RECLAIMING PUBLIC SPACE IN DOWNTOWN NASHVILLE
RECLAIMING PUBLIC SPACE IN DOWNTOWN NASHVILLE
A REPORT CREATED BY THE NASHVILLE CIVIC DESIGN CENTER
This book was designed and written by Bryan Obara, Design Fellow for the NCDC. This book was edited by Gary Gaston, Design Director for the NCDC, and Julia Fry Landstreet, Executive Director for the NCDC. The mission of the Nashville Civic Design Center is to elevate the quality of Nashvilleâ€™s built environment and to promote public participation in the creation of a more beautiful and functional city for all. Towards this end, the Nashville Civic Design Center: Promotes the Ten Principles of The Plan of Nashville, a vision for growth and development, created and endorsed by the citizens of Nashville; Educates the public about civic design through lectures by prominent speakers and workshops; Provides professional staff and highly-qualified design interns to consult on civic and other community development projects; Facilitates public dialogue about civic design and its impact through the Urban Design Forum. The Forum meets monthly at the Civic Design Center, publicizes events and lectures and provides an open forum for the debate of ideas and issues of interest to its members; Researches and publishes reports on various civic design issues. www.civicdesigncenter.org March 2013
FOREWORD Of and Belonging to the People - Megan Canning
PRECEDENTS Miller Plaza Waterfront Park Gay Street Market Square Paley Park The High Line Divisadero Parklet
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
OPEN SPACE PLAN
PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS French Lick Greenway Cumberland Park Deaderick Street Commerce Street Public Square Bicentennial Capitol Mall State Park Public Library Courtyard Tennessee Tower Plaza
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS Metropolitan Transportation Authority Triangle Below Shelby Street Bridge Country Music Hall of Fame Park The Gulch Plaza Broadway Walkway Designing Action - theBend Sudekum Pedestrian Bridge Midtown-Downtown Greenway
36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
RECLAIM YOUR SPACE Public Space Metrics Tool Box
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Photo Credits
Central Park, New York, NY
Of and Belonging to the People The best public spaces foster community, elevate quality of life, and connect us to our city and, more importantly, to each other. Quality open space – whether a park, plaza, public building or even a modest street bench – are the spaces that enable us to absorb our surroundings, to relax, eat lunch, meet a friend, experience nature, people-watch, find quiet in the cacophony, or even exercise. This is where our cities come alive and demonstrate their vitality, energy, culture and local pride. At the Design Trust for Public Space, it is our mission to bring design innovation to New York City’s public spaces in order to make a more dynamic, livable and sustainable city. Whether catalyzing the transformation of a derelict railroad track into a public park (Reclaiming the High Line, 2001) or re-envisioning the New York City taxi as moveable public space (Designing the Taxi, 2005), the core belief that threads all of work together is that “the quality of the cultural and democratic life of our cities depends on the quality of our public realm.” We all know what the word “public” means — open, free, accessible to all. But the best part of the definition is this: of and belonging to the people. Public space is for everyone, it belongs to each and every one of us, both literally and figuratively. In the purest sense, quality public space instills in all of us a sense of belonging — that we belong to a larger community and in turn, that our city belongs to us. When the public realm is vibrant, beautiful, and active, it is a demonstration that the local government values its citizens and their quality of life. Alternatively, when the public realm is neglected, badly designed, or treated as an afterthought, it reflects poorly on the city, effectively sending a message that the government does not value its citizens or its visitors. At the Design Trust, we believe that well-designed, beautiful public spaces have the power to restore a sense of dignity to our urban environment, enrich our civic life and foster a sense of ownership in local residents.
Each day, every one of us moves through public space, whether driving down the street (public), walking down the sidewalk (public), or sitting in a park (public). When we as citizens take ownership of our public spaces and invest, we reap the benefits of a healthy, vibrant, energetic community. The challenge is how we articulate this value – to our neighbor, to our elected official, to our children. Cities are complex places, with diverse stakeholders who often have competing interests and goals. In order to tackle big problems, we must be optimistic. We must recognize the power of good design to positively impact our lives and our cities. I have had the great pleasure to visit Nashville and experience firsthand its rich, vibrant local culture. Nashville and its people have a wonderful spirit, which can and should be reflected in its public spaces throughout the city. With the guidance and leadership of the Nashville Civic Design Center and Mayor Dean, the city is primed to make a big and bold investment in its public realm, as it has already done with the new convention center and recent riverfront competition. With the publication of Reclaiming Public Space, Nashville citizens and local leaders now have a tool to guide them in a new wave of civic investment that is of and belonging to the people.
Megan Canning Deputy Director The Design Trust for Public Space www.designtrust.org
FORWARD - 5
INTRODUCTION “The shape we give to our city, in turn, shapes us.” - Christine Kreyling, The Plan of Nashville: Avenues to a Great City
The United States is challenged with the highest obesity rates in the world, a sobering fact potentially attributed to an environment lacking effective public open space. We have seemingly shaped an environment where childhood obesity has quadrupled, and 42 percent of Americans are projected to be obese by 2030. In response to the fact that one in four Nashvillians are obese, our city’s planning practices have shifted towards creating healthier built environments. Mayor Karl Dean signed an executive order for the implementation of a complete streets policy (2010), requiring the consideration of all modes of transportation, including pedestrian, bicycle, and mass transit, along with the automobile. Nashville’s Open Space Plan (2011) builds upon the complete streets initiative by encouraging corridors of green streets and greenways to connect existing open spaces. In September 2012, the Nashville Civic Design Center (NCDC) hosted an international ideas competition, Designing Action, to envision new active space out of the 75 acres of industrial land along the Cumberland River’s east bank. Participants painted visions of a river’s edge lined with recreational opportunities that double as areas for minimal risk flooding. The NCDC, in partnership with the Metro Public Health Department, has scheduled Shaping Healthy Communities to be published in 2013. The narrative book provides vignettes of Nashville’s built environment today; personal narratives of life in Nashville’s neighborhoods, and an Action Plan for re-design of Nashville’s neighborhoods to promote health and well-being. Investment in downtown Nashville’s public space will prove more critical to quality of life as the Middle Tennessee region grows by a projected 1 million additional people over the next 20 years. Block by block, Downtown Nashville has been rebuilding as a mixed-use, higher density community. With an increase in downtown residents, workers, and visitors, so comes the need for more public space – and more importantly – better functioning public space. Now is the critical time to reinvest in Nashville’s public spaces.
Reclaiming Public Space in Downtown Nashville is written with four primary goals: 1. Document precedents of successful public spaces and identify properties that make it enjoyable, active, and valuable. 2. Establish a framework for evaluating public spaces and apply created metrics to Nashville’s public spaces. 3. Present proposals for reclaiming underutilized public spaces. 4. Provide tools for empowering communities to transform their public spaces.
Downtown Nashville is identified through the vehicular boundaries of Interstate 40 to the south and west, Interstate 24 to the east, and Jefferson Street to the north.
Nationally Successful Public Spaces
Miller Plaza Chattanooga,Tennessee
Combining indoor and outdoor space. Waterfront Park Chattanooga,Tennessee
Bringing people back to the waterfront. Gay Street Knoxville,Tennessee
Living, working, and playing in the street. Market Square Knoxville,Tennessee
Exchanging culture, food, goods, and ideas. Paley Park New York, New York
Creating refuge among the commotion. The High Line New York, New York
Walking above the city. Castro Commons San Francisco, California
Reclaiming one small space at a time. PRECEDENTS - 7
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Plaza SIZE 26,000 square feet (0.6 acres) OWNERSHIP Private - River City Company ON-SITE FACILITIES Pavilion, food truck service
Miller Plaza Chattanooga,Tennessee
Miller Plaza has played a critical role in the redevelopment of downtown Chattanooga â€“ as a sheltered space to eat outside or sit below a shaded tree canopy. The plaza is privately owned by the River City Company and may be rented for events. The plaza augments Chattanoogaâ€™s first publicly owned space, Miller Park (1976), located across the street. An additional urban amenity provided by the plaza (not available within Miller Park) is the 5,600 square foot pavilion. This 2-story structure has an atrium with expansive windows that can be adapted to the weather by opening or closing. The space is filled with seating and tables to service the surrounding restaurants, and creates an inviting glow that illuminates the plaza into the evening hours. This plaza excels as a space for small and medium public gatherings. Rows of crape myrtles give form to a smaller space beside the atrium with benches facing out to the more active parts of the plaza. One side of the sitting area opens up to a public performance platform, frequently used for both the Nightfall and Rhythm & Noon concert series. A driveway leads directly into the park to accommodate food trucks, which gathers lines of downtown workers during the lunch hour. A variety of seating choices are available, from moveable chairs within the pavilion to benches along the walkways. Clear visibility within the plaza creates a sense of safety, while the lure of a shaded canopy promises an intimate and private space in the heart of Chattanooga. A two-foot high brick wall and hedges, abut the sidewalk, which create a distinct space and allow for clear visibility inside. The eastern half of the plaza is recessed below the sidewalk and divided into smaller spaces, creating a comfortable gathering space separated from the noise of adjacent streets. A central water feature contributes additional auditory blurring of the surrounding urban environment. The south-west corner entrance is prominently defined by sculptural art and aligns itself with a promenade across the street intersection. Miller Plaza links the open space qualities of Miller Park with the cultural amenities of nearby retail and residents.
PRECEDENT - 9
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Waterfront SIZE 83 acres OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Interactive water feature, playground, marinas
Waterfront Park Chattanooga,Tennessee
The Tennessee River waterfront, which fed Chattanooga’s industry and growth in the twentieth century, has been transformed into a public park, known as the “waterfront of the twenty-first century.” Hargreaves Associates and Schwartz/Silver Architects teamed together to mend the urban river’s edge with public open space and mixed-use infill. Across from the downtown, wetland restoration and native plants soften the river’s boundary, while the redesign of Ross’ Landing Park redefines the city’s connection to the river’s edge. Ross’ Landing Park has been a cornerstone of Chattanooga’s waterfront redevelopment. The birthplace of Chattanooga is celebrated through expansive grassed terraces, providing a grand platform for civic gatherings. Two promenades cross the Riverfront Parkway – relinking the city to the waterfront. One turns into a pier extending above the river, offering panoramic views along the river’s bend, while “the passage” cuts below the parkway and stairsteps down to the river via playful waterfalls. This provides safe pedestrian access, as well as a haven for cooling off during hot days. Gigantic water cannons terminate the passage, creating a momentous sense of arrival at the river’s edge. Ross’ Landing is anchored by the Tennessee Aquarium and links the downtown core directly to the water. This part of the waterfront strategically uses tree canopy to maintain views toward the river. As the waterfront extends east and west from the landing, the river’s edge diversifies to include riprap and gently sloping banks, a cove of marinas, and a playground tucked between the trees. Waterfront Park reengages Chattanooga with its riverfront through awe, leisure, and play.
PRECEDENT - 11
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Street SIZE 10 blocks (3,500 linear feet) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Lighting, brick paths, benches, trashcans, trees, planters
Knoxville,Tennessee This streetscape strongly represents the mantra of live, work, and play for downtown Knoxville. The American Planning Association (APA) has recognized 10 blocks of South Gay Street as a Great Street of 2012, accommodating pedestrians and surrounding land uses as well as motor vehicles. The Sterichi Brothers Furniture Company solidified Gay Street as the city’s business center in the early twentieth century, but by the 1970s, this historic center was nearly a ghost town. Revival of the streetscape began through efforts of preservation – incorporating much of the street on the National Register of Historic Places. Wider sidewalks, brick pavers, bicycle lanes, historic lighting, and three public transit lines have restored the street to the pedestrian realm. Shopping, dining, entertainment, and leisure activities attract crowds, but it is the 600 permanent residents that have made it the busiest pedestrian street in Knoxville. Sterichi Furniture Company’s building has been transformed into loft-style apartments, and the Holston Building into twelve-stories of condominiums. Residents of Gay Street are supported by the connection to many cultural amenities, including parks, restaurants, retail, theater, and community events. Annual events attract visitors and entertain local residents, including the Rossini Festival, Dogwood Art Festival and Parade,Veterans Day Parade, and Christmas in the City Celebration.
PRECEDENT - 13
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Square SIZE 56,630 square feet (1.3 acres) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Restaurants, food trucks, interactive water fountain, tables and chairs, covered performance stage
Market Square Knoxville,Tennessee
Market Square has upheld its historic legacy as the civic epicenter of Knoxville. The square originally housed a Market House for distribution of farmersâ€™ goods and City Hall. While these structures have been demolished, the presence of food, retail, music performances, and food markets still draws crowds together in the exchange of goods and ideas. This public space thrives in attracting residents with its mix of uses and adaptability. The buildings that line the east and west sides of the square consist of retail and restaurants on the first floor, and residential and office on the upper stories. Residents receive the benefit of immediate amenities, while the public space benefits from the presence of activity all day and night. Restaurants extend into the space with awnings and chairs, to provide outdoor dining and a lively edge to the space. Market Square transforms each day to accommodate its users, from farmers market, music performances, even an ice rink in the winter. A covered performance stage supports musical performances for events like First Friday and â€œSundown in the City.â€? The site is also activated with food trucks, public performers, and interactive water jets. Market Square is located one block away from Gay Street and is easily accessible through pedestrian connections. The south end of the Square connects to the one-acre Krutch Park, while a trolley line and suburban bus line provide a stop one block away. For native residents, Market Square is well known for its frequent array of events and as a location to meet with family and friends.
PRECEDENT - 15
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Pocket park SIZE 4,200 square feet (0.1 acres) OWNERSHIP Private - William S. Paley Foundation ON-SITE FACILITIES Food kiosk, moveable chairs and tables, waterfall
New York, New York Paley Park has been recognized by the Project for Public Spaces as one of the most utilized pocket parks in the United States. This open space for Manhattan is located on 53rd Street, between Madison and 5th Avenues, and completed in 1967 by landscape architect Robert Zion. At only 4,200 square feet, Paley Park is one of the smallest urban parks in NYC, but acts as a magnet drawing passers-by to its offerings of food and relaxation. Paley Park’s moveable tables and chairs provide visitors with the ability to rearrange the space to fit their needs, accommodating both groups and individuals. Paley Park’s success exists in the ability of such a small space to offer an incredibly unique sense of place, apart from the surrounding commotion. First, the canopies of honey locust trees extend over the sidewalk to capture the pedestrian’s attention. Then, the rushing sound of a twenty-foot waterfall serves as a backdrop to the plaza and entices people to stop and explore the space. While the park is slightly elevated from the sidewalk to define the space, the steps are low and inviting. As captured within William Whyte’s documentary, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, visitors use the stairs for additional seating, which further entices people along the sidewalk to explore Paley Park. Those who experience Paley Park describe it as otherworldly, a space that withdraws you from the rush of New York City. The park’s vegetation creates an intimate environment – with walls of green ivy to soften the framing buildings, and seventeen honey locust trees that dapple its visitors with diffused light. As a privately owned public space, the park is closed at night, but the iron gate maintains a captivating view of the illuminated waterfall. Paley Park serves as a prime example of how design may transform even the smallest of spaces into an open space retreat.
PRECEDENT - 17
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Linear park SIZE 1.45 linear miles (394 acres) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Water fountains, food stands, restrooms, public art, performance space
The High Line New York, New York
The High Line has quickly become America’s most innovative public space through merging principles of open space planning, cultural preservation, and urban ecology. Passion to preserve the 25 foot high, elevated historic rail line grew out of the shared fervor of Joshua David and Robert Hammond, who began the Friends of the High Line in 1999 to save the structure from demolition. Residents from the Meatpacking District, West Chelsea, and Clinton/Hell’s Kitchen – all neighborhoods intersected by The High Line – joined in support after Robert describes his tour of the abandoned rail line: “When we got up there, we saw a mile and a half of wildflowers in the middle of Manhattan.” The Design Trust for Public Space set the vision and a comprehensive planning strategy through the publication of Reclaiming the High Line. This document provided design alternatives and strategies for incorporating the community within its planning. James Corner Field Operations led the design team through the concept of seamless walking surfaces merged into swaths of “self-seeded” landscape, reminiscent of the wild plants that grew on the abandoned tracks. Walkway pavers dive into the wild gardens, blurring the distinction between cultivated and wild, while rail line tracks remain embedded between wildflowers, hinting at The High Line’s past. The park sustains a flexibility of use to accommodate the dynamic needs of its users and sustain change over time. As a linear park, The High Line is suited for uninterrupted walking, but also serves a greater purpose of community revitalization and green infrastructure. The park provides 1.45 miles (10 blocks) of walking in the city without interference of street intersections or traffic lights. Niches of seating, food stands, planted beds, public art, and frequent performances and events offer activities in addition to walking. The High Line provides services such as water filtration and stormwater detention, reducing the overall strain on New York’s sewer system. The High Line has inspired community redevelopment and appreciation surrounding it, reflecting a dynamic and living public space.
PRECEDENT - 19
QUICK FACTS: TYPE Parklet SIZE 2,000 square feet (0.05 acre) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Moveable seating and tables, adjacent restaurants, retail, and transportation
Castro Commons San Francisco, California
Castro Commons began as a low-cost, temporary solution to a confusing intersection, but has since been converted to a permanent public space. Castro Commons was initiated under San Francisco’s Pavement to Parks program, which seeks to transform spaces of expansive roadway into public space. The great success of this program stems from the adoption of “lighter, quicker, cheaper” tactics for low-cost, high-impact community transformation. Castro Commons serves as an example of public space reclaimed and shaped by the people of its community. With a budget of only $20k, Castro Commons was designed, planted, and installed with the help of Seth Boor (architect), Flora Grubb Gardens and community volunteers. The plaza lies in the middle of a roadway intersection, but is consistently filled with community members sitting, talking or just soaking in the sun. Its location supports the number one activity in public space: people watching. Users of the space are near to vehicular and streetcar traffic, but feel secure in the space, which is enclosed with tall concrete planters and raised beds. Drought-tolerant plants soften the space and provide a permeable screening between the plaza and roadway. Moveable tables and chairs fill the plaza, allowing users to continuously shape the space. Castro Commons reveals that we don’t have to search far for open space within our cities.
PRECEDENT - 21
Open Space Plan Downtown Nashville
Planning for conservation is as significant as planning for development. Open space attracts visitors, residents, and businesses, while the increased quality of life invites people to stay. Metro Water Services identifies the potential for 475 acres of green roofs, 811 acres for urban tree planting, and 1,175 acres for permeable surface parking. Green roofs, trees, and permeable paving not only support best stormwater management practices, but also create inviting public spaces. The Nashville Open Space Plan identifies improved connectivity and the creation of green corridors as priorities for downtown. Downtown Nashville could benefit from a greater amount of park space. Only 3% of Davidson County is invested in Metro park-space, while Austin, Texas, comparable in size and character, dedicates 16% of its land use to parks. In order to maintain a high quality of life for downtown residents, infill must be balanced with park space. Existing pocket parks are few and far between, and reclaiming open space from current parking lots or expansive right-of-ways creates an immense opportunity to boost the amount of public space downtown. The complexity of systems downtown and the density of people limits the amount of open space, but the adoption of multi-functional public space is an urban design approach that integrates the needs for open space and urban infrastructure.
Evaluating Nashvilleâ€™s Public Space To build upon the inventory of public spaces in downtown Nashville, the following evaluations identify successful characteristics of those spaces that have already shaped our downtown. The preceding studies provide an invaluable reflection upon successful spaces elsewhere. It is critical to identify the characteristics representative of Nashville and incorporate them into future public space projects. Ubiquitous elements are drawn from the previous studies to inspire the needed characteristics of public space for downtown Nashville including: seating, art, vendors, programming, landscaping, tree canopy, traffic calming, pedestrian connections, transportation connections, and shelter.
Deaderick Street, Nashville, TN
Nashville Open Space Plan (2011)
OPEN SPACE PLAN - 23
PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS Downtown Nashville French Lick Greenway
Downtown Library Courtyard
Tennessee Tower Plaza
PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS - 25
French Lick Greenway
Between Bicentennial Mall and Cumberland River Greenway QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Pedestrian and Bike Path SIZE 2,300 linear feet (0.4 miles) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Benches, historical signage, public art, lighting
EVALUATION: SEATING Wooden benches are spaced along the bike path with more seating spaced around nodes of public art or historic interpretive signage. ART Nashville’s “Catfish Out of Water” project unveiled several 9 foot fiberglass catfish donated in 2003. The sculptures feature paintings by local artists and school children. The catfish bring awareness to the significance of water within our urban environment, highlighting the impact that urbanization has on the velocity and quality of water that enters our watershed. VENDORS None available. PEOGRAMMING None available. LANDSCAPING Mounds of native shrubs and trees enclose the greenway, defining it as a space of its own—helpful as the surrounding vacant lots await redevelopment. The shaping of earth and vegetation around the greenway evokes the historical significance of the route, as the historic French Lick stream, currently buried under the pavement. TREE CANOPY The greenway contributes 3 acres of tree canopy as of 2012 (data based on itree canopy). Native tree species, such as dogwoods and sugar maples, reflect a sense of place for Nashville. TRAFFIC CALMING Crosswalks match the concrete finish of the greenway and include pedestrian crossing signs on both sides of the roadway. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS The French Lick Greenway is a small branch that connects to 26 miles of the Music City Bikeway and Bicentennial Mall’s pathways. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Bus stops are located less than a block from each roadway intersection of the bikeway. SHELTER/CANOPY None available.
Cumberland Park East Bank of Cumberland River, Abutting the Shelby Street Bridge QUICK FACTS:
SIZE 6.5 acres
SEATING Tables and chairs lie below a young canopy of honey locust trees, which provide dappled shade. Elongated benches stretch along a promenade facing the Cumberland River and accommodate a multitude of group sizes or sitting positions.
ART None available.
ON-SITE FACILITIES Benches, tables and chairs, water fountains, outdoor amphitheater, public restrooms
VENDORS A built in food kiosk, with limited hours, operates on the edge of the park. Additionally, a sno-cone food cart can be seen on some of the summer’s hottest days.
TYPE OF SPACE Playground
PROGRAMMING The Sprayground provides an interactive water park for children to play for 4 to 8 hours daily in season. A performance stage is available for reservation. LANDSCAPING Dunes of native wildflowers and grasses separate the play park from the parking lot, limiting the amount of irrigation required for plant establishment. The ecosystem created serves as a drought tolerant as well as butterfly attractant plant palette. TREE CANOPY Over 80 trees planted throughout the site. TRAFFIC CALMING The site is not in need of traffic calming. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS The Shelby Street Pedestrian Bridge links Downtown directly to the play park and the bike lane along Davidson Street connects Cumberland and Shelby Parks. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Set among LP Field’s parking lots, there is adequate parking and east access to the interstate. A bus line is close to the site along Shelby Avenue.
SHELTER/CANOPY A 2,500 square foot performance stage is sheltered by a covered roof and is capable of supporting an event with 1,200 people, while the Shelby Street Bridge shades the space in front of the food kiosk. PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS - 27
Deaderick Street E-W Between Union Street and Charlotte Avenue QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Streetscape SIZE 1,200 feet long x 110 feet wide OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Trash and recycling disposal, lighting, bicycle racks, vegetated bioswales
EVALUATION: SEATING None available. ART Information elements display local facts, including history, maps, and the design improvements made to the street. VENDORS The redesign of Deaderick Street was planned to accommodate kiosks along the sidewalks. However, the only place currently permitted for food vendors is at the intersection of Deaderick Street and 5th Avenue. PROGRAMMING The street has been designed to shut-off traffic flow for street-wide celebrations. The sidewalks and medians have been designed to fit carts and tents without disrupting pedestrian flow, reflecting the potential of a truly civic streetscape. LANDSCAPING Vegetated bioswales are planted with rush and inkberry holly to filter and retain stormwater. TREE CANOPY Redesign of Deaderick Street led to the planting of 102 shade trees, which even at a young age, provide shade and cooling along the sidewalk. TRAFFIC CALMING Crosswalks are slightly raised and concrete to match sidewalk material. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS Deaderick Street serves as a safe and enjoyable pedestrian connection to Public Square and the Legislative Plaza, two significant public spaces within downtown. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS The downtown bus terminal is located one block away. SHELTER/CANOPY None available.
2nd Avenue N-S From Broadway to Church Street QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Streetscape
EVALUATION: SEATING None available.
ART The historic buildings that frame 2nd Avenue date from the late 1800s, originally used as warehouses and storefronts for goods shipped along the Cumberland River. They have been revitalized as mixed-use buildings â€“ a creative reuse of historic architecture.
ON-SITE FACILITIES Trash disposal, lighting, bicycle sharing, live performances, restaurants, retail
VENDORS Storefronts along 2nd Avenue have been transformed into shops, restaurants, and music venues, well-suited for tourists and locals.
SIZE 1,000 feet long x 72 feet wide
PROGRAMMING The street is often closed to vehicular traffic on weekends and during events. LANDSCAPING Three by five foot planters surround the street trees, protected by ornate black bollards, connected by chain. The planters are slightly raised with brick edging and sparsely planted with liriope. TREE CANOPY A complete tree canopy encloses the streetscape, creating an intimate and comfortable space for strolling. TRAFFIC CALMING Parking on both sides of the street provides a clear separation between the pedestrian and vehicle. Also, a tree canopy above has proven to slow speeds by creating the feeling of a smaller space. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS Wide brick sidewalks, enclosed street canopy, one-way traffic and diverse retail along the streetscape all add up to an inviting pedestrian experience that draws visitors and residents to stroll. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS A Nashville B-Cycle station places the opportunity to bike, directly at the intersection of Commerce Street and 2nd Avenue. The Blue Downtown Circulator, Route 61, offers free bus transit just one block away.
SHELTER/CANOPY None available. PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS - 29
Public Square In Front of the Davidson County Courthouse, facing Union Street QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Plaza SIZE 5 acres OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Fixed and tethered chairs and tables, interactive water fountain, lighting, underground parking garage
EVALUATION: SEATING Fixed tables and tethered chairs rest below a canopy of honey locust trees. Stairs and ledges leading to the courthouse function as additional seating, along with rows of stone benches on the eastern open lawn allow views toward the Cumberland River. ART Sculptures have been commissioned through the Percent for Public Art Program to enhance the site. Numerous markers tell the story of the site’s history. VENDORS Space is provided for food trucks. PROGRAMMING Several downtown events utilize the Public Square as a gathering space, including Live on the Green, the Downtown 5k, Metro Christmas Tree Lighting, and Nashville’s Cherry Blossom Festival. LANDSCAPING The oval lawn at the center of Public Square offers a space for democratic civic gathering. Rows of trees along the Union Street side, divide the edge of the space for smaller groups to gather. The entire site serves as a green roof, harvesting rainwater and supplying most of the site’s irrigation needs. TREE CANOPY Rows of honey locust trees are planted 18 feet on center, with 16 foot canopies. Additional alleés of native trees line the sidewalks and pedestrian pathways that lead into the square. TRAFFIC CALMING Pedestrian crosswalks lead directly to the space. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS Downtown’s primary outdoor civic space delivers a strong pedestrian connection with Deaderick Street through an alignment of the site’s central axis and entry. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Direct access to Music City Central Bus Station is maintained through the square’s east-west pedestrian axis. Nashville’s B-Cycle bike sharing program is available on the corner of 3rd Avenue. SHELTER/CANOPY None available.
Bicentennial Capitol Mall State Park N-S Between Jefferson Street and James Robertson Parkway QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Park SIZE 19 acres OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Outdoor amphiltheater, open lawn, interactive water fountain, restrooms
EVALUATION: SEATING Benches are spaced along the primary pathways, but set back slightly to provide a personal resting space. The central amphitheater accommodates large group performances. ART Tennessee’s history is etched on black granite sculptures that line the walkway. An interactive water feature simultaneously tells of the natural history of Tennessee’s watersheds. VENDORS No vendors are located on site, but the Farmers’ Market lies adjacent to the Mall and includes fresh produce as well as prepared foods. PROGRAMMING The 2,000 seat amphitheater has hosted the National Folk Festival and symphonic performances in the past. However, programmed events are infrequent. LANDSCAPING Limestone raised planting beds help define the park apart from the adjacent roadway. Smaller “rooms” and pedestrian corridors are shaped by thickets of shrubs. TREE CANOPY Two alleés create a complete enclosure above edge pathways, creating luring corridors for strolling. TRAFFIC CALMING Pedestrian crosswalks lead towards the park with pedestrian crossing signs. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS Bicentennial Mall connects directly to the French Lick Greenway, providing pedestrian access down to the waterfront. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Downtown Nashville’s free Blue Circuit shuttle runs from Bicentennial Mall to the Riverfront Station.
SHELTER/CANOPY The elevated railroad tracks between Harrison Street and James Robertson Parkway establishes a covered gathering space with picnic tables below. PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS - 31
Downtown Library Courtyard In the Center of Nashvilleâ€™s Public Library QUICK FACTS: TYPE OF SPACE Pocket Park SIZE 11,500 square feet (0.26 acres)
EVALUATION: SEATING Moveable chairs and tables allow for a small niche for reading or gathering for larger group discussions. Benches encircle the space, all focused inward toward the water fountain.
ART A central focal point for the courtyard is an elegant black water fountain.
ON-SITE FACILITIES Tables and chairs, water feature, restrooms
VENDORS None available. PROGRAMMING The library hosts the Courtyard Concert Series, providing weekly outdoor performances between August and October. LANDSCAPING The formal geometry of the courtyard makes it pleasing to look at from above within the library. A central gathering space is carved apart from an encircling corridor through curving sweeps of evergreen hedge and rows of trees. TREE CANOPY The courtyardâ€™s trees divide the inner gathering space, from the smaller spaces outside, but also provide an interlocking canopy that shades views from the library windows above for privacy. SHELTER/CANOPY The tables are shaded with umbrellas. Additionally, corridors along the edges of the courtyard are tucked into the building, providing a roof structure.
Tennessee Tower Plaza 7th Avenue, Between Union Street and Charlotte Avenue QUICK FACTS:
SIZE 40,000 square feet (0.9 acres)
SEATING Benches are spaced below steel trellis structures, providing intermittent seating in sun and shade. Four raised planters with shade trees double as seating along the edge and capitalize upon captivating views to the north of the city.
ART None available.
ON-SITE FACILITIES Benches, shaded seating
VENDORS None available.
TYPE OF SPACE Plaza
PROGRAMMING None available. LANDSCAPING The plaza serves as a green roof with 40% hardscape and 60% green roof. The central gathering space places seating along the edge to look inward upon an open lawn. Raised planters divide the rest of the green roof into smaller spaces through layers of grasses, shrubs, and low-growing trees. The entire plant palette is composed of native species to reduce irrigation and management costs. TREE CANOPY Ninety trees have been planted within less than an acre and with age, will provide complete canopies to the these outdoor rooms. TRAFFIC CALMING A pedestrian crosswalk connects to Legislative Plaza. PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS The main entrance is highly visible, but the stairs are not handicap accessible. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Charlotte Avenue and Union Street run adjacent to the plaza and both serve as primary bus corridors to and from the MTA Music City Central. But because of its elevated stature, the plaza does not have a direct relationship with the sidewalk or the bus stops. SHELTER/CANOPY The plaza does not provide any complete enclosure, but the steel trellised structures provide framing of spaces and shade for the seating below.
PUBLIC SPACE EVALUATIONS - 33
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS Downtown Nashville
Broadway Walkway - A Pedestrian Connector
MTA Triangle - A Transit Park
East Bank Industrial Site - Fields of Recreation
Shelby Street Bridge - A Covered Market
The Green at The Gulch - A Family Park
Country Music Hall of Fame Park - Activated Open Space
Sudekum Pedestrian Bridge - A Safe Connection
Downtown-Midtown Greenway - A Capped Interstate PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 35
4 3 1
MTA MUSIC CITY CENTRAL
BUS RAPID TRANSIT
FOOD TRUCK STATION
CHAIRS AND TABLES
FOOD CART STATIONS
James Robertson Parkway and 4th Avenue EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Traffic Triangle SIZE 43,000 square feet (1 acre) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Bike sharing station, trash disposal, open lawn, close proximity to MTA Music City Central Existing Site.
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Large groups of people gather along 4th Avenue outside of the bus center, but without anywhere to sit. This site offers bench seating as well as tables and chairs for programmed food services. LANDSCAPING A bioswale planting strip provides a buffer between James Robertson Parkway and the sidewalk, filtering stormwater and supporting a row of street trees.
MTA Triangle holds tremendous potential as a food plaza for the many people who travel in and out of the Music City Central. Currently, the only food service located within the bus station is Dunkin Donuts. The rush of cars along James Robertson Parkway initially presented a challenge to making MTA Triangle an inviting place to gather. However, 20 feet between the traffic right of way and the gathering space allows for 2 rows of street trees and a bus rapid transit lane to separate the traffic. Food carts and trucks will augment a lacking service at the bus station, while creating a common place for mass transit users, bikers and pedestrians.
VENDORS Parking spaces along 4th Avenue are replaced with spaces alotted for food trucks. Food carts are encouraged along the back side of the plaza. TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS The bike lane is transferred over to 4th Avenue for lower traffic speeds, immediate access to the bus station, and decrease risk at the 4th Avenue and James Robertson Parkway intersection.
Proposal by Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 37
2nd AVENUE 2
Shelby Street Bridge
1st and Second Avenue below the Bridge EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Pocket Park SIZE 37,500 square feet (0.8 acre) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Shelter, lighting, historic map signage, benches
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Multipurpose seating VENDORS Food market, cafe, food trucks TRAFFIC CALMING Brick paver crosswalk TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIONS Bike racks and bike shop, close proximity to Music City Star Station
Shelby Street Bridge is an active pedestrian corridor, but creates a desolate space below the bridge. In spirit of benefiting pedestrians, an outdoor market is established below the bridge to create a destination. Public restrooms are installed at the end of the market, which dually addresses a community-wide lack of public restroom facilities in downtown.
Proposal by Ben Cross, University of Tennessee, College of Architecture and Design.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 39
N UE R B
ADD TREES AND GRAVEL
STAGE AND SEATING
Country Music Hall of Fame Park Demonbreun Street between 4th and 5th Avenues EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Plaza SIZE 102,000 square feet (2.3 acres) OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE FACILITIES Benches, shade trees, trash cans, underground parking garage, Walk of Fame Stars
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Moveable tables and chairs shaded below tree canopy. VENDORS Permanent cafe with outdoor seating. PROGRAMMING Glass canopy defines an area for stage performances and seating. TREE CANOPY 13,700 square feet of tree canopy added to increase canopy cover to 33% of the site. The Country Music Hall of Fame Park offers a sea of open lawn among extremely large buildings, such as the Bridgestone Arena, Hilton Hotel, and Country Music Hall of Fame. However, the space currently attracts only strolling visitors because of its lack of activity or programmed space. A proposed cafe and seating invites visitors to stay, while the covered performance stage supports outdoor concerts in a largely civic area of downtown.
Proposal by Michael Payne, University of Tennessee, College of Architecture and Design.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 41
R E ST
EXISTING STATION INN
BENCH LINED WALKWAY
The Green at The Gulch
Lot Between 12th, 11th Avenue and Pine Street EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Park SIZE 54,330 square feet (1.25 acres) OWNERSHIP Private ON-SITE OPPORTUNITIES Bus stop, bike station, historic Station Inn, central to high-density neighborhood
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Dining tables and umberellas served by restaurants and park benches along the pathway and playground, facing into the park. VENDORS Cafe and restaurant connected to outdoor dining deck. The second story provides an open floor plan for office space.
The Gulch is a quickly growing, high-density, mixed use, urban neighborhood. The development of quality public space at the heart of the community will be critical towards the long-term viability and attraction to the area. While many young professionals are attracted to the vitality of urban living, growing cities like Nashville will need to plan to accomodate young families as well. The Green at the Gulch brings a civic heart to the neighborhood, offering public open space amidst high density residential buildings. The Station Inn is preserved as an intimate performance place, but a covered performance stage opens to the entire park for public performances. Built off of the Station Inn, is a two-story building to match the buildings along 12th Avenue, with a restaurant on the first floor and event space on the second. The parkâ€™s pathways meander for leisurely walking, while the core of the park supports passive recreation and creative play for children.
PROGRAMMING Covered performance stage for public performances. The childrenâ€™s playground creates an opportunity for childhood friendships and young families to come together. TREE CANOPY 15 additional trees; 14,700 square feet (0.33 ac) additional tree canopy.
Proposal by Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 43
Y WA D OA BR
3rd E AV E
WATER PLAY PARK
6 STORY APARTMENTS
Parking Lot Between 3rd and 4th Avenue EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Parking Lot SIZE 20,000 square feet (0.5 acres) OWNERSHIP Private ON-SITE OPPORTUNITIES Connection to front doors of Schermerhorn Symphony, Broadway Avenue, and Shelby Street Bridge; surrounded by restaurants, hotels, and new downtown residences.
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Outdoor seating is provided adjacent to the cafe. Visitors may rest upon the long granite benches to dip their feet in the water or make use of the moveable chairs for parents watching their children play in the water.
The visual connection between the Schermerhorn Symphony Center and Broadway is possible because of a half acre parking lot downtown. The proposal maintains the civic gesture of this walkway by proposing a public walkway lined with food and souveneir vendors, a playful water feature and cafe seating. The water feature allows for a range of interaction, such as listening to the gushing water fountain, wetting feet in the reflection pool, or running between jet streams of water. Broadway Walkway supports a complete pedestrian connection, linking Broadway to the Schermerhorn Plaza, the Shelby Street Bridge, and Country Music Hall of Fame Park.
VENDORS A cafe opens up to the walkway with outdoor seating along its storefront. Food carts and souveneir vendors line the alley and draw visitors in from Broadway. PROGRAMMING Infill buildings includes an extended storefront along 3rd Avenue and a six-story apartment building with retail on the first floor.
Proposal by Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 45
East Bank Industrial Site
theBend - winning submission to Designing Action ideas competition EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Vacant Post-Industrial SIZE 75 acres OWNERSHIP Private - multiple owners ON-SITE OPPORTUNITIES Gateway to Downtown, Bisected by Greenway, Adjacent to Cumberland Park, Waterfront Access, Proximity to Commuter Rail and Interstate
Proposal by Michael Albert and Victor Perez Amado - winning submission to Designing Action.
PUBLIC SPACE ADDITIONS: •
8,000 seat sports arena
Pedestrian Bridge over Cumberland River
Implementation of Complete Streets
15 acres for active recreational fields
17 acres for passive recreation
5 acres for water recreation
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 47
Sudekum Pedestrian Bridge
Carrol Street and Academy Place connection over Interstate 40 EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Pedestrian Bridge SIZE 250 feet long x 8 feet wide OWNERSHIP Public ON-SITE OPPORTUNITIES Pedestrian connection for the Napier-Sudekum neighborhood to downtown
IMPROVEMENTS: SEATING Academy Place ends as a pedestrian street with rows of benches beside flowering trees, such as Eastern Redbud. ART The bridge is painted and lit at night to become an impressive beacon into downtown PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION This significant pedestrian connection for the Napier-Sudekum community and the downtown is enhanced to make an enjoyable walk.
Proposal by NCDC.
View from Carrol Street.
View from Academy Place.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 49
F G H
J N K
L M N
O N O Q
Midtown-Downtown Greenway Above Interstate 40 from 12th Avenue to Church Street EXISTING CONDITIONS: TYPE OF SPACE Urban Freeway SIZE 3,800 linear feet (20 acres) OWNERSHIP State of Tennessee ON-SITE OPPORTUNITIES Connection between midtown and downtown, Federal and state highway funding, Incentive for adjacent high density, mixed-use development
PUBLIC SPACE ADDITIONS: A. Nature Play B. Splash Pad C. Skate Park D. Basketball Courts E. Sand Voleyball F. Constructed Wetland & Platform G. Art Display Wall H. BRT Station I. Cafe and Visitors Center
Perspective toward Division Street.
J. Amphitheater K. Sculpture Garden L. Cedar Glade & Meadow M. Council Ring N. Open Lawn O. Communinty Gardens P. Dog Park Q.Viewing Platform Proposal by Michael Payne, University of Tennessee, College of Architecture and Design.
Section toward Demonbreun Street.
PUBLIC SPACE PROPOSALS - 51
RECLAIM YOUR SPACE Methods for Evaluation
USER COUNT People are the best judges of a successful public space. To determine what spaces are being used and which ones are not, conduct survey counts on the number of users and their actions throughout the day. This is often best executed over multiple days and spaced time periods throughout the day. Multiple surveyors are often required for larger spaces. PUBLIC SPACE METRICS Once spaces have been identified as underutilized, the Public Space Metrics, featured to the right, provide a form of evaluation to call attention to the elements that the space is missing and may improve the space. The metrics derive common elements from nationally successful public spaces to grasp inadequacies and visualize improvements. DESIGN CHARRETTE A design charrette is a an intensive, hands-on planning and design process for community members to raise concerns, provide alternative solutions, and settle on a preferred plan. A charrette should not last more than a couple days and frequently may only involve a couple hours. It is meant to bring all interested parties together and as quickly as possible, design a solution. This may be facilitated through your local planning agency, civic design center or professional design firms. FRIEND THE PUBLIC SPACE The creation of a vision and objectives for a public space may be further supported through the establishment of a “friends” group dedicated to the creation, maintenance, and preservation of the public space. This entitles the community to inform and shape their space, often resulting in better maintained, populated and more successful spaces. LIGHTER, QUICKER, CHEAPER Limited government budgets, combined with a lack of functioning public spaces in many downtown centers haved driven neighborhoods to create the change they want to see. The phrase “Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper,” borrowed from Eric Reynolds of Urban Space Management, utilizes the creative energy of communities to provide new uses to spaces in transition. An iconic model has been San Francisco’s Pavement to Parks, which temporarily transforms excessive roadways into public spaces. This requires community support through business donations and community volunteering, but leads to spaces that give back and truly belongs to those who built it.
Design Your Neighborhood - Design Charrette, Nashville, TN
RECLAIM YOUR SPACE - 53
Resources for Community Driven Spaces
COUNTING THE PEOPLE SOPARC: System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities SOPARC is a validated direct observation tool for assessing park and recreation areas, including park usersâ€™ physical activity levels, gender, activity modes/types, and estimated age and ethnicity groupings. It also collects information on park activity area characteristics (e.g., accessibility, usability, supervision, and organization). http://www.activelivingresearch.org/node/10654
EVALUATING SPACE 1. Reclaiming Public Space in Downtown Nashville (NCDC, 2013) Copy directly from this guide and share with your local planning officials or design center. 2. Nashville Naturally: Nashville Open Space Plan (METRO, The Land Trust for Tennessee, 2011) This plan inventories, evaluates, and develops an practical vision for conserving and enhancing Nashvilleâ€™s land and resources. http://www.nashville.gov/sustainability/docs/accomplishments/nashvilleopenspaceplan.pdf 2. The Sustainable Sites Initiative (ASLA, 2009) This guide establishes voluntary national guidelines and performance benchmarks for sustainable land design, construction and maintenance practices. http://www.sustainablesites.org/report/ 3. High Performance Landscape Guidelines: 21st Century Parks for NYC (DTPS, 2011) This is a comprehensive, municipal design primer for sustainable parks and open space.The Guidelines cover every aspect of creating sustainable parks, from design to construction to maintenance, and feature hundreds of best practices for managing soil, water, and vegetation resources. http://www.designtrust.org/publications/publication_11hplg.html 4. Reclaiming the Right of Way: A Toolkit for Creating and Implementing Parklets (UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, 2012) The parklet toolkit provides city staff and community members with practical guidance to support the development of small-scale parks. Case studies, guidelines, and best practices in parklet development are concisely compiled. http://www.its.ucla.edu/research/parklettoolkit.pdf
PLANNING A DESIGN CHARRETTE Charrettes 101: Dynamic Planning for Community Change (Fannie Mae Foundation, 2003) The design charrette is a fantastic tool for gathering public input on design and planning decisions to effectively create community change. The goals and objectives of a successful community charrette are discusssed, including stakeholder analysis, to ensure inclusive public participation. http://www.charretteinstitute.org/resources/files/BuildingBlocks4_1.pdf
FRIEND THE PUBLIC SPACE Building a Nonprofit Parks Organization (PPS, 2000) The Project for Public Spaces has interviewed nonprofit park operators to share wisdom on the keys to successfully establishing one of your own.This research served as a part of the publication â€œPublic Parks, Private Partners.â€? http://www.pps.org/reference/pppp-chapter8/
LIGHTER, QUICKER, CHEAPER Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper: Transform Your Public Spaces Now (PPS, 2012) The Project for Public Spaces provides examples of implemented LQC spaces and approaches to replicate for success. http://www.pps.org/reference/lighter-quicker-cheaper-2-2/
TOOL BOX - 55
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Reclaiming Public Space is the culmination of an initiative that started in 2006 with the passionate efforts of an ad hoc group of young designers who approached the NCDC about their concerns for the quality of Nashville’s downtown public spaces. The group’s sole intent was to raise the quality of life of those who live, work, and visit downtown Nashville by creating a network of successful public spaces. This report is dedicated to the Nashville Street Life Project – with special thanks to Randy Morgan, Parvathi Nampeothiri, Richie Jones, Sam Champion, and Brian Phelps. The Nashville Civic Design Center would like to give special thanks to the University of Tennessee College of Architecture and Design for their contribution to envisioning healthy public spaces for Downtown Nashville. The work of Ben Cross and Michael Payne provide innovative solutions for Nashville’s public spaces. Also, congratulations to all of the incredible submissions for the international ideas competition Designing Action, reinvisioning downtown’s waterfront as a recreational haven. A special thanks to SitePhocus for the captivating images, capturing the built environment. Nashville Civic Design Center Staff: Julia Fry Landstreet, Executive Director Gary Gaston, Design Director Stephanie McCullough, Communications + Outreach Coordinator Ron Yearwood, Urban Designer www.civicdesigncenter.org
“Great public places contribute to community health – whether socially, economically, culturally, or environmentally.They add enhancement to the civic realm – not only visually, but also in providing a sense of character and a forum for public activities.They can also be anchors for downtown and communities, acting as focal points for definition and foundations for healthy growth. All of these assets, as well as the opportunity these places offer for people to relax and enjoy themselves, adds up to a greater community livability.” - Project for Public Spaces Folk Festival in Bicentennial Mall, Nashville, TN
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - 57
PHOTO CREDITS PAGE IMAGE SOURCE Cover (PARK)ing Day – Broadway NCDC Pg. 04 Central Park SitePhocus Pg. 06, 24, 34
Downtown Nashville Aerial
Metro Planning Organization
Pg. 07, 08
Sunset at Miller Plaza
Downtown Chattangooga, www.flickr.com
Miller Plaza Atrium
Bob Schellhammer, www.bobschellhammer.com
Miller Plaza Food Trucks
Chloe Morrison, www.nooga.com
Miller Plaza Courtyard
Jeff Wishmyer, www.chattanoogaandbeyond.com
Pg. 10-11 Waterfront Park SitePhocus Pg. 12 Gay Street Brian Stansberry, www.wikepedia.com Pg. 13
APA , Great Places in America – Streets
Pg. 14 Market Square NCDC Pg. 15
Market Square Farmer’s Market
Brian Stansberry, www.wikepedia.com
Market Square Food Trucks
Glenn Reynolds, www.pjmedia.com
Market Square Performer
Pg. 16 Paley Park SitePhocus Pg. 17
Seen In New York, www.tumblr.com
Pg. 18-19 The High Line SitePhocus Pg. 20-21 Castro Commons NCDC Pg. 21
Castro Commons Planter
Seth Boor, www.floragrubb.com
Nashville’s Open Space Plan
The Conservation Fund, Nashville: Naturally
Pg. 23 Deaderick Street SitePhocus Pg. 25
French Lick Greenway
Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow
Pg. 25 Cumberland Park SitePhocus Pg. 25 Deaderick Street SitePhocus Pg. 25 2nd Avenue SitePhocus Pg. 25 Public Square SitePhocus
PAGE IMAGE SOURCE Pg. 25 Bicentennial Mall SitePhocus Pg. 25
Downtown Library Courtyard
Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow
Pg. 25 Tennessee Tower Plaza Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 26
French Lick Greenway
Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow
Pg. 27 Cumberland Park SitePhocus Pg. 28 Deaderick Street Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 29 2nd Avenue Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 30 Public Square SitePhocus Pg. 31 Bicentennial Mall Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 32
Public Library Courtyard
Page Duke Landscape Architects, www.pageduke.com
Public Library Courtyard
Nashville Public Library, nashvillepubliclibrary.com
Pg. 33 Tennessee Tower Plaza Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 35
Public Space Proposals
Pg. 36-37 MTA Triangle Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 38-39
Shelby Street Bridge
Country Music Hall of Fame Park
The Green at The Gulch
Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow
Pg. 44-45 Broadway Walkway Bryan Obara, NCDC Design Fellow Pg. 46-47 theBend Michael Albert and Victor Perez Amado Pg. 48-49
Sudekum Pedestrian Bridge
Sudekum Bridge: Existing Site
ÂŠ2011 Google Earth
Pg. 52 Design Your Neighborhood NCDC Pg. 57
Folk Festival, Bicentennial Mall
PHOTO CREDITS - 59