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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve - Vegetation Management Plan

Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania


Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

Author th

“Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania”, 30 April 2010. 19 Gorge Rd, Trevallyn TAS 7250. Email: bushways@intas.net.au © Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania

Prepared for: The Cradle Coast Authority, on behalf of Cradle Coast NRM PO Box 338 Burnie TAS 7320 Cover photo: Bushland patches along the front fence link the Camp visually and naturally with the bushland reserve over Pitcairn St.

Acknowledgements This project is supported by Cradle Coast NRM through funding provided by the Australian Government’s “Caring For Our Country” program. Bushways also thanks the following people who provided assistance or were consulted in the preparation of this report: Mike Hancock, Camp Banksia Manager; Hannah Sadler, Cradle Coast NRM; John Boevink, Rubicon Coast and Landcare Group; Jonathon Magor, Latrobe Council.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

Table of contents 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Aims of this Plan...................................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Background ............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3 Values of native vegetation on site.......................................................................................... 5 2. Methodology .................................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 Background research .............................................................................................................. 6 2.2 Field assessment..................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Limitations................................................................................................................................ 6 3. Site Assessment ............................................................................................................................ 7 3.1 Native Vegetation .................................................................................................................... 7 3.2 Fauna....................................................................................................................................... 8 3.3 Weeds and other management issues.................................................................................. 10 4. Management Recommendations ................................................................................................. 11 4.1 Protect the coastal scrub ....................................................................................................... 11 4.2 Protect all native vegetation on site....................................................................................... 12 4.3 Plant locally native plant species across the site .................................................................. 13 4.4 Weed control ......................................................................................................................... 15 4.4.1 Mainland natives ............................................................................................................ 15 4.4.2 Coast Wattle – a valuable native plant, NOT a weed .................................................... 16 4.4.3 Avoid planting Coast Teatree......................................................................................... 16 4.5 The Pond ............................................................................................................................... 17 4.6 Habitat plantings for frogs, birds etc...................................................................................... 18 4.7 Site preparation and maintenance of plantings ..................................................................... 19 5 References.................................................................................................................................... 20 6 Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 21 Appendix 1. Native plants found at Camp Banksia. .................................................................... 21 Appendix 2a. Plants suitable for revegetation, Camp Banksia ................................................... 22 Appendix 2b. Plants suitable for wet sites, Camp Banksia ......................................................... 24 Appendix 2c. Plants suitable for gardens, Camp Banksia .......................................................... 25 Appendix 3. Weeds found at Camp Banksia............................................................................... 27 Appendix 4. Some native species that resemble weeds ............................................................. 28 Appendix 5. Weed control recommendations.............................................................................. 29 Appendix 6. Some useful resources............................................................................................ 30

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

1. Introduction 1.1 Aims of this Plan This plan has four primary objectives: • To reduce the impacts of weeds, particularly Weeds of National Significance on public and private land. • The development of a draft vegetation and habitat management plan for Camp Banksia and adjacent coastal dune in consultation with specified stakeholders (Mike Hancock, Manager, Camp Banksia; Jonathon Magor, Latrobe Council; Sophie King, Crown Lands Officer, DPIPWE; and Hannah Sadler, NRM Facilitator, Cradle Coast NRM). • The plan provides management recommendations that will be adopted by Camp Banksia and supported by the Latrobe Council. • Provide recommendations to Camp Banksia and the Latrobe Council on increasing the diversity of native plants throughout the site. 1.2 Background The study area is the Camp Banksia site on the corner of Anderson and Pitcairn Streets, Port Sorell, northern Tasmania. It also includes a small section of coastal dune bordering the northern boundary of the Camp Banksia site and a section of the Freers Beach coastal reserve. Property ID: 7696119 Municipality: LATROBE Cradle Coast NRM, operating under the Cradle Coast Authority, is the regional body responsible for the development and delivery of the accredited Regional NRM Strategy. Implementation of the activities is largely funded by the Australian Government’s Caring for Our Country initiative through Cradle Coast NRM’s Community, Skills, Knowledge and Engagement Program. Camp Banksia is a group accommodation and conference centre with a basis of youth-targeted activities and is highly utilised. The site has some significant patches of native vegetation around the camp but some patches have been inundated with weeds. The camp manager would like to maintain native vegetation wherever possible, control the weeds and increase the colour and diversity of native plants throughout the site. The site has a small pond area which could be used for environmental education activities. The site also borders one of the most intact sections of coastal dune along the Port Sorell foreshore. The dune is partially coastal reserve and partially on the Camp Banksia property. The Latrobe Council leases the site from the Crown and management and works at the site are undertaken by the Camp Banksia Manager and a part-time groundsperson with support from the Council. The coastal dune is property of the Crown. Camp Banksia has a good relationship with the Rubicon Coast and Landcare Group who have done some vegetation planting on site and use the Camp facilities for their monthly meetings. This project will provide specific management guidelines and revegetation advice for Camp Banksia, Latrobe Council and other community groups, including Rubicon Coast and Landcare, in undertaking rehabilitation and native vegetation enhancement works in this area.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

1.3 Values of native vegetation on site The beautiful combination of native vegetation, coast and recreational opportunities at Camp Banksia is highly valued by locals and Camp visitors. In fact, this was identified in the “Camp Banksia Redevelopment Study” (Latrobe Council, 2010) as a “point of difference” for the camp. It was suggested that natural environment themes and interpretation could be used for branding Camp Banksia to attract more visitors. As well as beauty and recreation, the native vegetation provides other practical benefits. The coastal scrub on the dunes provides privacy between the Camp and the coastal cycle path. Native vegetation around the site, including remnant trees and the dune scrub, provide shelter from strong coastal winds, which would be improved with more plantings. The Coastal Scrub on the front dunes is the largest patch of native vegetation at the Camp and the largest area of natural dune vegetation in the surrounding area, as most has been cleared for urban development. This dune scrub is therefore an important remnant for Port Sorell as a whole. Native vegetation also provides vital services, protecting Camp Banksia from coastal winds, holding sand in place, providing shade, and supporting wildlife. The pond area, with its native sedges and native aquatic plants, as well as introduced waterlilies and bulrush, provides good habitat for aquatic invertebrates, birds and frogs. Colourful, delicate damselflies are notable here, as are the calling frogs. An aquatic environment is particularly valued by wildlife, especially in an otherwise dry coastal landscape. The Coastal Scrub, native remnants, and pond area provide great opportunities for educational activities such as nature studies and waterwatch. The coastal environment is extremely harsh, with strong, salty winds and poor, sandy soils. Foreshore vegetation is adapted to these conditions, and helps to protect more vulnerable vegetation inland of it. As loss of coastal scrub exposes remaining trees to the full brunt of wind and sun, dieback of trees, especially eucalypts, becomes evident. Dieback is beginning to affect some of the trees of the foreshore here – it is essential to protect and enhance the vegetation here to avoid the progressive loss of trees to dieback. With a loss of foreshore vegetation, sand dunes sometimes become mobile, causing problems for management. Previously undervalued plants, such as Coast Wattle, Poa grasses and Saggs, play a particularly important role in protecting eucalypts and inland vegetation, and stabilizing coastal sands.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

2. Methodology 2.1 Background research A Natural Values Report was conducted through the Natural Values Atlas database (March 2010) for all threatened flora and fauna records within 5 kilometres of the site, as well as TASVEG communities. Relevant documents to the site were considered, including: • Camp Banksia Redevelopment Study, Revised Draft Report (Latrobe Council, January 2010) • Point Sorell to Squeaking Point Foreshore Area, Blueprint for Action 2004-2009 (Helen Dunn, 2004). 2.2 Field assessment th

A field assessment was conducted by Anna Povey of Bushways on 5 March 2010, accompanied by Mike Hancock, Manager of Camp Banksia, John Boevink, Rubicon Coast and Landcare, and Hannah Sadler, Cradle Coast NRM. The assessment included a vegetation survey of the Camp Banksia property, documenting predominant species, and including weed species. Management issues for the vegetation and sites for rehabilitation were identified.

2.3 Limitations This document provides a guide to vegetation management. Specific management decisions will need to take account of safety issues, availability of finance, labour availability, local constraints, fire hazard, and any other relevant issues. The vegetation survey was of predominant species only, as required. Most vascular plant species were identified, but some very small or sparse plants were not. In addition, some plant species may not have been visible above ground at this time (March).

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

3. Site Assessment 3.1 Native Vegetation The vegetation at the site consists predominantly of remnants of Coastal Scrub (TASVEG code SSC) and some elements of White Gum, E. viminalis, coastal forest (DVC). No threatened flora species was found. Native plants found on site are listed in Appendix 1. The coastal dune is covered by Coastal Scrub; the largest patch of native vegetation at the Camp and the largest area of natural dune vegetation in the surrounding area, as most has been cleared for urban development. This scrub is dominated by Coast Wattles and Coast Saltbush, as is typical of such dune vegetation, but there are also some other species here, including Coast Beardheath, Prickly Box and Native Hopbush, which provide greater diversity of habitat. The White Gums here show dieback, and there are few of them. This is the largest area of native vegetation on the Camp, and the highest priority for management on site is to protect and enhance this patch. Figure 2. Coastal scrub is relatively healthy, although affected by tracks, rubbish dumping, only a few weeds and some dieback.

The Camp would have supported more White Gum coastal forest behind the dune scrub, but this has been largely cleared. Nearby bushland (to the west and over the road) consists of such forest, with White Gum coastal forest (TASVEG code DVC) and coastal Black Peppermint Forest (DAC). Both types of forest should be used as a guide for appropriate plantings on site (behind the dunes), along with the species of Coastal Scrub (useful across the site). The native vegetation consists of small remnants, which are vulnerable to edge effects, dieback, tracks and weed invasion. There is some eucalypt dieback, and eucalypts are few on site. More should be planted. Plantings of more coastal scrub species would also improve the health of the site, by providing shelter and habitat, and expanding the area of native vegetation.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

3.2 Fauna A wide variety of animals utilize the site, especially in the native vegetation and at the pond. Although remnants on site are small, the proximity of bushland in nearby reserves helps to provide for a greater diversity and population of animals here. It is important to retain habitat and enhance connections across Camp Banksia to nearby bushland, to allow for the habitat and movement needs of wildlife in the area. Animals noted during the survey, or known by the manager, include: - Little Pied Cormorant - Tasmanian Native Hen - Grey Fantail - Tasmanian Scrubwren - (Brown?) Thornbill - Superb Fairy-wren - Wallabies (possibly both Bennetts and Rufous Wallabies) - Brushtailed Possums - Eastern Barred Bandicoot - Blue-tongue Lizard - Snakes (presumably Tiger Snakes and/or Copperheads) - Pobblebonk (Banjo) Frog - Brown Tree Frog - Possibly Green and Golden Frog (heard calling briefly on site). - Damselflies - Aquatic invertebrates Although the pond supports many aquatic creatures and some birds, it was noticeable how many more birds were utilizing the small dam west of the pond. This is because of the vegetation and tangles of fallen branches in the scrub, which provide the birds with shelter and allow the birds to approach the water safely. Apparently the pond was recently cleared of bulrush, which removed some of the habitat which had previously harboured more native birds and damselflies. Although the bulrush has regrown somewhat, and there are other plants at the pond, more vegetation (both aquatic and riparian) would promote more wildlife. Also noted were a Blue-tongue Lizard, sunning itself in the safety of a tangle of fallen dead branches, and many small birds using fallen branches and scattered trees to cross an open area. It is important to leave such habitat on site, rather than “tidy up� excessively. Eastern Barred Bandicoots and Green and Golden Frogs are threatened species. This site could provide good habitat for both these species, especially with some revegetation. -

Eastern Barred Bandicoots require areas with dense understorey (for shelter) adjacent to open grassy areas (for foraging on grubs etc).

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Green and Golden Frogs require waterbodies, especially with floating aquatic vegetation (such as introduced waterlilies, and native Watermilfoil, as found here). They also like safe places to sunbake (e.g. pond banks and logs, but surrounded by vegetation is better). Adults, like all frogs, also require surrounding native vegetation, with understorey, logs and leaf litter to provide moist places to shelter, places to forage and to move safely through the landscape. The pond area could be improved for this species by encouraging native aquatic floating plants, planting riparian plants on the banks and revegetating patches surrounding the pond as transition corridors to the adjacent bushland.

Other threatened fauna may also use the site at times, especially given its proximity and connections to nearby larger bushland areas. Threatened fauna that may come here include Spotted-tailed Quoll, Tasmanian Devil and Swift Parrot.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

The pond provides habitat for a large variety of aquatic invertebrates, including the larvae of damselflies. Both adults and larval cases were found here. This site provides a wonderful opportunity for sampling and identifying aquatic invertebrates (e.g. Waterwatch), and for comparing sites for scientific studies. For example, samples could compare the pond with the dam in the nearby bush. Figures 3, 4. Larval damselflies live in the pond, then climb leaves (right) before emerging as adults. Adults such as this (left, photo not from Camp Banksia) are one of the delights of the pond, but require water plants to survive here.

Surveys could compare fauna in native vegetation areas with those in open areas, and the changes after revegetation. A large population of Rabbits (introduced) here will effect regeneration of plants and any revegetation plantings.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

3.3 Weeds and other management issues Weeds are listed in Appendix 4, with notes on their prevalence and urgency of control. There are some weeds in most of the remnants, varying in density but generally not too bad compared with many such urban remnants. This is probably due to ongoing control by the manager. However, the weeds include very invasive species such as Blackberry (a Weed of National Significance) and Mirror Bush. It is important to continue weed control, so that these vigorous weeds do not invade further. The coastal scrub on the dunes has relatively few weeds – some Cordyline and Blackberry. It is a high priority to remove these weeds and ensure that this important coastal scrub remains in good condition. Revegetation with appropriate coastal scrub species, including both the hardy Coast Wattles and Coast Saltbush and other scrub species (such as Coast Beardheath and more White Gums) would improve the condition of this scrub. There are some bare patches in this scrub, which should be revegetated. There are also some tracks, which are allowing access to the public and some rubbish dumping. Tracks can lead to erosion, and there are also privacy issues if public access the camp through this scrub. It would be best to block these tracks. A winding track from the Camp side could be carefully situated and developed for nature interpretation activities. Access to the beach should be provided at the eastern side of this bush, behind the tennis court to the laneway. The weediest remnant is at the front of the site, where Blackberries and rank pasture grasses are mingled amongst native scrub species. This remnant does provide wildlife habitat and screening for the camp, but weeds are considered unsightly and ideally should be controlled. However thorough weed control here would be very time-consuming. There is limited natural diversity in the plants in this patch, which would not be difficult to replace with revegetation. This patch could be managed in two ways: a) Retain the patch as it is and gradually conduct weed control and revegetation. Bower Spinach can compete with Blackberries if some weed control is done at time. b) Spray or bulldoze the weediest parts of this patch (leaving the larger shrubs and trees) and replace them with determined revegetation. Weed control should be continued as weed regeneration is a certainty. Revegetation should include coastal scrub species and vigorous understorey plants such as Coast Saltbush and Bower Spinach. Figure 5. Blackberries scramble through native plants and fallen logs. All of these provide wildlife habitat, but some management is required.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4. Management Recommendations Important focus areas for management are shown on the accompanying site plan. Keeping any natural vegetation in good condition is the highest priority of vegetation management. Useful management options are detailed in the book ”Community Coastcare Handbook” (Thorp, 2003). 4.1 Protect the coastal scrub Protection of the vegetation on the coastal dune is the highest priority for the site. Management should include: - Maintaining the size of the area (e.g. ensure mowing does not encroach), and possibly increasing it with revegetation. - Weed control. - Closure of tracks from the cycle path. - Do not provide tracks through to the beach, apart from one above the tennis court to the laneway. - Do not “tidy up” dead trees and fallen branches which provide habitat. - Revegetation into gaps. - Plant more White Gums, especially behind the dunes. - Avoid fire. A track for interpretation and other activities could be provided from the Camp side, but not crossing through to the beach. Consult the Community Coastcare Handbook for advice on track construction in coastal dunes. Birds and lizards like dead trees, fallen branches, dense understorey and tangles of vegetation. Do not tidy up these important habitat features. Do not put paths through the scrub to the beach: - Protect the integrity of the scrub and the privacy of camp - Avoid gaps in vegetation which lead to erosion and dieback - Any path for interpretation etc from Camp should be aligned to avoid erosion (e.g. windy path) and to avoid damage to vegetation. Plant into bare sand areas, and into any introduced grassy patches. However, be aware that native grasses are also found here, so take care not to remove them. Fire is not necessary to maintain dry coastal vegetation, and it is recommended that fire be excluded or reduced in frequency (Kirkpatrick & Gilfedder, 1999). Fire here may make this coastal dune vulnerable to erosion, loss of species, weed invasion and increased human access and impacts.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.2 Protect all native vegetation on site The small native remnants and scattered trees are all important and should be protected, as they: - provide a natural setting - provide habitat and linkages for wildlife across the site - shelter the site from strong winds, dieback and erosion - screen the site from the roads and the cycle path, providing privacy and a secluded environment. Do not construct a road along the western side, as this is the major linkage for wildlife between the small remnants of Camp Banksia and the larger, more viable area of the neighbouring reserve. Mowing around the edge of buildings, fences and patches of bush is necessary for fire hazard control, safety issues and infrastructure management (Mike Hancock, pers.comm.). Ensure that mowing does not “erode� at bush patches gradually over time. Mowing under trees in some places creates an attractive park-like environment, although it does prevent natural regeneration. Monitor tree health, and ensure that regeneration or replanting does maintain the density of trees on site.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.3 Plant locally native plant species across the site Revegetation at this site, both in bushland and for landscaping, should consist of local native species, in keeping with the environmental theme of the Camp. Suitable species are listed in Appendices 2a-c. Some recommendations for particular planting sites have been made in an accompanying table (Camp Banksia Reveg Table1). Local native plants are those that grow naturally in the local area, and are favoured by local wildlife such as birds, frogs and butterflies. Local native plants are beautiful, hardy, encourage wildlife, avoid creating weed problems, create a natural setting and can contribute to pride in the environmental credentials of the Camp. Coastal scrub species (Appendix 2a) should form the bulk of most revegetation, as they are hardy and provide excellent shelter. Plant some coastal scrub species as windbreaks, such as north of the pond, which is currently quite exposed. For landscaping, a variety of local species can be utilised wherever there is need for shelter from wind and sun, for visual screening, for habitat, or for beauty (see Appendices 2a-c). Native plants can be utilised in a variety of ways for different effects (not just in a haphazard, neglected mix as they have been traditionally used). Mass plantings and themed beds can create beautiful landscaping. Around buildings, scattered trees and low plants in garden beds will provide a more natural look, while retaining visibility and low fire hazard. Figure 6. The trimmed Bower Spinach over the doorway at Camp Banksia shows the creative ways that natives can be used in gardens. More trees should be scattered all around the site. For shade, any of the trees could be considered, but Blackwood is a very shady tree, while Sheoaks and Bulloaks provide more dappled shade but are particularly drought hardy and more open underneath. Banksias can be useful for both shade and shelter. White Gums should be planted across the site, especially behind the coastal dunes and wherever there is room (allowing for safety and infrastructure protection). Black Gums are appropriate for damper sites. Figure 7. The site is currently excessively bleak and open in some places. Plantings would create a softer, more natural and welcoming look.

Some particularly dense, hardy, hardy, windbreak plants include: • Coast Wattle, Swamp Paperbark (damp spots), Hopbush, and Common Boobyalla. • Also useful, but shorter, are White Correa, Coastal Saltbush, Poa grasses, Saggs and other groundcovers. Many other species are also good shelter, and can be planted densely and/or pruned to form a windbreak. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 13


Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

Sources of plants: The best nurseries for this site are those which specialise in local native plants, such as Habitat at Liffey (ph 6397 3400) and Oldina Nursery (ph 6438 1266). Other nurseries may also stock local natives, but you should specify that you want these. Orders and deliveries can be made. Slim-line tubes, where available, will be fine and usually cost around $2. Note that some species (eg grasses) are available in cheaper hiko trays (cost around $1). The cost of guards for plants is also significant, but depends on the method chosen, and guards are not necessary for grasses and saggs. All nurseries can advise on and provide guards. Some nurseries provide planting services.

Note: Local native plants” Note “Local plants means species that occur naturally in the near vicinity (also called “indigenous”). Here this includes species found in similar habitats within the Port Sorell area. Genetic material (seeds or cuttings) for propagation should ideally also be from the area. Nurseries are able to obtain seed and cuttings from this area if given advance orders. In some circumstances, material from elsewhere in central north Tasmania would be acceptable. The term “endemic” is often mistakenly used. “Endemic” means only occurring in an area (for instance only in Port Sorell and nowhere else in the world – excessively strict for our purposes!). “Australian natives” that have been planted previously on site include species from N.S.W. and W.A. that are not appropriate here and can become weedy.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.4 Weed control Some specific weed control recommendations are tabled in Appendix 6. Comprehensive weed control information was not required for this guide. More information can also be obtained from the Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au) and from the Weed Officer at Cradle Coast NRM. At this site, Blackberries and Mirror Bushes are the highest priority weeds for control. Cordyline is also invading, and can be relatively easily eliminated. Sydney Coast Wattle (see below) should also be a priority as it is invasive and has very long-lived seeds. It is also likely that future managers may not recognise this weed, due to its similarity to the native Coast Wattle, and together with its abundant, long-lived seeds, Sydney Coast Wattle can be a problematic hidden menace. Bulrush was controlled in mid-2009, but has since regrown. This vigorous weed can be difficult to eradicate. Eradication may not be necessary, as the plant does provide habitat for fauna here. Aim to contain the plant, and to ensure that other, native, aquatic plants are able to persist here. As a general rule, most weeds (especially woody weeds) can be cut and painted with glyphosate (within 10 seconds of making the cut). Blackberries may be sprayed with selective herbicides according to Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment recommendations, but care must be taken not to spray native plants or water. Where weeds have been removed, especially over large patches, native plantings will help prevent weed regrowth. For example, where Blackberry has been removed, plant Poa Grasses and Saggs (which could be over-sprayed with a broadleaf-specific herbicide if the Blackberry regenerates) or vigorous natives such as Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach. Some special notes are provided here on some of the “native” plants which may be considered weeds. Some truly native plants should not be confused with weeds, and a comparison is provided in Appendix 5. 4.4.1 Mainland natives Several species of mainland natives have been planted on the site in the past. At this stage most do not appear to be spreading, but they have the potential to become weeds (and have done so elsewhere). Over time it would be best to gradually replace these with local native equivalents. In particular, Sydney Coast Wattle should be removed ASAP, as this plant produces long-lived seeds and can be a serious control issue. •

Sydney Coast Wattle, Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia. This invasive large shrub looks very similar to the related local native “Coast Wattle”, Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae, but has longer, pointier phyllodes and straighter pods. Be careful of identification before removal (see figures below).

Figures 8, 9. (On left) Native Coast Wattle’s curly mature seedpods and rounded phyllodes (“leaves”) distinguish it from introduced Sydney Coast Wattle (above).

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.4.2 Coast Wattle – a valuable native plant, NOT a weed A special note is given here about the native Coast Wattle, Acacia longifolia var. sophorae, as this guide highly recommends it, yet some people dislike it. There is also some confusion over names. This wattle is also known as Boobyalla, but is different from Common Boobyalla, Myoporum insulare, which also occurs nearby. This shrub is sometimes regarded as problematic due to its spreading lower branches and hardy nature (leading to an impression of “taking over”). There do not appear to be any problems with this species here, and in fact it is vital in coastal areas to protect less hardy vegetation from coastal winds. It is one of the most useful coastal plants for windbreaks. Coastal Wattle has a number of benefits. Firstly, it is a typical component of this vegetation type at the coast. It provides abundant food (in the form of pollen and seeds) and dense shelter for a wide range of fauna. It is also invaluable as a hardy, salt- and wind-tolerant dense shrub, which contributes to the stability of the microclimate for coastal scrub and forest, and helps to prevent eucalypt dieback. This is a particularly important role in a very narrow scrub patch that suffers from “edge effect” (increased wind, sun and weed impacts around the edges). It can also be effectively used as a natural fence, guiding people to defined entrances, and therefore protecting understorey from trampling. It is very valuable as a windbreak, which should be used across the Camp.

4.4.3 Avoid planting Coast Teatree Do not use Coast Teatree, Leptospermum laevigatum, unless in clearly defined areas surrounded by lawn. Although native on parts of the north coast, it can be very invasive. It is not currently found on site, but could invade native bushland if planted nearby, replacing the diversity of local species.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.5 The Pond The pond is of particular interest at the camp, having been used for canoeing and other activities. Although artificially constructed, and supporting some introduced Waterlilies and weedy Bulrushes, it has some native aquatic vegetation (including Watermilfoil, Pondweed, Swamp Stonecrop and Sharp Clubsedge) and is habitat for many animals, including pobblebonk/banjo frogs, brown tree frogs, birds, aquatic invertebrates and damselflies. It is likely that threatened Green and Golden Frogs live here, as one was possibly heard during the site assessment and it is suitable habitat. Green and Golden Frogs need floating aquatic vegetation for best habitat. While canoeing in itself does not appear to have prevented the pond developing natural values, a desire for an empty body of water is incompatible with natural habitat and the many other activities that can be done here. Excessive clearing out of the pond removes habitat and prevents natural ecosystem functioning. Aquatic plants such as Watermilfoil and others improve water quality, including oxygenating the water. Even the weedy Bulrush actually contributes to water quality and to wildlife habitat. While limiting the spread of Bulrush is a good idea, to prevent it excluding other species, this should not be done in a manner which strips the pond of vegetation. Aquatic and riparian plants should be maintained here, especially native ones, and plantings of more would be beneficial (see below). More shady trees, such as Blackwoods and Paperbark, especially on the north side, would cool the water and may reduce the amount of algae present. The pond has great potential as an environmental study site, as it is clearly full of life and could be even more so with appropriate management. Water studies are an essential part of any environmental studies program, as water quality and health have such critical implications for humans and the environment. Water studies are also some of the most enjoyable activities, with all children and adults captivated by the diversity of aquatic life that becomes revealed to them. Figure 10. The pond is fairly open, with some fringing sedges but surrounded by lawn. It must be noted that snakes do occur on site already, and where there are frogs there will be snakes. Snakes are important fauna, but visitors should be warned, and should generally stay on open ground where they can see and avoid any snakes. - The pond is likely to be habitat for threatened Green and Golden Frogs, as well as other species. -

This habitat value could be improved with plantings of riparian and aquatic plants (see below).

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Excellent opportunities exist here for interpretational activities, e.g. Waterwatch, comparisons between the pond and the little dam in the bush west of this, and revegetation activities.

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More shady trees are needed over the water for better water quality. For example, Blackwoods could be planted near the banks.

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Establish transition corridors for frogs between the pond and the bushland to the west.

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The steep pond banks could be battered in places, and riparian plants planted, leaving some access routes for students to reach the water for studies. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 17


Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.6 Habitat plantings for frogs, birds etc The western end of the pond and its surrounds would be a good focus area for habitat plantings, so that animals, such as frogs and birds, can move between the pond and nearby bushland. The habitat value of the pond would be greatly improved by this. Adult frogs move through the landscape, and rely on understorey plants, logs and litter for shelter and foraging. Frogs don’t only need waterbodies, but a healthy natural landscape including bushland. The eastern end of the pool can be kept more open if desired. Patchy plantings could be done, progressing to a more natural bushy effect at the western end. Some open areas and pathways could be retained for access by visitors and students. Plantings should be of riparian plants (such as listed in Appendix 2b), and including understorey plants such as sedges. Surrounding land could be planted with a variety of forest and scrub plants.

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

4.7 Site preparation and maintenance of plantings Local native plants tend to be hardy and attractive. However, it can be expected that some species and individual plants will do better than others. Success depends partly on planting technique, and unpredictable factors such as the nature of the seasons after planting, competition with other plants, drainage and moisture and the composition of the soil at each site. Loss of some individuals is normal in any planting, and is dealt with by removal and replanting with more experience, and perhaps better site preparation. Avoid browsing by abundant rabbits, wallabies and possums on site by using plant guards to protect plants during establishment. Good site preparation and some assistance in the establishment phase, and during future times of summer drought, will help ensure success. •

Spray grasses and weeds with appropriate herbicide, during a period when they are actively growing, ideally the season before planting and about 2 weeks before mulching and planting (e.g. spring and the autumn just before planting). FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS and take all safety precautions.

Hardy weeds such as blackberries may require two or more years of control, as well as follow-up control of seedling regeneration for many years.

Mulch plantings thickly (at least 10cm thick), for weed control and reduced water stress. However, keep mulch a few inches away from plant stems. Alternatively use mulch mats.

At garden bed edges, slope soil down to approx. 10 cm below ground level, so that mulch fills the space to the edge, does not slip away, and prevents weeds germinating at the edge.

Top up mulch regularly, before the last mulch rots away.

Where the soil is poor and sandy, ideally add some compost or topsoil. Otherwise, add a fertiliser tablet to each planting hole.

Use plant guards to protect from wildlife and people.

Autumn is probably the best time to plant. Winter and early spring are OK too, but spring plantings will need to be watered well through summer, especially if spring rains fail.

Plant roots well down and water in well. A “dish” in the soil surface around the plant will help direct water to the plant.

Follow-up watering will greatly improve success, particularly during the first summer.

Occasional light pruning of shrubs will make plants bushier and healthier.

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5 References Blood, K. (2001), Environmental Weeds – A field guide for SE Australia. CH Jerram & Assoc., Mt Waverley. Bryant, S. L. and Jackson, J. (1999), Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Buchanan, A.M. (2009), A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania. Tasmanian Herbarium website, www.tmag.tas.gov.au/Herbarium/TasVascPlants.pdf Chladil, M. and Sheridan, J. (2003), Fire Retardant Garden Plants for the Urban Fringe and Rural Areas, pamphlet for the Tasmanian Fire Research Fund and the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens. Dunn, H. (2004), Point Sorell to Squeaking Point Foreshore Area, Blueprint for Action 2004-2009. Report for Latrobe Council by Landmark Consulting. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and Gilfedder, L.A. (1999), Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Latrobe Council (2010), Camp Banksia Redevelopment Study, Revised Draft Report. Muyt, A. (2001), Bush Invaders of SE Australia. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith. Thorp, V. (2003), Community Coastcare Handbook – caring for the coast in Tasmania. Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart.

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6 Appendices Appendix 1. Native plants found at Camp Banksia. th Survey conducted by Bushways, 5 March 2010. Major vascular plants only surveyed. Existing plantings not surveyed. Family Species name Broad-leaved plants (DICOTYLEDONAE) Tetragonia implexicoma AIZOACEAE Lobelia anceps CAMPANULACEAE Allocasuarina verticillata CASUARINACEAE Rhagodia candolleana CHENOPODIACEAE Crassula helmsii CRASSULACEAE Leucopogon parviflorus EPACRIDACEAE Myriophyllum sp. HALORAGACEAE Acacia longifolia subsp. MIMOSACEAE sophorae Acacia melanoxylon Eucalyptus ovata MYRTACEAE Eucalyptus viminalis Melaleuca ericifolia Bursaria spinosa PITTOSPORACEAE Banksia marginata PROTEACEAE Clematis microphylla RANUNCULACEAE Acaena novae-zelandiae ROSACEAE Rubus parvifolius Dodonaea viscosa subsp. SAPINDACEAE spatulata

Common name bower spinach Angled lobelia drooping sheoak coastal saltbush swamp stonecrop coast beardheath watermilfoil coast wattle blackwood black gum white gum coast paperbark prickly box silver banksia small-leaf clematis common buzzy native raspberry broadleaf hopbush

Narrow –leaved plants (MONOCOTYLEDONAE) Carex fascicularis CYPERACEAE Eleocharis acuta Schoenoplectus pungens Lemna disperma LEMNACEAE Austrostipa sp. POACEAE Imperata cylindrica var. major Phragmites australis POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton sp. (P.tricarinatus?) XANTHORRHOEACEAE Lomandra longifolia

Ferns (PTERIDOPHYTA) DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

Pteridium esculentum

Status

tassel sedge common spikesedge sharp clubsedge common duckweed speargrass blady grass southern reed pondweed sagg

bracken

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

Appendix 2a. Plants suitable for revegetation, Camp Banksia The species listed here are hardy for widespread planting, and exist naturally on site or very nearby. (Note comments in bold for special uses or requirements). Plants highlighted in yellow should form the bulk of plantings in revegetation sites, but pay attention to the site requirements. Name TREES White Gum Eucalyptus viminalis Black Gum Eucalyptus ovata Blackwood Acacia melanoxylon Sheoak Allocasuarina verticillata Bulloak Allocasuarina littoralis

Comments

Height (approx.) Avoid planting large trees near infrastructure and pipes. Spacing >5m looks more natural. Beautiful white bark. Plant in areas behind the > 20m dunes or in dune swales protected from the wind, and across the Camp. Large glossy leaves, white bark. Prefers > 20m moist, heavier soils. Shady green tree. Best in moist sites but 10 (-30) m hardy in most situations. Hardy in very dry sites. Drooping, greyish- 6 - 10 m green foliage like pine needles. Hardy in dry sites. Green foliage like pine 6 – 10 m needles, more erect than Sheoak.

SMALL TREES/LARGE SHRUBS Silver Wattle Abundant yellow flowers = first sign of spring. Acacia dealbata Attractive grey foliage. Under-appreciated, hardy tree, but can be short-lived (a decade or so). The hardiest front-line plant for seawinds and Coast Wattle (“Boobyalla”) Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae sandy sites. Provides shelter. Allow room to spread, although pruning is possible. Great for birds. A favourite with people and Banksia Banksia marginata fauna. Prickly Box Masses of fragrant white flowers in early Bursaria spinosa summer for butterflies etc. Prickly, potential traffic barrier, hardy in many conditions. Hardy in dry sites. Glossy green leaves, and Native Hopbush Dodonaea viscosa purple-red papery fruits. Good screen. Coast Beard-heath Hardy large shrub once established. May need Leucopogon parviflorus to be ordered in advance. Edible berries and important bird habitat. Swamp Paperbark Hardy, fast growing small tree with cream Melaleuca ericifolia flowers spring/summer. Good screen, spreads by suckers. Can withstand coastal winds in moist sites. SHRUBS Prickly Moses Acacia verticillata White Correa Correa alba Scented Paperbark Melaleuca squarrosa Common Boobyalla Myoporum insulare Coastal Saltbush Rhagodia candolleana

Space shrubs one to two metres apart. Prickly, potential traffic barrier. Moist sites. Compact, rounded shrub, oval leaves, white flowers. Hardy in dry, coastal sites. Yellow-cream scented flowers. Moist sites. Front-line coastal shrub in dry sites. Large green leaves, small white flowers. Scrambling dark green shrub with bright red berries. Really hardy, fast-growing shrub. Dense screen and good weed suppressant.

10 (-30)m

2–5m

6 (- 10) m 3-5m

3-5m 1- 3 m

4 - 6 (-12) m

2–3m 1–3m 2–4m 2–3m 0.5 – 1.5 m

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GROUNDCOVERS Knobby Club-rush Isolepis/Ficinia nodosa Sagg Lomandra longifolia Poa Grass Poa labillardierei (wet & dry sites) P. poiformis (coastal front-line) Bower Spinach Tetragonia implexicoma

Plant groundcovers 0.5 to 1 metre apart, except Bower Spinach 2 m apart. Fine leaves with distinctive round knobs on 0.5 – 0.8 m top. Hardy in variety of situations. Very hardy tussock. Good butterfly plant. 1m Tough, drought-tolerant, attractive tussocks. Cut back to the base every few years to rejuvenate, if planted in garden beds.

0.5 - 1 m

Sprawling runners of succulent green leaves. Fruit attracts birds. Allow plenty of room to spread. Good dense groundcover and weed suppressant. Hardy with coastal winds, sandy soils.

0.1 m (to 2 m spread). May climb 1-2 m

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Appendix 2b. Plants suitable for wet sites, Camp Banksia The species listed here are hardy in damp to wet sites, and would suit frog habitat plantings. Some should be planted right on the banks of the pond, and some can be placed in damp sites across the Camp. (Note comments in bold for special uses or requirements). Plants highlighted in yellow should form the bulk of plantings in revegetation sites, but pay attention to the site requirements. Name TREES Black Gum Eucalyptus ovata Blackwood Acacia melanoxylon

Comments

Height (approx.) Avoid planting large trees near infrastructure and pipes. Spacing >5m looks more natural. Large glossy leaves, white bark. Prefers > 20m moist, heavier soils. Shady green tree. Best in moist sites but 10 (-30) m hardy in most situations.

SMALL TREES/LARGE SHRUBS Swamp Paperbark Hardy, fast growing small tree with cream Melaleuca ericifolia flowers spring/summer. Good screen, spreads by suckers. Can withstand coastal winds in moist sites. SHRUBS Prickly Moses Acacia verticillata Common Teatree Leptospermum scoparium Woolly Teatree Leptospermum lanigerum Scented Paperbark Melaleuca squarrosa GROUNDCOVERS Tall Sedge Carex appressa Tassel Sedge Carex fascicularis Knobby Club-rush Isolepis/Ficinia nodosa Poa Grass Poa labillardierei (wet & dry sites)

Space shrubs one to two metres apart. Prickly, potential traffic barrier. Moist sites. Hardy in most sunny sites apart from very dry ones. Masses of white flowers. Greyish-green shrub with masses of white flowers. Hardy in moist sites. Common riparian plant. Yellow-cream scented flowers. Moist sites.

Plant groundcovers 0.5 to 1 metre apart. Damp to wet sites, & right on water’s edge. Frog and butterfly habitat plant. Lovely drooping tassels. Damp to wet sites, & right on water’s edge. Frog and butterfly habitat plant. Fine leaves with distinctive round knobs on top. Hardy in variety of situations, moist to dry. Tough attractive tussocks. Important habitat for butterflies, bandicoots, etc.

4 - 6 (-12) m

2–3m 1.5 – 4 m 1.5 – 4 m

2–4m

1m 1m

0.5 – 0.8 m 0.5 - 1 m

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Appendix 2c. Plants suitable for gardens, Camp Banksia Below are some plants that look good and can be hardy, but are not as widely appropriate as the species listed above. There are many smaller plants in this list, which will add variety and colour to garden areas without blocking views. Name

Comments

Height (approx.)

SMALL TREES, LARGE SHRUBS Great for birds. A favourite with people and Banksia Banksia marginata fauna. Coast Beard-heath Hardy large shrub once established. May need to Leucopogon parviflorus be ordered in advance. Edible berries. Kangaroo Apple Lush dark green leaves, purple flowers, orange Solanum laciniatum fruits make a spectacular large shrub. SHRUBS Redstem Wattle Acacia myrtifolia Sunshine Wattle Acacia terminalis Sweet Wattle Acacia suaveolens Scrub Bulloak Allocasuarina monilifera Common Fringemyrtle Calytrix tetragona White Correa Correa alba Dagger Hakea Hakea teretifolia Coastal Cushionbush Leucophyta brownii Small-leaved Paperbark Melaleuca gibbosa Yellow Dogwood Pomaderris elliptica Bush peas (various): Golden pea, Aotus ericoides, Showy Bossiaea, Bossiaea cinerea, Smooth Parrotpea, Dillwynia glaberrima, Showy Parrotpea, Dillwynia sericea, Native Indigo, Indigofera australis Dolly bush, Cassinia aculeata Dusty Daisy-bush, Olearia lirata

Space shrubs one to two metres apart. Red stems, yellow flowerballs in early spring. Well-drained soils. Hardy, attractive small shrub. Creamy yellow flowers in winter, attractive feathery leaves. Narrow blue-green phyllodes (‘leaves’), winter flowers. Like bulloak but smaller, and a good feature plant. Tolerates dry, some shade, dust. Hardy shrub in full sun. Lovely pink-white flowers and persistent calyces. Compact, rounded shrub, oval leaves, white flowers. Hardy in dry, coastal sites. Prickly, potential traffic barrier. Summer flowers, scented. Damp sites. Compact, grey shrub, already an excellent feature in gardens on site. Hardy coastal plant. May benefit from pruning if becomes shabby. Mauve flowers, small leaves, tidy small shrub. Moist sites. Showy yellow flowers in spring. Rounded shiny leaves. Prune for health. All have showy yellow-and-red pea flowers (mauve in Indigofera), and can be hardy once established. Benefit from light pruning.

Daisy bushes with many small flowers. Important habitat component, attracting butterflies and other insects. Benefit from some pruning.

6 (- 10) m 1- 3 m 2 - 4 metres

0.5 – 1.5 m 2m 1-2m 0.5 – 2 (-4) m 0.5 – 1.5 m 1–3m 1–2m 0.5 - 1m

0.5 – 1.5 m 1-2m 0.5 – 1 m

1.5 - 2 m

Continued over page…

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Camp Banksia & Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 30th April 2010

Appendix 2c (continued). Plants suitable for gardens, Camp Banksia Name GROUNDCOVERS Native Pigface Carpobrotus rossii Blue Flax-lily (drier sites) Dianella revoluta Tasman Flax-lily (moister sites) Dianella tasmanica White Flag-iris Diplarrena moraea Kangaroo grass Themeda triandra Clematis Clematis aristata, C. microphylla Native Pelargonium Pelargonium australe Spreading Guineaflower Hibbertia procumbens Silky Guinea-flower H. sericea Short Purple-flag Patersonia fragilis Long Purple-flag P. occidentalis Creeping Heath-myrtle Euryomyrtus ramosissima Running Postman Kennedia prostrata

Comments

Height (approx.) Plant groundcovers 0.5 to 1 metre apart, grouped for best effect. Very useful alongside paths. Succulent creeper, with large, bright flowers. 0.2 m Sunny sites, hardy in coastal sand. Strap leaves, blue flowers, blue berries. Spread 0.5 m to form clumps.

Beautiful white iris flowers, strappy leaves

1m

Reddish leaves, distinctive seedheads make a feature of mass plantings. Lovely climbers with white flowers, can be used to soften wire fences and walls. Small-leaved clematis, C. microphylla, is hardiest in coastal dry conditions. Beautiful pink flowers, rounded leaves. Self-seeds well. Beautiful yellow flowers. Small shrubs suitable for garden areas. Require good drainage, some moisture, part sun.

0.5 m

Lovely purple flowers, narrow leaves. Welldrained moist sunny sites, but can handle drier sites than Long Purple-flag. Longer flower stems make purple flowers very showy. Well-drained moist sunny sites. Delightfully floral groundcover for garden/rockery sites. Moist, well-drained sites. Flat spreader, rounded leaflets, red & yellow flowers. Sunny, well-drained sites

To 3 m

0.5 m 0.5 m

0.2 m

0.5 m Prostrate, to 1 m wide Prostrate, to 1 m wide

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Appendix 3. Weeds found at Camp Banksia. WONS = Weed of National Significance. Family Trees AGAVACEAE

Species name

Common name

Comments

Cordyline australis

New Zealand cabbage tree

MIMOSACEAE

Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia

Sydney coast wattle

RUBIACEAE

Coprosma repens

mirrorbush

SALICACEAE

Salix sp.

willow

Occurs in the front weedy scrub and in the coastal dune. Remove. Be careful of similarity to native Coast Wattle. Remove. An invasive weed that is not currently dense. Remove ASAP. WONS However, at this site the willows are historical plantings confined to the pond, which are not currently a threat to surrounding areas. They can be left as they are, provided any new plants are removed.

Shrubs ROSACEAE

Rubus fruticosus agg.

blackberry

WONS Has already been subject to control efforts, but will require sustained attention.

Groundcovers JUNCACEAE

Juncus articulatus

jointed rush

POACEAE

Ammophila arenaria

marram grass

Wet areas around the pond. Difficult to control. Plant other native riparian plants as competition. Sparse in Coastal Scrub on dunes. Remove if possible and revegetate with native shrubs. Very competitive in native vegetation, so aim to prevent invasion into scrub. Confined to pond. Does provide habitat, but would be good to replace with natives if possible. Not urgent. Ensure it does not completely overtake pond.

Various pasture grasses

TYPHACEAE

Typha latifolia

great reedmace

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Appendix 4. Some native species that resemble weeds It is important to be sure of the identification of a plant before removing it as a weed. Below is a selection of native species that are sometimes mistaken for weeds. The Tasmanian Herbarium can assist with plant identification. Plants known to be on or nearby the site are in bold. WEED Sydney Coast Wattle (Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia) Often sold as a “native” in nurseries, can become invasive. - Phyllodes (“leaves”) longer (80-200mm) and pointer. - Pod straight when mature. Weedy climbers e.g. Cape Ivy (Delairea odorata), Rambling Dock (Acetosa sagittata)

Hottentot Fig, Carpobrotus edulis, has yellow flowers and is bigger in all parts. Chilean Pigface (Carpobrotus aequilaterus) has pink flowers but: - is bigger in all parts (leaves 5-10cm) - stamens have yellow filaments Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) - large, vigorous plant - fruit black when ripe Marram Grass (Ammophila arenaria) - has underground rhizomes - very long pointed ligule (membrane where leaf comes away from stem)

Sow thistle (Sonchus asper) - annual, with taproot - sticky white sap (can irritate skin & eyes) African Box-thorn (Lycium ferocissimum) - spines robust, very sharp - red berries Canary/Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana) English/Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and White Broom (Cytisus multiflorus) Cape Wattle (Paraserianthes lophantha) - large feathery leaves fold up at dusk. - flowers resemble bottlebrushes Twitch, couch, buffalo grass and other creeping lawn grasses.

NATIVE PLANT Coast Wattle / False Boobyalla (Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae) - Phyllodes (“leaves”) shorter (50100mm) and rounder. - Pod twisted when mature

Native climbers and scramblers e.g. Bower Spinach (Tetragonia implexicoma), Small-leaved Clematis (Clematis microphylla) - become familiar with the precise shape and texture of leaves, to distinguish the various climbers. Native Pigface (Carpobrotus rossii) - leaves 4-6cm - has pink flowers but stamens have white filaments

Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) - smaller leaves and overall plant - fruit red when ripe Coast Fescue (Austrofestuca littoralis), Coast Speargrass (Austrostipa stipoides), Coast Tussockgrass (Poa poiformis), Silver Tussockgrass (Poa labillardierei), Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus), other native grasses - most are tussocks, Spinifex has creeping stems. Obtain advice. Dune Thistle (Actites megalocarpa, was Sonchus megalocarpus) - perennial with stolons Prickly Box (Bursaria spinosa) - spines delicate and thin, very sharp - flat brown capsules Goldentip (Goodia lotifolia) and other bushpeas - not currently any on site. Drupe Bush (Leptomeria drupacea), and Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada) - not currently any on site. Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata), Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) - not currently any on site. Australian Saltgrass (Distichlis distichophylla) - fine leaves arranged tightly in opposite rows Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania

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Appendix 5. Weed control recommendations (From Rudman 2003; Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit 2006; Marker and Wind 2003; Muyt 2001) Weeds on site are in bold. This list includes some weeds not currently on site but common in such an environment, so they may turn up in future. ® ® ® ® Herbicides include non-selective Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup , Weedmaster , etc) and broadleaf-specific Metsulfuron Methyl (e.g. Brush Off , Brush Killer etc). Some herbicides come already mixed with a wetting agent (surfactant); others may need a wetter to be added so that the herbicide is absorbed by the plant. Marker dyes can also be useful. For more assistance, contact the Weeds Officer at Cradle Coast NRM. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING HERBICIDES AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS. ALWAYS FOLLOW BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES. Weed Treatment alternatives Follow up Blackberry Cut-and-paint (with glyphosate). Continue to follow up where needed every year. Briar rose Foliar spraying: Metsulfuron Methyl is an effective herbicide to use for blackberry growing within grasses like Marram, but it will damage any native shrubs. Take every care to keep away from any wet area and do not risk any run off or spray drift into water or onto native plants. Mirror Bush

Frill-cut and poison larger trees and leave to die standing. Cut-and-paint or handpull smaller plants.

Plant Bower Spinach to climb over dead Mirror Bushes.

Sydney Coast Wattle (Acacia longifolia subsp. longifolia)

Cut-and-paint with herbicide, or drill-and-fill larger plants. N.B. Careful identification is necessary to distinguish this weed from the native coast wattle (Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae) – see Appendix 5.

Check for seedlings and re-growth every year and control.

Marram Grass

Do not control large areas. Control any small infestations in otherwise native areas. Dig out small area of rhizomes to a depth of 50 cm if possible before planting native plants into Marram grassland.

Pull up any marram grass invading revegetation plant guards until native plant is well established.

Bulrush

At this site, it is up to you whether you want to eradicate Bulrush, as it does provide some habitat. Containment is probably the best aim.

Follow up pulling will be necessary in consecutive years.

Cutting stems > 15 cm below water level in spring causes decay. Alternatively, hand pull and remove the entire rhizome. Cordyline (NZ cabbage tree)

Cut-and-paint with herbicide.

May require further treatment.

Boxthorn

Cut-and-paint with herbicide. Seedlings can be hand-pulled or dug out.

Follow up hand pulling of seedlings will be necessary.

Spray with glyphosate early in flowering period (late winter-early spring).Three-cornered garlic can be pulled or dug carefully, ensuring all bulbs are removed.

Control regrowth annually. Will require at least 2 - 5 years’ work.

Boneseed Three-cornered garlic (angled onion)


Appendix 6. Some useful resources Some useful references include: Community Coastcare Handbook – caring for the coast in Tasmania, by Veronica Thorp (2003). Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart. (Excellent for all coastal management questions.) Growing Australian Native Plants from Seed - for revegetation, tree planting and direct seeding. By Murray Ralph, 1997. Published by Bushland Horticulture, ph (03) 9517 6773. Very useful, comprehensive but simple propagation info. Grow Local – a guide to local native plants suitable for gardens in the Cradle Coast Region nd (2 edition), by the Australian Plants Society Tasmania North West Group (2009?). Tasmania’s Natural Flora, by J. Whiting et al, 2004. ($70 many bookshops, or PO Box194, Ulverstone, 7315). Identification of heaps of plants, and cultivation hints. Understorey Network database for propagation and seed collection info: www.understorey-network.org.au Cradle Coast NRM – ph: 6431 6285.

Some useful weed references include: Various pamphlets, usually available from council or Natural Resource Management/Landcare organisations. E.g. Coastal Weeds of Tasmania. Environmental Weeds – A field guide for SE Australia. By Kate Blood, CRC Weed Management Systems, 2001. Publ. CH Jerram & Assoc., Mt Waverley. Bush Invaders of SE Australia. By Adam Muyt, 2001. Publ. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith. (About $65, but worth it – includes control methods) DPIPWE Weeds site For comprehensive weed control information sheets, declared weeds etc: www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/LBUN-5MC2R8?open Cradle Coast NRM Weeds Officer – ph: 6431 6285 Tamar Valley Weed Strategy - another excellent Tasmanian weed website http://www.weeds.asn.au

Profile for Cradle Coast Authority

Camp Banksia and Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan  

Camp Banksia and Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 2010

Camp Banksia and Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan  

Camp Banksia and Freers Beach Coastal Reserve Vegetation Management Plan 2010