition could include: Weeds: • Take photos of site before and after weed control activity. • Take notes of extent of weeds before weeding. • Keep records of weed control methods used, especially any herbicides used. • Inspect sites annually, take photos, and program follow-up weed control. Revegetation: • Keep records of numbers and species planted, site preparation, date, etc. • Take photos of site at planting and as plants grow. • Check and remove weed growth in early spring, especially around each plant. • Check survival of plants (e.g. after summer). Consider cause of deaths and replant if possible. Plan management and re-plantings accordingly. • Remove guards once plants are established. Vegetation condition: • Photos can be taken every five years of various representative sites (fixed photo points are particularly useful for comparison), and notes taken of apparent condition. • For measures of bushland condition such as species diversity, structural complexity, and regeneration of trees and shrubs, various simple monitoring methods are available. Bushways or Cradle Coast NRM may assist with setting up monitoring systems. Track recovery: • Establish photo points and take photos of site before and one year after track closure. Erosion: • Establish photo points and take photos of sites on an annual basis, as well as recording any catastrophic event. • Measure erosion rates with stakes (but not in volatile areas where more damage may occur from the stake). Fauna: • Note areas with Bandicoot diggings • Survey numbers of Penguin burrows, with assistance from Penguin experts. Pest animals: • Dogs on site, off lead or unattended. • Cats trapped, numbers and locations, feral or domestic.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

5.4 Community involvement The community is already somewhat involved here as evidenced by revegetation activities conducted by local schools, Cradle Coast NRM and Central Coast Council. •

Community involvement should be further encouraged to conserve native vegetation and fauna habitat in the area.

News stories, field days, educational events will all help to involve and maintain community interest.

Involve local people in special events and related project activities such as bandicoot surveys, working bees, monitoring activities, etc.

Letter box drop to local residents about the management plan and include brochures like “Creeping Backyards”, “Coastal Weeds of the Cradle Coast Region” and “Grow Local”.

Interpretation signage could be installed at strategic points, eg: Dial St Reserve, Skatepark or Surfclub area, picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn and Buttons Creek.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

6 Strategic Priorities For greatest overall effectiveness and to address the most immediate issues, efforts should initially be focussed on the following priorities: 1. Protect Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond and maintain the current good condition of vegetation. 2. Weed control at Dial Street Reserve and Fish Pond. 3. Identify and provide formal beach accesses - and close informal access tracks. 4. Focussed rehabilitation of Buttons Creek. 5. Revegetation at the lookout car park, at sites opposite Oz Rock Inn and at the stormwater outlet on Buttons Beach East. 6. Revegetation of gaps in scrub and the back dunes of Buttons Beach East and West. 7. Control Sea Spurge, Sea Wheat Grass and isolated or sparse invasive weeds across the site. 8. Do follow-up maintenance of plantings (e.g. address fallen guards, control weeds around plantings, water in summer). 9. Involve the community by a. engaging stakeholders in implementing actions, b. providing educational signage, brochures, and other resources, and c.

conducting community education and awareness events, etc.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

7 References Bryant, S. L. and Jackson, J. (1999), Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Buchanan, A.M. (2009), A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, Tasmanian Herbarium website, www.tmag.tas.gov.au/Herbarium/TasVascPlants.pdf Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management Committee (2008), Coastal Weed Strategy for the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Cradle Coast Authority, Burnie. DPIW (2005), Threatened Native Vegetation Communities List (Version 6.0). Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, November 2005. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, (2005) Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Strategy. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, Burnie. Guidelines for the Listing of Species under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LBUN-59X7G2?open Harris, S and Kitchener, A (2005), From Forest to Fjaeldmark: Descriptions of Tasmania’s Vegetation. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Printing Authority of Tasmania. Hobart. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and Gilfedder, L.A. (1999), Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lawrence, N. (2004), Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Muyt, A., (2001) Bush Invaders of South East Australia: a guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South East Australia. R.G and F.J. Richardson PO Box 42 Meredith, Victoria 3333 Australia Natural Values Atlas, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart. www.naturalvaluesatlas.dpiw.tas.gov.au Rudman T. 2003. Tasmanian Beach Weed Strategy for marram grass, sea spurge, sea wheatgrass, pypgrass & beach daisy. Nature Conservation Report 03/2, Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania Sharples, C., 2006: Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: Explanatory Report (Second Edition); Consultant Report to Department of Primary Industries & Water, Tasmania, 173 pp., plus accompanying electronic (GIS) maps. Thorp, V. (2003), Community Coastcare Handbook – Caring for the Coast in Tasmania. Coastcare Tasmania Triggs, B. (1999) Tracks, scats and other traces: a field guide to Australian mammals. Oxford University Press. Watts D. (1999), Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds. New Holland Publishers, Sydney

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

8 Appendices Appendix 1 Native plants found at East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve. th Survey conducted by Bushways, 9 March, 2010. Major vascular plants only surveyed. This list includes both naturally occurring and local native plants that have been planted. Key: eT= endemic in Tasmania

Family Species name Broad-leaved plants (DICOTYLEDONAE) Carpobrotus rossii AIZOACEAE Tetragonia implexicoma Rhagodia candolleana CHENOPODIACEAE Sarcocornia quinqueflora Sclerostegia arbuscula Suaeda australis Leucopogon parviflorus EPACRIDACEAE Selliera radicans GOODENIACEAE Acacia longifolia subsp. MIMOSACEAE sophorae Myoporum insulare MYOPORACEAE Eucalyptus viminalis MYRTACEAE Acaena novae-zelandiae ROSACEAE Solanum laciniatum SOLANACEAE

Common name native pigface bower spinach coastal saltbush beaded glasswort shrubby glasswort southern seablite coast beardheath shiny swampmat coast wattle common boobialla white gum common buzzy kangaroo apple

Narrow –leaved plants (MONOCOTYLEDONAE) Carex appressa CYPERACEAE Ficinia nodosa Schoenoplectus pungens Juncus kraussii JUNCACEAE Dianella revoluta LILIACEAE Austrostipa sp. POACEAE Austrostipa stipoides Distichlis distichophylla Phragmites australis Poa poiformis Spinifex sericeus

tall sedge knobby clubsedge sharp clubsedge sea rush spreading flaxlily speargrass coast speargrass australian saltgrass southern reed Coast tussockgrass beach spinifex

Ferns (PTERIDOPHYTA) DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

bracken

Pteridium esculentum

Status

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 2. Plants suitable for revegetation Plants in bold are those which should form the bulk of any large area of planting, due to their hardiness in the dune environment and ease of establishment. Other plants may form the greater part of plantings which are intended to improve diversity. Some plants are also listed here which are more suitable for native landscaping or creek banks. Species name Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae Rhagodia candolleana Tetragonia implexicoma

Common name Coast Wattle Coastal Saltbush Bower Spinach (ice plant)

Comments Excellent shelter. An important component of coastal vegetation and useful in harsh, dry sites. Hardy, dense understorey plant. Hardy, dense understorey and climbing plant.

White Gum

Important habitat plant, with flowers and berries. Hardy once established; not as quick as Coast Wattle. Hardy shrub once established, with attractive white flowers. Bandicoot habitat. Hardy shrub once established, with bird-attracting flowers. Bandicoot habitat. Excellent dune ground cover. Be sure to propagate Native Pigface, not the larger weed Chilean Pigface. Hardy tussock. Excellent bandicoot habitat. Hardy once established and provides abundant fruits for birds and people. Worth persisting with – monitor planting success to learn its preferred sites. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas such as Buttons Creek. Habitat for many birds. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas. Important insect-habitat tree, flowering in summer. Hardy small tree, most suitable for inland areas such as Buttons Creek. Excellent shade tree. Excellent habitat tree in hind-dune areas.

Leucophyta brownii

Cushionbush

Lovely grey, compact shrub, suitable in any sunny site.

Dodonaea viscosa

Hopbush Knobby Clubsedge Flax ily Coast Speargrass and Tussockgrass

Hardy shrub, probably best in swales and hind-dunes. Hardy almost anywhere, especially swales between dunes. Excellent ground cover.

Myoporum insulare

Common Boobialla

Correa alba

White Correa

Correa backhouseana

Velvet Correa

Carpobrotus rossii

Native Pigface

Lomandra longifolia

Sagg

Leucopogon parviflorus

Coast Beardheath

Banksia marginata

Banksia (honeysuckle)

Bursaria spinosa

Prickly Box

Allocasuarina verticillata Eucalyptus viminalis

Ficinia nodosa Dianella revoluta Austrostipa stipoides and Poa poiformis Spinifex sericeus

Sheoak

Beach Spinifex

Fore-dune ground covers. If available, use to replace foredune weeds. An important trailing grass of the front of the dune, present in low numbers on site. Not easily propagated; if available it should be planted on foredune.

For damp sites: Acacia melanoxylon

Blackwood

Melaleuca ericifolia

Coast Paperbark

Shady tree. Damper sites only, including beside creeks. Excellent, hardy small tree for damper sites, especially creeks, including saline areas.

Leptospermum lanigerum

Woolly Teatree

Damp sites only, beside creeks.

Poa labillardierei

Silver Tussockgrass

Carex appressa

Tall Sedge

Suitable for damper hind-dune areas and around creeks. Excellent bandicoot habitat. Damp-wet sites only, e.g. beside creeks. Excellent frog and butterfly habitat. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 54


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 3 Threatened flora previously recorded within 5 km of site. (Natural Values Atlas March 2010) Species possible on site in bold. Key: Tasmanian status (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995): e = endangered; x = presumed extinct; v = vulnerable; r = rare; pv/pr = protected as vulnerable/rare (This taxon is either a component of a vulnerable/rare taxon, or the name has changed from that which appears in the official legislation.) Commonwealth status (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999): EX = extinct; CR = Critically Endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable.

Scientific name Caladenia congesta Cynoglossum australe Epilobium pallidiflorum Juncus prismatocarpus Lachnagrostis punicea subsp. filifolia Limonium australe Lotus australis Myriophyllum integrifolium

Conservation Status State Cwth

Common name Black tongue finger-orchid coast houndstongue showy willowherb

Comments

e r r

branching rush

r

narrowleaf blowngrass

r

yellow sea-lavender australian trefoil

r r

tiny watermilfoil

v

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 4 Threatened fauna known or possible on site Species that have been recorded within 5 km of the site (Natural Values Atlas, August 2009). Species occurring on site in bold. Common name

Scientific name

Australian Grayling

Prototroctes maraena

Eastern Barred Bandicoot

Giant Freshwater Crayfish Burrowing Crayfish (Central North) Eastern Dwarf Galaxias Green and Gold Frog Grey Goshawk Masked Owl (Tasmanian)

Tas. status TSPA 1995

Cwth status EPBC 1999

v

VU

VU

Perameles gunnii

Astacopsis gouldi

v

VU

Engaeus granulatus

e

EN

Galaxiella pusilla

v

VU

Litoria raniformis

v

VU

Accipiter novaehollandiae Tyto novaehollandiae castanops

e

Swift Parrot

Lathamus discolor

e

EN

Wedge-tailed Eagle

Aquila audax fleayi

e

EN

White-bellied Seaeagle

Haliaeetus leucogaster

v

Spotted-tailed Quoll

Dasyurus maculatus subsp. Maculatus

r

Sarcophilus harrisii

e

White-fronted tern

Sterna striata

v

Potential habitat in creek, sea. Bandicoot diggings and scat found at Dial Street Reserve, likely to be of this species in such an open habitat. Leave grassy areas adjacent to dense vegetation for habitat No suitable freshwater habitat here. No likely habitat on site Potential habitat in creek. No suitable freshwater habitat No suitable riparian or forest habitat. No suitable trees or tree hollows.

e

Tasmanian Devil

Comments

VU

EN

May feed on White Gum blossom. No nesting habitat here. Likely to forage along coastline here, but no suitable nesting habitat on site. No suitable forest habitat here. Wide-ranging species, is possible here but unlikely due to urban development and lack of shelter on site. Unlikely, old record, breeds on islands.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 5. Buttons Creek revegetation list 2010 Reveg 1a

2010 Reveg 1b

West Buttons Ck

45x10m plus 10x5m either side of bridge

(Timing of planting)->

(Area of planting mxm)-> Species Trees Eucalyptus viminalis Small trees

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

Common Name

Comments

white gum

Spaced widely, inland side.

coast wattle

Northern, coastward plantings. Also as concentrated windbreak along southern end of roadside planting.

Acacia melanoxylon Myoporum insulare Allocasuarina verticillata Banksia marginata Bursaria spinosa

blackwood common boobialla Sheoak Banksia / honeysuckle prickly box

Melaleuca ericifolia Shrubs

swamp paperbark

Southern plantings, above riverbank, including either side of bridge.

5

2015-> Reveg 2

2015-> Reveg 3

Picnic area, west Buttons Ck

2010 Reveg 1c Large Poplars, east Buttons Ck

Grove nth of picnic table

Roadside beds

20x20m

20x10m

4x4m

40x4m

5

5

5

15

5

5

9 6

5 10

5

5 3 Riverbank, just above Southern Reed patches

5

15

5


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Correa alba Correa backhouseana Dodonaea viscosa Leucopogon parviflorus Groundcovers Rhagodia candolleana Tetragonia implexicoma Lomandra longifolia

white correa velvet correa hopbush coast beardheath

3 3 3 3

coastal saltbush bower spinach (ice plant) sagg

Poa labillardierei Carpobrotus rossii Ficinia nodosa Dianella revoluta and Dianella brevicaulis Riparian plants (either side of bridge)

silver tussockgrass native pigface knobby clubsedge

Carex appressa

tall sedge

Dianella tasmanica

forest flax lily

Leptospermum lanigerum TOTAL

woolly teatree

5 5 5 5

10 10 10 Everywhere b/n plants, sthn end

10

20 15 10

9

flax lily

Water edge, southern plantings, either side of bridge Upper bank, southern plantings, either side of bridge Upper bank, southern plantings, northern side of bridge

5 5

6 125

15

40

70

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 6. Weeds found at East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve. th Survey conducted by Bushways, 9 March, 2010. Major vascular plants only surveyed. Notes on poisonous species are provided where known, but do not assume that others are safe. Further information should be sought. WONS = Weed of National Significance. Family Trees ACERACEAE BETULACEAE PINACEAE SALICACEAE

Shrubs ASTERACEAE

CRASSULACEAE FABACEAE MALVACEAE ROSACEAE

RUBIACEAE SOLANACEAE AGAVACEAE

Groundcovers APOCYNACEAE ASTERACEAE

BRASSICACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE POLYGONACEAE AGAVACEAE IRIDACEAE LILIACEAE POACEAE

Climbers ASTERACEAE

Species name

Common name

Acer pseudoplatanus Betula pendula Pinus radiata Populus alba Populus nigra

sycamore maple silver birch radiata pine white poplar Lombardy poplar

Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera Aeonium sp. Genista monspessulana Malva sp. Cotoneaster sp. Prunus sp. Rubus fruticosus Coprosma repens Lycium ferocissimum Cordyline australis

boneseed

WONS

aeonium canary broom mallow cotoneaster plum? blackberry mirrorbush African boxthorn Cordyline/ New Zealand cabbage tree

WONS

Vinca major Cotula coronopifolia Osteospermum fruticosum Cakile maritima Lobularia maritima Atriplex prostrata Euphorbia lathyris Euphorbia paralias Polygonum aviculare Rumex sp. Phormium tenax Watsonia meriana var. bulbillifera Allium triquetrum Ammophila arenaria Dactylis glomerata Lagurus ovatus Thinopyrum junceiforme

blue periwinkle water buttons trailing daisy

Delairea odorata

cape ivy

searocket sweet alice creeping orache caper spurge sea spurge creeping wireweed dock New Zealand flax bulbil watsonia triangular garlic marram grass cocksfoot harestail grass sea wheatgrass

Comments

POISONOUS POISONOUS


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 7. Some native species that resemble weeds It is important to be sure of the identification of a plant before removing it as a weed. Below is a selection of native species that are sometimes mistaken for weeds. The Tasmanian Herbarium can assist with plant identification. Plants known to be on site are in bold. WEED Chilean Pigface (Carpobrotus aequilaterus) - is bigger in all parts (leaves 5-10cm) - stamens have yellow filaments Purple ragwort (Senecio elegans)

NATIVE PLANT Native Pigface (Carpobrotus rossii) - leaves 4-6cm - stamens have white filaments Various native Senecios. - None have purple flowers Dune Thistle (Actites megalocarpa, was Sonchus megalocarpus) - perennial with stolons Prickly Box (Bursaria spinosa) - spines delicate and thin, very sharp - flat brown capsules Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) - not currently any on site. Goldentip (Goodia lotifolia) and other bushpeas - not currently any on site. Drupe Bush (Leptomeria drupacea), Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea) and Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada) - not currently any on site. Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata), Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) - not currently any on site. Coast Fescue (Austrofestuca littoralis), Coast Speargrass (Austrostipa stipoides), Coast Tussockgrass (Poa poiformis), Silver Tussockgrass (Poa labillardierei), Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) - some have runners, some are tussocks. Obtain advice. Australian Saltgrass (Distichlis distichophylla) - fine leaves arranged tightly in opposite rows Coast Wattle / False Boobyalla (Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae) - Phyllodes (“leaves”) shorter (50-100mm) and rounder. - Pod twisted when mature

Sow thistle (Sonchus asper) - annual, with taproot - sticky white sap (can irritate skin & eyes) African Box-thorn (Lycium ferocissimum) - spines robust, very sharp - red berries Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) Canary/Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana) English/Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and White Broom (Cytisus multiflorus)

Cape Wattle (Paraserianthes lophantha) - large feathery leaves fold up at dusk. - flowers resemble bottlebrushes Marram Grass (Ammophila arenaria) - has long runners - very long pointed ligule (membrane where leaf comes away from stem)

Twitch, couch, buffalo grass and other creeping lawn grasses.

Sydney Coast Wattle (Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia) Often sold as a “native” in nurseries, can become invasive. - Phyllodes (“leaves”) longer (80-200mm) and pointer. - Pod straight when mature.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 8. Weed control recommendations (Rudman 2003; Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit 2006; Marker and Wind 2003; Muyt 2001) 速 速 速 速 Herbicides include non-selective Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup , Weedmaster , etc) and broadleaf-specific Metsulfuron Methyl (e.g. Brush Off , Brush Killer etc). Some herbicides come already mixed with a wetting agent (surfactant); others may need a wetter to be added so that the herbicide is absorbed by the plant. Marker dyes can also be useful. Targeted control methods such as cut-and-paint are preferable to foliar spraying which may affect penguins. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING HERBICIDES AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS. ALWAYS FOLLOW BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES. Weed Treatment alternatives Follow up Cape Ivy, Cut-and-paint large vines and those intertwined with native vegetation and leave to die Dig up new seedlings while small. Rambling Dock hanging. Do not allow stems to contact soil. Cut-and-paint or spray regrowth. Spray (if clear of native vegetation) or paint foliage with herbicide. Beware of drips. Broadleaf-specific herbicides (e.g. metsulfuron methyl) tend to have better results and do not affect grasses. Dig up smaller plants, including roots, rhizomes and all tubers. Bag and remove seeds and tubers and dispose of safely. Blackberry, Briar rose

Mirrorbush

Canary Broom, Mallow, Cotoneaster, Cordyline, wild plum

Cut-and-paint (with glyphosate). Leave to die standing where they are providing habitat and wind protection etc. Foliar spraying: Metsulfuron Methyl is the most effective herbicide to use for blackberry growing within grasses like Marram. Take every care to use away from any wet area and do not risk any run off or spray drift into water or onto native plants. Blackberry control has already been done on site, but is likely to be an ongoing and long term management activity. Establish native vegetation as alternative penguin habitat before removal of large Mirrorbush clumps. Frill-cut and poison larger trees and leave to die standing. This will reduce the risk of fruit or broken twigs re-establishing if removal was attempted and also retain some shelter for penguins while native plants establish. Cut-and-paint smaller plants. Hand pull or cut-and-paint seedlings. Cut-and-paint with glyphosate. Any ripe pods/seeds should be removed carefully (e.g. in bags).

Continue to follow up where needed every year.

Check every year and continue control until all are eradicated. Plant Bower Spinach to climb over dead Mirrorbushes.

Check for seedlings and re-growth every year and control. Cordyline re-growth may need to be sprayed with herbicide and wetting agent.


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Crack Willow

Drill-and-fill with herbicide.

Boxthorn

Cut-and-paint with herbicide, or drill-and-fill larger plants. Seedlings can be hand-pulled or dug out.

Trailing Daisies

Dig up and remove. Spray with herbicide. Dig up if possible and remove, ensuring all corms/rhizomes are removed. Spray or wipe with herbicide (wetting agent will be necessary). Bag and remove seeds. NB Agapanthus parts and sap are poisonous and a skin irritant. Dig out small plants, making sure to get all crowns and roots. Cut-and-paint larger plants. Spray (best in winter. Use a marker dye as people may harvest fennel). NB Hemlock is very poisonous! Distinguish hemlock by the purple spots on stems.

Agapanthus New Zealand Flax Freesias Fennel Hemlock

Soursob, Three-cornered garlic (angled onion)

Spray with glyphosate early in flowering period (late winter-early spring). Never handpull soursob, as bulbils will be dislodged. Three-cornered garlic can be pulled or dug carefully, ensuring all bulbs are removed.

Spray regrowth.

Continue every year until eradicated. Control any regrowth.

Monitoring and follow up control will be essential for success. Establish vigorous groundcover such as Bower Spinach to cover bare ground. Control regrowth annually. Will require at least 2-5 years of followup.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Sea Spurge

Marram Grass

Chilean Pigface Sea Wheat Grass

Protective clothing (e.g. gloves) must be worn to protect skin and eyes from the milky sap, which is toxic. Do not allow sap to enter eyes. Start with isolated clumps and eradicate in stages. Small sea spurge infestations can be eradicated by manually removing the plants. Small plants hand pull easily; large plants will need to be dug out. Seedlings may be present in large numbers. These are best left until large enough to pull, but before flowering, or they may be raked or buried. An effective herbicide treatment is available where disturbance from hand pulling is unacceptable. Consult PWS and DPIWE if contemplating herbicide use. Do not control large areas. Control any small infestations in otherwise native areas. Dig out small area of rhizomes to a depth of 50cm if possible before planting native plants into Marram grassland. Not necessary to remove, but dig up any new plants. Ensure revegetation is only done with Native Pigface.

Pull out any plants that appear annually before they seed. Substantial declines in density of sea spurge can be achieved by this method but it may take 3 or 4 years of concerted effort. Occasional seedlings may reappear.

Digging out the rhizomes can control small areas of sea wheatgrass. Care must be taken to remove as much as possible and monitor regularly for re-emerging plants. Effective aquatic registered herbicides are available for use on sea wheatgrass. Contact PWS or DPIW.

Monitor annually for germinating seedlings until no further plants are found for a few years running

Pull up any marram grass invading revegetation plant guards until native plant is well established.

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Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 9. Some useful resources Some useful references include: Community Coastcare Handbook – caring for the coast in Tasmania, by Veronica Thorp (2003). Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart. (Excellent for all coastal management questions.) Growing Australian Native Plants from Seed - for revegetation, tree planting and direct seeding. By Murray Ralph, 1997. Published by Bushland Horticulture, ph (03) 9517 6773. Very useful, comprehensive but simple propagation info. Grow Local – a guide to local native plants suitable for gardens in the Cradle Coast Region (2 edition), by the Australian Plants Society Tasmania North West Group (2009?).

nd

Tasmania’s Natural Flora, by J. Whiting et al, 2004. ($70 many bookshops, or PO Box194, Ulverstone, 7315). Identification of heaps of plants, and cultivation hints. Understorey Network database for propagation and seed collection info: www.understorey-network.org.au Cradle Coast NRM – ph: 6431 6285.

Some useful weed references include: Various pamphlets, usually available from council or Natural Resource Management/Landcare organisations. E.g. Coastal Weeds of Tasmania. Environmental Weeds – A field guide for SE Australia. By Kate Blood, CRC Weed Management Systems, 2001. Publ. CH Jerram & Assoc., Mt Waverley. Bush Invaders of SE Australia. By Adam Muyt, 2001. Publ. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith. (About $65, but worth it – includes control methods) DPIPWE Weeds site For comprehensive weed control information sheets, declared weeds etc: www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/LBUN-5MC2R8?open Cradle Coast NRM Weeds Officer – ph: 6431 6285 Tamar Valley Weed Strategy - another excellent Tasmanian weed website http://www.weeds.asn.au


Vegetation Management Plan East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve July 2010

Appendix 10. Picnic area opposite Oz Rock Inn This area needs revegetation to restore tree health, prevent erosion and fill a gap in the coastal scrub, while maintaining views as much as possible. See diagram below for recommended actions. Actions recommended for Oz Rock Picnic Area: 1. Control Sea Spurge. 2. Plant low native shrubs and groundcovers (such as Pigface, Bower Spinach and Saltbush) into Marram Grass at front of site 3. Plant coastal shrubs on either side to strengthen vegetation, but leaving views to front. 4. Plant dense groundcovers and scattered shrubs (such as Beardheath, Correa and Saltbush) on the mounds below existing trees, to restore shelter. 5. Plant more White Gums behind dunes west and east of picnic area 6. Plant coastal scrub species behind dunes to widen scrub and shelter eucalypts. 7. Leave some space for parking near eastern picnic shelter.

Oz Rock Picnic Area Rehabilitation Plan Plant groundcovers and low coastal shrubs, retaining view to front. Control Sea Spurge.

Plant Coast Wattle, Boobialla, etc, as shelter and habitat.

Beach

Retain native coastal vegetation - do not cut or mow Retain native coastal vegetation - do not cut or mow Retain existing trees

Oz Rock Inn over road

Plant more eucalypts behind dunes and along road

Plant dense groundcovers and scattered shrubs on mounds to restore shelter. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 65

Profile for Cradle Coast Tasmania

East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan  

East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 2010

East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan  

East Ulverstone Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 2010