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CITIZENS YF Engelsk for yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram VG1

vivill oftedal andersen · kristin berger · jaspreet kaur gloppen therese holm · monica opøien stensrud · david woodhouse

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P R E FAC E © CAPPELEN DAMM AS, Oslo 2020 Materialet i denne publikasjonen er omfattet av åndsverklovens bestemmelser. Uten særskilt avtale med CAPPELEN DAMM AS er enhver eksemplarfremstilling og tilgjengeliggjøring bare tillatt i den utstrekning det er hjemlet i lov eller tillatt gjennom avtale med Kopinor, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Utnyttelse i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Design og sats: Welt, Erlend Askhov Sats kapittel 5: Renessanse Media, Trude Gabrielsen Omslagsdesign: Erlend Askhov Omslagsillustrasjon: ©SHOTPRIME STUDIO/stock.adobe.com ø/h, Getty Images/Sv n/h, Getty Images/Gualtiero Boffi/EyeEm n/v, Getty Images/ Alvarez ø/v Forlagsredaktør/Bilderedaktør: Birger Nicolaysen og Anne Nygård Repro: Narayana Press, Danmark 2020 Trykk: Livonia Print Sia, Latvia 2020 Utgave 1 Opplag 1 ISBN 978-82-02-64581-6 www.citizens.cdu.no www.cdu.no

Welcome to Citizens YF, a new textbook and website for the VG1 course in English. This book will introduce you to many different types of texts about a wide variety of topics. We hope you will find these texts interesting, relevant to your vocational studies and useful for reflecting on the world and your place in it. The main chapters of the book are as follows: – Connections focuses on how we connect with each other, often using the English language. This chapter looks at how we use English in the world of work and when we connect with each other on the internet as “netizens”. Another important topic is how we need to be critical of what we read, especially when it comes to fake news and when deciding how to spend our money on products for both work and entertainment. – Careers looks at topics and questions you will need to think about as you enter the world of work. What does it take to feel pride in the work that you do? Texts in this chapter will help you to reflect on different answers to this question. They will also help you to learn about what employers look for in employees and how you can communicate well and stay safe at work. – Challenges deals with some tough choices that you may face in your career, in your life or as part of a changing society in a challenging world. It will introduce you to people who have had to dig deep in order to overcome personal difficulties or difficult situations that they have found themselves in. The global problems of child labour, mass migration and the climate crisis are also important parts of this chapter. – Citizens is about people coming together to form societies with rules and laws to make sure everybody can get along and have a good life. It looks at how people with different cultural backgrounds can live together and how countries like the USA and the UK have changed and developed. You will learn about the duties we have as citizens, for example taking part in democracy. How society deals with difficult issues, such as gun crime, work rights and discrimination, is also an important topic in this chapter. – Courses helps you improve your English skills through four different courses. This chapter also contains suggestions for in-depth work. In addition to a varied set of tasks, some texts have a task called Explore, which invites you to investigate a topic further online or to work with a grammar topic. At citizens.cdu.no, you will find a separate website for each vocational education programme, with a variety of texts and tasks aimed specifically at that programme. In addition, each website contains interactive tasks for each text, listening material, useful links, the Explore tasks and a lot more. Our hope is that Citizens will help you improve your English skills and that you will find the whole learning experience both enjoyable and inspiring. We wish you the best of luck with your work!

The authors

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C O N T E N TS te x t

p.

text type

Citizen X

6

Board game

p.

text type

explore

grammar

Matched (Matthew Fray) 11 My Story: English for Training and Work 18

Short story

Small talk

Nouns

Personal stories

British English and American English

Discussing the Future “Netizens”: In-depth Topic 1: Five Ways Social Media Can Be Good for Teens (Caroline Knorr) 2: After Mats Passed Away, His Parents Realised How Special His Gaming Life Was (Vicky Schaubert) 3: Children in a Digital World 4: Clean Up Your Social Media! Fake News: Don’t Be Fooled! advance: Reading Critically: Choosing a Product

25 27 28

listening: Discussion

Q&A: English in the World

Introduction

Ready Player One

A or An?

29

Article

31 34 40 48

Feature article

Factual text

Fake news

The

Description/review

Comparing products

te x t

p.

text type

explore

grammar

My Story: Professional Pride Sending Flowers (Hannah Stephenson) The Work You Do, the Person You Are (Toni Morrison) What Employers Look For Discussing Candidates Communication Skills at Work (Ingeborg Madsen Sveen) Safety at the Workplace Tools through the Ages (Philip Grey) advance: Comparing Texts

58 64

Personal stories

This made me proud!

Subject-verb agreement

68

Essay

74 77 78

Article

Article

Communication skills in your future job

87 95 103

Article

Accident report

Article

Tools in your future job

Chapter 1: CONNECTIONS te x t

Article

Article

Chapter 2: CAREERS

Poem Singular or plural? Application letter and CV

ing-form

listening: Discussion

Irregular verbs

Text collection

3

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Chapter 3: CHALLENGES te x t

p.

text type

explore

My Story: Cutting Corners at Work

114

listening: Personal stories

My dreams and ambitions

Overcoming Obstacles Slam (Nick Hornby)

120 125

Articles

Unprotected (Simon Rich) Boys without Names (Kashmira Sheth) The Last Border (Ben Judah) A Planet in Need of Repair How to Become a Zero Waster (Leanna Commins) advance: Comparing Opinions

128 133 140 146 154

Short story

159

Opinion pieces

te x t

p.

text type

All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten (Robert Fulghum) Wrong Channel (Roberto G. Fernandez) Cultural Complications Facing a New Culture: Two Texts 1: Pure Blind Fear (William Sutcliffe) 2: “It felt as if we had landed on the moon” (Malala Yousafzai) A Beautiful Mosaic My Story: “Are You British?”

166

Essay

168 170 180

Short story

181

Novel extract

183

Book extract

188 196

listening: novel extract

grammar

Adjectives or adverbs? The novel Slam

Novel extract

Questions and negations

Book extract Factual text Article

More about adjectives Rethinking everyday life

Prepositions of place Prepositions of time

Chapter 4: CITIZENS

The British (Serves 60 Million) (Benjamin Zephaniah) Democracy the American Way Working Like Dogs? Cases from English-Speaking Countries Vote for Our Lives! Guns in America and New Zealand advance: Born a Crime (Trevor Noah) Born Free

explore

grammar

Who, which, that …

Factual text

The Big Sick

Introduction

The Hate U Give

There or It?

Factual text

Song lyrics

My, mine, your …

listening: interviews

Minimum wage in the UK and Norway

Some or Any?

200

Poem

Travel project

Problematic words

204 214

Factual text

American politics update

Cases

Working environment laws

218

Dialogue

Comparing advertisements

228

Autobiography

Born a Crime / Crime in South Africa

234

listening: personal stories

Punctuation

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Chapter 5: COURSES te x t

Course 1: Reading Strategies 1.1 Reading Factual Texts 1.2 Reading Short Stories and Novels Course 2: Writing Strategies 2.1 Writing with a Purpose 2.2 Writing Paragraphs 2.3 Writing for Work 2.4 Writing Five-paragraph Essays Course 3: Informal and Formal Language Course 4: Sources 4.1 Using Sources: COPS 4.2 Referring to Sources Digging: In-depth Work Digging: Chapter 1 Digging: Chapter 2 Digging: Chapter 3 Digging: Chapter 4

p.

explore

237 249

Reading statistics

253 258 263 271 280

Orders and complaints Writing other types of text Rhetoric: How to sway your audience

287 291 296 296 297 298

Note: Challenging tasks are marked like this: a ADVANCE: Authentic text without glossary,

questions in the margin or “Shortcut”.

At citizens.cdu.no you will find: – interactive comprehension and vocabulary tasks for all texts – Explore: learning paths containing texts, video, interactive tasks and writing tasks – Grammar: explanations and tasks – Audio recordings of texts and listening tasks

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The aim of this game is to reach the end ďŹ rst, all the while speaking English. You need a dice and small markers, for example coins. You must give a good answer in English to be allowed to move on in the next round. If you can’t answer, or if you use Norwegian words, you must skip a turn. Remember: One word is never enough as an answer!

What I think of England

Citizen X START

A person I look up to

A TV programme I dislike

My family

What I watch on YouTube

My favourite app

My hobby

My name spelled out in English

This makes me cry

The alphabet in English

This scares me!

A TV series I enjoy

What I will do tomorrow

Myself in 10 years

A sport I enjoy

An English or American song Go back four spaces

A place I would like to visit

A foolish thing I did once

My day as a superhero

My idea of a perfect day

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My future job

What I did yesterday

A recent ďŹ lm I have seen

My best subject

The music I like best

My best holiday My ecofriendly habits

My favourite food

What I did last summer A sport I dislike

Why I like/dislike gaming

Why I chose this education programme

This makes me laugh

Go back four spaces

A book I have read

FINISH

Go back four spaces My dreamhouse My social media habits

This makes me angry

My favourite ďŹ lm star

My favourite country

A dream I have for the future

Chapter 1: Connections

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1 CONNECTIONS I N T R O D U CT I O N

R E F L E CT

More than one and a half billion people around the world have one thing in common: they speak English. You are one of those people. English helps you connect with other people and understand more about their backgrounds, feelings and points of view. By learning English, you are also able to share your own thoughts, opinions and feelings with other English speakers.

a When do you use English? b What do you like the most and

The internet has become a place for people to meet and communicate. Half the world’s websites are in English, and that number is growing. Today, people are not only connecting as citizens of a community, but also as “netizens”, members of online communities. Former geographical boundaries become less important when we interact online, communicating through the common language of English. However, the internet provides us with both opportunities and obstacles. Therefore, we have to keep a critical eye on the information we find and the content we create online.

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

c

the least about using English? What are your expectations for your English classes this school year?

COMPETENCE AIMS IN FOCUS

listen to, understand and use terminology relevant to the vocation in oral and written work situations explain the viewpoints expressed by others, and use and follow up input from others in conversations and discussions on various topics read and compare factual prose texts on the same topic from various sources and critically assess the reliability of the sources describe important features of the development of English as a language in the working world

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Chapter 1: Connections

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construction site anleggsomrĂĽde

On the next few pages, you will meet four Norwegians: Sebastian, who works in the travel industry, Jørn, who works on a construction site, Nicolay, who works in a hospital, and Rikke, who is a student in Australia.

R E F L E CT Discuss in class: a In which situations do you think these people will need to use English? b Make a list of the challenges you think these people will face when they have to use English at work.

M Y STO RY:

English for Training and Work

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SEBASTIAN UGLAND THORSEN, 24, is in training for a journeyman’s certificate within the travel industry, with the airline Norwegian. He is stationed at Oslo Airport Gardermoen.

“Some customers struggle a bit with English, so I have to be creative.” I’m currently working at the ticket desk where I use English every day, probably as much as 30-40% of the time. Wherever you work and whatever you do in this job, you need good basic skills in English. A fixed manuscript is not enough when you communicate with customers. To talk independently is important because people ask about all sorts of things. Some customers struggle a bit with English, so I have to be creative. I use body language and what little I know of other languages – even a little Spanish – to get by. I guess Norwegians are quite good at English compared to many other nationalities. When I work as a member of a cabin crew, I also have to be prepared to use English, and not only with travellers. People are perhaps not aware of this, but safety is priority number one for the cabin crew, and the main reason we are there. When we are working with Polish crew members, for example, we all need to communicate efficiently and precisely in English. I actually prefer English to Norwegian at work; it gives me the chance to create a kind of “character” for myself. I think it’s inevitable that English will become more and more important in the travel industry because more and more people will want to travel. journeyman's certificate svennebrev/sveinebrev fixed ferdig(skrevet)/ferdig(skrive) independent fritt cabin crew kabinpersonale efficient effektivt inevitable uunngåelig/uunngåeleg

JØRN ROLAND, 29, is a concrete worker for Peab on a small construction site in Bærum.

“I think English will continue to be important because people come from many places to work on construction sites.” I work on a building site and need to be able to talk to people, so I use English every day, really. There are many people from Eastern Europe in the business, however, and when people speak no English at all, we often run into problems. Today, for instance, I’m working with someone from Poland who doesn’t speak any Norwegian or English. What I do is I point at things and try to explain. The job is carried out the same way in this county as in any other country, so this works out fine most of the time. Foreigners are not the only ones who struggle with the English language; older generations of Norwegians do too. I have to help out by translating – which I don’t mind, by the way. But I think both older Norwegians and foreign workers would benefit from learning English to communicate on the site. In this job safety is everything, and I feel the greatest challenge is communication about safety issues. There are posters and signs, of course, but people do not always read them. I feel that in some countries, safety is not considered as vital as it is here. I care about my fellow workers and can’t just ignore the dangers caused by language barriers and cultural differences. I think English will continue to be important because people come from many places to work on building sites, and they need to have a language in common. concrete worker betongarbeider/betongarbeidar building site byggeplass/byggjeplass to benefit from å dra nytte av vital vesentlig, nødvendig / vesentleg, nødvendig

UNDERSTAND

UNDERSTAND

a How much English does Sebastian use at the ticket desk? b Is it only in interactions with customers that he needs English? c Why does Sebastian enjoy using English?

a Who struggles with English at the construction site where Jørn works? b What is Jørn’s main worry when it comes to lack of English skills among his colleagues? Chapter 1: Connections

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NICOLAY BJØRNSTAD BERG, 19, is in training to become a health worker at Akershus universitetssykehus.

RIKKE OLSEN, 27, is a student of visual communication in Melbourne, Australia

“When you’re working with people, communication is important, and it means a lot in terms of how safe the patient feels.”

“It’s incredible how quickly you pick up the accent.”

I need English to communicate with patients and their next of kin. In my current position, I don’t use a great deal of English. However, when patients with little or no Norwegian skills turn up, it’s critical to master it. When you’re working with people communication is important, and it means a lot in terms of how safe the patient feels. I believe English will become more and more significant in the health sector because so many people are coming to Norway from other countries. Language skills also make you more attractive on the job market, as there are many places where they are essential. Vocabulary connected to the sector we work in is something I wish we had learned more of in English classes at school. The names of various illnesses and terms related to health and equipment, such as blood pressure and syringe, would’ve been useful. I didn’t really feel I could hold a professional conversation when I started. I use a fair amount of English in my spare time, for gaming and watching TV series and YouTube. Every year friends from the USA come to visit, and then all our conversation is in English. next of kin pårørende/pårørande current nåværende/noverande significant viktig equipment utstyr syringe sprøyte fair amount ganske mye / ganske mykje

UNDERSTAND a Why is English important to Nicolay even if he does not use it much at the moment? b What does Nicolay wish he had learned more of at school? c When does Nicolay use English in his spare time?

I was doing a Bachelor in Art Direction at a college in Oslo when I heard that they had a special arrangement with a college in Melbourne, so I decided I’d finish my studies here. It was partly for what you might call career reasons – they were offering just the courses I wanted – but just the fun of seeing another part of the world was also an important factor. Anyway, I don’t regret it for a moment. It’s been a great year and I’ve learned a lot – not least as far as English is concerned. I was warned beforehand that there were lots of Norwegian students studying “down under” these days and that it was easy to fall into the trap of just hanging out with other Norwegians. I was determined to avoid that. So instead of living in hall I shared a flat with Australian students, and generally didn’t mix too much with other Norwegians. I think that paid off in the long run. Language hasn’t been a big problem, really. I spoke English fairly well before I came and you soon learn the accent and the slang. There’s lots of that, of course, and Australians are keen to teach you it. I must confess I found that the sense of humour took a bit of getting used to. Aussies are great jokers and there’s nothing they love more than pulling your leg – in other words, making you believe something stupid. I fell for it every time in the beginning, but eventually you get wise. It’s incredible how quickly you pick up the accent. I was talking to a Scottish student the other day, and he was convinced I was an Aussie! to regret å angre determined to (fast) bestemt på å hall internat Aussie australier (slang) / australiar (slang)

UNDERSTAND a Why did Rikke decide to go to Australia? b What was difficult to get used to for Rikke?

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shortcut:

M Y STORY – E NGL I S H FOR T R A I N I NG A N D WOR K

sebastian ugl and thorsen (24) works at the ticket desk of an airline company at Oslo Airport Gardermoen, where he uses English every day to talk to customers. Sometimes he also has to use body language and his knowledge of other languages to communicate. Safety is the most important part of the job, and therefore Sebastian needs English to avoid misunderstandings with colleagues working in the airport and on the planes. Sebastian enjoys using English. He thinks the language will become even more essential because the travel industry is so international. jørn rol and (29) is a concrete worker on a small building site. Every

day, he needs to talk to people in English to get jobs done. Many of his colleagues come from Eastern Europe and speak little English, and this can cause problems. Safety is very important and they need to be able to communicate. Therefore, Jørn thinks both older Norwegians and foreigners should learn more English. He believes English will continue to be important because people come from many different places to work on building sites. nicol ay bjørnstad berg (19) is in training to become a health work-

er. Sometimes he needs English to communicate with patients and families who do not speak Norwegian. In many jobs in the health sector there is much more use of English. Therefore, having good English skills is crucial in connection with job opportunities. When you are working with people, good communication is important to make patients feel safe. Nicolay thinks English is becoming more and more significant in his job because both patients and co-workers come from many countries. rikke olsen (27) is a student in Australia. She went there because

they were offering just the courses she wanted, but also because she wanted to experience living in another part of the world. She says she has improved her English skills because she has spent most of her time with English speakers instead of with other Norwegians.

U N D E R STA N D a What reason for needing English do Jørn and Sebastian have in common?

b Why are good English skills important for Nicolay’s career? c Why did Rikke decide to study in Australia? Glossary: see p. 303

Top: Concrete workers in action. Middle: Health workers often experience hectic situations. Below: Rikke enjoying life in Melbourne.

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Chapter 1: Connections

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1 | R E F L E CT: After reading a Were you right about any of the situations you discussed before reading? Is there anything you could add after reading?

examples of such inventions from recent years. Which of these new words would you consider using? brainstorm = idédugnad clickbait = klikkagn influencer = påvirker/påverkar fatbike = tjukksykkel

tablet = nettbrett fun fact = morofakta body = trusebluse chatbot = samtalerobot

b Some people believe there should be more teaching of English in Norwegian schools to meet the challenges of increasing use of English in working life. Do you agree? Explain your opinion.

b Can you think of any other Norwegian words that could replace English words in Norwegian?

c

2 | U N D E R S TA N D : Who? a Who has been mistaken for an Australian? b Who wishes he had learned more vocabulary at school that he could use in his job now?

c

Who communicates a lot through pointing and other forms of body language?

d Who has decided to live with native speakers instead of Norwegians?

e

Who thinks safety is the most important issue to communicate efficiently and precisely about?

f

Who thinks it is better to use English than Norwegian because he can create a “character” for himself?

In the list below, study the words from the texts you have read. There are different strategies you can use to learn vocabulary. It is not always necessary to look up every word in the dictionary. A useful strategy is: Ask someone! Discuss in groups and arrange the words into the following categories: – words we know – words we think we know (double-check the meanings with another group) – words we are not sure about (triple-check with another group and your teacher)

currently – opportunity – job – customer – skill – safety – colleague – inevitable – instruction – worker – patient – accent – determined – independently – creative – communicate

4 | C O M PA R E Copy the table below. Find out whether different people in the texts you have read make any of the same points about the topics:

g Who believes communication is important because it helps patients feel safe?

h Who translates from English to Norwegian for older colleagues?

Topic

Jørn

3 | P R ACT I S E : Vocabulary a When new words enter Norwegian from English, the original spelling is sometimes kept, for example in words like cowboy and jeans. Other words are given a new spelling, for example “tøff”, “streik”, “kul” (tough, strike, cool). A third option is to create a Norwegian word to replace an English word. Here are some

Who

Example: Working with Sebastian people from Eastern Europe

What they say He sometimes works with Polish crews.

There are many Eastern European workers on the construction site.

How safety depends on the use of English Use English in their spare time English in the future

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5 | C R E AT E & C O M PA R E a Choose an average day and create a log where you list all the various situations in which you encounter English. You could, for example, start like this: – 07.50: Listening to music (note down the names of artists and titles of songs) on the bus to school – 11.30: Reading an American fashion blog (note down the name) at lunch

b Explain your choices to a partner and listen to theirs. Use phrases like this one: I think/believe that to … is important because … (see p. 24 for more phrases).

E X PLOR E British English and American English

b Compare logs with a partner and find out whether you encounter English in the same kinds of situations.

American English and British English are the bestknown varieties of the English language. Read more about them at citizens.cdu.no and work with the tasks t there.

6 | R E F L E CT a Below are some reasons to learn English. List them m in order of importance to you in your future profession: on: to talk about work procedures with colleagues – to take ke part in small talk – to make sure safety regulations aree n followed – to prepare for a future where English use in ers/ Norway is increasing – to communicate with customers/ patients/clients Chapter 1: Connections

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Background

DI S C US S I NG Ideally, a discussion consists of speakers listening to each other and considering each other’s feelings, and changing their minds or at least developing a better understanding of the views of others. If you listen attentively, your discussion partners will feel seen and heard, and it might be easier to get your opinions across to them. Here are a few useful tips:

– –

– –

Face the person who is speaking and maintain eye contact. Be attentive: listen to what is being said and pay attention to what is not being said. Does the speaker’s body language give any added information? Wait for the speaker to pause to ask clarifying questions. Give the speaker feedback. Nods, smiles and frowns also help show that you are listening. Do your best to keep an open mind. Listen without passing judgement and without jumping to conclusions. Be aware of people’s cultural background. This could have an impact on how they communicate and how they interpret the way you communicate. For example, did you know that Greek people shake their heads when they say “yes”?

Useful phrases in a discussion Asking someone’s opinion: What do you think of/ about …? / What’s your opinion/impression of …? / What are your views on …? / Where do you stand (on) …? / Do you agree with my opinion that …? Giving an opinion: I think/feel/believe … / In my view/opinion, … / The way I see it, … / Personally, I think … / If you ask me … / As far as I’m concerned … / If you don’t mind my saying … / I’m convinced that … Presenting arguments: One justification often given for … is that … / Those who object to … often argue that … / Another objection is that … / However, it should not be forgotten that … / Some people are opposed to … on the grounds

that … / One of the drawbacks of … is … / However, one of the benefits is that … / On the one hand, … / On the other hand, … Agreeing: I agree / I think you’re right / That’s how I feel too / I agree with … / I also think that … / I’m also in favour of … / Similarly, I believe that … / I suppose you’re right. Partly agreeing: I see your point, but don’t you think … / Okay, but look at it this way: / To some degree, yes, but … / That is true, but … / I agree up to a point; however … / You have some good arguments, but on the other hand, … Disagreeing: I disagree / I don’t think so / That’s not how I see it / I think that is a valid point, but we must remember that … / I disagree because I think that … / Another way of looking at it … / On the contrary, … Showing you have understood your partner: I see / I understand / Fine / Okay / I get your point Asking for clarification (you have not quite got the idea): Excuse me? / How do you mean exactly? / I didn’t quite get that. Asking for confirmation (you want to make sure you have understood): So, what you’re saying is that … / So, in other words … / If I’ve understood you correctly, then … Ending the discussion: Can we sum up by saying … / In a nutshell, then … / In conclusion, … / To sum up …

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Connecting through social media is obviously a good thing. However, even in our digital day and age, we make many of our most important connections when we meet people face to face and talk to them.

R E F L ECT a When was the last time you had a discusb

sion with someone? What was it about? Look at the list of useful tips (p. 24). How many of these guidelines do you often follow yourself in discussions with, for example, your classmates, teachers, co-workers or parents?

connection forbindelse, kontakt / samband, kontakt vocational yrkesfagsprofession yrke, profesjon

Discussing the Future During the lunch break one day, three vocational students talk about the future of their profession. Go to citizens.cdu.no to listen to their discussion and work with the listening comprehension and vocabulary tasks given there. When ďŹ nished, turn to the tasks on p. 26.

Chapter 1: Connections

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1 | P R ACT I S E : Conversation skills When talking to other people, you need to be able to ask and answer questions. In addition, you need to know how to give your opinion, and how to agree or disagree with other people’s opinions. Copy the table below. Then listen to the conversation between the students again. While listening, fill in the words and phrases the speakers use in the correct column (see the list of phrases on p. 24). Asking for someone’s opinion Giving an opinion Agreeing Disagreeing Showing you have understood Asking for clarification Asking for confirmation Partly agreeing Ending the discussion

2 | R E F L E CT: Discussion In pairs or small groups, choose one of the statements below to discuss. While talking, pay attention to the tips on p. 24. Try to include some of the “useful phrases” given there in your discussion. –

There won’t be much use for people with vocational education in the future.

We should have more work practice and less theoretical study in our vocational course.

3 | C R E AT E : Writing Write a brief report (see p. 266) to your teacher about the discussion you had in task 2. Include the following: – the topic of your discussion – arguments made in favour of the statement – arguments made against the statement – any conclusions you may have reached on the topic

E X PLOR E Q&A: English in the world

Learning English is the key to a successful career in every profession. Sixteen-year-olds should be allowed to get a driving licence and to vote in elections.

“Why is English so popular everywhere?”

“Is English the most widely spoken language in the world?”

These are two of the questions young English learners have sent to the podcast “The English Oracle”. Go to citizens.cdu.no to listen to the podcast and work with tasks.

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R E F L E CT Read the statements below. Have you heard anything similar before? Do you agree with what they are saying? Explain your opinion. –

“Social media spread unhealthy and unrealistic ideas about how you should look and how you should live your life.” “Gaming creates lonely and anti-social teenagers.”

“Netizens”: I N - D E P T H TO P I C Netizen: a person who uses the internet cambridge advanced learner's dictionary & thesaurus

The texts in the following collection vary in content, style and genre, but they all deal with the same themes: how connected our lives have become through the internet, and how life online can provide opportunities and obstacles for “netizens”. While reading the texts, consider what they say about positive or negative aspects of digital life. Go to p. 244 to learn how to take notes in a pros/cons table.

Chapter 1: Connections

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– TEXT 1

Five Ways Social Media Can Be Good for Teens By Caroline Knorr

flaw feil, mangel to shed light on å kaste lys over decade tiår adept dyktig, erfaren genuine ekte to grapple with å streve med to collaborate with å samarbeide med far-flung fjern, langt unna

Three billion people, around 40% of the world’s population, use online social media – spending an average of two hours every day sharing, liking, tweeting and updating. (Source: see p. 300)

For a few years, many teens have been saying that social media – despite its flaws – is mostly positive. New research is shedding light on the good things that can happen when kids connect, share and learn online. As kids begin to use tools such as Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and even YouTube in earnest, they are learning the responsibility that comes with the power to broadcast to the world. Here are some of the benefits of teens being on social media: –

– –

It lets them do good. Twitter, Facebook and other large social networks expose kids to important issues and people from all over the world. Kids realize they have a voice they didn’t have before. It strengthens friendships. Studies show that social media helps teenagers make friends and keep them. It can offer a sense of belonging. While heavy social media use can isolate kids, studies have found that although American teens have fewer friends, they are less lonely than teens in past decades. They report feeling less isolated and have become more socially adept, partly because of an increase in technology use. It provides genuine support. Online acceptance can help teenagers not feel alone, for example if a kid is interested in an unusual subject that isn’t considered cool or is grappling with sexual identity. It helps them express themselves. Producers and performers can satisfy the desire for self-expression through social media. Digital technology allows kids to share their work with a wider audience and even collaborate with far-flung partners.

(Excerpts - source: see p. 300) 28

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After Mats Passed Away, His Parents Realised How Special His Gaming Life Was

– TEXT 2

By Vicky Schaubert Robert and Trude mourned their son’s lonely life bound to a wheelchair. But when Mats died, friends all over Europe lit candles in his honour. Robert says: “When I went past Mats’ basement flat during the day and saw the curtains were drawn, I remember how sad I felt. ‘Oh no,’ I thought. ‘He hasn’t even started the day yet.’ I was sad because his world was so limited. But people who aren’t into gaming don’t see everything. We thought it was all about the game. And that was it. We thought it was about winning a competition.” Lisette Roovers (28), from Breda, the Netherlands, was one of Mats’ closest gaming friends. Now she is in Norway visiting Kai Simon Fredriksen (40), who also gamed with Mats. At Kai Simon’s home, Lisette says: “I knew Mats for many years. It was a shock when he died.” She was just 15 years old when she met the one-year-older Mats. Or, more precisely, when Lisette’s avatar Rumour met Mats’ avatar Ibelin. “We met in Goldshire,” Lisette continues. “I – or Rumour – was a little impulsive; I jumped from behind some bushes and grabbed Ibelin’s hat. I stood still for a second, and we looked at each other. Then I ran off with his hat,” says Lisette, smiling. Mats also wrote about this first meeting in a blog post he called “Love”. “In this other world this girl does not see a wheelchair or anything different. What she sees is my soul, my heart, conveniently situated in a handsome, strong body. Fortunately, in this virtual world every character looks great.” In the summer of 2013, the 24-year-old Mats started his blog, “Musings of life”. In a post entitled “My escape”, Mats writes about life in Azeroth: “There my handicap doesn’t matter. My chains are broken; I can choose to be whoever I want to be. There I feel normal.” Mats shared his blog with the members of the Starlight guild so they learned about their fellow player’s real-life situation.

to mourn å sørge over / å sørgje over convenient beleilig, passende / lagleg, passande musing fundering, grubleri down-to-earth jordnær retired pensjonert community samfunn bias fordom stereotype stereotypi, forenklet bilde / stereotypi, forenkla bilete

Goldshire is a town in Azeroth, the world in which most of the World of Warcraft (WoW) series is set. The Starlight guild is a roleplaying community within WoW.

In Starlight, she is Chit, a rough and down-to-earth character. In real life she is Anne Hamill (65) from Salisbury, England, a retired psychologist and enthusiastic gamer. Anne finds it fascinating how the Starlight community functions for people who are often outsiders in “the real world”. “In role play, we meet each other without bias, so Starlight feels safe, also for those who see themselves as ‘different’. Online gaming is a fantastic arena for meeting people and building friendships,” says Anne. “It gives you the opportunity to discover each other’s qualities without the stereotypes from the physical world getting in the way. Only after we’ve really gotten to Chapter 1: Connections

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The top 50 fake stories of 2018 generated roughly 22 million total shares, reactions, and comments on Facebook between Jan. 1 and Dec. 9, 2018. (BuzzFeed News)

FLAT EARTH – 29 PROOFS! ELDERLY WOMAN ACCUSED OF TRAINING HER 65 CATS TO STEAL FROM NEIGHBOURS LOTTERY WINNER ARRESTED FOR DUMPING $200,000 OF MANURE ON EX-BOSS’ LAWN BRITAIN THREATENS TO INVADE SWITZERLAND OVER TOBLERONE ROW

R E F L ECT & P R ACT I S E Before reading the text, talk about the following questions:

a How would you define the term “fake news”? b What (or who) do you think about when you hear it?

Fake News: Don’t Be Fooled!

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First, it is important to define the term “fake news”. This is a new term, but not a new idea. Benjamin Franklin, for example, spread false rumours during the American Revolution in the 18th century. He said that the British army had fierce Native American warriors on their side. This was intended to make the Americans even more angry with the British. Influencing public opinion is still one of the main reasons people spread fake news. We can include this in our definition of fake news: False news that looks or sounds true, which often intends to affect the public’s opinion on an issue. Some fake news stories are difficult to spot because they are partly true. One example of this is a story on the Breitbart website. It said that a group of a thousand Muslim men in Germany had set fire to a church and attacked the police with fireworks. There were in fact a thousand people gathered outside the church and some of them set off fireworks. However, the rest of the story was made up. This type of fake news is especially dangerous because it is so close to the truth that it is easily believable. On the other hand, there are not always bad intentions behind this type of fake news. Sometimes, stories are inaccurate because reporters use social media or other sources without checking their facts. Being first with a story is often more important than being accurate. Of course, there are fake news stories that are completely false. One example of this is the story about the Pope supporting Donald Trump when he was a candidate for the American presidency. This story was clearly intended to increase Trump’s popularity and his chances of winning the election. The Pope was quick to deny that he supported Trump. However, as we all know, once a story has appeared on the internet, it can be difficult to convince people that it is not true.

benjamin franklin (1706–1790) was an author, scientist, inventor, politician and diplomat. He fought for independence from Great Britain in the American Revolution and helped create both the Declaration of Independence and the American Constitution. His portrait is on the American hundred-dollar bill.

UNDERSTAND a Why did Benjamin Franklin use fake news? b What is often more important to reporters than being accurate? c What did the Pope say about Donald Trump?

to define å definere fierce vill, brutal to affect å påvirke / å påverke inaccurate upresis, feilaktig to convince å overbevise, å overtale

Chapter 1: Connections

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¨

2 CAREERS I N T R O D U CT I O N

R E F L E CT

The course you are now taking is the start of your pathway into a career. A career is more than just a job. It is something that you will have for many years, maybe the rest of your working life. A career will provide much more than wages every month. It should give you the opportunity to grow as a professional and as a person. It should help you reach personal goals and allow you to contribute to society.

a What are the most important things to think about

Effective communication and understanding what you read and hear are important in all types of careers. These skills will help you to be successful in interviews, the first steps in any career. They will help you to learn from the people you work with, and maybe to teach them a few things as well. Perhaps most importantly, effective communication will also help you to stay safe at work and throughout your future career.

b c

when choosing a future career? Is money the most important thing, or is it more important where you work, who you work with, or who the customers, clients or patients are? Think about your answers to the first task. Do you think that you would give the same answers if you were asked this question in ten years’ time? What challenges will you need to overcome in order to be successful in your chosen career?

COMPETENCE AIMS IN FOCUS The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to – – – –

use suitable strategies for learning the language, creating a text and communicating read and summarise content in English-language trade documentation listen to, understand and use terminology relevant to the vocation in oral and written work situations create texts relevant to their vocation that are structured and cohesive and that describe and document their own work and are adapted to the purpose, recipient and situation

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Chapter 2: Careers

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U N D E R STA N D & P R ES E N T Work in pairs. Each of you chooses three of the Australians on the next page. a Individually, read the three texts and write down 4–5 key words about each of the Australians you have chosen. b Use the key words to tell your partner about “your” Australians.

M Y STO RY:

Professional Pride Having professional pride means being proud of your work. Here, six Australians explain what makes them proud of the work they do.

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JIM HENDERSON: I am a carpenter from Sydney. I work for my family’s business, Henderson Maintenance. We have plenty to do, believe me! In this city there are many old buildings, and so many of them are in need of restoration. This is a great challenge! I am very proud every time we have turned an old, run-down house into a nice family home.

JANE WYATT: I’m an interior decorator in Adelaide. My job is to help my customers give their homes personality. I also help them solve problems concerning furniture and colours. And guess what? An international magazine interviewed me last month because a customer wrote to them and told them how happy he was with the final result. No wonder I’m happy with my job! PETE DAVIES: I’ve been an electrician in Melbourne for five years. More and more people these days want advanced multimedia systems in their homes – and this means a lot of wiring. Most people don’t want leads all over the living room, and I can fix that for them. One lady gave me a cake yesterday because she no longer trips over cables. She was really happy, and at times like these I feel very proud. JENNIFER FRENCH: I work as a nurse at the Santa Clara Retirement Home in Perth. My patients are in their eighties and nineties, and I’m only twentyfive. But that’s no problem. I was really moved and a little proud last week, when a patient’s daughter visited. The daughter took me aside and said, “Jennifer, my mom really appreciates you. She says you’re like another daughter to her.” It’s things like that which make me proud.

BRUCE DARBY: I’m a TV chef working for ABC Food. The great thing about healthy eating is that it’s not expensive, and it’s not boring: far from it. You can do so much with fresh vegetables and fruit, a handful of herbs and a few good ideas. You won’t put on weight, and your heart will be strong. When you prepare it in the right way, good fresh food tastes fantastic. I feel very proud when I get emails from viewers who tell me they enjoy my programmes. TOM SULLIVAN: I have been driving buses for about twentyfive years. I work for Tower Transport in Darwin, and we cover a large area with several small villages. Many of the people living there are old and don’t drive themselves, so they rely on us to bus them from place to place. We make sure our passengers can enjoy a social life. It’s a great job. I take pride in helping the elderly, and I know most of my passengers by name. It makes me extra proud when I drop senior citizens off near their homes and they smile at me and say, “Thanks, Tom. See you on Friday.” Glossary: see p. 303

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"You wanna fly, you got to give up the shit that weighs you down." toni morrison

The American writer Toni Morrison grew up in the 1930s and 40s. This was a period of hardship and discrimination for African Americans in the USA. Her father supported the family by working three jobs for seventeen years. When Morrison was in her early teens, she got a job as a servant in a white family's house, earning two dollars a week. Later on in her life, she would become the first black woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, but she never forgot the lessons she learned from her first job.

R E F L ECT What is your experience with work (paid or unpaid)? Share stories in pairs or small groups.

Toni Morrison (1931–2019) 68

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The Work You Do, the Person You Are By Toni Morrison All I had to do for the two dollars was clean Her house for a few hours after school. It was a beautiful house, too, with a plastic-covered sofa and chairs, wall-to-wall blue-and-white carpeting, a white enamel stove, a washing machine and a dryer – things that were common in Her neighborhood, absent in mine. In the middle of the war, She had butter, sugar, steaks, and seam-up-the-back stockings. I knew how to scrub floors on my knees and how to wash clothes in our zinc tub, but I had never seen a Hoover vacuum cleaner or an iron that wasn’t heated by fire. Part of my pride in working for Her was earning money I could squander: on movies, candy, paddleballs, jacks, ice-cream cones. But a larger part of my pride was based on the fact that I gave half my wages to my mother, which meant that some of my earnings were used for real things – an insurance-policy payment or what was owed to the milkman or the iceman. The pleasure of being necessary to my parents was profound. I was not like the children in folktales: burdensome mouths to feed, nuisances to be corrected, problems so severe that they were abandoned to the forest. I had a status that doing routine chores in my house did not provide – and it earned me a slow smile, an approving nod from an adult. Confirmations that I was adultlike, not childlike. In those days, the forties, children were not just loved or liked; they were needed. They could earn money; they could care for children younger than themselves; they could work the farm, take care of the herd, run errands, and much more. I suspect that children aren’t needed in that way now. They are loved, doted on, protected, and helped. Fine, and yet … Little by little, I got better at cleaning Her house – good enough to be given more to do, much more. I was ordered to carry bookcases upstairs and, once, to move a piano from one side of a room to the other. I fell carrying

enamel emaljert, lakkert absent fraværende, manglende / fråverande, manglande seam søm iron strykejern to squander å sløse med insurance-policy forsikringspolise profound dyp, inderlig / djup, inderleg nuisance plage severe alvorlig / alvorleg chores arbeid, gjøremål / arbeid, gjeremål herd flokk, buskap doted on dyrket, elsket / dyrka, elska

UNDERSTAND a What was Toni’s job? b What did she do with the money she made? c How has the role of children changed since Toni was young? Chapter 2: Careers

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R E F L ECT Talk about the following with a partner: a What is typical of the way you communicate with your friends? How is this different from the way you should communicate at work? b Why is good communication important in the occupation you are aiming for?

Communication Skills at Work By Ingeborg Madsen Sveen occupation yrke, arbeid to act å oppføre seg to adjust å tilpasse, å justere to interact å samhandle to receive å motta / å ta imot

You would probably wear different clothes at a job interview than at home watching Netflix. You would also act differently than you would during a normal conversation with friends. Different situations involve different expectations, and therefore you adjust your appearance and behaviour. The same goes for communication. When talking to your grandparents, you most likely avoid slang and English expressions. When writing an essay in your English class, you choose different words and ways of spelling than you would on social media. These examples illustrate how the way we communicate often changes depending on whom we interact with. Communication and communication skills – what do the terms mean? Communication is sending and receiving information. This process tends

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to involve two parts, a sender and a receiver, who share information and give each other feedback. You communicate with people daily, both in real life and through social media. On social media, you use written and visual elements such as emojis and punctuation to disclose your feelings. In conversations, on the other hand, you use both verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication involves the words you say and how you say them. Non-verbal communication is gestures, facial expressions and body language that affect the information you share with others. When you communicate with someone, your communication skills are important. The term skills refers to your expertise or ability to do something well. Communication skills are different strategies for sharing information and ideas with others in a clear and effective way. At work, you might use different strategies from when you communicate with your friends. Because communication skills are important in any occupations where you interact with others, some people argue that good communication skills are the key to career success. Professional communication When you are at work, you are in a professional setting where you should be service-minded and able to transfer information effectively to both colleagues and customers. Good communication with colleagues is essential for co-operation and for solving potential challenges or conflicts. If you have a job where you need to understand instructions, an important communication skill is asking questions. You may worry that asking too many questions will make you seem unprofessional, but in most cases, it actually makes you seem more interested and eager to learn. When communicating with customers, clients or patients, you must show respect and be patient even when you are having a bad day. This is an important part of being a professional. Being an active listener is also an important communication skill, as you need to understand what customers want in order to make them satisfied.

punctuation tegnsetting/ teiknsetjing to disclose å vise gesture gest, (hånd)bevegelse / gest, (hand)rørsle to argue å påstå, å hevde setting miljø, omgivelser / miljø, omgivnader service-minded tjenestevillig, serviceinnstilt / tenestevillig, serviceinnstilt to transfer å overføre co-operation samarbeid patient tålmodig/tolmodig

Chapter 2: Careers

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6 | R E F L E CT: Looking behind the statistics Foreign workers in Norway have a higher risk of work accidents than their Norwegian colleagues. The reasons are many and complex, for instance: –

Language barriers often cause dangerous misunderstandings. With workers from many different countries working together, a common language is essential to keep everybody safe. English is the best choice here. Foreign workers often work in sectors with high risk, such as the construction industry, transport and agriculture. Many are hired labour and therefore not an integrated part of the safety culture at the workplace. This can make it difficult for employers to make sure that all their employees know about important safety rules and regulations. Foreign workers often work long hours. Tiredness is often at the root of many accidents. Safety procedures can be forgotten or incorrectly followed after many hours on the job.

a Thinking about all kinds of jobs, which of the reasons given above do you think cause the most accidents? Put these reasons in order of importance and explain your choice.

b Would your list for task 6a be the same if you were thinking about the profession that you are working towards? Have another look at your list and change the order if necessary.

c

What advice would you give to an employer in your chosen profession who has foreign workers? Use information from the text and the vocabulary you have learnt connected with safety in the workplace. Aim to make a list of at least three pieces of advice.

7 | I N T E R ACT: Safety Imagine that an accident has happened at work and you are the first one on the scene. What would you do first? Put the following actions in the correct order. Then compare your list to your neighbour’s list. Are they the same?

Secure and manage the scene of the accident. / Call the emergency services. / Shout for help. / Attempt to communicate with the person who is hurt. / Report the accident to your superior (boss). / Give first aid to the victim. / Fill out an accident report form.

8 | R E F L E CT & I N T E R ACT: Watch out! No place of work will ever be entirely risk free. No matter how many safety mechanisms and instructions there are, one thing is always present: the human factor. Go to citizens.cdu.no to find out what happened to some workers from your line of studies who did not “watch out”. Work with the tasks there, and then talk about the following with a partner:

a Who made the stupidest mistake, in your opinion? b What would you have said to this person, if you were his or her boss?

c

One student takes the role as one of the workers; the other is his/her boss. Act out their first meeting on the day the worker returns to work.

E X PLOR E Accident report Every professional worker needs to know how to write an accident report. Go to p. 267 to learn how to write them. Then go to citizens.cdu.no to find model reports and tasks for accident reports in jobs within your education programme.

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R E F L E CT The text you are about to read is about some important tools in the history of humankind. Write down three tools from your vocational programme that you think are important. Will they appear in the text?

Tools through the Ages By Philip Grey

Chapter 2: Careers

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A good reputation is the key to a company’s success. Nowadays, it is especially important what Google “says” about a company. Leaving online feedback or reviews on sites such as Facebook, Yelp or TripAdvisor has become increasingly common. According to a survey, three out of four potential customers state that when they read a positive review, they have more trust in a business. “Cutting corners” at work is something that could lead to a poor reputation. Cutting corners means choosing a quicker and easier route, by paying little or no attention to rules. Typically, the motivation for cutting corners is to save time, and sometimes – since time is money – to save money. The consequences, however, may be severe.

R E F L ECT In which professions do you think it would be the most dangerous to “cut corners”? Why? What could the consequences be?

"You had one job!"

M Y S TO RY:

Cutting Corners at Work Choose two of the eight people on pp. 115–116 and listen to their stories at citizens.cdu.no. They talk about cutting corners in their trade. While listening, answer the “Understand” questions.

Glossary: see p. 304 114

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Joseph Smith (34), carpenter

Chris Perry (22), mechanic

Paul Morrison (28), IT operations technician

UNDERSTAND a What did the builder and the house owner disagree on? b How did the builder try to save money? c How was the disagreement settled?

UNDERSTAND a Why and how must toxic material be disposed of securely? b What does the expression “out of sight – out of mind” mean? c What might happen if you are caught dumping waste oil into the environment?

UNDERSTAND a What did Paul notice when he took over as IT operations technician? b What did he do to solve the problem?

Linda Platt (20), hairdresser

Debby Potter (37), manager of local TV station

Sandra Hutchinson (20), fish farm associate

UNDERSTAND a What was Linda’s first thought when she met the customer? b What did Linda do wrong? c How did the customer react?

UNDERSTAND a Why did the small TV station bend the rules sometimes? b On what grounds did the manager threaten to take the TV station to court? c How did they solve the problem?

UNDERSTAND a What happens at a hatchery? b Why must farmed salmon be kept away from natural waterways?

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1 | R E F L ECT a In small groups, tell each other about the two people you have listened to and what you learnt from their stories.

b In pairs, sort the points below from least to most important when it comes to building and maintaining a business or company’s reputation. quality of tools/equipment – customer service – health and safety – in-service training – product/ service quality – prices they charge – advertising – awards they have won John Parker (51), butcher UNDERSTAND a Why can we rest assured the food we buy is safe to eat? b What are salmonella and E. coli? c What might lead people in food processing to cut corners?

c

Based on what you know about your future profession, where do you think it would be most tempting to “cut corners”? What consequences could this have for you as an employee and for your employer?

2 | I N T E R ACT In pairs, take turns describing what you think might happen to the people in the illustrations here and on p. 91. Include details to make it more interesting such as their name, age, occupation, etc.

Josh Baker (21), health worker UNDERSTAND a Why did Tim want to leave the retirement home for a few hours? b What did Josh do to help Tim? c How did Josh feel afterwards?

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3 | C R E AT E : Writing Choose one task:

a Pretend that you are Stewart Phillips and that what he describes below happened to you. Write a report for your boss with information about the incident. You might need to make up more information about the incident to write a detailed report. (For help on writing reports, see p. 266.)

Stewart Phillips (25), installation electrician: “I got angry with a colleague the other day because I was really close to suffering a major injury. I was going to install the water heater in a bungalow just outside town. A colleague of mine had been there the day before and done the wiring. What he hadn’t done was update the circuit inventory after regrouping the circuits. This meant that when I disconnected the breaker according to the list, the circuit I was going to work on was live. Of course, as an electrician you’re not supposed to go fiddling with wires without first crosschecking, but then again it’s easy to simply trust a colleague to have done his part of the job. Anyway, I tested the circuit, found it live, then located the right circuit and disconnected it – and corrected the inventory of course. Back at the office, I spent a few minutes yelling at my colleague.”

b Pretend that you witnessed what happened to one of the people in the photos in task 2 and write a message to a friend about what you saw. You need to make up more information about the person and the incident.

c

Choose one of the photos in task 2 and write a short work instruction (see p. 263) for the person or people in the illustration so they can avoid making the same mistake again.

Chapter 3: Challenges

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Overcoming Obstacles “The greater the obstacle, the more glory in overcoming it.” molière, french pl ay wright, actor and poet

R E F L ECT a What does it mean to overcome an obstacle?

b Do you know of anyone who has c

become successful despite having obstacles in their life? Do you agree with the quote by Molière above? Explain why or why not.

Jamie Oliver, the “naked chef”

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JA M I E O L I V E R :

I’m “Lucky” to Have Dyslexia

– TEXT 1

Jamie Oliver became famous in the 1990s when his TV show, The Naked Chef, became an overnight sensation. His love of cooking started in the kitchen of his parents’ pub in Essex. Now, Jamie Oliver is a household name as a TV presenter, chef, author and businessman, who has worked hard to improve school meals for millions of British schoolchildren. He has achieved all this, according to the man himself, not in spite of his dyslexia, but because of it. Jamie has often stated in interviews that he considers himself lucky to have dyslexia, a learning difficulty which affects people’s ability to read, write and spell. He believes that it gives him an advantage over other people: “If I’m in a meeting, I just see the problems differently and I obsess about things differently. Sometimes, when it requires a load of stuff to be done, I just do it. It’s like I’m a massive, 10-tonne boulder rolling down the hill.” This is why, in a recent interview, Oliver said, “I genuinely think that when someone says to you, ‘Johnny’s got dyslexia’, you should get down on your knees, shake the child’s hand and say: ‘Well done, you lucky, lucky boy’.”

S O M E FACTS A B O U T DYS L E X I A 1.

At least 1 in 10 people are dyslexic. Research in the US finds that it is as many as 1 in 5.

2. Dyslexia is genetic, so it runs in families. 3. Dyslexic brains are “wired” slightly differently, meaning they have a different way of processing information. 4. This difference results in a pattern of strengths like critical thinking, creativity and communication skills. 5. It also results in challenges affecting traditional learning such as reading, writing, spelling, rote learning, memory and concentration. 6. Each dyslexic will have a different pattern of strengths and challenges. (from Made By Dyslexia, a global charity)

UNDERSTAND a Why is Jamie Oliver famous? b What advantages does Jamie Oliver claim that dyslexia has given him? c Do all people with dyslexia have the same challenges? overnight over natten, umiddelbar / over natta, med ein gong sensation sensasjon household name kjendis, berømt person dyslexia dysleksi to obsess about her: å fokusere på boulder kampestein, steinblokk genuine(ly) oppriktig wired kopla to process å behandle rote learning å lære utenat / å lære utanåt

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Background

C H I L D L A B OU R Have you recently bought a football? Something embroidered? Chocolate? Clothes? If so, there’s a good chance you have purchased something made by child labour. Child labour is so widespread in the production of goods and services from so many countries that it can be an enormous challenge to avoid it. The clothing industry in Bangladesh, for example, relies on child labour to keep the cost of production low. For many families in the world, having children who work is necessary to bring in enough money to keep the family going. In Pakistan, for example, nearly one fifth of the population live below the poverty line. Therefore, families often have to send their children to work. This child labour has consequences. The United Nations has discovered that teenagers are more likely to have accidents than older workers are. We know that more than 150 million children, who should be at school, are working instead. Half of these children have to do dangerous jobs. This means that many children are killed or injured while at work. There are many reasons why young people are more likely to be injured at work than older workers. Firstly, young people often feel that they cannot say no when they are asked to do a job. In addition, many young workers have to work with dangerous chemicals, especially in farming. A third reason is that these young workers are often migrants (see p. 139) who do not understand safety instructions in the local language. On the other hand, a number of signs reveal that things are getting better. The number of young workers actually fell by 90 million between 2000 and 2016. There are more schools in the world now, which means that more and more young people are able to get an education instead of working. In addition, more countries are making laws against child labour. However, there is still a long way to go. Two countries where English is an official language are among the countries where child labour is most common:

Nigeria: Over 15 million children below the age of 14 are child labourers. Girls enter the labour world at an earlier age than boys, often as domestic help in households. Both boys and girls are often involved in agriculture. India: The world's second most populated country has as many as 33 million child labourers. Some of the places where children in India work include mines, farms and garment factories. Despite efforts by the Indian government, the number of child workers has increased over recent years. Many children move to the big cities to find work.

(Sources: see p. 300) child labour barnearbeid embroidered brodert poverty line fattigdomsgrense agriculture jordbruk mine gruve garment factory klesfabrikk

A little girl who lives and works with her family in a brick factory in Lahore, Pakistan.

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Gopal is an 11-year-old boy from India. He and his family have to move away from their village in order to survive. “We stay, we starve” are the first words of the novel Boys without Names. The extracts below will give you insight into Gopal’s experiences as he leaves his village behind and faces the harsh reality of life, and work, in one of the biggest cities in the world: Mumbai.

R E F L E CT

Boys without Names By Kashmira Sheth

The background information on p. 132 and the extract from the novel Boys without Names below focus on child labour. They describe working conditions that children have to face all over the world. Before reading, try to answer the questions below in pairs: a Why do you think children have to go to work in many countries around the world? b What could be the consequences for a country where many of its young people have to go to work? c Why are there no child labourers in Norway? Has this always been the case, do you think?

When Gopal’s family first arrive in the city, they quickly run out of money and have to live on the streets. In the first excerpt, his father (Baba) is talking to a store owner in Mumbai: 1

“You’re like thousands of others who pour into Mumbai and its suburbs looking for a better life,” the store owner says, opening up an old newspaper. “This place is big, but not big enough for everyone.” “Thousands of others? I don’t understand,” Baba says. The store owner picks up a page of newspaper, tears it in half, and rolls each into a cone. He fills one with rice and the other with lentils. “Yes. Every single day people from Bihar, Bengal, Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and other states come to this city wanting a good life. We can’t feed and give homes to everyone,” he mumbles. “But we are willing to work and not live on charity,” Baba protests. “I know, but don’t you realize that there’re too many people like you looking for work?”

to starve å sulte / å svelte harsh hard, tøff store owner butikkeier/ butikkeigar to pour into å strømme inn i / å strøyme inn i suburb forstad cone kremmerhus/kremmarhus lentil linse charity veldedighet/velgjerd picture frame (bilde)ramme

Gopal is tricked and kidnapped by someone who says that he can help him to find work to support his family. When he wakes up, he is imprisoned in a run-down building. The boss, who he calls “Scar”, forces Gopal and several other boys to make picture frames. The boys do not know each other’s real names. Gopal gives them nicknames that he can use, like “Thick Fingers”.

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4 CITIZENS I N T R O D U CT I O N

R E F L E CT

The languages you speak and the values and traditions that surround you form part of your identity and make you who you are. We see the world based on our own cultural background. Often, we tend to believe that everyone else thinks and behaves the same way we do, until we meet people with different values and traditions. Connecting with people from other backgrounds can help us learn how our own culture sees the world and to understand other people’s perspectives.

a What does the word “culture” mean to

As citizens of a democracy, we are used to having certain rights, such as the right to vote in elections. If we disagree on a political topic, for example the issue of gun control in the USA, we expect to be allowed to make our opinions heard. We expect to be treated properly at work and be able to earn a living in a safe environment. Last but not least, we expect to be treated equally.

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

b c

you? What is the best thing about living in a democracy? If you had to move to an English-speaking country, which would you choose, and why?

COMPETENCE AIMS IN FOCUS

– –

read, discuss and reflect on the content, and on the language features and literary devices used in different types of texts, including self-chosen texts read and summarise content in Englishlanguage trade documentation explore and reflect on the diversity of and social conditions in the English-speaking world based on historical contexts discuss and reflect on the form and content, and on the literary elements and other techniques used in English-language cultural forms of expression in different media, including music, film and drama

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I N T E R ACT: List of advice Many parents and grandparents have a habit of dishing out advice on how to behave – advice that may not always seem logical to young people. In class, compile a list of advice or rules for life that you remember having been given, and discuss how useful each piece of advice is. Here are some examples to get you started: – Eating cheese before you go to bed will give you nightmares. – Don’t swim just after having eaten. – Keep your elbows off the table.

All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten By Robert Fulghum to dish out å dele ut i øst og vest, å øse ut / å dele ut i aust og vest, å ause ut advice råd to compile å utarbeide, å sette sammen / å utarbeide, å setje saman kindergarten barnehage graduate school universitetsavdeling to flush å trekke ned (på toalettet), å spyle / å trekkje ned (på toalettet), å spyle

All I really need to know about how to live and what to do and how to be I learned in kindergarten. Wisdom was not at the top of the graduate school mountain, but there in the sand pile at school. These are the things I learned: – Share everything. – Play fair. – Don’t hit people. – Put things back where you found them. – Clean up your own mess. – Don’t take things that aren’t yours. – Say you’re sorry when you hurt somebody. – Wash your hands before you eat. – Flush. – Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you. – Live a balanced life – learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and dance and play and work every day some. – Take a nap every afternoon.

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– –

– –

When you go out in the world, watch out for traffic, hold hands and stick together. Be aware of wonder. Remember the little seed in the Styrofoam cup: the roots go down and the plant goes up and nobody really knows how or why, but we are all like that. Goldfish and hamsters and white mice and even the little seed in the Styrofoam cup – they all die. So do we. And then remember the Dick-and-Jane books and the first word you learned – the biggest word of all – LOOK.

Everything you need to know is in there somewhere. The Golden Rule and love and basic sanitation. Ecology and politics and equality and sane living. Take any one of those items and extrapolate it into sophisticated adult terms and apply it to your family life or your work or government or your world and it holds true and clear and firm. Think what a better world it would be if we all – the whole world – had cookies and milk at about 3 o’clock in the afternoon and then lay down with our blankies for a nap. Or if all governments had as a basic policy to always put things back where they found them and to clean up their own mess.

seed frø, spire Styrofoam cup engangskopp/ eingongskopp Dick-and-Jane book lesebok, ABC-bok Golden Rule: a rule of ethical conduct referring to Matthew 7:12 and Luke 6:31: do to others as you would have them do to you sanitation hygiene sane sunn, fornuftig to extrapolate å videreføre / å vidareføre

And it is still true, no matter how old you are, when you go out in the world it is best to hold hands and stick together.

1 | R E F L E CT: Talking Talk about the following:

a How are these rules similar to, or different from, those you have been given by your parents or other adults?

b Workplaces often have rules about the clothing you need to wear while working. Create a short guide for people who are going into your chosen profession. In it, you should describe at least three items of clothing or pieces of protective equipment that need to be worn or used while at work. Explain what each thing’s function is and why it is important to use or wear it.

b Why do you think the author chose to include the part about how everything dies, including us humans?

c

Why does the author claim that the biggest word of all is LOOK? Do you agree?

2 | C R E AT E Choose one task:

a Many schools in the UK and the US have dress codes that specify what students are allowed to wear at school. Imagine that your school is going to start enforcing rules for what students can wear to school. Write to the headmaster of your school and suggest a list of rules for a school dress code.

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R E F L E CT: American culture How would you describe “the American way of life�? a Make a mind map (see p. 244) on your own or in pairs. b In class, make a joint mind map.

A Beautiful Mosaic

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Settlers moving to the American West, 19th century

What is a “true American”? Some say that the only true Americans are the indigenous people, who lived in America thousands of years before the USA was even a country. Others say that if your passport shows that you are American, then that is what you are. Then there are those who say that they are American even though they have no legal papers to prove it. They claim that being an American is not about your passport or your heritage but more about living your life by American ideals such as democracy, independence, opportunity and equality. an ideals such as democracy, independence, opportunity and equality.

heritage (kultur)arv ancestry slekt, opphav

Americans Since America is a country populated through waves of immigration, many Americans have ancestors from other countries. For many, their ancestry is an important part of their identity and how they define themselves. Are you able to connect these famous people with their ancestry? Where ancestors come from:

1) Mark Zuckerberg, co-founder of Facebook

A: Puerto Rico

2) Robert De Niro, actor

B: Africa

3) Viggo Mortensen, actor

C: Germany, Austria, Poland

4) Andy Park and Jim Lee, comic book artists

D: Denmark

5) Michael Jordan, athlete

E: Norway

6) Michelle Ingrid Williams, actor

F: England, Ireland, Scotland, Armenia

7) Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, politician

G: Italy, Ireland

8) Demi Lovato, musician

H: Korea

9) The Kardashian sisters, reality TV stars

I: Mexico, Native American, England, Ireland

Correct answers: 1C - 2G - 3D - 4H - 5B - 6E - 7A 8I - 9F

Person

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R E F L E CT: Talking In pairs or groups, ask each other the following questions: – Are you Norwegian? – How do you feel about the place where you live?

M Y S TO RY:

“Are You British?” There are many cultural differences between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and distinct ways of life within each country as well. Nevertheless, all the people who live there are British. We asked five young British people similar questions to the ones you were asked above. Go to citizens.cdu.no to listen to their answers and to work with listening comprehension and vocabulary tasks. Then work with the tasks below.

1 | R E F L E CT: After listening

2 | P R ACT I S E : Describing

Talk about the following:

Look at the map of the United Kingdom on the inside cover of this book.

a What did you find most interesting or surprising in the answers the people gave?

b Which accent was the easiest to understand, and which was the most difficult?

c

What positive and negative aspects of being British did the people interviewed mention? Make a pros and cons list (see p. 244).

d Which cultural stereotypes (see p. 174) did

a Choose five cities or places in the UK and write down a geographical description of where they are situated. Avoid using words like left and right in your descriptions. You may find the following expressions useful: in the north / south / east / west, to the north of / south of / west of / east of, between, near, close to, not far from, the neighbouring city is … Example: “This is a place in the Irish sea, between Ireland and England” = The Isle of Man

they mention?

b Read your descriptions to a partner and see if they are able to identify which cities or places you are describing while they study the map. Take turns reading the descriptions to one another and identifying the places. 196

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Top left: Colin is from London, a giant metropolis and the UK capital. Top right: Fintan is from Londonderry (which he calls Derry) in Northern Ireland. This city is the setting for the Netflix series Derry Girls, whose main characters are on this mural. Middle left: Glasgow is Scotland’s largest city and it is where Nazneem comes from. Middle right: The North Yorkshire landscape is beautiful, as Julia will tell you in the interview. Below: Evening view over the Valve tower near Meghan’s home in Merthyr Tydfil in Wales.

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Some people feel that the rules of society limit their freedom. But there are also many rules designed to keep you safe and healthy, for example at work. In Norway, this set of laws is called the Working Environment Act. When you get a job, your employer has to obey these laws. Unfortunately, not all countries in the world protect their workers as well as Norway does.

R E F L E CT Before reading about the conditions that workers in some English-speaking countries have to work in, consider these questions: a Why is it important to have laws that protect employees? b If you were in charge of Norway, what rules would you have to protect employees? Try to come up with at least two rules that you think would be important. c Different countries have different working environment laws. In which countries do you think that employees are protected the least? Why have you chosen these countries?

Working Like Dogs? Cases from English-Speaking Countries

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Case 1: Warehouse workers for Amazon in the UK Amazon has often been accused of treating staff like robots. British media have reported that ambulances were called out 600 times to the online retailer’s UK warehouses in the past three years. There were 115 callouts to Amazon’s site near Birmingham, including three relating to pregnancy or maternity problems and three for major trauma. There were also two call-outs to the site for electric shocks and eight for people who had fallen unconscious. One Amazon employee said to the media: “I told them I could not walk so many miles and I could not pick from low locations. I had a meeting with a safety manager and was also told: ‘It’s not what you want, it is what we decide’.” Workers have said that the constant pressure to hit performance targets makes it difficult for them to take time out to visit the toilet or get a drink.

Glossary: see p. 304

Case 2: Miners in South Africa The African continent is known across the world for its natural beauty and even more so for its mineral wealth. South Africa in particular has a massive mining industry. It is a major source of diamonds, gold, platinum and coal, and is home to most of the deepest mines in the world. Some of the mines are over 1000 metres deep. Things are improving for the workers, but there are still major safety hazards like collapsing tunnels, falling rocks, toxic fumes, high temperatures and intensive noise. Many miners suffer from diseases like silicosis (a lung disease) and tuberculosis (TB), and countless miners are still not given adequate compensation for their hard and risky labour.

a What were some reasons for ambulances being called to the Amazon warehouse? b What was an Amazon employee told when they complained? c Which materials are mined in South Africa? d What are some of the health risks South African miners are exposed to?

UNDERSTAND

Miners walk through an underground tunnel at the South Deep gold mine in South Africa.

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Cocoa workers in Africa work extremely hard to make sure people all over the world can enjoy all kinds of delicious chocolate products.

UNDERSTAND a How many people in Ghana work in the cocoa industry? b Why is working in the cocoa industry hazardous? c What are zero-hour contracts? d Why do employers like zero-hour contracts?

Case 3: Cocoa workers in Ghana In Ghana, a country of roughly 26 million, the livelihood of about six million people depends on the cocoa sector. Cocoa workers harvest ripe cocoa pods from the cocoa tree with a curved knife on a long pole. Then they open the pods and remove wet beans. Clearing vegetation and harvesting pods is risky because these tasks are often done using machetes (large knives), which can cause serious injury. Cocoa workers rarely have any protective clothing, so many have wounds on their legs where they have cut themselves. Transport of the wet beans can also be hazardous due to long transport distances and heavy loads. Sometimes, young children carry cocoa sacks that are so heavy that they have wounds all over their shoulders. Case 4: Zero-hour contracts in the UK Zero-hour contracts are employment contracts with no guaranteed hours. This means that employees are not guaranteed any work by their employers, and therefore no pay. Many employees have to wait for an SMS that lets them know if they are needed at work or not. Around 2–3% of the UK workforce has a zero-hour contract and this number is rising. Some employers use zero-hour contracts to secure flexible employees. These types of contracts are particularly popular in the catering and retail industries. Employers only need to pay employees on zero-hour contracts when they are needed to work, and don't have to spend money on wages for staff that they do not need. Zero-hour contracts can be good for people who are seeking flexible, occasional or part-time employment. Therefore, those on zero-hour contracts are often students. There is also a higher percentage of women, who often use zero-hour contracts as a way of securing flexible working hours whilst raising young children. Large brands such as JD Wetherspoon, Sports Direct and Cineworld use zero-hour contracts. Interestingly, many workers at Buckingham Palace also have zero-hour contracts.

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1 | P R ACT I S E : Vocabulary

3 | R E F L E CT: Talking & writing

Use cases 1–3. Look for and make a note of vocabulary that describes poor working conditions, accidents and injuries. These should be phrases, not single words. Create and fill in a table like the one below. Case

Vocabulary

Case 1

- treating staff like robots - electric shocks …

a Imagine that you had to work in one of the three jobs

b

described in cases 1–3. Discuss with your neighbour which one of these jobs you would have chosen and why. Choose one of the cases 1–3. Imagine that you are the boss at one of these workplaces. Your employees have started to complain about working conditions. How would you defend yourself? Make a short list of things you could say to them to keep them working.

2 | R E F L E CT: The cases Case 1: Amazon

a What are “performance targets”? What kind of performance targets do you think there will be in your chosen profession?

b Why is the word “robot” used to describe the treatment of the employees?

E X PLOR E Working environment laws Go to citizens.cdu.no to find an English translation of some parts of the Norwegian Working Environment Act. You will find tasks that aim to make you more familiar with these laws and to see if you can work out which laws are being broken in the cases described in this text.

Case 2: Miners in South Africa

c

What would be another way of describing “intensive noise”?

Grammar – punctuation Look at the sentences below. Which alternative is correct in each of them?

d What does “adequate compensation” mean? Case 3: Cocoa workers in Ghana

– Employees claim that (they’re/their) not guaranteed any work by (they’re/their) employers.

e

How could the working conditions for cocoa workers be improved?

– He has an appointment with his manager on (monday/Monday).

f

Why do you think many children are involved in producing chocolate?

– Workers at (Amazons/Amazon’s) warehouses say that (its/it’s) very hard to take time out to visit the toilet.

Case 4: Zero-hours contracts

g Why can zero-hour contracts be a good thing for both

If you found this difficult, go to citizens.cdu.no to practise your punctuation skills.

employers and employees? Make two lists.

h What could be some of the disadvantages of using zero-hour contracts? Think about this from the perspective of both the employer and employee. Make a list.

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R E F L ECT a What are the first three characteristics that come to mind when you think of the USA and New Zealand?

b Which of the two countries do you think has stricter gun laws? When you have made a decision, note down at least one reason why you think this. Mike is American and Jack is from New Zealand. They are both in their late teens, and they are considering spending a year in each other’s countries. Both want to learn as much as possible about the US and New Zealand, so they Skype once a week to discuss different aspects of life. This week, the topic is guns.

Vote for Our Lives! G U N S I N A M E R I CA A N D NEW ZEALAND

wounded såret, skadet / såra, skadd

mike: Howdy Jack, how is life on the other side of the world? What’s the weather like? jack: Good, thanks. July is our coldest month, but there hasn’t been any snow yet. mike: Winter in July? That’s messed up! jack: For you, maybe. But for us it’s normal. mike: Something else I’ll have to get used to if I move, I guess. Hold on a minute – what were we supposed to be talking about this week? jack: Erm … Guns I think. I’ve done some research, but I’ve not been looking forward to this, though. mike: Why not? jack: Well, it’s really sad to think about what goes on in your country. It really gets me down. mike: For sure. You’ve probably heard about the shooting at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas – MSD for short – High School in Parkland, Florida, in 2018. Seventeen people were killed and seventeen were wounded. Just tragic.

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shortcut:

VOT E FOR OU R L I V E S : GU NS I N A M E R ICA A N D N EW Z E A L A N D

In 2018, 17 people were killed and 17 injured at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. That year was the worst year for school shootings in American history. There were 189 deaths in 94 shootings. In all, there were 100 gun deaths every day in the US. There are several reasons for this. One of the main ones is the number of guns in the US. Some people have worked out that there are 120 guns for every 100 people. This can be compared to 26 guns for every 100 citizens in New Zealand. Another reason is American history. The American Constitution gives Americans the right to have guns. Guns were important to the American settlers who moved West in the 1800s. They had to defend themselves in the “Wild West”, from both Native Americans and each other. There are still many million Americans who work hard to defend the right to own guns. Even some people who have been victims of mass shootings want all Americans to have the right to own guns. When other countries face tragedies like the one in Florida, they change the laws. This happened in New Zealand in 2019 after a massacre in a mosque in Christchurch. The type of weapon the shooter used was banned. This was easy to do in New Zealand because the “gun lobby” does not exist there. The gun lobby are groups of people in the US who work to keep the gun laws the way they are. The most powerful of these is the National Rifle Association (NRA). They put pressure on politicians, and even give them money, to make sure that no new gun laws are passed. Another reason why gun laws do not change in the US is that it is divided into 50 states. Different states have different gun laws. This means that it does not help to ban the sale of weapons in one state, because you can drive to the next state and buy them. However, there is hope that things will change for the better. After the school shooting in Florida in 2018, the students got together and formed a group called “March for Our Lives”. Over two million people marched in cities all over the US. They demanded action to stop school shootings from happening. They then became “Vote for Our Lives”, encouraging people to vote for politicians who do not take money from the NRA.

U N D E R S TA N D a b c d e

What happened at a Florida high school in 2018? Why did the early Americans need guns? What do other countries do when they experience mass shootings? Why is it difficult to make new gun laws in the US? Why is there some hope for the future when it comes to the issue of guns?

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R E F L ECT: South Africa a In pairs, look at the words connected to South Africa below. Talk about each word and why you think it has been included. Ask other pairs if there are words you don’t understand. apartheid – Mandela – Football World Cup – lion – elephant – Cape Town – Johannesburg – safari – tourism – black – racism – Rainbow Nation – Soweto – crime – warm – poverty – diamonds – cities – languages – beaches – British Empire – democracy

b Brainstorm in class to pool information on the following words: apartheid – Mandela – Rainbow Nation

trevor noah is a South African who has made a huge success of his comedy career in America. When he was born in South Africa in 1984, the white apartheid regime (1948–1994) discriminated against all coloured people, but Trevor Noah had an additional challenge: he was “born a crime”. His mother was black and his father was white. During apartheid it was forbidden to mix the ethnic groups like this; it was punishable by five years in prison, and the children could be taken away from their parents. Growing up, Trevor Noah thought himself an outsider, and his struggles and search for identity are what his autobiography Born a Crime is about.

“Where most children are proof of their parents’ love, I was the proof of their criminality. The only time I could be with my father was indoors.” trevor noah 228

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Born a Crime

– Advance

By Trevor Noah

In this excerpt, Noah describes his experiences on public transport in South Africa during apartheid. This was unlike public transport in our part of the world. Black people had to rely on minibuses. Since these minibuses were completely unregulated, using them was often unpredictable, or even dangerous. When this excerpt begins, nine-year-old Trevor and his mother are trying to catch a minibus to go home. We waited and waited for a minibus to come by. Under apartheid the government provided no public transportation for blacks, but white people still needed us to show up to mop their floors and clean their bathrooms. Necessity being the mother of invention, black people created their own transit system, an informal network of bus routes, controlled by private associations operating entirely outside the law. Because the minibus business was completely unregulated, it was basically organized crime. Different groups ran different routes, and they would fight over who controlled what. There was bribery and general shadiness that went on, a great deal of violence, and a lot of protection money paid to avoid violence. The one thing you didn’t do was steal a route from a rival group. Drivers who stole routes would get killed. Being unregulated, minibuses were also very unreliable. When they came, they came. When they didn’t, they didn’t. Standing outside Rosebank Union, I was literally falling asleep on my feet. Not a minibus in sight. Eventually my mother said, “Let’s hitchhike.” We walked and walked, and after what felt like an eternity, a car drove up and stopped. The driver offered us a ride, and we climbed in. We hadn’t gone ten feet when suddenly a minibus swerved right in front of the car and cut us off. A Zulu driver got out with an iwisa, a large, traditional Zulu weapon – a war club, basically. They’re used to smash people’s skulls in. Another guy, his crony, got out of the passenger side. They walked up to the driver’s side of the car we were in, grabbed the man who’d offered us a ride, pulled him out, and started shoving their clubs in his face. “Why are you stealing our customers? Why are you picking people up?” It looked like they were going to kill this guy. I knew that happened sometimes. My mom spoke up. “Hey, listen, he was just helping me. Leave him. We’ll ride with you. That’s what we wanted in the first place.” So we got out of the first car and climbed into the minibus. We were the only passengers in the minibus. In addition to being violent gangsters, South African minibus drivers are notorious for complaining and haranguing passengers as they drive. This driver was a particularly angry one. As we rode along, he started lecturing my mother about being in a car with a man who was not her husband. My mother didn’t suffer lectures from strange men. She told him to mind his own business, and when

Apartheid started in 1948 as a political and social system that gave whites total control over South Africa. Blacks made up 87% of the population at the time, yet lived on only 13% of the land. They could not vote, own land, be in relationships with whites or even live in the same areas. Rebellion within the country, led by Nelson Mandela, and pressure from countries all over the world led to the end of apartheid in 1994.

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5 COURSES I NTR O D U C TI O N This chapter gives you the necessary tools for improving your English language and communication skills. You will learn more about choosing the best reading strategy and the best notetaking technique for the task at hand. The chapter also explains how to write instructions and different types of reports as well as fiveparagraph essays. It shows you how to build up your argument through the structure of paragraphs, the building blocks of many text types. Furthermore, you will learn how to make correct language choices depending on what you need to communicate and who your audience is. In addition, you get information and practice on how to use sources correctly and how to choose sources that are trustworthy. Finally, this chapter contains suggestions for in-depth work to help you dig deeper into topics you are interested in.

C O M P E TE N C E AI M S I N FO C U S The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

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use suitable strategies for learning the language, creating a text and communicating write different types of formal and informal texts, including multimedia texts, that are structured and cohesive, and that describe, discuss, reason and reflect according to the purpose, recipient and situation express themselves in a nuanced way with precision and cohesion, using idiomatic expressions and varied sentence structure adapted to the purpose, recipient and situation use different sources in a critical, appropriate and verifiable manner evaluate and revise their own texts based on the subject criteria and knowledge about language create texts relevant to their vocation that are structured and cohesive and that describe and document their own work and are adapted to the purpose, recipient and situation

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COURSE 1

Reading Strategies 1.1 – READING FACTUAL TEXTS Purpose: Why you are reading You may not be aware of it, but you already use different reading strategies depending on why you are reading. Factual texts usually have one of these purposes: – to inform the reader about a topic (examples: textbook text, news article) – to instruct the reader on how to do something (examples: manual from IKEA, recipe) – to persuade the reader to believe something or do something (examples: opinion piece, advertisement). The purpose of literary texts, also known as fiction texts, on the other hand, is usually to entertain readers or make them feel something.

Knowing why you are reading a text will help you decide how you are going to approach the text. Are you expected to answer questions from the text? Are you supposed to write a summary? Are you going to discuss something with your classmates? Once you know the purpose, it is easier to decide what to focus on in the text. This chapter describes three strategies for reading that are useful for different purposes: – Skimming: when you need to get an overview of a text – Scanning: when you look for details in a text – Close reading: when you need a more complete understanding of a text

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A Venn diagram is another visual way of organising information. Start by drawing two overlapping circles. The circles represent two items you want to compare. In the intersection (where the circles overlap), place what the two items have in common. In the left and right circle, place what makes the two items

different from one another. The first example of a Venn diagram below outlines the differences and similarities of cats and dogs. The second was made by a student comparing the main characters of two texts in Chapter 4: "Pure Blind Fear" on page 181, and "It felt as if we had landed on the moon", page 183.

Venn diagrams Dog

Both

Barks

Household pet

Wags tail when happy

Four legs

Must be on a leash parts of the year

Given a name by its owner

Dave

In common

In India Dislikes the heat Does not speak Hindi Feels threatened Went there voluntarily Tries to talk to his friend, but she doesn’t understand Story takes place over a couple of hours

In a place neither has ever been before Not happy about the temperature Have no language in common with people they meet Feel out of place

Cat

Meows Wags tail when angry Is rarely on a leash

Malala

In Birmingham Dislikes the cold Speaks very little English at first Feels isolated Was sent to England, didn’t have choice Talks to her friend in Pakistan to find solace Story takes place over several months

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Tip 4: Share the workload! Sometimes, cooperating with one or more partners on a text can help ease the workload and let you explore different learning strategies. For this technique, work together with 1–3 other students and follow the guidelines below. Start by choosing your text. a Skim the entire text. Spend up to five minutes doing this. (See WHITE on p. 239.) Think about what you already know about this topic and what you expect to learn from reading. b Close read a section. In groups or pairs: Divide the text into parts. On your own, read your part of the text thoroughly. The questions in the margin will help you reflect over key words and the main ideas in the section. c Review and discuss. Now it is time to cooperate. Tell your partner(s) about the section you have read and listen to them telling you about their parts. Share your notes. If anything is unclear, feel free to ask ques-

tions or revisit the section from the text to make sure that you have understood it correctly. d Individual close reading. You should now have a good mind-set for understanding the entire text. Read the part(s) of the text your partner(s) told you about and answer the questions in the margin as you go along. When you have completed steps a-d above, talk about the following in the same pairs or groups, or as a class: e While reading, how well were you able to use skimming, close reading, note taking and reviewing strategies? f How much did your partner’s presentation and notes help prepare you for the section you did not skim? g What have you learned about reading strategies that might help you in the future, for example in social studies, science or other subjects that require a lot of reading?

Quick tips

Reading factual texts When reading a text you can use three different strategies: 1. Skimming: The purpose is to get an overview of a text. – Set a time limit for reading the text, and then write down three main points. – Use the WHITE method. 2. Scanning: The purpose is to find specific details. – Determine what key words to look for. – Read quickly until you have found the key words with the information you need. 3. Close reading: The purpose is to get a more complete understanding of a text. – Activate previous knowledge – Ask questions – Make notes to organise information – Cooperate with other readers

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Tasks 1a Insert suitable linking words from the following list in the gaps in the text below (note: there are more words in the list than you need): nevertheless – finally – even though – such as – previously – for instance – in addition – since – similarly – therefore Floral design is a profession in which old techniques are used to make modern flower arrangements for various occasions. Some of these occasions are the most significant milestones in people's lives, (1) births, baptisms, weddings, confirmations, anniversaries and funerals. (2), given the occasion, it is the floral designer’s job to create appropriate decorations. (3), sympathy wreaths and casket sprays for funerals, romantic bouquets for weddings and sweet decorations for newborn babies all require very different designs. To be a professional floral designer, it is not enough to master the aesthetic aspects of the job. A floral designer has to know the natural seasons for different types of flowers and how to give correct care to various flowers and plants. (4), it is necessary to know how to prevent the most common diseases of indoor plants and flowers. (5), the floral designer has to calculate consumption and costs of flowers and other materials used for different assignments. b Read the text above again with the linking words and phrases, and then comment on how they tie the sentences together.

2 In pairs, improve the text samples below (a–c). Use linking words and phrases from the table on p. 261 and feel free to add other types of words and remove words if necessary. Afterwards, discuss the changes you have made and how they have improved the texts. Example: Karen and Peter were at the cinema last night. They bought some candy. It made a lot of noise. The other people became angry. They told them to leave. → When Karen and Peter were at the cinema last night, they bought some candy. However, it made so much noise when they ate it that the other people became angry and told them to leave. a Homework assignments are annoying. They are a waste of our time. Homework should be banned. Teachers should be fired for forcing it upon us. b Carol was having a bad day. She arrived late for work. She left the contracts at home. She spilled coffee on her white shirt. She ate lunch. She attended a meeting. She got home at 6 PM and went straight to bed. c Make sure you have what you need. You will need a screwdriver and a can of compressed air. Unplug your computer. You are ready to open up your computer. Remove the side panel and turn off the power supply in your computer. Locate the fan on your PC's motherboard. Once you have located the fan, unplug it by simply pulling out the cord. Get your can of compressed air and start spraying. Hold the can at an angle so the fan turns as you spray. Plug everything back in, replace the side panel, and enjoy faster computing!

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2.3 – WRITING FOR WORK Writing instructions The purpose (see p. 254) of instructions is to give information on how to do something or use something. After reading the instructions, you should be able to carry out the procedure or use the equipment yourself. Instructions can be, for example, a recipe, a user’s manual, safety instructions or a poster in the restroom at work explaining how to wash your hands properly.

– Focus on one thing at a time. Instructions explain a process in step-by-step guidelines, so explain each step in the right order. Use linking words and phrases (see p. 260). – Be thorough. Explain every single step, even those that seem obvious to you. Your reader should be able to complete the process by following your instructions only. – Keep it short. Only include necessary information.

How to write instructions – Write a clear title that states what the instructions are about. Example: How to Disinfect Your Hands – Describe the purpose of the instructions. Why were they written? A clear purpose of “How to Disinfect Your Hands” could be “to avoid spreading bacteria”. However, in instructions such as “How to Change a Tyre” and “Fire Action”, description of the purpose is not necessary. – If relevant, include a list of tools or materials needed in the process.

– Be clear. There should be little or no room for interpretation in instructions. – Explain technical terms and concepts. When writing instructions, you will need to use many technical terms and concepts that may be unfamiliar to some or all of your target audience (see p. 255). When using a word or term that is not part of everyday language, define it the first time you use it. There are different ways to include an explanation. The explanation can be included in parenthesis after the technical term, as in these cooking

Sometimes illustrations are enough in instructions.

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instructions: “Secrets to a perfect béchamel (white sauce)”. Another way to both give instructions that everybody will understand and introduce an important term is to give an explanation before you introduce the term: “These instructions will teach you how to make the perfect white sauce, also known as béchamel.”

– Test the instructions to see that they work. Perform the task yourself while carefully following the instructions or have someone else test it for you. – Proofread. It is always important to proofread the texts you write. However, with instructions it is crucial since one small writing mistake could lead to a huge error.

– Use illustrations if possible. Visual aids will usually make the instructions clearer and easier to follow.

Instructions: How to repot a plant We repot a plant to give it a larger growing space because without enough space for the roots, the plant often experiences stunted growth and may die. Materials: – a larger pot than the one the plant is currently in – soil – water – gloves (optional) First of all, water the plant a couple of days before you repot it so that the soil is moist when you are ready to work on it. Secondly, remove the plant by slipping your hand over the top of the pot and holding the plant’s stem, then turn the pot upside down. Next, remove about one-third of the soil. However, if there are signs of white mould on the soil, i.e. saprophytic fungus, you need to remove all of the soil and also clean the roots with water. Then, put about 5 centimetres of potting soil in the bottom of the new larger pot,

put the plant into the pot, and make sure the soil level is high enough so that the soil line on the plant stem is not above the top of the pot. After that, fill in around the root ball with soil. The root ball is the main mass of roots located directly beneath the plant’s stem. You do this by pressing the soil down hard around the edges of the pot with the tips of your fingers or your thumbs. Finally, soak the plant until water runs out of the bottom and then let it drain completely.

Linking words and phrases that indicate sequence (see p. 261). Linking word indicating contrast.

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Tasks BRANNINSTRUKS 1

In pairs, practise giving and following spoken instructions. For this task you will need Citizens, a blank piece of paper and a pen. One of you picks an illustration from Citizens and is careful not to show it to your partner. Your job is now to instruct your partner as he or she attempts to draw the illustration on a blank piece of paper. Use five to ten minutes. Reveal the original illustration and talk about how the instructions worked. Change roles and do the task again.

VARSLE: Oppdages brann eller røyk skal brannvesenet varsles uten opphold. Slå alarm og ring brannvesenet. REDDE: Evakuer bygningen. SLOKKE: Ved mindre branntilløp, forsøk å slokke brannen med tilgjengelig slokkeutstyr. Lukk dører og vinduer. Hvis brannen ikke slokkes straks er det særlig viktig at dører til det rommet hvor det brenner, samt korridorskiller og trapperomsdører holdes lukket for å hindre spredning.

2 An elderly relative who is new to social media wants to sign up for a social media site (choose Twitter, Instagram or Facebook). He has asked you to instruct him. a Prepare the instructions. Remember to adjust your language to the target audience. b In pairs, take turns playing the relative and the instructor. 3

Brann: 110 Politi: 112 Ambulanse: 113

In pairs, fold two paper airplanes. Test them and choose the one that flies the best. Then write instructions for folding this airplane. Consider adding illustrations to your instructions since visual aids will usually make instructions clearer and easier to follow. Trade instructions with another pair to see if they are able to fold the airplane based on your instructions.

4 Due to migration and globalisation, there will most likely be someone at your workplace that does not have Norwegian as their first language and it will be necessary to provide instructions in English. Translate the following instructions from Norwegian to English. Make sure that nothing is lost in the translation.

5

Write instructions about a procedure or a piece of equipment related to your education programme or your future job. a Write one set of instructions suited for a person familiar with your education programme or future profession. b Change the instructions to suit a person who is not familiar with your education programme or future profession (for example, a friend or a parent). c With a partner, discuss the changes you had to make to the instructions when the target audience changed. Chapter 5: Courses

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Writing reports A report is a text that explains something we have seen or done. At school, you may be asked to write a report on a visit to a company or to reflect on your work and the skills you have gained. You may also be asked to write a report to explain the work process that led to a finished product. At work, we may have to write a report when a project is finished, or when an accident happens. Sometimes, for example in the health care sector or if you have been involved in a car accident, the reports will be specific forms that you have to use, such as a non-conformance report (“avviksrapport”) or an injury report (“skademeldingsskjema”). The person who reads the report expects useful and correct information about a topic

or an event. It is therefore important that the report is written using formal language, that it contains relevant information and that it is not too long. A report is written using the first person: I or we. If there has been an accident at your workplace, you need to write a report to your boss, so he or she will know what happened, and why it happened. A report may be used to place responsibility for an accident, to change routines or to decide whether a person should get some compensation for an injury. When you sign your name at the bottom of the report, it means that you approve of the content of the report.

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An accident report might look like this: To: (name / job title)

To: Charlotte Donner, owner of Charlotte’s Coffee House

From: (name / job title)

From: Mark Lewis, shift manager

Date:

13 February 2020

Subject: (Write what the report is about)

Accident involving oil spill on floor

Background: Why are you writing this report?

On 12 February 2020, following an accidental spill of salad oil on the kitchen floor, a staff member slipped and broke her wrist. She will be on sick leave for at least six weeks.

Brief description of the incident: What happened? Who? When? Where? Facts, not opinion. (What do you think caused the accident? / What should have been done differently?)

We had a hectic lunch rush on 12 February; the café was filled to the brim and there was a long line for the take away orders too. Sarah was at the till; Jenny was at the coffee machine; I was helping out at both stations and also tried to clear tables and serve the food orders. Kieran was in the kitchen preparing the sandwiches and salads as the orders came in, and Liam was our kitchen porter/washing-up assistant for the day. At some point, a bottle of salad oil must have tipped over, and the content splashed onto the kitchen floor, making the floor as slippery as an ice skating rink. When Kieran discovered the oil-spill on the floor, he asked Liam to pour some salt over the oil, to prevent anyone from slipping in it. Because of the noise level in the kitchen, Liam didn’t quite hear what Kieran said, but he saw the oil spill and started wiping it up with some kitchen towels. As he was disposing of a batch of oil-soaked towels, Jenny came running into the kitchen to get more take-away cups from the storage room, slipped on the now oil-polished floor, fell down and landed on her wrist. From the café we could hear her cry out in agony, so I rushed into the kitchen myself and nearly fell over too. Jenny’s wrist was hanging at an odd angle, and we were worried that she might also have a concussion, as she hit the floor quite hard. An ambulance was called, arriving about 20 minutes later. In the meantime, Kieran was able to pour a mixture of salt and corn starch on the floor to soak up the remaining oil so that no one else hurt themselves. The paramedics examined Jenny’s wrist and decided to take her to the ER.

Measures taken:

Normally the bottles containing salad oil, vinegar and other condiments are stored in a metal box placed at the back of the worktop. This day, however, the bottle had been left in a place where it was easier to knock it over by accident. The cook has now been reminded why it is essential that condiments are kept in the metal box when not in use and the kitchen porter has been given a quick course on how to deal with oil spills in the kitchen.

Conclusion / Next steps:

Jenny now has her wrist in a cast and will be off work for at least six weeks. This means that we will have to adjust the rota to make sure we are not under-staffed and possibly get some extra help in too.

Signature:

Mark Lewis Mark Lewis, shift manager

At citizens.cdu.no you will find several tasks that help you practise how to write an accident report specific to your field of study.

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COURSE 4

Sources 4.1 – USING SOURCES: COPS We use sources in order to strengthen an argument and show that we have knowledge about what others have said about the topic. Your sources must be trustworthy and suitable to the purpose of your text. Even if you have some prior knowledge of the topic, it is wise to carry out research to ensure that what you know is correct and to find additional or updated information. When doing research on a topic, you must check a variety of sources (i.e. not just Wikipedia), and use the sources critically. The internet is a massive source of information, but not everything you come across online is reliable, and it is crucial that you approach this material with caution. Furthermore, it is a good idea to use some search techniques to narrow your searches and not get lost in the sea of information:

Can I turn in a paper without citing all sources? “No”.1 1

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, HAMLET, ACT II, SCENE I, LINE 96

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DIGGING: IN-DEPTH WORK Why work in depth? Working in depth is about digging deeper into a topic you are interested in. This means that you learn about different views and perspectives on the topic. In-depth work can also be about considering the ways in which the topic relates to other topics, both from your English course and from your other courses.

Five steps Work in depth with topics from chapters 1-4 by following these steps: STEP 1: Individually, in pairs or in groups, choose a topic from the chapter (see lists on pp. 296-299). STEP 2: Decide whether you want to: a) work with a ready-made research question for the topic (list A below), or b) choose a topic and formulate your own research question (list B below). STEP 3: Decide on the following: – How do you want to present the results of your research? (Go to citizens.cdu.no for help.) – How much time should you spend planning, researching and writing? Set deadlines for each stage of the work. Also decide when and how to receive feedback from your teacher or from fellow students during your work. STEP 4: Before going any further, read up on how to search for, evaluate and cite your sources (see pp. 287–293 and citizens.cdu.no).

STEP 5: When you have discussed your choices with your teacher, you must do extensive research using different written and/or oral sources (for example interviews). Write a log of the work you do, and make this available to your teacher.

What is a research question? A research question will provide a starting point for an in-depth project. Being able to choose or create a good research question is therefore very important. So what is a good research question? – It should not try to do too much. The question, “How do social media affect society?” needs so many answers that your work will lack focus. – It should not be too narrow either. The question, “How does social media use affect pet owners?” is too limiting.

– It should allow you to show that you have studied the topic that it focuses on. This means that the answers to the question need to be supported by facts, statistics or the opinion of experts. – The research question should allow you to look at different sides of an issue. It should open the door to a discussion about the topic.

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