C a p p e l e n s
t i d s s k r i f t
f o r
e n g e l s k l Ã¦ r e r e
Il l u str a sj o n: Ing e r D a l e
LQQKROG What King Magnus Lawmender Learned about Ireland by Eamonn Noonan
En gammel kinesisk forbannelse lyder visstnok slik: â€œMĂĽtte du leve i interessante tider!â€? Det kan vel tenkes at ganske mange lĂŚrere fĂ¸ler seg truffet av en slik forbannelse i disse dager, nĂĽr nye lĂŚreplaner, ny teknologi og nye prĂ¸ver og vurderingsformer kommer i rask â€“ og ofte tilsynelatende tilfeldig â€“ rekkefĂ¸lge fra sentrale instanser. Men la nĂĽ ikke ['mĂŚgÉ™'zi:n] legge sten til din eventuelle byrde. Vi vil som vanlig forsĂ¸ke ĂĽ gi deg et lite pusterom, men ogsĂĽ faglig pĂĽfyll og noen gode ideer du kanskje kan bli inspirert av. At vi i ['mĂŚgÉ™'zi:n]-redaksjonen har en viss svakhet for den grĂ¸nne Ă¸ya i vest, har vel noen lesere nĂĽ fĂĽtt med seg. Vi har tidligere hatt artikler om moderne irsk litteratur, om James Joyce og om norske skoleklasser som har reist til Irland for ĂĽ lĂŚre mer om denne fascinerende nasjonen. Norge har spilt en viktig rolle i Irlands historie, og i dette nummeret tar Eamonn Noonan oss med pĂĽ en historisk rundreise til irske steder beskrevet i Kongespeilet, lĂŚreboka som ble skrevet til den senere kong Magnus LagabĂ¸te pĂĽ 1200-tallet. Etter en slik historisk pustepause, kan det passe bra ĂĽ vende tilbake til dagens norske skolehverdag. Som kjent er digital kompetanse en av de grunnleggende ferdighetene som skal gjennomsyre alle fag pĂĽ alle nivĂĽer i norsk skole etter reformen KunnskapslĂ¸ftet. I forslaget til ny lĂŚreplan i engelsk som ble sendt ut pĂĽ hĂ¸ring i midten av februar, finner vi igjen dette kravet i flere punkter.
Alt dette, og faste spalter som Read It! Pass It on! og Notiser i tillegg: Vi hĂĽper du fĂĽr en hyggelig lesestund!
Read It! by John Anthony
Notiser: SmĂĽtt og stort om engelskfaget
Erfaringer med nettbaserte undervisningsopplegg i engelsk av Korhan Markussen
Pass It on: Yoko Ono and St Valentineâ€™s Day by Solveig Olsen FjĂŚrvik
En del lĂŚrere i videregĂĽende skole har kommet et godt stykke pĂĽ vei i arbeidet med ĂĽ utnytte digitale medier i sin undervisning, og to av dem, Korhan Markussen og Helga Hoel, gir deg her et innblikk i mĂĽten de jobber med dette pĂĽ. Vi har ved flere tidligere anledninger hatt reisebrev i bladet, og i dette nummeret kan du lese om Karin Hals sine inntrykk fra Trinidad & Tobago. Neppe den mest kjente delen av den engelsksprĂĽklige verden, men ikke desto mindre et omrĂĽde som har produsert stor litteratur â€“ og som har et av verdens mest berĂ¸mte karneval!
E-mail to Austria by Helga Hoel
> PÂ JÉ™]LQ@
Walking in the Footprints of Columbus, Robinson Crusoe and Friday in Trinidad & Tobago by Karin Hals
Ansvarlig redaktĂ¸r: Birger Nicolaysen
videregĂĽende skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum,
Telefon: 22 36 51 95/5177 E-post: email@example.com
Produksjon: PrePress as
Eamonn Noonan is an Irish diplomat stationed in Oslo. He is a graduate of University College Cork, where he studied English literature, and holds a doctorate in History and Civilisation from the European University Institute in Florence. Being married to a Norwegian and as the father of three Irish-Norwegian children he has a special interest in the ancient and modern links between Norway and Ireland. This article is written in a personal and not a professional capacity.
Donegal Lough Derg Lough Erne Inishglora
Sligo Lough Key
What King Magnus Lawmender Learned about Ireland
The Kingâ€™s Mirror, written in the 1250s, Tara Lough Ree is believed to have been composed for DUBLIN Clonmacnoise Galway the education of the two sons of HĂĽkon Slieve HĂĽkonson, King of Norway. The elder Bloom Glendalough brother died young, and it was the younger, IR E L A ND Magnus, who succeeded to the throne in 1261. Limerick Because of a major law reform during his reign, he passed into history as Magnus Lagaboete - the Lawmender. The Kingâ€™s Mirror includes two chapters on the wonders and miracles of Ireland, and these include references to the major centres of Irelandâ€™s Golden Age as the Island of Saints and Scholars. A tour of the sites that Magnus learned about would be a wonderful introduction to Ireland and its history.
St. Kevinâ€™s Kitchen, Glendalough ÂŠ Scanpix
Glendalough, a short drive south from Dublin
he had become an old man, and his red hair
ill only died after they were taken off the
into the Wicklow Mountains, is a fine place
had turned white. His youth was soon
island). On another, where St. Diarmuid
to start. This monastery was founded by St.
restored, but his hair remained white.
ministered, no female of any species could
Kevin in the Sixth Century. Magnus learned
However, according to tradition, this did not
ever enter the churchyard. The reference
that a young disciple of St Kevin fell ill and
take place on Slieve Bloom, but on Slieve
to St. Diarmuid makes identification
craved an apple, but none could be found
Gullion, County Armagh.
possible: this island is known today as
because it was the spring. Kevin prayed for
Inchcleraun or Quaker Island, and the
help, and apples then grew on a nearby willow
West from Slieve Bloom lies Clonmacnoise, a
monastic ruins are easily visible. Yet it is
which cured the patient. The willow thereafter
monastery founded on the River Shannon by St.
an uninhabited island, off the tourist trail
bore apples every year, and people all around
Kieran in 545. According to the Kingâ€™s Mirror,
and rarely visited.
ate them to cure illness. The Annals record
one Sunday during mass, an anchor appeared
that Glendalough was sacked by the Vikings
from above and hitched itself to the front door
The tour could continue north along the
four times between 775 and 1071 - not quite
of St. Kieranâ€™s church. The people went out and
Shannon, but this is also a good point
as often as it was sacked by rival Irish tribes.
looked up to see a ship floating in mid-air. A
at which to head for the west coast and
man jumped overboard and clambered down, as
search for the place the Kingâ€™s Mirror calls
Due west of Glendalough lies Slieve Bloom,
if swimming, to release the anchor. The locals
Inishgluer. On this small island, the dead
Co. Offaly. On this mountain, according to the
grabbed hold of the man, but the bishop made
were left standing along the church fence and
Kingâ€™s Mirror, there are two springs, one of
them let go, saying that he could be hurt by
never decayed. This is obviously Inishglora,
which turns white hair black and the other
it, as if he was held under water. Once freed,
which lies off the Erris peninsula in Co. Mayo,
turns all hair white. Slieve Bloom is of major
the man hurried back up to the ship, and as
on which can be found the remains of an
importance in Irish mythology. It was named
soon as he got on board, they cut the rope, and
ancient church dedicated to St Brendan the
for one of the Milesians, the legendary first
sailed on out of sight. The anchor has been
Navigator. The practice of displaying mum-
migrants to Ireland in prehistoric times.
lying in the church ever since. This legend of
mies outside churches has happily been
It has been suggested that from the top of
the flying ship inspired a poem by Seamus
abandoned, if it ever existed.
Slieve Boom one can see the highest points
Heaney. Visitors to Clonmacnoise can admire
in each of the four provinces; if this is true,
the High Cross, one of the finest examples of
Back on the mainland, our route leads west
it may help account for the areaâ€™s prehistoric
a carved celtic cross. One panel depicts the
to Lough Key. Magnus learned of a floating
eminence. By tradition, Slieve Bloom was the
biblical scene of soldiers dividing Christâ€™s
islet where a sick man who stepped onto it
birthplace of Fionn MacCumhail, the greatest
robe before the crucifixion - these soldiers
would be healed by eating its grass. This was
hero of the Irish epics. It is of course no coin-
are wearing pointed Viking helmets, which
in Loghica, which I believe is Lough Key, a
cidence that James Joyce gave the surname
gives some idea of how the artist regarded
waterway between the Shannon and the Erne.
Bloom to the main character in Ulysses. The
Irelandâ€™s earlier Norse visitors.
Trinity Island in Lough Key was an ancient
miraculous properties of the springs are an
burial place for kings of Tara, as well as kings
echo of another legend associated with Fionn
Upriver along the Shannon lies Lough Ree.
of Connaught. The Dominican monastery at the
MacCumhail. As a young man, the enchantress
Magnus learned about two islands on this
adjacent town of Boyle, Co. Roscommon, was a
Miluchra tricked Fionn into searching for a
lake. On one there lived many hermits, yet
major seat of learning in Magnusâ€™s times; the
gold ring lost in a lake; when he emerged,
no one died of disease there (those who fell
Annals of Lough Key were compiled there.
Cemetery in Clonmacnoise ÂŠ Scanpix
White Island figures ÂŠ Scanpix
Further north, straddling the border between
People believed that the
the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland,
king at Tara always passed
lie Upper and Lower Lough Erne. Magnus
just sentences. But on one
learned about an island called Kertinagh
occasion he ignored the
on Lough Erne. On this island, devils had as
merits of a case to rule
much power over half of the island as in hell
in favour of his friends
itself - but they had no power over that half
over his foes. In order
of the island where an abandoned church
to teach the people that
stood. There are many islands in Lough Erne,
injustice was done, God
and Kertinagh cannot easily be identified.
caused the houses and
Candidates include White Island, which has
halls to be turned down
an outstanding series of statues dating back
into the earth, and they
to the Sixth Century, Devenish Island, where
have stayed like that. As a
St Molaise founded a monastery which was
result no one dared to live there, even though
thereby planted that later grew into the major
sacked by the Vikings in 837, and perhaps the
it was the loveliest place in all the country.
law reform which Magnus sponsored, and
town of Enniskillen itself, whose centre is an
The desertion of Tara remains a great riddle;
which earned him the nickname by which he
island. An alternative theory is that the aut-
after many centuries as a centre of power
went down in history - the Lawmender?
hor is confusing Lough Erne with the nearby
and worship, it was abandoned in 565 and
Lough Derg, where according to tradition, St
has been uninhabited ever since. The Annals
The Irish chapters of the Kingâ€™s Mirror inclu-
Patrick entered purgatory in the year 435.
of Clonmacnoise record that Tara suffered
des anecdotes about the two most impor-
Station Island has been a site of pilgrimage
from a curse imposed by St. Ruadan following
tant ecclesiastical sites of early medieval
and penance for over a thousand years, and is
a dispute with King Diarmuid of Tara â€“ over
Ireland, Glendalough and Clonmacnois, and
today visited by 30,000 pilgrims a year.
contested legal judgements. Is this the full
about the two most important sites of pre-
story? Why did a place that was for centuries
Christian Ireland, Tara and Slieve Bloom.
Turning east, the tour brings us to Irelandâ€™s
the countryâ€™s most important political centre
The six other sites mentioned are all either
largest lake, Lough Neagh. According to the
suddenly become deserted? Why has it never
lakes or islands, with a noticeable concen-
Kingâ€™s Mirror, the waters of this lake turn
subsequently been settled? Like much else
tration along the waterways of the Rivers
holly wood to stone. Lough Neagh was well
from Irelandâ€™s pre-Christian history, the
Shannon and Erne â€“ waterways well known
known to Viking visitors to Ireland; one of
details are lost in time.
to the Vikings from their very earliest raids
their earliest year-round settlements was on its banks.
on Ireland. A round trip of these sights could
It is tempting to suggest that the Tara anec-
be comfortably completed in a fortnight, and
dote held a special significance for prince
would bring the traveller to some of Irelandâ€™s
Our tour concludes with a short journey
Magnus, the future king of Norway. The author
most beautiful and most historic places.
south to Tara, the ancient seat of the kings
of the book urged with this example his stu-
Indeed, there can be few better ways to bring
of Ireland, deserted in the Sixth Century.
dents to place justice above partisanship; he
Irish history to life than to visit the places a
Magnus Lagaboete learned that Tara is deso-
even repeated the anecdote later in the book
young Norwegian prince learned about, some
late because of an injustice done by its king.
to further emphasise the lesson. Was a seed
750 years ago.
English by finding authentic target groups to fulfil this objective in the foundation course in English by means of using e-mail correspondence and building web pages.
Background project Norwayâ€“Japan in 1998/99
Austrian English teachers. Since he also teaches
information about Austria and Vienna for my own
English at an upper secondary school in Vienna,
class. We spent a class in the computer room
In the spring of 1998 a Japanese teacher brow-
I immediately saw a potential partner for my
to look at these links and other links the stu-
sing the internet came across my homepage.
new foundation class in English and approached
dents found on their own, and I invited a retired
She sent me an e-mail asking me if I would be
him after his presentation. I thought the English
Austrian teacher who used to teach German at
interested in corresponding with her class in
levels for our classes would be much closer than
Katedralskolen to our class to give an intro-
Yokohama. She had had an exchange student from
those between classes in Norway and Japan, and
duction (in Norwegian) to her home country. Her
Norway some years before and wanted to do a
that this fact would facilitate communication
vivid presentation was viewed as highly inte-
unit on Norway in her class. Since I was going
between the groups.
resting and informative by most of my students.
to teach a foundation class that coming winter,
Over lunch the following day we agreed to
Furthermore I realized that we had to
I agreed, thinking this would be a great opportu-
try it out. He had 14 boys who were 17 years old
refresh our vocabulary about schools in general
nity to say something about Norwegian culture
in his class and I had 29 boys and girls who were
and about our school subjects especially, and
in English to an authentic target group.
16 years old in mine. We, the teachers, divided
so decided to cover the learning target about
both classes in 7 groups and our first task was
school life in Great Britain and in the U.S. there
between the levels of English among her and my
to collect the studentsâ€™ e-mail addresses and
and then. The schools also exchanged textbooks,
students â€“ after all our languages are very dif-
next to make a web page each with pictures of
something both teachers found very useful to
As it turned out, there naturally was a gap
By Helga Hoel, Trondheim Katedralskole
Key-pals in Japan and Austria: Conveying some central aspects of Norwegian culture in
ferent in more ways than one (including different
the students where they introduced themselves
understand the set-up of the English courses
characters). Consequently the e-mail correspon-
in one paragraph. Since this could be read by
in Norway and Austria. For my part I found it
dence to begin with was only of limited value.
anybody on the web, we corrected the studentsâ€™
interesting to see how the European framework
We did, however, move on to make web pages for
English before we published their presentations
for languages has permeated the Austrian text-
each otherâ€™s classes. My students made pages
on the web. After all, who wants to display their
books, since we seem to be heading in the same
about different aspects of Norwegian culture,
language errors in public?
direction with the new school reform in 2006.
and the Japanese students wrote about their
spare time activities for us. That part was eva-
days and most of them have internet access
about Austria and to ask my students questions
luated by both students and teachers to be the
at home, something which was not the case in
about aspects of Norwegian life that they were
most successful part of the project.
1998/99 when all contact had to be made in the
interested in learning about, and we spent
computer room at scheduled classes.
another period in the computer room to answer
All students have e-mail addresses nowa-
Georg Hellmayr asked his students to write
these questions. A new target group in Vienna, Austria in 2004/05
Getting information about our partner
This was my background experience when I
Building web pages
attended the EuroCALL conference in Vienna in
I updated the link collection I had made about
The next step was to make web pages about
September 2004. One of the days I listened to
Norway and Trondheim for the class in Japan
our schools or school systems. Neither
Georg Hellmayrâ€™s paper about his work to build
in 1998/98 to get the Vienna students started,
Schottengymnasium nor Trondheim Katedralskole
a resource web site, The English Journal, for
and browsed the net to supply useful links to
has English versions of their official web sites.
We wanted to use the studentsâ€™ perspective
How to improve the project
So what do the teachers think about the
telling their stories about various parts of our
In 1998/99 the Japanese teacher and I exchanged
school, but also to include some â€œmeatâ€? in the
term and holiday schedules for our respective
I have seen students who have shown a
information. I wrote nine suggestions for topics
schools and set up a strict timetable for our
genuine interest in the project and that is satis-
on the board so that all seven groups had somet-
work to avoid frustration caused by different
fying in itself. We have been able to
hing to choose from. Each group sent me their
holidays or exam periods. We also had another
fulfil goals in the curriculum in an interesting,
page as an attachment to the e-mail. I corrected
difficulty to overcome since our school at that
although time consuming way. There is no deny-
it and sent it back for approval or additional
point only had 14 PCs with internet access, which
ing that converting documents to web pages,
information before I uploaded all the interlinked
meant that I could only take one half of the class
linking them together and uploading them takes
pages on the internet 1 February 2005. One of our
to the computer room at a time. The rest of the
students has provided most of the pictures.
class was taught by a student teacher.
Currently the Austrian students are still
This year we have had enough computers
Personally I learned a lot about English
working on their web pages and we look forward
for everybody and we have played it more by ear
teaching in Austria. Their course books were very
to seeing and reading them.
than by a strict schedule probably thinking that
interesting to read especially now when we will
European schools are more alike than they really
be heading in the European direction in language
are. Therefore different autumn breaks, excur-
teaching. Georg Hellmayr also found our books
sion times, mock exam schedules, Christmas
interesting. We have sent about 65 e-mail mes-
By and large students in both countries were
holidays and now recently, winter breaks have
sages back and forth so far, and will probably
positive about the project. The reasons they
interfered in our work causing delays in answers
keep in touch way beyond this project period.
listed were for instance that they found it inte-
and stretching the patience for some of the par-
Maybe we will decide to do another project some
resting to learn something about young people
ticipants. This can be avoided in future projects
other year. Who knows?
their own age in another country and about a
by exchanging school schedules and setting up
different culture and school system. They also
stricter deadlines for the different parts of the
expressed satisfaction at having some variation
project before starting it.
in their English classes. All groups thought they
We should probably also be clearer in divi-
Appendix 1: Points to consider before starting an international project: Âˇ Find out the term- and vacation schedules for
had done a good job with their web pages and
ding the project into two parts: a private one
that there was little or nothing to improve there.
to get to know each other via e-mail messages
A minority of the students thought they would
without any teacher control, and a public one
Âˇ Agree on how much time to spend on the project
keep contact with their partners in Austria after
writing texts for publication on the internet.
Âˇ Decide the topic(s) for the project
the project period, but those who were positive
There control is needed to make sure that the
Âˇ Clarify the objectives
were the ones who had sent and received most
information given is correct both linguistically
Âˇ Decide which methods to use, individual work,
group work or both
e-mail to begin with.
Âˇ Agree on how the project is going to be presented Âˇ Agree on mutual evaluation at the end
Many of the Austrian students especially thought
the project was stretched over too long a period
of time and that it would have been better to
Appendix 2: Link list:
do nothing but the project over a shorter period.
Students from both countries were frustrated over
not getting responses to their e-mails fast enough
and with regard to the content. We should also
to keep the interest going. One group from each
be clear about what we want to evaluate. I only
Class presentation from Shottengymnasium:
country complained that they did not think their
want to evaluate the uploaded versions of the
partner group was really interested in learning to
web pages. Of course I saw part of the process
know them, and one Norwegian student expressed
also, how the groups worked together, but since
Trondheim Katedralskoleâ€™s official Homepage:
frustration over the fact that some of the e-mails
it did not differ from any other group work in the
were sent through the teachers, feeling this
class, I see no reason to use that as a special
restricted what she wanted to write about and
point of evaluation.
dampened her enthusiasm for the project. One Austrian student thought the groups
To improve the initial contact between the
1AAAs pages about Trondheim Katedralskole:
students setting up a chat room with students
should have been better matched according to
from both countries simultaneously in their
Helga Hoelâ€™s 1AAA class page:
their interests, but personally I wanted to avoid
computer rooms would have been great. However,
this, being afraid that some students would get
this is not possible on the school machines.
many e-mails and others only a few, or none at all.
Reviewed by John Anthony
Sometimes I feel that the teach-
w driving along the road and saw a were p petrol station that was 1) Open, 2) Had
ing profession is quite a hotbed of
p petrol and 3) Didnâ€™t have a queue of more
rampant conservatism. Perhaps I am
t than 20 cars, we would probably stop and w in the queue to top up an almost wait
thinking this now as we approach
f tank in fear that this was the last full
the exam period and, working as an
p petrol we would ever buy in our lifetimes. T was a time of power blackouts and This
external examiner for the oral exam
p political unease, a time when newspapers
in English, I know Iâ€™m going to come
c contributed to the general gloom with
across many of the old favourites
d doomsday headlines. Ah the glam rock seventies. The birth
on book lists: Catcher in the Rye, Of
o punk. This certainly was a strange and of
Mice and Men, 1984, Animal Farm,
i many ways horrible decade, and it cerin
Across the Barricades ... Of course one
t tainly sounds like a period of time many t teachers will remember, but what does
must admit that it is important to
t decade mean to our pupils? this One of the most important and per-
introduce pupils to some of the major
h haps most devastating developments in
works of the country whose language
t decade was the rise of the phenothis
and culture they are studying, but as Of course, the real masters in the strike in those
is something our pupils have to study, if for
days, and perhaps rightfully so, were the miners,
no other reason than that the effects of the
perhaps far more to the teacher than
and for a while they had the country by the
Thatcherism era still linger in the UK to this
they do to the pupils. So for my book
proverbial crown jewels. Shut down the mines,
day. To understand modern Britain, we need to
stop the coal, and electricity becomes a scarce
understand the mood of the seventies. It is not
commodity. I was living in West London at the
easy to teach about this period and it is difficult
time and remember such things as the BBC and
to explain to our pupils how the political and
ITN closing down at 10 or 10.30 to save electri-
social climate of the time could have given birth
But as this is a conservative profession, perhaps
city. Movie house marquees were shut off and,
to the creature known not so fondly as the Iron
we shouldnâ€™t be too enthusiastic and jump over
gloriously, we were encouraged to shower with a
Lady, or as Ronald Reagan called her, â€œthe best
too many decades, some of us might get a little
partner to conserve warm water and hence save
man Iâ€™ve ever metâ€?.
dizzy in the mad rush into modern times. So, I
on electricity, a measure that did not please
Faced with such a problem we should turn more
suggest shucking off the 30s and the 50s and
representatives of the Church of England too
often to literature for help than we probably do.
moving at least into the 1970s. The book I have
much but was enthusiastically embraced by the
What better way to teach about this decade than
chosen was actually written in 2001, but the
to find an entertaining novel that takes place
the years race by, these books talk
review I have looked for something â€œnewâ€? to introduce to the classroom.
m menon known as Margaret Thatcher. This
story is placed in the 1970s, what some people have called the forgotten decade.
But not to be outdone by the British miners,
in this period, one our pupils will enjoy reading
this was the time when the oil-producing nations
while learning about the attitudes and ideas
in the Middle East discovered how much political
that prevailed in England at this time? In my
change in Britain. The unions, many claimed,
muscle they had, and cuts in oil supplies crea-
search for a book for this purpose I came across
were crippling the country, walking out the gates
ted a kind of reserved hysteria. Of course that
Jonathan Coeâ€™s The Rottersâ€™ Club. While by no
at the mere drop of a hat. The swinging London of
sounds like a contradiction in terms, but what I
means perfect, this is a novel that uses an enga-
the 60s was winding down and old Labour was on
mean is that we basically went about our normal
ging sense of humour to paint a broad panoramic
lives, but at the same time, if, for example, we
picture of England in the 1970s.
Forgotten or not, this was a time of great
This is also an interesting story about growing
and about the rites of passage of the young.
In the sequel, the conservative Paul, is, perhaps
While we learn about social problems, some
not surprisingly, a member of Tony Blair’s New
the characters are still searching for who they
of the characters are rather clueless about many
Labour, where slogans and blind ambition have
are in the sequel to this book, The Closed Circle
of the things happening around them, reflecting
replaced ideals and beliefs.
(Viking, 2004). The novel paints a broad picture
their intense and self-centred adolescence. But
of this decade and gives a sense of the turbulent
the author succeeds in painting a wide canvas
in the 70s and a tale of the aches and pains, and
political times and events that were unfolding
that opens this decade to us, so much so that
joys, of coming of age. The reader cares about
and led to the fall in union power and the rise of
when one of the adult characters in the novel
the characters because they are believable and
predicts that Margaret Thatcher will never
well sculpted. Benjamin Trotter is ordinary and
up and finding one’s identity, or not, as some of
This is a well-written novel of coming of age
There is another benefit to using this book.
be Prime Minister, we are not surprised when
hopeless, baffled by and afraid of the world he
In the past, one of the most exhaustingly boring
the novel, and the decade, end with Margaret
is entering, but also a character for whom the
parts of teaching about social conditions in
Thatcher sweeping to victory.
reader will have a great amount of affection and
The story takes place over a period of
sympathy. Norwegian pupils can read this book
cation. Year after year textbooks have given us
six years starting in 1973. This is the time of
and identify with the characters, and will also
the bare and excruciatingly mundane facts about
Edward Heath’s failed Conservative government
find the description of life in an English school
a system that I’m convinced very few people in
and two Labour governments under Wilson and
interesting and enlightening. In one chapter
Britain really understand. Perhaps a better way
Callaghan. One of the main characters is Ben
we are witness to bullying. The author shows
to introduce our pupils to British school life is
Trotter, whose nickname at school is “Bent
how it developed rather innocuously but grew
to read novels that include the school experien-
Rotter” and from this the name “Rotters’ Club”
in intensity, turning, in the end, into a kind of
ce. The Rotters’ Club is about young people gro-
is derived. The story is told through a multi-
class ritual with little regard for the one boy
wing up and interacting in a school environment
perspective narrative. Ben’s niece in part tells
on the wrong end of the fun and games. Later, in
in Birmingham. We see their school experiences
the story from her perspective in 2003. This is a
the next to last chapter, Ben Trotter remembers
and learn about their attitudes to their school
somewhat clumsy device as it is hard to accept
this ritual and begins to think of its effects and
and their schoolmates, and we are witness to
that she should have such a vivid recollection of
repercussions, revealing one of the main themes
some rather peculiar and bizarre teaching met-
other people’s stories, but it is a device more
of both The Rotters’ Club and its sequel, that
hods. For example, the PE teacher has a policy of
intended for the sequel than The Rotter’s Club.
everything has an effect, and that the effect is
forcing any boy who forgets his swimming trunks
There is also more of an omniscient third-person
often far broader in scope than anyone could
on swimming day to swim before his classmates
perspective, and within the narrative Coe gives
in the nude, a punishment that one well endowed
us letters, leaflets, articles from the school
Those teachers who use Tapestry may also
young lad in the class appears to relish, but
newspaper and diary entries offering insight
find it interesting that the next to last chapter
which the others of course dread.
and humour. Some readers may find this a little
of The Rotters’ Club is a “Ride” experience: a 37-
Britain has been the section on schools and edu-
confusing, but this narrative technique suits
page single-sentence interior monologue of the
What is The Rotters’ Club about? This is the
the panoramic view of this fractured and troub-
main character, Ben Trotter, which captures the
story of a group of young people attending King
ling decade. There are cultural aspects that
feelings of first love and the utter excitement of
Edward’s School in Birmingham. The central cha-
Norwegian pupils may need some help with, for
his longed-for sexual debut. Teachers who have
racters are four pupils who work on the school
example names of British music magazines and
had positive experiences with “Ride” in class,
newspaper. Parallel to this is the story of some
bands from the 70s, but help is generally just a
may appreciate a text that is written in the
of their parents, most notably Bill Anderton and
Google click away.
same style as it will allow for a comparison and
But perhaps I’m getting ahead of myself.
Colin Trotter, one a shop steward, the other a
The author’s intention with this novel is to
a deeper discussion of the values of this narra-
personnel manager, who represent the two sides
give us an intimate feel of what the 70s were
of the union-management dialogue of the 70s.
like and in this attempt he sometimes leaves
So, can I recommend this book? The answer is
The setting in this school society is a
stories within the novel incomplete. But what
yes. This is a novel that is fun and interesting
microcosm of the decade in England as Coe
Coe does successfully show us is that this was a
to read. The main characters are the same age
shows us class war, racism, strikes, the death
shifting era, the decade that saw the start of a
as our pupils and their experiences, even though
of Old Labour and a pub bombing. King Edward’s
right-wing backlash against what had once been
they are from the England in the 70s, will be
is not your typical comprehensive school, but a
considered sacred and immutable socialist ide-
recognizable and identifiable for our pupils
school with entrance exams, and whose pupils
als. Ben’s younger brother Paul celebrates the
today. Even though I have hinted at a few short-
are destined for university. But the pupils’
death of the socialist dream, showing:
comings, the novel is an excellent, entertaining
problems and concerns are not that different
and interesting way of informing our pupils
from what young people today are experiencing,
...The same triumphalism, the same
about this period of British history that led to
so the novel has something to say to our pupils
excitement, not because something new
the arrival of Margaret Thatcher, and is a good
beyond being a social chronicle of life in the
was being created but because something
read in its own right.
70s. This is a novel about looking for love and
was being destroyed.
sometimes finding it, about forging friendships
Notiser: smått og stort om engelskfaget lsk i enge t s e b er e så elever sk. Vi hører bare ikk e k s r o l N nge ). En 1. mars er kan e
elev isen ( Norske peiske Dagsav r e d l e nt euro m a , l t b e d e s kel mye om undersø venske ke og s gnende i s l r n o e n m t a ene sam 04 viste ke elev åren 20 de nors t a e g o , elever v vensken test gelsk. S r best i n a e v r g i e l v r t n va ele te i mu finnene lart bes t, mens e h g i stitutt d var de k r I lesefe n ved n e å s p b I r e h v bet lå litt o k. Elisa LS) ved mmatik kling (I a i r v g t u å e p l best ktleder g sko nning o k prosje a s r d t o u n r e e elevvær for lær norske slo har e O d i t t a e r t de ite r hun hev Univers k og se lsen, og om språ e s k ø k s s r l e e eng for und ert for t motiv d o g r e råket. ene unne sp k å v a ten viktighe
Departures Extra Vi minner alle brukere av læreboka Departures om at ekstraheftet Departur es Extra nå foreligger. De tte heftet er på 84 sider, og det er gratis for alle ele ver som bruker Departures. Læreren må sende en e-p ost med bestilling til klasse n: firstname.lastname@example.org. Alle som kjøper Departur es i bokhandelen, vil få Departures Extra med på kjøpet.
Utdanningsdirektoratet melder om følgende framdriftsplan for læreplanarbeidet våren/sommeren 2005: • Læreplaner for pulje 1 (deriblant læreplan for engelsk 1.-13. klasse) ble sendt ut på høring: 15/02/05 • Læreplaner for pulje 2 (deriblant læreplan for programfag engelsk vg2 og vg3) - 1. utkast publisert 04/04/05 (se egen notis) • Innspill fra Fylkesmennene på læreplaner for pulje 2 foreligger: 15/04/05 • Forslag fra læreplangruppene for pulje 2 foreligger til bearbeiding i direktoratet: 28/04/05 • Høringsfrist for læreplaner for pulje 1: 10/05/05 • Læreplaner for pulje 1 fastsettes: Juni 2005 • Høring og fastsetting av læreplaner for pulje 2: Høst 2005
Glenn Ole Hellekjær fra Høgskolen i Østfold er prosjektleder for Programområde for språkfag, mens læreplangruppa for engelsk ser slik ut: • Ella Haukenes (leder), Høgskolen i Finnmark • Ivar Olav Brandt, Gjøvik vgs. • Bente Heian, Oslo Handelsgymnas • Andreas Lund, Universitetet i Oslo • Berit Berge, Fyllingsdalen vgs.
foreslår at Utdanningsdirektoratet ag skal bestå råkf Programområde for sp g: av følgende programfa Programfag Engelsk 2. fremmedspråk Latin og gresk Kommunikasjon og kultur
5+5 5+5+5 5+5+5
(foreløpig tittel) blir relevant skal utvikles slik at det Engelsk som programfag dieretniningsprogrammer (tidl. stu for elever fra flere utdann ge inn t slik at det er mulig å vel ger). Faget er derfor utvide totalt 15 uketimer.
gelsk i Læreplan i programfaget en programområdet språkfag kolenettet.ls.no/
l. Adresse: http://s Førsteutkastet ble lagt ut 6. apri /Arbeid 015 – eller gå inn på Skolenettet laereplaner/login_lp.aspx?id=13 med nye læreplaner/. timerskurs: t strukturert i tre avsluttende fem Programfaget engelsk er foreslåt elsk Programfag 1: Internasjonal eng elsk eng glig nsfa Programfag 2: Samfun ur Programfag 3: Litteratur og kult er fra alle studieforberedende Samtlige kurs kan velges av elev rinn, inkludert vg1 (11.klasse). utdanningsprogram på alle årst sdirektoratet.no kan du komme På adressen lareplan@utdanning t. med innspill til læreplanutkaste
eirer p Andelen å alle f brukere ronter av enge ker dram l s k som før atisk i fo s tespråk rhold til minandresp de som råk elle h a r r engelsk lærer e (for eks som ngelsk s empel i om frem Norge). medspr voldsom S æ åk rlig den vekst, o siste gr g dette u Simense p p har i fø en er i n ved Un lge profe iversite ssor Au av enge t e d Marit t i Oslo fø lsk som rt til at førstesp språket b r r åk har m ukerne . I frem istet eie tiden vil rskapet tes for d e t e til ngelske sterk på språket virkning å ta til utset, og det orde for te har få en inter tt enkel som glo nasjona te til balt spr l standa å k r . d for en A ndre me sosial id gelsk ner at d entitet et ut fra vil utvik engelsk b e l e h o s v for e g , med f. regiona eks. egn le varia ske bar e n u t t e talereg r av n i frem ler. Uan tiden bl sett vil Norsk v i tosprå noril være klige, h hverdag evder Sim språket sspråke e n sen. som bru t, mens kes i yr engelsk (kronikk kessam vil være , Aftenp m enheng osten 15 og på re .03.05) iser.
finner man gratis templates â€“ det vil si ferdige
gjĂ¸res fordi oppgavesiden er formet som en
sider designet av andre. Ved ĂĽ legge disse
innholdsfortegnelse med mye informasjon som
inn i et redigeringsprogram kan en foreta de
fĂ¸lger med deg hvor enn du klikker deg frem pĂĽ
forandringer en mĂĽtte Ă¸nske. Selvsagt mĂĽ
nettomrĂĽdet. Erfaringen forteller meg at enkle-
en ogsĂĽ ha egen webserver eller leie et web-
re layouter fungerer bedre enn kompliserte.
hotell og domene for ĂĽ legge dette ut pĂĽ
Menyen og rammen bĂ¸r ogsĂĽ ha den funksjonen
nettet. Det finnes nettsteder som tilbyr
at de viktigste hjelpemidlene som for eksempel
gratis plass til hjemmesider, men da mĂĽ man
Google og elektroniske ordbĂ¸ker finnes dersom
regne med litt reklame.
oppgavene krever bruken av dem.
FĂ¸lgende artikkel er basert pĂĽ mine erfaringer
â€œLess is moreâ€?
med bruk av egne nettbaserte undervis-
Ă… lage et pedagogisk rettet nettopplegg
Variasjon er ogsĂĽ noe ĂĽ tenke pĂĽ. Derfor har
ningsopplegg i engelsk ment for elever i den
krever en del gjennomtenkning, og en mĂĽ fĂ¸rst
oppleggene egne â€œtemaâ€?. Hvis alle oppleg-
videregĂĽende skolen. Oppleggene finnes pĂĽ
og fremst spĂ¸rre seg selv: vil nettsiden bare
gene hadde hatt de samme layoutene, ville
bli et elektronisk papir? Kunne en heller ha
de ha blitt kjedelige bĂĽde for meg og elevene.
av Korhan Markussen (www.mako.no) Stovner videregĂĽende skole
gitt elevene et A4-ark med det som stĂĽr pĂĽ
Ă… prĂ¸ve ut nye tema og finesser holder moti-
De siste ĂĽrene har jeg utarbeidet nettsider
nettsiden? Nettsiden mĂĽ gĂĽ ut over dette.
vasjonen i gang. Film har for eksempel alltid
som jeg har tatt i bruk i engelskundervisnin-
Nettsiden bĂ¸r ta i bruk de mulighetene som
fascinert meg. Det har fĂ¸rt til at et av oppleg-
gen. Det hele begynte som ren nysgjerrighet
ikke finnes pĂĽ et ark eller i en lĂŚrebok.
gene (USA in the 50â€™s and 60â€™s) er blitt laget i
og interesse for det ĂĽ lage hjemmesider, men
vidfilm og i sort/hvitt. Da en av mine hobbyer
etter hvert begynte det ĂĽ bli litt kjedelig ĂĽ
Det er veldig lett ĂĽ la seg rive med av alle
er ĂĽ lage musikk, spilte jeg inn litt bakgrunns-
bare jobbe pĂĽ min private hjemmeside. Hvorfor
effektene som et designprogram tilbyr. Selv
musikk som en velkomst og la ved utdrag fra
ikke lage noe jeg kunne bruke i undervisnin-
har jeg prĂ¸vd ut mange, men jeg forkaster de
opptak av John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King,
gen? Og sĂĽ begynte oppleggene ĂĽ ta form.
fleste da jeg ser at de ikke fungerer pedago-
Jr og Neil Armstrong i bakgrunnen. (Disse
gisk. Ă… bruke mangfoldige timer pĂĽ minimalt
dukker opp kun ĂŠn gang, da det ikke er noe
Hvordan komme i gang?
lĂŚringsutbytte er bortkastet. Det er derfor
sĂŚrlig ĂĽ hĂ¸re den samme sangen og opptaket
Nettsider er i og for seg ikke vanskelig ĂĽ lage
viktig ĂĽ hele tiden vĂŚre konkret med det en
hver gang en kommer til hovedsiden.) Det
med dagens programvarer. Bare ved ĂĽ bruke
gjĂ¸r. Fungerer det jeg lager pedagogisk? Vil
siste ga mersmak og fĂ¸rte til at jeg begynte
Word kan en godt fĂĽ til noen enkle nettsider.
absolutt alle elevene forstĂĽ hva som skal
ĂĽ ta i bruk gamle opptak av viktige historiske
Med PowerPoint kan en bĂĽde krydre under-
gjĂ¸res? Hvilke praktiske problemer kan dukke
personer i oppleggene. NĂĽ brukes disse i
visningen og lage hjemmesider med bĂĽde
opp? Er oppgavene for krevende pĂĽ den mĂĽten
oppgaver eller som tilleggsinformasjon i de
meny og innhold bestĂĽende av flere sider og
at elevene surfer vilt pĂĽ nettet for ĂĽ finne
temaene elevene arbeider med.
animasjoner. OgsĂĽ Frontpage og MS Publisher
informasjon? Og ikke minst, jo mer fancy
er to gode hjelpemidler. Disse har begrensede
layout og effekter, jo mer trekkes oppmerk-
Differensiering er viktig
muligheter, men er fullt brukbare.
somheten vekk fra teksten og oppgaven.
Faren ved nettbaserte undervisningsopplegg
Ă… kunne litt HTML-koding har for meg vĂŚrt
NĂĽr det dukker opp problemer i klasserom-
sĂŚrlig styring. â€œGĂĽ pĂĽ Internett og finn
grunnleggende i det ĂĽ forme og forstĂĽ hvordan
met med nettbaserte opplegg, er det vanlig-
informasjon om det og det temaetâ€? er noe vi
det hele fungerer. I begynnelsen tar dette litt
vis med nettsider som mangler pedagogisk
alle har vĂŚrt med pĂĽ. For et stĂ¸rre prosjekt
tid ĂĽ lĂŚre, men nĂĽr man finner ut av det, gĂĽr
brukerinnsikt. Dette gjelder ogsĂĽ profesjonel-
er nok dette greit, men for mindre oppgaver
det egentlig raskt og greit. I dag finnes det
le nettsider. Jeg har ikke tall pĂĽ hvor mange
over en kortere tidsperiode er det tidsmessig
flere forskjellige kodesprĂĽk, men de har
ganger jeg har mĂĽttet veilede elever inn pĂĽ
fatalt. Dette er en felle som mange faller i
allikevel en del fellestrekk. Videre behĂ¸ver
den rette nettoppgaven, selv etter ĂĽ ha skrevet
i begynnelsen. Ă… styre rammene for hvor de
man ikke ĂĽ lage alt fra grunnen av; pĂĽ nettet
fremgangsmĂĽten pĂĽ tavla. Dette mĂĽ som oftest
skal lete, hva de skal lete etter og hvordan
er ĂĽ kaste elevene ut pĂĽ nettet uten noen
de skal bruke den informasjonen de finner, er
Jeg har selv begynt ĂĽ ta i bruk engelske nett-
Et opplegg kan fungere utmerket i en klasse,
grunnleggende for at opplegget skal lykkes.
sider rettet mot barn og ungdom. I engelsk
men ikke i en annen. Derfor er tilbakemeldin-
Er det selve letingen etter informasjon som er
historie har BBC fine nettsider som jeg tatt
gen fra bĂĽde elever og kolleger viktig. Etter
viktig, er det sprĂĽket eller er det selve infor-
i bruk, og disse har vist seg ĂĽ fungere bra. Ă…
hvert opparbeider man seg kunnskap som gjĂ¸r
masjonen de skal fokusere pĂĽ? Elevene kaster
sĂ¸ke pĂĽ â€œUS politics for kidsâ€? er ingen skam,
at oppleggene blir bedre og bredere, slik at
ofte bort tid dersom en ikke har lagt rammene
og elevene har aldri vist sin misnĂ¸ye med
man kan bruke dem pĂĽ forskjellige nivĂĽer og
pĂĽ forhĂĽnd, og blir sprĂĽket for vanskelig, er
ĂĽ jobbe med nettsider ment for barn eller
det lett for eleven ĂĽ miste interessen.
ungdom. Velger en ĂĽ kaste elevene ut i tungleste og vanskelige leksikonsider for ĂĽ finne
Etter alt dette kan en jo spĂ¸rre: Hvor er det
Dette resulterer i at en mĂĽ differensiere
informasjon, virker dette som oftest demotive-
blitt av lĂŚreboka i alt dette? Svaret er at
lenker og oppleggene. Hvis ikke, vil en stor
rende for de elevene som er middels flinke og
lĂŚreboka ennĂĽ er en viktig del av undervis-
del av elevene henge etter eller fĂ¸le at de
svake. Det er derfor heller gunstig ĂĽ av og til
ningen min. Elevene trenger en tekstsamling
ikke fĂĽr noen utfordringer. Det sier seg selv
la elevene bruke norske nettsider for ĂĽ finne
og noe ĂĽ holde fast ved med tanke pĂĽ pensum
at en ikke uten videre kan sende en elev med
informasjon sĂĽ lenge oppgaven krever at de
og eksamen. En lĂŚrebok tilbyr derfor noe som
dĂĽrlige sprĂĽkkunnskaper ut pĂĽ http://encarta.
kun skal brukes som en informasjonskilde i
nettet ikke kan. Ă… kombinere lĂŚreboka og
msn.com/ for ĂĽ finne informasjon om britisk
det videre arbeidet.
IKT har forelĂ¸pig vĂŚrt det ideelle. Av og til
eller amerikansk historie. Velger en ĂĽ gjĂ¸re
kan det allikevel bli for mye av den digitale
det, mĂĽ oppgaven formes slik at eleven fĂĽr
Den gylne middelvei
verdenen bĂĽde for elever og lĂŚrere. Da er det
lĂŚringsutbytte av oppgaven.
Det finnes ikke noe fasitsvar pĂĽ et vellykket
godt ĂĽ komme tilbake til det tradisjonelle
nettopplegg, da alle klasser er forskjellige.
CLEANING PIECE III Try to say nothing negative about anybody. a) for three days b) for forty-five days c) for three months See what happens to your life.
yoko ono 1996
Mini Project: St. Valentine’s Day and the Art of Yoko Ono We decided to combine the art of Yoko Ono and St. Valentine’s Day in By Solveig Olsen Fjærvik, Kirkeparken videregående skole
a mini-project focusing on love and the importance of being recognised by others.
How did it all begin? We read in the newspaper in January that the Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art in Oslo had an exhibition of Yoko Ono’s art. Her instructions,
We found support for our project idea in the core curriculum for primary, secondary and adult education, which emphasises the importance of developing an understanding for the aesthetic dimension in all subjects.
performances, installations, films, music, sculptures and photography
Pupils must develop an appreciation for beauty both in
have made her one of the worlds most
meeting artistic expressions and by exploring and unfolding
renowned and significant contemporary artists, so we thought it would be
their own creative powers.
interesting to initiate a project involving her art pieces. Having
(p. 15, Core curriculum for primary, secondary and adult education in Norway, about the creative human being)
St. Valentine’s Day in mind we found one of her instructions especially useful, namely:
What did the students do? The project was introduced by giving the students a brief presentation of Yoko Ono’s art, including the instruction “CLEANING PIECE III” As we got closer to St Valentine’s Day we asked the students to write some nice words to everybody in the class. We collected all the compliments and put them together on one piece of paper for each student. On February 14 they were given a golden envelope containing a card with another Yoko Ono text called “Remember Love” and all the quotations about themselves from their fellow students. Here are some examples of compliments the students gave each other:
Dear Oda, you’re a great friend and I appreciate you for being who you are. You are special and unique to me. I trust you and you know I can talk to you about anything. You bring out the best in me! Always
remember that I love you! Happy Valentine, love Marte Dear Even, you are tall and good. From Arne Dear Mette, you have such an amazing laugh, and you’re very good at speaking English. Happy Valentines from Håkon
They were quite excited when they received their cards, and in Yoko
Follow-up activity â€“ a trip to Astrup Fearnley Museum of
Onoâ€™s spirit they felt the joy of being appreciated. Two days later they
Modern Art in Oslo
were asked to write a short text as a reflection on the compliments
We had made an appointment with the museum to get a guided tour
they had been given. They were free to choose form - some wrote
of the Yoko Ono exhibition in English (about 45 minutes). The guide
a poem, others a short factual text - but all of them showed that
tried to involve the students in the conceptual art pieces, and she
they had appreciated being in focus for a short while. Here are two
actually had some success. They responded to her explanations, wrote
examples of their texts:
small messages to Yoko Ono and removed stones from one pile to another according to their own moods. We also took the group to the National Gallery so that the students could experience other forms of
Is this me?
art as well. Judging from their feedback we believe they enjoyed both
Am I eatable, as Tor says?
exhibitions, and when we left the museums we felt that this would
Am I a really cool and nice guy,
be something that they would remember. It is not very often that our
as Eva says?
students are exposed to art in its different forms and we hope that we
Am I a very kind person who makes
have encouraged them to go to museums and exhibitions on their own
people smile, like Therese said?
in the future.
Am I a very kind and funny boy with a great taste of humour, as Kine said? Does Hanne love being with me, and does she really think Iâ€™m funny? Am I â€œnoe for meg selv, med diggbra musikksmak, og egentlig en koselig fyrâ€?, as Pia thinks? Well, I really donâ€™t know. But I do know that I hope I am.
Is this me? When I received my Valentineâ€™s card I was very excited. I was excited to see what my classmates think of me. And it was great. It was great to read all the positive comments they have given me. It is hard not to be proud of yourself when you get comments like that.
But I hope that they did not just make something up.
Some of it has to be true, because many are writing the
â€œYou are great fun to be with and a great guitar player.â€?
I sure hope that is true. Yoko Ono at the Astrup Fearnley museum ÂŠ Scanpix
How was this a chance to expand their vocabulary?
In order to avoid only stock phrases, we had given the students a page
Our group was a GK group (AF), and we felt that our project would
of different expressions to show appreciation and affection like e.g.
stand a good chance of success. They were nice to each other and
you can do anything you set your mind to, you make me want to be a
there was an atmosphere of tolerance in the classroom. This project
better person and you are a wonderful carer.
could probably also be done with 10th graders, but we would be more reluctant to carry out the project at VKI or VKII levels.
This made it easier for them to say exactly what they wanted
to express. The compliments spanned from highly personal and
Although St. Valentineâ€™s Day has passed, we would still recommend
passionate to short and factual. The whole project has exposed them to
others to do a project involving the Yoko Ono exhibition at Astrup
many different activities: they have read, written, talked and reflected
Fearnley. The exhibition will be on display until 08.05.05 and guided
on a very personal level.
tours are for free. What are you waiting for?
By Karin Hals
Walking in the footprints of Columbus, Robinson I was lucky enough to get a travelling grant from Norsk faglitterĂŚr forfatterforening (NFF) and I decided to spend it on exploring an English-speaking country far away from Britain and the United States. My eyes fell on Trinidad & Tobago. How come? First of all I had met, during a seminar in the USA, a person who taught literature at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad. Secondly, I had read some interesting novels from this area. Thirdly, I wanted to combine studying the language, music and culture of this multi-ethnic society with the feeling of summer in February â€“ and 30 degrees in the air and 27 in the crystal clear Caribbean water was just fine with me.
Off on the adventure
us and looked us up and down before exclaiming,
In the following century Spain withdrew more
So off I went together with an Algerian-French
â€œYou can come back when you are decently dres-
and more from this area. French planters arrived
friend of mine, Faouzia Benderdouche, who
sed!â€? We felt like two naughty school children,
from other Caribbean islands bringing with them
teaches English at a university in Paris and
and decided not to return to that particular
their African slaves. After the French the British
was interested in digging deeper into Caribbean
school. I guess this is the first time that I
took over, and Trinidad and Tobago remained a
literature. We met in London and set out on an
have been sent home for being inappropriately
British colony from around 1797 until 1962, when
11-hour-flight to Tobago.
the islands finally gained their independence.
Tobago is rumoured to have been Robinson
After having spent two days on Tobago to
English became the official language in
Crusoeâ€™s island, something which is of course
get used to the climate and to get rid of jet lag,
1814. From 1845 the first indentured workers
not easy to verify. What is certainly true,
we set off for Trinidad. Paula Morgan, our collea-
were brought from India to Trinidad. This went
however, is that both Robinson and Friday could
gue, picked us up and we spent two full days on
on until 1917 and explains why 40 per cent of
have subsisted happily here, because of the
the university campus. But, first, let me tell you
the population of Trinidad and Tobago is of East
fertile soil, the fruits and vegetables, the warm
more about this little republic called Trinidad
Indian origin. After independence, Trinidad and
climate, and the seafood available.
Tobago has tried to build up a stable economy,
We got in touch with Signal Hill Secondary
School through our hotel manager, and we deci-
A former British colony
on business, mostly with the other Caribbean
ded to go there right away the first morning.
When Christopher Columbus arrived in Trinidad
It was 35 degrees, which was quite a shock to
in 1498, looking for fresh water, 35,000
me coming from minus 5 at Gardermoen. So we
Amerindians were already in Trinidad and
islands with about 1.3 million inhabitants. Port
applied our sun protecting lotion and set off,
Tobago. This was the beginning of Spanish
of Spain is the capital. Tobago is very small and
ready for input.
colonisation of the islands. The Spanish sett-
has only 50,000 inhabitants, nearly all of them
lers established plantations where they grew
working in the tourist industry. Trinidad is home
Unfortunately we did not know that you are
partly based on â€œblack goldâ€? â€“ oil â€“ and partly
Trinidad is by far the bigger of the two main
not supposed to go into a school sleeveless, even
tobacco and later cocoa, but a disease wiped out
to Carnival (with a big â€œCâ€? since this is the big-
though you are allowed to wear mini-skirts and
all the cocoa farmers and in 1739 a smallpox
gest carnival outside Rio), and is also the home
low-cut blouses. The female principal received
epidemic ended all â€œcivilised lifeâ€?.
of calypso and steel pan music.
Trinidad is indisputably the financial and poli-
more willing to sacrifice a lot and work really
colonial style from around 1900 and a touch of
tical centre of the whole region. In Trinidad you
hard to give their children a chance to climb the
the Caribbean. To stroll along the park, passing
find all the government offices, all the banks, all
these houses and drinking cool coconut water
the financial enterprises and the oil industry.
People of African origin are primarily
This is the place to find work, but there is also
working class and lower middle class: workers,
high unemployment and an extremely high crime
cleaners, waiters and small shopkeepers, but
rate. The local newspaper announced on February
they shy away from agriculture. This explains to
28, 2005 that murder number 51 this year was
some extent why Tobago, with a population that
committed the previous night. This means nearly
is more than 90 per cent of African descent, has
one murder each day in Port of Spain.
very few cultivated areas with vegetables and
Politically, the period since independence
with a straw straight from the nut, is something that must be experienced.
fruit compared to Trinidad.
in 1962 has been mostly peaceful. There have, however, been two uprisings. The most recent
Crusoe and Friday in Trinidad and Tobago occurred in 1990, when an Islamic group made
Port of Spain â€“ a melting pot
an attempt to take over Parliament. They took
Port of Spain is a colourful town and truly a mel-
As mentioned, the nationâ€™s economy is based on
hostages, but the crisis ended without much
ting pot, and I would like to have seen more of
Trinidad. Tobagoâ€™s economy relies on one source
bloodshed. The rioters were later charged with
it after sunset. There was music in the streets,
of income: tourism. People come from Great
and although it could have been great fun to take
Britain and other countries in Northern Europe.
part in the biggest carnival in the Caribbean
From February this year there have also been
What is left of the British Empire?
area, I am glad that we arrived one week too late
direct flights from New York to Tobago. This is
The British Empire has left its marks on Trinidad
for that. It is, the newspapers reported, extreme-
looked upon as a great advantage for tourism.
and Tobago â€“ on the language, the system of
ly crowded and dangerous to move around during
Many Trinidadians also go to Tobago for longer
government and institutions, the school system,
these two days.
or shorter holidays because they want to enjoy
university education, and the connection to the
Some of the most characteristic houses in Port
the laid-back lifestyle there.
Commonwealth. Cricket is still a very impor-
of Spain are in gingerbread style, with wooden
tant part of sporting life here, and the people
ornament around the windows, doors and roofs.
description of a third world country: the number
of Trinidad and Tobago are eagerly taking part
Unfortunately these are difficult to renovate,
of poor and homeless people, the lack of social
in the Commonwealth Games. But they seem
and many of them are completely run down or in
benefits, the unemployment rate and the attitude
to dream more of going to the USA and Canada
to school and education in general. However, what
than to Great Britain. Canada, in particular, has
ordinary tourists who just stay within their â€œghet-
received a lot of immigrants from these islands,
tosâ€? see, is not very different from what you will be
as it is easy for the islanders to get a work
offered at any holiday resort in our own part of the
permit in Canada.
world. The hotels and guesthouses are well equip-
In many ways Trinidad and Tobago fit the
ped with easy access to TV, PC with internet, card
phones and private bathroom. The beaches are gor-
Roughly speaking, in Trinidad and Tobago 40 per
geous and snorkelling on the coral reefs is a treat.
cent of the people are of African descent and 40
The long-cherished goal of regional inte-
per cent are of East Indian descent, mixed races
gration will be a big step forward at the end of
make up 18 per cent and whites make up less
2005 with the formation of the Caribbean Single
than 1 per cent.
Market and Economy (CSME). There is optimism
It was easy to see the relics of the British
in Trinidad and Tobago, mainly because Trinidad
my impression is that this is a divided society.
Empire, such as â€œthe Magnificent Sevenâ€?, a row
will form the financial centre of this union. It
There is a high proportion of people of Indian
of imposing houses in colonial style at one end
is believed that the advantages will be many:
descent among university students, business
of the enormous Savannah Park â€“ a must for
an increase in trade and economic activity, less
people, intellectuals, professionals and politici-
any visitor to Port of Spain. These houses have
unemployment and bigger investments. Working
ans. Paula â€“ who is of African descent â€“ claimed
been renovated and must be a gem to people
together, the Caribbean small states will be
that the high percentage of students of Indian
interested in architecture. They are a perfect
better equipped to negotiate, lobby and survive
origin is explained by the fact that Indians are
mix of Moorish influence from Africa, British
in a world composed of huge trading blocks.
Even if there are many people of mixed race,
proudly showed us an exhibition dealing with
Their vernacular is very different from Standard
their first prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The
English. The teachers therefore work on finding
museum itself is indicative of the urge to give
strategies to focus on the linguistic problems of
some weight to UWI. On the one hand, they have
West Indians whatever level of education, even
created the university after a British model, but
at university level. As one teacher put it, â€œWe
on the other hand there is a clear emphasis on
teach English as a foreign languageâ€?.
Caribbean creativity and flavour.
To give you an example: The students will have to work hard on concord, because it is perfectly acceptable in their daily language to
The staff at the university
say â€œthey isâ€?, or â€œthe man doinâ€™ his gardenâ€?.
In the Liberal Arts department there seemed to
Exercises would include very obvious mistakes
be interest in mixing with teachers from other
that Norwegian foreign language teachers are
The campus of the University of the West Indies
parts of the world. While we were there, there
supposed to eliminate in our studentsâ€™ works at
(UWI) is very pleasant and spacious. There are
were teachers from Nigeria and Jamaica present.
an early stage.
6000 students, with a high proportion of Indian
There were some quite interesting themes and
origin. Students come to campus around 8 a.m.
lectures, but unfortunately we had no chance
for a cup of coffee with their friends in the stu-
to go deeper into the contents of these. We sat
A visit to a primary school in Tobago
dent cafĂŠ. We found a group of veiled students
in on a lecture about a poem by the Caribbean
We returned to Tobago and without any appoint-
who immediately caught Faouziaâ€™s attention,
poet Kamau Brathwaite, held by a very well
ment we went to a primary school close to our
since the veil has been a big political issue in
known calypso expert and author of a book on
guesthouse in the little village Bon Accord. We
France. They were easy to get into contact with,
Brathwaite, and it was great fun listening to his
were â€“ after a short hesitation (â€œWho are they?
and the fact that Faouzia is a Muslim made it
reading of the poem and his comments. There is
What do they want?â€?) â€“ welcomed in a very fri-
easier for them to talk. When talking about mar-
certainly a rich oral tradition in this country!
endly way by the vice principal.
rying they were very insistent on marrying a
There seem to be quite a few interesting books being published in Trinidad and Tobago,
schoolyard with the principal leading the school
never felt discriminated against.
but the university lecturers told us that it is dif-
prayers and giving a moral lesson that would
ficult to secure a wide distribution. One who has
deal with different matters to â€œput them on the
succeeded is Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott. He
right trackâ€?. One class insisted on singing a
is of course well known abroad, and he is extre-
home-made song for us. The message was â€œIf you
mely popular in Trinidad and Tobago because
donâ€™t say the truth (play fair etc. a new expres-
he, unlike many other intellectuals, has decided
sion for each stanza), Let me tell you something:
to spend part of his time in Trinidad and not
You lose, You lose!â€?
move permanently to Great Britain, the USA or
The following poster shows that Hindus also
look for partners within their own community,
â€œuntouchedâ€? that is!
with teachers and pupils, all dressed in blue and
ful, the humorous and the spiritual aspects of
white uniforms. It became clear that they had
life in the Caribbean, while the other â€œlocalâ€?
not seen â€“ let alone spoken to â€“ many white peo-
Nobel Laureate, V.S. Naipaul, is not very popular,
ple in their lives, and a girl insisted on touching
because he is often critical towards his home
my white skin, turned my arm over and marvel-
led over the fact that it was even whiter on the underside. This made me think of James Baldwin,
The teaching of English as a first language
â€œ38 y.o. Hindu male lecturer seeking
slim, fair, untouched Indian female for
We decided to attend some uni-
marriage. E-mail address provided.â€?
versity classes to see what the
teaching of the English language The students we talked to were optimistic about
was like. We took part in a ses-
their future. They strongly believed that educa-
sion for second year students in
tion would pave the way for a good life there or
â€œEnglish for academic purposesâ€?.
We were struck by the fact that the main purpose of the course
There were many signs on campus that this
was to get rid of the interference
is in many respects a nation in the making.
of the language they speak and
For example, in the library the chief librarian
hear outside the academic sphere.
We went into different classes and talked
Canada. Walcott often writes about the colour-
The pupils started the day outside in the
Muslim and staying within their group. They had
who in one of his essays describes how people in a French village looked upon him as someone from outer space!
The role of religion in Trinidad & Tobago Most people of African descent are Christians and belong to traditional denominations, but there are also some Baptists and evangelical charismatic denominations. There are also quite a few Hindus, about 25 per cent of the population, and also a small number of Muslims. All in all, these different religions seem to live in relative harmony with each other. Churches, temples and mosques stand side by side. Another religious group is the Rastafarians, whose beliefs and lifestyle dominated the cultural orientation of the islands in the 1960s.
school, and both boys and girls take part. Around
the day after tomorrow. â€œI am a bit lateâ€?,
However, the impression we were left with is
carnival times there are big competitions for
Paula told us after having had us wait 75 minu-
that they are not taken very seriously any lon-
the best steel band. It is quite astonishing how
tes in scorching heat. No doubt we would also
ger. The only place where we saw Rastafarians
many different sounds they manage to get out of
have to develop some aspects of this lifestyle if
was on the beach, where they offered chairs and
the steel pans by changing the depth and hollow-
we had an average temperature of 25-30 degrees
ness of the barrels.
all year round. Watching the people of Tobago at the Sunday School night dance their calypso convinced me that here is a dimension in life that I
Music as an important part of peopleâ€™s lives
Quite an experience
We were happy to be accompanied by our special
experience and I would highly recommend any
self! I will be happy to provide you with add-
friend, a guide who had taken us into the rain
of you to go to there or maybe to some other
resses and some advice. Just contact me on
forest, to â€œSunday School for adultsâ€? in the eve-
former British Caribbean island. You are bound
ning on the beach. The local people â€“ joined by
to learn a lot and perhaps revise some of your
many tourists â€“ gather each Sunday night from
preconceptions. You will certainly enjoy the hos-
My journey to Trinidad and Tobago was a great
would like to explore! Why donâ€™t you go there and see for your-
nine p.m. and into the night on the beach in the little village of Buccoo Reef. Here they listen to the steel band orchestra, dance calypso, talk to friends, drink the local rum, have a good meal
Here are some titles of books
that I have found very interesting:
and a â€œlimeâ€?, which means a get-together of family, friends, even total strangers, depending
Merle Hodge: Crick Crack Monkey
on the situation. A lime can assume different
forms, from straightforward hanging out at home
A House for Mr Biswas
to river limes, involving a lot of people spending
Jean Rhys: Wide Sargasso Sea
The Dragon Canâ€™t Dance
the day together by a beautiful river, cooking, swimming, singing, and enjoying good company. Music is an integrated part of life in
Jamaica Kincaid: Annie John
Trinidad and Tobago â€“ be it gospel, steel band, chutney (a special Indian song imported by the Indian indentured labourers), calypso, soca (a
There are many other interesting
blend of soul music and calypso) â€“ or modern
novels, short stories and poems
rap. Steel pans are drums made from the tops
pitality and friendliness of the people. People
from the Caribbean Islands. I
of oil barrels. Caribbean people started experi-
from Northern Europe â€“ used to efficiency and
think we ought to show our stu-
menting with the sounds of discarded oil drums
planning â€“ sometimes need to see that there
dents that there is an interesting
in the 1930s, and today the steel pan music is
are other lifestyles as well, where it is of less
world outside Britain and the USA!
so elaborate that it takes a long time to master
importance to do everything today, when somet-
these instruments. They learn to play them at
hing could easily be postponed to tomorrow or
" Ja, takk! Jeg vil gjerne stå som mottaker av fagavisen (gratis!) for engelsklærere. Skolens navn: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Skolens adresse: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faglærerens navn: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-post adresse: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAPPELEN UNDERVISNING, Videregående skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum, 0101 Oslo. Faksnummer: 22 36 50 46
C a p p e l e n s t i d s s k r i f t f o r e n g e l s k l æ r e r e Illustrasjon: Inger Dale