Program of Studies
Table of Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................ 1 Chicago Jewish Day School..................................................................................................... 2
Our Mission........................................................................................................2 Our Vision...........................................................................................................2 Educational Philosophy Statement........................................................................................ 4 Developmental Overview....................................................................................................... 7
Philosophy...........................................................................................................7 Description of 9-Year-Olds and 10-Year-Olds.....................................................7 Social and Emotional Development.....................................................................7 Curricular Highlights.............................................................................................................. 9
Experiential Learning..........................................................................................9 Integration...........................................................................................................9 Grade Four Theme and Highlights......................................................................9 The City as Our Classroom............................................................................... 10 Academic Curriculum............................................................................................................ 11
Language Arts................................................................................................... 11 Portrait of a Literate Individual.......................................................................... 12 Hebrew and Judaic Studies................................................................................ 32 Mathematics...................................................................................................... 34 Social Sciences................................................................................................... 39 Science............................................................................................................... 41 Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Health......................................................... 42 Technology........................................................................................................44
ÂŠ 2019 Chicago Jewish Day School. All rights reserved.
Introduction The curriculum of any school represents the integration of philosophy and practical application. The curriculum is the working, breathing, and organic tool which serves as a guide — a compass if you will — for our faculty. One of the most essential components in the creation of curriculum materials is the ownership and investment of the faculty. Another essential element is the internalization of academic standards by the faculty so that the standards are integrated into the objectives; therefore, curriculum documents inform practical application, unit development, and lesson planning. The partnership between parents and teachers is always important and, therefore, it is important for parents to understand that curriculum documentation is an ongoing process that is subject to review and change as a school’s curriculum evolves over time, always reflecting mission, vision, philosophy, and standards. We hope this curriculum summary serves as a guide for you, our parents, to navigate and understand in the broad strokes the skills, core concepts, and objectives that are part of your child’s experience at Chicago Jewish Day School.
Chicago Jewish Day School Educating our children in the richness of their past, the diversity of their present, and the possibilities for their future. Our Mission Chicago Jewish Day School creates for its students a standard of excellence in both Judaic and General Studies. Our students develop a passion for learning and a strong sense of themselves as Jews and as human beings. We inspire our students to: • develop a strong Jewish identity through an integrated curriculum within a nurturing, stimulating, and creative environment • become a community of Jewish learners • respect and appreciate diversity • love Torah, Israel, Hebrew language, and prayer • be contributing, caring, and knowledgeable members of our community, our country, and the world
Our Vision Chicago Jewish Day School provides a standard of excellence in both Judaic and General Studies through an integrated, multisensory curriculum that is attentive to students’ individual needs. Students learn a rich system of Jewish values, which stresses the practice of mitzvot and the development of ethical character. Through school experiences, our students gain creative-thinking and critical-thinking skills and develop a passion for lifelong learning. Chicago Jewish Day School serves the entire Jewish community and is a leader in promoting togetherness, cooperation, and respect across all Jewish denominations. Our educational approach appreciates and affirms differences in Jewish philosophy and background and values the range of Jewish religious practices among its students. At Chicago Jewish Day School, Jewish tradition informs our curriculum, calendar, celebrations, and daily schedule. We are committed to transmitting an in-depth knowledge of sacred Jewish texts and rituals, tradition and customs, and Jewish history. Our students gain fluency in reading, speaking, and understanding Hebrew language and literature, both classical and modern.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Students also discover how to have a significant and joyful relationship with God, how to pray as a Jew, and to appreciate the centrality of Israel â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the people and the land. Through this knowledge and experience, our students build meaningful Jewish lives. We are equally dedicated to excellence in our General Studies program, encompassing language arts, mathematics, social and natural sciences, the humanities, and technology. Chicago Jewish Day School weaves values of Tikun Olam (repairing the world) into every aspect of the school experience. Faculty, students, and parents are strongly encouraged to participate in activities that improve the world and promote justice, peace, compassion, and respect. Our school operates as a community of learners with students, teachers, and families all partaking in the educational process. Our teachers and school staff care deeply about the school, the children with whom they work, and Jewish education. They understand and embrace the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission, adopting and supporting the principles we value as a school community. Because we believe that students are inspired by adults who appreciate learning and who pursue their own emotional, intellectual, and religious growth, the school encourages and provides ongoing educational opportunities for teachers, parents, and all community members. Chicago Jewish Day School establishes a safe, supportive environment that fosters the kind of trust and warmth that lets students take risks and rise to challenges. Such an environment allows each student to shine, to strive for personal excellence, and to develop a strong sense of self.
Mission and Vision
Educational Philosophy Statement At Chicago Jewish Day School we educate children to think clearly and deeply, to gain knowledge and acquire judgment, and to respect diversity. We are committed to developing critical thinking and socially engaged intelligence that enables each individual to understand and participate effectively in the affairs of their community, country, Israel, and the world at large in a collaborative effort to achieve a common good. At Chicago Jewish Day School, we strive for learning to be authentic and meaningful and to inspire a passion for life-long learning. This document defines our vision of excellence in education.
Deep Understanding At Chicago Jewish Day School, we focus our teaching around thinking, stressing knowledge over information. Our inquiry-based curriculum encourages a curious, questioning and critical stance and develops a deepening understanding of important ideas. Facts and skills are important in a context and for a purpose. We challenge students by inviting them to think deeply about the issues that matter, helping them understand ideas from the inside out, and making connections between ideas and concepts. Students can then actively use these insights to apply what they have learned to their daily lives, expand understanding and even take action. Through school experiences, our students gain creative-thinking and critical-thinking skills and develop a passion for lifelong learning.*
Active and Experiential Learning At Chicago Jewish Day School, curriculum is authentic and meaningful. Students understand that what they learn in school is applicable to the broader outside world. Learning is integrated between the disciplines to demonstrate to students how ideas span the different content areas. Students play a vital role in formulating the questions, seeking out and creating answers, thinking through possibilities, and evaluating how successful they have been. Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own questions are truly valued and integral to the learning process. Learning is a matter of constructing ideas rather than passively absorbing information or practicing skills.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Student-Centered Learning At Chicago Jewish Day School, we take our cue from the students — and are particularly attentive to student individuality. The question, “What is best for the student?” is at the core of all decisions. Each student is unique. Therefore, policies as well as learning and behavioral expectations are established in a broad manner that allows for individualized decision-making that reflects our respect for the individual student and his/her needs. We celebrate the developmental stages of learning and provide for each student’s unique timetable for unfolding his/her abilities. Chicago Jewish Day School provides a standard of excellence in both Judaic and General Studies through an integrated, multisensory curriculum that is attentive to students’ individual needs.*
Intrinsic Motivation At Chicago Jewish Day School, we offer our students more choices — and more responsibilities. Our educational policies and practices are driven by the central question, “What is the effect on students’ interest in learning, their desire to continue reading, thinking, and questioning?” This question helps to determine what students will and won’t be asked to do. Our goal is for each student to leave Chicago Jewish Day School with a passion for learning along with the academic tools they need to be life-long learners.
Social Justice (Tikun Olam) “If I am not for myself, who will be for me? If I am not for others, what am I? And if not now, when?” –rabbi hillel
A sense of community and responsibility for oneself and others isn’t confined to the classroom; indeed, students are helped to explore how they fit into widening circles of care that extend beyond self, beyond friends, beyond their own religious/denominational group, and beyond their own country. Opportunities are offered not only to learn about, but also to put into action, a commitment to diversity and to improving the lives of others. Chicago Jewish Day School weaves values of Tikun Olam (repairing the world) into every aspect of the school experience.*
Collaboration The greatest cognitive growth occurs through social interactions. At Chicago Jewish Day School children learn with and from one another in a caring community in both social as well as academic learning. Interdependence counts at least as much as independence. We help learners engage with ideas and drive each other’s thinking — to build knowledge, to care and to act.
Educational Philosophy Statement
Play Children learn through play. They must be active participants in the construction of knowledge and need concrete experiences to shape thoughts and concepts. Teachers provide materials and an enriched environment so that children can be challenged and totally involved in play. The teachers pose questions and elicit answers among the students to expand the experience, thus guiding in the discovery of knowledge and facilitation of play.
Attending to the Whole Child At Chicago Jewish Day School, we believe in educating the whole child â&#x20AC;&#x201D; taking into account the social, emotional, academic, spiritual, physical, and creative needs of a student. We are concerned with helping children become good learners and furthermore good people. Our social and academic learning are intertwined and each one enhances the other. At Chicago Jewish Day School, we set the tone and atmosphere for students to learn outside of their comfort zone and take risks as part of the learning process. Chicago Jewish Day School establishes a safe, supportive environment which fosters the kind of trust and warmth that encourages students to take risks and rise to challenges.*
*Excerpt from Chicago Jewish Day School Mission and Vision statement.
Resources http://www.uvm.edu/~dewey/articles/proged.html http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/progressive.htm Inquiry Circles, Stephanie Harvey and Harvey Daniels Understanding by Design, Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe
Grade Four Program of Studies
Developmental Overview Philosophy At Chicago Jewish Day School, we believe in an approach to learning in which all stages of development are celebrated. Each child is a unique individual with his or her own rate and pattern of maturation. The job of a teacher is to accept each student at his or her current stage and to facilitate his or her advancement to the next stage. Children are natural planners at all stages of development, and they respond well to a daily schedule. Clear boundaries and structure allow them to confidently participate in activities and games.
Description of 9-Year-Olds and 10-Year-Olds The ninth year is one of busy, enthusiastic learning and a year of negotiating new, complicated feelings about themselves and their peers. It is a year of great cognitive growth, an emerging ability to categorize ideas, make inferences, and work independently. At the same time as these intellectual skills are sharpening, 9-year-olds develop an enhanced concern with issues of fairness as they start to understand themselves in relationship to their friends and classmates. The tenth year is a period of calm before the storm of adolescence. It is a year of high productivity, cooperation ,and self-confidence. Issues of friendship and fairness are paramount, and tempers may be quick to flair, but 10-year-olds are just as quick to forgive. Cognitively they are eager, receptive learners, good at memorization and delighted at their new abilities to categorize the world around them.
Social and Emotional Development Academic achievement is advanced through an integrated social and academic curriculum. Research confirms that the time spent on social and emotional learning is earned back in classrooms that run more effectively and efficiently; however, we also know that social skills are not taught just so that children behave better in order to get on with the “real” business of schooling. Rather, social skills are intertwined with cognitive growth and intellectual progress. A person who can listen well and frame a good question, who has the assertiveness to pose questions, and who can examine a situation from a number of perspectives will be a strong learner. All of these skills — essential to academic learning — are modeled daily through our social-skills program, Responsive Classroom. Responsive Classroom is an approach to teaching and learning that fosters safe, challenging, and joyful classrooms and schools.
The Guiding Principles of Responsive Classroom
• The social curriculum is as important as the academic curriculum. • How children learn is as important as what they learn: process and content go hand in hand. • The greatest cognitive growth occurs through social interaction. • There is a set of social skills children need in order to be successful academically and socially: cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control (CARES). • Knowing the children we teach — individually, culturally, and developmentally — is as important as knowing the content we teach. • Knowing the families of the children we teach and working with them as partners is essential to children’s education. • How the adults at school work together is as important as individual competence — lasting change begins with the adult community. The Teaching Practices of Responsive Classroom
• Morning Meeting A daily routine that builds community, creates a positive climate for learning, and reinforces academic and social skills. • Rules and Logical Consequences A clear and consistent approach to discipline that fosters responsibility and self-control. • Guided Discovery A format for introducing materials that encourages inquiry, heightens interest, and teaches care of the school environment. • Academic Choice An approach to giving children choices in their learning that helps them become invested, self-motivated learners. • Classroom Organization Strategies for arranging materials, furniture, and displays to encourage independence, promote care, and maximize learning. • Working with Families Ideas for involving families as true partners in their children’s education.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Curricular Highlights Experiential Learning Experiential learning at Chicago Jewish Day School encourages a sense of ownership, allowing students to construct their own learning and make it come to life. Students have the opportunity to acquire and apply knowledge in a setting that is both appropriate and relevant. The students will interact directly with the area of study, resulting in an authentic and meaningful learning experience. Rather than merely thinking or reading about the topic, the students live and breathe it!
Integration Integration is a central component of Chicago Jewish Day Schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s curriculum. Integrated learning allows children to broadly explore knowledge in various subjects as they relate to a certain theme. At Chicago Jewish Day School, we strive to integrate all of the curricular disciplines, such as the humanities, communication arts, natural sciences, mathematics, social studies, music, art, and physical education. Judaic Studies and Hebrew are integrated throughout all of these disciplines in meaningful and authentic ways. This holistic approach to learning reflects the real world, which is interactive, and promotes lifelong learning.
Grade Four Theme and Highlights Journey On â&#x20AC;˘ Lech Lecha
The exploration of this theme helps our Grade Four students understand why people move from one place to another and how they re-establish themselves in their new environments. Lech Lecha comes from Genesis 12:1 when God tells Abram to leave behind what Abram knows and journey to a new land. As students study their units in Judaic and General Studies, they will understand the challenges and rewards of discovery, will think about what necessities exist in their own lives, and what responsibilities they may have to help someone who just arrived feel welcome and supported. Classroom Highlights
On any given day, if you visit the Grade Four classroom, you might see students engaged in the trial and error process of science experimentation regarding the components of flight â&#x20AC;&#x201D; or they may be discovering the properties of rocks using microscopes, chemical reactions, and their own sense of taste. From language arts to math, science, social studies and Hebrew and Judaic Studies, students are engaged in active learning. They can be found reading, and then creating their own American tall tales, researching the regions of the United States, while virtually and collaboratively traveling along the major US routes, creating a business to practice bank deposits and withdrawals, and trying out different strategies to multiply and divide. Political parties and elections in our country, the Edot (people from different lands) in Israel, and the uniqueness of each individual are a part of the rich diversity of curriculum in Grade Four.
The City as Our Classroom We are devoted to the idea of exploring our environment and acquainting ourselves with the sights, smells, and culture of our surrounding community. Throughout the year, we will take walks around the neighborhood; visit local museums, synagogues, libraries, and the lakefront; and attend plays and symphonies. We look forward to learning from our community and inviting people who live and work around us into our classroom. We feel that their presence and knowledge enhances our learning. We believe that there is tremendous value in connecting to the larger community and encourage our students to take care of each other and the world.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Academic Curriculum Chicago Jewish Day School provides a standard of excellence in both Judaic and General Studies through an integrated, experiential curriculum that is attentive to students’ individual needs. We align our learning expectations with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Through school experiences, our students gain creative-thinking and critical thinking skills and develop a passion for lifelong learning. In the following pages, you will learn in detail about Chicago Jewish Day School’s curriculum in language arts, Hebrew and Judaic Studies, mathematics, social sciences, science, fine arts, physical education, health, and technology.
Language Arts In our study of language arts at Chicago Jewish Day School, we strive to encourage a love of language and consistent exposure to the written word. Language experiences are woven into the fabric of our daily curriculum. Our language arts program is designed to produce readers who read for pleasure, information, and knowledge, and writers who write to communicate meaning. Through the study of the language arts, students will learn to read fluently and understand a broad range of written materials. They must be able to communicate well and listen carefully and effectively. They should develop a command of the language and demonstrate their knowledge through speaking and writing for a variety of audiences and purposes. In addition, students must be able to study, retain, and use information from many sources. Teachers strive to create literate classrooms in which students are offered abundant opportunities to speak, listen, read, and write. Phonemic awareness, phonetics, shared reading, and journaling are stressed in the Junior Kindergarten and Kindergarten classrooms. Beginning in Grade One, students learn in a reading and writing workshop model that teaches new literacy skills daily and gives children the freedom to work at their own pace and learning level. Language Arts Components
• Reading Workshop and Writing Workshop Our Reading and Writing Workshops are individualized according to the developmental needs of each child. In Reading and Writing Workshops, students are given regular time to practice reading and writing with self-chosen texts and self-selected writing topics, allowing them to take responsibility and plan for their own work. In Reading Workshop, the teacher models a whole-group strategy lesson and then gives students large blocks of time to read and to practice the strategy in small groups, pairs, or independently. Writing Workshop takes on a similar format, beginning with the teacher modeling a writing strategy for the whole class. Students then work independently on their ongoing writing projects and confer with classmates and teachers. The session ends with a sharing time, in which students read aloud their writing-in-progress and “published”
writing. Throughout the workshops, teachers are conferencing with each student and assessing their individual needs. • Shared Writing In shared writing, the teacher and students brainstorm ideas and thoughts together, and the teacher acts as a scribe, writing the text as it is composed. Shared writing allows students to actively participate in the thought process involved in writing and not focus on the physical aspect of writing. Shared writing is also an effective method of teaching key concepts and skills needed in the writing process. • Journaling Journaling can take many forms depending on the developmental level of the student. From dictating their thoughts and ideas to a teacher to independently writing about their daily lives and feelings, students express themselves to their teachers and classmates in journals. Journals can also be used to tell stories and write scientific observations, literature responses, and mathematical explanations. • D.E.A.R. (Drop Everything and Read) D.E.A.R. provides students with time to read self-chosen texts. It promotes enjoyment of reading and allows children to see that reading for fun and pleasure is a valuable experience. • Buddy Reading Buddy reading is a time for students to read in multiage groups. Students of different grade levels read to each other, practicing reading with fluency and expression, as well as developing listening and comprehension skills. This time also promotes relationships across the grade levels. • Shared Reading/Read Aloud This is a time for students and teachers to come together to read a common text. The teacher models appropriate reading skills, such as expression and fluency. This is an opportunity for teachers and students to read together, as well as share their thoughts and ideas. • Speaking and Listening The development and use of communication and language is at the heart of children’s learning. Our students develop speaking and listening skills across the curriculum through daily sharing, Morning Meeting, book talks, oral presentations, question and answer sessions, and small and large discussion groups.
Portrait of a Literate Individual Based on the Common Core State Standards As students advance from Kindergarten through Grade Eight and master the standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual. They demonstrate independence.
Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speaker’s key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others’ ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.
Grade Four Program of Studies
They build strong content knowledge.
Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking. They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline.
Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.g., documentary evidence in history, experimental evidence in science). They comprehend as well as critique.
Students are engaged and open-minded — but discerning — readers and listeners. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an author’s or speaker’s assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning. They value evidence.
Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others’ use of evidence. They use technology and digital media strategically and capably.
Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and mediums and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals. They come to understand other perspectives and cultures.
Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.
Reading Literature Key Knowledge
Literary forms and features • Kinds of stories across cultures: A folktale is a story passed down orally from one generation to another by the people of a country or region. A fable is similar to a folktale, but the characters are animals, and there is a moral or lesson. A myth is a story based on tradition that attempts to explain how the world and humankind came to be. • A drama is a written work that tells a story through actions or speech that is intended to be acted out. • The structure/organization of narrative texts including chapters, scenes, and stanzas and how they contribute to the flow/structure of a narrative. • Structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions). • Names for authors of different narrative forms (author, biographer, poet, dramatist/playwright). Narrative/story elements • A narrative conveys experience, real or imagined, and takes place in a certain time and place. • The plot is a sequence of actions or events that make up a story/narrative and how they relate to one another. • Characters are people, things, or animals in a story that interact with the conflict and move the plot forward through their actions. Characters can be described in terms of their traits, motives, feelings, and actions. • The setting is where and when the story takes place. • The conflict in the story is the challenge or trouble faced by the main character(s) in the story. The resolution in a story is how the conflict ends or is resolved. • Stories are told from a point of view, usually through a narrator (a character in the story or a third-person “omniscient” narrator) in first-person narration or third-person narration. The characters in a story each have a point of view on events of or other characters in the story that is revealed through their words and actions. The reader also has a point of view on the events, plot, conflict, and central message or theme of the story. • The theme of a story/narrative is a central topic or idea that represents what the story is essentially about. A theme can often be summarized in 1-2 words (e.g., independence, identity, friendship). Stories/narratives can have more than one theme. Literary devices • Figurative language creates interesting images with words by using language that has a deeper meaning than what the words literally say or mean. Types of figurative language include metaphor, simile, personification and hyperbole.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Mood is the feeling a literary work conveys to readers. • An allusion is a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature; often indirect or brief references to wellknown characters or events. Skill-based terms • A summary is a written or oral, shortened version of a narrative that contains critical story elements and key details. • An inference is a conclusion drawn from prior knowledge and evidence or clues from text. Essential Skills (Standards)
As applied to grade-level complex text... 1. Quote accurately from the text when explaining what it says explicitly and when drawing inferences. 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text. 3. Summarize a literary text. 4. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). 5. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). 6. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. 7. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. 8. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. 9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
Reading Informational Text Key Knowledge
Text types, features, and structures • An informational text gives true/accurate information (facts) and/or expresses opinions about a topic. Informational text answers, explains, or describes. • Some of the ways the information in text can be organized include cause and effect, time-order sequence, chronology, problem-solution, question and answer, and comparison and contrast.
• The topic or subject is the main focus, thought, or subject of a text. Topics of informational texts can include people, events, processes (how-to), or places related to science, history, technology, the arts, etc. • In addition to words/text, information in a text can be presented visually, orally, or quantitatively to clarify, explain, or extend a text. This can include images, illustrations, diagrams, maps, photographs, charts, graphs, tables, animations, timelines, or interactive elements on web pages. • Text features and search tools in informational text make the text easier to read and information easier to find. Examples include headings, sub-headings, bold print, tables of contents, glossaries, indexes, key words, sidebars, hyperlinks, electronic menus, icons, captions, and labels. • A firsthand account is a written or oral telling/retelling/recounting of an event or experience by a person who actually experienced or observed it. A secondhand account is a written or oral telling/retelling/recounting of an event or experience by someone who did not who actually experienced or observed it. The person has heard or read about it from another source(s). Terms related to opinion texts • An opinion is what someone thinks, prefers, or believes about something (e.g., a topic, a book). A fact is something that can be proven as true. • A point is an important idea related to a topic that an author wants the reader to remember, agree with, or take away. • A reason is an explanation for why an author thinks something is important or has a particular opinion (i.e., why he/she thinks a certain way). Reasons help the author support his/her points. • Evidence is facts/information that can be used to support a reason. Skill-based terms • The key details are the most important pieces of information in a text, usually those that are most relevant to the topic/subject or key question that the author or reader is asking. • A summary of an informational text includes only the central idea(s) and relevant details rather than reader’s personal opinions or judgments. • Comparing and contrasting involves finding what same and what is different. (Note: Comparing and contrasting usually has a focus and a purpose. For example, comparing/ contrasting two informational texts on the same topic in order to see how they treat a topic.) • When readers interpret information in a text that is presented visually, orally, or quantitatively, they analyze what it says and means, both “on its own” and as related to the ideas in the text. • When readers integrate information from one or more informational texts, they “bring it together” for a particular purpose (e.g., answer a question, make comparisons). • Authors and readers of informational text have a point of view or perspective that is shaped by their role/profession/expertise/position, experience, and purpose.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Authors and readers of informational text show relationships using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. Examples include before, after, during/if-then/why-because/first, second, next, finally. Essential Skills (Standards)
As applied to a range of grade-level complex informational text... 1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 2. Determine the main idea of a text. 3. Explain how the main idea of a text is supported by key details. 4. Summarize the text. 5. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. 6. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a Grade Four topic or subject area. 7. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/ solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. 8. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic. 9. Describe the differences in focus and the information provided in firsthand and secondhand accounts of the same event or topic. 10. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages). 11. Explain how information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. 12. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. 13. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
Reading Foundational Skills Key Knowledge
Word Attributes/Parts and Analysis • All words can be “broken up” into one or more syllables. A syllable is a word part that contains a single vowel sound. • Words can be categorized/organized according to patterns they follow (in how they’re spelled, how they sound). Some words follow patterns that are easier to “see” or hear than other words. Not all kinds of patterns are common, and not all words reflect common patterns. • There are different ways of thinking about the “parts” of words and where they “come from.” – An inflectional ending/suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing).
– An affix is a group of letters added to the beginning or ending of a word that changes the meaning of the word (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, bases, and roots). Many affixes for English words come from Latin. Some affixes are more common than others. – Base refers to a word that stands “on its own” and to which an affix can be added to change the meaning (e.g., pretest and testing). – A prefix is an affix added to the beginning of a word that changes the meaning of the word (e.g., pretest). – A suffix is an affix added to the end of a word that changes the meaning of the word the (e.g., vision - the suffix /-ion/ meaning the act of ). – A root (word) is a word part that has meaning but cannot stand alone (e.g., vision - /vis/ is the root word - meaning to see). It’s what’s left of a word without any affixes. The root(s) of a word help explain what language(s) the word comes from. Skill-based terms • Fluency is the ability to read something “smoothly” and easily. Fluency comprises accuracy (decoding words correctly), rate (decoding words an appropriate speed/ flow), and expression (reading and interpreting the words as they are intended to be read). • Sight words are words that readers can memorize and read “whole” — without sounding them out. (They know the words by sight!) Sight words are usually shorter words that show up a lot in reading (they’re high-frequency). Memorizing sight words can make reading “faster.” • The sounds in a word can be blended or separated/segmented to “make” or “read” the word. • Chunking is a strategy for decoding longer or unfamiliar multi-syllable words that don’t follow simple patterns. (See pp. 21-22, Appendix A, CCSS-ELA for three useful principles with examples.) • Readers read words in a context. Context can refer to the words around a word, the kind of text in which the word appears, and what’s happening in the text when and where the word appears. Readers can use and think about context by re-reading one or more sentences (as well as pictures). Context does not necessarily help decode a word. Skilled and fluent readers can figure out unfamiliar words without context. Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. 2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Research to Build and Present Knowledge Key Knowledge
Focusing the Research • A research topic is the subject of the research. Topics have different aspects that can be explored in multiple ways. • A research question provides focus and direction for exploring the different aspects of a research topic. Research questions can begin with who, what, where, when, why or how. Identifying and Evaluating Sources • A source is a person, place, or thing that can provide information that helps answer research questions. Sources that are print-based, web-based, or electronic can provide information through text, illustrations/images, other or media/text features. Researchers can also gather information firsthand through interviews, experiments, and observations. • Text features in some sources can help researchers find information AND themselves provide information. Examples include headings, sub-headings, bold print, tables of contents, glossaries, indexes, key words, sidebars, hyperlinks, electronic menus, icons, captions, and labels. • Researchers can use sources to check whether information is true/factual. Factual information can usually be found in multiple sources. • Researchers can use technology to find and gather information from a source or take notes during the research process. Technology can sometimes make research process more efficient than it might have been otherwise. Gathering Information and Evidence • Researchers gather evidence by taking notes from sources. Taking notes and copying directly are not the same thing. Note-takers have to figure out when to directly copy/quote and when to use their own words. • Note-taking strategies include bulleted lists, outlining, and graphic organizers. • Note-taking tools include charts/tables, notebooks, index cards, and computer programs and apps (e.g., Word/Pages, Evernote, Inspiration). • Evidence is facts/information that can be used to answer a question or support a reason or conclusion. Researchers can make sense of evidence by sorting or organizing it into categories or headings. • Analyzing a source involves comparing the information in it with the research question, and with information in other sources. • Information and evidence is relevant if it helps the researcher answer his/her question (it’s connected to the topic and question). • Quoting a source is using the exact words/text of a source. Researchers show that they are quoting by using quotation marks. Researchers have to decide when to use their own words and when to quote from a source.
Sharing/Reporting Findings • Researchers call the “answers” to their research questions findings. • A written research report identifies the topic, question(s), “answers”/findings, and sources. Reports can take different forms, depending on purpose and audience. Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. 2. State (or re-state) a research question(s). 3. Recall relevant information from firsthand experiences to investigate different aspects of a topic. 4. Gather relevant information from firsthand and print and digital sources to investigate different aspects of a topic. 5. Take notes on and categorize information from experiences and sources to build knowledge and collect evidence. 6. A nalyze, interpret, and reflect on relevant information/evidence gathered from experiences and sources. 7. Provide a list of sources consulted in a research investigation. 8. Report research findings in writing, as well as via other mediums, as appropriate. 9. Present research findings through a given format.
Informative/Explanatory Writing Key Knowledge
Info/Explanatory Writing Types, Forms, and Formats • Info/explanatory writing provide informative explanations of the way something is or was, or how and why something works or happens by examining a topic and convey ideas and information about that topic clearly. • Formats/models for informative/explanatory writing include short research reports, labeled depictions with explanations, how-to’s/directions, observation journals, and Q&As. Info/Explanatory Sources [For more Key Knowledge related to finding, selecting, and evaluating sources, see Reading Informative Text scope and Research scope.] • A source is a person, place, or thing that can provide information. Writers can use one or more sources to check information/facts. • There are many types of sources, including interviews, observations, experiments, reference materials, technology/media, and print media. • A source (or the information in it) is relevant if it is connected to the writer’s topic and focus. Info/Explanatory Elements • A topic is a person, place, thing, idea, event, or process that the writer is writing about.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• A point is an important idea related to a topic that a writers wants the reader to learn, remember, agree with, or take away. • A fact is something that can be proven as true (e.g., Pugs have short hair.). An opinion is what someone thinks, prefers, or believes about something (e.g., a topic). (e.g., Pugs are the best dogs to have.) • A definition is an explanation of what a word, idea, or thing means. Often, informative/explanatory writing provides definitions to clarify what certain domain-specific vocabulary means, in order to “teach” the reader. • Details are specific pieces of information about the topic or points in an informative/ explanatory piece. Details provide explanations that help the reader better understand the topic. Concrete details are those that make information, concepts, and ideas as “real”, tangible, or relatable as possible for the reader. This can include extended examples or descriptions, facts/data, analogies, and direct quotations. • Illustrations (or images, graphics, multimedia) can aid comprehension of an informative/explanatory text when they are part of the information. (Illustrations aren’t “decoration” or something extra!) • Formatting in informative/explanatory writing refers to how the text is “set-up” or arranged to aid reader comprehension and enhance presentation. Headings are one kind of formatting option that break the text into parts. Heading can guide the reader through the information in a text by previewing different sections and reminding the reader of the focus/aspects of the text. • Info/explanatory writing clearly introduces the topic at the beginning of the piece so that the reader knows what the piece is about and what he/she might learn from it. • Info/explanatory writing ends with concluding statement or section that is related to the information or explanation presented. • Info/explanatory writing uses specific words and phrases that can link ideas within categories of information (e.g., another, for example, also, because). Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. 2. Select and focus a topic for informative/explanatory writing. 3. Draw from a variety of sources for information/explanations to write informative/explanatory texts. 4. Begin informative/explanatory writing by introducing the topic clearly. 5. Group related information together in paragraphs and sections informative/ explanatory writing. 6. Include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia in informative/ explanatory writing when useful to aiding comprehension. 7. Develop a topic in informative/explanatory writing with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples 8. Use words and phrases to link ideas within categories of information in informative/explanatory writing.
9. Use precise and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain a topic in informative/explanatory writing (e.g., when writing about science, use “hypothesis,” not “guess.”) 10. End informative/explanatory writing with a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
Opinion Writing Key Knowledge
Writing types, formats, and structure • An opinion is what someone thinks, prefers, or believes about something (e.g., a topic, a book). • Persuade is another word for “convince.” Persuasion is the act of trying to convince someone of something. Opinions can be more or less persuasive/convincing. • The organizational structure of an opinion is based on a clear position and formed around reasons. • The reasons in an opinion piece can be organized in an order of importance (either weakest to strongest or strongest to weakest). • A source is anything that provides information that is relevant to a topic, issue, or question. – A primary source is original material or evidence from the time period involved. (e.g., artifacts, diary, interviews, newspaper article, photographs, speeches, works of art, literature, music, etc.) – A secondary source is an interpretation or evaluation of a primary source that is written after the time period. (e.g., biographies, editorials, textbooks, most websites, etc.) Elements and their Attributes • A position is a stance on a topic/issue (including one that is connected to a text) that has multiple, debatable points of view. • A reason is an explanation for an opinion or position. All reasons should be linked to the overall opinion and to one another. • A reason is relevant if it supports or flows logically toward an opinion or position. Not all possible reasons for an opinion or position are equally important/relevant. • Evidence is facts/information that can be used to prove or disprove a reason or opinion/position. Evidence can take many forms (e.g., examples, statistics, data, credible personal and expert opinions, facts). Evidence is relevant if it supports the opinion/position. Credible evidence can be verified/proven. • An effective introduction/hook is one that takes a clear position, clarifies the issue, and provides necessary background [on the topic/issue/text]. • An effective conclusion/concluding statement or section makes a connection to the overall opinion. Sometimes, it calls the audience to action or provides a next-step. (In any case, it should move beyond summary.)
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Opinion writing uses specific linking words and transition phrases to show connections between reasons and evidence (because, therefore, since, for example, on the other hand). Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Distinguish opinion from position/point of view on a topic or a text. 2. Identify and develop a point of view/position issue in a topic or a text. 3. Support a position/point of view with multiple reasons. 4. Develop reasons/evidence that include details (facts, examples) that are connected to the position/point of view. 5. Integrate an appropriate variety of reasons and evidence into an opinion/position. 6. Use credible facts and relevant details as evidence to support reasons for a position. 7. Group reasons and support in logical way. 8. Prioritize reasons/evidence for a position/point of view. 9. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant reasons/evidence. 10. Use primary and secondary sources to locate, sort, and select reasons based on facts, examples, and/or evidence for two sides (of an issues) differentiating between relevant and irrelevant reasons/evidence. 11. Link opinion and reasons/evidence using words, phrases, and clauses. 12. Organize writing with an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, and a concluding statement/paragraph. 13. Explicitly introduce the topic of an opinion piece (i.e., in an introduction). 14. Conclude an opinion piece in a sentence or section by making a reference to the overall opinion/position. 15. Select an audience and an appropriate format for an opinion piece.
Narrative Writing Key Knowledge
Narrative (as a writing type) and format • A narrative conveys experience, real or imagined, and takes place in a certain time and place. • Narrative writing forms include fictional stories, poems, journal entries, autobiographies/memoir, interviews, vignette, dramatic scenes, journalistic accounts. Narrative elements • Narratives have structure. Structure is the order in which the events in a narrative are presented. • Events in a narrative (i.e., what happens) can be structured chronologically or reflectively. • Narratives often begin with or in a situation that places the reader in a time and place with characters and/or a narrator.
• A reaction is a response to an event or experience (why an event is important, how it made someone feel or act). In narratives, a first-person narrator and/or characters can react. • Closure is how a writer “wraps-up” or finishes a narrative. This might involve a resolution of a situation, problem or conflict, or a reflection. Narrative techniques • Dialogue is conversation between two or more people/characters in a narrative. In a (prose) narrative, dialogue is shown through quotations marks. Narrative language • Writers of narratives use sensory details to describe how things looked, sounded, smelled, felt, or tasted. Writers of narratives elaborate (or provide elaboration) when they develop and provide relevant details about events, people, and reactions in a narrative. • Description and dialogue in a narrative can employ figurative language. Figurative language creates interesting images with words by using language that has a deeper meaning than what the words literally say or mean. Types of figurative language include metaphor, simile, personification and hyperbole. • Transitional words and phrases like before, next, soon, afterwards, lastly, eventually, meanwhile, two weeks later, for awhile, at last, at the same time, and in the meantime can help manage the sequence of events in a narrative. • The plot is the sequence of the actions or events that make up a story/narrative and how they relate to one another. • Characters are people, things, or animals in a story that interact with the conflict and move the plot forward through their actions. Characters can be described in terms of their traits, motives, feelings, and actions. • The setting is where and when the story takes place. • The conflict in a story is the challenge or trouble faced by the main character(s) in the story. The resolution in a story is how the conflict ends or is resolved. • Stories are told from a point of view, usually through a narrator (a character in the story or a third-person “omniscient” narrator) in first-person narration or third-person narration. The characters in a story each have a point of view that is revealed through their words and actions. The reader also has a point of view. • The theme of a story/narrative is a central topic or idea that represents what the story is essentially about. A theme can often be summarized in 1-2 words (e.g., independence, identity, friendship). Stories/narratives can have more than one theme. Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Focus a narrative on a real or imagined experiences or events. 2. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/ or characters. 3. Organize an event sequence in a narrative that unfolds naturally.
Grade Four Program of Studies
4. Use dialogue and descriptions in a narrative to develop experiences and events, or to show how characters respond to situations. 5. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events in a narrative. 6. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details in a narrative to convey experiences and events precisely. 7. Provide a conclusion in a narrative that follows from the narrated experiences or events (e.g., reflection on and/or a connection to the story events/situation). 8. Select an appropriate form for a narrative.
Production and Distribution of Writing Key Knowledge
Elements/Attributes • Organization in writing refers to how the piece is “set-up” and/or structured. Different writing types and forms have different organizational structures. (See writing type-specific scopes at each grade level for examples.) • Development in writing refers to how ideas, people/characters, events, etc. “unfold” over a piece of writing. Writers use details, explanations, examples figurative language and other techniques to develop their writing. • (Grade Four only) Clarity in writing is how easy the content and ideas are for the reader to understand. (A reader must first understand what the writer is saying before he/she can agree with, learn from, or be entertained or “moved” by it.) Clear writing makes the writer’s thinking “visible” and comprehensible. • (Grades Four only) Coherence in writing is how well the ideas “hang” together and logically flow or transition from one to the next. Writers often use certain words, transitions and phrases can make writing more coherent. (See writing type-specific scopes at each grade level for examples.) Production and Distribution • Writers write for and with a purpose — that is, they have a clear sense of what they are writing about and what they are trying to accomplish. Different writing types (e.g., informative/explanatory, opinion, narrative) can accomplish similar and different, as well as multiple, purposes. (Note: A writer’s purpose is related to but not synonymous with the writer’s message or the theme of a writer’s text.) • (Grade Four only) Writers write with the hope or intention of one or more audiences reading their finished piece. Writers should have audience in mind as they begin and work through the process of writing. Although a piece could have many potential audiences, writers usually have a desired or target audience in mind. • (Grade Four only) Writers choose a writing type, form and format for their writing that is appropriate to their purpose and their audience. • The writing process involves multiple stages/steps. – Planning is the process of preparation for drafting and involves the writer coming up with ideas for what he/she will write about and why. Writers often
(but not always) write in response to a task or prompting. In planning, a writer might engage in individual or collaborative brainstorming, research, bulleting/ outlining, or other activities. – Drafting is the process of producing versions of a written work toward the goal of producing a “final” version. There is no “set” or “magic” number of drafts. – Revising is the process of rereading a draft(s) and making changes to improve its content (focus, organization, word choice, sentence structure, etc.). Editing is the process of rereading a draft(s) and making changes to improve correct errors in conventions (capitalization, punctuation, spelling, etc.). – Conferencing/Conferring occurs when a writer meets face-to-face or online with a peer or a mentor to about a written draft receive and respond to questions and suggestions for improvement. Conferencing can happen throughout the writing process, from planning to publishing. – Distributing/Publishing is the process of formally or informally sharing a “finished” piece of writing with others. Writing can be distributed/published by the writer or by others. (A piece of writing is finished when it has gone through the writing process and is ready to be shared [distributed]. Writers work alone and with others to decide when their writing is “finished.”) The Role of Technology (in Production and Distribution) • Technology can make producing and distributing writing more efficient. • Writers can use a variety of digital tools (e.g., online or platform- or programbased), and the Internet itself, in the production and distribution of writing, and to interact or collaborate with others. Specifically, writers can use these mediums and tools to research, draft, collaborate, revise/edit, and publish/distribute. Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 2. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing, with guidance and support from peers and adults. 3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others, with some guidance and support from adults.
Language: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Key Knowledge
Defining Words and Phrases • Words (and phrases) are used in a context — in texts, in conversations, in writing). Specific to reading, context can refer to the words around a word, the kind of text in which the word appears, and what “happens” in a text before and after the word is used. Readers can use and think about context by re-reading one or more sentences and looking for explicit or implicit definitions, examples, or restatements in a text. (Note: Context can provide clues but can’t/ won’t always define the word or lead to a correct guess about the word’s meaning.)
Grade Four Program of Studies
• An affix is a group of letters added to the beginning or ending of a word that changes the meaning of the word. A root (word) is a word part that has meaning but cannot stand alone (e.g., vision - /vis/ is the root word - meaning to see). It’s what’s left of a word without any affixes. The root(s) of a word help explain what language(s) the word comes from. If readers/writers know the meaning of the root of an unfamiliar word, they are better able to figure out the meaning of the word. Many English words have Greek and Latin roots or affixes. Some Greek/Latin roots and affixes are very common in English (e.g., -graph: telegraph, photograph, autograph). • A phrase is a small group of words that are “strung together” and convey specific meaning(s). Some phrases are common expressions that many people use to convey a certain feeling or idea (e.g., “It’s a small world!” “Fingers crossed!” “We’re taking steps…”). Expressions are usually non-literal. • Certain print-based or electronic reference materials (e.g., thesauruses, dictionaries, glossaries) provide information about words and phrases, including meaning, history, pronunciation, synonyms/antonyms, etc. Word Relationships and Nuances • Words and phrases can have literal and figurative meanings in context. Literal meanings are the most “straightforward” and “definitional” in the dictionary sense. It’s what a word or phrase means it its simplest or strictest reading. Figurative language (or figurative meanings) creates or uses metaphor or other kinds of comparisons. It is not meant to be taken at face value. (Face value is figurative language!) Figurative language creates interesting images with words by using language that has a deeper meaning than what the words literally say or mean. • Types of figurative language include metaphor and simile. A metaphor makes a direct comparison of two things without necessarily using “like” or “as” (e.g., life is a circus); a simile is a comparison of two things using “like” or “as” (e.g., as pretty as a picture). • Some phrases/expressions fall into figurative types, for example idiom, adage, or proverb. • Words that have very similar meanings represent different shades of meaning. This includes related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered). • All words suggest or carry tone. Tone refers to “attitude” or “sound” of a word. Tone is the feeling or impression the word gives that helps shapes its meanings and how it is interpreted. • Many words have antonyms (words that have an opposite meaning) and synonyms (words that have a similar meaning). Knowing and understanding the meanings of antonyms and synonyms of a word can develop a more complete understanding of the word and what it does or does not mean. Acquiring and Using Words and Phrases • “Tiers”/types of words. Some words and phrases can be learned or “picked up” through everyday life and conversations. Other words (e.g., “academic”
words) are often learned through texts and conversations with people who use those words themselves. Other words (domain-specific) are mostly learned through texts and experiences specific to a subject or area of study in a subject (e.g., a study of the human body and how it works). • Academic and domain-specific words/language give(s) readers/writers/ speakers the tools to communicate more effectively and more efficiently. Academic words can include those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered). Domain-specific words can include those that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade Four reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies such as: a. Using context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. b. Using common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). c. Consulting reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. 2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings by: a. Explaining the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. b. Recognizing and explaining the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. c. Demonstrating understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). 3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
Language: Conventions of Standard English Key Knowledge
Standard English is guided by Conventions of/in: • Grammar — the rules that govern how words, clauses and phrases are put together • Capitalization — which or what kinds of words begin with a capital letter • Punctuation — the symbols within, between, before, and after words that structure and organize language so that it can be written/spoken as intended • Spelling — writing words using the correct or widely-accepted sequence of letters
Grade Four Program of Studies
Conventions are determined or altered by the writer’s or speaker’s: • Purpose/Choice • Context • Tone • Style In order to gain: • Effect • Clarity • Consistency • Precision • Conciseness • Efficiency Essential Skills (Standards)
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). • Form and use prepositional phrases. • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their). 2. Demonstrates command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing. • Use correct capitalization. • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
Knowledge of Language • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
Speaking and Listening Key Knowledge
• A discussion is a focused conversation in which participants talk about and examine particular topics, questions, or issues, often with the goal of solving a problem or resolving a bigger question. (Teacher note: The term discussion is derived from roots that mean investigate and examine.) • A participant is someone who participates in a discussion through speaking and/or listening. If/when participants know about a discussion in advance, they may be asked to prepare for the discussion by reading, studying reviewing, writing, note-taking, or reflecting. Both that preparation and participants’ experiences and prior knowledge influence the discussion. • Participants in a discussion can have particular roles that can vary according to the size, type, and purpose of the discussion. Roles might have specific jobs or responsibilities within the discussion. (Teacher note: Even the generic roles of “speaker” and “listener” can — and already do — involve specific expectations and duties that can be explicated and tailored to a specific discussion type or purpose.) • People in a discussion agree to follow rules. Often, participants create and uphold the rules together. Examples follow: – Listen carefully. – Speak in turn. – Connect (to the topic, to what others say…). – Remember your role. See Kindergarten-Grade Three scopes for additional examples • Questions in a discussion (or in response to text or information presented orally) can begin with who, what, where, when, why, how, or is/are. Questions, comments, and details that are relevant in a discussion or presentation are those that are closely connected to or focused on the topic being discussed or shared. Participants, audience members, and presenters can use questions to: – confirm or clarify understanding (of information, of what someone has said) – redirect participants to stay on topic – link participants’ comments to one another – follow-up on specific comments/questions – seek/gather additional information • Discussions should come to a close or have closure — not end abruptly or be “cut-off.” Closure can help people in the conversation feel like it’s finished (at least for the time being!). Closure can involve summary, preview, explanation, or assignment of a follow-up task. • When discussion participants reflect on a discussion, they review the key ideas that were expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. • Some speaking/listening contexts call for formal English (e.g., presentations), while others allow for more informal discourse (e.g., small-group discussions). Matching one’s language to the situation and task helps ensure successful communication.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Information, stories, and texts that people “hear” can be presented aloud (live, face to face) and through diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. • To present is to formally share ideas, information, and work orally with an audience, often at particular time that the person presenting knows about ahead of time. A presentation can use pictures/drawings or other visuals, as appropriate, to help the presenter explain and the audience understand. • The content of effective presentations is organized, provides appropriate facts, and gives relevant and descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. • Presentations can use visual displays (e.g., posters,LCD projector/screen) and incorporate audio recordings by the presenter or from another source (e.g., sound recorded via computer or handheld device, audio of a speech delivered by a historical figure). Essential Skills (Standards)
Discussing and Collaborating Around Topics and Texts 1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners about Grade Four topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material. • Explicitly draw on preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions. • Carry out assigned roles in discussions. • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow-up on information. • Make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. • Review the key ideas expressed in a discussion and explain own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. Comprehending (spoken information, a speaker’s words/message) 1. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or informational presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 2. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. Presenting Knowledge and Ideas 3. Report on a topic or text, tell a story or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. 4. Speak clearly at an understandable pace [in a discussion, in a presentation]. 5. Add audio recording and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. 6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussions). 7. Use form English when appropriate to task and situation.
Hebrew and Judaic Studies Students at Chicago Jewish Day School develop a love for Judaism, its culture, language, and traditions. They explore and experience Judaic Studies through activities including art, music, drama, and stories. In addition, they make connections to Jewish values as they study the weekly Parasha (Torah portion). Through their study of Hebrew, our students are able to read and understand both modern and ancient texts. Teachers guide students toward developing a deep bond with Israel as they examine its history and current culture. Our general and Judaic curricula are interwoven, ensuring that our students feel a connection to their heritage in everything they do. Grade Four Hebrew and Judaic Studies Learning Standards
In Grade Four, students begin to expand their Hebrew vocabulary and make connections between the Shorashim (roots) of familiar words and new words. Students are introduced to the future tense, as well. Students further develop conversational skills and are introduced to rhyming poetry through famous Israeli poets. Their knowledge of Shabbat is reinforced as students review what they have learned in previous grades. Grade Four students study the holidays with greater depth as they make connections between Halacha (law), Torah, and Torah She’Bal Peh (the oral Torah). In Grade Four, students complete their study of Breishit (Genesis) and are introduced to the Chochmim (sages) and their interpretations of the Torah. Students begin to learn about the Talmud and the various commentaries on the Torah as they develop greater analysis and critical thinking skills. The study of Israel focuses on Jerusalem and its significance to Jews and other religious groups. Students study the history of Jerusalem and the connection between the holidays from the Torah, Yom Ha’Atzmaut (Israel Independence Day), and the Land of Israel. Students are introduced to Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day), Yom HaZikaron (Israel Memorial Day), and their connections to Yom Ha’Atzmaut. Grade Four students expand their knowledge of Tefillot (prayers) to include the full Birkat Hamazon (the blessings after the meal) as well as Tefillot that are included in the morning prayers. The theme of unity is taught through the concept that we need to be unique as Jews to be united. Students will understand Shabbat. Students will be able to: • demonstrate a knowledge of how to observe Shabbat • recite and understand additional Zmirot for Shabbat Students will understand Jewish holidays. Students will be able to: • make personal connections to the meaning behind the holidays • make connections between the meaning of the holiday to the meaning of the words associated with the holiday (for example, Shofar comes from the verb L’hishtaper, to improve oneself ) • begin to make connections to the meaning of a holiday through biblical commentaries • begin to find hidden meaning in text • begin to understand the connections between Halacha, Torah, and the Oral Torah
Grade Four Program of Studies
• recite additional Brachot and Tefillot that connect to the mitzvah of the holiday • recite Brachot and songs associated with the holidays Students will understand the importance of Torah. Students will be able to: • complete a study of the book of Breishit • begin to understand the different sages who interpreted the Torah in different ways throughout time • begin to understand the Babylonian Talmud and Breishit Rabah • use multiple commentaries to understand the text of the Torah • write Midrashim • use the timeline of the generations in Breishit • begin to read Rashi script • identify the two speakers in important conversations in the Torah • discuss their personal opinions in regard to the text Students will understand the importance of Israel to the Jewish people. Students will be able to: • understand the connection between the land of Israel and the identity of the Jewish people • understand the meaning behind the symbols of the main cities in Israel • understand the importance of Jerusalem • identify the significance of Jerusalem to various religions • demonstrate knowledge of history from the creation of the world, throughout time, until today in Jerusalem • understand the significance of the word “Zionism” • identify where Jerusalem is mentioned in history • make connections between Yom Ha’Atzmaut and Yom HaZikaron • make connections between Yom HaZikaron and the Israeli Defense Force • make connections between Yom Ha’Atzmaut and reciting Hallel Students will understand and use Tefillot (prayer.) Students will be able to: • understand and recite Mi Kamocha • recite the Chatzi Kaddish • recite the full Brikat Hamazon • understand and recite an additional paragraph of the Shmonah Esrei Students will understand and use the Hebrew language. Students will be able to: • conduct an interview in Hebrew • fill out a questionnaire in Hebrew • use familiar words to build vocabulary
• write in full sentences in Hebrew • use Hebrew greetings for daily use, special events, and holidays • describe personalities and the need to work together in Hebrew • begin to use the future tense • find hidden meaning in text • use manners and problem solving in Hebrew • apply lessons from the Torah to everyday life • demonstrate knowledge of rhyming poetry and famous Israeli poets (Leah Goldberg, Naomi Shemer, Chayim Nachnan Biyalik) • begin to understand Mashal and Nimshal (stories which use animals and plants to teach a lesson and explain how we should act) Students will understand Jewish values. Students will be able to: • perform acts of Chesed to members of their community • demonstrate kindness and helpfulness • understand of the mitzvah of giving Tzedakah • understand what it means to be part of a community • understand Tikun Olam (repairing the world) in respect to themselves, their friends, family, and the greater community • understand the importance of Kavod (respect/honor) • understand the concept that we need to be unique as Jews to be united
Mathematics Chicago Jewish Day School’s math program is centered on creating a mathematical environment in which children are encouraged to think, invent, investigate, and make connections. The teachers pose questions and set up challenges and then observe, question, and listen as children get busy building meaning for themselves. Every child will bring something personal and unique to the exploration and will glean something different from the experience. Various problem-solving strategies are accepted and, in fact, encouraged, as they help children gain confidence and take risks. Our goal is to produce mathematically powerful thinkers and problem-solvers who are confident and feel comfortable using mathematics in their daily lives. We celebrate the diversity of thinking and focus on the children’s ideas, their reasons and explanations, rather than solely on answers. Mathematical Components
• Real-Life Problem By making connections between their own knowledge and their experiences both in school and outside of school, children learn basic math skills in a meaningful context so that the mathematics become “real.” • Basic Skills Practice Children practice basic skills in a variety of engaging ways such as written and choral fact drills, mental math routines, practice with fact triangles (flash cards of fact families), daily sets of review problems called math boxes, homework, timed tests, and a wide variety of math games.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Emphasis on Communication Throughout the math curriculum, students are encouraged to explain and discuss their mathematical thinking in their own words. Opportunities to verbalize their thoughts and strategies give children the chance to clarify their thinking and gain insight from others. • Home/School Partnership Math homework provides opportunities for family members to participate in the students’ mathematical learning. The homework includes information about daily lessons in addition to periodic letters that introduce units and new concepts and skills. • Revisited Concepts To enhance the development of basic skills and concepts, students regularly revisit previously learned concepts and repeatedly practice skills encountered earlier. Lessons are designed to take advantage of previously learned concepts and skills to build on them throughout the year instead of treating them as isolated bits of knowledge. At CJDS, our math instruction is tightly aligned to our general education philosophy and our vision of excellence. As with other subject areas, our math curriculum emphasizes deep understanding, active and experiential learning, student-centered learning, intrinsic motivation, and collaboration. We strive to create math students who can think critically about the concepts studied, communicate their reasoning and knowledge, take risks and demonstrate flexibility in their thinking, and solve a variety of problems or challenges effectively. We value cultivating both a depth of understanding as well as a breadth of knowledge of mathematical content. The Common Core State Standards include two groups of standards — Standards for Mathematical Content and Standards for Mathematical Practice: • The Mathematical Content Standards — define the mathematical content to be mastered at each grade • The Mathematical Practice Standards — define the processes and habits of mind students need to develop as they learn the content for their grade level The dispositions and habits of mind we strive to cultivate in our students are aligned with the Common Core Standards of Mathematical Practice, which describe proficient math students as those that can: • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. • Reason abstractly and quantitatively. • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. • Model with mathematics. • Use appropriate tools strategically. • Attend to precision. • Look for and make use of structure. • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. At CJDS, math students are called to develop these proficiencies daily. The emphasis here is on “doing math.” During math class, students are asked to investigate a variety of mathematical problem situations; they are required to think, plan, reason, compute, and evaluate their approaches and solutions. Teachers act as skillful guides in this
process — carefully selecting rich mathematical tasks, facilitating reflective conversations to summarize learning and draw conclusions, and providing supports and extensions when necessary. Grade Four Overview
In Grade Four, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry. 1. Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context. 2. Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15/9 = 5/3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. 3. Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of two-dimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry. Grade Four Standards of Mathematical Content
Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. • Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. • Generate and analyze patterns.
Grade Four Program of Studies
Number and Operations in Base Ten • Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers. • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic. Number and Operations — Fractions • Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. • Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. • Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. Measurement and Data • Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. • Represent and interpret data. • Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. Geometry • Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. Grade Four Standards of Mathematical Practices
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. In Grade Four, students know that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing how they solved them. Students explain to themselves the meaning of a problem and look for ways to solve it. Grade Four students may use concrete objects or pictures to help them conceptualize and solve problems. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “Does this make sense?” They listen to the strategies of others and will try different approaches. They often will use another method to check their answers. • Make sense of your problem. • Reflect on your thinking as you solve your problem. • Keep trying when your problem is hard. • Check whether your answer makes sense. • Solve problems in more than one way. • Compare the strategies you and others use. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Grade Four students recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. They connect the quantity to written symbols and create a logical representation of the problem at hand, considering both the appropriate units involved and the meaning of quantities. They extend this understanding from whole numbers to their work with fractions and decimals. Students write simple expressions, record calculations with numbers, and represent or round numbers using place value concepts.
• Create mathematical representations using numbers, words, pictures, symbols, gestures, tables, graphs, and concrete objects. • Make sense of the representations you and others use. • Make connections between representations. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. In Grade Four, students construct arguments using concrete referents, such as objects, pictures, and drawings. They explain their thinking and make connections between models and equations. They refine their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like, “How did you get that?” and “Why is that true?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking. • Make mathematical conjectures and arguments. • Make sense of others’ mathematical thinking. 4. Model with mathematics. Students experiment with representing problem situations in multiple ways including numbers, words (mathematical language), drawing pictures, using objects, acting out, making a chart, list, or graph, creating equations, etc. Students need opportunities to connect the different representations and explain the connections. They should be able to use all of these representations as needed. Fourth graders evaluate their results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense. • Model real-world situations using graphs, drawings, tables, symbols, numbers, diagrams, and other representations. • Use mathematical models to solve problems and answer questions. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. In Grade Four, students consider the available tools (including estimation) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be better suited. For instance, they may use graph paper or a number line to represent and compare decimals and protractors to measure angles. They use other measurement tools to understand the relative size of units within a system and express measurements given in larger units in terms of smaller units. • Choose appropriate tools. • Use tools effectively and make sense of your results. 6. Attend to precision. As Grade Four students develop their mathematical communication skills, they try to use clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. They are careful about specifying units of measure and state the meaning of the symbols they choose. For instance, they use appropriate labels when creating a line plot. • Explain your mathematical thinking clearly and precisely. • Use an appropriate level of precision for your problem.
Grade Four Program of Studies
• Use clear labels, units, and mathematical language. • Think about accuracy and efficiency when you count, measure, and calculate. 7. Look for and make use of structure. In Grade Four, students look closely to discover a pattern or structure. For instance, students use properties of operations to explain calculations (partial products model). They relate representations of counting problems such as tree diagrams and arrays to the multiplication principal of counting. They generate number or shape patterns that follow a given rule. • Look for mathematical structures such as categories, patterns, and properties. • Use structures to solve problems and answer questions. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Students in Grade Four notice repetitive actions in computation to make generalizations Students use models to explain calculations and understand how algorithms work. They also use models to examine patterns and generate their own algorithms. For example, students use visual fraction models to write equivalent fractions. • Create and justify rules, shortcuts, and generalizations.
Social Sciences The study of the social sciences at Chicago Jewish Day School helps prepare students to become part of society. It allows them to learn about the past to understand the present and future. Our social science program provides students with experiences that help them decide what they would like their role in society to be. It presents opportunities for exploration and focuses on children’s curiosity, creativity, and interests. Grade Four Social Science Learning Standards
The study of social science helps students develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Students are preparing to become citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world. The curriculum integrates the disciplines of social science to promote civic competence. Students will understand political systems, with an emphasis on Illinois and the United States. Students will be able to: • explain the democratic process of decision making and apply it to home, school, and community • describe what government does at local, state, and national levels • state the names of the two houses in the Illinois Congress • identify the names of major contemporary political parties • explain the election process and the importance of voting in a democracy • understand the significance of words, images, political symbols, and mottoes of the United States
Students will understand economic systems, with an emphasis on Illinois and the United States. Students will be able to: • explain how an economic system includes what goods and services are produced, how they are produced, and who consumes them • describe economic systems as they apply to different regions of the United States • list factors that affect consumer choices • explain the relationship between the quantity of goods and services purchased and their price • recognize that some goods and services are provided by the government Students will understand events, trends, individuals, and movements shaping the history of Illinois, the United States, and other nations. Students will be able to: • read historical stories and determine events that influenced their writing • recognize examples of point of view on a given historical event • interpret information from maps, graphs, and charts relevant to research questions • analyze historical figures who have advanced the rights of individuals and groups to promote the common good • describe how physical features and natural resources have affected the growth of rural and urban areas Students will develop an understanding of world geography and its effects on Illinois, the United States, and other nations. Students will be able to: • use map skills to locate specific places and identify geographic features, such as waterways and landforms • locate and label major bodies of water and the seven continents on a world map • compare various cities, states, regions, and countries in relative and exact locations • explain what a region is and describe several types of regions • identify the features that may be shared within a region and explain why regions can overlap • analyze and explain characteristics and interactions of the Earth’s physical systems • distinguish between weather and climate • describe the relationships between location of resources, population distribution, and economic activities • explain how human activity affects the environment Students will understand social systems, with an emphasis on Illinois and the United States. Students will be able to: • recognize that folklore and customs from other cultures have become part of our national culture • explain ways institutions meet the needs of individuals in society • describe how the acquisition of basic needs has changed over time
Grade Four Program of Studies
Science Science is a set of processes that includes asking questions to gain a better understanding of our world. Our science curriculum focuses on encouraging students’ curiosity, creativity, and interest. Through hands-on experiences, students use the process of scientific inquiry, learn new skills, and gain an understanding of key scientific concepts. Students’ ability to investigate scientifically helps them in all areas of learning. Grade Four Science Learning Standards
The goal of science education is to develop in learners an understanding of the inquiry process as it is related to key concepts and principles of the life, physical, and earth/space sciences. The curriculum addresses the integration of the sciences with technology and society as students learn to connect the importance of scientific knowledge to its application in everyday life. Students will understand the processes of scientific inquiry and technological design to investigate questions, conduct experiments, and solve problems. Students will be able to: • brainstorm possible questions for investigation consideration • convert questions into hypothesis statements • choose procedural steps and organize into a logical sequence • collect accurate data, with appropriate measuring instruments, from multiple trials • organize data into charts or graphs for data analysis • draw reasonable and accurate conclusions based on data Students will understand the fundamental concepts, principles, and interconnections of the life, physical, and earth/space sciences. Students will be able to: • develop a working knowledge of key vocabulary related to units of study • use simple taxonomic guides to classify plant and animal groupings • describe relationships between various organisms in their environments • classify organisms by their niche in the food web: producer, consumer, decomposer, or scavenger • identify survival behaviors of animals and plants • describe the nature of electricity and how it works • understand that electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion • classify the major rock families: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic • describe erosion/weathering in terms of impact on features of the Earth • examine ways that people can preserve and conserve natural resources Students will understand the relationships among science, technology, and society in historical and contemporary contexts. Students will be able to: • use equipment and materials in a safe and proper manner when conducting inquiry or design investigations
• explain the importance of keeping accurate and detailed records in scientific investigations • recognize the necessity of controlled variables in inquiry and design investigations • identify causes and effects of pollution on plant and animal life in various global and local environments • list ways to prevent or reduce pollution
Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Health Throughout the day, children will have opportunities to dance, design, compose, move, and sing. We believe in educating the whole child and allow plenty of time to nurture creative and artistic skills. Children will be instructed in rhythmic activities and fitness, healthy living, interactive listening and expressive music, and the organizational principles of design, as well as the expressive qualities of the visual arts. Grade Four Fine Arts Learning Standards
In addition to their intrinsic value, the arts contribute to children’s development and enrich the quality of life. The fine arts — dance, drama, music, and visual arts — are fundamental ways of knowing and thinking. The fine arts curriculum addresses the language of the fine arts, sensory elements, organizational principles, expressive qualities, and how the arts are similar, different, or related to one another. Students also learn how to interpret visual images, sounds, movement, and story. The creation and performance of the arts is emphasized along with the role of the arts in civilization. Students will know the language of the arts. Students will be able to: • identify and describe a variety of sensory elements, organizational principles, and expressive qualities • distinguish between figure and ground in a still-life composition and positive and negative spaces in a sculpture • identify universal symbols from everyday life Students will understand how works of art are produced through creating and performing. Students will be able to: • describe and practice processes used to create visual art forms or to perform a dance, musical composition, or drama • classify musical sound sources into groups • use a variety of materials and tools to create an original artwork Students will understand the role of the arts in civilizations, past and present. Students will be able to: • respond to performances and artworks in a respectful, constructive, supportive, and knowledgeable manner • explore how the arts reflect different cultures, times, and places
Grade Four Program of Studies
Grade Four Physical Education Learning Standards
Physical development programs offer students the opportunity to enhance the capacity of their minds and bodies. Healthy minds and bodies contribute to academic success. Students will develop movement skills related to physical activity. Students will be able to: • develop control when performing combinations and sequences of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative motor patterns • apply knowledge of movement concepts during physical activity • identify and apply rules and safety procedures while engaging in physical activities • demonstrate offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies in selected activities and games Students will achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. Students will be able to: • explain the physiological indicators that accompany moderate to vigorous physical activity • engage in a variety of specific, sustained physical activities that improve physical fitness levels • demonstrate and record the proper method of measuring heart rate before, during, and after physical activity • select one component of physical fitness and set a realistic goal for improvement • demonstrate the relationship between movement and health-related fitness components Students will develop team-building skills. Students will be able to: • display the traits of sportsmanship and fair play while engaged in physical activity • demonstrate knowledge of rules, safe practices, and class procedures during physical activity • engage in assigned physical activity with a partner, small group, or team • demonstrate cooperative skills during structured group physical activity Grade Four Health Learning Standards
Healthy minds and bodies are basic to academic success and, later in life, to enhancing the ability to contribute to a productive work environment. The health curriculum focuses on health promotion, safety, and understanding the human body and how it grows and develops. Problem solving, communication, responsible decision making, and team-building skills are major emphases as well. Students will understand principles of health promotion and the prevention and treatment of illness and injury. Students will be able to: • identify the signs and symptoms of illness and recognize when symptoms of illness require attention from an adult, health-care provider, or school nurse
• apply safety precautions and basic first aid to injuries • understand the importance of good hygiene • describe how skin protects the body from disease Students will understand human body systems and factors that influence growth and development. Students will be able to: • identify the major functions, parts, and purpose of various body systems and differentiate between positive and negative effects of health-related actions on body systems • identify the different stages of the human life cycle: infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood Students will promote and enhance health and well-being through the use of effective communication and decision-making skills. Students will be able to: • identify and demonstrate positive listening behaviors and communication skills • differentiate between rights and responsibilities
Technology Chicago Jewish Day School technology education program is centered on providing students with learning tools that are accessed throughout the day to support and augment their achievement of learning objectives in all classes. As students become increasingly literate and responsible in the digital sphere, they will develop computational thinking, problem-solving, and acquire transferable technological skills. Our goal is to prepare our students to become digital citizens of the world and to prepare our students to use technology to go forward, better themselves, and to better the world around them. Grade Four students use technology to explain natural processes by producing creative content which educates wider audiences. They develop descriptive models to demonstrate their understanding of complex systems through an introduction to coding and animation. Students are introduced to collaborative technologies, facilitating work with others and the ability to contribute productively to group projects.
Grade Four Program of Studies
3730 North California Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60618 phone 773 271 2700 fax 773 271 2570 www.chicagojewishdayschool.org firstname.lastname@example.org