Copernicus Marine Ocean State Report 5 Summary

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CHANGING GREEN OCEAN

FISH MIGRATION, INVASIVE SPECIES, AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE EVENTS OCEAN WARMING IS AFFECTING FISH DISTRIBUTION AND CATCHES WHAT IS CHANGING? Fish and other oceanic organisms are vulnerable to changes in ocean temperature. As temperatures increase, many marine species are migrating to cooler waters, impacting key fish stocks and the stability of marine ecosystems.

OCE CHA

OCEAN WARMING

The rise in ocean temperature is one of the major drivers for migration of marine species to higher latitudes. More subtropical and tropical marine species are replacing temperate water fish, reshaping fisheries and catch compositions.

MOST MARINE SPECIES ARE MOVING DEEPER AND TOWARDS THE POLES

WARM WATER SPECIES ARE SPREADING TO NEW AREAS AND BECOMING INVASIVE WHAT WE OBSERVED

LOSS IN ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES THAT CAN’T MIGRATE

SPECIES MIGRATE TOWARDS COLDER WATERS

LATITUDE

OCEAN WARMING

INVASIVE LIONFISH IN THE IONIAN SEA: A significant increase in the temperature of the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 2019 contributed to a northern spread of invasive lionfish, Pterois miles, through the Suez Canal – an invasive migration that had relatively abated in 2018. 40 36

GREATER DEPTH

34 MEDITERRANEAN SEA INCREASE IN ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MIGRATED SPECIES

SUEZ CANAL

32 2019 1991-2018

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LONGITUDE HIGHER LATITUDES

IMPACTS

Invasive lionfish sightings in the eastern Mediterranean for 1991-2018 are plotted with grey circles, whereas lionfish sightings of the following year (2019) are highlighted in green illustrating the introduction of lionfish further into the Mediterranean and the Ionian Sea.

As a result of climate change, ocean warming is one of the major factors affecting marine species, through migration, causing changing conditions for fisheries with societal and economic implications. The migration of hundreds of species moving to higher latitudes and greater depths with warming has been recorded. These shifts reassemble food webs and can have severe consequences5. 5

Malin L. Pinsky et al., (2020). Climate-Driven Shifts in Marine Species Ranges: Scaling from Organisms to Communities. Annual Review of Marine Science. 12:1, 153-179

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OCEAN STATE REPORT SUMMARY

ISSUE 5