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Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

10-09-07

C a p p e l e n s

nr02-2002

10:36

Side 1

t i d s s k r i f t

f o r

e n g e l s k l ĂŚ r e r e

Illustrasjon: Inger Dale


Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

10-09-07

10:36

Leder

Side 2

innhold 03

The Rise of the Sun Belt by Robert Mikkelsen

Kjære leser, For en tid tilbake kom jeg over et sitat av W.H. Auden som jeg nikket gjenkjennende til: "Among those whom I like or admire, I can find no common denominator, but among those whom I love, I can: all of them make me laugh." Et av høstens arbeidsmøter med forfatterne av Tapestry gav meg sjansen til å bruke sitatet. En av dem spurte meg helt overraskende: "Answer me quickly, how come you still, after all these years, love us so much?" Etter noen sekunders betenkning visste jeg svaret, og jeg siterte Auden! Humor og selvironi er uvurderlige egenskaper i team-arbeid, og i tillegg til disse forfatternes faglige kompetanse, er jeg overbevist om at nettopp dette har bidratt til at de gjennom mer enn ti år har laget engelskverk som lærere og elever har hatt stor glede av å bruke.

06 08

I dette nummeret av [ mægəzi:n] vil dere blant annet finne  bidrag fra tre av forfatterne som reviderer Tapestry og Venture. Robert Mikkelsen har skrevet en artikkel om forflytningen av det politiske tyngdepunktet fra nord til sør i USA, "The Rise of the Sunbelt". En betraktning som dere sikkert vil ha utbytte av å bruke i klassen i forbindelse med kongressvalget i høst. Richard Peel gir dere noen gode tips om bruk av illustrasjoner i klasserommet og Theresa Bowles Sørhus bidrar med et morsomt opplegg for muntlig aktivitet: "Melody Grand Prix in the Classroom".

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Jeg føler meg ganske sikker på at den nye Tapestry, om den ikke nødvendigvis får dere til å le, i hvert fall vil være nok en bok til glede. Den opprinnelige forfattergruppen har fått to nye medlemmer, og både "gamle" og "nye" har tenkt nytt. Men, vi har beholdt en ledetråd som var viktig også i den forrige utgaven: litteraturen skal stå i fokus. Vi holder fortsatt fast på konseptet med litteratur og background i én bok, men denne gangen er stoffet annerledes organisert. Noe vi mener gir muligheter for en mer spennende og fleksibel undervisning. Dere skal få en grundig presentasjon av revisjonen i vårnummeret av dette bladet. Når jeg nå har omtalt noe av innholdet i dette nummeret, vil jeg benytte anledningen til å takke alle dere som bidro i spørreundersøkelsen vår om hva en var fornøyd/misfornøyd med i [ mægəzi:n]. Vi syntes det var veldig hyggelig at så mange  engasjerte seg og sendte inn svar og kommentarer. Tre innsendere ble trukket ut og har fått tilsendt sine Caplex. Hyggelig var det også at så mange var fornøyde med stoffet som blir presentert, men samtidig hadde konstruktive forslag til temaer som kunne presenteres. Forslagene vil bli fulgt opp! Og vi i redaksjonen tar mer enn gjerne imot bidrag til bladet fra dere. Så ønsker jeg dere lesere en god høst og håper at også dette nummeret av [ mægəzi:n] vil være til både nytte og glede, for  dere lærere og for elevene.

Focus on the Author: George Bernard Shaw

Pass It On! by Theresa Bowles Sørhus

Is There a Future for English Studies in Norway? by Einar Bjorvand

09 12

Using Illustrations by Richard Hugh Peel

Read It! Staying On by Paul Scott. Reviewed by John Erik Bøe Lindgren

15 16 [ mægəzi:n] 

CAPPELEN UNDERVISNING videregående skole, Postboks 350 Sentrum, 0101 Oslo

Nyhetsklipp

Ansvarlig redaktør: Kirsten Aadahl Redaksjon: Birger Nicolaysen

Telefon: 22 36 51 77/5195

Produksjon: Prepress as

E-post: kirsten.aadahl@cappelen.no

Trykk: Kampen Grafisk as


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Side 3

Robert Mikkelsen er medforfatter på Cappelens lærebøker i engelsk for den videregående skolen, VK1 og VK2. Han underTo understand the rise of the Sun Belt you must understand the fall of the South. When the eleven Confederate States of America declared their independence from the rest of the United States in 1861, they set in motion the most destructive war in American history. Four years later the defeated South lay in

viste i videregående skole i 12 år før han i 1991 ble ansatt på Høgskolen i Østfold der han underviser grunnfag- og mellomfagkurs om USA. Bidraget til dette nummeret av [ mægəzi:n] er en bearbeidet og mer elevvennlig versjon av forelesningen  "The Rise of the Sun Belt" som Robert holdt under presentasjonen av

Cappelens nye verk for VK1, Departures og Interaction.

ruins – its economy, its society and its politi-

01

cal institutions shattered. Until 1877 it was

02

governed from Washington and occupied by

decided the amount to be "shared," and con-

Northern troops, the hated Yankees. The

trolled the sale of the harvest, it quickly

catastrophe of the Civil War – or the War

turned into a system of exploitation, tying

Between the States, as it is referred to in the

"sharecroppers" to the land through debt and

South – humiliated and impoverished the

poverty. Conservative white owners had little

03 04 05 06 07

reason to want to change this system.

08

be a hundred years before the South rejoined

Steel Belt versus Bible Belt

10

the mainstream of American development.

Meanwhile, industrial growth continued in the

entire region. Although the cry "the South

09

will rise again" could still be heard, it would

11 12

North during the first half of the 20th century. While the North grew explosively between

of cities and towns with the heavy industries

1865 and 1900, quickly making the USA the

like steel and automobiles stretching from

largest industrial power in the world, the

New York to Chicago. In stark contrast to this

South established a rural, agricultural econo-

stood the conservative, rural and religious

my based on "sharecropping." Southern

"Bible Belt" of the South. Adding to this con-

landowners allowed blacks (and poor whites)

trast was the infamous Southern system of

to farm small sections of land on the condi-

racist segregation, which denied blacks their

tion that they "shared" a portion of the har-

legal and political rights. Many blacks "voted

vested crop with the owners. Since the owners

13

The dynamic "Steel Belt" developed – a string

with their feet" and moved North during these

14 15 16 17 18 19

American and Confederate flag

© Scanpix

Sharecropping

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Side 4

Houston, Texas

The "Sun Belt" was the answer. Stretching through the Old South in the east straight across Texas, Arizona and New Mexico to California, this area of the United States grew rapidly.

Š Scanpix

years, seeking a better life. By the 1950s a

this new, more competitive "globalized" world,

Population and politics

highpoint was reached in the contrast between

American businesses searched frantically for

This led to a major shift in population. By

the South and the rest of America. But it was

a place that could offer them lower energy

2000, 58% of all Americans lived in the South

in those very same years changes were begin-

costs, cheaper labor and lower taxes.

or the West of the country. For the first time

ning which would alter the course of Southern 01

development for the rest of the century.

02

Growth in the South

03

A time of change

The "Sun Belt" was

04

By far the most important of these changes was

the answer.

05

the end of segregation in the South under the

Stretching through

06

impact of the Civil Rights movement. Because

the Old South in the

07

of this movement, the Federal government

08 09 10 11

The Movement to the Sun Belt [ PO PU L AT IO N I N MI L L IO N S ] 1950

1970

1990

2000

South

47

63

85

100

east straight

West

20

35

52

63

forced Southern state governments to end seg-

across Texas,

North East

39

49

51

53

regation. This helped "break the back" of the

Arizona and New

North Central

44

56

60

64

traditional Southern conservative leadership

Mexico to

and bring to power a new group of politicians,

California, this area of the United States grew

in the history of the country, the majority did

12

both black and white, who opened the region up

rapidly. Warm winters were welcome. Air-con-

not live in the Northeast or the Midwest. This

13

to new ideas, investments, and industries.

ditioning made the hot summers livable.

included growing numbers of older people who

Cheaper non-union workers were available by

moved South to avoid the freezing winters of

14 15

At the same time, America suffered an eco-

the hundreds of thousands, with millions more

the North. The table illustrates this remark-

16

nomic downturn which started in 1970 and

waiting just across the border in Mexico.

able shift. By the 1990s even blacks were mov-

17

lasted more than a decade. It was made worse

Completely new ultra-efficient factories were

ing back South in record numbers, voting with

18

by high energy prices and increasing competi-

set up to meet foreign competition head-on.

their feet once again.

19

tion from abroad in key American industries

And best of all, the Sun Belt states offered

20

like steel and automobiles. The once proud

lower taxes to attract new industries and

And with population comes political power.

21

"Steel Belt" was gradually turned into the

investors. From the 1970s on, the Sun Belt

Every president elected since Lyndon Johnson

22

"Rust Belt", full of old abandoned factories. In

boomed while the Steel Belt rusted.

from Texas in 1964 has come from the Sun Belt

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10-09-07

10:36

Side 5

Seniors exercising on Miami Beach

© Scanpix

Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

Mexican factory worker in Arizona

– Richard Nixon (California)*, Jimmy Carter

Republicans gained a slight majority of

The Future

(Georgia), Ronald Reagan (California), George

Congressmen from the Southern states, giving

The growth of the Sun Belt continues today with-

Bush (Texas), Bill Clinton (Arkansas) and

them a majority in the House of Represen-

out pause. Between 1990 and 2000 the popula-

George W. Bush (Texas). National politics have

tatives for the first time since the 1950s. And

tion of the South alone increased by almost 15

also taken a distinct turn to the right, reflect-

the trend continues. The national Census of

million persons – double that of the Norteast

ing more conservative views of the West and

2000 has led to the redistribution of 10 of the

and Midwest combined. This gives it increasing

South. This has strengthened today’s conserva-

435 seats in the House of Representative.

influence in all aspects of American life.

tive Republican Party at the expense of the

Most of these seats have gone to states in the

more liberal Democratic Party, which had con-

South and West, at the expense of the North-

It took over a century, but in many ways the

trolled "The Solid (Democratic) South" after

east and Midwest. If these seats are won by

old battle cry of the Confederacy has finally

the Civil War (Abe Lincoln was a Republican).

the Republicans in the November elections of

come true – the South has risen again.

2002, the Republican majority in the House of *(President Gerald Ford from Michigan – the man who took

Shifting power in Congress

Representatives will almost certainly

over from Richard Nixon when the latter resigned – was

In 1994 the unthinkable happened – the

increase.

appointed to the post, not elected.)

01 02 03

1

Focus on the text

c)

a) Explain what is false in the following sentences: – It took the South fifty years to recover from the War Between the States. – The Steel Belt prospered in the 1970s. – Sharecropping was based on an equal partnership. – High energy prices hurt industry in the South. – Traditional Southern conservative leadership brought new ideas, investments and industries to the region. – The shift south in population has not affected

d) What were the reasons behind the economic growth of the Sun Belt during the last part of the 20th century? e) Why have most of America’s presidents come from Sun Belt states recently? f)

politics in the United States. – Segregation was ended in the North in the 1960s. – Older people moved South because food was cheaper there. b) What effect did the War Between the States have on the South? Can you suggest why the Southerners did not wish to join the Northerners in the development of industry after the war?

What changes occurred in the 1950s that altered the course of Southern development? What effect did these changes have on the political leadership of the region?

2

How has the shift in population to the South and West affected the power of the Republican and Democratic Parties?

Talking

If you could move for a year to the United States, would you live in the Sun Belt? If so, where? If not, why not? Discuss your opinions with a classmate.

3

Surfin’

04 05

a) Find out more about the Confederate States of America. Which states were members? What

06

did they have in common? Who was President? What did its flag look like? How do people in

08

the South feel about it today? Prepare a short report for your class.

10

b) Find information about one of the following Sun Belt cities: – Las Vegas, Nevada – Naples, Florida – Phoenix, Arizona – Laredo, Texas

07 09 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

What is its population? How much has it grown in the last ten years? What kinds of jobs do people have? Does the city have suburbs and, if so, what

18

are they called? Who is the mayor? Prepare a short report for the class.

20

19 21 22 23 24


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Side 6

Focus on the Author Denne gangen har vi valgt å gi en kort presentasjon av forfatteren bak den andre av årets dramaer vi gir ut i skoleutgaver, George Bernard Shaw. I tillegg til Pygmalion (1912) He har han blant annet skrevet: Major Barbara (1907), The strongly Doctor’s Dilemma (1911) og Androcles and the Lion (1916). Han fikk Nobel-prisen i litteratur i 1925. George Bernard believed in Shaw skrev også essays og kritiske arbeider, alltid socialist ideals, i.e. vittige i formen. Hans brevveksling med med that to improve social skuespillerne Ellen Terry og Mrs Patrick conditions in a society Campbell, Collected Letters, er også the fortunes of the rich had utgitt. to be reduced in order to help the poor. The Fabian Society was one

02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

can say he was trying to do in English what Henrik Ibsen had done in Norwegian, and, indeed, Shaw was a great admirer of Ibsen.

Man and Superman from 1905 was his first really successful play. It was followed by a string of successes. Many would claim that Saint

Joan, first performed in 1923, was his greatest achievement. When he won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1925, he was already a renowned

of the groups which founded the Labour Party.

dramatist. However, although he wrote fifty

They believed that capitalism had created an

plays, his political and social writings are of

unjust and inefficient society. They agreed

much greater total length.

George Bernard Shaw was born in Dublin in

that the ultimate aim of the group should be

1856 to a middle-class Protestant family. His

to "reconstruct society in accordance with the

Shaw maintained that authors should primari-

father was a civil servant who later became

highest moral possibilities".

ly be concerned with social issues and a new

an unsuccessful merchant. His mother was a

01

George Bernard Shaw

and challenging approach to morality.

music teacher and a talented singer. She

Shaw supported women's suffrage and anti-

Edwardian society was known for double stan-

soon found out that her husband was a drunk-

colonial movements. At this time women did

dards, and many of the issues that Shaw took

ard and incapable of earning enough money to

not have the right to vote, and Shaw was a

up – like prostitution and poverty – were

provide for her and their three children.

strong supporter of universal suffrage.

themes usually not treated artistically. Shaw

When Shaw was sixteen, his mother left

Another issue which helps give a fuller pic-

wanted them to reflect injustice in society

Dublin with her two daughters and settled in

ture of Shaw was his vegetarianism. He

and he did not agree with those who said that

London where she supported herself and her

became a vegetarian at the age of 25, claim-

the theatre was a place for mere entertain-

family by giving singing lessons and singing

ing that animals are our fellow creatures and

ment. One of his greatest contributions as a

at concerts. Shaw himself left Dublin at the

therefore should not be eaten. Nor did he

modern dramatist is in establishing drama as

age of 20 and tried to earn a living in London

drink spirits, coffee or tea.

serious literature, claiming that the play was

wanted to be provocative in his plays. He

by writing for different newspapers. This,

no less important than the novel. As he

however, was difficult, and during his first

Shaw wrote articles for various newspapers

claims in the preface to Pygmalion: "I wish to

years in London he had to rely on his mother

and magazines and it was not until 1892 that

boast that Pygmalion has been an extremely

for lodging and food. At this time his interest

his first play Widowers' Houses was performed.

successful play, both on stage and screen, all

for economic, political and social issues was

It was not a success. London was not yet ready

over Europe and North America as well as at

awakened, and after hearing a lecture on

for dramas depicting social inequality and

home. It is so intensely and deliberately

socialism he became a devoted socialist. He

women with a bad reputation. Shaw tackled

didactic, and its subject is esteemed so dry,

joined the Fabian Society, a Socialist group,

political, social and religious issues in a

that I delight in throwing it at the heads of

and he was soon to become one of its leading

direct and robust way that was new for the

the wiseacres who repeat the parrot cry that

speakers. Shaw gave lectures on socialism on

British theatre of his time. It took some time

art should never be didactic. It goes to prove

street corners and helped distribute political

before his approach to controversial subjects

my contention that great art can never be any-

literature. However, he always felt uncomfort-

was accepted and for a while he was extremely

thing else." Shaw remained an active partici-

able with trade union members and preferred

unpopular among upper-middle-class theatre-

pant in debates about social issues, politics

debate to action.

goers, but he did not give up. In many ways you

and art until he died in 1950, 94 years old.


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Side 7

Š Scanpix

01

In many ways you can say he was trying to do in English what Henrik Ibsen had done in Norwegian, and, indeed, Shaw was a great admirer of Ibsen.

02 03 04 05 06 07 08

Another theme that Shaw took a life-long interest in was the sound of words, as well as their meaning. It annoyed him that ordinary written English is extremely illogical in spelling, and he created an enlarged alphabet and a reformed spelling to make it easier to spell a word according to the actual way it is pronounced. Professor Higgins in Pygmalion used this enlarged alphabet. Shaw left a considerate part of his fortune to be used in a campaign to introduce his enlarged alphabet and his reformed spelling. Although there have been some attempts to follow this up, it has never really been considered seriously.

09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


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Side 8

dents will enjoy. As this is an English role play the songs should be in English even though they are meant to represent different European countries. Each song is arbitrarily assigned to a country/group. Students should be instructed to immediately make private ranking lists after they have heard each song or it will be difficult for them to reconstruct afterwards. It is also important that they speak English in their discussions when each national jury makes its official ranking. Songs may be evaluated for such things as lyrics, melody, instrumental arrangement, clarity of singing etc. Students can be encouraged to find other relevant areas on which to judge the songs as well.

Har du et tips å gi til kolleger? Publiserte bidrag til spalten vil

Points: If, for example, six songs are played, then points are given in 2-point "steps" with the song they like least receiving 2 points and the song they like most receiving 10. The countries, in keeping with the Grand Prix spirit, cannot give themselves points.

honoreres med boksjekker til en verdi av 300 kr.

01 02

Melody Grand Prix in the Classroom: Role Play on a “Grand” Scale by Theresa Bowles Sørhus .:::. Grefsen videregående skole

03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

There are few role plays which involve the entire class. However, one of my more successful experiments, spawned out of a casual comment by a colleague, has led to several memorable class role plays where the television show which no one sees and yet everyone has an opinion about, i.e. Melody Grand Prix or the Eurovision Song Contest as it is also known, provides the framework. In this role play the basic format of the Eurovision Song Contest is copied and simplified for use in the classroom. Students are divided into groups representing different participating countries, songs are played and judged by the groups and the voting process emulates the song contest as closely as possible, using English at every stage in the process. Students quickly enter into the spirit of the game as this introduces an element of variety and fun in speaking English. Each time I introduce the role play, I alter the details somewhat in order to accommodate the class I am working with. The basic "recipe", however, might read as follows: Group size: In a class with 30 students I would divide students into six groups of five. If classes are smaller or some students are absent I would opt for smaller groups in order to give each student the maximum amount of time to speak. Each group is assigned a country e.g. The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany etc. Each country should pick a jury foreman.

21 22 23 24

Music: Here it is important to pick varied, contemporary pop music that you may either have played in class before or that you think stu-

Role Play: Before the role play can get underway, I usually ask for volunteers to be the television host and hostess. Hopefully students who like to "act the part" will volunteer. If there are no volunteers then I ask two students to do the job. It is perhaps a good idea to write prompt cards with the names of the songs and the countries they represent and give these to the pair. Once roles are assigned and each group knows which country they represent and which is "their" song, it is important to emphasize that once the role play begins, students should do their utmost to keep up the illusion of a real show. Teachers and students alike will be amazed to see how much of the show is a repetition of basic formulae. This becomes especially apparent when the voting starts and the host/hostess greets each country with phrases such as "Good evening Oslo. May we have the results of the Norwegian jury?" A daring Norwegian group might answer "Good evening Vienna. I must congratulate you on a wonderful show. Here are the results of the Norwegian jury..." Without prompting, I find the students who play the role of host and hostess invariably repeat points in French e.g. "Germany two points, l’Allemagne deux points" to the delight of the rest of the class. Keeping score can easily be accomplished by drawing a grid on the blackboard of the countries and having another student draw lines. When the winning melody is chosen, students usually demand that it be played over again and by this time the double hour, regrettably, has come to an end. For English teachers who teach another foreign language as well, this role play can easily be modified to fit German, French and Spanish classes replacing English songs with German, French or Spanish songs. Students will most likely not be able to discuss in the language taught but the formulae of the voting process can easily be adapted to the foreign language e.g. "Bonsoir Oslo. Puis-je avoir les résultats du jury norvégien?" "Voici les résultats..."

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

Are there any pedagogical "winnings" to such a role play? The Eurovision song contest simulates a broadcast which is live and public thus requiring that students should speak loudly, clearly and confidently – all very important aspects of oral English. Astute students will also automatically show sociolinguistic competence in choosing polite, formal language rather than informal, everyday language. When judging the songs students are also given the opportunity to evaluate, compare and contrast something in English and voice and defend their opinions. And, perhaps most importantly, the role play requires the active participation of every student in the class.

10

I find that no two role plays are ever the same. Once the ground rules are established, however, and my role is confined to playing the music, I find, to my great pleasure, that most of the role plays are immensely successful – usually because I have faded into the background and let students take center stage for two hours.

18

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Side 9

Einar Bjorvand er bestyrer ved Institutt for britiske og amerikanske studier ved Universitetet i Oslo

01 02

by Einar Bjorvand

03 04 05

"A gentle knight was pricking on the plain..." That is how Spenser’s great epic, The Faerie Queene, opens. This may stand as the archetypal image of modern man, alone, individualised, pitted against the elements and against the evil forces outside himself as well as inside himself. From Spenser’s knight of 1590 to Shakespeare’s Hamlet, to Christian of A

Pilgrim’s Progress or Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, or, if you like, Luke Skywalker, Harry Potter, or Frodo the Hobit of the 20th and 21st centuries, this image of the lonely individual grappling with existential problems, whether they appear in physical shape or as spiritual forces, are forever present at the core of Western culture.

proper attention to popular culture. There is

06

an obvious similarity between Spenser’s lone- 07 ly knight on his horse on the wide plain and 08 the lonely cowboy on the wide prairie, heading 09 west. 10 11 My point is the rather obvious one: while the

12

vast influence and dominant position of

13

English language and culture in our world can

14

be explained with reference to world economy

15

and globalisation, its influence on our own

16

culture can also be partly explained by refer-

17

ence to affinity of culture. In large parts of

18

It does not much matter whether we are

vast influence of especially popular American

today’s world English enjoys the position of a

19

British or American or Norwegian. In impor-

culture today, and it may very well be that in

lingua franca, its presence and influence is

20

tant ways the cultural core is the same. It is

our search for the finest, most sophisticated

everywhere. But language does not travel

21

obvious that modern capitalism and globali-

use of language to give expression to the

alone; it carries with it a socio-cultural bag-

22

sation are vital to our understanding of the

human predicament, we have failed to pay

gage without which it does not yield meaning.

23 24


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Side 10

Š Scanpix

In higher education, therefore, we prefer to

little comfort to be had from the fact that

Seeking to reach their goals, the authorities

teach language, culture, history, literature,

Norwegian, German, and French are worse hit

have seized upon the honourable concept of

01

etc. together because they are not separate

than we are.

internationalization. Looking abroad, and to

02

but rather intimately connected. And since

03

the demand for English teaching is thought to

It’s difficult to see how we can influence

have sought to import not so much activities

04

be almost without limits in the modern world,

these facts and trends. They may simply be

and institutions that guarantee quality, but

05

English studies are offered at every university

natural fluctuations in the socio-economic

rather arrangements that produce efficiency.

06

and college in the country.

complexity of the modern world.

They are like Arnold Bennett’s Methodist

Unfortunately, the authorities have chosen

preacher whose main aim was to reduce the

07

the Anglo-American world in particular, they

08

But in spite of this proliferation of educational

this precise moment in time, when language

cost per head of souls saved. They seek, in

09

offers, over the past few years universities and

studies seem to be at a low ebb, to demand

similar fashion, to reduce the cost per head of

10

colleges have experienced an almost dramatic

immediate return of their investment in edu-

candidates produced.

11

reduction in the number of students actively

cation. So far university and college depart-

12

seeking higher education in English. In the case

ments have been financed, more or less,

Consequently, they have reduced the BA-

13

of some such institutions the fall is dramatic.

according to the number of people employed.

degree to three years and the MA to five

14

Now we shall be financed according, not to

years, including pedagogical training. All

15

There are many reasons for this decrease in

the number of students we really teach and

courses have to be modularised, and the grad-

16

student numbers. There is the reduced birth

examine, but according to the number we actu-

ing system has been simplified to include the

17

rate of the early 1980s, a general reduction in

ally process through the educational machine

letters A through F.

18

the over-all tendency to seek higher educa-

and send out as finished products. The idea

19

tion, and, for complex reasons that are diffi-

that, faced with such obvious economic pres-

We fear, of course, that this political unwilling-

20

cult to analyse, there is a decline in student

sures, colleges and universities will still

ness to pay for the job we are doing, and only

21

numbers in language studies all over Western

uphold their standards of high quality, is a

for those candidates who actually get through

22

Europe. In modern terms: we have seen a

fiction that nobody believes in.

the system, will lead to undue pressure on the

23

reduction in our share of the market. There is

24

institutions to allow more students to pass,


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10:36

Side 11

and thus to a lowering of standards. This is a

What the relationship is going to be in the

et will continue to fluctuate and to be in prin-

consequence well known from abroad, and even

future between the new programme boards

ciple largely unpredictable. Again departments

in a few instances from this country.

and the traditional departments, nobody

and scholars must bear the brunt.

There is this well-known story about the NTH

seems to know. On the one hand, it is argued,

engineering student in Trondheim who handed

the programme boards seem best suited to

When all this is said, and while we continue to

in his exam paper. But all he had produced

secure the interdisciplinary character of

be sceptical about many aspects of the

was a rather nice drawing, plus a few words

many programmes; on the other hand, there

announced quality reform, I think there is lit-

wishing everybody a happy Christmas. The

can be no doubt that the departments repre-

tle reason to fear for the future of English

examiners rather liked his drawing and (per-

sent and guarantee the scholarly quality of

studies in the long term. As I have stated

haps in a true Christmas spirit?) gave him 5.0.

courses offered. It may be unfortunate if our

above, our affinity with and the influence of

It turned out that the examining board found

best scholars are forced to compromise with

British and American culture is such that the

that the failure rate was too high, and that

their professional standards in order to have

demand for well-founded and thorough studies

probably the examination questions had been

their courses accepted by study programmes.

of English will remain strong in a foreseeable

too difficult. So they decided that all marks

Again we see how the demand to produce cred-

future. What we shall have to try and foster is

should be raised one whole grade.

its may have wide ramifications.

a more professional attitude to the handling of language and culture. The public, and business

Consequently, our drawing artist passed his exam with a 4.0 for wishing everybody a merry

The almost infinite freedom that seemed to

and industry in particular, are too easily satis-

Christmas! (The story may be fictitious, but it

be offered to students through modularisation

fied with superficial knowledge and a minimum

illustrates my point beautifully.)

has been severely curbed through the intro-

of communicative ability. We need a more pro-

duction of the study programmes. How this is

fessional attitude that is prepared to argue: "If

Modularisation is the order of the day, and

going to affect students’ choices and perform-

it’s worth doing, it’s worth doing well."

the arts faculty in Oslo now has several hun-

ance in the long term, remains to be seen.

dred 10-credit modules on offer. In English

We shall also have to involve ourselves more

alone we offer more than 50. In order for the

The budget for 2003 seems likely to be based

in further – and continuing education. In the

students not to get entirely lost in this modu-

on statistics for 2001 when student numbers

English department at the University of Oslo

lar jungle, we have also imported another sys-

were at a low ebb in most departments in the

we have taken an initiative to establish an

tem from abroad in the form of study pro-

arts faculty. The result is that we shall have

alumni club, IBAlumni, for former students of

grammes. At present English participates sig-

barely enough money to pay salaries and hard-

English. (See http://www.hf.uio.no/iba/

nificantly in 4 programmes: teacher educa-

ly anything for running expenses. We are told

ibalumni/ibalumni.html). This initiative,

tion, the language programme, the literature

that we should encourage good research and

while a perfectly legitimate activity in itself,

programme and area studies.

work to raise our scholarly level to compete

may serve to give us more and more reliable

with the best universities in Europe. But in

information about the needs and desires for

We have not been too happy about this divi-

order to do that we need some incentive and

further education among our former students.

sion into a language and a literature pro-

some opportunity to stimulate our best schol-

To the same end we have established a unit

gramme. We are afraid that a beneficial study

ars. As it is, we hardly have money to send

for continuing education and hired a coordina-

structure offered so far by the foreign lan-

scholars to conferences to which they have

tor to investigate demands and develop cours-

guage departments will be lost in the

been invited to present their research to an

es. There are many operators in this market

process. The present study structure has been

international forum. There are signs this term

and the road to profitability may be a long

built up around the idea that you cannot study

that student numbers may again be increasing.

one, but you will never learn to swim unless

language without a reasonable knowledge of

If this continues, we shall be better off in

you get into the water.

the culture and literature where that lan-

2004. If unemployment continues to grow and

guage is in use. Nor can you study literature

we gradually get a situation similar to the one

As teachers of English we have an important

without a proper, and preferably an advanced

we experienced in the 90s with an almost

role to play in a contemporary Norwegian cul-

understanding of the language and linguistic

unlimited influx of students, the ministry may

ture. Our task is to offer to the public knowl-

properties used to produce those much cher-

find itself in a situation where they shall have

edge and understanding of English (British

ished literary structures.

to propose an enormous budget for universities

and American) language and culture, histori-

and colleges. This will reveal another weak-

cal as well as contemporary, of the kind that

Study programmes set up with independent

ness in the present budgetary policy. We have

only diligent study and research can produce.

boards have supplanted the structure of the

absolutely no guarantee that the ministry,

And that can never be obsolete.

present studies as offered by departments in

faced with this situation, will not reduce the

the form of two-term and three-term courses.

sum to be paid for each candidate. So the budg-

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10:36

Side 12

I suspect that textbook illustrations are a lit-

What is going on here? What types of people

tle-used resource, and the following short

would you expect in a story for which this is an

article suggests a few ways in which they can

illustration? What is the setting here: place

be exploited. I am primarily thinking of oral

and time? What theme might the story have?

activities in the classroom.

Bit-by-bit General points and suggestions

Project a transparency onto the screen, but cover over most of the details. The pupils'

Heads up! When pupils are in class and look at the illustrations in their books, their heads are down. If you make an overhead transparency and ask them to look at a projection on a screen, their heads are up. This gives you several possibilities.

Brainstorming You can use many illustrations as stimuli to brain-storming. (If colour is important, make a colour transparency. Black-andwhite transparencies, however, are often perfectly all right.) One possibility is to make a colour transparency of a picture that illustrates a short story, and, before reading the story, use it to stimulate pupils to say something about the sit01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

uation. Here are some questions that could be asked:

by Richard Hugh Peel, skole Bjørkelangen videregüende


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10:36

Side 13

task is to tell you what they think the whole

Obviously, most of these activities can be

ture more than once. (It can easily be made

picture shows. You gradually reveal more and

arranged as group activities or competitions

into a small competition.)

more of the picture. (This is dead easy on an

if you so wish. Few of them take long. Be

overhead. Do it slowly. You should demand

ready to terminate them if they do not ‘take’.

bly had some sort of idea that the collage

that pupils make lots of suggestions.) As the

These activities can of course be used with

should tell us something. What do you think

picture becomes more complete, pupils can

illustrations from any source!

was in the editor’s mind?

d) The editor who chose these pictures proba-

suggest what the story is probably about. (This activity is particularly useful for prac-

Working with collages

Vocabulary tips

tising the use of ‘There is…’ and ‘There

In many text-books you will find collages of

Make sure your pupils know how to indicate

are…’, or ‘I think there's …’.)

photographs (often as an introduction to a

something in a picture by being able to use

new chapter). Suggestions for use:

the following words and phrases fluently and

Quick viewing A variation on the preceding technique is to

correctly: a) Organise the class into groups of three. Let

– in the picture

project a complete picture on the screen

the pupils look at the collages for about 20

– on the left

for 1-2 seconds, then to cover it quickly,

seconds. Then ask them to turn their books

– on the right

and to ask your pupils what they saw.

over, and each group makes its own list of

– in the foreground

This can also be done very easily with

the pictures. (This is, of course, a form of

– in the background

colour slides.

‘Kim's Game’.) They can describe the pic-

– behind, in front of, beside

tures, or give them titles, or say what is in

All these words and phrases have

Mini-pictures

them: the choice is theirs. Give a strict

‘Norwenglish’ (Norwegianised English) equiv-

Use scissors and cut a detail from each

time limit (e.g. 4 minutes).Then they pin

alents which are not acceptable (eg ‘on the

of five overhead transparencies of five differ-

their lists on the class notice-board. Then a

left side’).

ent pictures, then a second detail from one of

committee consisting of one representative

these pictures (so you have six mini-pictures,

from each group (perhaps one of the ‘quiet’

Some illustrations are, of course, useful as

all separate: only two of them come from the

pupils) judges which answer is the best.

aids in working with specialist vocabulary,

same original). Spread them out on the over-

b) Again, groups of three. Each group makes a

and here it might be more helpful to use an

head projector and project them onto the screen. The pupils’ task is to decide which two

caption for each picture. c) Give the photographs numbers. Read out a

overhead transparency than simply to look at illustrations in a book.

details belong to the same picture. Try this

list of words, and pupils must decide which

with pictures they have seen and pictures

pictures are related in some way with

Seating arrangements

they have not seen. (You might want to give

these words. Either do this as individual or

Think hard about the way your pupils are sit-

each mini-picture a number.)

as a ‘team’ activity. The pictures can fea-

ting. Would it be better if they were gathered

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

10-09-07

10:36

Side 14

into a semicircle, or if they were sitting on

c) Find the picture you think is most dramatic.

the floor, or standing? After 20 minutes’ sit-

Why have you chosen it? What is going on?

tion, ideas and insights connected to the pic-

ting it is a nice change to walk about for a few

What special techniques has the artist or

ture. Pupils could be asked to choose a theme

minutes. So why not ask your pupils to walk

photographer used?

connected to the picture, and write a text on

about the room, talking to each other about a

d) Pick the illustration, either a painting or photograph, that you like best in the book.

important points connected to an illustration.

time to time, to introduce variety and physical

Explain why you chose it to your classmates.

For this type of activity the illustration can accompany any sort of text ("literary" or

Repetition and revision

03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

"technical").

Choosing pictures

Repetition and revision are vitally important

There are some activities that involve pupils

disciplines if pupils are to succeed in retain-

If you would like to see some specific sugges-

finding one particular picture and explaining

ing what they learn in their long-term memo-

tions for making use of the illustrations in

why. Suggestions:

ry. Since text-book illustrations have general-

the textbook Departures, there is an article

a) Find a picture in the book (painting or pho-

ly been chosen by writers and editors specifi-

on the Departures website (in the section

tograph) which seems to express a particu-

cally because they highlight or complement

called ‘Teacher’s Guide’). The address is

larly strong mood. Be ready to tell the class

the content of a chapter or story, they are

http://departures.cappelen.no.

what picture you have chosen and why.

ideal as aids to repetition and revision. Here

b) Find pictures of any two people who come

are three suggestions – in each case it is

Those who teach vocational classes will find a

into conflict with each other in some way.

assumed that the illustration refers to a

similar article in British Ways Teacher’s Book.

Explain the conflict, and which of the peo-

topic or text previously covered by the

ple you feel most sympathy for in their

course.. An illustration can be shown, and

conflict.

02

that theme. They could be asked to write five

picture you have just shown them? Try, from

movement into a 45-minute period!

01

brain-storming aimed at recalling informa-

pupils asked to do a


10-09-07

10:36

Side 15

Read It! In a time when everything

Staying On by Paul Scott Reviewed by John Erik Bøe Lindgren

Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

This time, however, we

on the consequences for an

are dealing with good

elderly British couple,

literature from Europe

Tusker and Lucy Smalley,

leaving us in an everlasting

by a European. Even

of staying behind in India

present, it might be a good

though Scott spent

after it won its independ-

some time in India, he

ence. They try to get by

idea to look back, if not for

is as British as they

and maintain a lifestyle

instruction, then perhaps for

come. He was born in

that is faintly similar to

1920, in North London

the one they enjoyed in the

where he lived for most

golden years. They live in

of his life. At the out-

an old annexe, the Lodge,

break of World War II,

on the property of the

seems to be post-something,

entertainment and possibly a widening of perspectives and horizons. Curiously enough,

Scott enlisted as a pri-

Paul Scott also joined the

vate, and was sent to

post-ism and wrote a novel set

India as an air supply officer. He came to

Staying On Paul Scott Arrow Books, 1997 First published by Heinemann, 1977 255pp.

in post-British India. Recent

Bombay in 1943, and

equally old and similarly run down

years have seen quite a num-

stayed in India and

hotel called Smith’s, run by Mr and Mrs

Malaya until 1946.

Bhoolabhoy. As a contrast we find the neighbouring hotel, the Shiraz,

Staying On was pub-

which represents modern India, wealth and success.

lished in 1977 and won

In one way the novel is somewhat sad and pessimistic. The British

him the Booker Prize. He

couple has lived in India for most of their adult lives, but they are

01

ber of novels from and/or about India, and they seem generally to be worth reading.

died on March 1, 1978 in

still unable to fully understand or communicate with their surround-

02

This proves at least two

London. Scott published

ings. Language and culture seem insurmountable obstacles, and to

03

points: one, it is possible to

several novels, of which

some extent racism also plays its part; without British rule, chaos

04

The Raj Quartet (1966)

rules. But a long life in India has also estranged the old couple from

find good literature outside

05

is perhaps the most

their own European identity, leaving them in an isolated no man’s

06

Europe; two, the history of

well known and was

land, where they really only have one another. When they at one point

adapted for the Granada

also lose the ability to communicate with each other, life becomes

television series The

truly sad and meaningless, reduced to a mere existence.

Jewel in the Crown

The positive aspect is represented by the Indians’ ability to hold on to

(1982). Most of Scott's

their own way of life and their own way of thinking. It seems as if they

works depict India or

understand the British better than the British understand them. At

11

have Indian themes and

least they observe British behaviour and are able to predict respons-

12

characters.

es, absurd though they may be. And it is interesting to see how upper-

13

class Indians treat their inferiors, such as servants and labourers.

14

imperialism provides an endless source of good plots for portraying conflicts concerning human relations.

Staying On is, as

07 08 09 10

mentioned, a novel about the aftermath of the Raj, the end of an

They are completely ignored, as if they do not exist. Quite the oppo-

15

empire. It gives a picture of both Indian and British post-Raj condi-

site of the British, who treat their servants more as household pets.

16

tions in a convincing manner. Scott describes the immediate surround-

All in all, Staying On is a novel worth reading. Not only does it give

17

ings in great detail, as well as the relationship between the different

us a good description of life after the Raj for those of the English

18

characters we meet. The action takes place as late as in 1972, but still

who chose to stay, or were forced to for economical reasons, as is

19

we find ways of thinking and ways of behaving that are deeply rooted

the case here. The novel also portrays a marriage in an insightful

20

in memories and consequences of British rule.

way, showing us what may be the consequences when culture and

It is difficult to point out a main character, because the plot focuses

network disappears and we are only left with tradition, after history

on several characters from different points of view, but the focus rests

has left us behind.

21 22 23 24


Magazine 2002-2:Magazine 02/02

10-09-07

10:36

Side 16

r du på Denne finnele eregående id v – o .n n e p p www.ca

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