Copernicus Ocean State Report 6

Page 1

STATE REPORT SUMMARY

COPERNICUS OCEAN
06 Issue 6, 2022

ABOUT THE COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT

The Copernicus Ocean State Report is an annual publication of the Copernicus Marine Service, established in 2014 by the European Commission for Copernicus 1 and renewed in 2021 for Copernicus 2. The report provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art, scientific overview on the current conditions, natural variations, and ongoing changes in the global ocean and European regional seas. It is meant to act as a reference for the scientific community, national and international bodies, decision-makers, blue economy actors, and the general public.

Using satellite data, in situ measurements and models, this integrated description of the ocean state feeds into a four-dimensional view (latitude, longitude, depth, and time) of the Blue, Green, and White Ocean. It draws on expert analysis written by over 150 scientific experts from more than 30 international institutions. Scientific integrity is assured through a process of independent peer review in collaboration with the Journal of Operational Oceanography.

ABOUT THIS SUMMARY

This document is a summary of the 6th issue of the annual Copernicus Ocean State Report, highlighting the current state, variations, and ongoing changes in the European regional seas and the global ocean. Also drawing from the Copernicus Ocean Monitoring Indicators, this summary is approached from several angles over the past decades, and for recent years, particularly for 2020.

It examines the evolving signal of the changing ocean in line with climate change, analyses natural variations and extreme events, and discusses the influence these have on the ocean and climate. Additionally, this summary presents a series of new tools and indicators developed using Copernicus Marine Service products and demonstrates how accurate and timely information is key to monitoring, understanding, and adapting to the evolving ocean.

BLUE OCEAN WHITE OCEANGREEN OCEAN

The Blue Ocean describes the physical state of the ocean, including, for example, sea surface temperature, sea level, ocean currents, waves, and sea winds, as well as ocean heat content, salinity, and density.

The Green Ocean describes the biological and biogeochemical state of the ocean, including, for example, chlorophyll-a concentrations and nutrients, as well as ocean acidification and deoxygenation.

The White Ocean refers to the lifecycle of floating ice within the polar regions, with indicators including the extent, volume, and thickness of sea ice in the Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean, and Antarctic Ocean.

COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 62
Page 05-08 Page 09-11 Page 12-14

KEY TAKEAWAYS FOR 2020

01.

The Northern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea experienced heavy storms, including Storm Gloria, which impacted the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and Medicane Ianos, which impacted the Greek peninsula, leading to significant economic and environmental damages.

02. Unusually high marine heatwaves severely impacted the Mediterranean Sea in 2020. In 2019/20 the unseasonal winter heatwaves and unusually high ocean heat content in the Baltic Sea caused the lowest recorded sea ice extent since 1720.

03. In 2020, sea ice extent in the Arctic was, on average, the lowest ever observed by satellite, and 2021 remained one of the years with the lowest sea ice levels. Sea ice extent in the Antarctic, however, remained normal for winter and summer in 2020 and 2021.

04. A new satellite-based indicator was developed in support of Europe’s SDG reporting, which helps to identify and map potential eutrophication*, a primary issue facing water quality in the European regional seas.

05. New approaches for estimating sea level variability at hourly scales were used in 2020 to help forecast the form, timing, and duration of damaging storm surges in the Baltic Sea.

06. Global sea surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.016°C per year. This has led to an average sea surface temperature increase of approximately 0.43°C since 1993, impacting marine ecosystems.

*For additional information on the state of eutrophication, see the Copernicus Ocean State Report Summary, Issue 5, pp.10.11

KEY TAKEAWAYSISSUE 6

IS KEY TO KNOWLEDGE AND SOLLUTIONS FOR

A CLEAR OCEAN

AND RESILIENT OCEAN

A PRODUCTIVE OCEAN

OCEAN

A SAFE OCEAN AN ACCESSIBLE OCEAN

TAKING US CLOSER TO

AN INSPIRING ENGAGING OCEAN

• CAPACITY EXCHANGE

• BLUE PARTENERSHIPS

• OCEAN-CLIMATE NEXUS

• SUSTAINABLE OCEAN GOVERNANCE

• PREVENT CONFLICT

LOW IMPACT AND RENEWABLE MARINE ENERGY

SUSTAINABLE BLUE ECONOMY BLUE GROWTH

PLANNING FOR INFRASTRUCTURE

• MARINE TECH INNOVATION INCREASED ACCESS TO DATA, INFO AND TECH BLUE CAPACITY SHARING

• EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS

• ADAPTATION COASTAL RISK MANAGMENT

• MARITIME SPATIAL PLANNING

DEVELOPMENT

• SUSTAINABLE LAND-SEA INTERFACE • COASTAL MANAGEMENT

• BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE OCEAN-CLIMATE LINK AND CLIMATE CHANGE MONITORING

• SUSTAINABLE BLUE TOURISM

• SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

Using a holistic approach, key Ocean Monitoring Indicators and ocean stewardship backed by science can help us better understand and improve the capacity for sustainable ocean development, relating UN SDG 14 to the other 16 SDGs. Through an interdisciplinary and cross-sector approach, we will be able to achieve a healthier, safer, and more protected ocean as part of the UN 2030 sustainable development agenda. Data for this infographic was adapted from several different sources to provide a better overview of achieving ocean sustainability including – Mercator Ocean International, the Ocean University Initiative, the Ocean Conservation Trust, the 2017 UN Ocean Conference, and the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The SDGs included in this graphic are examples of which areas of sustainable development could potentially be impacted, allowing us to better understand how ocean data can fit into the larger UN SDG framework.

COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 64
OCEAN INDICATORS LEGEND Mercator Ocean International WMO Climate Indicators CHLOROPHYLL-A THERMOSTERIC SEA LEVELSEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE SEA-LEVEL RISE SEA-ICE EXTENT OCEAN HEAT CONTENT OCEAN ACIDIFICATION + CO2 Fluxes OCEANMONITORING INDICATORS B E T TER UNDERSTANDINGOFTHEOCEAN NAECO HCRAESERC O P E R N I C U S O C E A N STATE REPORT BETTERCAPACITYFORRISKADAPTATIONANDFORSUSTAINABLE
• BLUE GROWTH AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO EXTREME EVENTS REDUCE MARINE POLLUTION MAXIMISE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PREVENT LOSSES FROM HAZARDOUS EVENTS OCEAN LITERACY TO IMPROVE OCEAN HEALTH AND STEWARDSHIP
SUSTAINABLE FISHING AND AQUACULTURE
GENDER EQUALITY IN SCIENCE UPSTREAM MANAGMENT
A HEALTHY
A PREDICTED
Implemented by Implemented by

BLUE OCEAN

KEY TAKEAWAYS FOCUSING ON 2020

01. 02. 03.

Unusually high marine heatwaves were recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 2020 and the Baltic Sea in the winter of 2019/2020. Marine heatwaves are prolonged periods of abnormally high temperatures and are damaging to marine ecosystems.

Record-breaking severe storms were reported in the Mediterranean Sea in 2020, notably Storm Gloria and Medicane Ianos, which caused increased ocean currents, sea level, and wave height and led to human casualties and economic damages to the Spanish Mediterranean coast and the Greek peninsula.

Record-high extreme wind speeds were observed in the North Atlantic and the Indian Ocean in 2020, compared to the 2007-2020 period.

IN NUMBERS

with a trend of 3.5 +/- 0.4 mm/year from 1993-2021.

Sea level

of global sea level rise can be attributed to ocean thermal expansion, and sea level rise has been accelerating in the last 30 years.

Sea level

Since 1993, sea level has risen by more than About °C

1/3 0.43 CM %

Approximately aApproximately

of the excess human-caused heat has been absorbed by the ocean.

Ocean heat content

in global sea surface temperature has occurred, following a trend of 0.016 +/- 0.001°C per year from 1993 to 2020, significantly impacting the ocean and disrupting marine ecosystems and human livelihood.

Sea Surface Temperature

BLUE OCEANISSUE 6 5
9 90

TRENDS IN AND UP TO 2020

INCREASE DECREASE

IN 2020

TREND

MARINE HEAT WAVE

MARINE HEAT WAVE FREQUENCY

MARINE HEAT WAVE INTENSITY

MARINE HEAT WAVE DURATION

EXTREME WIND SPEEDS

STORM EVENTS

STORM EVENTS FREQUENCY

STORM EVENTS INTENSITY

STORM EVENTS DURATION

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

• Unusually high marine heatwave in May 2020

• Increased extreme wave storms over the past 28 years

NORTH ATLANTIC

• Record-high extreme wind speeds in 2020

PARTICULAR EXTREME EVENTS 2020

Spanish Mediterranean coast

DID YOU KNOW?

STORM GLORIA MEDICANE IANOS

19 to 24 January 2020.

WHAT HAPPENED?

Storm Gloria was an unprecedented event that saw recordbreaking wave heights, ocean currents, and extreme flooding, which led to 13 human casualties and an estimated 500 million euros in coastal damages.

The Mediterranean Sea is one of the main cyclogenetic areas in the world (i.e., areas prone to the development of extratropical cyclones and medicanes). According to the MAR1 report, there is insufficient data to assess past trends of Medicanes, but current predictions potentially indicate decreasing frequency and increasing intensity of these severe storms.

WHAT IS A MEDICANE?

A strong cyclone, similar to a hurricane, that forms in the Mediterranean Sea. Medicanes have a typical size of around 300km in diameter and are more frequent during autumn and winter periods.

A FOCUS ON THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA
COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 66

BALTIC SEA

• Record winter marine heatwave during the 2019/2020 season

BLACK SEA

• Increased number of storm events in the past 28 years, but with decreased duration and area

• Record high extreme wind speeds in 2020 INDIAN OCEAN

17 to 20 September 2020.

WHAT HAPPENED?

Medicane Ianos was one of the strongest cyclones recorded since 1969. Formed off the Libyan coast on 14 September, it impacted Greece and the Ionian Sea from 17 to 20 September, causing high winds upwards of 110 km/h, torrential rain, and extreme flooding, which led to four human casualties and significant infrastructure damage.

WHAT IS A MARINE HEATWAVE?

A marine heatwave (MHW) is a prolonged period (usually five days or more) of abnormally high temperatures in an ocean or sea. They can be potentially devastating to marine ecosystems and the economy, for example, causing harmful algal blooms, increasing the mortality of marine species, and impacting fisheries and catch.

Greek Peninsula & Ionian Sea
BLUE OCEANISSUE 6 7

HOW CAN THIS DATA HELP US?

MARINE HEATWAVE DATA

Data can improve risk assessment for socio-economic and environmental impacts of marine heatwaves, such as mass mortality or widespread migration of marine species (loss of biodiversity) critical losses for seafood industries (loss of value), and identify areas requiring urgent climate adaptation measures.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

WINDS, WAVES, AND STORMS DATA

Wave power and wind statistics help to identify the most suitable areas for installing and operating clean energy infrastructure and promote sustainable development for maritime activities.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Marine heatwaves highlight the need for local assessments, allowing policymakers and stakeholders to understand how different ecosystems respond to heatwaves and which areas require urgent climate adaptation strategies.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Changes in extreme wave data are essential to identify vulnerable areas, helping policymakers and stakeholders promote the sustainable development of maritime activities and safeguard coastal infrastructure (e.g., ports, roads, and tourist facilities). Such data are also key for ship navigation, security, routing, and estimating ship hull fatigue and performance.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Advanced planning of local and regional fishing seasons will allow for better management of fish stocks and marine ecosystems in relation to marine heatwaves.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Marine data, in collaboration with national weather forecast agencies, can help forecast local heavy rain events, such as those that occurred on the Mediterranean coast.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Human communities in close connection with the ocean are particularly vulnerable to ocean changes, highlighting the need for comprehensive science-based monitoring at regional and local levels to improve risk assessment and sustainable adaptation strategies.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

*The UN SDGs are essential to the sustainable development of the global ocean. Therefore, ocean data is crucial to support the objectives of these goals. The SDGs included in these sections are not an exhaustive list of those that can be supported. Instead, they are examples of which areas of sustainable development could potentially be impacted, allowing us to better understand how ocean data can fit into the larger UN SDG framework.

A DEEPER LOOK INTO SEA LEVEL

WHAT IS A TIDE GAUGE?

HOW IT WORKS

In the Baltic Sea, parts of the coast are frequently endangered by severe storm surges, causing potentially devastating environmental and economic damages. In 2020, sea level anomalies in parts of the Baltic Sea basin reached unusually high values. Therefore, being able to predict the precise form, timing, and duration of storms has a significant and beneficial impact on society.

To achieve this level of forecasting, researchers developed a dynamic state-of-the-art modelling system to identify the patterns of long-term sea level variability at high resolution. The system algorithm is able to run simulations to reconstruct sea level anomalies at different time and space scales, offering comprehensive estimates of sea level variability for recent years and future estimates every hour.

Using traditional tidal gauge observations alongside numerical modelling and satellite data sampling, this algorithmic method

uses a fraction of the computational resources required by other modelling systems, paving the way for improvements in coastal sea level research.

TIDE GAUGE OBSERVATIONS

MODEL SIMULATIONS

HIGH-RESOLUTION ESTIMATES OF SEA LEVEL CHANGES

WHAT IS A TIDE GAUGE?

A widely used instrument fitted with various sensors that continuously records the height of ocean waters. Using traditional tide gauge observations alongside satellite data sampling and modelling, opens the door for improvements in coastal sea level research.

COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 68

GREEN OCEAN

KEY TAKEAWAYS FOCUSING ON 2020

01. 02. 03.

Newly developed satellite-based eutrophication indicators were used in 2020 to map potential eutrophic areas based on satellite chlorophyll-a observations. These indicators have been used by Eurosat for their SDG reporting (SDG 14.1).

In 2020, a new approach used winter surface nutrient content in the ocean to predict how fertile particular regions would be in the following spring and summer, helping to develop further tools for monitoring ocean productivity and predicting fish catch in the future.

Analysis of ocean data (e.g., chlorophyll-a) up to the year 2020 in Fiji and New Caledonia highlighted the need for combining global and local ocean monitoring with scientific, technical, and legal knowledge to provide co-constructed ocean information that could be used to support stakeholders, society, and the economy.

IN NUMBERS

Since the beginning of the industrial era, the ocean has absorbed an estimated

of the Earth’s oxygen is produced by the ocean. This primarily comes from drifting plants and algae, such as phytoplankton. Most of that oxygen is consumed within the ocean.

increase in ocean acidification has occurred since the industrial revolution, following a decreasing trend of global mean surface seawater pH by -0.0016 +/- 0.0006 yr-1 from 1985 to 2020. As pH levels decrease in the ocean, acidification levels increase, harmfully affecting marine life.

tons of CO2, equating to roughly 22 million tons per day. The CO2 uptake by the ocean has increased over the past 30 years (trend of 0.06 +/- 0.09 PgC yr-2) even though uncertainty estimates are largely due to lack of observations.

GREEN OCEANISSUE 6
50 30 525 % Oxygen Inventory Ocean Acidification At least A
% BILLION Ocean CO2 fluxes

A DEEPER LOOK INTO THE GREEN OCEAN NEW TOOLS AND APPROACHES

MEASURING EUTROPHICATION WITH THE HELP OF SATELLITES:

WHAT IS EUTROPHICATION?

Eutrophication occurs when water is excessively rich in nutrients, primarily phosphorus and nitrogen from runoff pollution, which fosters damaging levels of algae growth. Eutrophication only happens if waters are eutrophic for multiple consecutive years (i.e., a trend over time).

Runoff nutrients (from human activities) that cause eutrophication

Algal blooms

Shadow effect blocking sunlight and inhibiting photosynthesis

Light

Organic matter falls and decomposes

O2 decrease due to algae decompositionWater Quality

Suffocation and mortality or escape of animals

Land-based run-off from human activities such as agriculture and industry introduces excess nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to marine ecosystems and boosts harmful plant growth, especially in coastal areas.

PREDICTING OCEAN FERTILITY FROM ITS WINTER NUTRIENT CONTENT

HOW IT WORKS:

The winter surface nutrient content of the ocean pertains to the abundance of nutrients in the surface layers just after winter. These nutrient concentrations can be used as a proxy to predict how fertile a particular region will be in the following spring and summer periods, i.e., that region’s capacity to sustain a productive and healthy ecosystem.

BRINGING TOGETHER SOURCES, VARIABLES, AND TIMESCALES FOR A NEW APPROACH IN THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

In situ and remote sensing data each has positives and negatives. Combining the two monitoring systems together for the same geographical regions would result in high resolution and high accuracy coverage of a particular area with broad spatial and temporal coverage, improving the accuracy and scale for ocean monitoring.

Remote sensing Data

BROAD SPATIAL

HOW IT WORKS

Pilot studies in the Pacific Ocean highlighted the combined use of large-scale and direct coastal ocean measurements for sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the coastal reefs of Fiji and New Caledonia. Using these in situ and remote sensing data types for the same geographical areas at small spatial scales close to the coast, they help to support society and the economy, particularly for monitoring and understanding extreme events.

CO2Sunlight Photosynthesis Growing WINTER SPRING Phytoplankton Layer
COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 610 In-Situ Data HIGH RESOLUTION AND ACCURACY GOOD COVER OF EXTREME EVENTS SMALL SPATIAL SCALE
COVER BROAD TEMPORAL COVER LIMITED RESOLUTION AT LOCAL SIGNAL
Euphotic
Nutrients Fe NSi P

A NEW INDICATOR

Eutrophication* is a major problem for water quality in Europe. A new set of satellite-based eutrophication indicators has been developed to improve the measurement of chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton concentrations in the ocean and to map the risks of eutrophication, with a comparable historical time series of the last 23 years. These indicators have been used to measure ocean health and by Eurosat for their SDG reporting (SDG 14.1).

HOW IT WORKS:

The satellite-based eutrophication indicators use remote sensing to improve how chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton concentrations are measured in the ocean. The indicators do not identify the cause of eutrophication but instead provide an alert that increased chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton growth has occurred, which could indicate potential eutrophic areas.

*For additional information on the state of eutrophication, see the Copernicus Ocean State Report Summary, Issue 5, pp.10.11

WHAT IS OCEAN PRODUCTIVITY?

Ocean productivity refers to the production of organic matter in the ocean, most importantly phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a concentrations that make up the basis of the marine food chain. Changes in primary production and phytoplankton growth can significantly impact the marine food web, impair the health of marine species, and influence the carbon cycle, which can impact climate.

The figure shows an abundance of nutrients in the photic (top) layer of the ocean just after winter. During spring and summer, phytoplankton absorbs excess nutrients, and sunlight causes these organisms to grow. Increased phytoplankton growth can influence how likely the particular region will be able to sustain higher organisms.

THE ROLE OF COPERNICUS MARINE

The data and reporting activities of the Copernicus Marine Service will help support the Pacific Ocean Pathways (PACPATH), a collaborative research consortium that designs robust ocean research strategies to promote ocean sciences, ocean stewardship, and innovative sustainability strategies. The key ocean data provided by the Copernicus Marine Service will help improve a common understanding of the state, variability, and changes of the ocean and promote ocean literacy by combining scientific and local knowledge. Through international collaboration, the Copernicus Marine Service will aim to help the local communities in Fiji and New Caledonia through co-constructing relevant ocean research projects and effective sustainability actions.

*The UN SDGs are essential to the sustainable development of the global ocean. Therefore, ocean data is crucial to support the objectives of these goals. The SDGs included in these sections are not an exhaustive list of those that can be supported. Instead, they are examples of which areas of sustainable development could potentially be impacted, allowing us to better understand how ocean data can fit into the larger UN SDG framework.

HOW CAN THIS DATA HELP US?

The eutrophic indicators can help scientists, coastal zone management authorities, and policymakers monitor areas of potential eutrophication. Data from these indicators allow them to investigate occurrences, identify potential causes, understand the risk of eutrophication in specific areas, and establish infrastructure to limit human-induced nutrient pollution and protect marine ecosystems.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Winter surface nutrient levels allow scientists to identify the difference in ocean fertility year to year, helping us predict fish catches and plan fishing schedules in advance.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Measuring ocean fertility can help policymakers implement sustainable approaches to marine spatial planning and more toward sustainable management of ocean resources.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Monitoring and forecasting temperature changes in the ocean will help scientists to better understand and protect threatened marine life and coral species.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Analysing the combined data from two different ocean parameters - sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a - will provide scientists with a better picture of the state and changes in ocean productivity.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Identifying and synthesising data and knowledge sources will provide strategic links between locally-based and globallyproduced products, helping policymakers establish sustainable ecosystem management initiatives.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

ISSUE 6 11GREEN OCEAN

KEY TAKEWAYS

01.

The Arctic experienced an extreme warm event in northern Siberia in 2020, which led to considerable ice loss along the Siberian coast and caused the record-low and rapid break-up of sea ice in the Laptev Sea to start approximately one month earlier and freeze up approximately one month later than the 2010-2019 average.

02. While sea ice extent in the Arctic decreased during both summer and winter periods in 2020, sea ice extent in the Antarctic remained relatively stable despite ocean warming.

The Baltic Sea experienced unusually high ocean heat content in the upper ocean layers during the 2019/2020 winter period, resulting in the lowest recorded sea ice extent since 1720.

03.

04.

Copernicus Marine Service products have been used to capture temporal and spatial changes in sea ice conditions for accurate identification of the Antarctic marginal ice zone.

IN NUMBERS

less sea ice was observed in the Baltic Sea than in the 1940s when it reached a maximum sea ice extent (422,000 km2) and was fully icecovered.

of sea ice (2.14 Million km²) was lost in the Arctic between 1979 and 2021.

COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 612
WHITE OCEAN
Worth
91% 6X THE AREA OF GERMANYSea Ice Extent Sea Ice Extent In 2019/20, About

TRENDS UP TO AND IN 2021 EXTREME EVENTS 2020 THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

The steady decline of sea ice extent is a serious challenge facing the Arctic. In 2020, sea ice was recorded at the lowest levels ever observed, and 2021 remains among the years with one of the lowest sea ice extent levels. The figure details the average sea ice extent from 1993 to 2014 (light green with opacity) compared with the sea ice extent from 2021 (blue with opacity), showing the severe decline of sea ice in 2021.

SIBERIAN HEATWAVE

WHAT HAPPENED?

An exceptional warm event occurred over northern Siberia in 2020, with monthly temperature extremes exceeding 5°C. From July to December, sea ice cover in the Arctic was record ed at one of the lowest levels since the late 1970s, coinciding with the record-breaking heatwave and causing record-low and rapid break up of sea ice in the Laptev Sea.

RECORD LOW SEA ICE IN THE BALTIC SEA

WHAT HAPPENED?

Ocean heat content and sea ice conditions are strongly related. The winter of 2019/2020 was characterised by an extremely high ocean heat content in the upper layers of the Baltic Sea. Due to these unusually warm conditions, the maxi mum sea ice extent, was the lowest on record since 1720.

40

Max Ice Extent an. [1000km 2

Heat content an. [Mj/m 2

-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 -40 -20 0

Year

A time series of anomalies in the upper layer ocean heat content (red), maximum ice extent (green), and maximum ice volume (blue) in the Baltic Sea in the winter of 2019/2020. The dashed line shows the ocean heat content trend from 1993 to 2014, showing a positive increase in ocean heat content levels.

HOW CAN THIS DATA HELP US?

Changes in water salinity and temperature in the polar regions could impact the strength and flow of ocean currents, potentially affecting global climate patterns.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Low sea ice extent offers increased transportation and access to the Arctic and Baltic seas. However, it also poses risks, such as increased pollution. As such, Arctic data allows policymakers to develop infrastructure and emergency strategies for human activity in these regions.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Max Ice Volume an. [km

Monitoring sea ice extent and its variability can help develop accurate models of global climate patterns as well as simulations of sea ice flux, improving maritime navigation and ship safety.

SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

*The UN SDGs are essential to the sustainable development of the global ocean. Therefore, ocean data is crucial to support the objectives of these goals. The SDGs included in these sections are not an exhaustive list of those that can be supported. Instead, they are examples of which areas of sustainable development could potentially be impacted, allowing us to better understand how ocean data can fit into the larger UN SDG framework.

ISSUE 6 13
ARCTIC SEA ICE EXTENT 1993 - 2014 2021
]
]
3 ]
94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20
20
WHITE OCEAN

A DEEPER LOOK INTO THE ANTARCTIC

SIE [Million km 2 ]

Trend 1979-2021 Trend: 0.07 0.05 x 106 km2/decade

Annual mean

Year197919801981 1982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819902000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0

While sea ice extent decreased in the Arctic throughout 2020, sea ice trends in the Antarctic were not as clear. The figure shows the change of sea ice extent from 1979-2020 with the annual mean (red) plotted against the trend (grey dashed line), highlighting the volatility of sea ice extent in recent years and relatively stable sea ice extent in 2020 and 2021.

ANTARCTIC SEA ICE TRENDS

As in the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice in the Southern Ocean plays an essential role in regulating the global climate and the polar marine ecosystem. Among its roles, sea ice reflects sunlight back into space, minimising the amount of heat absorbed by the ocean, and forms an insulating barrier between the air above and the water below. It also helps to maintain the process of ocean convection (i.e., the mixing of cold fresh water and warm salt water), which is largely determined by ocean temperature and salinity.

MEASURING THE MARGINAL ICE ZONE

HOW IT WORKS

The extent of the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) can be calculated using an ensemble of Copernicus global eddypermitting reanalysis (GREP). GREP realistically captures the temporal and spatial changes in sea ice concentrations to properly identify the maximum and minimum variability in MIZ extent, including its variability during growing and melting seasons.

Changes in sea ice extent could affect these key parameters, potentially impacting the circulation and physics of global ocean currents. While sea ice extent in the Arctic decreased throughout both summer and winter, sea ice trends in the Antarctic were not as clear. Both 2020 and 2021 saw normal sea ice extent in summer and winter seasons, despite ocean warming. However, in February 2022, new analysis available on our website* shows that Antarctic minimum summer sea ice extent reached a record low, ranking second lowest in a 44-year data record.

WHAT IS THE MARGINAL ICE ZONE?

The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) is a transition zone be tween the open ocean and the ice pack where sea ice covers 15% to 80% of the total area of the ocean. It is fundamental for climate dynamics and the polar eco system, supporting relevant processes such as air-sea gas and carbon exchange, marine primary production, and the delivery of nutrients to the ocean.

*For more information about the 2022 Antarctic sea ice extent, visit https://marine.copernicus.eu/news/antarctic-sea-ice-reaches-record-minimum

HOW CAN THIS DATA HELP US?

Like the Arctic, knowledge of Antarctic sea ice extent and its variability is essential for developing adequate simulations of sea ice and accurate climate modelling. SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

Investigating changes in the types of Antarctic sea ice can help us understand the main drivers behind the variability of sea ice extent, specifically for the Marginal Ice Zone, which is highly sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric forcing. Change in that area can have implications on the polar ecosystem. SDGs that could potentially be impacted include, but are not limited to*:

*The UN SDGs are essential to the sustainable development of the global ocean. Therefore, ocean data is crucial to support the objectives of these goals. The SDGs included in these sections are not an exhaustive list of those that can be supported. Instead, they are examples of which areas of sustainable development could potentially be impacted, allowing us to better understand how ocean data can fit into the larger UN SDG framework.

COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY ISSUE 614

ABOUT THE COPERNICUS MARINE SERVICE ABOUT MERCATOR OCEAN INTERNATIONAL

Mercator Ocean International was selected by the European Commission to implement the Copernicus Marine Service in 2014.

Based in France, Mercator Ocean International (MOi) is a non-profit organisation in the process of becoming an intergovernmental organisation with the mission to develop Europe’s Digital Twin of the Ocean. MOi provides ocean intelligence, data, and expertise that covers the global ocean. Its scientific experts design, develop, operate, and maintain state-of-the-art numerical modelling systems that describe and analyse the past, present, and near-future state of the ocean in 4D (reanalyses, hindcasts, near-real-time analyses, and forecasts).

The Copernicus Marine Service (also known as CMEMS) is dedicated to ocean monitoring and forecasting. It is implemented by Mercator Ocean International, a global ocean analysis and forecasting centre, and funded by the European Commission (EC). It is one of the six services that comprise Copernicus, the European Union’s Earth Observation Programme. The agreement was established in 2014 for Copernicus 1 and renewed in 2021 for Copernicus 2.

Copernicus Marine Service provides regular and systematic reference information on the state of the physical and biogeochemical ocean at the global and European regional scales. It provides key inputs that support major EU and international policies and initiatives and can contribute to combating pollution, marine protection, maritime safety and routing, sustainable use of ocean resources, developing marine energy resources, blue growth, climate monitoring, weather forecasting, and more. It also aims to increase awareness amongst the general public by providing European and global citizens with information about ocean-related issues.

Models

Cloud & mass storage

Satellite

Ocean

High Performance Computing

and

The Copernicus Marine Service uses satellite observations, in situ platforms, and models to create a digital representation of the ocean. Scientific knowledge and expertise feed into these models to help describe and forecast the state and variability of the global ocean and the European regional seas and to provide a foundation for the development of marine protection and sustainable ocean stewardship.

ISSUE 6 15COPERNICUS OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY
Observations
Digital
In-Situ Observations Knowledge
Expertise
Implemented by

JOIN THE COPERNICUS MARINE SERVICE COMMUNITY

Webportal of Mercator Ocean International mercator-ocean.fr/en/

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Service desk email servicedesk.cmems@mercator-ocean.eu

Collaborative forum forum.marine.copernicus.eu

Mercator Ocean @MercatorOcean MercatorOcean

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Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus Marine Service

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Full Copernicus Ocean State Report will be available at: https://marine.copernicus.eu/access-data/ocean-state-report

For communications inquiries contact: gratianne.quade@mercator-ocean.fr

Citation of full report: von Schuckmann, K., P.-Y. Le Traon, N. Smith, A. Pascual, S. Djavidnia, P. Brasseur, M. Grégoire (Eds.) (2022)

Copernicus Ocean State Report, Issue 6, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 15:sup1, s1–s220; DOI: 10.1080/ 1755876X.2022.2095169

Disclaimer: This summary is written in collaboration with both scientists and communication professionals. It is intended to provide some context and basic scientific explanation surrounding the key findings of the Copernicus Ocean State Report and the Copernicus Ocean Monitoring Indicators.

Acknowledgement : Special thanks to the entire author team of the 6th installment of the Copernicus Marine Service Ocean State Report for their dedication and expertise. Particular thanks to the reviewers of this summary (in alphabetical order by surname): Gianpeiro Cossarini, Laurence Crosnier, Gilles Garric, Stephanie Guinehut, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Alexandre Mignon, Gratianne Quade, Marco Reale, Stefano Salon, Karina von Schuckmann

The Copernicus Ocean State Report is a supplement of the Journal of Operational Oceanography (JOO), an official publication of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST), published by Taylor & Francis Group.

In accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No-Derivatives

License, this summary properly cites and does not alter nor transform the original work.

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