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Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium

Spring 2020

Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS and PRESENTATIONS


Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium WELCOMING REMARKS Charles K. Zercher, Ph.D. Dean College of Engineering & Physical Sciences

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Event Sponsor College of Engineering & Physical Sciences

Award Sponsors College of Engineering and Physical Sciences College of Life Sciences and Agriculture Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of Computer Science Department of Earth Sciences Department of Mathematics and Statistics Department of Physics and Astronomy UNH InterOperability Laboratory

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Planning Committee Co-Chairs: Tara Hicks Johnson (CCOM) and Carole Berry (CEPS Dean's Office-retired) Admin Support: Laura Bicknell (Chemistry) Committee Members: David Bennedetto (Computer Science), Orly Buchbinder (Mathematics & Statistics), Tim Carlin (Innovation Scholars), Kevan Carpenter (CEPS TSC), Eshan Dave (Civil & Environmental Engineering), Elireza Ebadi (Mechanical Engineering), Stephan Hale (Leitzel Center), Richard Johnson (Chemistry), Young Jo Kim (Chemical Engineering), Tom Lippmann (Earth Sciences), Ningyu Liu (Physics & Astronomy), Ivo Nedyalkov (Mechanical Engineering), Anthony Puntin (Civil & Environmental Engineering), Wayne Smith (Electrical & Computer Engineering), Krisztina Varga (COLSA), Tom Weber (ME/Ocean Engineering), Stephanie Whitney (CEPS CaPS)


Undergraduate Research Conference 2020

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS and PRESENTATIONS

Project Group

Table of Contents

Pages

Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Innovation & Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Investigation & Assessment . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 Computer Science-Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-23 Computer Science-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-25 Computer Science-Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-29 Earth Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-34 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Hardware Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-42 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Software/System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-48 Innovation Scholars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-54 Mathematics & Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Mechanical Engineering-Design/Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-59 Mechanical Engineering-Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-64 Ocean Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Physics-Data Analysis, Simulation & Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-70 Physics-Experiments & Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-75

unh.edu/urc/ise


BIOLOGY

A Comparison of Welfare Considerations Among Captive Animals AUTHOR: Emily Dunlop ADVISOR: Jessica Bolker

The welfare of captive animals in both zoos and research labs is an essential yet often overlooked aspect of their care. Welfare can be broadly defined as the ethical responsibility to provide for an animal’s physical and mental needs. For some people, welfare is seen as a core part of the humane treatment of animals. For those who use animals in their research, welfare also matters because an uncomfortable animal is not at its physiological or behavioral optimum. In this thesis, I focus on the significance of the welfare of captive animals in research settings ranging from laboratories to zoos. Failing to consider an animal’s welfare may impact research results and ultimately render them unreproducible because an animal that is stressed by an inadequate environment will function poorly. This challenge can be addressed by incorporating “comfort factors” into husbandry and experimental design. Comfort factors can be as simple as the availability of nesting material or enrichment activities, yet they have a significant impact on a study and the progression of that research. Failure to incorporate comfort factors could potentially inhibit biomedical research which uses lab animals, or obstruct conservation efforts that depend on individuals housed in a zoo. My thesis will use an extended review of literature to examine foundational and recent findings in several areas: establishing the value of the field of animal welfare science, focusing on the value of implementing adequate standards of care for captive animals in research, and emphasizing the role of basic zoological knowledge in developing those standards.

Cognitive Abilities of Caribbean Hermit Crabs in Navigating a Known Location AUTHOR: Samantha Dionne ADVISOR: Leslie Curren

Navigation is essential for an animal’s survival as they must understand the area they live in to find resources and shelter. Coenobitidae is one of the many Families of hermit crabs that uses multiple sensory cues, such as tactile, visual, chemical, and olfactory, to navigate, but it is not understood if one modality is more important than the others. The goal of this study is to ascertain the relative importance of visual and chemical cues in how Caribbean hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus) navigate a familiar space. The hermit crabs will first learn a simple maze with access to chemical cues (the scent of food) and no visual restraints. After learning the puzzle, four different treatments will be conducted, each with a different combination of access to chemical and visual cues: blindfolded with food, blindfolded without food, seeing with food, and seeing without food. I will use speed to complete the maze to determine which navigational cue aids the hermit crabs the most. I hypothesize that the hermit crabs will be most efficient at solving the maze given no visual restraints and a chemical cue of food, as past studies have shown, they use combinations of cues to navigate best. Hermit crabs play an important role in regenerating energy into the ecosystem and are prey for many species, so as the environment continues to change, it is important that these bottom-dwellers are able to adapt.

1 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Johanna Pastoriza ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

PET imaging is a highly sensitive and specific way to image various tissues, including cancers. Expanding the variety of radionuclides available for radio medicine offers the potential for improved PET imaging by improving signal resolution, in vivo specificity, and potential for theranostic agents. Because introduction of radioactive material into the body presents inherent risk of radiotoxicity to bone and other sensitive tissue, effective binding of the radiometal is necessary to prevent dissociation of the radiometal, which could accumulate in the body. In this project, derivatives of NOTA, a literature chelator for scandium and similar radiometals, were DFT modelled and geometrically optimized. The optimized structures were assessed by comparison with literature values for interatomic distances and bond angles. Based on these comparisons and computational models of several current metal-chelator complexes, a novel radiometal chelator is proposed.

Winning Project

2020

Effects of Mutation on Structure and Binding of the Intrinsically Disordered Protein PopZ AUTHOR: Ryan Puterbaugh ADVISOR: Krisztina Varga

Cellular organization has been key factor in creating and maintaining the complex biochemical functions that underlie cellular function. Organization is particularly important in cellular division as the uneven division of important proteins can lead to the death of one or more of the resulting daughter cells. Despite their relative simplicity bacteria also have a complex subcellular anatomy for cellular organization. For example, the bacteria Caulobacter cresentus processes a177-amino acid protein known Polar Organizing Protein Z (PopZ) that self assembles into multiprotein superstructures at the cell poles of the bacterium. These superstructures then bind to at least 8 different proteins at the cell poles that are linked to cell cycle regulation and chromosome segregation. Currently the structure of a C-terminal truncated form of PopZ has been determined using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy to be mostly intrinsically disordered with a small alpha-helix located near the N-terminus of the protein.NMR titration experiments with one of PopZ’s known protein binding partners has also revealed that this alpha-helix is the region of the protein that interacts with the protein binding partner. To further characterize this interaction, an amino acid substituted isoform of the PopZ protein, PopZ I17A, was recombinantly expressed and subjected to the same titration experiment, to determine if isoleucine 17 was critical in the electrostatic binding of PopZ to the protein binding partner. This experiment displayed that the I17A amino acid substitution resulted in a complete loss of function of the PopZ isoform, indicating that isoleucine 17 is critical in the binding of PopZ to its binding partners.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 2

BIOLOGY

Computational Design of NOTA-Derived 44Sc Chelators for PET Imaging


BIOLOGY

Identification of STAT3 Target Genes That Promote Ovarian Cancer  Metastasis AUTHORS: Yuri Makar David Walker ADVISOR: Sarah Walker

Ovarian cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. The high morbidity comes from the cancer’s late stage detection and chemo-resistant properties. We discovered that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein had higher activation in cells grown in 3D compared to 2D. After decreasing the activity of STAT3 we observed that the cancer was not able to grow properly. We developed the ‘Mesothelial Clearance Assay’ to model the early stages of ovarian cancer metastasis where the cells move from the primary tumor to other portions of the abdomen. We tested STAT3 reduced ovarian cancer on the clearance assay and showed STAT3 activation is important for metastasis. To identify how STAT3 promotes ovarian metastasis, , STAT3 target gene analysis was performed, and downstream targets were identified. These genes were compared to genes known to promote metastasis, and we identified 4 genes: SLUG, ITGB3, TMEM 173, and ICAM1 as potential STAT3 target genes that promote metastasis. The mesothelial clearance of the downstream targets was tested, and these targets showed a relationship with ovarian cancer metastasis.

Identification of Virulence Factors of "Serratia sp. SCBI" AUTHOR: Jessica Hodgkins ADVISOR: Louis Tisa

A Serratia species of bacteria, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate (SCBI), was isolated from the nematode C. briggsae KT0001. This bacterium forms an early symbiotic relationship with its nematode host, altering the nematode behavior to kill and feed upon insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI is nonpathogenic to Caenorhabditis nematodes, but is lethal to lepidopteran insects including Galleria mellonella (Greater Wax Moth). Comparative genomic analysis shows that Serratia sp. SCBI is closely related to the broad-host-range pathogen Serratia marcescens Db11 which kills Caenorhabditis nematodes. The overall goal of this project is to identify the virulence factors of insect pathogen Serratia sp. strain SCBI to gain deeper understanding of the transition from a mutualistic state to a pathogenic lifestyle, and to provide insight into the design of precision antibiotics. A transposon mutant library of 2,100 mutants was screened for defective lipase activity or siderophore production. Nine mutants (2H-10, 10H-2, 11G-9, 12D-7, 12D-11, 12G-7, 14A12, 18E-6, and 19E-4) exhibited reduced production of one or both exoenzymes. These defects were confirmed and their effects on pathogenesis was tested via a G. mellonella bioassay, and up to sixty biological replicates were used per mutant. Three mutants (10H-2, 12D-7, and 14A-12) lost or nearly lost insecticidal activity, while two mutants (2H-10 and 18E-6) were insecticidal to a lesser degree than the wildtype. When retested, 2H-10 was not insecticidal, producing conflicting results. One mutant (19E-4) retained wild type level insecticidal activity, and one mutant (11G-9) could not grow in selective medium, suggesting that it does not contain a region of virulence. Mutants 12D-11 and 12G-7 had conflicting results. To identify the site of the transposon insertion, rescue cloning was used on three mutants (10H-2, 12D-7, and 14A-12). These clones are being sequenced to identify insertion sites within the Serratia sp. SCBI genome.

3 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Ryan Dussault ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell growth and proliferation. In the mitochondrion, iron enables enzymes involved in respiratory complexes, DNA synthesis, the cell cycle, detoxifying enzymes, and more.1 Cancer cells have been shown to upregulate iron intake.1 Current approaches have focused on interfering with the ability of cancer cells to use iron by directly modulating iron-regulated genes or by the use of iron chelators, however selectivity of cancer cells remains a challenge.1 This research aims to synthesize a hexadentate iron chelator linker attached to a mitochondria seeking peptide for study of the mitochondrial labile iron pool. Some cancers have been shown to upregulate respiration, increasing mitochondria concentrations. This coupled with increased labile iron pools in cancer cells may cause our probe to show increased selectivity.2 The target molecule is an 8-hydroxyquinoline based tripodal structure linked to a mitochondrial seeking tetrapeptide through amide linkage. 8-hydroxyquinoline alone has been shown to effectively bind iron and the delivery of three equivalents of this molecule to the mitochondria should demonstrate increased iron binding. Currently, progress has been made in the synthesis of the target molecule.

The Effect of Transcriptome Assembly Quality on Phylogenetic Relationships AUTHOR: Troy LaPolice ADVISOR: Matthew MacManes

The processing and quality of genetic data is vital for studying the genetic code of organisms. Researchers often move on to downstream data analysis and overlook the quality of their upstream transcriptomic assemblies. This study examined if the quality of the assembled genetic data affected the resulting inferences about the relatedness between species. It also examined which quality metrics are the best for assessing the quality of assemblies with the goal of making a phylogeny. I assembled sequence data from vertebrates into transcriptomes using the multiple assembler, multiple kmer approach built into the Oyster River Protocol. I took the best and worst assemblies from each organism generated from this process and compiled each into datasets, one with high- and one with low-quality data. I did this for three different quality metrics and created phylogenetic trees for each dataset. I then compared the trees made from the high- and low-quality datasets to an accepted vertebrate tree to assess the differences in the datasets. I show that poor assembly quality has a significant effect on the amount of downstream data and the quality of phylogenetic results. I also developed an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each assembly software and assembly quality metric.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 4

BIOLOGY

Synthesis of a Hexadentate Chelator Linker for Attachment to a Mitochondria Seeking Peptide


Bodwell Road Bank Stabilization Project AUTHORS: Nicholas Buonanno Kyle Hamel Benjamin Higgins Connor Littlefield

The City of Manchester is pursuing a Bodwell Road Bank Rehabilitation Students: Nick Buonanno, Kyle Hamel, Ben Higgins, Connor Littlefield hazard mitigation project to improve an Faculty Advisors: Eshan Dave, Majid Ghayoomi, Anthony Puntin Professional Partners: Todd Connors, Owen Friend-Gray embankment area along Bodwell Road. EXISTING CONDITIONS ALTERNATIVES RIPRAP DESIGN The road is a heavily trafficked two-way urban roadway with the area of concern in the section around 240 Bodwell Road. The embankment has been undermined FACULTY ADVISORS: by consistent fluvial erosion from FES DESIGN the Cohas Brook, supplemented by Eshan Dave unsuitable drainage techniques, leading Majid Ghayoomi to the problematic slope instability. Visual evidence of slope creep is provided by Anthony Puntin the guardrail leaning towards the brook, COST COMPARISON along with previously eroded surface INDUSTRY ADVISORS: materials facilitates the necessity for ADDITIONS Todd Connors this infrastructure project. The City of Manchester has commissioned Team 9 Owen Friend-Gray to design a roadway hazard mitigation plan that will protect critical infrastructure, safeguard the public and prevent the loss of property. The team View presentation has considered various design alternatives, advancing with the most effective green and the most effect grey solution for the deteriorating streambank. By way of measured consideration, a riprap or FES design is proposed for reconditioning the embankment. DOT approved steel guardrails, bituminous curbing for Honorable Mention proper drainage, and stream barbs for flow deflection are also proposed additionally to be implemented in conjunction with slope stabilization techniques. In cooperation with one another these modern solutions Project will stabilize the slope keeping feasibility, cost effectiveness and future sustainability at the forefront. RipRap Stabilization

• Bodwell Rd is a two way roadway in Manchester NH • Impacted by Cohas Brook • Failing bank, failing guardrail

Fabric Encapsulated Soil

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

Stream Relocation

• • • •

Steel Guardrail replacement MASH approved EAGRT Guardrail ends Bituminous curbing to direct water Stream Barbs for deflecting channel flows away from the brook bank

2020

C-Lot Drainage and BMP Design Project AUTHORS: Chloe Carter Nicole Haggerty Sawyer Hall John Nader FACULTY ADVISOR: James Houle PROJECT SPONSOR: Tom Ballestero, UNH Stormwater Center View presentation

UNH facilities will partner with the UNH C-Lot Drainage and BMP Design Project Stormwater Center to implement a Nicole Haggerty, Chloe Carter, John Nader, Sawyer Hall Faculty Advisors/ Sponsors: James Houle, Tom Ballestero stormwater Best Management Practice UNH Stormwater Center (BMP) that disconnects impervious cover Introduction Results at nitrogen hotspots identified by the Municipal Bioretention program. The Great Bay Nitrogen Non-Point Source Study (GBNNPSS) identified stormwater Methods Discussion as a significant source of the non-point source nitrogen load (34%) to the Great Bay. This project focuses on the area along the southeastern portion of UNH Durham campus (next to C-lot), which represents a large, currently unmanaged, urbanized area that collectively drains References into College Brook. The BMP proposed will be a subsurface gravel wetland system that includes an internal water storage reservoir for nitrogen removal. This BMP was chosen because it is easy to retrofit to the existing wetland area and it is one of the most effective stormwater treatment systems for removing pollutants. Through the implementation of an innovative subsurface gravel wetland, the project will disconnect and treat runoff prior to discharging to receiving waters.

5 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

This project focuses on managing the runoff from the area along the southeastern portion of UNH Durham campus (next to C-lot). The best management practice (BMP) proposed is a subsurface gravel wetland system. Through the implementation of this system, the project will divert and treat runoff prior to discharging to receiving waters. The goal is to reduce the nitrogen load to the Great Bay.

% IC

25-year Flow (cfs)

DA 1: Ditch

15.82

8.35

52.75%

46.78

DA 2: C-lot

Drainage Area

Area Impervious (acres) Cover (acres) 1.26

0.42

33.29%

2.86

Total

49.64

(Google Maps, 2020)

Watershed Delineation: • QGIS: Flow Accumulation Function • Lidar data • Topographic lines • Catch basin locations • Delineations of two drainage areas were formed: (1) runoff from campus going to the ditch (2) runoff from C-lot going to the system Flow Calculations: • Rational Method • Design event: 25-year storm Diversion Structure/ Inlet Design: • Size of diversion structure based on the crosssection of the ditch and the 25-year design flow • Size of ditch influent pipe was determined by the maximum allowable flow entering the system based on capacity of existing outlet structure • Considered the pipe slope and existing utilities to determine the best location for the structure System Design: • System size was predetermined by the existing wetland area • Design was based on the UNHSC Subsurface Gravel Wetland Design Specifications

Cross Section of Ditch Diversion Structure

Cross Section of Subsurface Gravel Wetland

Plan View of Subsurface Gravel Wetland

Alternatives Investigated: Not viable due to lack of space available: • Forebay • Second treatment cell • Diversion wall next to C-lot inlet Obstacles: • Surveying the site through thick vegetation • Limiting existing conditions • Finding a location for the diversion structure and system inlet • Incorporating an existing half-submerged inlet structure into the system design Erosion: • Geogrids and riprap to prevent further erosion of ditch

Ballestero, T. P., Houle, J. J., & Puls, T. A. UNHSC Subsurface Gravel Wetland Design Specifications, 2016, pp. 1–11. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire. Google Maps, 2020, maps.google.com Thompson, David B. “The Rational Method.” Engineering Hydrology, 2006. Texas Tech University.


Columbia Pacific Bio-Refinery Pipeline Trestle Design

FACULTY ADVISORS: Robert Henry Zack Jenkins PROJECT SPONSOR: Zack Jenkins, Collins Engineers View presentation

The Columbia Pacific Bio Refinery is Columbia River Pipeline Trestle Design looking to upgrade their existing pier Group 14 – TRED Engineering with a new pipeline in order to allow for Trestle Configuration Existing Conditions dual product distribution. The refinery Scope is located on the banks of the Columbia River and is used as an ethanol producing D C and distributing port. Due to the ideal B location for distribution to West coast A Loading Cases and Asian marketplaces, the owners of the refinery also plan to distribute Foundation Profile crude oil from the facility in the future. Foundation Design Collins Engineers have tasked Team 14 to assess the loading and conditions on site to develop a design for a new pipeline trestle, which will distribute both products for a lifespan of 50 years. The trestle has been designed to meet the clients need for a larger distribution system, while resisting impacts from seismic activity in the region. Team 14 has proposed a new trestle design, with four separate trestle segments that follow the outline of the existing pier, supported by a series deep foundation piles. The new trestle allows for the most direct path to essential loading points on the pier, while offering optimum support against relevant seismic activity in the region based on design classifications. Tyler Gleason, Dan Martineau, Elanor Price, Robert Moon Faculty Advisor: Dr. Robert Henry, Project Sponsor: Zack Jenkins, Collins Engineers Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire

•Develop a conceptual design for a new pipeline trestle •Develop design loads using pseudo structural analysis •Investigation into the effect of seismic activity on the foundation design •Feasibility analysis of the design using anticipated loading, seismic impacts, and cost estimation

SECTION

• Loads vary throughout cross section, 5 loading point groups, worst cases for each found • Fixed supports supporting 3 perpendicular directions • Roller supports allow for thermal expansion in longitudinal direction • 7 load cases in ASCE 7-10 • 2 load cases for seismic events in ASCE 6114 • Pipe content considered as dead load or live load in seismic events

A

310 ft

SUPPORT SPACING 70 ft

B

LENGTH

1050 ft

75 ft

C

65 ft

55 ft

D

50 ft

N/A

• Located in Clatskanie, Oregon on the Columbia River • Two access trestles and a main dock • Currently used for the distribution of ethanol • Recent upgrades to pier: docking for larger vessels, two loading stations • Region known for seismic activity

• Deep foundation piles • 24-inch diameter, open-ended steel pipe piles • 120 to 170 feet long • Piles driven into nonliquefiable soil zone • Bearing piles designed for CLE hazard level • Soil Conditions • Soils on site potentially liquefiable • On site there are 3 different soil zones • Potential for seismic settlement and lateral spreading

Profile of Segment A

Egmont Channel Range Rebuild AUTHORS: Ryan Boyle Brian Duignan Gabriel Paster Nicole Sanborn FACULTY ADVISOR: Jean Benoit PROJECT SPONSOR: Thomas Ducharme, Appledore Marine Engineering, LLC View presentation

Winning Project

2020

This project was set forth by Appledore Egmont Channel Range Rebuild Marine Engineering to design a marine structure exposed to various environmental conditions. The Egmont Channel Range Rebuild Project is located in St. Petersburg Florida. Both range lights (the front and the rear) help guide ships into one of Florida's largest ports at over 5,000 acres, handling over 37 million tons of cargo a year. The Egmont Channel is the only entrance into the Tampa Bay Port from the Gulf of Mexico. Both range lights act as critical guides when aligned to guide the vessel into the port. The range light rebuild consisted of designing a rear and front range light with a 50-year design life with little to no maintenance and a 100-year return period for wave and wind loads. The front range light was constructed in 1990 as a prefabricated steel jacket structure located 2 miles offshore. The base of the structure is 10 feet below the water level with a focal height of 30 feet. The rear range light is also a prefabricated steel jacket structure located 300 yards offshore. The rear light sits in a water depth of 15 feet with a focal height of 115 feet. Both structures are severely corroded and need to be replaced and the rear structure fell over during the 2017 hurricane season and is sitting on the bed of the ocean. The goal is to successfully design and model two range lights that meet the design criteria by analyzing the various forces that could be applied at one time and modeling how the design will behave under such conditions. Nicole Sanborn, Ryan Boyle, Gabe Paster, Brian Duignan Department of Civil and Environmental, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Introduction

• Egmont Channel into St. Petersburg, Florida

• Leads into the Tamp Bay Port from the Gulf of Mexico (only current entrance) • Handles over 37 million tons of cargo every year

• Design of two well-lit range lights that will guide the ships into the port

Design Goals and Criteria

• Both structures are to have a 50-year design life with little to no maintenance required • 100-year return period for the wind and wave loads • Monopile and multi-pile design • Reasons for past failure: scour, steel corrosion, high wind and wave loads • Efficiently using old structure • Considering climate change factors

Life Cycle Analysis Considerations

• Goal of our LCA: analyze the potential environmental impacts and determine if the life cycle of the structures will meet design requirements designated by the scope • Making sure the structures have sacrificial anodes and extra thick steel with an epoxy coating • Climate change • Old Structure into a reef structure: If not removal of old structure to reduce physical risk • Recommend same locations, same impact • Not in scope: recommend putting solar panels on the top of the structures to power the lights

Range Front Light • Located 2 miles offshore • Constructed 1990, prefabricated steel jacket structure • 10 foot water depth • Focal height of 30’ • Severely corroded

Existing Range Light Conditions

Range Rear Light • Located 300 yards offshore • Constructed 1990, prefabricated steel jacket structure

• Focal height 115’ • Severely corroded • Light destroyed in 2017 hurricane season

Charts

Achieving Scope Requirements

• Challenges: Scour, Corrosion, minimal maintenance • Designing a well-built structure that can maintain a 100-year return period for wave and wind • Corrosion • Sacrificial anodes and steel with an epoxy coating • Increased steel member to desired thickness for corrosion resistance • Scour- Concrete Block mattress

Challenges/Solutions

• Soil Conditions: four layers of sand, with clay at 100 ft. below MLLW (Mean Lower Low Water) • Minimum design criteria: 50-year design life with little to no maintenance • LPILE issues • Only access to a demo version provided by UNH • Mono-pile file too large to save • Complexity of a lattice tower • Used resources such as sponsor to provide insight and direction • Coronavirus • Led to difficulties accessing resources and communication

Acknowledgements

The project team would like to express our gratitude to the project sponsor and advisor, Thomas Ducharme and Jean Benoit for the continuous support and guidance they have provided thus far for this project. The team would also like to thank Raymond Cook for his help with the understanding of foundation and structure alternatives, Majid Ghayoomi for his help with structural elements, and Thomas Ballestero for his help with load development. This project and its development would not have been made possible without the resources or help provided by the University of New Hampshire.

References

Appledore Marine Engineering, LLC “Articulated Concrete Block Mattresses (ACBM) - Maccaferri Middle East.” Maccaferri Middle East, www.maccaferri.com/ae/products/articulated-concrete-block-mattresses-acbm/. Coastal Engineering Manual. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineering Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station, 2004. Coulbourne, William L, and T. Eric Stafford. Wind Loads: Guide to the Wind Load Provisions of ASCE 7-16. American Society of Civil Engineers, 2020. Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017. “U.S. Conditions Drive Innovation in Offshore Wind Foundations.” Energy.gov, www.energy.gov/eere/articles/us-conditions-drive-innovation-offshore-wind-foundations

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 6

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

AUTHORS: Tyler Gleason Daniel Martineau Robert Moon Elanor Price


Rehabilitation of the Robert J. Prowse Memorial Bridge for the City of Keene, NH AUTHORS: Jordan Brock Joseph Giammichele Kelsey Glidden, PM Chloe Loukes Melanie Martell Jacob Woodard

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

FACULTY ADVISOR: Erin Bell PROJECT SPONSORS: Donald Lussier Brett Rusnock View presentation

In September of 2019, a team of Rehabilitation of the Robert Prowse Memorial Bridge undergraduate students from the for the City of Keene, NH University of New Hampshire paired Kelsey Glidden (PM), Jordan Brock, Joe Giammichele, Chloe Loukes, Melanie Martell & Jake Woodard with the City of Keene to work on the Project Advisor: Dr. Erin Bell | Project Sponsors: Donald Lussier & Brett Rusnock rehabilitation and transportation of the Robert J. Prowse Memorial Bridge from Londonderry to Keene, NH. The proposed bridge will connect the Cheshire Trail Rail over Route 101 and will provide safe transport for pedestrians over the busy roadway. The Prowse Bridge faced demolition after its removal over I-93 in Londonderry, NH during a highway widening, but due to the bridge’s historic significance for being the first continuously welded steel frame bridge in the United States, a plan to utilize this bridge, while keeping the original integrity of the design, became a priority. GEOTECHNICAL ELEMENTS

PROJECT BACKGROUND

• • • • • • • •

Previously named the Ash Street Bridge. Currently located in Londonderry, NH. Designed and constructed in 1962 by famous bridge engineer Robert J Prowse. Made history for being the first continuously welded steel frame bridge in the U.S. Deconstructed in 2014 for the reconstruction and widening project for 20 miles om I-93. Prowse Bridge famous for having large longitudinal stiffeners on the outside girders that serve mainly as aesthetic purpose. The historical significance is one of many highlights on the reasoning behind rehabilitating the Prowse bridge. This project involves doing a soil analysis, erection procedure, transportation research, and cost analysis all while maintaining historic integrity.

• •

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

City of Keene requested two locations for boring hole placement, on either side of Route 101, directly under the location of the future abutments. From these boring holes, a soil boring report will be given that will help determine the layers of soil for the proposed site location, strength capability of the soil, as well as used to estimate foundation sizing. For the continuation of this project, a soil boring report that was determined for the Main St/Route 12 bridge, located about 1.5 miles from the proposed site location for the Prowse Bridge, was used. Additionally, there are several utility poles along the span of Route 101. A considered alternative is to reroute utility powerlines underneath the bridge.

Prowse Bridge is erected in 3 girder strings each weighing roughly 69 kips each from field measurements and calculations. With the difficulty of not having splice plates due to historic integrity, CJP welding was used to connect the girders to maintain the aesthetic of the Prowse Bridge (AISC Table 8-2 Pg. 8-42). The bridge was analyzed using its own self weight resulting in 79% of its allowable bending stress. The bridge will be set using a 450-ton crane at a radius of 105 feet. The bridge is presumed to be A36 (supp) steel with a working stress if 22 ksi. This makes the bridge more difficult to be adequate with large loads as the full span is 216 feet.

IMAGE SOURCE: NH.GOV

sed.

TRANSPORTATION

EXISTING CONDITIONS & HISTORIC CONSIDERATIONS

• Crudely cut pieces due to deconstruction causing reconstruction concerns. • Significant rusting damage due to its outdoor storage. • Final location of bridge is in the City of Keene to continue the preexisting Cheshire Recreational Rail Trail that runs over route 101. • Pre-existing abutment on North side. • Maximum traffic speed of about 47-48 mph in 40 mph zone. • Estimated traffic volume of roughly 11,000 cars per hour. • Little information on the steel used is recoverable due to the age the project was erected.

The Proposed location for the bridge to be re-erected is over RT 101 in line with the Cheshire Railroad Arch Bridge in Keene, NH. Using the NHDOT website, an OS/OW permit was completed to identify if the bridge members required a permit to be transported. With the given dimensions and weights of the individual members, no permit is necessary if only one member is transported at a time. The only exception to the statement above is that two bridge piers can be transported together since they weigh less and fit well dimensionally on a tractor trailer bed.

• To maintain the historic significance of the continuously welded frame, a specialized erection plan was developed to prevent any further deformation of the bridge: • Only 3 of the original 5 girder strings are being reused for this project (2 exterior spans to maintain the aesthetics of the original façade of the bridge and 1 interior span) • The proposed plan also allows the bridge to maintain its original span of 216 ft over Route 101, preventing the need for it to be shortened. • Plan to incorporate coffered wing walls that served as a distinctive aesthetic feature at the previous bridge location.

The bridge will built one girder string at a time, 5 steps per girder using shoring towers to withhold the middle span's weight as the CJP weld is done. Pick analysis of the middle girder shows the pick is adequate for bending stress using only 21% allowed. The heaviest picks were analyzed to ensure construction safety and picks were analyzed with a factor of safety of 50%.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

COST ANALYSIS

The site of the bridge once it is transported is in the proximity of Branch River. The following are ways to minimize the environmental impact:

• To prevent the contaminated runoff, stream barriers should be used during construction.

• The following cost estimate includes site visit/pre-erection coordination meetings, equipment preparation, weekend shutdown work, crew hours, crane use, and installation costs. SUBTOTAL + MARKUP = $163,000.00

The following cost estimate includes fuel cost, truck cost.

The following cost estimate includes the cost of two (2) boring hole locations.

• To preserve the vegetation adjacent to the project, silt fencing may be used.

TRANSP. TOTAL = $9,520.00

• Removing the existing concrete abutments causes the potential for concrete dust to create air pollution. While removing the concrete, an option is to wet the concrete and cover to prevent windblown dust.

BORING COST ~ $8,000.00

TOTAL COST ESTIMATE = $180,520.00

NH111 & NH151 Intersection Redesign Project AUTHORS: Liam Cullinane, PM Melissa Lyford Michael Menary Bill Nguyen

This project is a collaboration between North Hampton Intersection Redesign the University of New Hampshire Civil & Liam Cullinane (PM), Melissa Lyford, Michael Menary, Bill Nguyen College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 Environmental Engineering Program and the Problems Identified Goal New Hampshire Department of Transportation. The NH111 & NH151 Intersection in North The Process Hampton, NH is a dangerous and dysfunctional and is overdue to be redesigned. The goal of the project is to improve both traffic and Final Decision: Roundabout pedestrian safety and access in the NH111Alternatives NH151 intersection. Throughout the project team Stakeholder Input 8 prioritized stakeholder input, speaking at town select board meetings to identify all the problems with this intersection, and collecting input on Roundabout initial design ideas. An alternative analysis matrix designed by the group was used to weigh the About Current Intersection Alternative Analysis Matrix best redesign option, and residents were given the opportunity to weigh their priorities when surveys were handed out in a town meeting and posted on the town website. The 6 categories that were looked at when determining the best possible alternative were cost, environmental impact, pedestrian/bicycle accommodation, historical site(s) preservation, safety, and traffic operation. After narrowing the redesign alternatives down to four different ideas, the matrix that was designed ranked changing the main intersection to a roundabout and changing the main intersection to a 3-way stop tied for best alternative. The group recommends reconstructing the NH111 & NH151 Intersection to be a roundabout, with NH111 East and NH151 North and South being the entry points. This also includes the removal of NH111 Eastward to simplify the intersection roundabout so that when exiting onto NH151 North drivers are not immediately faced with a fork in the road. Since NH111 East is being removed, NH111 West will be repaved to become a 2-way road. There is enough room in this design to pave sidewalks and include a bike lane on either side of the road. This design is also capable of adding more parking for North Hampton Bandstand events. This can be accomplished by excavating Centennial Hall Road, and paving over that area to combine the United Church of Christ and Centennial Hall’s parking lots to add up to 19 spots. This redesign concept increases pedestrian access, makes the intersections, safer, improves traffic flow, adds parking for the North Hampton Bandstand events, all while minimizing environmental impact and leaving historical sites untouched. Improve both traffic and pedestrian safety and access in the NH111NH151 intersection.

1

• • •

2

Group Site Visit

Input from Stakeholders

1

BRAINSTORM IDEAS

From Group

2

• •

From Residents

SELECT FOCUS ALTERNATIVES

MATRIX ANALYSIS

Designed By Group

FACULTY ADVISORS: Kyle Kwiatkowski Jo Sias

Weighed by Stakeholder Survey

Satellite Image of the NH111 (East to West) & NH151 (North to South) Intersection

CHOOSE A DESIGN

Group Presented at 2 North Hampton Select Board Meetings Meeting 1 Meeting 2 (11/20/19) (3/9/20)

No Change

 Identify all existing  Present 4 problems, ask Narrowed down what is missing alternatives, ask  Introduce redesign for input  Survey residents ideas, ask for on what they residents own prioritize most for ideas alternatives matrix

View presentation

7 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

& Blinking Red Facing NH111 Pros: No Direct Cost Cons: High Indirect Cost, Traffic Congestion, Unsafe

9 Crashes in 15 Years

Roundabout

Traffic Light

Parking

“People park on the grass or on the side of the road during bandstand events.”

- Town's Person, Selectman's Meeting 11/20/19

Additional Problems: 8 Separate Intersections, Skewed Crossing Angles, High Traffic Volumes, Significant Grade Changes, Historical Buildings

3-Way Stop

Multi-lane

Add a Roundabout at Main Int. Pros: Improved Traffic Flow, 2nd Safest Alternative Cons: 2nd Most Expensive Alt., Slows NH151 Drivers

Traffic Light at Main Int. Pros: Gives NH111 Equal Opportunity to Cross Cons: Slows NH151 Drivers, Least Safe Besides No Change

Table #1: Alternative Matrix

3-Way Stop at Main Int. Pros: Safest Alternative, Cheapest Besides No Change Cons: Worst Traffic Flow

4 Total Lanes Between Main Int. & Int. Below Bandstand Pros: 2nd Safest Alt., Good Traffic Flow Cons: Most Expensive

Graph #1 Parameter Ranking

30 Crashes in 15 Years

*Sources [2] & [3] Used

• High Support from town residents & select board • Located over current Centennial Hall Road • Minimum of 30 additional parking s pots for Church or Bandstand Events • Estimated $408, 400

- Town's Person, Selectman's Meeting 11/20/19

Category Cost Impact on the Environment Pedestrian/Bicycl e Accommodation Preservation of Historical Sites Safety Traffic Operation

Blinking Yellow Light on NH151

PROJECT SPONSOR: William Lambert, NHDOT

Poor Visibility 4 Roads and vehicles coming from 3 directions

Optional Add-on Parking Lot

“I walk in people’s yards to avoid the cars while going to the bandstand.”

Skewed stop angle (NH 111) Low sight distance (111/151) Uncontrolled Traffic (NH 151)

Intersection by Church

IDENTIFY PROBLEMS

Problems Presented to Us

Pedestrian Access

Main NH111-NH151 Intersection

Table shows grading of each alternative for each parameter; for which the parameters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 5 with zero being the "worst" and a five for the "best".

Graph shows the priority ranking of parameters based on North Hampton public's input.

Yielding makes it efficient in reducing potential crashes

Analysis Roughly $$3,281,900 2nd Most Expensive 1-way Adjacent to Wetlands Removed Yes, Both

No interference, allows for additional parking space Ranked #2 of 5 Options, Slows NH 151 Drivers Down, Safer Cross for NH111 Eastbound Drivers 2nd Best Option, All Traffic Directions Have Equal Opportunity to Cross Intersection

Equal car entry opportunity results in better traffic flow

Provides pedestrian access & allows for additional parking

Acknowledgements

 William Lambert and the NHDOT  Dr. Kyle Kwiatkowski, Dr. Jo Sias, & the University of New Hampshire  Rockingham Planning Commission  North Hampton Select Board  North Hampton Residents

References

[1] Google Images [2] NH DOT Automatic Traffic Data Recorder [3] Crash Data from Rockingham Planning Commission


Proposed Pedestrian Bridge Over Oyster River

FACULTY ADVISOR: Erin Bell PROJECT SPONSOR: Dennis Meadows View presentation

A private client, Dennis Meadows, was Pedestrian Bridge over the Oyster River in Durham, NH interested in implementing a pedestrian Matthew Spurr (PM), Alan Bauman, Matthew Golden, Wei He, Connor Thompson Faculty Advisor: Erin Bell │ Project Sponsor: Dennis Meadows bridge over the Oyster River in Durham, PROJECT BACKGROUND PROPOSED BRIDGE RESULTS NH, to connect existing pedestrian trails and travel ways. The proposed site is located off of Mill Pond Rd. and you must travel through a parcel of land dedicated to the Milne family. This parcel of land is referred to as the Milne Sanctuary and the western side of the site. The eastern part of the site PROJECT CHALLENGES SCOPE OF WORK is a heavily wooded area that contains wetlands and is off of Route 108. This bridge will provide a pedestrian link, and MILESTONES allow for surrounding residents to travel to and from Newmarket and Durham, conveniently. Often times, traveling Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire through Main St. in Durham, NH can be difficult and overly crowded. This bridge allows for pedestrians to avoid traveling through downtown Durham and enjoy a peaceful and scenic route to the center of Durham. Our task was to conceptually design this pedestrian bridge, which entailed - permitting requirements, bridge type selection including material selection, abutment design, loading parameters, uses of the bridge, and soil classification. The poster we created, highlights these tasks and how we, as a team, came to a conclusion on which options were best given the existing site conditions. • Goal: Design a pedestrian bridge • Location: Oyster River off Mill Pond Road, at the inlet of Mill Pond • Founder: Dennis Meadows • Stakeholders: Milne Sanctuary, The Town of Durham, The Town of New Market, NH • Bridge Purpose: Connect the Milne Sanctuary to walking trail allowing for convenient pedestrian travel between Durham and Newmarket

• AASHTO Soil Classification - Soil sample taken at depths of 4' - Soil Classification is a well graded sand - Load bearing capacity of 3 ksi in the soil

Virtual 3D Model of the Bridge

Arial view: Bridge Location and Direction in Relation to Durham

• • • • •

Create schedule of project deliverables Obtain information for required permits Select Bridge type and material Design bridge, abutments and approach paths Provide conceptual drawings of the bridge

• Bridge Design - Bridge Type: Pratt Truss - Dimension: 8' x 120' - Fiber-Reinforced Polymer • Foundation Design - Axial Column Load: 130 kips - Footing Area = Axial load/Allowable Soil Capacity - Abutment Type: Spread Footing - Dimension: 8' x 8' x 1' - Foundation Wall: 6' x 3' - #4 Rebar used in Footing - #6 Rebar used for Stirrups • Environmental Permitting - NHDES Wetlands Foundation Cross Section ->Permit-by-Notification - NHDES Shorelands ->Permit-by-Notification - Minimal impact to endangered species in area

Proposed Bridge Location in Milne Sanctuary

• • • • • •

Preservation of Milne Sanctuary Limited information about the site Soil extraction for strength testing Lab space for gradation testing Equipment deficiencies for site survey Coordination with various parties

• Engaged with stakeholders about project details • Provided a conceptual site plan • Determined the bridge type, length, material and location • Designed a spread footing abutment

Proposed Pathway Leading to Bridge

Riverwalk Pavilion AUTHORS: Griffin Curley Jamie Fitzpatrick, PM Jared Grondin Oliver Roy John Sargent Michelle Thibault FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin PROJECT SPONSOR: Chris Raymond, TEC View presentation

There is currently a large plan in place The Riverwalk Pavilion to develop the waterfront along the Merrimack River in Lawrence, Massachusetts. The proposed development introduces a 3-story parking garage with a rooftop athletic field and an attached multi-use building. This connected building will be a 60,000 square foot, 4-story multi-use building with office, retail, restaurant, and function space. The function space will be located on the top floor of the building and open onto a turf athletic field. This outdoor space overlooking the Merrimack River can be easily transformed to host a variety of events such as concerts and weddings. This site plan includes a parking garage that can hold 1,200 cars and a 60,000 square foot multi-use building. While the number of parking spaces provided surpasses the required number of parking spaces, these spaces may be used to hold cars during future development. A 360-foot-long by 160-foot-wide athletic field will be constructed on the roof of the parking garage with minimum of 12 feet on the sides of the field for concessions, people, and teams. A 4-story multi-use building will be constructed that will include office space, restaurants, retail space, and a function hall. The project team calculated the load on an interior parking garage column, obtained information regarding soil conditions and drainage and used this information to design the foundation under a parking garage column, and designed this column. Furthermore, the team produced a Revit model, an architectural rendering. Additionally, because this site lies within the flood plain, the team provided a way to provide compensatory storage during a 100-year food on the parcel. Finally, the project team also designed a transportation layout to minimize the traffic due to the expected increase in volume of vehicles. Jamie Fitzpatrick, Michelle Thibault, Griffin Curley, Jared Grondin, Jack Sargent, Oliver Roy Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Design Features

•A 3 story concrete parking garage with 1200 parking spots

Design Features and Site Layout

Final Design

• Transportation around the site involves the use of three entrances and two exits.

•Attached 65,000 sq. ft. building that serves as office space, retail space, restaurant, and function space

• The design minimizes congestion on the primary road, Merrimack Street.

•An artificial turf athletic field on top of the roof of the parking garage.

• The east side of the garage is an entrance/exit, while the west side is an exit only.

•Two entrance and exit points of parking garage

•Paved walkway along river and perimeter of entire structure.

•180° panoramic curtain wall for function space overlooking athletic field and lot entrance. •Rooftop deck overlooking the Merrimack River

• Many conceptual alternatives

Site Design

Structural Design

• Building size constrained by size of the athletic field

• Required parking from Lawrence MA zoning ordinance=800

• Provided parking spaces =1200 due to expected increase in traffic from future development • Existing utilities must be relocated

• Multiuse Building: 65,000SF of total floor area

Geotechnical Design

• Used column loads based on ASCE 7-10 and self -weight of the column designed • Reviewed geotechnical report to evaluate soil conditions

• Used toe bearing and side friction equations to design a driven pile in the drained condition • Calculated a required cross sectional area for a concrete driven pile

• Column dimensions= 30” x 30” • Reinforced Concrete Column designed according to ACI 318-19 • A concrete strength of 10ksi was used as well as a steel strength of 75ksi • 5 layers of steel, all main reinforcing steel - #10 bar, tie bars - #4 tie bars

282 Merrimack Street Lawrence, MA

• Taking exit 44 off of I-495, the main entrance point to the site is labeled 1 on the transportation design below. If traveling eastbound, the main entrance is labeled 3, with entrance 2 used in case of driver personal error. • Exit 1 will be used for cars traveling east and west out of the stadium, and exit 2 will be used for north-south travel • Exit 2 will also be used for emergency vehicle access. Transportation Design Plan

•Developed a column layout •A one-way joist floor system was used •LRFD load combinations= 1524 kip column axial load

Floodplain Considerations

• The 100-year flood elevation =34 ft using FEMA • Site elevation was 32 ft • Parking garage= open structure and no displaced water • Water displaced requires equivalent compensator y storage =1222 cubic yards

• Storage provided: slender, narrow hole that goes around the perimeter of the building with a • Storage provided: slender, narrow hole that H20 rated grate on top of it in goes around the perimeter of the building with order to allow vehicles to pass a H20 rated grate on top of it in order to allow over it. This would act as a vehicles to pass over it. This would act as a continuous catch basin. continuous catch basin.

Acknowledgements

The Riverwalk Engineers would like to acknowledge TEC for sponsoring this project. A big thank you to the sponsor contact, Chris Raymond and faculty advisor, Anthony Puntin. The project team would also like to thank the University of New Hampshire for providing the resources to complete this project. The conclusions and recommendations are not to be used for construction purposes.

TEC, Inc.

References

FEMA.gov

ASCE. 2018. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE/SEI Standard 7-10. ACI (American Concrete Institute). (2019). “Building code requirement for reinforced concrete.”

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 8

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

AUTHORS: Alan Bauman Matthew Golden Wei He Matthew Spurr, PM Connor Thompson


Tuscan Village Redevelopment AUTHORS: Margaret Fillion Matthew Hall Robert Joscelyn Spencer McKinnon, PM Thomas Simoncelli FACULTY ADVISOR: Kenneth Flesher

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

PROJECT SPONSOR: Tighe & Bond

The Tuscan Village is creating commercial, retail, and residential living in the heart of Salem to redevelop the former Rockingham Park horse race track. In collaboration with Tighe & Bond and The UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, a site design was proposed for the south and central village. The goal of this project was to create a downtown atmosphere while also This site plan includes building locations, a transportation plan, parking to accommodate all businesses, and an analysis on the drainage necessary for the layout in accordance with local and state regulations.

View presentation

9 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Tuscan Village Development Spencer McKinnon (PM), Margaret Fillion, Matt Hall, Robert Joscelyn, Thomas Simoncelli Faculty Advisor: Ken Flesher | Project Sponsor: Tighe & Bond Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire

Introduction The Tuscan Village is creating commercial, retail, and residential living in the heart of Salem, NH to redevelop the former Rockingham Park horse race track. In collaboration with Tighe & Bond and The UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, a site design was proposed for the south and central village. The goal of this project was to create a downtown atmosphere while also providing safe passages for travel and an uplifting atmosphere. This site plan includes building locations, a transportation plan, parking to accommodate all businesses, and an analysis on the drainage necessary for the layout in accordance with local and state regulations.

BIG SITE

Scope of Work • Generate a master site plan for the south and central villages • Develop a site plan • Generate a parking plan with adequate vehicle circulation • Creation of a stormwater plan • Develop a plan for sewer, water, and electric utilities • Create a detailed profile of a drainage run • All tasks done in compliance of all regulations and ordinances

Site Layout • • • • • •

Store frontage along sidewalks and roads Parking found behind buildings Restaurants located near waterfront Apartments located near waterfront Built within bounds set from existing plan Retail focused around 2 main streets and central rotary running vertically and horizontally at the core of the site • Central rotary will serve as heart of the village and . feature large horse statue to commemorate the history of the former horse track

Utilities • Sewer - Gravity fed to Rt. 28 • 12” PVC SDR 35 Sewer main • 6” PVC SDR 35 Sewer services • Drainage - Gravity fed to Rt. 28 • 18” RCP Pipe • Water - tap to Rt. 28 force main • 12” PVC SDR 35 Sewer main • 6” PVC SDR 35 Sewer services • Electric • 4” PVC Conduit Schedule 40 • 4” PVC Conduit Schedule 80

Roads and Transportation • • • • •

12' Roadway Lanes Traffic circle designed to AASHTO truck turning standards 5' sidewalks and 5' greenbelt to encourage pedestrian travel ADA accessible design Retroreflective pavement markings

Parking • Parking abides by Chapter 309, Article 7 Zoning Regulations • Total of 2,056 regular and 150 handicap spaces • Green space equivalent to one parking space every 15 spaces • Larger green space endcaps/islands make up for stretches with less green space available to maximize parking • Design Considerations • 24’ internal access for large trucks • Landscaped islands & fountains for aesthetic appeal • Easy exit access to main roads for congestion relief • Majority of parking away from waterfront for added noise control


1,4 Dioxane Groundwater Contamination Remediation Design for Rennie Farm in Hanover, New Hampshire

FACULTY ADVISOR: Paula Mouser PROJECT SPONSOR: James Wieck, Steven Lamb, GZA

This project was made possible by GZA 1,4 Dioxane Groundwater Contamination Remediation Design for Rennie Farm in Hanover New Hampshire Geoenvironmental in conjunction with James Murphy, Lucas Theoharidis, Josh Thibeault, Patrick Hamill, Zac Harvell the Civil and Environmental Senior Faculty Advisor: Dr. Paula Mouser P.E. Project Sponsor: James Wieck GZA P.H. & Steven Lamb P.H. Well Placement Capstone Design. Throughout the project, the design team was tasked with the design of a groundwater remediation program to clean up a 1,4 dioxane contamination. 1,4 dioxane is a laboratory chemical that was disposed Scope of Work Permitting of improperly near Rennie Road in Here a table of permits needs will be placed and the map of the GMZ and a short description of the GMZ map Hanover, New Hampshire. There have Treatment Choice been two projects to clean-up this chemical. The first focused on removing Feasibility Study the source of contamination at the main site. The second involved prevention and mitigation of  spreading from the site.  When beginning this part of the project, the previous one had already been completed and the main site had wells and a treatment system running. Our design team was then tasked with designing  a remediation system for the offsite location. This remedial design will focus on containment and treatment of 1,4 dioxane without impacting the existing wetlands. The remediation design consists of a pump and treat system; one pump will be placed in the area with the highest concentrations and two others will be implemented at the southern edge to make sure that the chemical doesn’t continue to move north (down gradient). After removing the contaminated water it will be pumped to a small treatment facility where the ambersorb 560 resin will treat the water. Once treated, the groundwater will be reinjected back into the ground. Abstract

Soil and Well Design

Approximate Groundwater flow

Existing Source

Pump Rate (gpm)

Casing Diameter (inches)

PERMIT

REASONING

Road construction

Pump installation

Installation of pumps for treatment system

NPDES surface water discharge

Needed to protect the stream and marsh within the GMZ

Groundwater discharge

Needed for discharging treated effluent back into groundwater

Treatment

Required for treatment system operation

Stormwater site design

Site erosion will change as a result of road construction

Wetlands

The GMZ is in a wetland area

Excavate

Pump and Treat

In-Situ – Chemical Oxidation (injection)

(PRB)

Ex-Situ – Bio-remediation

Cost

Implementation

(Scale 1-5) 5 3

Soil removal

Horizontal and vertical

2

Well Filter Inner Diameter (inches)

1.75

Treatment Method

Pros

Hydrogen peroxide with UV Radiation

Short Term

Long Term Effectiveness

Reliability

Poor

Poor

Unreliable

Effectiveness

Ok

Good

1

Injection wells

Ok

Good

Less Reliable

2

Oxidation material

Ok

Good

Average Reliability

4

Pumping

Ok

Good

Unreliable

pumping distance

0.008

Well Filter Outer Diameter (inches)

Hydrogen peroxide with Ozone

Remediation Alternative

Reliable

5

75% of plume thickness screened Slot Width (inches)

Alteration of terrain

4

Screening

Click to add text

Conceptual Design • Request for Information • Kickoff Meeting • Rough Estimate of Calculations for Design • Conceptual Design Development • Presentation of Figures of the Conceptual Design 90% Design • Refine Calculations • Design of Groundwater Extraction System Components • Preliminary Cost/Fuel Consumption estimates • Permitting Approaches • Pilot Testing Design 100% Design • Final Design Specs • Wetland Construction Permit and Groundwater Pumping Permit • Work plan for Construction • Final Cost Estimates

0.1

Upper Casing/Pump Housing

Nominal Diameter of Pump Bowl (inches)

Figure #: General Site Boundary and Layout

In-Situ – Chemical Oxidation

View presentation

Site

This project was made possible by GZA Geoenvironmental in conjunction with the Civil and Environmental Senior Capstone Design. Throughout the project the design team was tasked with the design of a groundwater remediation program to clean up a 1,4 dioxane contamination. 1,4 dioxane is laboratory chemical that was disposed of improperly near Rennie Road in Hanover, New Hampshire. There have been two projects to clean-up this chemical. The first focused on removing the source of contamination at the main site. The second involved prevention and mitigation of spreading from the site. When beginning this part of the project, the previous one had already been completed and the main site had wells and a treatment system running. Our design team was then tasked with designing a remediation system for the offsite location. This remedial design will focus on containment and treatment of 1,4 dioxane without impacting the existing wetlands. The remediation design consists of a pump and treat system; one pump will be placed in the area with the highest concentrations and two others will be implemented at the southern edge to make sure that the chemical doesn’t continue to move north (down gradient). After removing the contaminated water it will be pumped to a small treatment facility where the ambersorb 560 resin will treat the water. Once treated, the groundwater will be reinjected back into the ground.

When conducting this feasibility study the design team looked at 5 different treatment options they were; Excavation, Pump and Treat, In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (injection), In-Situ Chemical (PRB), and Ex-Situ Bio remediation.

Resin Treatment

Cons

Proven to treat 1-4 Dioxane as well as other contaminants • Moderate Capital Cost Proven to treat 1-4 Dioxane as well as other contaminants • Moderate Capital Cost

When choosing a treatment system for the 1,4 dioxane the group chose three widely used methods to compare

• Expensive O&M cost and then choose the best option. The three options were • Must be pretreated to deal with turbidity Hydrogen peroxide with UV radiation, Hydrogen Hydrogen peroxide residuals can pose safety risk peroxide with ozone, and Resin Treatment.

The treatment system chosen was resin treatment, the

Expensive O&M cost team felt that this was the best option based on location • Hydrogen peroxide residuals can pose safety risk and water chemistry data. The other two options would • Bromide will oxidize to bromate requiring further have caused more treatment to be needed since the treatment hydrogen peroxide would reacted with some of the

• Very Low O&M cost • Modular/easily sized based off influent flow Small changes to influent flow will not affect levels of treatment Simple operation/will not require expensive employees

Expensive capital cost

chemicals in the water. Using resin treatment, we wouldn’t have to worry about those new compounds being created as it more filtration oriented. The team also felt that the higher capital cost was offset by the much lower O&M cost when being compared to the other two.

From the five choices researched Pump and Treat was the option chosen. It was chosen because comparatively it was the most reliable out of them all and the design team felt that the cost feasible for the scope of the project.

Albacore Museum AUTHORS: Madison Hastie, PM Jacob Veronneau FACULTY ADVISOR: Jean Benoit PROJECT SPONSOR: Albacore Building Committee View presentation

UNH students worked cooperatively with Albacore Museum the Albacore building committee and the USS Albacore Winter-Holben architects to design a new museum for the Albacore submarine. Results Background Obstacles With these designs, a 3D print was built to create a physical model that will help visitors visualize the future museum. This will allow people to see how their Scope of Work donations will be used. The current museum has limited space which hinders the staff's ability to create new displays and add different exhibits. The building committee wants to construct a building that will house educational workshops References and interactive displays that will give a more immersive experience to visitors. Contacts This new museum will have outdoor exhibits leading to the submarine tour, which will maximize the exhibit space and will bring the experience to life. The outdoor areas will allow for less interior congestion and will provide additional activities for visitors. Throughout the Spring of 2020, the project team taught themselves 3D printing and built a working model. This model will be rebuilt at a later time with a larger scale to show further detail. Maddie Hastie (PM) & Jacob Veronneau Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire

• COVID-19 • Communication • Three Committees • 3-D Printing • Progression of project • Bathroom location • Space constraints • Agreeing on building • Heavy loads • Educational space

• • • • •

Goal: Produce larger building for artifacts Location: 600 Market St, Portsmouth, NH 03801 Commissioned in 1953, decommissioned it1972 Museum since 1985 Managed by the Portsmouth Submarine Memorial Association • USN Submarine • Limited returning visitors • • • • •

• 3-D Model

• References about larger submarine museums

Create Schedule Obtain building information Model building 3-D print building Present 3-D printed building to the committees to help promote the fund raising for the construction of the building

.

• Albacore website • Architects of Winter-Holben

• Dr. Benoît

• 3 Albacore Committees

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 10

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

AUTHORS: Patrick Hamill Zachary Harvell James Murphy, PM Lucas Theoharidis Joshua Thibeault


Downtown Concord, NH Stormwater Improvement AUTHORS: Matthew Carter Adam Minkema Leland Qua Kyle Ruprecht, PM FACULTY ADVISORS: Thomas Ballestero M. Robin Collins PROJECT SPONSOR: David Cedarholm, City of Concord, NH

During high intensity storms in Concord, NH, the city's aging stormwater network is unable to handle the runoff from even 1-5 year storm events, which causes system surcharge and flooding issues on Federal and Lincoln St. The goal of this project is to analyze the current stormwater network and present system redesigns that will reduce localized flooding while meeting triple-bottom line considerations. There were three solutions to current capacity issues that were explored: additional pipes, green infrastructure with infiltration, and retention systems.

View presentation

Downtown Concord, NH Stormwater Improvement Kyle Ruprecht, Adam Minkema, Matthew Carter & Leland Qua

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Introduction

Design Objectives

Concord, NH is a small city in central NH with approximately 43,000 residents (2018). During high intensity storms, it’s aging stormwater network is unable to handle the runoff from even 1-5 year storm events, which causes system surcharge and flooding issues on Federal and Lincoln St. All pipes analyzed exceeded their available headwater, meaning that water would overwhelm their inlet structures, resulting in roadway flooding. It was also found that all structures were under outlet control, indicating a bottleneck further downstream. Furthermore, each pipe’s capacity, found using the Manning’s Equation was found to be deficient by comparing it to the calculated peak discharge

The goal of this project is to analyze the current stormwater network and present system redesigns that will reduce localized flooding while meeting triple-bottom line considerations. Three solutions to current capacity issues were explored: Additional Pipes: New pipes could be added to the system redirecting flow away from flood-prone areas with a larger capacity Green infrastructure with Infiltration: Reduces peak runoff and provides beauty, pollution reduction, and animal habitation Retention Systems: Provide storage for stormwater that slowly drains back into existing system, thereby flattening hydrograph curve

Figure 1: Subwatersheds

Conclusions An underground retention system was selected as the recommended option to reduce neighborhood flooding. The storage systems can be placed under existing lots, holding onto stormwater during high intensity events and releasing it back into the existing system at a rate the pipes can handle Three sites were noted as optimal areas for retention systems for their available size and proximity to flooding locations. To handle a 25 year storm event, construction costs range from $377,000 to $2.3 million (2020)

Methods The 43 acre stormwater system watershed surrounding the Lincoln/Federal St area was subdivided into 10 smaller subcatchments. Then, using the Rational Method, which is useful for analyzing small urban watersheds, the peak discharge was calculated for each subcatchment. Using the peak discharge, hydrographs were created for 5, 10, and 25 year storm intensities Using the hydrographs for each subcatchment, the peak Rational Equation discharge of each pipe was found. Then, using the velocity head of each pipe, the inlet and outlet controlling headwater was found for each pipe. The controlling headwater was then compared to the available headwater, or the invert elevation of the inlet structure of the pipe to see if surcharging would occur.

Figure 2: Drainage System Flow Diagram

References USDA. TR-55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, TR-55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds (1986). Washington, DC Extreme Precipitation in New York & New England. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://precip.eas.cornell.edu/. Engineering Services Division Concord, NH Stormwater Master Plan, City of Concord, NH Stormwater Master Plan (2017). Retrieved from https://www.concordnh.gov/DocumentCenter/View/1619/Storm-Water-Master-Plan?bidId=

Figure 3: Hydrograph for 25 year Storm

Winning Project

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

2020

Durham-Newmarket Recreational & Community Trail: A Feasibility Study AUTHORS: Matthew Bean, PM Alessandro Caruccio Evan Shamim Ethan Snitker FACULTY ADVISORS: Kyle Kwiatkowski Jo Sias

Durham and Newmarket are two Durham-Newmarket Recreational and Commuting Trail: neighboring towns in the seacoast A Feasibility Study Region of New Hampshire. Currently there is no connection for pedestrians and bicyclists to travel between the two towns despite town governments acknowledging that increased pedestrian infrastructure is desirable. This project investigates whether a safe, accessible, and scenic trail can be built to connect the two towns. Trail options are based on the current usability of the route and the potential of improving pedestrian infrastructure along the route. The most feasible route between the towns travels through West Foss Farm and Thompson Farm (properties owned by the University of New Hampshire) and connecting to Newmarket through Packers-Falls Road. This route would require work to make the route more accessible. Trails such as the Dover Community Trail can be an example how to create a useful pedestrian recreation trail. Matthew Bean • Alessandro Caruccio • Evan Shamim • Ethan Snitker

Tim Nichols, Project Sponsor • Dr. Kyle Kwiatkowski & Dr. Jo Sias, Faculty Advisors Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Introduction

The towns are directly connected by a 3.80-mile state highway, NH Route 108/Newmarket Road. Despite recent reconstruction by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) to improve non-vehicular access and safety, the roadway continues to be unsafe for pedestrians and bicyclists. The residents of both communities have expressed a desire to improve the transportation infrastructure to facilitate connectivity between the towns and offer an alternative route to NH Route 108/ Newmarket Road for commuting and recreational activity.

Durham, NH

Trail Option B – East Foss Farm/Beaudette CE

Trail Option C – College Woods/Oyster River Forest

Methodology

A

D

B

In consulting town officials and other stakeholders as well as conducting a preliminary site investigation, the project team selected four alternative route options for a feasibility analysis. The project team identified Trail Option A and Trail Option B as the most feasible alternative routes to NH Route 108/Newmarket Road based on this feasibility analysis. Thus, the project team conducted an advanced site investigation of the infrastructure utilized by Trail Option A and Trail Option B.

Trail Option A Advantages • Utilizes land owned by UNH • Moderately comparably direct Disadvantages • Requires trail on roadways

Trail Option C Advantages • Utilizes land owned by UNH/Durham Disadvantages • Requires travel on roadways • Not comparably direct

Trail Option B Advantages • Utilizes land owned by UNH/Durham • Moderately comparably direct Disadvantages • Requires travel on roadways

Trail Option D Advantages • Utilizes trail infrastructure of Sweet Trail Disadvantages • Utilizes NHFG conservation land • Requires travel on NH Route 108 • Not comparably direct

Existing Infrastructure

Durham-Held Conservation Easement

University of New Hampshire-Owned Land

View presentation

11 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

NH Fish & Game-Held Conservation Land

Oyster River Cooperative School District Parcel

NH Route 108/Newmarket Road

Given this objective, the project team focused on identifying alternative routes that were comparably direct utilizing land contiguous with or adjacent to NH Route 108/ Newmarket Road. To identify these alternative routes, the project team used the following methods: • • •

Consulted town officials and other stakeholders to determine site constraints Conducted preliminary/advanced site investigation to inventory existing conditions of trail network and roadway infrastructure and select route options Analyzed feasibility of route options to determine most feasible alternative route

In consulting Ellen Snyder, Land Stewardship Coordinator for the Town of Durham, the project team was advised to identify route options that utilized land owned/held by UNH or Durham. Conversely, Ms. Snyder advised against utilizing New Hampshire Fish & Game Department (NHFG)-held properties, as the department is strict about increasing recreational and commuting activity on conservation land.

P

Trail Option D – Sweet Trail

Newmarket, NH

The objective of the project was to identify the most feasible alternative to NH Route 108/Newmarket Road that provides a safe, scenic, and reliable route for pedestrians, bicyclists, and other recreational activity.

Trail Option A

Trail Option A – West Foss Farm/Thompson Farm

C

NH Route 108/ Newmarket Road

Durham-Owned Land

PROJECT SPONSOR: Tim Nichols, AECm

Alternatives Analysis

Feasibility Analysis

The towns of Durham and Newmarket are two neighboring municipalities located in the Seacoast Region in the State of New Hampshire. Both communities have active downtown areas that offer abundant retail, restaurant, and tourism opportunities. Durham is the home to the University of New Hampshire (UNH), a campus of over 16,000 undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty, many of whom reside in Newmarket. Because of this interplay between the two towns, there is a large percentage of residents who frequently commute between Durham and Newmarket.

Roadways

Trail Networks

West Foss/East Foss/Thompson Farms • Land owned by the University • Permits low-impact recreational activity (biking is not encouraged) • Used for teaching, research, and outreach; timber harvesting Beaudette Conservation Easement • Land held by the Town of Durham • Permits low-impact recreational activity (biking is not encouraged) • 0.3 miles of trails not accessible due to Seacoast Reliability Project

Bennett Road Packers Falls Road • Rural highway • Rural highway • Speed limit: 35 mph • Speed limit: 30-35 mph • Shoulder: 0-2 feet • Shoulder: 0-3 feet • No sidewalks • 0.7 miles of sidewalks • Share-the-roadway • Share-the-roadway

A

Trail Option B

P Parking Area

Bridge/Culvert Minor Drainage Issues Moderate Drainage Issues Severe Drainage Issues

P

B

P

• • • • •

Trail network distance: 2.08 miles Roadway distance: 2.40 miles Total distance: 4.48 miles No trail markings Trail path is wide, well-maintained, and easily navigable despite no trail markings • Moderate drainage issues throughout; some severe drainage issues

• • • • •

Trail network distance: 1.67 miles Roadway distance: 2.80 miles Total distance: 4.47 miles Trail markings Majority of trail path is relatively narrow and only partially maintained, but easily navigable with trail markings • 0.3 miles of trail is very narrow, poorly maintained, and not easily navigable • Minor drainage issues throughout; some areas of moderate drainage issues

The project team identified Trail Option A as the most feasible alternative route for the following reasons: •

• •

First, Trail Option A utilizes trail networks that are wider, better maintained, and easier to navigate than Trail Option B Second, 0.3 miles of trail networks not accessible on Trail Option B – no guarantee of accessibility upon completion of Seacoast Reliability Project Third, Trail Option A utilizes trail networks owned and managed by UNH, an institution which has reliable maintenance strategy

The following are potential obstacles to the development of Trail Option A:

• Thompson Farm is active farmland; the Thompson Family, who owns a house on the property, has expressed opposition to increasing recreational and commuting activity • West Foss Farm and Thompson Farm are used extensively for teaching and research; increased traffic could disrupt ecological balance of area

Recommendations

Durham, NH

Bennett Road

Packers Falls Road

Newmarket, NH

• Investigate measures to control surface runoff to mitigate drainage issues; implement Best Management Practices (BMPs) – NH Trail Construction and Maintenance Manual (2017) • Reevaluate maintenance strategy to accommodate increased recreational and commuting activity – Consult UNH Cooperative Extension • Analyze local and regional trail networks that are ADA-compliant and/or attentive to special accommodations – ADA Accessibility Guidelines (2010) • Expand the share-the-roadway program to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety – AASHTO Roadside Design Guide, 4th Edition (2011) • Renovate existing roadway shoulders with polymer-based additive to improve durability for increased traffic – Consult Town of Durham Public Works Department

Acknowledgements: (1) Benjamin Clark, Wunderlich-Malec Engineering/AECm (2) Steve Eisenhaure, UNH College of Life Sciences and Agriculture (3) Michael Lynch, Town of Durham (4) Tim Nichols, Wunderlich-Malec Engineering (5) Christopher Parker, City of Dover (6) Ellen Snyder, Town of Durham References: (1) “Facts & Figures.” University of New Hampshire, 26 Nov. 2019, www.unh.edu/main/facts-figures (2) “Durham, NH.” Durham NH - Community Profile | Economic & Labor Market Information Bureau | NH Employment Security, www.nhes.nh.gov/elmi/products/cp/profiles-htm/durham.htm. (3) “Town Statistics.” Newmarket NH, www.newmarketnh.gov/about/pages/town-statistics. (4) “Newmarket Master Plan.” Newmarket NH, www.newmarketnh.gov/planning-board/pages/newmarket-master-plan. (5) “Future Land Use Community Forum.” Future Land Use Community Forum | The Town of Durham New Hampshire, www.ci.durham.nh.us/planningandzoning/future-land-use-community-forum-saturday-may-13-holloway-commons-unh-830-am-300-pm. (6) “Managed Properties.” College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, 24 Mar. 2020, colsa.unh.edu/woodlands/managed-properties Contact Information: Matthew Bean, mjb1078@wildcats.unh.edu; Alessandro Caruccio, agc1023@wildcats.unh.edu; Evan Shamim; ers1024@wildcats.unh.edu; Ethan Snitker, eds2001@wildcats.unh.edu


Metal Warehouse Roof Collapse Investigation The project embodied by this METAL WAREHOUSE ROOF COLLAPSE presentation is an investigation of a INVESTIGATION roof collapse on a metal warehouse. The investigation was done by the University of New Hampshire students as their senior design project. The project team worked collaboratively with Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger. The warehouse being investigated was built in 1981 and is in Kingston, Massachusetts. The collapse occurred along the east side of the building abutting the new section of the warehouse.    The project began with a virtual site investigation.  Because the collapse occurred in 2009 the only option for the senior project group was a virtual investigation. The virtual investigation consisted of a slideshow, along with the assistance of SG&H.  Two site investigations occurred in which ideas/potential modes of collapse were highlighted.  After the virtual investigations, the project team brainstormed multiple theories.  The next portion entailed analysis to prove that the suspected mode of failure did, in fact, cause collapse. To begin, a model was created. Using a variety of information, SG&H sourced documents, codebooks, and historical data, the best representation of the structure was produced.  The expected loads were then generated by using NOAA weather data for snow loads and the assumption made by the group. Sarah Moriarty, Brandon Loiselle, Marco Gioioso, Alex Croteau Sponsor: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Faculty Advisor: Dr. Ray Cook

ABSTRACT

ANALYISIS MODEL

CONCLUSION

Failure Theories

Snow Load and Potential Ponding Contractor-Engineer Discrepancies Roof Leakage Additional Mechanical Units on Roof Dynamic Loading

The project embodied by this presentation is an investigation of a roof collapse on a metal warehouse. The investigation was done by University of New Hampshire students as their senior design project. The project team worked collaboratively with Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger. The warehouse being investigated was built in 1981 and is in Kingston, Massachusetts. The collapse occurred along the east side of the building abutting the new section of the warehouse. The project began with a virtual site investigation. Because the collapse occurred in 2009 the only option for the senior project group was a virtual investigation. The virtual investigation consisted of a slideshow, along with the assistance of SG&H. Two site investigations occurred in which ideas/potential modes of collapse were highlighted. After the virtual investigations, the project team brainstormed multiple theories.

FACULTY ADVISOR: Raymond Cook PROJECT SPONSOR: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger

Leading Theory

Ultimately, it was determined that there was an excess snow load shoveled onto the original, lower roof. In the investigation, it was also determined that the roof purlins were the most likely failure members. In conjunction with a potential flaw in construction, excessive snow load was hypothesized to be the reason for collapse.

The next portion entailed analysis to prove that the suspected mode of failure did in fact cause collapse. To begin, a model was created. Using a variety of information, SG&H sourced documents, codebooks and historical data, the best representation of the structure was produced. The expected loads were then generated by using NOAA weather data for snow loads and the assumption made by the group.

Figure 1: SAP 2000 Analytical Model

IVESTIGATION SITE PHOTOS

These photos were taken by SG&H at their site visit and they were presented to the group so that we could investigate from those photos through a virtual walkthrough. Using these photos the group was able able to identify potential failure mechanisms. The group had to identify the most probable causes of collapse through closer analysis of the members and modeling.

The design snow load was far lower than the snow load the roof experienced on January 7th. As shown in the table to the right, on average, three inches of snow would have a normal distributed load of 5 psf on the roof on any given section. The issue occurred when workers shoveled the snow into the condensed 5-foot section. Figure 9 shows how the volume of the section was calculated. The arrows indicate which way the snow was shoveled off. We assumed half would be shoveled onto the old roof and the other half was pushed off the other direction. If 3 inches fell onto the entire roof, about two feet of snow would end up in the 5-foot section indicated in Figure 9. This would add 42 psf to the roof when the design snow load was only 30 psf.

Load on Old Roof (psf)

Figure 4: Interior View of Collapse

Normal (2 in.)

Cross Section

Figure 2: South View of Collapse

Figure 3: South View of Collapse

Old Roof

3.34

Load Path

New Roof

3.34

Section of Interest

3.34

29.92

Normal (3 in.)

With Added Snow (25.43 in.)

Load => Decking => Purlin => Girder => Column => Foundation => Soil

x x

5

42.38

Normal (4 in.)

With Added Snow (47.85 in.)

Old Roof

6.6

x

New Roof

6.6

x

Section of Interest

6.6

79.75

Section of Interest Cross Section

Figure 9: Distributed Snow Load

x

5

New Roof

Figure 6: Interior South View of Collapse

x

5

Old Roof

Figure 5: North View of Collapse

With Added Snow (17.95 in.)

Figure 8: Load Path

Cross Section

View presentation

Figure 10: Sources of Additional Snow Load

LOADS

Figure 7: Faulty Purlin Splice

NH-MS4 Dover, NH Stormwater Management Program AUTHORS: Jirias Charabati Jacob Simpson Zachary Sullivan, PM Samuel Wojichowski FACULTY ADVISOR: James Houle PROJECT SPONSOR: Gretchen Young, City of Dover, NH View presentation

The City of Dover is a permittee of the Dover, New Hampshire Stormwater Management Program DDE Plan General Permit for Stormwater Discharge MTeamS4-7:IZach Sullivan (Project Manager), Jirias Charabati, Jacob Simpson, Samuel Wojichowski Faculty Advisor: James Houle | Project Sponsor: Gretchen Young for Small Municipal Storm Sewer Systems, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire or MS4 permit issued by the EPA. A 2017 Project Background Scope of Work Project Obstacles/Resolutions amendment to the permit has required Dover to take action in detecting and eliminating illicit discharges in their stormwater system. This project is aimed at assembling a test kit and developing Costing an easy to follow procedure for using the test kit to detect illicit discharges. The EPA lists the following parameters Kit Components for required testing when sampling a stormwater outfall: ammonia, chlorine, conductivity, salinity, surfactants, temperature and pollutants of concern. Through thorough research, a number of testing materials and devices that could detect those parameters in stormwater were compared and a final kit was assembled. Based on these kit components and EPA guidelines, a procedure for testing and sampling outfalls was developed. Some parameters can be tested in the field and others must have sample brought back to the lab or office to be tested. The procedure outlines both of these processes and then provides further steps to take depending on test results. A test resulting in a positive detection for illicit discharge leads to testing further up the line of catch basins and manholes until the illicit discharge can be isolated and its cause determined. An instructional video depicting this process and the use of the test kit will be final product provided to the city of Dover. • Previous stormwater system in Dover NH: • Combined System Overflow - Resulted in raw sewage dispensed into waterbodies from storms • New stormwater system in Dover NH is separated system • Still potential for illicit discharge • Present Permits for City of Dover • MS4 - Stormwater Discharge for Small Municipal Storm Sewer System • NPDES – National Pollution Discharge Elimination System • IDDE – Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination • SWMP – Stormwater Management Program •Test water quality at 209 known outfalls

Graphic shows 209 Known Outfalls in Dover, NH

• Develop dry weather flow sampling kit and procedure to test for: • Ammonia, Chlorine, Conductivity, Salinity, E-Coli or enterococcus, Surfactants, Temperature, Pollutants of concern (phosphorus and nitrogen) • Develop catchment investigation procedure to isolate and confirm sources of illicit discharges • Develop cost estimate for implementation of proposed procedures • Produce instructional video depicting proposed procedure

Graphic shows Clip from Instructional Video

YSI Pro Plus Handheld Device

• Dry Weather Collection: • Able to develop/demonstrate procedure regardless of conditions • COVID-19: • Virtual conference meetings held online • Work conducted through online virtual meetings and on own times for review at a later time • Difficulty in contacting third party laboratories for kit component pricing information and possible alternative out of house sample testing facilities

Costing Assumptions: "a" Assumed 120 or fewer outfalls test positive for surfactants "b" Assumed 60 or fewer outfalls have salinity content requiring Enterolert reagent Product 1 Time Total Refill # of Refills Cost per Cost Cost Refill YSI Pro Plus $2,904 -

Incubator Surfactant (Inst.) Surfactant (Visual) Phosphorus

• To Test for Ammonia, Chlorine, Conductivity, Salinity, Temperature, Ammonia, & Nitrate: • YSI Pro Plus (including cables & sensors) - $2904.00 • To Test for E-Coli: • Colilert Reagent - $3.87/Test Packet • Enterolert Reagent - $6.42/Test Packet • Quanti-Tray Sealer - $4,700.50 • IVYX Lab Incubator - $300.00 • To test for Surfactants: • CheMetrics Visual kit - $90.54 • CheMetrics Instrumental kit - $431.13 • To Test for Phosphate: • Hach O-Phosphate Color Disc Test Kit - $108.00

.

$300 $431.13

$384.80

a 5

$76.96/20

$76.96

$688.70

10

$68.87/20

$108

$32.35

1

$32.35/100

$774 $385.2 $140

200 b 60 2

$3.87/1 $6.42/1 $70/100

Colilert Enterolert Quanti-trays Total

$3825.09 $2405.05

Cost/Outfall $29.81

Graphic shows Stormwater Mapping in Dover, NH

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 12

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

AUTHORS: Alexander Croteau Marco Gioioso Brandon Loiselle Sarah Moriarty


Newmarket Waterfront Improvement Project AUTHORS: Ian Avery Ian Bentley Zachary Chamberlin Bennett Newlove Joseph Towle FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin PROJECT SPONSOR: Tim Nichols, AECm

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

View presentation

Our group developed a preliminary Newmarket Waterfront Improvement Project design of potential upgrades to the downtown Newmarket waterfront Background/ Scope Introduction Project Challenges area. With the growing population of Newmarket, town leadership as well Riverwalk Boat Ramp as our project sponsor AECm desire to Bridge develop this waterfront area so that residents will be encouraged to spend more time downtown and grow the local economy. The waterfront area currently consists of a short Riverwalk that borders the Lamprey River, an underused boat ramp, and Herron Point (a local park) that is on the other side of the river with limited access. The upgrades our group proposed include a northern/southern Acknowledgements expansion of the Riverwalk, new boat ramp designs, and a pedestrian bridge that connects the Riverwalk to Herron Point. With our proposed upgrades we hope that this will revitalize the waterfront area and benefit the downtown area. Bennett Newlove, Joe Towle, Zac Chamberlain, Ian Bentley, Ian Avery Client: Tim Nichols, AECm Advisor: Anthony Puntin

The Newmarket Waterfront Improvement project is meant to enhance the downtown recreational area of Newmarket, New Hampshire. Currently the state of its assets are unfinished and unkept. Key parts of the project include a revitalized boat ramp, extended Riverwalk and brand new pedestrian bridge connecting the downtown to Herron Point. The improvements and addition of these assets will aid economic development and recreational use of the downtown area.

This development project involved weekly meetings, site visits and a meeting with the Newmarket Town Administrator. Determination of bridge location and aesthetic, along with boat ramp design and extents of the improved Riverwalk are the primary deliverables. Impacts, constraints and challenges were also researched throughout the year to lay a starting point in the development of this project for Newmarket.

The Riverwalk is extended in both the northern and southern directions, but of the same material as the existing Riverwalk to match the town's existing aesthetic. The northern extension has a length of 100m and extends to the existing moorings. The southern extension has a length of 70m to the wooded area of forest between the pumping station and Newmarket's wastewater treatment facility. The extensions will attract more individuals to Newmarket’s waterfront, which is underutilized.

Located at the southern end of the Riverwalk at the bottom of Water Street, the town has a public boat ramp that is underused. Currently, the boat ramp is deteriorating and an upgrade would be beneficial both functionally and aesthetically to the waterfront area. After consulting the NH Fish and Game department we found that a set of plans have already been developed for this upgrade. Once these plans are approved the new boat ramp project can begin and the town of Newmarket will have an improved access to the Lamprey River.

â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ â ƒ

Access Staging area for construction Private Property/ right of way Permitting Funding Public interest Aesthetic disturbance Environmental

Approximate location of East bridge landing

Entrance route option #1

Approximate location of West bridge landing

Entrance route option #2

Location of construction/staging area

Riverwalk extension heading North

Approximate area sacrificed due to the addition of the Riverwalk

Existing Riverwalk

The pedestrian bridge over the Lamprey river will increase access to the adjacent Heron Point and down town Newmarket. The bridge will utilize New England styling to fit into the classic mill town. Spanning about 320’, the bridge will use one of the shorter spans of the river from the proposed Riverwalk to Herron point. Providing pedestrians, a place to walk, bike or fish. Increased access could help the residents utilize this developed waterfront.

Considerations:

• Accessibility • ADA requirements • Aesthetic • Location

Considerations:

• Physical environment • Habitat impact • Chemical Impact • Anthropogenic conditions • Parking

Lamprey River

Herron Point

AECm Steve Fournier- Newmarket Town Administrator The Town of Newmarket

Deteriorating Boat Ramp

UNH Water For Zamkutu AUTHOR: Nicola Elardo Meghan Otis Lana Pillsbury ADVISOR: James Malley View presentation

Malawi is one of the poorest countries in UNH Water For Zamkutu Lana Pillsbury , Nicola Elardo , Meghan Otis , James Malley the world by GDP. For this reason, many communities lack access to public health Implementation Plans and Budget Final Design Introduction: Malawi resources such as clean water. The scope of work for the UNH Water for Zamkutu team included finding the right design alternative to bring a source of clean water to the village of Zamkutu by taking cost, simplicity, and sustainability into Scoping Trip account. After conducting a site visit and speaking with the villagers and leaders of Zamkutu, it was determined that a Future Recommendations spring box would be the most viable Materials Needed Design Considerations option for the village. From there, the team returned to UNH to prepare design Acknowledgements and implementation plans. Working with Dr. Ballestero and Quinn Wilkins, a spring box design was created, along with an implementation schedule and budget. Unfortunately, due to the unforeseen COVID-19, implementation has been put on hold until further notice. However, the team has continued moving forward through our design phase as though implementation is still going to happen. Currently, the implementation plans are assumed to be theoretical, but the team hopes to find an alternate team willing to travel and make this design a reality in the future. 1

1Environmental

 1 in 3 people in Malawi do not have access to clean drinking water.*  3,100 children under 5 die annually from waterborne illnesses.*  Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi, is comprised of several rural villages including one called Zamkutu.  Over 2500 people live in Zamkutu.  There is only 1 continuous protected water source in Zamkutu.  Those that must resort to shallow hand-dug wells get sick often.

1

2

Main pipe

Outlined excavation area

Cascade wall

Retaining wall

12.0'

10.0'

6.0'

0.5'

5.5'

A

A

0.0417 ’ 0.198'

6.0'

5.0'

3.0'

Perforated PVC pipe

0.0417 ’ 0.198'

3.0'

6.0'

Pipe effluent

Plan View

Supporting wing wall

*https://www.wateraid.org/mw/facts-and-statistics

Two projects were evaluated in Malawi during a 2-week scoping trip in January 2020.  The first was at a secondary school in Mangochi. It was not considered feasible after technical evaluation and regulatory concerns.  The second was at Zamkutu village in Lilongwe. While in Lilongwe, the team:  Met the chiefs of Zamkutu  Walked around the village to meet families  Assessed the feasibility of several spring seeps that stay viable throughout the dry season

 Spring seep selection and design criteria  Location  Hydraulic Conductivity  Water quality  The spring selected is in the central subcommunity of Kaole within Zamkutu with a population of 450.

13 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

1

Engineering, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire

2Professor,

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Section A-A

 Communicate with Malawi contacts to solidify future implementation efforts with professional engineers and student volunteers  Collect soil and water samples from selected spring for further analysis  Create a standard operating procedure manual (SOP) for the Zamkutu leaders to keep in case issues arise      

The 2018-19 UNH Safe Drinking Water for Malawi team Kate & Dom Webb at Orbis Expeditions Joseph Makwakwa, Henrick Kunkeyani, and Malawians Professors Ballestero, Collins, and Malley UNH graduate student student Quinn Wilkins Everyone who donated to the UNH Malawi Fund


Zero Waste Transfer Station, Whitefield, NH AUTHOR: Keaton Peterson

The Town of Whitefield, New Hampshire Zero Waste Transfer Station is investigating alternative designs for a Whitefield, New Hampshire new transfer station. The current transfer station has several inefficiencies the town seeks to address by retrofitting a vacant building, Brown Street Furniture. Retrofitting the structure involves demolishing the unusable portion of the building, while preserving the newer portion. Team 18 provided two alternative designs, ultimately deciding the bi-lane facility is the best option, which provides the best opportunity for Whitefield to pursue Zero-waste. The larger facility will provide the opportunity to pool recyclable waste from surrounding towns, alleviate flow congestion and create an efficient work environment for the operators(s). Team 18 also researched alternative recyclable markets for Whitefield’s waste, determining the material broker NRRA was the best choice in their region, given the volume of waste that Whitefield generates. Team 18 made a pamphlet for the residents of Whitefield and recommends providing educational classes on recycling to involve the community and teach the importance of sorting and the benefits. Currently the town does not have a strict recycling policy, it is recommended that they try to enforce recycling the best that they can to reach the goal of 75% total trash by weight diverted to recycling instead of landfills. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Transfer Station Design Alternative I

Site Background

ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin

Existing Policy

Pay-As-You-Throw Incentive Program  Reduces amount of recyclable

material entering the waste stream

 Achieves higher material purity

Proposed Policy

Drive in- drive out facility

Left lane to dispose of larger wastes

Bi- lane traffic

Right lane to dispose of recyclables

material

Median Age: 51 years

 Higher Value

 Conserve energy by utilizing an existing building

Median Income: $32,893

Incentives

 Clear and concise

 17,000 square feet of solar panel potential.

Current Facility Concerns:

ordinance

 Central location in Whitefield, within proximity of downtown.

 Operation Inefficiencies  Environmental Impacts

documents

Market Research

 Restore a deteriorating building, add value to the neighborhood

 Community Access

Disposal cost of $67 per ton of MSW (Transportation fee $6.75 per ton) Average composition of municipal solid waste Paper and cardboard: 25% Glass: 4.2% Metals: 9.4% Plastics: 13.2% Yard Trimmings: 13.1% Wood: 6.7% Rubber and Leather: 3.4% Textiles: 6.3% Other: 1.9% Misc. Inorganic Wastes: 1.5% Whitefield MSW was 30 tons in a month If recycled and sold at average market value Costs $363.45 a month to dispose of MSW to landfill If all MSW goes to a landfill Costs $2212.50 a month to dispose of MSW to landfill Recycling saves $1849.05 per month. Note: Figures are a best-case scenario

 Increased MSW disposal costs

Defining Zero Waste

• Diversion of 75% of waste by weight as recyclable material

• Remaining 25% of waste disposed of in a landfill

at the household

 Use of educational

Population: 2,213

Implementation of a new facility achieves:

 Stricter separation level

Aerial

Recommendations

Estimated MSW Disposal Costs

 Design I alleviates Whitefield’s concerns

$2,500

allows for a higher volume of flow

 The tipping floor is spacious for adequate work areas

$2,212

$2,000 $1,500

 A bi-lane traffic pattern smoothens operations and

$1,000

$363

$500

$

$0

Conclusion

($500)

($1,000) ($1,500) ($2,000) ($2,500)

($1,849)

Estimated MSW Disposal

Potential Recycleable Revenue

Projected Disposal Cost after Revenue

Whitefield must educate residents to initiate Zero-Waste, public support is necessary Bi-Lane drive in drive out is most economical and efficient retrofit determined

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

View presentation

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 14


Algal Power: The Future of Energy AUTHORS: Cal Govoni Sean Hopkins Clara Miller Daniel Qua Brayden Reichenbach Jastine Tendi Alexa Trautz ADVISOR: Felix Devito View presentation

Honorable Mention Project

Alternative fuel sources have become a Algal Power: The Future of Energy more common source of energy in recent years. One source of alternative energy BACKGROUND RESULTS EXPERIMENTS can be generated from algae. The oil within algae contains tremendous energy potential. While it has high potential as a fuel source, it can be an expensive and complicated process to generate energy from algae. The goal of this project was to METHODS research and develop a practical and cost effective process for growing, harvesting, and processing algae at a small scale to CONCLUSION provide enough energy for a two-person high efficiency dwelling. As a team of civil, environmental and mechanical engineers, the group started by focusing ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & REFERENCES on the growth of algae on a small scale and the design of a growth raceway to promote a large accumulation of algal potential energy. Research was conducted throughout the project’s entirety on methods for flocculation, harvesting, and processing the algae’s energy. The project was started from the ground up and aims to provide future UNH research with a foundation based on experimental research and project development. The development of alternative fuels to fulfill the globe’s energy demands has become crucial to creating a sustainable planet. Algae is a unique alternative that can be utilized to create energy through method such as direct combustion, and a variety of oil extraction processes. The research and development of algae as a biofuel is still in its infancy, and has been limited by cost. The goal of this project is to research and develop a practical process for growing, harvesting and processing algae at a small scale to provide enough energy for a two-person high efficiency dwelling. Research, experiment, and conceptual designs will be implemented to further explore the viability of this promising energy .The results of the project’s experimental approach will be analyzed to determine the simplicity, cost effectiveness and practicality of algal energy production at a small scale. This project was conducted from September 2019-May 2020 with the help of the project sponsor Professor Felix DeVito as several other UNH faculty and facilities.

Cultivation

Algae Species Chosen: The species worked with were two microalgae samples, porphyridium cruentum and nannochloropsis oculata (N. oculata), along with one locally sourced macroalgae determined to be Muskgrass. N. oculata was chosen for continued use because of its fast growth rate, the fact that it is a local species found in new Hampshire and studies have shown it has a high oil content.

Design Parameters:

Raceway

● Open System Raceway ● Dimensions ○ Length: 1.4 m ○ Width: 0.4 m ○ Height: 0.15 m ○ Arc Radius: 0.2 m ● Designed based on Reynold’s Number of 10,000 ● Melamine board support the overall build of raceway and used to suspend the paddlewheel system

Project Statement: “Create a cost-effective on-site algae to energy system to heat a two person home”

Tabletop experimentation began with the growth of various algae species in standardized conditions. Nannochloropsis oculata was determined to have the highest energy potential, fastest growth rate, and locality and was subsequently chosen for further testing. Throughout the process, nutrient levels and growth conditions such as pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrogen levels were measured and monitored to maximize growth. Density of the algae was determined by microscopic cell count in a given volume and extrapolated to a larger scale.

Analysis:

Research was conducted on different kinds of cultivation methods and an open system raceway decided upon. This was selected after comparing a variety of growth methods and determining it was the most cost-effective method and simplest to operate

Flocculation is a process which causes small particles to clump together, allowing them to be more easily removed from water. Flocculation techniques were researched and evaluated by cost, efficiency and accessibility. After assessing the feasibility of each option, our team decided the best flocculants for this procedure would be lowering the pH with sulfuric acid as well as adding chitosan.

Once the flocs are formed, the algae would be collected and dried using solar drying. This process involves the algae being laid in a thin layer under constant lighting. Drying experimentation was carried out with Muskgrass, a macroalgae. It was harvested using an aquarium net and dried for an average of four days. It was found that the macroalgae decreased in mass 95% throughout this drying time. To derive energy from algae, the oil within each cell can be extracted or the algae biomass can be burned as a fuel. Oil extraction methods investigated were using an expeller press, using a food processor and chemical removal with transesterification. These oil extraction techniques were outlined in detail to allow the next group to test them out and assess feasibility. A combustion experiment was also designed for the next team to evaluate the feasibility of burning the algae directly for energy.

SolidWorks:

MatLab Computation:

◆ Flow Simulation with velocity analysis

◆ Power requirement of 0.893 W

Algae Density:

Magnification: 400x DPI (Dots per inch): 300 Resolution: 640 x 480 Thickness Assumed: 0.001 mm 640/300=2.13 inches =0.0840 mm 480/300=1.6 inches = 0.0630 mm

Average Algae Cell Diameter: 0.001 mm Average Algae Cell Volume: 7.85398*10^-10 mm^3 Volume of Raceway: 0.081m^3 Volume of Algae for 10,500 BTU’s Fuel: 8,000 g

Flocculation

Experiments with flocculation were not able to be carried out due to COVID-19 but Chitosan is predicted to be the most environmentally friendly option because it is derived from fish waste. Aluminum sulfate has been known to work consistently as a flocculant and lowering the pH can have negative effects on the Oil Separation process. Exact Dosages are unknown so further experimentation with flocculation must be carried out in the future.

Drying

Drying experiments were conducted with muskgrass. The muskgrass was harvested from the pond sample with an aquarium net. It next was laid underneath fluorescent light on top of aluminum foil. The samples were allowed to dry for an average of four days and their masses were recorded before and after. On average there was a 95% decreased in mass. This demonstrates that an incredibly large mass of algae will need to be grown in order to generate a small amount of processable fuel.

Oil Separation

Due to COVID-19 experiments for oil extraction were not able to take place. Literary research and analysis was done on oil extraction methods to determine theoretical feasibility and efficiency of the methods. ● Food Processor: This process could use many different chemicals and alcohols to achieve results while costing around the same, the use of potassium hydroxide and methanol results in the highest % oil extracted of around 70-80% ● Expeller Press: This process is simple to use and efficiency can be 70-95% of oil extracted. The higher efficiency usually comes with the addition of a hexane solvent. ● Transesterification: Transesterification is the process of creating a biodiesel via replacing a glycerol with methanol. This is done using a strong base (Potassium Hydroxide). This yields 90% to 95+% biodiesel and is usually done on an industrial scale.

The most efficient algae species to cultivate is Nannochloropsis Oculata. Chitosan is the most environmentally friendly flocculant and transesterification will produce the highest biodiesel yield.

With algae produced at the density of 1.09*10^8 cells/mm^3, a raceway volume of 0.081m^3, an average cell volume of 0.00785 mm^3, and an average mass loss from water at 95%, this raceway could produce 3.46 *10^8 grams of algae. Algae growth of N. Oculata could be rapid enough to be used to meet the heat requirements of a 350 ft^2 house.

Due to the halt of experimentation, the ability to heat a 2 person home with the team’s developed methods is still unknown. However, through literary analysis of research, the most efficient and practical method of using algae for energy is through oil separation.

Felix Devito Kevan Carpenter

Dr. Weiwei Mo John Ahern

Noah MacAdam Martin Wosnik

2020

Drone Assessment of Potential Rooftop Failure from Snow Loads: A Business Model AUTHORS: Jacob DeLashmutt Brinton Dekreon Daniel Marek

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

FACULTY ADVISOR: Jennifer Jacobs PROJECT MENTORS: Aiden Short Adam Hunsaker View presentation

The opportunity to utilize drones to carry out inspections over large areas, with minimal requirement for roof access can reduce tasks which would otherwise take days to complete, down to a matter of hours. Key gains include reductions in time, cost, and allowance for provisions. Whilst acquiring pictures, videos, and 3D models to continuously monitor changing conditions over extended periods. The opportunity to provide customized load feedback, supported by a licensed engineer, could be critical in making an informed decision on whether to manually clear snow from roofs. A case study and financial analysis has been carried out to determine the long-term suitability of a business which offers snow inspection services.

15 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Drone Assesment of Potential Rooftop Failure from Snow Loads: A Business Model

Abbreviations

N

E

AERIAL

SOLUTIONS

UAV – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle GCP(s) - Ground Control Points GSD – Ground Sampling Distance

Daniel Marek, Jacob DeLashmutt, Brinton Dekreon Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jennifer Jacobs, Mentors: Aiden Short, Adam Hunsaker

ASCE- American Society of Civil Engineers FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency FAA - Federal Aviation Administration NAS – National Airspace SfM– Structure from Motion

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire

DEM – Digital Elevation Model GIS – Geographic Information System

dm1262@wildcats.unh.edu

Modeling

Abstract The opportunity to utilize drones to carry out inspections over large areas, with minimal requirement for roof access can reduce tasks which would otherwise take days to complete, down to a matter of hours. Key gains include reductions in time, cost and allowance for provisions. Whilst acquiring pictures, videos and 3D models to continuously monitor changing conditions over extended periods.

Service Strategy

Pre-Post DEM’s

BASIC

PREMIUM *

2

Project Goals

PREMIUM+

MEASUREMENT

INSPECTION

$0.05 /ft

For those seeking a visual inspection of their roof. This basic package should be utilised out of the winter season and used to provide an general assesment of roof integrity.

Inspection Flight

$0.20 /ft

*

*

2

2

Inspection Flight

Inspection Flight

Photographs

Photographs

Inspection Report 2D Map + Findings summarised

LICENCED ENGINEER FEEDBACK

$0.15 /ft

Photographs

3D Model

3D Model Visual Roof Snow Load Model

Visual Roof Snow Load Model

Inspection Report

Inspection Report Findings summarised

Findings summarised

Research & License

Computer Modeling

Business Strategy

Building Codes

Baseline vs. Snow

Service Pricing

FFA Part 107 License

Load Analysis

Financial Analysis

Engineer Opinion

Load Analysis

Licensed Engineer Recommendation

Service pricing are an estimate only and based on a typical commercial building with roof area of 10,000ft2

Financials

Protocol Flow-charts

Interviews Peter Kalaitzidis Easy Aerial Inc. “Drones are amazing, but what drones do is replace the human eyes… not the skill of the human”. Sargeant Eric Bourn UNH Patrol Sergeant & County Drone Unit “People often lack the technical knowhow to protect their buildings against subtle issues associated with snow”.

Ground Snow Loads

Summary 2016 ASCE GROUND SNOW LOAD*

ASCE Design Code

5lb/sqft 10lb/sqft 15lb/sqft 20lb/sqft 25lb/sqft 30b/sqft 35lb/sqft 40lb/sqft 45lb/sqft 50lb/sqft 60lb/sqft 80lb/sqft 90lb/sqft 100lb/sqft Maps of ground snow loads in IBC and in ASCE 7 indicate a 2 percent probability of the indicated load being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

FEMA Snow Guide

Based on the findings, it would be possible for a startup business to sustain growth whilst offering snow-roof services and to secure a net profit upwards of $30,000 per season, by the third season of operatons. Our recommendation is that these services be considered by an existing roof inspection business. This is because the services could be an addition to their revenue stream which exists during the warmer months of the year. The snow load business would also benefit by utilizing an existing network of clients to maximize profits.

Operations

Breakeven

Profit

6 Months/yr

16 Months

$50,000

Year

Costs

1

$58,787

$51,000

-$7,787

-$7,787

2

$62,870

$90,000

$27,130

$19,343

3

$92,870

Revenue

$122,400

$29,530

Overall

$48,873

Breakeven Analysis

Profit


Environmental and Economic Life Cycle Assessments of Water Droplet Processing and Traditional Waterjet Cutting Waterjet Diagrams

❖ Metal manufacturing is an essential process and market for many industries around the world. In 2018 alone, worldwide crude steel production reached 1,809Mt and is projected to increase by 2050 [1]. With metal production and consumption increasing, it is important to note their processes because they have significant global effects on the environment. ❖ Waterjet cutting is a form of cleaning or cutting a certain material. Unlike traditional metal cutting processes, waterjets have no issue of releasing hazardous air particles or producing toxic wastes unlike other metal cutting methods. This metal cutting method is therefore being adopted quickly since it is innovative and poses a reduced environmental threat [2].

LCA Results 100%

3.50E-01

80% 70%

35

30%

❖ Objectives:

Manufacturing/Assembly

Electricity

Water

Abrasive

Disposal

❖ The LCCA proves the the HIP-SWaD has a greater cost over its service life than the AWJ. This can be explained by the fact that the AWJ cuts more metal over its lifetime than the HIP-SWaD. ❖ The sensitivity analyses of the AWJ conclude the rate of abrasive usage is the most sensitive input. This implies that efforts to reduce abrasive use would alleviate the total costs and environmental impacts.

❖ The sensitivity analyses of the HIP-SWaD conclude that its lifetime is the most sensitive. Since the HIP-SWaD is continuously being improved, its lifetime and overall use performance can change significantly. ❖ As changes in the HIP-SWaD are made, the environmental and economic benefits can be drastically altered to compete with traditional waterjet technologies.

Manufacturing/Assembly

AWJ

AWJ

AWJ

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Disposal

Ecotoxicity (CTUe)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Abrasive

Respiratory Effects (kg PM2.5)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Water

Noncarcinogenic (CTUh)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Electricity

Carcinogenic (CTUh)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Smog (kg O3) Acidification (kg Eutrophication SO2) (kg N)

HIP-SWaD

HIP-SWaD

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

Ozone Depletion (kg CFC)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

GWP (kg CO2 eq)

HIP-SWaD

0%

Other Components

Figure 3: LCA Normalized Phase Comparisons Between AWJ and HIP-SWaD

❖ The HIP-SWaD portrays less of an environmental burden throughout its service life than the AWJ. It is clear from Figure 3 that in every environmental impact, AWJ is much greater due to the high rate of abrasive usage.

10%

AWJ

AWJ

Acidification Eutrophication Carcinogenic NonRespiratory Ecotoxicity (per Fossil Fuel (per 100m cut) (per 100m cut) (per 100m cut) carcinogenic Effects (per 100m cut) Depletion (per 100m cut) 100m cut) (per 100m cut)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

AWJ

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

AWJ

HIP-SWaD

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

HIP-SWaD

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

AWJ

Smog (per 100m cut)

HIP-SWaD

AWJ

20%

Ozone Depletion (per 100m cut)

Fossil Fuel Water Depletion (MJ) Footprint (m^3)

Lifetime Costs ($)

50% 40%

5.00E-02

GWP (per 100m cut)

❖ Perform a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on both the AWJ and the HIP-SWaD. ❖ Perform a life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) on both machines ❖ Conduct sensitivity analyses on key inputs of the machines.

40

60%

2.00E-01 1.50E-01 1.00E-01

0.00E+00

LCCA Results

45

90%

3.00E-01 2.50E-01

HIP-SWaD

❖ The High Impact Pressure Supersonic Water Droplet (HIP-SWaD) is a custom-built waterjet that uses water droplets at high speeds to cut metal. This process is known as the Plateau Rayleigh Instability process where a stream of water naturally splits into water droplets after a certain distance traveled [3],[4].

❖ Define the functional unit as 100 meters of a ½ inch thick steel plate. ❖ The LCA is done by using SimaPro TRACI 2.1 method to compare the machines against ten different environmental impacts. This is meant to track the environmental impacts of the machines from the manufacturing phase, the assembly and use phase, and the end-of-life or disposal phase. ❖ The LCCA uses a Net Present method to perform a life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) on both machines for the same life cycle phases as the LCA. ❖ The sensitivity analyses on key inputs including the abrasive usage rate, the electricity usage, the water usage, and the lifetime. The value of the input will be changed by 50% and the change in the outputs will determine how sensitive the input is.

Figure 2: HIP-SWaD Metal Cutting Process

Figure 1: AWJ Metal Cutting Process

❖ The Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) uses a mixture of abrasive particles and a high jet stream of water to cut metal. The abrasive used is garnet which, when mixed with water, can produce a high-power output to help cut the metal more easily.

HIP-SWaD

ADVISORS: Brad Kinsey Weiwei Mo

Waterjet metal manufacturing is a Environmental and Economic Life Cycle Assessments of Water Droplet Processing and Traditional Waterjet Cutting Giovanni Guglielmi modern process of cutting metal with Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 high speed waters and usually abrasive. Methodology Introduction Although the mix of water and abrasive helps productivity with these machines, the use of abrasives has been linked to both large environmental burdens and high operating costs which brings debate of whether the process can be done better. New design approaches such as the High Impact Pressure Supersonic Water Droplet (HIP-SWaD) may be an Conclusions opportunity to perform the same tasks with less environmental impacts and costs over the machine’s lifetime. The use of a comparative life cycle and life cycle cost assessment is performed to determine which waterjet is more beneficial to the environment and cost efficient. The results portray lower environmental impacts for the HIP-SWaD than the AWJ but when looking at the LCCA, the AWJ has significantly lower costs than the HIPSWaD when compared to the functional unit. Further sensitivity analyses give insight on how the change in abrasive rate is the most sensitive input for the AWJ whereas the machine lifetime and electricity usage are the most sensitive inputs for the HIP-SWaD. These results give valuable information to best optimize the design of modern waterjet technologies. HIP-SWaD

AUTHOR: Giovanni Guglielmi

30 25 20 15 10 5

Other Consumables

Figure 4: LCA Characterized Phase Comparisons Between AWJ and HIP-SWaD

0

HIP-SWaD

Abrasive

Water

Electricity

AWJ

Other Consumeables

Disposal

Capital

Operations

Figure 5: LCCA Normalized Comparisons Between AWJ and HIP-SWaD

Impacts

GWP Ozone Depletion Smog

Adjusted Abrasive Use (-50%) (lb/min)

Sensitivity Analyses

Adjusted Electricity Use (-50%) (kWh)

Adjusted Electricity Use (+50%) (kWh)

Adjusted Water Use (+50%) (L/min)

Adjusted Water Use (-50%) (L/min)

Adjusted Lifetime (+50%) (Years)

-96.8% -75.9%

-0.067% ~0%

+0.067% ~0%

~0% ~0%

~0% ~0%

+0.31% +7.0%

-98.9%

-0.0084%

+0.0084%

~0%

~0%

+0.075%

Acidification -99.3% Eutrophication -96.5%

-0.026% -0.0067%

+0.026% +0.0067%

~0% ~0%

~0% ~0%

+0.064% +0.25%

Carcinogenic NonCarcinogenic Respiratory Effects Ecotoxicity Fossil Fuel Depletion LCCA

-0.058% -0.093%

+0.058% +0.093%

~0% ~0%

~0% ~0%

+0.83% +0.99%

-95.4% -93.5% -98.2%

-0.019%

+0.019%

~0%

~0%

+0.064%

-88.9% -97.6%

-0.36% -0.066%

+0.36% +0.066%

~0% ~0%

~0% ~0%

+2.7% +0.18%

-36.5%

-6.62%

+6.44%

+1.05%

-1.18%

+14.6%

Impacts

Adjusted Lifetime (+50%) (Years)

Adjusted Water Use (+50%)

(L/min)

Adjusted Water Use (-50%)

Adjusted Electricity Use (-50%)

(kWh)

Adjusted Electricit y Use (+50%)

GWP

+21.0%

+0.01%

-0.011%

-18.11%

+18.11%

Ozone Depletion Smog

Acidification

Eutrophication Carcinogenic

Non-Carcinogenic

+2.95%

+0.00024%

+25.67%

+0.0042%

+26.39%

+0.0076%

+10.43%

+0.013%

+13.51%

+14.41%

+0.78%

+0.034%

(L/min)

~0%

~0%

-0.0042%

-5.21%

-0.0076%

-2.03%

-0.013%

-3.66%

-0.078%

-9.66%

-0.034%

-11.71%

(kWh)

~0%

+20.3% +3.66% +9.66%

Respiratory Effects

+24.32%

+0.031%

-0.031%

-15.98%

+15.98%

+16.80%

+0.0079%

-0.0079% -15.12%

+15.12%

Fossil Fuel Depletion

+25.00%

+0.0057%

-0.0057% -22.09%

+22.09%

LCCA

+23.78%

+7.87%

-7.87%

+22.61%

-22.61%

A great thank you to Dr. Mo of the CEE Department and Dr. Kinsey of the ME Department for giving me the REU research opportunity over the summer. Also, thank you to Benjamin Mitchell and Sohani Deniam for assistance in gathering all the necessary waterjet data for the research. Finally, a special thank you to the NSF for funding this research.

References

+5.21%

+11.71%

Ecotoxicity

Figure 6: Sensitivity Analyses of the AWJ

Acknowledgements

Figure 7: Sensitivity Analyses of the HIP-SWaD

[1] W. S. Assocation, “World Steel Association Home.” [2] Y. Hu et al., “Mechanism and experimental investigation of ultra high pressure water jet on rubber cutting,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1973–1978, 2014. [3] B. R. Mitchell, J. C. Klewicki, Y. P. Korkolis, and B. L. Kinsey, “Normal impact force of Rayleigh jets,” Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1–23, 2019. [4] P. Coullet, L. Mahadevan, and C. S. Riera, “Hydrodynamical

models for the chaotic dripping faucet,” J. Fluid Mech., vol. 526, pp. 1–17, 2005.

Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project

FACULTY ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner PROJECT CLIENT: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner

The purpose of the Georgetown, ME Culvert Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project Anna Lampman, Jordan Meaney, Ross O’Neil, Kyle Szewczyk Analysis Project is to continue adding measurements and flow capacity analyses to Analysis and Results Field Work Introduction the current culvert inventory for Georgetown. This research and analysis project was started in 2014 by a UNH Senior Project group and is continued now with Georgetown Road Commissioner Charlie Collins as primary client, and UNH professor Dr. Nancy Kinner Georgetown Background Citizen-Scientist Program as faculty advisor. If functioning properly, culverts allow precipitation runoff to pass under roads, minimizing flooding or washout potential. The team surveyed 33 culverts on Challenges Marrtown, Harmons Harbor, Loop, North End, and Kennebec Point Roads. Seniors were Tidal Culvert Analysis tasked with locating culverts, obtaining GPS References coordinates of each culvert, and measuring and/or recording culvert characteristics. These characteristics include material, shape, Acknowledgments end and edge type, diameter, length, inlet and outlet elevations, the slope downstream of the culvert, and a tailwater cross-section profile. After obtaining this data, the team used an Excel modeling tool called Streamworks for analysis. Streamworks reports whether each culvert will pass or fail certain storm events. The team found that culverts varied in the degree to which they failed, with some failing to pass smaller storm events and some being adequately sized to handle even large flows. The team also continued a citizen scientist monitoring program to take photos of culverts at a 2-year event in order to validate the Streamworks model with real world data. The model was validated for several of the selected culverts but was not validated for others. The team also conducted a meeting with two Maine based engineers about the possibility of modeling tidal culverts. Because tidal culverts have two-way flow, they cannot be modeled using Streamworks. In the meeting with these engineers, the team learned that FEMA flood maps in conjunction with NOAA Sea Level Rise Curves are used to determine the elevation of roads in tidal zones. This analysis was completed for two tidal culverts on Williams Road and Flying Point Road. Client: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner Advisor: Dr. Nancy Kinner Assisting Consultant: Joel Ballestero

• The Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project was started in 2014 by a UNH senior project group. • When properly functioning, culverts allow precipitation runoff to pass under roads, minimizing flooding or washout potential. • The team surveyed 33 culverts; locating and obtaining GPS coordinates, and measuring/recording culvert characteristics. • Material, shape, end/edge type, geometry, inlet/outlet elevations, downstream slope and tailwater cross-section profile. • Streamworks, an Excel modeling tool, predicted culvert pass/fail ratings during certain nth (e.g., 2, 10, 25, 50, 100) year storm events. • The team started a volunteer program with town residents to monitor high risk culverts in order to validate the Streamworks predictions of flooding.

• Rural island town on the coast of Maine. • The year-round population is ~1000, tripling in the summer due to seasonal residences. • There are over 200 culverts on the island. • This project primarily focused on completing the town-owned culvert database.

Culvert Ratings at nth Year Storms Pass: Water level is below the top of the culvert. All water flows through the culvert.

Vulnerable: Water level is above the top of inlet, but below the surface of roadway. All water flows through the culvert.

Overtop: Water level is above the road surface. Water flows through the culvert and over the roadway.

View presentation

Data collected from each culvert: • Rise of culvert inlet vs outlet • Culvert material • Elevation measurements • Diameter • Lat/Long coordinates • Photos • Culvert length Instruments Used For Data Collections: • Smartphone • Camera • Laser Level • Measuring Tape • Field Book • Stadia Rod

• This program was used to validate the Streamworks model failure predictions. • Select culverts predicted to fail at the 2-year storm were monitored. • Constant communication with volunteers about when to go out and take photos based on monitoring weather • Culverts MT-0.947, MT-1.21, RH-1.059 accurately modeled by Streamworks • Culverts MT-0.640, and Sagadahoc Bay road and Bay Point Road not accurately modeled by Streamworks • Error could be from poor maintenance of culvert, inaccurate hydrology method, field error

Three tidal culverts analyzed by this team: • Williams Road • Flying Point Road • Indian Point Road

After meeting with tidal culvert engineers, the following analysis steps were provided: • Use FEMA flood maps to determine 100-year flood elevation for each culvert • Use NOAA Sea Level Rise Curves to determine sea level rise and add this to the 100-year Flood Elevation • This is the elevation that the road should be raised to in order to pass all tidal floods for a long-term design This table shows the elevations (Feet above NAVD88) that Williams Road (Blue) and Flying Point Road (Yellow) should be raised to. The low values are with little sea level rise and the high values are with high sea level rise. Intermediate is used for most designs

Streamworks Inputs: Invert elevations, Slope, Diameter, Length, Material Hydrology Methods: Arc Hydro Tool, Google Earth, USGS Streamstats, Drainage-Area Ratio Method

Streamworks Output: Legend

Pass

Transition

Fail

Crossing ID

2

10

25

50

100

MT-0.974 MT-1.02 MT-1.14 MT-1.15 MT-1.18 MT-1.23 MT-1.21 MT-0.640 KP-0.014 KP-0.178 KP-0.451 KP-0.600 KP-0.766 KP-0.829 HH-0.066 NE-0.360 NE-0.475 NE-0.565 NE-0.730 NE-1.19 NE-1.23 NE-1.57 NE-1.67 LP-0.031 LP-0.081 LP-0.280 LP-0.354 LP-0.423 LP-0.578 LP-0.628 LP-0.656 LP-0.674 LP-0.721

V P P P V P V P P P P P P P P P P O P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P

O P P P O V O V P V P P P P P P P O P P V P P P P P P P P P P P P

O V P P O V O V P V P P P P P P P O V P V P V P P P P P P P P P P

O V P P O O O O P V P P P P P P P O V V V P V P P P P P P P P P P

O O O P O O O O P O P P P P P P P O V V O P V P P P P P P P P V P

Crossing Rating Overtopping Crossings Vulnerable Crossings

Passing Crossings

2 1

Total Crossings by Return Period 10 25 50 100 4

4

6

10

3

4

7

6

4

29

25

22

21

19

• Watershed Delineation • COVID-19 Pandemic • Coordination of previous groups information • Analysis of buried, damaged, or irregular culverts (adjacent photo) • Insufficient amount of rain for volunteer data collection

• Georgetown Conservation Commission. (2015). Climate Change Adaptation Report: Georgetown, Maine. Georgetown, ME: A special publication by the Georgetown Conservation Commission. • Lombard, P.J., and Hodgkins, G.A.,2015, Peak flow regression equations for small, ungaged streams in Maine— Comparing map-based to field-based variables: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5049, 12 p.

We would like to thank Dr. Nancy Kinner for being our advisor throughout this project, Joel Ballestero for helping with the culvert analysis, and Lexy Hidrovo, 2018 Project Manager, for helping with GIS inputs. We would also like to thank the Georgetown Conservation Commission and volunteers for their help and for giving us the opportunity to work with them and the Town of Georgetown. Lastly, we would like to thank Joseph McLean, Matt Schultz and Robert Prue for assisting us with the tidal culvert portion of this project.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 16

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

AUTHORS: Anna Lampman Jordan Meaney Ross O'Neil Kyle Szewczyk


Meta-Analysis of PFAS in New Hampshire Groundwater AUTHORS: Elijah Sorensen Emma Thibodeau Cassidy Yates, PM PROJECT ADVISOR: James Malley PROJECT SPONSOR: Harrison Roakes, Sandborn, Head & Associates, Inc. View presentation

Meta-Analysis of PFAS in New Hampshire Groundwater This project was set forth in conjunction with Sanborn Head & Associates, Results Introduction as well as in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) to further expand on the knowledge of Perand Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in its occurrence, fate, and transportation in groundwater. Thanks to the NHDES, over 120,000 PFAS measurements could be utilized to perform a meta-analysis to Project Scope & Objectives find statistical significance among PFAS in New Hampshire's groundwater. A Discussion meta-analysis is a quantitative statistical Methods References & Acknowledgements analysis of several separate but similar experiments or studies used to test the pooled data for statistical significance. In other words, the goal of this project is to understand the distribution of PFAS data on a large scale, find statistical significance in differences between short and long chain PFAS, and to find trends among New Hampshire regulated PFAS. Cassidy Yates (PM), Emma Thibodeau, Eli Sorensen Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jim Malley Project Sponsor: Harrison Roakes Environmental Engineering Capstone

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals with thousands of types used worldwide. These compounds have been found in aqueous film firefighting foam, water resistant fabrics, food packaging, nonstick cookware, and many other products.

Potential health effects include hepatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, reproductive, and developmental [1]. The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) proposed regulations for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, shown in Table 1. Strong fluorine bonds, create hydrophobic and lipophobic surfactant properties and allow these compounds to be thermally and chemically stable [2]. Figure 1 shows the structures of the fluorine chains and attached acids.

Figure 1: Four PFAS Structures

• Conduct a meta-analysis, or analysis across multiple sites and studies, using statistical approaches to find correlations within the data set • Assess the variables that could cause correlations such as physical and chemical properties

• Reviewed literature on PFAS fate and transport, chemistry, and regulations • Worked with NHDES to obtain data • Tidied data into a useable form • Numbers randomly generated for values below 5 ppt • Applied a logarithmic transformation on data • Interpreted findings • Calculated summary statistics • Visualized data with scatterplots

Table 1: Percentiles in units of parts per trillion (ppt) and percent detections for nine PFAS analytes. Analytes with proposed regulations in NH are shown in blue. PFOS

PFOA PFNA PFHxS PFHxA PFBS PFHpA PFPeA PFBA

Maximum 11,000 8,200 4,700 7,419 5,170 2,508 1,940 4,730 1,200 Concentration 14.78 29.28 6.54 18.15 24.55 16 75th Percentile 30.36 63.98 <5 Concentration Median 5.47 13.45 <5 <5 6.60 <5 <5 5.58 6.17 Concentration <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 Minimum Concentration 52% 66% 21% 39% 54% 32% 48% 53% 56% Percent detections > 5 ppt NH Proposed 15 12 11 18 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A MCL and AGQS Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), Ambient Groundwater Quality Standards (AGQS)

Figure 2: Scatterplot of log transformed PFHxA vs log transformed PFPeA

Figure Key: Data below 5 ppt True detect data

One detect analyte, one analyte below 5 ppt

Figure 3: Scatterplot of log transformed PFOA vs log transformed PFOS

• Median values in Table 1 are low compared to proposed AGQS regulations, some even under the detection threshold of 5 ppt • Maximum values are orders of magnitude higher and likely sampled from source areas • Figure 2 is the most visually correlated, both PFHxA and PFPeA are longer chain compounds with similar fate and transport • Figure 4 shows PFOS to be better correlated with PFHxS than with PFOA as in Figure 3 • Assessing PFAS data through meta-analyses can yield big picture observations

Figure 4: Scatterplot of log transformed PFOS vs log transformed PFHxS

[1] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2018). Toxicological Profile for Perfluoroalkyls. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. [2] Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC). (November 2017). Naming Conventions and Physical and Chemical Properties of Perand Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). Thank you to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for providing data, Dr. Ernst Linder for statistical consulting, and Dr. Jim Malley and Harrison Roakes for support and guidance.

NHDOT 3D Bridge Puzzle AUTHORS: Nicholas Bouchard Evan Gwynne Davies Brenna Heinley Edward Mahoney

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

FACULTY ADVISOR: Robert Henry PROJECT SPONSOR: Bill Saffian, NHDOT View presentation

Team 4 spent their Senior Capstone Project converting 2D AutoCAD files of a Bridge Puzzle, provided by the NHDOT, into a 3D model to be used as part of an educational package for students and professionals alike. The goal is for individuals to better their understanding of the components of a typical bridge. The original deliverable included a 3D printed model of the bridge however, due to circumstance an exploded virtual representation of the bridge was created. Prior to social distancing the north abutment and some of the bridge deck was 3D printed and assembled to create a half model of the bridge.

17 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

NHDOT 3D Bridge Puzzle Evan Gwynne-Davies, Edward Mahoney, Brenna Heinley, Nicholas Bouchard Sponsor, Bill Saffian - NHDOT Faculty Advisor, Dr. Robert Henry – UNH CEE Dept.

Process • 2D AutoCAD drawings of a typical NHDOT bridge • Develop 3D Revit model of the bridge • Identify individual bridge components • Produce 3D Printable files • Scale to the footprint of the 3D printer • Printing the 3D bridge components

Purpose • Educational Outreach - NHDOT will use this modeled 3D printed bridge puzzle to help students and adults understand different bridge aspects • Software - Gaining experience with Revit and Procore • 3D Printing - Familiarizing with 3D printing process • Structural Education – Develop an understanding of various bridge components

Challenges • Social distancing • Understanding bridge terminology • Familiarizing with software (Procore and Revit) • Familiarizing with 3D printing process (orientation, scaling, tolerances, etc.)

Results • 3D Printed Half Model consisting of bridge north abutment, footing, wingwall, pieces of bridge deck, and pier • Revit model of entire bridge • Virtual presentation showing exploded view of whole model and individual components created in SketchUp


Oil Snare AUTHORS: Rebekah Alpert Julissa Freund Aaron Kearnan Catherine Murphy FACULTY ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner PROJECT SPONSOR: Steven Lehmann, NOAA Federal Office of Response and Restoration View presentation

Oil Snare Sunken oil (oil that has sunken to the bottom of a water body) is a pollutant of concern in marine environments because Introduction Methods Configurations it is difficult to detect and remediate. The traditional detection method of dragging polypropylene bundles of fronds (i.e., snare) attached to chain along the bottom and visually inspecting it for oil, has not Objectives been validated. This report describes Fish Planer Results the results of experimental research on detection of sunken oil by snare. Students tested new snare configurations attached Next Steps to chain, and alternative oleophilic materials (i.e., plastic bags, mosquito netting) to determine a more effective method to maximize contact with Acknowledgments sunken oil present in the environment. Looping snare around the chain, rather than attaching it in one location, maximized contact with oil. The performance of plastic bags suggests they may be an appropriate substitute for snare, pending further experimenting. Future testing is required to see if this method scales up from a lab setting to emergency response applications. Julissa Freund1, Aaron Kearnan1, Catherine Murphy1, and Rebekah Alpert1 Advisor: Dr. Nancy E. Kinner1 Sponsor: Steven Lehmann2 College of Engineering and Physical Science, University of New Hampshire1 NOAA Federal Office of Response and Restoration2

• Oil spills in the marine environment. • Caused by shipping accidents, oil rig leaks, runoff, natural oil seeps and natural disasters. • Difficult to remove oil from water if the oil is submerged below the water surface or sunken on the bottom. • Oil snare • Used to locate submerged or sunken oil. • Oleophilic plastic pieces and buoyant plastic.

https://www.ccira.ca/2018/03/local-filmmaker-highlights-need-forbetter-oil-spill-response/

Constants • Water Temperature : 22℃ • Water Velocity: 0 knots • Oil Type: No. 6 Fuel oil with 7% kaolinite clay • Oil Mass: 200 g • Salinity: 0 ppm • Trial replicates : 3

Variables • Towing Velocity : 1 and 3 knots • Bundle material: Snare (halflength and full-length), Plastic bag, Mosquito netting • Bundle Configuration: Top, Through (for snare materials only)

Experimental Design Setup

Material

Attachment

14-inch Snare

Through (6)

7-inch Snare

Picture

Top (6)

Through (6) Top (6)

Mosquito Netting

Top (6)

Plastic Bag

Top (6)

Photo from : US Coast Guard

• To determine whether alternative materials or configurations would work more efficiently when compared to snare for sunken oil detection.

• To determine if the snare material used in the first part of the project would be controlled in the water with the use of a fish planer. • The snare would be placed at a certain depth in the water, and towed with and without a planer, to see if there was a change in depth consistency. • UNH has closed for the remainder of the Spring 2020 semester. Due to this change, this part of the project was not completed.

Figure 1: Weight Differences for 7 in. Snare with Contact Only with Mean ( Standard Deviation in parentheses)

Figure 2 : Weight Differences for 7 in. Snare with Mean (Standard Deviation in parentheses)

Figure 5: Weight Differences for Plastic Bag and Mosquito Figure 6: Weight Differences for Plastic Bag and Mosquito Netting with Contact Only with Mean (Standard Deviation in Netting with Mean ( Standard Deviation in parentheses) parentheses)

• Future groups to look into “through” configuration for plastic bags and for mosquito netting, to determine whether it also impacts their overall oil sorption. • It is recommended to use a “cookie cutter” or other form of mold to place the oil under the water to standardize the area where the oil is placed. • It would be beneficial if faster speeds would be done in the future, to correlate more to real world towing. Figure 7: Most ideal material, configuration, length, and velocity Figure 3: Weight Differences for 14 in. Snare with Contact Figure 4: Weight Differences for 14 in. Snare with Mean Figure 8: Summary of fit for a regression • Finally, as the last part of the project was not completed, having trials looking Only with Mean ( Standard Deviation in parentheses) ( Standard Deviation in parentheses) model for oil detection prediction at snare depth control would potentially create a new innovation to a current • Using all data points considered as “contact”, a prediction model was created. Figure 7, a Prediction Profiler, shows that the issue. optimized design consists of the snare material, 14 in. in length, in the “through” configuration and a velocity of 3 knots. With a 93% desirability for maximized wet weight difference, this design is predicted to pick up 104.7 grams of oil. • Figure 8 shows the summary of fit and has a significant R squared value of 0.77. The model is accurate due to a significant p-value that is <0.0001. This shows that the variables Length and Bundle Configuration “Through” are significant to the • Dr. Nancy Kinner • John Ahern • Megan Verfaille model due to the <0.05 p-values • Steve Lehmann • Melissa Gloekler • Kathy Mandsager

Winning Project

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

2020

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 18


COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Automated Attendance AUTHORS: Joshua Guarnieri Nicholas Harrigan Joshua Mawuntu Taylor Merrifield Marko Novcic ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt View presentation

Introductory seminar classes are Project Sponsor: Scott Valcourt, PHD Automated Attendance Josh Guarnieri, Nicholas Harrigan, Marko Novcic, Joshua Mawuntu, Taylor Merrifield growing at UNH and have a need for Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH tracking attendance. UNH currently uses iClicker (a device capable of polling and Applications Front-End Problem answering in-class questions) or a piece • of paper getting passed around class • to track attendance. These methods • are either time consuming or costly Back-End Solution • to students. The goal of this project • W eb App Smartphone App is to create a lightweight application Database that can accurately track attendance • in higher education environments. By using UNH’s existing router Data Flow Future W ork • infrastructure, we can determine where • a person is located by the connection • • to UNH’s WiFi. This information can • be used to collect accurate, realtime attendance data by connecting with our database. This makes taking attendance for larger classes easier, faster, and more efficient. • Smartphone App • Students sign in with their student ID through IOS/Android • Students receive a response with confirmation of attendance

Across multiple universities, attendance taking is a disruptive, expensive, and time consuming process

Current solutions involve wasting class time manually taking attendance, or requiring students to purchase expensive devices like an iClicker

• W eb App • Professors login and register their courses • Dashboard enables the professor to view course attendance

Students and professors are both extremely busy; minutes of attendance taking can build up to wasting hours of class time every semester

• MySQL Database • Stores unique identifiers of wireless access points in Kingsbury • Stores list of classes and student check ins • Stores professor registration information

W e used UNH’s existing router infrastructure to determine where a device is connecting to a UNH W IFI Access point

Develop an attendance app for professors to register courses, and for students to login. Students enter their username at the beginning of class, and based on their room, time, and day, attendance is tracked and it becomes available to the professor through a web app

• Server • Linux server provided by UNH IT hosting Node JS server • Cron triggers javascript to mark logged in students as active in the database • Checks for duplicate student entries based on unique identifiers of hardware being used by students

This will lead to UNH no longer having to pay licensing fees for use of auxiliary infrastructure and waste less class time for manual attendance taking

Coordinate with the USNH Login System to further ensure accuracy Implement IClicker Quiz replacement in the application

• • •

Professors populate the Teacher, Class, and Roster table with the appropriate class information W hen students log in through the app, they are added to the Log table BSS, APLocation, and Location tables keep track of UNH router infrastructure information

Allow for an option to directly submit attendance into Canvas

Create a web-based login for students without mobile devices

Expand the project to enable automated attendance through the entire campus

This application allows students to use their smartphones to report into their classes without having to purchase iClicker devices. Instructors will be able to register classes and login to the web application to track and export attendance data. This application allows UNH to save money by no longer having to pay licensing fees for the use of iClicker infrastructure, ultimately allowing for instructors to waste less class time taking attendance.

Development of a Collaborative Environment for a New Hampshire Agency AUTHORS: David Bitman William Clark Maxwell Sullivan Johnson Trinh

The New Hampshire Department of Natural and Cultural Resources (DNCR) has a wide network containing volunteers and contacts who serve as members Introduction Drupal of friend groups, appointed councils, and advisory organizations. Tracking the members affiliated with each of the five DNCR divisions is accomplished by staff members across the divisions in an Design Results/Analysis unaligned manner. To address the issue of member management and encourage a new model of engagement between divisions and with the Department, we Future Workings designed and built a Department Portal. Using Drupal, a free and open-source web content management framework, we built a functional front-end, back-end, and web page application to display and modify the current member data, including detailed information for each person and the division projects with which they are engaged. One key requirement is the ability for Department staff to find important information such as contact information for existing or expiring terms of board members, or how to contact all of the Department-interested individuals in a community or region of the state. By utilizing the modular elements of Drupal, our project is able to offer a collaborative environment for DNCR that serves as a single source of information and is accessible to all of the staff members. Development of a Collaborative Environment for a New Hampshire Agency

Maxwell Sullivan | David Bitman | Johnson Trinh | William Clark Advisor: Scott Valcourt

Goal:

To create a database, a front-end interface, and a developing site to handle the Department of Cultural and Natural Resources (DNCR) large network of members, groups, councils, and more.

Requirements:

FACULTY ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt PROJECT SPONSOR: David Bitman, William Clark, Maxwell Sullivan, Johnson Trinh, NH Department of Natural & Cultural Resources View presentation

19 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

This site will contain sensitive information so our environment needs to be able to keep track of users permissions to only allow privileged users access to sensitive content.

Drupal is a free and simple open-source web content management system that is used to build many websites. The Drupal framework was chosen because of its flexibility. It has many tools that allows you to create the versatile site with all the features that DNCR wanted. Through the use of Drupal, DNCR will be able to access user information, create polls for opinions, and make forum posts to stay actively engaged with their departments. Additionally, Drupal allows for a simple front-end interface to easily edit the database. On top of all this, the state departments of NH were looking to design their websites using Drupal moving forward. This means that the state will have a much easier time implementing our product into their current system.

List ● ● ● ●

Database - back-end of the application that contains all employee data

Front-end Interface - Allow permitted users to add, delete, and edit existing data

Dashboard/Staff Portal - Allows for employees to communicate with one another Website - Will be developed to display all the data in real time

of key features: Simplistic and beautiful site design Non-access of information unless logged in Database of employee data Ability to search employees by board and/or zip code ● Ability to create polls to ask questions ● Ability to participate in forum posts ● Ability to separate forums based on organizations ● Ability to revamp the site using Drupal’s easy tools

● The Drupal site will allow for DNCR to continue to add and edit any features. ● New modules may be added to the Drupal environment for DNCR’s future needs.

● DNCR is slowly implementing Drupal for their webpages so integrating this collaborative environment will make it easy for them to add these features.

● DNCR has their own mailing server which they can use to implement a convenient way to send out emails to their employees.


AUTHOR: Ryan Lefebvre ADVISORS: Radim Bartos Brandon Roberts

Humans of all types share a common Estimating TDEE With Machine Learning requirement for energy in the form Ryan Lefebvre Advisers: Dr. Radim Bartos, Dr. Brandon Roberts Department of Computer Science University of New Hampshire of calories. This energy depends on a LogSmarter.net WHAT IS TOTAL DAILY ENERGY number of factors, including age, height, PROJECT RESULTS PROJECT DEFINITION EXPENDITURE (TDEE)? weight, muscle mass, and daily activity. Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) LOGSMARTER™ is the number of calories an individual burns per day to maintain their weight. DATA LOGSMARTER™ ALGORITHM According to most research, eating under your TDEE would cause weight PROBLEM loss and eating above TDEE would cause weight gain. For anyone with health, ARCHITECTURE TECHNOLOGY USED CONCLUSION physique or sports performance related goals, knowing your TDEE is essential for optimizing your nutrition. VALIDATION CRITERIA GOAL The most common methods of CURRENT STATUS & NEXT STEPS estimating TDEE are through prediction equations. The problem with these equations is that they can be inaccurate by hundreds of calories. These inaccurate calculations cause people to over or underestimate their caloric needs. Therefore, more accurate estimation techniques are needed to account for differences between people. Machine learning is a powerful tool used for data analysis. It is a form of artificial intelligence that can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal input from humans. We have developed a machine learning model that yields an accurate and accessible method of TDEE estimation. The results of our research suggest that the error of our model is significantly less than the most popular existing models. Using this model, we have developed an algorithm that provides evidence based recommendations of a caloric intake that aligns with an individual's goals. This algorithm has been incorporated into user friendly software for tracking fitness and nutrition called LogSmarter™. Use Doubly Labeled Water (DLW) & nonlinear modeling technique

TDEE is the Number of calories an individual burns per day to maintain their weight

RFR diagram from towardsdatascience.com

DLW diagram from Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research(US) 1997

- Fitness and nutrition tracking platform

DLW is gold standard for measuring TDEE

View presentation

MAE 150 KCAL LESS! RMSE 5x SMALLER!

Random Forest Regression (RFR) does not have same limitations as linear models

- Calorie intake suggestion algorithm - 700+ alpha users!

DLW Sample(n=766) Age (years)

Min 20

Average

Max

49.04

96.0

Height (in)

56.3

66.65

77.56

Weight (lbs)

93.72

163.35

474.54

TDEE (kcal)

1017

2597.91

5139

Demographic sample statistics

Physical activity level distrbution

Current methods of estimating TDEE are not accurate and not accessible Olympic weightlifter from https://www.favpng.com/

Indirect calorimetry example from https://cosmed.com/

Project Goal Achieved! Accurate

Accessible

Indirect calorimetry is not a direct measure of TDEE

Linear models have large measuremnt errors for some individuals

TM

User Friendly

Compare MAE and RMSE to popular models:

Develop and quantify method of TDEE estimation that is: 1. Accurate 2. Accessible 3. User Friendly

Winning Project

2020

1. Original Harris Benedict 2. Revised Harris Benedict 3. Owen

4. WHO/FAO/UNU 5. Mifflin-St Jeor

- Testing beta version of LogSmarter™ - Reviewing finalized algorithm documentation - Algorithm Documentation coming soon to LogSmarter.net - Beta release planned for end of Summer 2020

Liberty Mutual Image Analytics AUTHORS: Cameron Claiborne Jake Cooper Davis Osarczuk FACULTY ADVISOR: David Benedetto PROJECT SPONSORS: Michael Klein, Mergim Miftari, Liberty Mutual

Liberty Mutual is an American diversified Liberty Mutual Image Analytics global insurer with a focus in property and casualty insurance. The data science and analytics department from the offices in Dover, New Hampshire requested an easy method for determining the cost of customers’ insured items in the form of a web application. The end result makes the process of identifying value easier for both Liberty Mutual and its customers. The goal of this project was to develop a web interface that allows users to upload images of renter’s property. The web application takes the uploaded image and identifies specific objects within it, outputting prices for each object. For example, the application should identify a laptop resting on a desk and then, excluding unnecessary objects, determine an estimate for the price of the laptop. This was achieved with the integration of Amazon’s Rekognition API, which has image and face classification capabilities. The app makes calls to the API and a database is in place to hold the names and prices of objects that should be recognized. For this project, the developers needed to become familiar with and understand computer vision and had to launch an AWS instance to successfully host a site to carry out this scenario. Department of Computer Science Team Members: Jake Cooper, Cameron Claiborne, Davis Osarczuk Sponsors: Mergim Miftari, Michael Klein Introduction

The data analytics department from the Liberty Mutual offices in Dover, New Hampshire has requested an easy method for determining the cost of customers’ insured items in the form of a web application.

The goal of this project is to develop a web interface that allows users to upload images of renter’s property. The web application must take the uploaded image and identify specific objects within it, outputting prices for each object. This will be achieved with the integration of Amazon’s Rekognition API, which has image and face classification capabilities. The app will make calls to the API and a database will be set up to hold the names and prices of objects that should be recognized.

Application Architecture

Objectives

Upload Image to S3 Bucket

Design

Create a web interface that takes an image as input.

This function takes a .jpeg or .png image file from the webpage and uploads it to the S3 bucket.

The team decided to design the application in desktop view, as React auto-scales the webpage to the size of the screen.

Integrate AWS Rekognition to identify objects in the image.

Have a functioning application that makes evaluating renter’s property easier for customers and employees

Mobile View:

Technologies and Tools Used

React

JavaScript Library used as the framework of the application. It made incorporating all of the various packages and kits we needed simple. As well as giving us a platform to build a powerful serverless application.

AWS S3

Amazon’s Simple Storage Service is an object storage service offered by AWS. Each ‘Bucket’ is highly customizable and easy to modify.

Rekognition

View presentation

The HTML library Bootstrap 4 was used to make the design clean and easy as possible.

Output names and prices of objects to the user in a concise table.

A machine learning service from AWS that is used to detect objects in images. Rekognition extracts the metadata from an uploaded image and uses it to analyze and search the image for objects.

Conclusions

Detect Object In an Image

This function detects objects in the uploaded jpeg or png image in the S3 bucket.

The development team became familiar with several different technologies over the course of this project.

The team learned how to use the React framework and developed a functional webpage. Additionally, the developers became familiar with AWS and managed to host their own website. The team learned how to push a user’s input to AWS using S3 bucket. Finally, the team became familiar with computer vision by integrating Rekognition API. In the future the team hopes to continue to flesh out the capabilities of the site.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 20

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Log Smarter: Estimating TDEE with Machine Learning


COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

NextStep HealthTech App Development: Activities Feature AUTHORS: Honey Choksi Nicholas Dessanti Dillon Dow

The objective of the Activities feature NextStep HealthTech App Development: Activities Feature we are implementing within the Dillon Dow, Nick Dessanti, Honey Choksi NextStep app is intended to improve Important Terms Introduction Screenshots the overall mental health of its users. The key purpose of the feature we are creating is to motivate our users to take a healthy action on their ADVISOR: Next Steps/Future Work own, outside of using the app. Each David Benedetto activity module created will contain Technologies interactive content followed by a call to action. Other features of the app Activity Components Results View presentation will be tied into each module as well, including optional goal setting, and story posting. Our deliverable is a new table added to the NextStep app that allows a user to access activities. There is a Categories section and a MyActivities section. The Categories section will be an effective way for users to find new activities while MyActivities will be an effective way for a user to revisit some of their favorite activities. Additionally, the MyActivities section will effectively track the progress a user has made, both for an individual activity as well as the total activities they have completed. This mobile app is being built using React Native running on both Honorable Mention iOS and Android. We will be implementing activity videos that will be stored in an S3 bucket, while user and activity data will be stored using DynamoDB. This data will be then accessed from the Project frontend through a custom API. Computer Science / Information Technology, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH, 03824

The NextStep app is intended to improve the mental health of its users, and the implementation of a new ‘Activities’ Feature will help to achieve that. The main intention of the feature is to motivate users to take a healthy action on their own, outside of using the app. Each activity module will contain interactive content followed by a call to action. Other features of the app will be tied into each module as well, including optional goal setting, and story posting. The main goal of our project is to create a working foundation for this feature so future content can be added.

React Native - open-source mobile application framework created by Facebook. It is used to develop applications for Android, iOS, and the Web.

S3 Storage - service offered by Amazon Web Services that provides object storage through a web service interface. DynamoDB - fully managed proprietary NoSQL database service that supports key-value and document data structures and is offered by Amazon as part of the Amazon Web Services portfolio.

Activities Home

This mobile app is built using React Native running on both iOS and Android. Activity videos are stored in S3 Storage while User and Activity data will be stored using DynamoDB. This data will be accessed from the frontend through a custom API.

User Activities

User Categories

Modular Activity

A flow diagram of components in our React Native code, each component has a index.test.ts file utilizing Jest.

Jest - JavaScript Testing Framework maintained by Facebook

Our current deliverable has all of the functionality and basic design completed. Some basic styling, such as dark mode compatibility, as well as category icons, are still incomplete. Additionally the content of the modules for each activity is still needed for the feature to be fully complete. Testing will be used in the end to fix the UI and UX.

Our deliverable is a new table added to the NextStep app that allows a user to access Activities. There is a “Categories” Section and a “MyActivities” section. The Categories section is an effective way for users to find new activities while MyActivities is an effective way for a user to revisit some of their favorite activities. Additionally, the MyActivities section effectively tracks the progress a user has made, both for an individual activity as well as total activities they have completed. Each activity module currently has five levels of interactivity: intro, query question, video, goals, and a call to action.

2020

Preemptive Involvement and Tracking by Teachers (PITT) AUTHORS: Benjamin Chamberlain Shane Chinburg Robert Chisholm FACULTY ADVISOR: David Benedetto PROJECT SPONSOR: Daniel Shepard View presentation

Our project aims to assist teachers in Preemptive Involvement and Tracking by Teachers (PITT) detecting students who are disconnected from their peers. Students who struggle with loneliness or making social Introduction Diagrams & User Interface Technologies Used connections can often have troubles later in life which we hope to reduce through our project. The data is gathered from the students by letting them choose who Problem they would like to sit with in class every week. Our website allows the teacher to input the seating choices of each student. This data is analyzed by the website and Implementation Conclusion Output displayed to the teacher in the form of generated charts, graphs, and statistics. These visuals help teachers to identify which students are lonely or unpopular and improve as more data is added over time. The back-end of the website uses an algorithm written in Python that generates a seating chart that takes into account all of the given data to create a plan that maximizes the number of students who get to sit near their friends. The application uses Python, HTML, CSS, JavaScript and Bootstrap to create a clean and accessible interface for teachers to use to provide a better classroom experience for all of their students.

21 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Ben Chamberlain, Shane Chinburg, & Bobby Chisholm Sponsor: Daniel Shepard Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire

• This application was inspired by Kathy Pitt, an elementary school teacher in Florida. • Kathy’s idea was to hand out index cards to her students every week where they could write down who they want to sit next to during the following week. • She analyzed the index cards and was able to tell which students are the ones who are not fitting in. • Our goal with this project was to make this process easier for the teachers by providing a website to analyze the data and trends for them.

Login Page

Profile Page

Adding Student Picks/History

Amazon EC2

Python 3

HTML

Bootstrap

CSS

Database Diagram

• Many young students have trouble fitting in, but teachers have trouble figuring out which students need extra attention or help finding friends. • Students who struggle socially are often the kids who are bullies or are being bullied. • Being socially outcast can also have adverse effects later in life, such as turning to violence or drugs.

• Our website allows teachers to login and input seating choices made by students. • To save the data we used a simple database and different models to act as tables. • We created tables for students/student picks and an association table between the student and their picks. • The picks and their history are processed in the backend and sent to the front end as simple data structures. • We use a chart to show the history of a student being picked so the teacher can see any significant changes. • There are also some basic statistics like how many sets of picks and how many times they’ve been picked overall.

• Our server was written using Python on an Amazon EC2 instance. • This was used alongside a SQLAlchemy database to make up the infrastructure of our application. • We used HTML for the basic pages of the website. • CSS and Bootstrap were used in order to improve the website’s appearance. • Flask was used to make our HTML code more dynamic and modular.

Student History Graph

Classroom Display

• Our website generates graphs for each student. • A seating chart is also created and displays where the students should sit in the Classroom Display.

• Student’s seating choices are tracked over time and are displayed in comprehensive tables and graphs and reflected in the seating chart. • Testing was done on a sample classroom (25 students with 5 sets of picks each) to ensure the website functioned correctly. • This is meant to be a multi-year project and in the future a . seating algorithm can be optimized, real world testing by teachers, and a secure login can be implemented. • Overall, this application helps teachers get to know more about the social dynamics of their classroom by having easily readable history for their student’s seating choices. Teachers can look for patterns in the data and use that information to help out kids who need it.


AUTHORS: Antonio Barboza Brandon Cammett Ke Chen Tyler Currier Dane Hoover Brandon Rose ADVISORS: David Benedetto Tracy Hayes Matthew Plumlee

The Payroll System project provides a Strafford County Payroll System web application for Strafford County Tony Barboza, Brandon Cammett, Tyler Currier, Dane Hoover, Ke Chen, Brandon Rose University of New Hampshire Sheriff employees to submit payroll BACKGROUND APPLICATION INTERFACE APPLICATION OUTPUT online. The web application automates the current paper based process. Officers can securely login and track the amount of hours and the type of work they do. This data is kept in a MariaDB relational database that stores the amount of hours, type of work, which officer, and more about each shift. Payroll administrators DESIGN DECISIONS/TOOLS SHIFT CALCULATION CONCLUSIONS have special privileges to generate excel spreadsheets that detail each employee’s shift for the pay period indicated by the payroll administrator. This project provides value by automating the six to eight hours of work that the sheriff’s department currently does each week by hand, automatically generating an excel file of the selected pay period, and providing previously unknown overtime metrics, such as the amount of overtime in a year, to help with budget management. The server is hosted on AWS EC2 and the database is hosted by AWS RDS with an associated account made directly for the police department. The web application is accessible to all officers and is usable by any reasonably modern smartphone, tablet, or computer device with an internet connection. • The objective of the Payroll System project is to provide a web application that allows police officers of Strafford County to submit time cards as a means for payroll.

• Officers can securely login and track the amount of hours and the type of work they do.

Payroll System Dashboard

• Currently, the Strafford County officers do all payroll by hand, requiring them to return the police station to submit hours.

• The end result of this project is to deliver a formatted excel sheet that pulls all shifts for the current week.

• This project provides value by automating hours of work that the sheriff’s department currently does each week by hand.

• This web application will be accessible to all officers and will be usable by any reasonably modern smartphone, tablet, or computer device with an internet connection.

• Currently, one employee spends an entire workday making this sheet by hand. Assuming a 8 hour work day, this would save ~400 hours of work per year

• Officer submits time in, time out, and type of work (Sheriff, Federal, Bus Driver, etc.).

View presentation

• This project will replace the current paper based payroll system for the Strafford County Sheriff’s department.

• System finds right type code and cost center for the type of work for the particular officer.

• Officers can submit their hours from their phone or computer whenever it is convenient for them.

• System splits single shift into more shifts if shift falls into multiple time categories (weekday or weekend, 8am to 4pm or 4pm to 8am).

• Amazon EC2 cloud hosts a Flask microframework that handles all requests, sending them to the correct Python endpoints for processing.

PROJECT SPONSOR: NH Strafford County Sherrif's Department

Automated CSV Output

• The web application can generate an excel file of a selected pay period, and provide overtime metrics for budget management. (see application output)

• Flask SQLAlchemy translates Flask Python code to SQL to make database queries to MariaDB database hosted on Amazon RDS.

• Project may have to be continued by another team due to the scope being too large for a two semester project.

• System corrects type codes to reflect correct day and time.

• System stores date and time, cost center, and type code in database.

• When shifts are requested to be read, overtime hours are calculated before sending shift info back to user.

The Living Bridge Project: Database and Data Visualization Study AUTHORS: Chaitanya Bista Brian Landolt Anthony Rocchio ADVISORS: Erin Bell Martin Wosnik View presentation

The objective of The Living Bridge Project: The Living Bridge Project: Database and Data Visualization Study is Database and Data Visualization Study Rocchio, Chaitanya S. Bista & Brian Landolt to have a running MySQL database that Anthony Department of Information Technology, University of New Hampshire can be deployed and integrated into the Introduction Background project is focused on building a MySQL current Living Bridge website. We are The The Memorial Bridge that connects Portsmouth, NH Database as well as creating visualizations for and Kittery, ME, is also known as The Living Bridge. Living Bridge Project that will contain data using D3.js which is a dynamic, interactive the This bridge is outfitted with multiple sensors that can regarding time, temperature, weather patterns, measure almost every aspect of the bridge from water ocean data and more. We are using D3.js levels to strain. The data this bridge holds can be JavaScript Library that will be able to which is a dynamic JavaScript Library. This extrapolated to many other impacts of society and life will allow us to visually display data in the including infrastructure and environmental impact. of charts/graphs and overall make the visually display information, statistics form data more understandable and user friendly. Results Objectives and charts/graphs from the data given a new relational database and For the two examples being shown, we relating to the Memorial Bridge located • Creating insert data created these graphs by using D3.js. bar graph is showing the average in Portsmouth, NH. This is not limited as • Use visualization tools to display data in The height of waves in the Atlantic Ocean multiple forms of charts and graphs according to month, from the to end of 2019. Whilst the a tool for just public information. This • Have data communicate with charts and beginning line graph visualization is showing the graphs and be easily editable average temperature by month in New bridge itself can be used as a form of Hampshire during the year of 2019. that the data visualization is The data in these can be changed by laboratory to researchers, engineers, and • Ensure user-friendly and highly accessible editing their individual CSV (Comma Separated Value) files. The CSV data References acts as input for the models. Data from students. Since this bridge has multiple Contacts the database can be taken and utilized • https://livingbridge.unh.edu/ for the visualizations we created. The sensors, it can capture everything from For more information contact: charts and graphs can also be • https://www.kaggle.com/ employed as a groundwork for strain on the bridge to traffic patterns, Dr. Erin Bell: erin.bell@unh.edu multiple purposes by tweaking **All data used is from simulated data Prof. Martin Wosnik: martin.wosnik@unh.edu minimal code and editing the CSV file. water levels, weather, etc. These can be used upon completion of the database, visualization and its website integration, to benefit multiple parts of society. Some of the benefits this database and the accompanying visualizations could provide are the ability to show how varying weather conditions and carrying capacity in certain months affect the bridge’s infrastructure. As well how much energy could be captured from tidal power regarding alternating sea levels. Using D3.js we plan to have visualizations for these to make it more user friendly to understand and utilize the information. .

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 22

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Strafford County Payroll System


COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

The Living Bridge Project: Website Usability AUTHOR: Leah Rubinstein Ivan Tran ADVISORS: Erin Bell Martin Wosnik View presentation

The Living Bridge Project is a research project that has transformed the Portsmouth Memorial Bridge into a “smart bridge” using advanced technologies. Our goal is to improve the project’s website, and ultimately increase its usability to make it a valuable, educational tool. To reach our goal, we have taken steps to fix, update, and add new features to the design of the site. We figured it would make the most sense to receive feedback from the users themselves. We created a user survey that was sent out to a group of engineering (ME) students and information technology (IT) students. We reached out to the two groups because they would provide us with different, useful feedback. We thoroughly examined the results prior to making changes to the website, as well as after. Along with this, we have taken the time to add HTML tags to the web pages so that those with administrative access can track the number of user views. The value in doing this is to receive feedback and apply the changes to the site based on what the viewers want. Those who use this site as an educational tool will benefit from its navigational ease and appealing design. This will ultimately improve the usability of the website, and hopefully make it a better educational resource.

23 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Data Science for Storm Events AUTHORS: Benjamin Gildersleeve Haiyao Ni Andrew Porter ADVISOR: Laura Dietz

Storms change the concentration of Data Science for Storm Events contaminants in watersheds, which Andrew Porter, Benjamin Gildersleeve, Mike Ni, Laura Dietz, Adam Wymore University of New Hampshire Department of Computer Science in turn affects the concentration in all Results Normalization surrounding bodies of water. Clearing The objective of ourIntroduction project is to discern a Min/Max Normalization: ● 97.2% prediction accuracy between flow rate and water solute ● Taking labeled dataset based on marked “isStorm” watersheds of such contaminants relationship ○ 58.7% accuracy on positive storm events concentrates. Doing so, will allow current ● Flow rate on a 0-1 scale, 1 being the max flow rate for a specific site at the University of New Hampshire to (true storm events that were predicted as is crucial to preserving aquatic researchers aid in the development of plans to clean such between sites) watersheds of solute, after storms have passed Precision 65.56% ecosystems. If we derive a log-log Questions Recall there a relationship between discharge and 58.72% relationship between flow rate and ● Issolute concentration? ● 95.69% cross-site prediction accuracy differently depending on the water solute concentration, one could ● Doseasonstorms(fall,behave ○ 11.55% on positive storm events spring, winter, etc.)? predict the concentration of solutes Classification Data Cleaning Conclusions & Future Work ● Recode ● Flow rate alone is not enough can we predict when a storm has occurred? in watersheds, allowing for expedited How ● Multi-site model bad at predicting positive ● Distribution (shown below) ● Manually label historical storm data storm events ● Create training and test set ● Using classification model to locate ● Test trained models for full year instead of contaminant cleanup. By providing a cyclical basis ● Use flow rate (Q) to predict on storm oddly/questionably shaped trends ● Include more features into classification ● Normalize features for cross site predictions utility for researchers to predict solute model ● Train with Z-score normalized data ● Gap-filled data produced abnormal trends concentrations in watersheds after ● Self data cleaning program possible but complicated storm events have passed, researchers References will be able to help create state budgets for watershed cleanup. Data has been collected from ten different sites in New Hampshire consisting of solute measurements, flow rate and other various readings. Our project is focused on various machine learning techniques, such as logistic regression and data cleaning, to train and deploy models that can detect storm events by analyzing flow rate. Being able to detect storm events allows researchers to look at historical events and their associated solute concentrations. This project lays down the groundwork for researchers at the University of New Hampshire’s College of Life Sciences and Agriculture to build models that can predict solute concentrations after a storm event has passed. (proportion of positive identifications) (proportion of actual positives identifies)

ial nt te Po

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Storm ends here

Storm starts here

Fig. 1 Positive storm event used for training classification model, generally labeling points above the read mean flow rate line.

Fig. 3 Two plots from the Distribution platform that plots the variables TurbidityRaw and Q variables from the MCQ site.

Wymore, Adam S., et al. “Hysteretic Response of Solutes and Turbidity at the Event Scale Across Forested Tropical Montane Watersheds.” Frontiers in Earth Science, vol. 7, 2019, doi:10.3389/feart.2019.00126.

Poster template courtesy Faculty & Curriculum Support (FACS), Georgetown University School of Medicine

Landing Throttleable Hybrid Rockets with Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning in a Simulated Environment AUTHOR: Francesco Alessandro Mikulis-Borsoi ADVISOR: Marek Petrik

The objective of this project is to create Landing Throttleable Hybrid Project Team: Rockets with Hierarchical Francesco Alessandro Stefano Mikulis-Borsoi a control system that can land vertically Reinforcement Learning in a Advisor: Dr. Marek Petrik at a predefined coordinate location in a Simulated Environment Co-Advisor: Paul Gesel simulated 3-dimensional environment. Hierarchical Structure 3D Visualizer RL Contribution Introduction Self-landing rockets have been theorized over the past century but until 2015, no one had successfully completed a The Approach stable re-entry with a thrust-landing. Objectives The system must be able to solve the problem with reasonable initial conditions, around a starting altitude of Current Status 30 m, an initial velocity around -10 m/s System Architecture 90% Success after 1000 episodes (1 minute) and variable initial angles and angle angle velocities around the x and y axis. Next Steps The rocket must land upright, at low velocity. We will solve this problem with Reinforcement Learning (RL), extending the OpenRocket source code (an opensource Rocket Simulator). Other individuals have analyzed the performance comparison between MPC and RL methods, such as R. Ferrante [1], but in most cases the analysis is approached in a 2-dimensional environment, with the aid of lateral thrusters. We have shown that training coupled MDPs (Markov Decision Processes) in parallel - and having each MDP specialize in a single objective (e.g. vertical landing) - can be used to achieve a common objective! • Markov Decision Processes model decision making in discrete, stochastic, sequential environments; their next state is independent of the past state given the present state • Hierarchical reinforcement learning involves layers of MDPs, maintaining interpretability

• Difficult and interesting problem: continuous and partially observable state-space, non-linear dynamics and requirement of real-time control

• Land a throttleable hybrid rocket in 3D with thrust vectoring from varying initial states

• The controller must execute with constrained CPU, RAM and imprecise sensor data

• Integrate 3D visualization for visual verification

• Land the rocket with vertical velocity < 2 m/s and zenith angle < 8° from varying initial states around 30 m at -10 m/s, within 8 seconds

• The Lander MDP selects the thrust, feeding it to the state definition of the stabilizer.

• The stabilizer is an MDP whose inputs and outputs are axis independent. Ensuring this type of symmetry effectively reduces the size of state space by the square root (otherwise requiring each state field to have X and Y axis)

• Developed a standardized RL framework for OpenRocket, which should encourage the community to test different MDP formulations, and specific reward functions

• MDPs are defined with a schema (with fields such as “stateDefinition”), and custom formulas can be used to calculate complex state fields, parsed with recursive descent

• Software development with extensibility in mind led to the creation of common interfaces for different learning RL methods (implemented MC, TD-0, SARSA) - where the rewards can be specified in the schema

• Crucial modifications to the source code allow for plotting the state and action fields of the custom MDPs (with MDP-specific discretization)

• The non-hierarchical version of this discretization definition succeeded < 10% of the time, even after an order of magnitude more training compared to the hierarchical problem formulation!

OpenRocket – Blender 3D Visualizer

• Integrated OpenRocket with Blender via Python server leveraging UDP (local network capability) • Created OpenRocket visualization extension

• Ability to replay scenes and view simulations

• Demonstrates that hierarchical MDPs are effective for reducing the state space

• Leverages different discretization of the state space based on specific needs for the MDPs • Lander: MC (terminalReward = -|velocityZ|) Stabilizer: TD-0 (reward = - angle^2 + 1)

• Splitting the MDPs allows for specific reward functions, with a meaningful single objectives

• Over 169 commits to the fork of OpenRocket • Over 10k lines of contributed code

• Developing an expansion to include a Reacher MDP that will guide the rocket to the landing pad

Low Exploration (1%)

• Continue researching the implications of hierarchical RL in complex decision problems

• Develop a toolbox unifying the OpenRocket RL with the OpenAI-Gym framework • Continue extending the customizations in OpenRocket to finalize the framework

• Release this problem as an RL benchmark

Honorable Mention Project

2020 INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 24

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

Fig. 2 Normalized storm events showing flow rate versus time


Partly Cloudy: Bridging The Gap Between UNH RCC and Cloud Services AUTHORS: Adam Moynihan Ryan Stuart

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

ADVISORS: David Benedetto Martin Ledoux

The UNH Research Computing Center is Partly Cloudy: Bridging The Gap Between UNH RCC and Cloud Services behind in implementing cloud services. Adam Moynihan, Ryan Stuart The cloud offers many benefits to them Purpose Wiki Design Cloud Benefits goal of Partly Cloudy is to facilitate research to The cloud would be beneficial to academic research in We have decided that the most sustainable way for us such as scalability, reliability and cost The to compile our research is to create a wiki to hold all help the UNH Research Computing Center (RCC) a lot of different ways. Some of the benefits include: our data. Our wiki will be divided into multiple sections, cloud services in any way possible when • Flexibility saving. The goal of Partly Cloudy is to integrate which include the three main cloud service providers assisting researchers. Some of the work being • Scalability as well as a homepage for FAQs, like ’Getting Started done to accomplish this are gathering research facilitate research to help the UNH RCC and creating a wiki. with the Cloud’. • Low Cost The Three Providers • Reliability We conducted research on the big three providers, integrate cloud services in any way which We have decided it would be most effective that along are Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Researcher Needs with a getting started page, we will divide information and Google Cloud Platform. Creating a wiki will possible. Some of the work being done to allow The specific needs of researchers will vary on a casebased off the big three providers: us to put all the information in one place. by-case basis, as every project will have a different set • Amazon Web services Background of requirements. For this project, we primarily dived accomplish this is gathering research and One of the ways the UNH RCC currently helps • Google Cloud Services into a few key services on each platform which we with their projects is by using the local • Microsoft Azure deemed would be the ones most beneficial for creating a wiki, allowing for information researchers machines that they have on campus. Recently, Services researchers. These include: have been looking into moving some of this on the three providers to be put in one they We will have pages discussing the different services • Databases work on to the cloud, as it would be beneficial to we researched from the three providers, and many of both researchers and the UNH RCC in many ways. • Functions them offer comparable services. For example, if the place. We decided on what services Research Design/Goals • Virtual Machines user knows they need a database, they can look at all data gathering was mainly conducted through the databases offered by the various providers. • Storage would be most useful to researchers The internet research and the knowledge bases of the Results/Next Steps providers. This, along with the wiki, will allow when conducting their work, and will three We collected a lot of data for the different services and us to achieve our main goals for this project: it will be added to the wiki for future reference. This will research of key services from big three be helpful for researchers seeking information on what be the main ones that are discussed on • Collect providers likely to be most beneficial to they should use for their projects. A potential next step is taking the wiki and doing some tests with the wiki. These services include virtual • researchers researchers seeing how effective it is in real scenarios. Gather all the information in one place for future reference machines, functions, and databases. Wiki URL: partlycloudyunh.wikidot.com The three providers we researched. People will be able to go on the wiki, see comparisons of the services, and decide which one is best for them and their use case. The people benefiting from this work will be the researchers who will come to the UNH RCC looking for information on the cloud platforms. Using the information that is available on the wiki, the UNH RCC will be able to help recommend what cloud services they believe researchers could use for their projects, and which provider would be best for them. This will vary for each project, but through the research we’ve done and the wiki to go with it, we will be able to help decide the best path to go down.

User Physical Activity Identification AUTHORS: Vitali Baranov Samuel Hemond Bing Yi Liu PROJECT SPONSOR: Jonathan Andree, Galvion

The U.S. military has always been at the User Physical Activity Identification forefront of technology. As Machine Vitali Baranov, Samuel Hemond, Bing Yi Liu learning (ML) becomes more and more Sponsor: Jonathan Andree, Galvion Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH prevalent, its applications in defense Methodology are rapidly explored by companies like Introduction Hardware Tools Galvion. The purpose of our project is to create a neural network model that can recognize a soldier’s current physical activity, whichMotivation will be delivered Data Collection App Building Final Model in the form of a Java library. Our work will be added to Galvion’s larger Headsup-displays(HUD) ecosystem, where it Goals will be used to inform the system what Results & Future Plans information to display. We hope the HUD Database Schema Research will provide real-time support for the service members in time of need, and Reserach Question help overall mission success. Initially, we collected data from sensors on an Android smartphone secured around the chest of multiple test subjects, as well as, an external sensor module on the Smart Helmet provided by Galvion. To maximize the precision of our model, we experimented with different variables and how to record these variables. We ultimately found the optimal conditions to build our model around, which included using the accelerometer values, and timestamps, in addition to other variables. By using our model, Galvion is able to get real-time feedback for their HUD with minimal computing power. 1. Data Collection 2. Research 3. Exporting Model to Android

The purpose of our project is to create a neural network model that can recognize a soldier’s current physical activity, which will be delivered in the form of a library. Our work will be added to Galvion’s larger Heads-up-displays(HUD) ecosystem, where it will be used to inform the system what information to display.

● Integrated accelerometer within an android phone mounted on a chest rig ● Yost 3 space sensor mounted on the back of a helmet

Yost 3 Sensor

Android Smart Helmet

So that the appropriate information can be displayed on a soldier’s HUD(Heads Up Display)

Heads-Up-Display (HUD)

● Identify the following actions with 95% accuracy: Standing, Sitting, Lying down, Walking, Running, Driving, Shooting Prone, Hiding / Crouching, Climbing ● Complete tests and model of our program using an android based program ● Create a library using our model for Galvion to use in their main app

Our research was based around the question:

What data do we need to collect to achieve 95% accuracy?

Winning Project

2020 25 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

1. Prompt subject for settings and action to perform 2. Countdown three seconds 3. Record Accelerometer data from Android device and sensor for set amount of time 4. Add recorded data to table stored in Google Sheets

Google AutoML - AutoML Tables allows us to automatically build and deploy our models very efficiently. The platform will automatically select the best type of model, and train it end-to-end for us. To start, we input our data in a CSV file. We then need to define our schema, identifying what each column in our dataset is for, and what column we want our model to predict. Next, AutoML tables trains, evaluates, and tests our model for us. In addition, we are provided with useful information like the model’s precision, recall, false-positive rate, and a confusion matrix.

Originally, our plan was to use AutoML Tables to export the model to TensorFlow Lite, but we found out that this action wasn’t supported with our model. As a result, we had to build and train the model in Python using the Keras library. Our final model is an LSTM(Long short-term memory) network. An LSTM is a neural network that can process sequences of data, which is why we chose it for this project. We then, exported the model to Protobuf format so that it could be used in Android.

Data Collection App UI

Throughout our research, we experimented with different data to include in our final model, and how to collect this data. For example, we had to find the optimal time to record each action. We had different options, such as recording for a set amount of time, or using custom times for each action. We used Google AutoML Tables to assist in conducting our trial runs, and based our trials around maximizing the accuracy of the mode.

The Schema to the right shows the final variables we decided on recording. We weren’t able to collect the final set of data, but we believe this is the data necessary to achieve 95% accuracy. Galvion will assign this project to its intern team this summer where they will collect the final set of data and complete the implementation of the library.

Final Schema

Galvion will as will complete t


Augmented Reality: Telehealth Demonstration Application

ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt

Augmented reality as a technology will Augmented Reality: Telehealth Demonstration Application Nicholas Boyd, Thomas Yang, Jacob Hawkins improve the way we work and live in the Project Sponsor: Scott Valcourt, PhD future. The Microsoft Hololens device allows for rendering of interactive virtual Unity UI Components User Interface components into a real world space. The HoloLens is an augmented reality headset and can display these virtual components in front of the user's eyes, so the data needed to complete a realworld task will always be available. The nature of a HoloLens device lends itself useful for applications in a healthcare setting. Potential benefits come from Software Hardware transitioning to a more hands-free environment such as allowing the logging of data while in sterile environments without needing to sterilize repeatedly from touching paper or tablet. The application will be a care plan tracker that is setup by a patient’s doctor to allow the patient to do daily tasks without a nurse's supervision. The application will display the medications the patient needs to take, daily tasks to complete, and health data. This allows the doctor to retrieve more useful patient information regularly without scheduled physicals. This project will set a baseline that will provide future developers with documentation, research, and this sample application to help build more complex applications in the future at the University of New Hampshire. Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Application Design

Introduction

• The Microsoft HoloLens device allows for rendering of interactable virtual components into real world space.

Conclusion

• Understood the use cases where this hardware could benefit the age of telehealth treatment for caregivers in healthcare. • Built a demonstration application with the Microsoft HoloLens following the documentation for device and development.

• It gives the user the hands-free computing capabilities.

• Our team was tasked with creating an application to demonstrate the capabilities of the HoloLens device

• The documentation and demonstration is a starting point for future augmented reality developers at UNH

• The envisioned field for the application is Telehealth care

Motivation

• Establish Mixed Reality Development at UNH for future student developers

• Exhibit HoloLens device capabilities through demonstration application for the Telehealth practice center • The handsfree nature of using augmented reality makes healthcare an ideal use case

• Document a stable development environment to fit changing Windows configuration needs

Future Works

• Develop more complex applications with the Microsoft HoloLens that connect with outside resources

Image shows application running on Hololens emulator

• Application contains a checklist for the patient's daily activities and buttons to help complete their care plan

• Build a general HoloLens development library using the Mixed Reality Tool Kit.

• The evening medication is shown after pressing the medication visualization with the initial condition that morning medication is checked on the checklist

• Documentation and implementation of an ideal augmented reality user interface (UI).

• 3-D Models of the medication were created to match color, shape, etc. of the actual medication the patient will take

• Implement more telehealth related applications by collaborating with UNH Telehealth Practice Center

Technology

Application Details

• Requirements provided by members of the Telehealth Practice Center

Acknowledgements

• Our Sponsor, Scott Valcourt • The UNH Computer Science department and Professor Plumlee • Members of the Telehealth Practice Center at UNH, Gene Harkless and Marguerite Corvini

• Care Plan for use at home: • Exercises • Medications • Daily tasks

References

• The caregiver would load the care plan for the patient to take home

UNH Telehealth Practice Center

• Patient types: • Cardiac • Mild cognitive impairment

Application Code

• https://chhs.unh.edu/telehealth-practice-center

• https://gitlab.cs.unh.edu/ntb1008/hololens_demoapp

Microsoft HoloLens Gen1 Device

Development Environment Setup • https://unh.box.com/s/jfdgz0jtpcdv8ezq6jmz0baae7lohv24

Cloud-Native Streamline Computation AUTHORS: Jack Hamilton Matthew Hartman Jeffrey Johansen Barrett Morse

Virtually all of our material economy is dependent on navigable seas. Water Cloud-Native Streamline Computation movement in our oceans generates AWS Serverless Model an immense volume of data, and a Goal Using several services from AWS we have designed our data pipeline The goal of this project is to convert the current NOAA visualization for minimum cost using strictly on-demand processing. Our public API model for water currents to the modern visualization model of Vectorfundamental understanding of this is follows the Vector-Tile specification to allow the dynamic serving of Tiles through an Amazon Web Services serverless application. content based on the location & zoom from the client's view.  crucial for the millions of people who work and live on the ocean. Our aim is to expose all ocean current data to the masses. By working with NOAA and CCOM, we have developed a cloud-native pipeline. This pipeline takes in raw data from NOAA, draws current streamlines, and converts these streamlines into a servable format, MapBox Vector Tiles (MVT). A publicly facing API will be the main access point for all served data. Our AWS built serverless system is eventdriven and thus provides a cost-effective solution to deliver pre-computed streamlines. By serving precomputed streamlines, all users will be able to render and see ocean currents in sub-150ms timeframes. This offloads all intense computation to our backend and allows the user to see a speedup of approximately ten. By serving streamline data to all oceanic websites and seafaring technologies we are creating a backend to provide a seamless interface for all with a vested interest in the ocean. Sponsors: Roland Arsenault, Jason Greenlaw     Students: Jack Hamilton, Matthew Hartman, Jeffrey Johansen, Barrett Morse

Why?

FACULTY ADVISOR: Matthew Plumlee PROJECT SPONSORS: Roland Arsenault Jason Greenlaw, NOAA

Dense View

Existing system renders raw data ondemand with high latency

Our pipeline efficiently renders raw data once and dynamically serves streamlines to all users Our pipeline stores rendered data in a modern and lightweight format - VectorTiles

The Vector-Tile standard dynamically serves usable data block by block

Users

Research Aquatic Robotics Naval Navigation International Shipping Weather Conservation Fishing Coastal Management Cruise Lines Military

Sparse View

Benefits

Easy visualization of water currents

Fast, reliable data for planning navigation routes

Served in MVT format delivering all zoom levels in one call

Text

Our Pipeline

Our pipeline processes data from the NOAA data center and converts it to the Vector-Tile format

Our public API dynamically serves tiles based on the location & zoom level of the client's view Our entire backend is one-click deployable on any AWS account

AWS Breakdown

NOAA FTP Server

Retriever

Raw Data (.h5)

h5 extractor

Open Internet

Public API

Retriever

MVT Tile table

Info

MVT Huge tiles

Streamlines Processor

Serverless Pipeline & API

Streamlines (.geojson)

Tile Generator

Lambda Compute

Dynamo DB

API Gateway

S3 Storage

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 26

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

AUTHORS: Nicholas Boyd Jacob Hawkins Thomas Yang


Drupal in Docker For Incoming UNH CS Students AUTHORS: Noah Levin Efras Soputan ADVISOR: Scott Kitterman

Each semester the UNH Computer Drupal in Docker For Incoming UNH CS Students Science department creates individual Scott Kitterman Levin : & Efras Soputan : Drupal web sites for students taking Noah Department of Information Technology, University of New Hampshire "Living in a Networked World" cs408. Introduction Tools & Technologies Implementation Currently student sites are hosted on a single server that serves all aspects of the Drupal deployment. This project will replace the current model of one server for all students to a container UNH Server deployment using Docker images Our New System that host one Drupal web server per student. The new design will allow many advantages like scaling up the Project Goals number of students as well as a portable design allowing deployment across different hardware. The implementation will store servers and services within the Docker containers to ensure quick and flexible deployments that are easily reproduced every semester. One Docker container per student will be deployed which will contain a Drupal image, MySQL database, and a web server for the student that is also accessible by the instructor and other students. This project will also utilize Kubernetes Docker containers to monitor and set appropriate permissions for the system. Our new design will be favorable for a multitude of reasons, some of which being fault tolerance, simplified database management, enhanced security, mobile access, and quicker deployments and duplication. : stk@cs.unh.edu ndl1004@wildcats.unh.edu

ees1023@wildcats.unh.edu

● Created Drupal and MySQL images and linked the services to host and store student data for CS408 ● Integrated Docker with Kubernetes web UI to monitor Docker containers ● Put Drupal, NGINX, and MySQL images into one container for each student to allow for reproducible deployments across different hardware.

● Working with the UNH Computer Science Department ● Replace the old infrastructure where the workspace for student requires a large amount of resource compared to the current technology ● Result in cumbersome task to set up in every each semester ● Docker is a container technology that utilize the OS’s kernel while putting the userland applications into a sandbox ● This allows student to have their own workspace in the container while making it easier for the UNH staff to manage in the background

Our project implementation will replace the old model in which CS student accounts are deployed and hosted. It gives access to a Docker image for each student for their specific courses.

NGINX, MySQL databases and Drupal images are deployed inside Docker containers which reside in UNH servers. Kubernetes nodes are deployed in alternate UNH servers which easily monitor the Docker container status within clusters via a graphical user interface. Students are able to login using their UNH account credentials and on that webpage the appropriate permissions are set on student, teacher, and administrator accounts.

● To create a more efficient system to host student sites for CS408 ● To be able to monitor and report on Docker containers and Drupal status whether the current service is accessible or not . ● To be able to scale up or down deployments with ease ● To have portable, reproducible, and flexible deployments since they will be unique each semester

Industrial Application of Time Sensitive Networking

• Embedded Application • Written in XC • Functional C derivative • Hardware integration • Controllers • Communication with motors and master node • Synchronizes to grandmaster clock • Master Node • Reads data and calculates adjustments • Grandmaster clock

Motors that don’t talk to each other lose sync and lose nodes. Could communicate over IP, but need TSN to guarantee communication and share a clock. To add TSN, add control nodes (xMOS boards) Control nodes bridge network communication to motor control. Add in control node with common industrial control algorithm for sync,, commands and feedback guaranteed communications with shared clock!

Regular computer networks can slow down unexpectedly, and this can cause issues for time sensitive applications. Time sensitive networking protocols serve to provide guaranteed throughput and latency over a regular Ethernet network, eliminating this problem. An existing application of TSN can be found in the audio / visual industry. It is very important that the speakers at opposite ends of a concert hall play the correct sounds at the correct time. Even slight delays in the signal can reduce sound quality significantly. This project is a proof of concept application of existing TSN protocols to an industrial system, where sensor data must be communicated and reacted to in real time.

Motor Encoder

Motor

Motor

Encoder

• We developed a set of embedded applications that use TSN protocols to manage an industrial system. • Serves as a demonstration of TSN • An example / starting point for “real” applications • Can be extended in the future with additional TSN protocols • You can learn more about TSN from the Avnu Alliance. This is the group that drafts the standards and develops open source implementations.

Parker Berberian, Nick Kahn, Greg Wojtas, Computer Science, University of New Hampshire A rope is fixed between two industrial motors. When spinning at the right speeds the rope can form nodes, like a jump rope.

BACKGROUND

Conclusions In conclusion, TSN protocols provide an efficient way for industrial systems to communicate. Our proof of concept application has shown that a physical system can relay and react to information quickly using a just partial TSN. In the future to build upon this project MSRP can be added in order to get full TSN functionality working.

Industrial System Overview

Industrial Application of Time Sensitive Networking

Encoder

PROJECT SPONSOR: Bob Noseworthy, UNH IOL

Regular computer networks can slow down unexpectedly. This can cause serious issues for time sensitive tasks, such as playing audio or communicating sensor information in a self driving car. Time sensitive networking protocols eliminate this problem by providing guaranteed throughput and latency over a regular Ethernet network. This project demonstrates the value of a time sensitive network in an industrial system. We suspend a rope between two motors which communicate with a controller over a time sensitive network. The controller keeps the motors in sync with each other, which produces a standing wave in the rope.

Results

AUTHORS: Parker Berberian Nicholas Kahn Gregory Wojtas

Software Overview

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

The previous model of just one server for all services and storage was replaced by our system that uses containerized deployments using Docker to host one Drupal web server with one MySQL database per student. Our new design has the advantages of simplified user interfaces, quick scaling up or down for the number of containers needed, fault tolerance, a portable design that allows for diverse and flexible deployments on different hardware, and better security since the network sits behind a Palo Alto firewall.

Motor Driver Driver

Driver

GPIO Driver

I^2C Driver

get_speed()

set_speed()

xMos

xMos

Switch

Timing Diagram

Slave T1

Master Path Dela y Request

y Response Path Dela T4

(T2)

Sync

Slave Syncs

3)

Up(T Follow y Response Path Dela

w Up (Cor Sync Follo

PID Loop

Master Node

Legend

T2 T3

TSN Protocols

Ethernet Driver

(T1)

rection

Field)

GPTP Mean Propagation Delay = ((T2 - T1) - (T4 -T3))/2 • Used to find the amount of time a message takes to travel through the medium Correction Field = PropDelay + ResidenceTime + TransmissionTime + Prior CorrectionField • Used to help sync the time between the two different clocks TimeSync = OriginTimeStamp + PropDelay + CorrectionField + transmissionTime

Control + Feedback over TSN Ethernet Motion Control Motor Communication

Sponsored by the IOL Project supervisor Bob Noseworthy

We produced an embedded application that allows the motors to communicate over a time sensitive network. This includes the creation of a standards compliant TSN networking stack and algorithms that use the provided network to communicate data and control signals to synchronize the motors. Our implementation of the TSN protocols and control algorithm is open source, meaning it can serve as an example or a starting point for other similar projects. This application runs on microcontrollers. Without reliable, low latency communication between the motors, the synchronization between the components would be lost and the rope would lose its standing wave. This provides a visual demonstration of how the addition of time sensitive networks can allow industrial systems to communicate and stay in sync. 27 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Quantifying DNA-Protein Matches

FACULTY ADVISOR: David Benedetto PROJECT SPONSOR: Anthony Westbrook, Hubbard Center for Genome Studies

In the field of molecular biology, Quantifying DNA-Protein Matches determining the exact makeup of a Mallorie Biron, Sarah Hall, Mitchell Hersey Sponsor: Anthony Westbrook, Hubbard Center for Genome Studies sample is only part of the battle. What Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH comes next is making sense of the Results Introduction SAM vs. BLAST thousands to millions of strings of A, T, C, and G, the nucleotides that make up an organismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s DNA. Various products use protein alignment to profile DNA Conclusion Goals by comparing that sequence against a library of known genetic structures. Currently, the most popular protein alignment software is BLAST. However, Analysis of Results Design BLAST is slow and takes an estimated 22 years to do the same number of reads Future Work that this product, PALADIN, does in 31 hours. Unfortunately, BLAST uses the Terms industry standard output format (BLAST tabular output) whereas PALADIN can only output in SAM format. In order for PALADIN to see more widespread use, it will need to conform to the industry standard. This project will add an option for PALADIN to output genetic data in BLAST tabular format. The project will not replace or eliminate the existing SAM format output PALADIN uses. This project will create scripts to compare PALADIN against its competitors in multiple scenarios. These scripts will show how PALADIN performs at classifying different types of DNA through statistical certainty. This project will analyze the data to represent it in a meaningful way. Protein alignment software profiles DNA by comparing a sequence against a library of known genetic structures. Currently, the most popular protein alignment software is BLAST. However, BLAST is slow and takes an estimated 22 years to do the same number of reads that our sponsorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s product, PALADIN, does in 31 hours. Unfortunately, BLAST uses the industry standard output format (BLAST tabular output) whereas PALADIN can only output in SAM format. We added an option for PALADIN to output data in BLAST tabular format, and we show how PALADIN performs at classifying different DNA samples through statistical analysis. Protein alignment software profiles DNA by comparing a sequence against a library of known genetic structures. Currently, the most popular protein alignment software is BLAST. However, BLAST is slow and takes an estimated 22 years to do 240 million reads that our sponsorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s product, PALADIN, does in 31 hours. BLAST uses the industry standard output format (BLAST tabular output) whereas PALADIN can only output in SAM format. These differing file formats are what causes people to choose one program over another. These outputs contain different information, some of the fields cannot be easily converted to the other. To make PALADIN see more widespread use, we added an option for PALADIN to output data in BLAST tabular format, and we show how PALADIN performs at classifying different DNA samples through statistical analysis.

â&#x20AC;˘ Add a command line option to PALADIN to output data in BLAST tabular format â&#x20AC;˘ BLAST output values should be virtually identical to the output using a native BLAST system. â&#x20AC;˘ Bit-score and Evalue must be calculated â&#x20AC;˘ The BLAST command must be able to output to stdout (for real-time analysis by secondary programs) and a user designated file. â&#x20AC;˘ The BLAST features must not affect the existing PALADIN capabilities and should not have any effect on performance. â&#x20AC;˘ Test PALADIN output for validity against BLAST's output

Adding a command line option to PALADIN to produce BLAST tabular output was added directly to the code source. 10 of the 12 fields could be obtained from information already produced by the SAM format. The two fields that required some research were the evalue and the bitscore.

The bitscore provides information about how similar the query sequence and the sequence it matched to in the database are. The higher the bitscore, the more similar the sequences. The bitscore can be represented by the equation đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020; đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; ln 2 The raw score is provided by the extended field in SAM AS, which is the alignment score and provides information about how well the sequences match. đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020; and K are constants. For gapped alignments, these values are determined by the gap extension and gap opening penalty. These values can be located in the paper written by Stephen Altschul in Methods in Enzymology (vol 266, page 474) . The evalue is affected by the size of the database. It provides the number of matches with the same score that can occur by chance given a random database. Smaller evalues are better. It is represented by the equation đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; 2đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? Where m is the length of the query sequence, and n is the length of the reference database.

SAM stands for Sequence Alignment Map and it is used within the Bioinformatics community. As shown on the tables, the fields differ. For BLAST tabular, the evalue and bitscore are important statistical figures. These cannot be calculated directly from SAM, and require figures PALADIN does not output.

SAM FORMAT

Col Field

Type

Brief Description

1

QNAME

String

Query template NAME

2

FLAG

Int

Bitwise FLAG

3

RNAME

String

References sequence NAME

4

POS

Int

1- based leftmost mapping POSition

5

MAPQ

Int

MAPping Quality

6

CIGAR

String

CIGAR String

7

RNEXT

String

8

PNEXT

Int

Ref. name of the next mate/NEXT read Position of the mate/NEXT read

9

TLEN

Int

Observed Template LENgth

10

SEQ

String

Segment SEQuence

11

QUAL

String

ASCII of Phred-scaled base QUALity+33

BLAST TABULAR

Col Field qseqid

String query (e.g., gene) sequence id

2

sseqid

String subject (e.g., reference genome) sequence id

3

pident

Float

percentage of identical matches

4

length

Int

alignment length

5

mismatch Int

number of mismatches

6

gapopen

Int

number of gap openings

7

qstart

Int

start of alignment in query

8

qend

Int

end of alignment in query

9

sstart

Int

start of alignment in subject

10

send

Int

end of alignment in subject

11

evalue

float

expected value: the number of expected hits of similar score that could be found by chance only. Lower evalue = better match

12

bitscore

Int

Bit score: required size of a sequence database in which the current match could be found just by chance. Higher bit score = better sequence similarity.

C.albicans Avg. Diff Std. Dev

C.elegans Avg. Diff

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

3.2595750 2.8434667 1.0257286 0.0154093 50.4960954 48.2315577 16.4209315 16.5396040 0.0968493 13.5958109

7.2856898 4.8655845 2.2758560 0.1396287 46.4923501 42.3380774 63.2226428 63.3066551 0.6573271 9.1565305

All 6 Species

Brief Description

Type

1

Std. Dev

3.0210508 2.3793869 0.7799665 0.0341666 48.5370874 44.2045918 10.5039623 10.4351764 0.1471118 13.2467464

6.6836567 4.4171659 1.7850386 0.2028576 44.2158653 40.2511900 131.2518809 131.2652380 0.8245354 8.9829315

M.luteus Avg. Diff pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

Std. Dev

7.7158336 4.8094471 2.4492754 0.0327429 46.4739667 45.3896940 17.5217391 17.5185185 0.0809434 10.8273752

10.6755533 5.7613361 3.3255962 0.2111331 45.1989901 37.1774787 56.4983716 56.3604286 0.5130537 8.1565076

C.difficiles Avg. Diff Std. Dev

F.oxysporum Avg. Diff Std. Dev

P.aeruginosa Avg. Diff Std. Dev

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

4.7634605 3.0958702 1.5129056 0.0136431 48.9771386 47.0335546 13.0634218 12.9634956 0.0712061 12.8809255

9.6609350 5.2636527 3.0385175 0.1364773 46.4321218 41.5537940 49.9200951 49.5425380 0.5680238 7.8069468

9.9493971 5.6601190 3.0894048 0.0595238 48.2278571 46.1882143 32.1050000 32.0997619 0.1105817 8.2891310

11.4411700 5.6999491 3.5215706 0.2659907 44.8225137 34.7429481 135.7312297 135.7270336 0.6995300 6.8482552

2.0137792 5.9984083 1.8498409 4.1609257 0.6336516 1.8851238 0.0053699 0.0844499 49.4714598 46.7020879 47.2488067 43.7120403 8.4763325 93.3220207 8.5314240 93.2058949 0.0674373 0.5596276 14.1401452 8.0819474

pident length mismatch gapopen qstart qend sstart seend evalue bitscore

Avg. Diff

Avg Std. Dev.

5.1205161 3.4396885 1.5818221 0.0268093 48.6972675 46.3827365 16.3485646 16.3479967 0.0956883 12.1633557

2.2658460 0.6627435 0.7535796 0.0652388 1.0366124 3.3857952 38.0342931 38.1217044 0.1145422 0.8391452

To verify the implementation of BLAST tabular output, PALADIN was tested against size (6) different species. The DNA reads of these species were synthetically generated using a program named ART. ART simulates DNA reads that PALADIN is used to take as input. Different species were used since the different programs work differently against different species. The differences for each field was compared for each matching alignment. A matching alignment is one where the qseqid and the sseqid are the same. This means that a read mapped to the same reference in the protein database. Since the programs use different algorithms, different alignments are to be expected. The goal is to not have the differences be as close to zero as possible, since these programs will not produce the same alignment. The alignments should be similar most of the time. Therefore the differences should be close in value. For the raw score calculation, BLAST uses substitution matrices. PALADIN does not currently support this, but it will in the future. There are expected to be some issues with the bitscore and evalue which will be resolved with the substation matrix raw scores. As seen in the results, BLAST tabular output has been properly implemented. With more testing, PALADIN can now be used as a replacement for BLAST. PALADIN can now reach a wider audience as a protein alignment tool with the addition of this output. PALADIN

â&#x20AC;˘ Test PALADIN against other tools (DIAMOND, etc...) â&#x20AC;˘ Test program with larger genomes and samples to further prove validity â&#x20AC;˘ Update lambda and k values to the most recent table â&#x20AC;˘ Implement BLOSUM and PAM substitution scores.

PALADIN: Protein Alignment And Detection Interface, a protein sequence alignment tool designed for the accurate functional characterization of genetic material from environmental samples. BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, compares biological sequence information to a library of sequences in order to identify the sequence information. This is PALADINâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitor and is much slower than PALADIN.

R.E.D.S.W.A.R.M.S. - Resilient Enterprise Deployment System Which Automates Training Modules Securely AUTHORS: Maximiliano DelRio Benjamin Patton Dylan Wheeler ADVISOR: Kenneth Graf

As the world becomes more digital, R.E.D.S.W.A.R.M.S. cybersecurity becomes ever more vital. To anticipate this demand in talent, Introduction Ansible Workflow the University of New Hampshire has a cybersecurity club and team that fosters growth in students by training them to face real-world scenarios through competitions. However, building these Goals mock networks for training is currently Example Team Topology Team Scenario Components manual, time-consuming, and errorprone. REDSWARMS is a system designed to facilitate the automatic creation and configuration of small-scale enterprise networks to more quickly perform Results Future Work those security training scenarios and competitions. It features virtual infrastructure using VMwareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s platform for managing a network of virtual machines as well as an automated deployment pipeline with Ansible and Ansible AWX. With REDSWARMS, the cybersecurity team can stand up brand new networks for training in a matter of minutes, allowing students to spend less time configuring and more time learning. Resilient Enterprise Deployment System Which Automates tRaining Modules Securely Max Del Rio, Ben Patton, & Dylan Wheeler Sponsor: Ken Graf + Cybersecurity Club, Department of Computer Science https://bitbucket.org/unhredswarms/maincode/

Context: UNHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cybersecurity Club trains students to tackle tomorrow's biggest cybersecurity challenges.

The Club provides a wealth of resources for students to practice and grow by sponsoring Cyber Defense/Offense competitions, labs, and security research.

Problem: Standing up networks to train on is timeconsuming and error-prone. Students often spend entire meetings cloning and configuring virtual machines. Solution: By automating this process, students can spend less time configuring and more time learning.

Ansible AWX manages and orchestrates network deployments. A team network is deployed via a workflow composed of smaller deployment tasks as templates.

UNH will also be in prime position to host cybersecurity competitions and events.

Each template contains the necessary steps to configure each host. Each component could be deploying a VM template or configuring an application/computer.

Host information, such as IP addresses, users, and target VM template file, is maintained as an inventory. Similar hosts can be grouped using a tagging system. This allows us to run certain tasks on specific hosts. For example, Linux configuration tasks can run independently of Windows tasks. This also simplifies the process of adding new hosts to a deployment.

â?&#x2013; A network/scenario can be deployed and destroyed

automatically using an Ansible module for VMware

â?&#x2013; Ansible pipeline must be at least twice as fast as the manual equivalent (and scale with large teams)

â?&#x2013; System must be packaged and used to deploy team networks for a UNH-hosted competition

â?&#x2013; Each teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s network must be isolated from each other and the competition infrastructure

â?&#x2013; Produce necessary competition documents for a future UNH-hosted cybersecurity event

â?&#x2013; Allow networks to be easily customized with operating systems, devices, and software

Various components of the team network are meant to simulate systems that students might see in a mock enterprise network or competition scenario. Technologies:

â?&#x2013; Palo Alto virtual router isolating and controlling access from each teams to the internet

â?&#x2013; Completed one-touch automated deployment of a competition scenario

â?&#x2013; Authored detailed technical documentation for future students to expand

â?&#x2013; Built a modular framework to support additional

scenarios with more complex networks or vulnerabilities

â?&#x2013; Project version control managed by Bitbucket â?&#x2013; With only minor changes, REDSWARMS can deploy a Cyber Defense competition in its current state

â?&#x2013; pfSense firewall/router appliance â?&#x2013; Redmine issue tracker â?&#x2013; Ubuntu Desktop for Linux workstations â?&#x2013; Nginx Web server for a â&#x20AC;&#x153;customer facingâ&#x20AC;? service â?&#x2013; Windows Server with AD service for user/policy management

Features:

â?&#x2013; Customizable networks and devices, where a tagging system is used to identify device roles and locations in a deployment

â?&#x2013; Intentionally vulnerable systems, such as old or unconfigured versions of software, to allow students to practice finding and exploiting vulnerabilities

ď ś Additional scenarios to be created for different competition styles (including new software or operating systems).

ď ś Introducing intentionally vulnerable components for remediation training

ď ś Hosting a competition with our new technology ď ś Ensuring the lab's infrastructure can support a competition

Winning Project

2020 INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 28

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

AUTHORS: Mallorie Biron Sarah Hall Mitchell Hersey


Seabed 2030 Affiliate Project AUTHORS: Hannah Dukeman Noah Perron Taylor Roy Christopher Schwartz

Seabed 2030, a collaborative project Seabed 2030 Affiliate Project between the Nippon Foundation and GEBCO, is working closely with Application Design Introduction & High-Level Overview organizations like the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM) and the NOAA-UNH Joint Hydrographic Center to develop data collection tools to be used for safer surface navigation. As an affiliate FACULTY ADVISOR: of the Seabed 2030 project, we have ● Goal: Contribute to Seabed 2030’s mission of mapping the entire ocean floor by 2030 through the Matthew Plumlee development of a back end system for a low cost, contributed to their mission of mapping accessible ocean depth data logger a phone application for data collection and the entire ocean floor by 2030 by ●aDeveloped Next Steps cloud-based solution for processing and sending the data to the DCDB ● Train volunteers to use phone PROJECT SPONSOR: developing a back end system for a low application to perform data collection Cloud Processing & Data Submission ● CCOM will take over further development and widespread adoption cost, accessible ocean depth data logger of this project Brian Calder, Center (built by CCOM). We have developed a References for Coastal & Ocean phone application for data collection and Data IngestRaw Data Files Mapping Data Archived Transformation a cloud-based solution for processing External API ● NMEA2000 at the NCEI via Python Submission ● NMEA0183 Scripts and sending the data to the DCDB. This embedded hardware logger system will be installed on ships and passively collect ocean depth data. The data collected by this logger will then be transferred to the phone application which performs the data extraction and storage. The data will then be sent through our cloud-based processing and submitted to the DCDB (the International Hydrographic Organization Data Center for Digital Bathymetry), hosted by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Honorable Mention Information, where it will be archived.

Project

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

2020

29 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Chris Schwartz, Noah Perron, Hannah Dukeman, Taylor Roy Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 Sponsored by Dr. Brian Calder


Assessing Topographic Mapping Accuracy using Aerial Drone with Terrestrial and Submerged Aquatic Ground Control Points AUTHOR: Bonnie Turek

Inspired by the influence of drone Assessing topographic mapping accuracy using aerial drone applications in scientific research, my with terrestrial and submerged aquatic ground control points SURF study aims to improve the accuracy of riverine topographic modeling by testing the use of terrestrial and submerged aquatic ground control points (GCPs) in drone surveys of the Bellamy River Reservoir. Accurate mapping of river-scapes is critical to investigations of before-and-after management activities, such as dam removals, and better understanding topographic features created by physical, chemical, and biological processes in rivers and watersheds. These studies build on our increasing understanding and quantification of the cycling of chemical and biological substances in rivers and the valuable ecological services that watersheds provide. The evolution of remote sensing, drone technology, and digital elevation models (DEMs) provide an alternative to conventional, labor-intensive ground survey measurements and are of increasing importance for creating topographic products valuable to studies of river-scapes and watershed processes. Land-based GCPs are routinely used to develop highly accurate models, however, in rivers we seek to accurately measure submerged topography, which has only been done in limited environments due to numerous technical challenges. Incorporating submerged GCPs into drone workflows may be a simple, yet effective way to improve instream topography models. Results of this study are expected to contribute key information for restoration planning for rivers and other aquatic habitats, studies of land use and impacts of human infrastructure, especially dams, in the hopes of creating and maintaining a more sustainable relationship with our natural environment. Drone Workflow

Introduction

Discussion

ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

• •

Figure 1. Aerial image of upper Bellamy impoundment study site

Conclusions/Future Work

Modeled Drone Elevations (m)

Results

Figure 4. Example of drone aerial image tie-points and image overlap

Total Station

14.5

GCPs

X error Y error (cm) (cm)

Z error (cm)

Total (cm)

30 Mixed

2.13

15 Land

14

13.5

13

12.5

12

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

Conventional Surveyed Elevation + Veg Height (m)

Table 1. (below) PhotoScan accuracy assessment Ground Control Points RMSE X-Longitude, Y-Latitude, Z-Elevation

Modeled Drone Elevations vs. Conventional Surveyed Checkpoint Elevations

15

15

2.06

4.89

5.72

1.64

1.66

2.05

3.11

15 2.21 Submerged

2.17

4.34

5.33

15 Mixed

1.46

4.74

5.28

1.82

Figure 8. (above) Comparison of modeled drone elevations vs conventionally surveyed checkpoints. Dry, vegetated checkpoints of higher elevations (i.e. reeds) are underestimated by the drone.

RTK

Figure 9. (right) Resulting DEM using 30 mixed GCP model iteration with enlarged view highlighting channel intersection and beaver dam

Figures 2 and 3. Examples of conventional surveying equipment

Methods

Figure 6. Example of a submerged aquatic ground control point

12.8

Deep ---------------------------------------------------------------- Shallow

12.7 12.6 12.5 12.4 12.3

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12.2 12.1 12

0.4

12

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

12.7

Conventional Surveyed Elevation + Veg Height (m)

Figure 10. (above) Modeled drone elevations versus conventionally surveyed checkpoints in submerged areas only. Elevations of deeper submerged checkpoints are greatly overestimated by drone (up to +0.7 m).

Figure 5. Resulting orthomosaic map displaying GCP configurations

2020

Figure 7. Drone flight of upper Bellamy impoundment site, July 11, 2019

Figure 11. (right) Average difference of modeled drone elevations to conventional survey elevations. 15 submerged GCP configuration results in highest accuracy of submerged mapping.

References

0.2

30 Mixed, DRY CPs

0.1

30 Mixed, WET CPs

0

Agüera-Vega, F., Carvajal-Ramírez, F., and Martínez-Carricondo, P. (2017). Assessment of photogrammetric mapping accuracy based on variation ground control points number using unmanned aerial vehicle. Dietrich, J. T. (2017). Bathymetric structure‐from‐motion: extracting shallow stream bathymetry from multi‐view stereo photogrammetry. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 42(2), 355-364. Hortobágyi, B., Corenblit, D., Vautier, F., Steiger, J., Roussel, E., Burkart, A., and Peiry, J.-L. (2017). A multi-scale approach of fluvial biogeomorphic dynamics using photogrammetry. Journal of Environmental Management Woodget, A. S., Carbonneau, P. E., Visser, F., and Maddock, I. P. (2014). Quantifying submerged fluvial topography using hyperspatial resolution UAS imagery and structure from motion photogrammetry. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms

15 Submerged, DRY CPs

-0.1

15 Submerged, WET CPs

-0.2

15 Land, DRY CPs

-0.3

15 Land, WET CPs

-0.4

15 Mixed, DRY CPs

-0.5 -0.6 -0.7

www.iphonedroneimagery.com/tag/tie-points/ http://business.scoop.co.nz/2009/11/04/regional-council-wades-into-river-survey/

Drone Model Iterations

0.3

12.8

Average Difference (m)

• • •

Modeled Drone Elevation (m)

Winning Project Live Presentation

Acknowledgements

Modeled Drone Elevations vs. Surveyed Checkpoint Elevations (m) WET ONLY

15 Mixed, WET CPs

*Error bars show standard deviations of differences

Mercury Accumulation in the Great Bay Ecosystem- Links with Carbon and Sediment Size AUTHOR: Rhyan Knight View presentation

We evaluated mercury (Hg) Mercury Accumulation in the Great Bay Ecosystem- Links with Carbon and Sediment Size concentrations in estuarine sediments to assess how Hg is stored in this environment. At two locations (A and C) in the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire, sediment cores of varying lengths (Core A: 0 to 60 cm and Core C: 0 to 95 cm) were taken. We found that Core A had a relatively low and consistent concentration of Hg (ranging from 8.4 to 43.4 ppb), whereas, Core C had an elevated level of Hg (> 2000 ppb) at a depth of 15 cm. We examined how Hg concentrations may be affected by the carbon content (as assessed by losson-ignition (LOI)) and the grain size of the sediments. In Core A mercury concentrations were significantly correlated with sediment carbon content (r2 = 0.81, p = 0.003). However, in Core C, Hg and carbon content were not correlated (r2 = 0.19, p = 0.415) even though there was a high level of Hg in this core. These data indicate that there are other factors controlling Hg concentrations in this sample. By: Rhyan

Knight 1,2 , CLOSES-GAP19 Team 2

1.University of Maryland Eastern Shore, 11868 College Backbone Rd, Princess Anne, MD 21853 rkknight@umes.edu

Introduction

Results/Discussion

Mercury (Hg), is well-documented in ecosystems and is a human health concern. It is commonly found in wetland and aquatic systems. The main sources of Hg contamination to these ecosystems include near and long-range transport of Hg from wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere. Hg is emitted into the atmosphere mainly from fossil fuel emissions such as coal-fired power plants . Objective Investigate relationships between sediment characteristics and Hg concentrations in the Great Bay estuary. • The purpose of this study is to evaluate Hg concentrations in two sediment cores from the Great Bay to assess how Hg is stored in this estuarine environment – we focused on Hg concentrations with grain size and inferred carbon content (assessed by loss-on-ignition (LOI)). • Hg concentrations in sediments can tell us if the ecosystem is at risk for Hg contamination that might harm the health of organisms within the ecosystem. • Studies have linked elevated Hg in the blood or tissue of fish, birds, and mammals with negative effects such as reduced reproductive success, hormonal changes, and motor skill impairment (Wiener and Spry 1996, Nocera and Taylor 1998, Evers et al. 2004 as cited in Driscolletal_2007). • Grain size and LOI are important characteristics to look at because they have the potential to influence Hg concentrations in sediments.

Conceptual Model – Hg dynamics in the Environment Atmosphere

Hg(0)

Overland Flow + River Discharge

Hg(II)

Figure 3. The location in the Great Bay estuaries where the cores were taken. The scale of 5 km is shown in the lower right-hand corner.

Hg(0)

Hg(0)

Hg(II)

Hg(II) absorb onto Organic Carbon, Sulfur particles

Figure 4. Mercury shows different trends with depth in the two cores. Core A has relatively low and consistent concentration of Hg in the sediment as a function of depth. Core C has elevated Hg below the surface, including a thin lens where the Hg is exceptionally high (> 2000 ppb)

Figure 5. Carbon content (inferred from LOI) also varies with depth and between the two cores.

Figure 8a.

R 2 = 0.8046

Figure 8b.

R 2 = 0.1874

Water Column

(CH 3 Hg + )

Figure 8a and 8b. Grain size distribution of sediments sampled from Core C, 95 cm. 8a shows the distribution of size in bulk sediment, and Figure 8b shows the distribution of sediment after treated with H2O2 to remove organics. Carbon (and we infer Hg) is associated with both fine and coarse carbon grains.

Analytical Methods

Approach • Obtain cores of Great Bay sediments and analyze the sediments for Hg and sediment characteristics. • Analysis using the Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer: Sediment samples were weighed between 30 mg to 50 mg. The samples were analyzed over 3 hours. • LOI analysis: Using a muffle furnace, sediment samples were weighed between 2.9 and 3.0 grams. They were placed inside the furnace at 450° C for a minimum of 4 hours.

Figure 6. Mercury concentrations show some correlation with carbon content.

Figure 7. Elevated organic content (inferred from LOI) does not explain the highest Hg found in the core, indicating that there are other factors controlling Hg concentration.

Summary and Future Work

Figure 2b.

A general assumption is that Hg, LOI, and grain size correlate with each other. Our data reveals a more complex relationship between Hg, LOI and grain size. In the future, I plan to research more about the spike in Hg and to find out what other factors contribute to that spike.

Figure 2a.

Acknowledgments

Obtaining and processing the sample in the lab.

Figure 2c.

Honorable Mention Project Pre-recorded

This Internship was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF- 18011420). Special thanks to all CLOSES-GAP advisors, the CLOSES-GAP19 Team includes: Ruth Varner, Julie Bryce, Florencia Fahnestock, Thomas Lippmann, Maurice Crawford, Lee Slater, Rose Ozbay, Steve Hale, Erik Froburg, Sandy Coit, Nikita Bendre, Katherine Rodriguez, Suah Yekeh, Carolina Caro, Julianna Gutierrez, Marci-Ann Smith, Sydney Wicklund and Romuald Kenmegne . Also thanks to Clarice Perryman, Katie Bennett, Maddie Wood, Quinton Hill, Emma Burkett for their assistance throughout the program.

Discussion: • In Brown et al., 2015 there were cores taken from two mudflats in the Great Bay Estuary in New Hampshire. The trends that were seen was that Hg spiked closer to the surface. • The average solid-phase Hgi concentration at the Portsmouth mudflat (559 ± 166 ppb) was higher than that at Squamscott mudflat (319 ± 82 ppb) (Brown et al., 2015). • In Rasmussen et al., 1998 there was a strong areal correlation (R²= 0.77) between LOI and Hg in the deep sediments.

References

• Zhang, H., & Lindberg, S. E. (1999). Processes influencing the emission of mercury from soils: A conceptual model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104(D17), 21889-21896. doi:10.1029/1999jd900194 • Driscoll, C. T., Han, Y., Chen, C. Y., Evers, D. C., Lambert, K. F., Holsen, T. M., Kamman, N. C., & Munson, R. K. (2007). Mercury contamination in forest and freshwater ecosystems in the northeastern United States. BioScience, 57(1), 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1641/b570106 • Brown, L. E., Chen, C. Y., Voytek, M. A., & Amirbahman, A. (2015). The effect of sediment mixing on Mercury dynamics in two intertidal mudflats at Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA. Marine Chemistry, 177, 731-741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2015.10.011 • Rasmussen, P. E., Villard, D. J., Gardner, H. D., Fortescue, J. A., Schiff, S. L., & Shilts, W. W. (1998). Mercury in lake sediments of the Precambrian shield near Huntsville, Ontario, Canada. Environmental Geology, 33(2-3), 170-182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050236

2020 INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 30

EARTH SCIENCES

Sediment

Figure 1. Conceptual diagram of mercury cycling showing the dominant reservoirs and pathways of mercury transport. Adapted from H. Zhang and S. E. Lindberg 1999.


Methane Distribution in River Mouth Sediments in Great Bay AUTHOR: Suah Yekeh ADVISORS: Julie Bryce Florencia Fahnestock Tom Lippmann Ruth Varner View presentation

Methane (CHâ&#x201A;&#x201E;) a potent greenhouse gas that occurs naturally in the environment and at elevated levels in coastal wetlands and in estuarine sediments. This study aimed to compare concentrations of CHâ&#x201A;&#x201E; to the characteristics of the host sediment, specifically grain size (mud fraction and d50) and carbon content. The locations for this research are three sites within the Great Bay Estuary where we obtained sediment cores near river mouths (mid-stream, Winnicut, and Lamprey Rivers).

Methane Distribution in River Mouth Sediments in Great Bay Suah Yekeh1,2 and Closes- Gap19 Team1

1. University of New Hampshire Durham, USA 2. Rutgers University â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark NJ, 07029 Suah.yekeh@gmail.com

Introduction and Study Objective

Field Site and Approach

Methods

Methane (CHâ&#x201A;&#x201E;) a potent greenhouse gas occurs naturally in the environment and at elevated levels in coastal wetlands and in estuarine sediments. This study aimed to compare concentrations of CHâ&#x201A;&#x201E; to the characteristics of the host sediment, specifically grain size (mud fraction and d50) and carbon content. The locations for this research are three sites within the Great Bay Estuary where we obtained sediment cores near river mouths (mid stream, Winnicut, and Lamprey Rivers).

Figure 1a. A Great Bay sediment core with measuring tape for scale. Figure 1b. Opening of a core for sampling on the Gulf Challenger.

â&#x20AC;˘

Cores were taken at the Winnicut, Lamprey and mid stream in the Great Bay Estuary (Figure 2).

â&#x20AC;˘

Five ml of 2M NaOH was placed into the sample vial.

â&#x20AC;˘

Cores were subsampled every 5 cm and placed in the sample vial and sealed with a septa and crimp top (Figure 3).

â&#x20AC;˘

Samples were subsequently analyzed with a Gas Chromatograph, and then dried and weighed again.

â&#x20AC;˘

Grain size distributions were determined with a Mastersizer Malvern 2000 Laser Particle Analyzer. Samples were run in pairs, with one aliquot run untreated and a second treated with H2O2 to remove organic material prior to analysis.

â&#x20AC;˘

Carbon fraction was assessed by loss-on- ignition (LOI) methods, chiefly by baking the samples at 450 degrees for 24 hours.

Figure 2. The Lamprey (LR), mid stream (MS) and Winnicut (WT) locations. (image developed with Google Earth)

Figure 4. Image of the relationships between methane and organic matter Figure 3. Oven dried samples (Lamprey, mid stream and Winnicut) after CH4 analyses.

Results The results from our analyses indicate that methane increased down the core in each location. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate that Lamprey river sediments contain the greatest amount of CH4 (Figure 5,6). The methane concentrations associated with the amount of organic matter was estimated from LOI (Figure 5). Figures 8a, 8b, 9a, and 9b displayed Lamprey river(LR) grain size diagram for treated (H2O2) and non-treated at 25 cm and 53-54 cm. Lamprey was used in order to determine grainsize relationships to organic matter. According to Lundgren 2016, methane and grain size are associated. Lundgren had the ability to dig deeper and saw a relationship between methane and grain size.

Summary Based on our results, we observe that LOI and CH4 are dependent on the grain size, depth and organic matter. Methane and LOI were highest in the Lamprey River cores illustrating the importance of organic matter presence in methane production.

References Figure 6. Sediment loss-on-ignition (LOI), a proxy for organic carbon content, as a function of sediment depth.

Figure 5. Methane from the Lamprey (LR), mid stream (MS) and Winnicut (WT) as a function of depth in the sediment core.

Figure 7. Scatter plot of methane and LOI in Great Bay sediments . The higher The LOI the higher the Methane concentration.

Lundgren, Dylan, et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Assessing Bottom Sediment Methane Concentrations and Extent of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane in The Great Bay Estuary.â&#x20AC;? University of New Hampshire , vol. 1, no. 1, Sept. 2016.

Acknowledgements

Figure 8b. LR Grain size distribution at 25 cm with H2O2 treatment. Data show that the mud mix is higher than the sand. The sand and mud is around the same as Figure 8a.

Figure 8a. LR Grain size distribution showing that at 25 cm the mud mix is much higher than sand. The D50 is also shown.

Figure 9a. LR Grain size distribution at 53-54 cm without H2O2 treatment. D50 is slightly smaller than in Figure 9b.

Figure 9b. LR Grain size distribution at 5354 cm with H2O2 treatment. Sand is higher than mud and D50 is larger

Research was supported by National Science Foundation- 18011420. This project was carried out at University of New Hampshire, in the Earth Science Department. Special thanks to Jackson Estuary Laboratory , Gulf Challenger crew, Dr. Lee Slater , Dr. Rose Ozbay , Dr. Maurice Crawford, CLOSES-GAP19 advisors (Dr. Tom Lippmann, Dr. Ruth Varner, Florencia Fahnestock, Dr. Julie Bryce) , CLOSES- GAP19 Team, Katie Bennett , Clarice Perryman, Quinton Hill, Emma Burkett, Maddie Wood, Sophie Burke , Steve Hale, Erik Froburg, Sandy Coit and Dr. Joel Johnson.

Reconstruction of the Terceira Magma Plumbing System AUTHOR: Brendan Garvey

A volcanic plumbing system consists Reconstruction of the Terceira Magma Plumbing System Brendan Garvey1 of a plexus of pools and pathways of Collaborators: Emma Burkett1, Florencia Fahnestock1, Vittorio Zanon2, Michael Palace1, Julie Bryce1 crystal mush and magma that supply the Univeristy of New Hampshire, Institute for Research in Volcanology and Risk Assessment, Ponta Delgada, Portugal Results: Thermobarometry Results: Crystal Residence Times overlying volcano. Partial melts from the Introduction Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mantle supply the magma and heat to sustain most volcanic plumbing systems, but within the plumbing system, the magma begins to cool and Geologic Background crystallize minerals. The early crystallizing mineral, clinopyroxene, can record the temperature and pressure of the magma Conclusions body at the time of crystallization, and these conditions can be extracted from the crystal through thermobarometric Methods calculations. Using LA-ICP-MS elemental References and Acknowledgments analyses we developed a new approach to thermobarometry coupled with Ti diffusion to reconstruct the magma plumbing system of Terceira Island of the Azores Archipelago. The thermobarometric calculations suggest that crystallization occurs at pressures between 400-560 Mpa and 640-675 Mpa, 12-14 km and 20 km respectively. The Ti diffusive re-equilibration within the clinopyroxenes suggest crystal residence times between 2000 and 3000 years prior to eruption. Terceira consists of a tiered magma plumbing system, with a large magma body where crystallization predominately takes place at 20 km deep and subsequent smaller magma bodies at 12-14 km deep. With the success of this new approach using LA-ICP-MS to obtain the required data for thermobarometric calculations coupled with trace element diffusion, we look to develop this method further at more complex volcanic systems. 1

ADVISOR: Julia Bryce View presentation

2

â&#x20AC;˘ A magma plumbing system consists of a series of pools and pathways of crystal mushes and molten rock. â&#x20AC;˘ The mineral clinopyroxene can provide the barometric conditions of a magma body at the time of crystallization. â&#x20AC;˘ This study seeks to compare the recorded pressures of crystallization of clinopyroxene in the magma plumbing system feeding an oceanic island eruption. â&#x20AC;˘ A secondary project goal is to evaluate the ability to use LA-ICPMS analyses to reconstruct both thermobarometric calculations and trace element diffusion on clinopyroxene.

The Azores archipelago is a chain of volcanic islands located off the coast of Portugal near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Island of Terceira consists of 2 quiescent volcanoes, 2 extinct volcanoes, a young fissure zone, and the Terceira Rift. This provides simple volcanic system where a new approach can be tested.

Residence 1đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D; Sample Time (years) (years) TRS11B.8 3000 1000 TRS6RM.1 2000 1000 TRS6RM.8 3000 2000 ZKP8.4 3000 2000

Figure 4: Conceptual model of elemental diffusion in a clinopyroxene crystal.

Figure 2: Comparison of clinopyroxene thermobarometric calculated pressures and Zanon and Pimentel (2015) clinopyroxene and olivine fluid inclusion pressures.

Table 1: Crystal residence times of the 4 applicable crystals.

Figure 5: Select Ti contents interpreted with diffusive models used to determine the crystal residence time within the magma plumbing system. Also shows the 1đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D; residence time.

â&#x20AC;˘ Clinopyroxenes record crystallization depths at 12-14 km below the Terceira system, broadly consistent with the Zanon and Pimentel (2015) fluid inclusion study. Clinopyroxene also records deeper crystallization, ca. 20 km, consistent with crystallization at the base of the crust. â&#x20AC;˘ Reconstructions of diffusive re-equilibration indicate ca. 3000-year storage times of magmas within the plumbing system. â&#x20AC;˘ Coupled thermobarometric and diffusive profiles, obtained via LA-ICP-MS, hold promise for wider-scale volcanic plumbing system reconstruction.

Figure 1: A: Sketch maps of (a) the North Atlantic Ocean showing the location of the Azores Archipelago and (b) the Azores Archipelago including the tectonic setting of the islands (with Terceira in darker grey). Taken from Gertisser et al. (2010).

EARTH SCIENCES

Elemental Analyses

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Trace Element Diffusion Ti concentrations, interpreted Spectrometry through Diffusion modelling employing a Monte Carlo Thermobarometry Simulation and Least Squares Putirka (2008) Eqns. 32B and 32D analysis.

Winning Project Pre-recorded

2020

31 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Figure 3: NW-SE cross-sectional sketch of Terceira adapted from Zanon and Pimentel (2015). The green ellipses represent the crystallization depths and locations of the thermobarometric calculations. The error on these locations is 3.9 km.

Cherniak, Daniele J., and Yan Liang. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 98, Dec. 2012, pp. 31â&#x20AC;&#x201C;47. Costa, F., et al. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 69, no. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 545â&#x20AC;&#x201C;94. Gertisser, R., et al. Geological Society of America Special Paper 464, p. 133â&#x20AC;&#x201C;154. Putirka, K. D. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 69, no. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 61â&#x20AC;&#x201C;120. Zanon, V., and A. Pimentel. American Mineralogist, vol. 100, no. 4, Apr. 2015, pp. 795â&#x20AC;&#x201C;805.

Many thanks to Mr. Dana Hamel for financial support through a SURF, UNH Earth Sciences grant for financial support, to Emma Burkett and Zach Gude for assistance with the diffusion studies, Flor Fahnestock for assisting with analyses, Michael Palace for assisting with statistical and spatial analyses, Vittorio Zanon for his support and supplying samples, and Julie Bryce for her continued support and mentorship.


Stream Greenhouse Gas Emissions Along a Wetland Gradient in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts 

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ADVISOR: Ruth Varner

In an aquatic ecosystem, freshwater                 

        is filtered by fluvial wetlands into            streams which are a source of several      greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to climate change. Natural features and urban development affect the production of GHG such as methane   (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Nitrogen (N) loading into    a watershed due to human activities is a possible source of elevated nitrate  (NO3-) and therefore potentially higher emissions of N2O (Beaulieu et. al, 2011). The source of CO2 and its effects as a GHG are well-studied, but less is known   about the production and emission of N2O in rivers and streams. My objective was to study the relationship between gas flux and environmental parameters to gain insight into how flux responds to land-use. I addressed the relationship between gas flux and environmental parameters by measuring gas flux and water quality at six locations in a temperate watershed along a nitrate gradient. These measurements provided insight into how N2O flux varies along the gradient and across the season as well as its relationship with NO3-. These measurements were compared with temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH to determine if any correlations existed. Studying the relationships between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems can provide meaningful data that helps quantify global GHG flux rates and could provide important information about groundwater quality or nitrogen load reduction initiatives.    

AUTHOR: Diane DeVries

 

 

  













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The Effect of a Land-use Gradient and Sediment Characteristics on Methane Ebullition in Four Headwater Streams The global atmospheric methane budget is The effect of a land-use gradient and sediment characteristics on methane ebullition in four headwater streams highly affected by freshwater systems. There Cynthia Bova, Carter Snay, Andrew Robison, Ruth Varner, and Wilfred Wollheim has been extensive research on methane contributions from lakes and wetlands such that we know wetlands are the dominated natural source of methane, about 75%, but There are no strong little has been focused on streams and rivers. correlations between sediment characteristics or The bubbling of methane gas from waterbody land use gradient and sediments to the surface is known as ebullitive methane flux in ebullition. This emission pathway may account these headwater streams. for 10-80% of transport. However, this process is overlooked based on the numerous drivers that affect the spatial and temporal variability of the data as well as the assumption that dissolved transport is the dominant transport process. This research further investigated SB CC the drivers of methane ebullition in streams DB CB during the summer months, May through August, at four locations in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. There were two forested sites, Cart Creek in Massachusetts and Dube Brook in New Hampshire as well as two urban sites, Sawmill Brook in Massachusetts and College Brook in New Hampshire, to create a land-use gradient across the streams. This gradient was observed by analyzing the sediment characteristics in the streams as human activity may influence the type of sediment that is deposited. Inverted-funnel bubble traps were utilized to collect ebullitive methane gas and sediment corers were used to collect stream sediment to analyze the conditions for methanogenesis-favorable conditions. These methods were done to inspect the spatial variables that may control and influence methane ebullition in streams. Collected methane was analyzed using a gas chromatograph to obtain a concentration and the sediment was put through numerous processes to obtain depth, percent organic matter and bulk density. Analysis of the data showed that both the land-use gradient as well as the sediment characteristics did not have an effect on the methane flux via ebullition across these four streams as there may be other possible drivers that have an influence on this process. Non-Cognitive Predictors of Student Success: A Predictive Validity Comparison Between Domestic and International Students

120

Median Methane Flux (mg/m^2/day)

INTRODUCTION

â&#x20AC;˘ Freshwater systems contribute significantly to the global atmospheric methane budget (Maek et al. 2014)

â&#x20AC;˘ Ebullitive emissions may account for up to 80% of methane emissions from rivers and streams (Baulch et al. 2011).

Median Methane Flux (mg/m^2/day)

â&#x20AC;˘ As there are limited resources providing information on the main drivers of methane ebullition in streams, we ask the question:

How do sediment characteristics and a land use gradient affect [the rate of] methane ebullition in streams?

Non-Cognitive Predictors of Student Success: A Predictive Validity Comparison Between Domestic and International Students

20

0

0

0.5

1

1.5

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100

80 60

SB CB DB

40 20

0

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5

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120 100 80 60 40 20 0

25

Median Methane Flux (mg/m^2/day)

SB CB CC DB

0

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Average Sediment Depth (cm)

100

DISCUSSION § The most active sites were DB and SB while the other sites, CB and CC, were not as active throughout the summer § SB and CB were considered urban locations while CC and DB were considered forested locations. This did not seem to affect the data. REFERENCES

1000

800 600

0

SB CB DB

40

Figure 2: Sediment characteristics such as Average Bulk Density, Average organic matter and Average sediment depth vs Median Methane Flux do not depict any obvious trends across the four locations.

RESULTS Figure 1: Methane fluxes in the four streams show that high methane emissions are released from sites CC and SB, moderate emissions from DB and low emissions from CB. 1200

200

60

Non-Cognitive Predictors of Student Success: A Predictive Validity Comparison Between Domestic and International Students

METHODS 1. Deployed 45 inverted-funnel bubble traps into four headwater streams- Cart Creek (CC, forested in MA) Sawmill Brook (SB, urban in MA), Dube Brook (DB, forested in NH) and College Brook (CB, urban in NH). 2. A gas chromatograph was used to determine methane concentrations in the bubble samples. 3. Sediment samples were taken with a corer to determine bulk density, organic content and sediment-methane concentrations.

400

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â&#x20AC;˘ Studies have correlated human activity and development with sediment deposition (fine-grained, high percent of organic material)

CH4 Flux (mg/m^2/day)

ADVISORS: Andrew Robison Carter Snay Ruth Varner Wilfred Wollheim

â&#x20AC;˘ Fluvial methane emissions studies generally neglect the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway (Stanley et al. 2016)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for selecting me to conduct a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) and Dr. Hamel for providing the gracious funding to make this research possible.

Baulch, Helen M, et al. "Diffusive and ebullitive transport of methane and nitrous oxide from streams: Are bubble-mediated fluxes important?" Journal of Geophysical Research(2011). Crawford , John T, et al. "Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams .â&#x20AC;? Global Change Biology(2014): 3408-3422. Maeck, A, H Hofmann and A Lorke. "Pumping methane out of aquatic sediments-ebullition forcing mechanisms in an impounded river." Biogeosciences (2014): 2925-2938.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 32

EARTH SCIENCES

AUTHOR: Cynthia Bova


The Spatial Distribution of Sediment Characteristics and Mercury Content within Local Impoundments Hannah Miller, Civil Engineering, hmm1055@wildcats.unh.edu Collaborators: Dr. Anne Lightbody, Florencia Fahnestock, Eliza Balch, Alexandra Evans, Dr. Julie Bryce Sampling Methods

Dam preservation considerations â&#x20AC;˘ Navigation â&#x20AC;˘ Irrigation â&#x20AC;˘ Flood Control â&#x20AC;˘ Hydropower â&#x20AC;˘ Recreation â&#x20AC;˘ Reservoirs for drinking water â&#x20AC;˘ Historical monuments & aesthetics â&#x20AC;˘ Contaminated sediment mobilization

Results: Core Samples

3-Quart Feed Scoop Sampler â&#x20AC;˘ Used to sample exposed surficial sediment

0

â&#x20AC;˘ Contribute to the developing field of dam removal science, as over 1200 dams have been removed in the United States, yet fewer than 10% of those have been scientifically studied (Bellmore et al., 2017). â&#x20AC;˘ Characterize conditions at two local impoundments and explore implications of dam removal to inform local communities considering dam removal â&#x20AC;˘ Determine strength of relationships between sediment grain size, mercury content, organic matter fraction, and spatial distribution to assess applicability in other impoundments

Laboratory Procedures

Grain Size Distribution â&#x20AC;˘ ~200 grams of each dried sample was sieved on a shaker table through US sieve numbers: #10, #35, #50, #80, #100, #140, #170, and #230 â&#x20AC;˘ The fraction of mass retained on each sieve indicated the fraction of sediment within each size class

Site Locations

Organic Matter Fraction â&#x20AC;˘ 2 to 5 grams of dry sample were placed into porcelain crucibles â&#x20AC;˘ Heated to 550 degrees Celsius for 3 hours then reweighed â&#x20AC;˘ Weight loss assumed to be due to ignition of organic matter

â&#x20AC;˘ Sawyer Mill Upper Dam on the Bellamy River in Dover, New Hampshire. Dam removal in process

Mercury Content â&#x20AC;˘ Approximately 0.05 grams of dry sediment from each designated core sample were loaded into the DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyzer to assess mercury content

Evans, Alexandra; Gardner, Kevin (2020): Sawyer Mill Upper Dam Removal (Set of aerial photos spanning 2017-2019). figshare. Figure. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12120855.v1

Milestonesci.com

Sawyer Mill cores

30 40 50

Mill Pond cores

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0

Organic Matter Fraction (%) 0% 10% 20% 30%

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20

20

30

30

40

40

50

50

60

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70 70 70 â&#x20AC;˘ The median grain size â&#x20AC;˘ Top 5 cm of all core â&#x20AC;˘ across all cores varied from samples consistent with 0.15 to 0.5 mm. Cores SM1 observations of surficial and MP1 contained organic matter content at relatively homogenous each impoundment â&#x20AC;˘ sediment grain sizes over â&#x20AC;˘ MP1, MP2, and SM1 depth, while SM2 and MP2 exhibited gradual decreases contained sharp in organic matter fraction discontinuities with depth, suggesting slow consumption, while SM2 varied from ~0 to 20%

â&#x20AC;˘ A general trend of increasing mercury content with increasing organic matter fraction was observed, with stronger statistical significance in Sawyer Mill sediments

Results: Surficial Samples

Evans, Alexandra; Gardner, Kevin (2020): Aerial Photos of Mill Pond Dam in Durham, NH. figshare. Figure.https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12142254.v1

Sample Locations

â&#x20AC;˘ Sample locations were chosen in spatially varying areas: upper, mid, and lower impoundment, on both berms and in main channels â&#x20AC;˘ Locations were also chosen as spots which would complement previous studies and current studies

40% 30%

R2 =0.026 P=0.602

20% 10% 0%

0.0

â&#x20AC;˘ Organic matter content ranged from 931% in Mill Pond and 0.7-21% in Sawyer Mill â&#x20AC;˘ A general trend of decreasing organic matter fraction with increasing grain size can be observed, with stronger correlation in Sawyer Mill sediments

R2 =0.44 P=<0.0001

0.5 1.0 1.5 Median Grain Size D50 (mm)

All Sawyer Mill samples contained mercury levels lower than the NOAA Lowest Effects Level Four Mill Pond samples contained mercury levels above the NOAA Severe Effects Level

R2 =0.52 P=<0.0001

Sawyer Mill Data

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Mill Pond Data

R2 =0.58 P=0.0025

10 1

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Organic Matter Content

â&#x20AC;˘ Elevated mercury contents, at levels high enough to cause pronounced disturbance to freshwater organisms, were found at depths greater than 15 cm within Mill Pond. These peak levels were discovered amidst low mercury content within surficial and deeper Mill Pond sediment, highlighting the importance of thorough spatial sampling to delineate the extent of contamination in potentially mobile sediments â&#x20AC;˘ Only weak relationships were observed between organic matter content (and, to a lesser extent, fine grain sizes) and mercury content, suggesting that the observed mercury contamination may have arisen from transient local sources â&#x20AC;˘ Scientific investigations can provide useful information for dam removal decisions. Further work is needed to research potential historical sources of contamination, explore historical rates and patterns of sediment deposition, and constrain the heavy metal burden in these impoundments and others

Mill Pond Sawyer Mill

R2 =0.33 P=<0.0001

1000

Mercury Concentration (Âľg/kg) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000

Conclusions

â&#x20AC;˘ Sawyer Mill samples ranged from medium to fine sand, with the coarsest samples located in the main channel and the finest samples accumulating on adjacent berms â&#x20AC;˘ 100% of Mill Pond samples were classified as poorly graded fine sand samples, with little spatial variability in grain sizes

Organic Matter Fraction (%)

â&#x20AC;˘ Mill Pond Dam on the Oyster River in Durham, New Hampshire. Dam removal being considered

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NOAA Severe Effects Level

Core Processing â&#x20AC;˘ Grain size samples were collected by slicing one core half approximately every 5 cm or at visually distinct strata â&#x20AC;˘ Mercury analysis samples were collected using acid-washed plastic scoops in mirrored locations along the other core half

Research Objectives

SM1 MP1 MP2 SM2

20

Sediment Hand Corer â&#x20AC;˘ Used to sample submerged buried sediment â&#x20AC;˘ 2 cores collected at each site â&#x20AC;˘ Collected cores ranged from 25 to 71 centimeters long

Maps generated using data from NH Granite, New England Dams Database, and MassGIS

Median Grain Size (mm) 0.2 0.4 0.6

NOAA Lowest Effects Level

Dam removal considerations â&#x20AC;˘ Expensive maintenance, inspection, and repairs â&#x20AC;˘ Hazardous aging infrastructure â&#x20AC;˘ Fish passage impedance â&#x20AC;˘ Natural river flow alteration â&#x20AC;˘ Nutrient transport reduction â&#x20AC;˘ Environmental contaminant accumulation

0

10

Van Veen Grab Sampler â&#x20AC;˘ Used to sample submerged surficial sediment â&#x20AC;˘ Deployed from side of Jon boat

Mercury Content (Âľg/kg)

Motivation

Medium Sand

ADVISORS: Julia Bryce Anne Lightbody

Dams have served a vital role in American The Spatial Distribution of Sediment Characteristics and Mercury industry, providing flood control, Content within Local Impoundments irrigation, navigation, and hydropower. However, many of these dams no longer serve their initial purpose and are potentially hazardous to downstream communities in the absence of extensive maintenance. Dam removal is an increasingly common method to reduce infrastructure-associated risk, restore river ecological function, and eliminate long-term repair costs. To protect aquatic life and promote river health, an analysis of the quantity and quality of impounded sediment is a key consideration before any dam removal. This project characterized the grain size, organic matter fraction, and mercury content of sediment impounded at Mill Pond in Durham, NH, and Sawyer Mill in Dover, NH. Weak relationships were observed between sediment grain size, organic matter, and mercury content. However, mercury contents approaching 4 parts per million were discovered in buried sediments at Mill Pond, indicating that the source of this contamination may be due to transient local sources. Thus any dam removal decisions should be informed by thorough sampling, including buried sediments, as well as investigations into historical sources of contamination. Depth (cm)

AUTHOR: Hannah Miller

2.0

Sawyer Mill Upper Dam

Acknowledgements

Sawyer Mill Dam Removal

Thank you to the Hamel Center for funding this research project through the Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP). Thank you to Anne Lightbody and Julie Bryce for their expertise, guidance, and encouragement throughout this research. Reference Bellmore, R. J., et al.(2017). WIREs Water, 4: e1164. doi:10.1002/wat2.1164.

Evans, Alexandra; Gardner, Kevin (2020): Sawyer Mill Upper Dam Removal (Set of aerial photos spanning 2017-2019). figshare. Figure. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12120855.v1

Understanding the Role of Organic Matter in Methane and Mercury Cycling within Great Bay Estuary Sediments AUTHOR: Katherine Rodriguez

Understanding the Role of Organic Matter in Methane and Our aquatic ecosystems are filled Mercury Cycling within Great Bay Estuary Sediments with organic matter at the ocean Katherine Rodriguez , CLOSESâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;GAP19 Team Results Introduction floor. Methane (CH4) and Mercury (Hg) concentrations have been linked to organic matter content within sediments. For that reason, it is important to understand methane and mercury cycling because at high concentrations, CH4 and Hg become very toxic and if Field Methods consumed can cause health defects. Loss on ignition (LOI) is a useful method to determine approximate amounts of organic matter within sediments. The % Discussion Analytical Methods LOI will provide results that can indicate if the organic matter content is associated with CH4 and Hg concentrations. References Acknowledgements Methane, mercury and loss on ignition analysis were performed on sediments extracted from three areas within the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire; Lampray River, Mid-Stream River and the Winnicut River. In this research, I will discuss and focus on the relationship between % LOI from estuary sediments vs Hg. Is there a relationship between % LOI from estuary sediments vs CH4 and what happens to the amount of CH4 and Hg stored in Great Bay sediments with depth. đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?,đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

1. Rutgers University â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Newark, 2. University of New Hampshire, Delaware State, UMES, Rutgers University

.

View presentation

â&#x20AC;˘ Our aquatic ecosystems are filled with organic matter at the ocean floor. Methane (CH4 ) and Mercury (Hg) concentrations have been linked to organic matter content within sediments. For that reason, it is important to understand methane and mercury cycling because at high concentrations, CH4 and Hg become very toxic and if consumed can cause health defects. Loss on ignition (LOI) is a useful method to determine approximate amounts of organic matter within sediments. The % LOI will provide results that can indicate if the organic matter content is associated with CH4 and Hg concentrations.

â&#x20AC;˘ Research Objective: (1) Is there a relationship between % LOI from estuary sediments vs Hg? (2) Is there a relationship between % LOI from estuary sediments vs CH4 ? (3) What happens to the amount of CH4 and Hg stored in Great Bay sediments with depth?

Figure 6. Sampling sites from the Rivermouth, Great Bay Estuary.

Figure 1. A conceptual map showing sources of Hg and CH4 . Microbes are a good source for creating these elements. Microbes consume Hg(ll) and create MeHg after. Microbes also eat organic matter and create CH4 as a result. Both CH4 and MeHg are later expelled to the ocean where aquatic animals consume it. Modified after Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State et.al., 2020.

Figure 7. Methane versus depth (cm). This figure shows the relationship between the amount of CH4 for down core.

Figure 8. Hg concentration versus depth (cm). This figure shows the relationship between the Hg concentration (ppb) and depth.

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;2 = 0.34

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;2 = 0.83

Figure 9. %LOI versus depth (cm). This figure shows the relationship between the percent of organic matter with depth.

Figure 10. %LOI versus CH4 at the Winnicut and Midstream site.

Figure 11. %LOI versus CH4 at the Lamprey site.

â&#x20AC;˘ CH4 cores and Hg cores were sampled in low tide in three areas: the mouths of both the Winnicut River (WT) and Lamprey River (LR) and a location between the two river mouths, identified as Midstream (MS) . â&#x20AC;˘ The Hg cores were split in half and sampled at 5cm increments. Samples were taken to the lab to freeze dry and analyze.

EARTH SCIENCES

â&#x20AC;˘ CH4 cores were sampled using a syringe pulling 2 mL of sediment every 5 cm.

Figure 2. Soil coring at the Great Bay Estuary. This image shows me taking notes of our location while Rhyan (to my right) is preparing the next core. Photo credit: Marci-Ann

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;2 = 0.6032

Figure 12. %LOI versus Hg concentration (ppb) at the Winnicut site. Regression line shows negative relationship between the percent of organic matter with Hg concentration.

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;2 = 0.7579

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;2 = 0.3567

Figure 13. %LOI versus Hg concentration (ppb) at the Midstream site.

Figure 14. %LOI versus Hg concentration (ppb) at Lamprey site. Regression line shows positive correlation.

â&#x20AC;˘ Methane increases with depth at all sampled locations. The LR site however decreases with depth after 40 cm and showed the highest overall concentrations (Fig.7). â&#x20AC;˘ Again, higher concentrations of Hg are observed in the LR core (Fig.8). â&#x20AC;˘ LOI is highest in the LR core and decreases with depth. However, it remains at a consistent range for WR and MS core (Fig.9). â&#x20AC;˘ LOI is not significantly correlated to methane in either LR or MS (Fig.10/Fig.11). However, there appears to be a strong correlation at the WT site (Fig.10). â&#x20AC;˘ LOI does not show a positive relationship to Hg concentrations at the Winnicut site, indicating that the amount of organic content at this site is not associated with the Hg present (Fig. 12). â&#x20AC;˘ In contrast, there is a weak, positive relationship between LOI and Hg concentration at the MS site (Fig. 13). â&#x20AC;˘ According to Hines 1981, between June to December, bioturbation is not active at the Lamprey River. This indicates that sediments and microbial processes remain undisturbed. This supports (Fig.9), showing that organic content is greater at shallow depths. â&#x20AC;˘ The percent LOI, a proxy for carbon content, has a strong positive relationship with Hg concentration (ppm) at the LR site (Fig.14).

Figure 3. Mercury analysis involved using the Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA 80) where Hg samples were carefully weighed between 30 mg to 50 mg. Samples ran for 3 hours to obtain total Hg in sediments.

33 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Figure 4. Methane analysis - vial samples were analyzed by using a needle syringe to extract 2 mL of methane gas from the headspace of the vial. The syringe was then introduced into the Gas Chromatograph (GC) at 1 ml intervals where concentration peaks of CH4 were generated from the GC.

Figure 5. LOI analysis â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Freeze dried samples were weighed (~0.4 g) of sediment. Ten samples at a time were placed in a 450 degrees Celsius furnace to combust for 4 hours, allowed to cool and weighed again to calculate %LOI.

The CLOSES GAP 2019 fellowship is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF-18011420) . Special thanks to Clarice Perryman for assisting with R Software and Sophie Burke. Thank you to Katie Bennett, Maddie Wood for assisting with field work. Also, a special thanks to the CLOSES-GAP members: Rhyan Knight, Nikita Bendre, Suah Yekeh, Carolina Caro Cano, Julianna Gutierrez, Sydney Wicklund, Marci-Ann Smith, and Romuald Kenmegne. Thank you to the UNH Coordinators: Steve Hale, Erik Froburg and Sandy Coit. Thank you to Quinton Hill and Joel Johnson for sediment lab work. Thank you to Emma Burkett for QGIS images. Thank you to the University of New Hampshire and home institution Rutgers University â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Newark.

CLOSES â&#x20AC;&#x201C;GAP19 Team* -UNH: Ruth Varner, Julie Bryce, Florencia Fahnestock, Thomas Lippmann -Rutgers University-Newark: Lee Slater -Delaware State University: Rose Ozbay -UMES : Maurice Crawford

â&#x20AC;˘ Santisteban et al., Journal of Paleolimnology 32: 287â&#x20AC;&#x201C;299, 2004. â&#x20AC;˘ Hines, Mark E., Seasonal Biochemistry in the Sediments of Great Bay Estuarine Complex, New Hampshire, 1981.


Using Magnetostratigraphy to Find the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary in La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina AUTHOR: Peter Haber

The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Using Magnetostratigraphy to Find the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary in La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina boundary is a geologic record marks the occurrence of one of the most important events in Earth’s history. At this time ADVISOR: (approximately 66 million years ago), a mass extinction occurred, caused William Clyde primarily by a meteorite impact. This also caused a change in global climate and widespread deposition of material ejected from the impact crater. Currently, there are few continental records of the K-Pg boundary in South America, resulting in poor understanding of its effects there. One method for finding the boundary uses magnetostratigraphy (measuring the magnetic polarity of a rock, preserved from when it formed). Earth’s magnetic field has reversed through time, and these reversals can be recorded in rock formations. Chron C29r is an interval of reversed magnetic polarity that encompasses the K-Pg boundary. This project seeks to find Chron C29r in samples taken from La Colonia Formation in Patagonia, Argentina. Samples taken from strata in La Colonia were Honorable Mention analyzed to find their magnetic polarity, resulting in the magnetostratigraphy for that formation. Peter Haber1, William C. Clyde1, Marcelo Krause2, Cody Whelan1

1.Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire , 56 College Rd., Durham, NH 03824 2. Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio, CONICET, Av. Fontana 140, Trelew, 9100, Argentina

Introduction

Results

• The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary marks one of the largest mass extinctions in Earth’s history. It occurred approximately 66 million years ago within Chron C29r, an interval of reversed geomagnetic polarity (Fig. 1) [1]. • An asteroid impact at what is now Chicxulub, Mexico [1] and extreme basaltic volcanism associated with the Deccan Traps in India occurred at this time [2]. One or both of these was the primary cause of the K-Pg extinction. • There are few known records of the K-Pg boundary in South America; those that have been found are located in Brazil, Argentina, and Columbia [3,4,5]. This results in poor understanding of the effects of the event on this continent. • This project seeks to determine if the fossiliferous La Colonia Formation (Fig. 2), Patagonia, Argentina, preserves Chron C29r and therefore the K-Pg boundary.

Figure 7: From left to right: Natural Remnant Magnetization of all samples before demagnetization, Characteristic Remnant Magnetization (ChRM) of samples after demagnetization, ChRM of site means [10]

Figure 1: Geologic timescale with geomagnetic polarity; the K-Pg boundary falls within Chron C29r [6]

Geological background

Figure 3: Location of La Colonia Formation in Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina [9]

Figure 4: La Colonia Formation (image credit: Dr. Will Clyde)

Figure 2: Late Cretaceous age turtle fossils from La Colonia Formation [7]

• The sedimentary La Colonia Formation (Figs. 3 and 4) has a known age of Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene [8]. • Sediments are of estuarine and deltaic origin [8]. • Vertebrate fossils found here include turtles, plesiosaurs, mammals, and dinosaurs [7]. • Plant fossils provide information about the extinction and depositional environment [8]. • The lowermost unit consists of conglomerate and sandstone, then grades from sandstone to siltstone in the middle, and claystone and marine sediments at the top [8].

Conclusion

• The identification of Chron C29r indicates the presence of the K-Pg boundary in La Colonia Formation. • This finding contributes to understanding of K-Pg boundary in South America by adding to the number of known records there. • It also provides context for the geology and fossils of La Colonia. • This adds to known sites to study the K-Pg mass extinction.

Methods

• Paleomagnetic analysis was conducted on 8 cm3 hand samples collected from 38 sites at La Colonia. • Polarity was measured using a 2G SQUID cryogenic magnetometer in the UNH paleomagnetism lab (Fig. 5). • Samples were demagnetized by the alternating field (AF) method, using a tumbling AF demagnetizer. • Isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) was conducted on some samples to determine magnetic mineralogy of La Colonia. • A total of 122 samples were analyzed (Fig. 6).

Figure 8: Demagnetization data for sample LP1802A shown on a vector endpoint diagram showing clear reverse polarity [10]

• Chron C29r is preserved in La Colonia, as seen from the magnetometer measurements (Figs. 7 and 8), indicating the presence and approximate location of the K-Pg boundary (Fig. 9). • Paleomagnetic data confirm field observations that the upper part of one of the subsections is affected by a slump. • IRM results indicate that magnetite was the dominant ferromagnetic mineral (Fig. 10). • Chrons C30n, C30r, and parts of C29n and C31n are present in addition to Chron C29r.

Figure 9: Stratigraphic section with polarities at each site (white represents reverse, black represents normal)

Figure 10: IRM results for sample LP1701A, which are typical for La Colonia. This pattern indicates that magnetite is the dominant ferromagnetic mineral.

Acknowledgements

• Thanks to Pablo Puerta, Facundo De Benedetti, and Tyler Smith for help with field work and lab analyses. • Thanks to the UNH McNair Scholars Program for supporting summer undergraduate research work. • This research is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DEB 1556666.

References

Figure 5: The magnetometer at the UNH paleomagnetism lab

Figure 6: Samples from La Colonia

[1] Schulte, P. et al., 2010, Science, 327:1214-1218. [2] Chenet, A.-L., et al., 2009, Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 [3] Albertão, G. and Martins, P., 1996, Sedimentary Geology, 104:189-201. [4] Scasso, R., et al., 2005, Cretaceous Research, 26:283-297. [5] Renne, P. R., et al., 2018, Geology, 46:547-550. [6] Gradstein, F.M., et al., 2012, Elsevier, 435 p. [7] Gasparini, Z., et al., 2015, Cretaceous Research, 54:154-168. [8] Cúneo, R.N., et al., 2014, PLoS One, 9:1-18. [9] US Dept. of State Geographer, 2020, Google Earth Pro: Satellite image software: Google LLC. [10] Lurcock, P.C., and Wilson, G.S., 2012, TECHNICAL BRIEF: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 13

Project Live Presentation

EARTH SCIENCES

2020

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 34


ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) AUTHORS: Megan Barrett Cory Barrett Timothy Kammerer Yongjin Lu Ryan Morrison ADVISORS: Michael Carter May-Win Thein

View presentation

The goal of the autonomous surface vehicle(ASV) project is to work with another team developing an unmanned underwater vehicle(UUV) to complete an autonomous seafloor mapping mission. The mission consists of sending the ASV out into open water with a given location and area size, and having it traverse the area in a grid like pattern to map out the seafloor depth. During this mapping, the UUV could be deployed, if needed, to scope out points of interest on the seafloor and gather additional data. The project is currently in its third year of the grant.

²Ă&#x;Í&#x2019;Ă&#x2021;Ă&#x2021;Ă&#x; &RU\%DUUHWW0HJDQ%DUUHWW7LPRWK\.DPPHUHU<RQJMLQ/X $GYLVRU'U0LFKDHO&DUWHU 3,'LU0D\:LQ7KHLQ

This year's ASV team improved the original code written to manually control the ASV; it was adjusted to add in controls by using the arrow buttons on a keyboard instead of through the command line as well as implementing a PID controller to help with the location navigation. The other successful addition was a shore station to help monitor the ASVs data as well as communicate as needed through Xbees to the ASV. Lastly, there was Autonomy code written to handle the waypoint to waypoint navigation for the autonomous seafloor mapping. Unfortunately, due to the current pandemic, the mission will not be able to be tested for this year's project.

Design & Development of a Laser Range Finder AUTHORS: Alexander Girard Lane Krug ADVISORS: Amy Keesee Wayne Smith

The goal of this senior project is to design, develop, and test the main electronics boards for a small laser rangefinder device for ground infantry use. Unfortunately due to time constraints and the closure of the university for the end of the spring semester, the full hardware implementation was unable to be realized. The remaining documentation in this paper goes through the theoretical design of the rangefinder and what would have been done to build it. There was to be two main Alex Girard & Lane Krug boards designed and produced; a power supply board and a transmit/receive board. The power board will supply all the necessary voltages throughout the system and the transmit/receive board handles the actual rangefinding. For this project, the design of the physical transmit/receive circuitry will be of highest priority, with a stretch goal of implementing a digital time of flight (TOF) calculator and microprocessor to control the system. Given the initial lack of a microprocessor, which would normally send the ~10-50ns transmit pulse, a function generator will be used to send it instead. For the time of flight calculation, an oscilloscope will be hooked up to both the transmit and receive sides and the time between the two pulses will be calculated with the scope. This Î&#x201D;t value will be taken and then used in a hand calculation to determine the distance measured by the hardware. This approach is to first ensure that the hardware is working as intended before involving more complex automated TOF calculation setup. The rangefinder was to be first tested in a long hallway in the second floor of Kingsbury Hall to ensure short range precision and then move to the UNH football field to ensure a 100m + ranging scenario worked.

35 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Design and D evelopm ent of a Laser R ange F inder


AUTHORS: Perry Hayes Madelyn Widger ADVISOR: Nicholas Kirsch View presentation

The senior project design problem is to investigate the behavior of an asymmetrical and symmetrical flexible antenna through simulation in HFSS for frequency bands of interest consisting of 0.9 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 5.5 GHz. The design process firstly started with familiarizing with HFSS (a computational electromagnetic tool) while selecting two reference designs to verify. Once completed, the asymmetrical antenna was further investigated by changing its substrate to polyimide with the goal of maintaining proper results. The symmetrical antenna was also further investigated in which the frequency bands of interest were firstly designed for, and then constructed in HFSS. One, three, and four triangular loops were designed and tested in order to achieve the desired frequency bands. The results for each of these antennas were analyzed through return loss plots in HFSS. For the asymmetrical antenna, while defined resonances were not achieved, the resonances were very close to the desired locations of 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz with the resulting frequencies at 2.24 GHz and 3.56 GHz. For the symmetrical antenna, the resonances were close to the desired locations of 0.9 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 5.5 GHz in the three different designs, but showed some deviation as well as additional resonances. The frequency bands performed at 0.9 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 4 GHz, and 5.5 GHz (for the one loop design), 0.8 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.7 GHz, and 5.7 GHz (for the tri-band design), and 0.8 GHz, 2.45 GHz, 3.4 GHz, and 5.6 GHz (for the four-loop design). It was noticed that as bands were added, the signal moved closer to the desired frequency. With the asymmetrical antenna having an error ranging from 0.24 GHz to 0.56 GHz and the symmetrical antenna having an error from 0.5 GHz to 2 GHz, this discrepancy could be due to the use of inaccurate dimensions.

Directly Measuring Electrical Current in the Aurora Borealis using a Rogowski Coil AUTHORS: Jonathon Amrein Joseph Lazzaro ADVISORS: Matthew Argall Wayne Smith

The objective of this project was to Directly Measuring Electrical Current in the Aurora Borealis Using a Rogowski Coil design a device capable of directly measuring the electrical current in the Objective Testing Mechanical Design aurora borealis. This current has never been directly measured and doing so will provide important information Electrical Design on how energy is coupled from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. To accomplish this task, Jonathon Amrein designed the mechanical device while Joe Lazzaro designed the electronics. A Rogowski coil, comprised of 7,500 turns of 38-gauge copper wire around a ferrite torus, was chosen as the device to capture the auroral current. Jonathon designed Recommendations for Future Work the prototype Rogowski coil as well as legs and separators to mount the coil onto a holder. Joe designed electronics to filter, amplify, and digitize the signal exiting the coil. The designed device serves as a prototype for a device that will be included on a NASA rocket in 2021. Joe Lazzaro and Jonathon Amrein

Advisors: Dr. Wayne Smith, Dr. Matthew Argall Department of Electrical Engineering University of New Hampshire

The goal of the mechanical design was to design a Rogowski Coil that can capture the desired current. This coil is able to directly measure current through its use of wire turns around a magnetic torus. An alternating current passing through the center of the ring induces an AC magnetic field in the torus and thus a current in the copper winding.

Prototype Ferrite Metal Core with 7500 turns of 38gauge copper wire.

The objective of this project was to design a device capable of directly measuring the electrical current in the aurora borealis. This current has never been directly measured and doing so will provide important information on how energy is coupled from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. The designed device will serve as a prototype for a device that will be on a NASA rocket in 2021.

The goal of the electrical design was to filter, amplify, and digitize the signal coming out of the Rogowski Coil. This was accomplished by using an active bandpass filter and an Arduino with an analog to digital convertor.

3D Printed Stand used for testing with the coil

This figure shows the design of the analog circuit used to amplify and filter the signal. The input stage is a buffer amplifier used to add a high input impedance. The second stage is a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 512 Hz. The third stage is a high pass filter with a cutoff frequency of .1 Hz. The final stage is an amplifier with a gain of 32 dB.

These figures show a 3D model created in SOLIDWORKS for a holder which will attach the coil to the rocket. The figure on the left shows the model put together and the expanded view on the right shows how the individual parts connect.

This figure shows the simulation of the analog circuit. Here, the red curve is the filter output.

Measured Frequency Response of the Rogowski Coil

Measured Frequency Response of the Analog Circuit

Digital Output of the Analog Circuit

Testing was completed with the use of an Agilent 35670A Dynamic Signal Analyzer. This had a built in function generator which was used as a source to the coil. This source was set to 1 Vpp and connected to a 1 kilo Ohm resistor which was in series with a foot-long copper wire. The copper wire was run through the middle of the coil and induced a current on the coil. A dual power supply of +/- 5 volts powered the operational amplifiers in the circuit.

The testing setup is shown above. The signal analyzer is on the left and the power supply is on the right.

The output of the coil was attached as the input to the circuit built on a breadboard. An AC sweep from 1 Hz to 4 KHz was performed and the measurement across the output of the circuit is shown above. These results met all design specifications and proved the designed device worked correctly. • Add a feedback winding to the coil to flatten the frequency response so all frequencies are weighted equally • Put the circuit on a printed circuit board and permanently attach it to the coil • Design a casing for the device to protect it from the atmosphere it will face in space

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Development of Kapton Flexible Antennae for Various Bandwidths


ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

ECE LunaCats AUTHORS: Ioan Diaconu Mariem Hassan Samantha Perez Ryan Reynolds ADVISORS: John LaCourse MD Shaad Mahmud May-Win Thein

The ECE team’s senior design project was working with the interdisciplinary Lunacats to build a fully autonomous mining robot through research, electromagnetics, and the fundamental tools and design process gained throughout their four years of education. The motivation for student participation in this project was not only to get first hand experience in designing systems from scratch, but also gain a better understanding on how important it is for other disciplines to work together in a real world scenario to achieve a common goal. The ECE team chose this project to not only challenge themselves and By: explore, in depth, the real life applications Ioan Diaconu of what they’ve learned, but to also grow Mariem Hassan as they learn to work together with many Samantha Perez different disciplines and multiple variables Ryan Reynolds as they would in a professional setting. // When designing the various electrical system’s components, the ECE team not only had to consider how the components function as a part of their own system, but also take into account the needs and designs of the ME and CS teams as well. These considerations added a new level of difficulty to the project as constant communication, consideration on how designs would impact the other disciplines, and redesigning in order to meet the needs of the robot as a whole is required. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ECE team was forced to reevaluate their original project, and shift gears to design a purely theoretical robot. This allowed for them to build and explore new designs, such as a solar powered wireless charging station, that they would have otherwise been unable to consider before. Ultimately, this team designed a robot with autonomous functionality through the use of LIDARs, a control box that includes self designed PWM and H-Bridge PCBs capable of running the various motors, and a charging station that would allow for the robot to function without human interaction on a celestial body.

ECE LunaCats

Environmental Control of a Single-Plant Growth Chamber The goal of this project is to design and implement a control system that controls environmental factors to AUTHOR: Nicolas Sevilla-Connelly provide the best conditions for optimal plant growth to increase resource efficiency and yield. Plants grow

ADVISOR: Michael Carter

their best when they get proper lighting, temperatures, humidity, nutrients, water levels, etc. The system takes input from sensors to actively monitor and change the indoor environment to simulate the optimal conditions for vigorous growth and high yields. To specify the target environment, users can interact with the system to set target temperature, humidity, light intensity, light schedule, etc. The system design resulted in a growth chamber to house a variety of plants with proper climate control to support fast growth while also being resource-efficient, space-efficient, and overall inexpensive.

View presentation

37 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Olivia Edson Nha Huynh Patrick Marquardt Mitchell Mattice Fangzhou Xu ADVISORS: Michael Carter MD Shaad Mahmud

In the past few years, development and exploration of celestial objects has been an ever-growing interest, but any expedition which leaves Earth comes with high costs of transporting materials and notable dangers for any people ECE 792 Final Presentation sent. Extraterrestrial Navigation Swarm (ET Nav Swarm) is an ongoing project charged with the design of a swarm of Presented By: autonomous surface rovers intended to Olivia Edson be used in graduate research to prove the Mitchell Mattice concept of Particle Swarm Optimization, Patrick Marquardt a problem solving technique reliant on Fangzhou Xu having a large number of “agents” to Nha Huynh solve a complex problem. Specifically, the bots were designed as agents that would search a large designated Date 5/8/2020 area for a specified point to prove that PSO is viable as an option for exploratory or resource-hunting missions on extraterrestrial surfaces, thus reducing the hazards of these journeys. The goal for the past year was to create a fleet of 10 to 20 rovers that would be fully autonomous, durable, and reliable for testing in an outdoor environment on uneven terrain. Because this project has been ongoing, the team had the work from previous years to improve upon. After considering the concerns of the graduate student conducting the research, the old rover design was revamped to include an improved electronics interior to the bot that would no longer fall prone to loose connections and unsecured components. The suspension and shells of the bot were also reworked to improve recoverability and ease of construction for when the swarm size needs to be increased. Through the design process, this team was able to build 10 rovers of high dependability that were successful in operating autonomously and functioned during the preliminary testing of the predesigned PSO code.

ET Nav Swarm

Hybrid Engine Rocket Ignition and Control AUTHORS: Trevor Blampied Meg Johnson Ben Letourneau Thomas Pham ADVISOR: Kent Chamberlin

Control of a hybrid rocket engine is dependent upon a robust system capable of executing commands at precise times. In order to accomplish this, hardware systems must be in place to control the flow of a pressurized gas and provide feedback to launch site personnel. Through the use of solenoid valves and wireless transceivers, control over the thrust of a rocket can be accomplished. In order to understand this information and provide a user-friendly interface to complete this, a launch control module is used. Through the combined capabilities of the two system it becomes possible to test and launch a hybrid engine rocket in a safe and efficient manner.

Hybrid Rocket Engine Ignition & Control Created By: Ben Letourneau Trevor Blampied Meg Johnson Thomas Pham

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ET Nav Swarm


ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Internet of Things (IOT Security) AUTHORS: Matthew Beliveau ADVISOR: Qiaoyan Yu View presentation

With the widespread use of RFID systems in our society today, from credit cards to doors, this constant passing of information can leave data exposed. Potential cyber-attacks that can be had on these systems position us to learn how these attacks can be had and how to protect ourselves. There are attempts to respond to and deny cyber-attacks, but with growing technology and limitations from cost there is still a chance for our personal data to be stolen. To explore how this information can be passed we can model and create our own RFID system to perform tests on and see how it will respond to cyber-attacks. The attacks are modeled around entry into an access system like into an electronically locked room. Beginning to learn how these attacks function and how they are utilized will help us on the path to try an implement counter measures to help further secure our information from these attacks.

M4 Automatic Targeting and Stabilization System AUTHOR: Darien Blow Christopher Flannery ADVISORS: Richard Messner Se Young Yoon View presentation

In combat, small movements and reaction time can make the difference between hitting your intended target and missing. In this project, the goal was to design, build, and test a device that could accomplish both tasks. First, this device had to be able recognize a target and if the current point of aim was within a certain distance from the target, the device had to physically move the rifle so that the new point of aim for the intended target. Secondly, this device needed to, at the push of a button, be able actively maintain the current point of aim regardless of external perturbations. We experienced many issues in the process of working on this project ranging from forced redesign of the entire physical test setup and lack of proper documentation of certain components. The reason for the project not being completed is because of difficulty in measuring the input/output relationship of the system and using this information to create a compensator to actively stabilize the system. The problem was caused by the fact that a person had to hold the simulated weapon to measure the system response. This method proved too unreliable to make proper measurements Secondary reasons for the project being incomplete can also be pinpointed to the worldwide pandemic and its effects on logistics. More importantly, the discovery of hardware constraints that existed with the Raspberry Pi proved to also be a complete obstruction to the original goals of the design. Due to the inadequate processing power provided by the ARM CPU, the framerate was deemed to be insufficient for true object tracking and could only function as more of a motion tracking device for weapons targeting. This poses several problems in practical situations including safety issues since motion tracking is indiscriminate. More powerful hardware solutions would have remedied this issue if the funding existed for it. With sufficient framerates for pattern recognition or some other method of tracking the desired target object, this would have provided a sufficient rate of coordinate updates for the Arduino to apply corrective measures to, and ultimately allow the weapon to aim on target without falling behind due to low framerates. Overall, this projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s theoretical solution can be considered very sound, and would have been most successful if the current circumstances did not come to fruition and more capable hardware had been acquired. In absolute certainty, further investigation with the proper resources would lead to a fully functioning prototype in a very short amount of time.

39 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Russell Anderson ADVISOR: Michael Carter View presentation

Radio frequency circuits encompass a wide range of applications that are used across the globe and are essential for modern communication. Cellular communication happens at high frequencies which require unique solutions to complex electrical engineering problems. Typical electrical components behave differently at high frequencies which is why radio frequency or RF engineering is a growing field within electrical engineering. Modeling, testing, and characterizing high frequency systems is crucial for modern cellular communication. Major cellular carriers use multiple frequency bands for high-speed data transfer and wireless communication. These bands are used across the globe offering a unique opportunity for research in systems that can operate within any region of the world. This research demonstrates a realworld application for cellular signal communication while designing, building, and testing a high frequency system.

The Design, Development, and Testing of a Choice/Serial Reaction-Time Apparatus for EEG Instrumentation AUTHORS: Colin Carlson Ian Johnston ADVISORS: Ronald Croce Wayne Smith View presentation

Choice and serial reaction time tasks are commonly used to understand motor control, learning, and memory processes, and how these are affected by aging, neurodegenerative diseases, or other such factors. This project entailed the designing and testing of an apparatus for measuring choice and serial reaction times. Choice and serial are different types of reaction testing. Choice gives a random sequence of stimuli whereas serial gives a predetermined pattern of stimuli. The apparatus uses up to five reaction buttons which gives the option of up to five stimuli. With an Arduino microcontroller at the heart of the project, we were able to design and build the product with few problems and allowed for easy expandability in the future. For a stimulus we decided to go with a multicolored LED because of its simplicity and speed. When completed, this apparatus was supposed to connect to a trigger box via BNC and send time stamps when the stimulus appeared and when the correct response button was pressed. These timestamps can be used with electroencephalography and electromyography to carry out various reaction time and motor control studies. That was the plan anyway, however, a pandemic caused schoolwide closures and the project could not be fully completed. Even with the unfortunate COVID-19 pandemic, a lot was learned and accomplished. We learned a lot about programming, designing and problem solving, as well as gaining a lot of real world experience. Though we were unable to finish this project, there isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a lot left to be done, and it can be easily accomplished by whomever picks up this project next.

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Radio Frequency Power Amplifier for Cellular Signal Application


ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

UNH-IOL Automated Interoperability Board AUTHOR: Jonathan LaFrance ADVISOR: Nicholas Kirsch View presentation

The project explores different techniques used to design and fabricate a prototype PCB board that will be used for third party telecommunication testing services. The Automated Interoperability Board when fully implemented is intended to streamline the process of testing done at the UNH Interoperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL). The purpose of the board is to allow a single piece of hardware controlled by software to be used by a test technician to autonomously run tests in the test suite. The main goal is to create a hardware solution that can act as a switch for ethernet ports, while having no impact on the testing being done and minimizing the echoes of the cable plant it is connected to. Therefore, the design process used explores different techniques used to minimize attenuation, retain signal integrity, and achieve nonblocking differential routing using a Crosspoint switch. A test plan was made to explore the effectiveness of the fabricated board but was not able to be implemented. Overall, the project was not a success as the original goal set was to design a fully functional Interoperability board but, the prototype can be used as starting port for further revisions of the board.

VHF Radio Direction Finding AUTHOR: Ryan Morrison ADVISOR: Kent Chamberlin

The purpose of this project was to explore a method of passive radiofrequency direction finding using common ship communications channels. The objective of the direction-finding effort is to provide a means for an oceangoing drone to avoid collisions with other vessels.

VHF Radio DirectionFinding

Direction finding is achieved using trigonometric interferometry which uses paired antennas to receive signals Senior Project byRyanMorrison radiated by nearby ships. The phase 5/8/20 relationships for those signals observed at the antenna pairs gives a good estimate for the angles of arrival (AoA) for those signals. Those AoAs and the rate at which they change can be used to identify the likelihood potential collisions and can provide guidance with regards to collision avoidance strategies in real time.

41 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Devanshu Prasad ADVISOR: MD Shaad Mahmud

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The purpose of the project was to develop a wearable ring sensor for continuous measurement of heartbeat rate. The heart rate sensor architecture utilizes a MAX30105 heart rate sensor which was programmed to interface via I2C using the NRF52 development kit which then sends the data to an NRF smartphone application. The original plan was to program, fabricate and test the sensor. But due to a lack of programming skills in Embedded-C and time deficiency due to COVID-19, the project could not be completed. The project was divided into several stages such as the research stage, design stage and the testing stage. The first stage was the research stage, where several papers were read to gain knowledge regarding background material related to the project such as the different electronic components such as heart rate sensor, accelerometer and microprocessors. In the design stage, the MAX30105 was programmed to read heart rate sensor data via I2C and send the data to the NRF 52 development kit which then send the data to a NRF smartphone app. The implementation stage regarding the fabrication of the PCB containing the various electronic components and the testing stage of the fabricated PCB to get an accurate measure of heart rate was not completed. The major challenge faced during the project was writing the code in an embedded environment to interface via I2C with the NRF-52 board. Another major challenge that could have been faced was the fabrication of the PCB since the ring sensor had to be of a miniature size and fit all the electronic components such as heart rate sensor, accelerometer, microprocessor and power supply. Another main objective was to develop the heart rate sensor so that it used low power and could also last a significant amount of time without recharge.

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ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Wearable Ring Sensor for Continuous Measurement of Heartbeat


A Communications Platform for Robotic Platforms using Software Defined Radios AUTHORS: Kaitlyn Laliberte Stephanie Lo ADVISORS: Nicholas Kirsch

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

View presentation

The purpose of the project was to design a cost-effective and energy-efficient communication platform between various robotic platforms running Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The goal was to use the Ettus B200mini software-defined radio (SDR) and Raspberry Pi 4 to communicate packets of data over a distance of 500 meters. However, the SDRs were only able to successfully transmit and receive information up to about 100 meters due to the lower grade antennas that were used. Additionally, while the SDR’s bandwidth ranged from 70MHz to 6GHz, only frequencies between 650MHz-1.1GHz were able to be utilized. Following the creation of the communication platform, MATLAB was used to simulate and analyze the power consumption of the communication process when utilizing information from the PSO algorithm to reduce transmission power between robots. By predetermining the transmission power, up to an average of 32.9 dBm of power could be saved per robot.

Appledore Island Power Grid AUTHORS: Thor Bartlett Patrick Chang Kai Chatfield-Kinjo ADVISOR: Michael Carter

Digital image processing is employed and utilized to select desirable plant breeding stock based on physical traits such as leaf area, bloom size, bloom color, and bloom count. These characteristics are important to researchers and breeders. 12 strings of 24 two volt 1500 Ah batteries are recommended for additional battery storage to meet the demands for the day with the highest energy consumption. This was calculated using Appledore Island’s load data. The load profile for a typical day on Appledore Island was plotted using MATLAB. The load profiles were plotted against the PV generation profiles to observe how the load compares to the island’s PV generation capabilities. The load profiles were also used to determine the energy consumption for each day. The highest energy consumption for a single day from the 2019 Appledore Island season was 320.21 kWh. This energy consumption was used in calculations for additional battery storage for the island. It was calculated that a battery bank of 6671 Ah would be required to run the island solely off battery power collected by the PV arrays. The PV generation data was acquired using the online tool PVWatts Calculator from NREL as there was no historical recorded data. After sorting and consolidating the raw data from multiple iterations of the calculator, three profiles of the PV generation were plotted displaying the day of peak load, the day of peak generation, and the average of PV from June 6 to August 2. An accurate estimate of the PV generational capabilities of the green grids was made using these profiles.

43 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Automated Foosball Table AUTHORS: Spencer Couture Elijah Missildine Timothy Ryan Mitchell Sternberg ADVISOR: Richard Messner

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

View presentation

The goal of the project is the automation of the defensive portion of one side of a foosball table. The foosball table has been modified to include a camera to track the ball and motors to control the players. The video stream is analyzed in order to make predictions on the ball's future locations. From these predictions, the players are moved in a position to block the shot. The program determines which player is in the most optimal position to prevent the ball from entering the goal. The system is able to block all shots originating from the opposing side of the table. A graphical interface is used to show where the computer determines the ball's position is and to adjust the color of the ball that is being used. The graphical interface also shows the user the projected path the ball will take. The University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory has chosen to sponsor the project, as they would like to keep this project as a platform for showcasing image processing, predictive algorithms, and motor control. This leads to future students being able to further develop the project with regards to any of these aspects. As a result, the program is developed to be modular so that it can be used and expanded upon by future developers.

Creating an Automated Hydroponic Control System AUTHOR: Devin Borchard ADVISORS: Todd Guerdat Mehmet Kayaalp Wayne Smith

The goal of this project is to create an automated hydroponic control system. Hydroponics is the practice of growing plants in a soilless media. The environment of these plants need to be precisely controlled to grow properly. This system is responsible for monitoring and maintaining the humidity, temperature, and light, of a growing area. The system collects data Devin Borchard of the growing area through the use of Advisors: wireless sensors that communicate with Dr. Wayne Smith the main device. The device uses this Dr. Mehmet Kayaalp collected data to determine if any of the Dr. Todd Guerdat previously mentioned environmental factors need to be modified. If they do it tells a connected relay board to turn on or off a connected peripheral. The peripherals are connected through outlets wired through the relays to the main power supply. The user is able to change the desired settings of the environment through the user interface. The UI is run though the main device controller and displays to any attached HDMI monitor. The UI keeps track of the time, displays the current sensor readings, and allows the user to adjust settings with a 4x4 keypad. There are products like this on the market, but they are more expensive than a novice grower would like to pay. This device can do what commercial devices can do for less of the cost.

CREATING AN AUTOMATED HYDROPONIC CONTROL SYSTEM

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Improving Autonomous Mapping Algorithms AUTHORS: Gaddi Fils Aime Alvin Lagu Corey Weiss

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

ADVISOR: Se Young Yoon

The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Problem has had many solutions proposed over the years. A major issue with many of the proposed solutions is that they are computationally heavy, often experiencing calculations in 2 and 3 dimensions, which exponentially increases the number of calculations necessary to solve your location and picture your surroundings. The primary Presented by Alvin Lagu, Corey Weiss, Gaddi Fils-Aime goal of the approach shown in this experiment is to reduce the computation of direction and speed to a onedimensional computation. This is done with a filter that reduces the target data to only the walls of interest and then a check to see if there are open spaces to go through. This would significantly decrease the time spent calculating movement which would in turn improve the speed of the autonomous movement algorithm.

Improving Autonomous Mapping Algorithms

Marine Energy Collegiate Competition Research: Tidal Energy Installations on Existing Bridge Structures AUTHORS: Christopher Foster Catherine Sullivan ADVISORS: Erin Bell Michael Carter Martin Wosnik

The purpose of this project was to design a modular tidal energy conversion (TEC) Marine Energy Collegiate Competition Research: system that could be integrated into the infrastructure of estuarine bridges Tidal Energy Installations on Existing Bridge Structures to improve the resiliency of the power ECE 792 Final Presentation -- May 8th, 2020 sources in coastal communities. The goal ECE Student Team: Catherine Sullivan & Christopher Foster Faculty Advisors: Dr. Michael Carter (ECE), Dr. Erin Bell (CEE), Dr. Martin Wosnik (ME) of this project was to design a system that could offer a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) that was comparable to that offered by other power sources such as coal plants, solar farms, etc. This project also had an additional focus on the business aspects of the design as the Marine Energy Collegiate Competition had a significant focus on this. The project was successful in designing a system as well as defining a method for producing information that relates the LCOE of a given location with regard to the number of turbines implemented with the said system.

45 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Jason Bortolussi ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

View presentation

QuadSat Swarm is a multi-year interdisciplinary project which attempts to create a swarm of autonomous quadcopters to be used as a test platform in satellite modeling and dynamics. By using quadcopters to model these dynamics, a cost-efficient method has been produced to see how satellites would act in a set constellation around Earth. However, this project could not just immediately jump into creating a swarm of autonomous quadcopters. One quadcopter, like the one in shown below, first had to be assembled to introduce the students to the mechanics and dynamics of the system through the use of a handheld transmitter. From there, the students developed an autonomous quadcopter and could then be replicated so a swarm of them would be produced. This project will also be able to act to further the progress of graduate studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control algorithms so the quadcopters can be implemented in swarm formation. The goal of this project was to design, build and test a rugged autonomous quadcopter that is duplicatable for swarm purposes. It also needed to be cost efficient, a point of consideration which goes back to making this duplicatable. However, the components that go into making quadcopters are fairly expensive which is why we need this to be cost efficient. Stability is also a key component due to safety reasons. The quadcopters that are constructed need to be able to operate in small spaces which could lead to injury if not properly designed and assembled.

Open Compute Project NIC 3.0 (Thermal Study) AUTHOR: Ashnav Lal ADVISOR: Kent Chamberlin

The main objective of my project is to reduce the temperature of the servers by 10-20% using the OCP NIC. To meet this purpose, I have made a thermal model (described in Page 9 ) of the Thermal Tool (that includes a list of thermal tests made by me), TTF, OCP NIC and Server that has helped me to accomplish my goal as I could not run it on the actual equipment. The thermal tool is my contribution to the project that can be fitted or loaded into the OCP TTF holding the OCP NIC and it includes a list of thermal tests listed below that can auto configure the traffic and air flow between the servers to improve their performance and reduce the heat generated by them.

HOW TO MAKE DATA CENTERS COOLER AND REDUCE THE THERMAL HEAT?

BY: ASHNAV LAL

ADVISOR: PROF. KENT CHAMBERLIN

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QuadSat Swarm


Verifying the OCP NIC 3.0 Bifurcation Mechanism AUTHOR: Joshua Rush ADVISOR: Qiaoyan Yu

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

View presentation

This project involved the verification of the bifurcation mechanism of the Open Compute Project (OCP) NIC 3.0 interface. Development of the NIC 3.0 interface was achieved through the collaboration of many companies through the Open Compute Project. Implementation of the specification is nearly complete and with that there needs to be some form of verification to make sure that the goals have been met. My project involved creating a decoding algorithm to determine what the resulting link would be between a NIC 3.0 card and baseboard. The decoding algorithm was nearly completely implemented in a MATLAB GUI for a testing tool that will be By: Joshua Rush used by the University of New Hampshire Interoperability Laboratory. All thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s left to do is implement support for communicating relevant information between MATLAB and the Arduino IDE.

Verifying the OCP NIC 3.0 Bifurcation Mechanism

Tutoring App AUTHORS: Andrew O'Neil R. Spencer Rees ADVISOR: Richard Messner Matthew Plumlee View presentation

The Tutoring App project aimed to design a mobile app providing a convenient platform that will solve multiple academic support issues in a university setting. The app will connect students who need help with a specific course to a person(s) who has/have done well in the same course and is looking for a simple way to get paid for tutoring that student. We believe this app will provide value to both students and tutors and enhance learning and collaboration where it is implemented. The essay will start off discussing all of the design procedures and objectives of the application created. It will go through how and why the authors thought of the idea and how it will be useful for the target markets. The design documentation will examine the coding behind the scenes of the app. There will also be a laid-out Gantt chart to explain each person's contribution to the tutoring application. Ethical considerations are important as well and below is a section exclusively discussing any ethical concerns with the application itself. This application will change tutoring from its embarrassing stigma and turn it into a normalized action for students wanting to make the most out of their education.

47 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


UNH-IOL Automated Interoperability Testing Ethernet Switch

ADVISOR: Qiaoyan Yu

Ethernet interoperability testing at the UNH IOL is a long and repetitive process Automation of Interop Testing Jacob Baker, Jonathan LaFrance, Jessica Lemere, University of New Hampshire that must occur between a single Requirements Introduction Conclusions device-under-test (DUT) and twenty link • Hardware: This project is designed to automate the • We have created a nice framework partners. Tests include various power-up Interop testing of copper BASE-T for future work to be built off from devices. Interop testing consists of 3 • A prototype board was built scenarios, a bit error rate test and a stress power-up scenarios, BER testing, and a • Initial firmware was created stress test. Each test is run with 20 link • First steps of software added to partners. The goal of this project is to test. These tests require a test technician existing application have a HW/SW solution that will allow a technician to set up all 20 link partners to manually power on and turn off (plus a few spares), with both cables plants, and the traffic generator and any DUTs and link partners and enter automatically control the powering and initializing of the link partners, the commands into the devices terminal. An connection to the cable plants, and the transmission of traffic from the traffic Next Steps automated Ethernet interop testing suite generator. • Connect locally to devices for Objectives • Software: would be able to significantly decrease testing • Expand pre-written tests for more test coverage the total testing time by removing much of the repetitive manual work. The project has three components: hardware, firmware, and software. This abstract relates to the firmware portion of the project. Using the internal IOL network, the firmware can receive instructions from the software that tell the firmware how the 54-port hardware interface should route its ethernet traffic. Then, over an I​2​C connection, the firmware would control a series of crosspoint switches in the hardware so that the connections between ports specified by the software are made. At this semester’s conclusion, the firmware had not reached a completed state. Ethernet frame reception and transmission does function, as well as basic controls for debugging. However a software instruction frame format was not designed, and the I​2​C bus was unable to be confirmed functional. While not an ideal conclusion to the project, future teams will be able continue working on the project to bring it to a working state. • Link Partners:

• 22 link partners to allow for 2 spares, each needs the possibility of using 2 ports for a switch • 2 ports for the traffic generator • 2 ports for the DUT • 6 Additional ports for fixed connections • 22*2+2+2+6 = 54 Station Connection points (Probably round up to 64 if you like powers of 2)

• Channel Selection, i.e. Connect any combination above to: • A high attenuation cable plant • A low attenuation cable plant

• Determination of the optimal location in the test channel to minimize effects on the electrical characteristics of the test channel (suggest looking at the end of the “equipment cord” to the horizontal main cable plant. • Channels must still meet TIA/ANSi requirement for all connections within a 1dB tolerance for Attenuation and minimized for other parameters.

To save time and effort by automating testing for copper BASET devices. Currently to test one device with one Link Partner can take upwards of 30 minutes. This is not idle time, as test technician has to be present to plug and unplug the Device Under Test and the Link Partner. This has to be repeated with other link partners to determine if the Device Under Test truly passes the tests. Automation of Ethernet Interop testing will remove the need for testers to deal with plugging and unplugging cables for different tests. Automation of this process with allow students to be more productive and focus on other tasks such as running more tests or development work. Instead of taking up hours of a technicians time testing one device, they would be able to set up the Device Under Test and walk away, freeing up this time for students will allow the IOL as a whole to be more productive and allow students to spend more time learning important skills.

• Randomly select 22 link partners from testbed for speed being tested • Connect with Networked Tripplite power strips to power on/off LPs and DUT • Initialize Link Partners and DUTs • Control the transmission of traffic from the traffic generator • Control which LP and which cable plant is being used for each test • Output results into DB/excel file • GUI should request DUT info for reporting and for whether the DUT is a switch or a Loopback/endstation and pick LPs appropriately

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 48

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

AUTHOR: Jacob Baker


Building a CTD to Correct Refraction Errors in Sonar Mapping AUTHORS: Matthew Furletti Emma Tobbe ADVISOR: Val Schmidt

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

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Collaborative Robotics AUTHORS: Hunter Clark Emilie Leavitt Thomas Oliver Kathleen Terwilliger ADVISOR: Michael Locke

Working to create a robot capable of learning tasks by being shown them rather than coding them, our group learned many fundamentals. Through studying ROS software we made a game for a robot to select different color object based on which color objects the user picks. With our efforts then finally getting moved to a robot simulation program called Gazebo.

View presentation

Collaborative Robotics Hunter Clark, Emilie Leavitt, Thomas Oliver, Kathleen Terwilliger

49 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Innovation Scholars Spring 2020


Design of Instrumentation Port for UNH Oscillating Flume AUTHOR: Margaret Enderle ADVISOR: Savannah Devoe

Design of Instrumentation Port for UNH Oscillating Flume Margaret Enderle Graduate Student Mentor: Savannah DeVoe

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

Actuators in Space AUTHORS: Kendall Boniecki Luke Conroy Annie Duong Lucas Guerrette Ian Lindberg Joseph Prescott ADVISOR: Michael Locke View presentation

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;¢ 50


Drifting Along: A Freshwater Salinity Buoy AUTHORS: Benjamin Brockway Matthew Eaton Benjamin Hodsdon Sunjay Sood

DRIFTING ALONG:

A FRESHWATER SALINITY BUOY

ADVISOR: Josh Humberston

BEN BROCKWAY, BEN HODSDON, MATT EATON, SUNJAY SOOD

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

MENTOR: JOSH HUMBERSTON

Feedback With Robotic Appendages AUTHORS: Hassan Al-Jewad Nathanael Frisch Bryan McKenney Eric Smith ADVISOR: Jeffrey Lapak

Certain robotic arm technologies could be improved with haptic or optical feedback to the user. Some of the areas where improvement can be made are things like toxic waste management, prosthetics, and remote Surgery. The goal is to figure out the best way of providing feedback to the user.

View presentation

● Certain robotic arm technologies could be improved with haptic or optical feedback to the user. ● Some of the areas where improvement can be made: ○ Toxic waste management ○ Prosthetics ○ Remote Surgery ● The goal is to figure out the best way of providing feedback to the user.

● Distance Sensing ○ This IR sensor uses a phototransistor output, emitting a larger value when there is less light. ○ We can use this to sense when the robot is getting close or touching. ● Robotic Claw ○ Used Arduino code with a Vex Robotics Motor to programmatically open and close a claw. ○ Controlled commands with input from computer.

Special thanks to the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory as well as to Timothy Carlin and Jeffrey Lapak for funding and academic support of this project.

51 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

● Distance is not an easy thing to measure ○ Capacitive sensor versus IR sensor. ● Visual comparison

● Where we are now. ○ Claw that can open and close around objects using computer controls. ○ Sensor that can sense touch and close proximity. ● Where We Want to Go? ○ Haptic gauntlet with motion controls to simulate real arm movements and touch. ○ Testing with different shaped objects. ○ Full wireless control.

1. Okamura A. M. (2009). Haptic feedback in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Current opinion in urology, 19(1), 102–107. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0b013e32831a478c 2. Bimbo, Joao & Pacchierotti, Claudio & Aggravi, Marco & Tsagarakis, Nikos & Prattichizzo, Domenico. (2017). Teleoperation in cluttered environments using wearable haptic feedback. 3401-3408. 10.1109/IROS.2017.8206180.


John Olson Advanced Manufacturing Center Giveaway AUTHORS: Riley Drew Nathaniel McCarvill James Wirth

Injection Molding Cont.

ADVISOR: Michael Locke View presentation

Levitation and Its Practical Applications AUTHORS: Phoebe Adame Elena Chan Jordan Labossiere ADVISOR: Michael Locke View presentation

Levitation and how it can advance society to a higher quality of life has always fascinated mankind, often seen in sci-fi movies/shows and other fictional media. This presentation includes research and plans for building a levitation track using a superconductor. It also includes the practical applications of levitation and how it can make the future mankind has always wanted to see. This project involves a lot of physics, but also includes topics of mechanical, chemical, and environmental engineering.

Levitation and Its Practical Applications

Phoebe Adame, Elena Chan, Jordan Labossiere Undergraduate Research Conference ---- Innovation Scholars Cohort: Advanced Manufacturing 2020

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 52

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

Finally, to produce the shield on the injection molding machine, we first need to make the mold. To manufacture the mold, we will use the CNC mill to cut out the shape of the mold.


Surging Water in Durham: Measuring Springtime Water Level Changes in the Oyster River AUTHORS: Anna Gombas Garrett Mallard Isabel Medeiros Katherine Metzger ADVISORS: Anne Lightbody

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

View presentation

Using a High-Altitude Balloon to Measure Air Quality and Atmospheric Structure in Urban and Rural New Hampshire AUTHORS: Jeremy Larkin Matthew Libby Madeline Strange Sarah Young ADVISORS: Anne Lightbody Charles Smith

Using a High-Altitude Balloon to Measure Air Quality and Atmospheric Structure in Urban and Rural New Hampshire

By Maddie Strange, Jeremy Larkin, Sarah Young and Matt Libby

53 â&#x20AC;¢ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Water Electrolysis The process of water electrolysis is demonstrated in a chamber designed to be a smaller part of a large reactor that can produce liquid oxygen and methane.

Project Outline Water Electrolysis● Create a miniature AliceWade andIanBresnahan

ADVISOR: Young Jo Kim

water electrolysis reactor ● Converts Water into 2H2 and O 2 ● Synthesis of rocket fuel using resources that could be found on Mars

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Wireless Data Processing System for IoT-Enabled Devices AUTHORS: Eli Duggan Samuel Mercer Tinh Phuong Orianne Sinclair ADVISOR: Timothy Carlin Jeffrey Lapak View presentation

Researchers often spend their time and resources to retrieve data manually. This may disturb delicate sensors and risk data loss or corruption. In order to address this, our system utilizes a fivephase wireless data processing design that systematically collects data at a remote location, processes it, transmits it from the remote location to a server over a network, stores it, and displays it through a variety of JavaScript-based functions on a website. It is designed to be implementable with any IoT-enabled devices for any project-specific purpose.

Wireless Data Processing System for IoT-Enabled Devices Samuel Mercer, Tinh Phuong, Eli Duggan, Orianne Sinclair Advisors: Timothy Carlin, Jeffrey Lapak

University of New Hampshire Innovation Scholars 2020

Introduction

Approach

Researchers often spend their time and resources to retrieve data manually. Doing so may disturb delicate sensors and risk data loss or corruption.

• Our project’s aim is to create an adaptable system to wirelessly transmit data from an IoT-enabled sensor to UNH

Our project addresses these issues with an inexpensive, flexible wireless transmission system that transmits data from anywhere within 40 miles of a Senet tower and stores it in a database for end-use applications.

• Core components of the system (Pi, server, database) need minimal modification from project to project

Implementation

• The system is composed of an IoT sensor, Raspberry Pi, server, database, and end application (website, graphs, etc.)

• IoT sensor and frontend of server can vary depending on the user’s needs

Transmission to Server (at UNH)

Devices at Location A

Backend of the Server

Frontend of the Server

Figure 3. Generalized approach involving how each part of the processing system stockpiles data.

Design

• Partnered with ‘Surging Waters in Durham’ team • Implemented system to display project-specific data from Arduino sensors Figure 1. ‘Surging Water’ Arduino sensor

Advantages • Wide range of coverage • Instant sensor feedback • Cheap and customizable • Modular

Figure 4. IoT-device paired with Raspberry Pi.

Figure 5. LoRa-equipped Raspberry Pi

Figure 6. Activated LoRa connection.

Phase 1: IoT Device Device collects data and sends it to Pi for character conversion and splicing for Python-based files.

Phase 2: File Conversion Data is written to a JSON file. Most recent line on the JSON file is read and encoded in bytes on Pi.

Phase 3: Transmission Pi sends data package to the server from its location over the Senet Network using LoRa.

• Organized data Figure 2: Senet Network coverage

Next Steps • Enhance usability for inexperienced programmers • Create an application for project-specific designs • Expand networking range • Offer use of system to UNH researchers

Acknowledgments Thank you to UNH, the UNH-IOL, and the Department of Ocean Engineering for their commitment to our research. Further thanks to Kyle Ouellette and Anthony Pilotte for guiding us through our research.

Figure 8. JavaScript-based graphs generated using sample data from two test runs.

Phase 5: Website Display Using jQuery, our website retrieves JSON data from the database while concurrently generating graphs on the server with HTML and JavaScript.

Figure 7. The server design that allows communication between the frontend and the backend.

Phase 4: Server Framework and Database Server collects the data package, decodes it, and appends it to an SQL database. From here, the website calls the backend of the server to echo the data between the two phases.

Winning Project

2020 INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 54

INNOVATION SCHOLARS

AUTHORS: Ian Bresnahan Alice Wade


An Analysis of the Use of Fibonacci Sequence in Unrelated Mathematical Disciplines AUTHOR: Molly Boodey ADVISOR: Edward Hinson View presentation

The Fibonacci Sequence is recognizable to many – the pattern 1,1,2,3,5,8… is well known for its elegant simplicity. Although these numbers were possibly studied before the time of Fibonacci, the sequence was first given attention in the book Liber Abaci, written by Fibonacci in 1202 (Grimaldi, 2012). While Fibonacci originally expressed this sequence as the number of rabbits present after n generations, today we discuss the sequence using the recursive relationship Fn = Fn-2 + Fn-1 where F1 = F2 = 1. While this sequence appears simple on the surface, it can be shown to be extremely versatile and widely applicable to the majority of mathematical disciplines. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate just how far-reaching this sequence is – specifically by looking into how it plays a role in areas as diverse as primality testing, Hilbert’s problems, probability, convergence testing, and more. In doing so, this thesis will illuminate connections between concepts that may at first seem unrelated and allow the reader to appreciate the value of this fundamental sequence.

Winning Project

2020

Patient Decisions Regarding Cancer Gene Panel Testing: An Exploratory Study AUTHOR: Alyson Caruso ADVISORS: Michelle Capozzoli Margaret Emmet Kristen Mahoney Shannon

With regards to the practice of genetic counseling in the realm of cancer genetics, the normalcy surrounding cancer genetic testing has shifted within recent years. Following the Association for Molecular Pathology vs. Myriad Genetics, 2013 as well as the advent of multigene panel testing, the options to patients seeking genetic testing has broadened. Prior to this, genetic counselors typically kept the discussion solely to single gene testing within the scope of the patient’s family phenotype. The aim at this study was to explore how patient’s make decisions regarding multigene panel testing. There is limited data in the current literature of cancer genetic counseling of how patients make decisions regarding multigene panel testing.

MATHEMATICS & STATISTICS

View presentation

Honorable Mention Project

2020 55 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHORS: Cody Best Debarpan Bhowmick Courtney Conway ADVISOR: May-Win Thein View presentation

ET NavSwarm is a multidisciplinary team specializing in the development of a rover platform to test swarm robotics. The goal is to test a particle swarm optimization algorithm which uses mathematical principles to find the best/most of a desired objective. This is accomplished through a swarm of 10-20 rugged, autonomous rovers to survey an area for elevation.

Team Members: Cody Best, Debarpan Bhowmick, Courtney Conway, Olivia Edson, Nha Huynh, Patrick Marquardt, Mitchell Mattice, Jimmy Xu

Mission Statement

Electronics

The goal is to design and test fully autonomous robots in order to implement a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. This algorithm will then be tested on an open field where the swarm of bots needs to locate and travel to the highest point of elevation.

Arduino Mega Controller 2560 â&#x2014;? Analog and digital input/output â&#x2014;? Reads data for various tasks Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) â&#x2014;? Uses pulse width modulation from Arduino to power motors â&#x2014;? One ESC powers two motors, one for each side of the bot Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) â&#x2014;? Accelerometer, magnetometer, gyroscope â&#x2014;? Determines roll, pitch and yaw with 9 degrees of freedom Global Positioning System (GPS) â&#x2014;? Locates up to 22 satellites â&#x2014;? Tracks current and future locations of bots XBee and Shield â&#x2014;? 2.2 GHz transmitter/receiver â&#x2014;? Allows for swarm data communication Battery â&#x2014;? 10,000 mAh capacity LiPo pack â&#x2014;? Provides overall power to bot OLED Screen â&#x2014;? 1â&#x20AC;? display for troubleshooting messages â&#x2014;? Outputs status of bot in real time

Advisors: Professor May-Win Thein, Gregory Hatfield

Capabilities â&#x2014;? 2 hour run time

â&#x2014;? Robust and impact resistant

â&#x2014;? 45 degree incline climbing

â&#x2014;? Waterproof

Rover Design Chassis â&#x2014;? 5052 welded sheet aluminum â&#x2014;? 5â&#x20AC;? x 6â&#x20AC;? x 13â&#x20AC;? Drivetrain â&#x2014;? 4WD, tank steering â&#x2014;? DC motors Suspension â&#x2014;? Modified, independent single A-arm RC car suspension â&#x2014;? Custom milled suspension mounting block Mounting Plate â&#x2014;? Internal organization of electronics and wiring for modular design â&#x2014;? Easily removable for troubleshooting Lid â&#x2014;? Laser-cut acrylic, easy view of internals and GPS communication â&#x2014;? Edge gasket for waterproofing â&#x20AC;&#x153;Unicorn Hornâ&#x20AC;? â&#x2014;? Isolated system for IMU to prevent EMF interference â&#x2014;? PVC pipe and 3D printed mount for IMU Rear Chassis Pane â&#x2014;? Ports for charging battery, USB for software uploading, and power switch â&#x2014;? Streamlines cable management and eliminates need to open lid

Acknowledgements for their assistance in this project: Jonathan Ells, Jaiden Evarts, Ryan Bergman, and the ET Navswarm Organization

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

Software and Control

â&#x2014;? Arduino Mega and corresponding software used for all control and PSO calculations â&#x2014;? Communication between rovers facilitated through XBee and corresponding software â&#x2014;? PSO algorithm outputs direction vector, control system is used to physically map out vector â&#x2014;? Control system is designed such that it compensates for low hardware resolution, for example the implementation of thresholds on all control systems output such as direction and velocity â&#x2014;? Can incorporate obstacle avoidance in parallel with PSO control output using IR sensors

â&#x2014;? Based on Swarm Intelligence by mimicking birds and fish â&#x2014;? Mathematical principles for efficient movements and common goals â&#x2014;? Searches for parameters that provide a maximum or minimum of a specific target â&#x2014;? Swarm locates best/most efficient solution â&#x2014;? Requires current velocity, local (personal) best location, and global best location from the search space

Improved Multirotor UAV Flight Controller using Nonlinear Model Predictive Position Control AUTHOR: Andrew Masters ADVISOR: May-Win Thein View presentation

Winning Project

2020

Over the last decade, autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs or â&#x20AC;&#x153;dronesâ&#x20AC;?) have seen increased usage in industrial, research, and academic applications. Multirotor UAVs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; specifically quadrotors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are commonly used due to their high maneuverability, utility, and accessibility. This makes multirotors appealing for commercial or military tasks such as precision agriculture, search and rescue, surveillance, surveying, and film making where the position of the UAV needs to be highly controllable. Quadrotor UAV flight dynamics are a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled, and unstable; Quadrotors are also underactuated systems. This makes developing precision control systems a particularly challenging task.

Improved Multirotor UAV Flight Controller using Nonlinear Model Predictive Position Control Andrew Masters

Dr. May-Win Thein, Faculty Advisor Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH

Background Over the last decade, autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs or â&#x20AC;&#x153;dronesâ&#x20AC;?) have seen increased usage in industrial, research, and academic applications. They are appealing for commercial or military tasks such as precision agriculture, search and rescue, surveillance, surveying, and film making where the position of the UAV needs to be highly controllable. Quadrotor UAV flight dynamics are a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled, and unstable; Quadrotors are also underactuated systems. This makes developing precision control systems a particularly challenging task. Therefore, an optimal control law has been developed to advance the state of the art in position control of multirotor UAVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. A Nonlinear Model Predictive Position Controller (NMPC) was developed A weighted basis function method of optimization is introduced to reduce the computational complexity of the NMPC algorithm. Simulation results show the feasibility of such a control law being implemented on a prototype UAV.

NMPC with Weighted Basis Functions

Fig. 2: NMPC optimization prediction horizon.

Advantages: â&#x20AC;˘ Control inputs are optimized over the full nonlinear model â&#x20AC;˘ Future actions are accounted for â&#x20AC;˘ Different cost functions for different applications

Disadvantages: â&#x20AC;˘ The large computational cost of nonlinear optimization â&#x20AC;˘ The difficulty to prove stability â&#x20AC;˘ The need for an extremely accurate model of the quadrotor Algorithm 1: NMPC with Weighted Basis Functions

Generate Basis Function Choose đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;ÇĄ â&#x201E;&#x17D;ÇĄ đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  for đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ŕľ&#x152; ͳǣ đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; for đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; ŕľ&#x152; ͳǣ đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;

Equation 1: Quadrotor Dynamics

end

Control Law Outline

end

Fig. 4: NMPC Position Control and SMC Attitude Control. 15s simulation, 50Hz controller frequency, 2s prediction horizon w/ 10 basis functions per axis

đ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??šá&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;á&#x2C6;ť ŕľ&#x152; Â&#x2021;Â&#x161;Â&#x2019; â&#x201E;&#x17D; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;

Í´

;

NMPC Basis Function Algorithm Given: Knowns: đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; ÇĄ đ??šđ??šÇĄ đ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??š; Unknowns: đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;

The dual loop controller applying SMC and NMPC is shown in Figure 1. In this configuration, the position controller provides setpoints to the attitude controller which in turn actuates the system. Sliding mode is ideal for the inner attitude loop since it is robust enough to account for unmodeled dynamics and deficient actuators.

while đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? ŕľ? á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; á&#x2C6;ť; Measure initial đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą ŕľ&#x152; đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ;

state:

Shift Prediction Horizon: đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; ŕľ&#x152; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?ÇŁ đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? ŕľ&#x2026; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; á&#x2C6;ť; đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  Ě´đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ??ťđ??ť ŕľ&#x152;  đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?ÇŁ đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? ŕľ&#x2026; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; á&#x2C6;ť; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;Ͳ  ŕľ&#x152; á&#x2C6;žđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ÇŁ ÇĄ Í´ÇŁ đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; ÇĄ Íłá&#x2C6;žÍ´đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;ĽÍłá&#x2C6;ż á&#x2C6;ż;

NMPC is based on an iterative optimization of a set of control inputs over a finite prediction horizon â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a finite window of time in the future. It is capable of finding an exact solution to a trajectory tracking control problem for a predefined, desired trajectory.

Reformulate executable cost function using á&#x2C6;žđ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ÇĄđ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ??ťđ??ť ÇĄ đ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??š] đ??˝đ??˝ đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ŕľ&#x152; đ??˝đ??˝á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą ÇĄ đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ??ťđ??ť ÇĄ đ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??šá&#x2C6;ť; Perform optimization: đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ŕľ&#x152;  Â?Â&#x2039;Â? đ??˝đ??˝ s.t. đ??´đ??´Íł đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ŕľ&#x152; đ??śđ??śÍł ÇĄ đ??´đ??´Í´ đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; â&#x2030;¤ đ??śđ??śÍ´ đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160; đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;

The NMPC-SMC dual loop controller is expected to provide precise control over the UAV position and attitude dynamics, and can be applied to quadrotor research platforms used for spacecraft simulation.

Fig. 3: Gaussian basis function method for fast optimization.

đ??˝đ??˝ ŕľ&#x152; 

Fig. 1: Dual loop NMPC-SMC control law (1) Inner SMC attitude control loop, currently implemented on experimental platform. (2) Outer NMPC position control loop, developed in simulation.

Simulations

đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;ŕľ&#x152;Íł

end

Convert đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ÇĄ đ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??š into đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; , execute đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; Íł : đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ŕľ&#x152; á&#x2C6;şđ??ľđ??ľđ??šđ??šá&#x2C6;ťá&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; á&#x2C6;ť; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; Íł â&#x2020;&#x2019; Attitude controller

đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť ŕľ&#x2026; đ?&#x2018;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť ŕľ&#x2026; Equation 2: NMPC Cost Function

đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;ŕľ&#x152;Íł

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť ŕľ&#x2026; đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;á&#x2C6;şđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;á&#x2C6;ť 

By taking advantage of the quadrotorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s generally sinusoidal angular inputs, basis function can be developed to approximate these input signals using far less optimization parameters. Using this method with a two second prediction horizon at 50Hz, the quadrotor NMPC optimization is reduced from 200 to 20 parameters.

w/ đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;Ͳ

Fig. 5: PID Position Control and SMC Attitude Control. 15s simulation, 50Hz controller frequency

Conclusions and Future Work This work shows the feasibility of an NMPC algorithm using weighted basis functions that reduces optimization parameters and increase operating frequency and prediction time. Next, the NMPC algorithm will be thoroughly tuned and evaluated in simulations over more trajectories. Then, it will be implemented on a quadrotor and evaluated experimentally.

References

S. Khatiwada, A. Masters, A. Cantara, M. Goulet and M.W. Thein. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Control of an EarthBased Satellite Test Platform through Vision-Based Position Measurement.â&#x20AC;? AAS/AIAA 29th Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, Hawaii, 2019.

Therefore, an optimal control law has been developed to advance the state of the art in position control of multirotor UAVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. A Nonlinear Model Predictive Position Controller (NMPC) was developed in a dual loop with a Sliding Mode Attitude Controller (SMC) designed and implemented in previous work. A weighted basis function method of optimization is introduced to reduce the computational complexity of the NMPC algorithm and to reduce the time required to compute longer prediction horizon control trajectories. Simulation results show the feasibility of such a control law being implemented on a prototype UAV.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 56

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN / TEAMS

ET-NAVSWARM


AUTHORS: Isaiah Adeli De Leon Rautha Jones ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov PROJECT SPONSOR: Brayton Energy View presentation

A hand cycle is typically a three wheeled cycle that is powered by the user's arms, as opposed to legs on a standard bicycle. The conventional wheel arrangement consists of two rear wheels and a single front wheel. Handcycles have a crank assembly that sits in front of the user and attaches to the front wheel. The crank operates in phase to maximize performance. The goal of our project was to optimize and upgrade a hand cycle designed by another senior project group. This includes the addition of a stronger footrest(s), upgraded steering and front section, and other minor modifications.

Power Assisted Handcycle

Rautha Franklin Jones and Isaiah Adeli De León Advisor: Ivaylo Nedyalkov PROBLEM STATEMENT

MANUAL CRANK SYSTEM

QUICK RELEASE WHEELS • • •

The goal of the Power-Assisted Hand Cycle is to serve a wide range of people in need. The new design of the product is looking to revamp portions of the current build and design by focusing on three major portions of the design; • New design of the steering system in adjunction with a new propulsion system • An Ergonomic seating style which allows for ease of access and exit • Interchangeability/customization of the hand cycle to be unique for each person

Easy disassembly for storage and transportation Allows for easy maintenance Changeability and customization to give each rider a unique design

COPENHAGEN WHEEL • • • • •

Locking brake holds the handcycle still while mounting and dismounting Accessible braking on drive system for smooth and quick braking Chain tensioner incorporated to give rider a smoother ride and minimize chain movement

• •

Top assisted Speed: 25 mph Range: 30 miles Bluetooth Connectivity Real time speed reading GPS tracker

SEAT FRAME/ SEAT POST

FOOTREST DESIGN • • • •

• Spring system of seat allows for rider adjustability and comfort. • Aluminum frame allows for a lightweight and rigid design • Bolt system allows for easy disassembly for storage and transport

Slotted Grooves for grip Allows for more load bearing capabilities Light weight design reduces weight Bracket system allows for easy install and customization

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

FUNDING

ME 441 Team members: Kiana Sherman, Kendall Boniecki , Marguerite Kennish, Annie Duong Scott Campbell (UNH Machine shop) Prof. Chris White 2019 Senior Project Team: Christopher Arling, Andrew Clark, Matthew Durant, Jacob Holton

UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences

Our course of action to achieve the desired product was to implement a multi-domain style of testing and forums. We wanted to evaluate the hand cycle in a multitude of physical, computational, and theoretical tests to obtain the best product. We developed conceptual ideas to improve the hand cycle and managed to physically implement some of the modifications. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, we where not able to move forward with some of the hands-on work and could not perform any physical tests, but we studied the design analytically and computationally and documented our work and current design and state of the hand cycle.

QuadSat Swarm AUTHORS: Tyler Blish, Jason Bortolussi, Ryan Contois, Thomas Hall, Kaitlyn Laliberte, Stephanie Lo, Andrew Masters, Brian McAnally, Luke McIntire, Justin Moore, Zachary Shelby, Austin Snell, Timothy Strauss

QuadSat Swarm is a multi-year interdisciplinary project advised Dr. MayWin Thein, which attempts to create a swarm of autonomous quadcopters to be used as a test platform in satellite modeling and dynamics. By using quadcopters to model these dynamics, a cost-efficient method is being produced to see how satellites would act in a set constellation around Earth.

ADVISORS: May-Win Thein View presentation Honorable Mention Project

2020 57 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

QUADSAT SWARM

ME: Tyler Blish, Brian McAnally, Zachary Shelby, Austin Snell ECE: Jason Bortolussi, Kaitlyn Laliberte, Stephanie Lo CS: Ryan Contois, Luke McIntire, Justin Moore, Timothy Strauss | EP: Thomas Hall Faculty Advisor: Dr. May-Win Thein

Data Logging

Project Overview Mission QuadSat Swarm is a multi-year interdisciplinary project advised Dr. May-Win Thein, which attempts to create a swarm of autonomous quadcopters to be used as a test platform in satellite modeling and dynamics. By using quadcopters to model these dynamics, a cost-efficient method is being produced to see how satellites would act in a set constellation around Earth. The goal of this year’s years project is to design, build and test a rugged autonomous quadcopter that is: • Duplicatable: for swarm purposes • Cost efficient: $400 maximum per-base-quad • Stable: for safety purposes Design Criteria I. Fly autonomously way point to way point within 5 meters. II. Aesthetic design, non-hindering of operation. III. Must be able to fly with multiple quads connecting to one ground station. IV. All sensors must have sampling frequencies that do not limit flight capabilities or create instabilities V. Be able to fly both indoors and outdoors (in clear weather). VI. Withstand small impacts and rough landings without damaging sensors.

Pixhawk PX4

Communications

Software-defined radio (SDR) is an extremely flexible piece of hardware that allows for a wide range of testing on multiple different design requirements such as transmission frequency and distance.

Open Source Auto Quadcopter Calibration Control

User Friendly

QGroundControl

Ettus B200mini

Raspberry Pi 4

TEXT TEXT TEXT Flight Safety Features

Automatic Sensor Fusion

Compatible with ROS and Pi Final Transceiver Signal Flow Diagram

Swarm Software Software Swarm

Obstacle Avoidance

• We are implementing a two node ROS system to allow for bidirectional communication with the quadcopters. • We pull telemetry data off the Pixhawk and it works its way to an algorithm that calculates a new location for that Pixhawk.

Autonomous Cohesive Motion

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -DESIGN / TEAMS

Power Assisted Handcycle

Hardware and Electrical Design - Construction and assembly of multiple quads - Introducing hardware & sensors

Autonomy Development - Implementing linear and non-linear controls - Attitude and position feedback

Swarm Communication - Implemented Artificial Potential Fields with attractive and repulsive force. - Sliding mode control used to determine appropriate next location for quads.

PIXHAWK Node Information

ROS NODE ON Pi New Location of Node

Node Information

ROS CORE ON BASE STATION New Location of Node

Node Information

ROS NODE ON BASE STATION

• Built into PX4 Pixhawk Firmware • Companion Computer – Raspberry Pi 4 • Uses Intel RealSense® D435 Camera • 3D Printed bracket to attach camera • Localized Mapping

• Global Mapping


AUTHORS: Michael Hastings Hunter Miller ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov View presentation

The Reach High Modular System was designed Reach High - Modular Volleyball Exercise Equipment with two goals in mind; create a tool which Advised by Ivaylo Nedyalkov and Andrew Wimmer Michael Hastings and Hunter Miller Special thanks to the Biddeford Men’s A Volleyball League for their feedback University of New Hampshire, Mechanical Engineering can improve the quality of a volleyball player's training and be marketable to all Future Goals Modular Connector levels of volleyball players. The initial design was conceived by Mr. Andrew Wimmer and consisted of one attachment used for practice of hitting or "spiking" the volleyball. Hitting Attachment Setting Attachment Blocking Attachment The first prototype had a shape similar to the lowercase Greek letter omega, which would hold the volleyball connected to a three- Project Background section 12' extendable pole by 3-D printed PLA parts, zip-ties and a shortened lacrosse stick. The materials that made up the first prototype were simple, but unsustainable. The reproduction process, including both the simplicity and sustainability of materials was taken into account for future design iterations. The latest iteration of the hitting attachment consists of improved 3-D printed ABS parts with rectangular bores to compensate for a crossbar made from 1" square channel aluminum. In the interest of making the best product, the remaining materials were consistent with the original design. The setting attachment was designed with the goal of improving the accuracy of a players setting technique. The current iteration supports 3-D printed ABS connections that allow a hoop of PVC to be angled at 15-degree increments depending on the system's distance from the setting player. The blocking attachment was designed to simulate an opposing player. The practicing player would do their best to avoid the lightweight and mobile blocking attachment. The basic design consisted of a square of PVC and 3-D printed ABS connections. Nylon canvas was chosen as the material that would fill the square and act as the absorbing surface. All three attachments used the same modular t-piece that connected the design to the three-section 12' extendable pole. With this t-piece, the modularity and ease of use for the system were ensured, because it was designed such that no tools were required to switch between the three attachments. Future iterations prioritize the ability of a player to use the system without aid from others, and further hone not only the materials and functionality, but the aesthetics as well. 3

7

2

● The modular connector is the central piece of the Reach High system and was initially only designed for use with the hitting attachment (see image right) ● The connector is printed from high strength ABS and features several design improvements for ease of use, durability, and functionality ● The shaft on the bottom of the connector was reinforced with an outer sheath to slip over the extendable pole - this design choice maintains free floating rotation but nearly eliminates the possibility of shear failure ● The channel is equipped to work with any Reach High attachment using 1” square aluminum channel and is held in place by a 5/16” clevis pin that can be seen in any of the solidworks assemblies

● The Reach High system was initially designed and produced by Andrew Wimmer and featured a single attachment system for hitting practice ● The original design featured a hitting attachment with a L-connector and end cap printed from PLA ● The printed parts used press fit connections and a octagonal bore to accomodate a chopped lacrosse stick as a crossbar ● The attachment was held at height by a 3-section extendable pole that could be modified to meet any player’s needs ● The extendable pole, omega shape, and omega padding were used in later design iterations for their cost effective and functional design elements

6

10

5

4

9

1

● Hitting (see #1 on the far left image) is used to hit or “spike” the ball over the net at a high rate of speed such that the opposing team cannot effectively volley ● A key component of hitting is the player’s ability to jump high to clear the net and impart as much energy as possible into the ball ● Additionally, accurate hitting can assure points, while inaccurate hits can serve the opposing team the ball

● Setting (see #2 on the far right image) is used to set up another player for a spike ● A key component of setting is the player’s ability to accurately vector the ball to the location he/she desires ● An accurate set can win a volley by setting another player up properly

● The goal for the hitting attachment is to train players to jump and hit with Greater power and accuracy ● The assembly is comprised of three main components ● The crossbar is made of 1” square channel aluminum, which was chosen for its high durability and low weight ● The crossbar is affixed to the modular connector with holes spaced at 3” intervals to adjust for players of varying sizes to use the device comfortably - with a maximum length of 32” and a minimum of 23” ● The connector on the end of the crossbar holds the “omega” in place ● The omega is affixed to the end connector loosely to allow the system to compensate for player hits safely and reliably - a rigid system is dangerous for players ● The omega is made of ½” diameter PVC that is bent into the shape of an omega and lined by polystyrene padding made from pool noodles ● The flexibility of the PVC omega allows for various ball diameters to be used and the polystyrene padding allows for players to hit the omega without fear of injury

● The goal for the setting attachment is to train players to set more accurately for various situations ● The assembly is comprised of a few major components that are affixed to the modular connector ● A shortened aluminum beam joins the connector to the angle adapters on either side ● The angle adapters are printed from high strength ABS and have notches spaced 15 degrees radially to allow the two separate pieces of the angle adapter to lock in at various pitches ● A PVC hoop is locked into the angle adapters and serves as a target for the player to set the ball into ● The variability in the hoop angle allows for players to utilize different setting skills in order to prepare for a variety of volley conditions and player positions

8

● Blocking is used to prevent the ball from passing onto your side of the court when an opposing player is setting up to hit (see #2 on the far left image) ● A key component of hitting is to avoid an opposing player’s block ● Compensating for an opposing player’s block can assure a point for your team, while hitting into a blocking player can assure a point for the opposing team

● The goal for the blocking attachment is to use as a training aid during hitting drills while maintaining a lightweight and durable platform ● The assembly is comprised of two corner adapters attached to the modular connector ● The corner adapters are affixed to the modular connector in the same manner that the setting attachment’s assembly is, making transitions between attachments easy and fast ● The corner adapters are printed from high strength ABS and take the square profile of the aluminum to a round bend made to fit 2” PVC ● Conventional over the shelf PVC is used to make a rectangular frame 20” tall and 18” wide (roughly the size of a player’s forearms and hands when bracing for a block) ● Nylon canvas is held inside the PVC frame to block the ball and rebound it - nylon is chosen for its high strength, adding to the durability of the system

● Testing for a modular system like this must be done on the court using real players, however due to the outbreak of COVID-19, court testing is not possible - plans to work with the women’s club volleyball team are a priority with the current designs ● Improving the aesthetics of the system to appeal to the average consumer are tandem to overall functionality ● Creating a portable base for the device makes multi-device usage available to teams and players that do not have others to support the device on its own

Photos courtesy of Jamie Khang

Rotator Cuff Exercise Machine AUTHOR: Joseph Williams ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov View presentation

The supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the subscapularis, are a regularlyforgotten group of rotator cuff muscles, despitetheir integral role in shoulder mobility and health. With the use of a machine designed to exercise the these muscles, the rotator cuff can be strengthened, helping to prevent shoulder stresses and strains and minimize doctor visits.

Rotator Cuff Exercise Machine ME 756 Senior Design

Author: Joseph Williams Advisor: Ivaylo Nedyalkov College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of New Hampshire Special Thanks to: Matthew Collins and Kyle Lecour

Abstract The supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the subscapularis, are a regularly forgotten group of rotator cuff muscles, despite their integral role in shoulder mobility and health. With the use of a machine designed to exercise the these muscles, the rotator cuff can be strengthened, helping to prevent shoulder stresses and strains and minimize doctor visits.

Design

Created for the average gym-goer, this machine creates a familiar environment that allows for effective exercise of the rotator cuff muscles. With a machine dedicated to rotator cuff muscle growth and training, everyone will have the opportunity to strengthen their shoulders and develop otherwise ignored muscles to prevent injuries.

Introduction Muscle-specific gym equipment provides a safe and comfortable alternative to other more complicated exercises. An easy to use machine than could be affordable for production and both non-intimidating and effective for the gym-goer were the main design criteria. Considering these parameters design began. The first iteration of the machine was built. It targeted one arm, focusing on ensuring proper form with an individual arm. While effective, some design concerns were raised. Following this design, a few other iterations were developed, with the final design being the rotating two arm design.

Operation After locking the rotating arm at the desired position the user will grab the handles and rotate their arm away from the machine either horizontally or vertically while keeping their arm at a 90 degree angle.

Discussion

The final design has two arms capable of rotating 180 degrees, allowing a variety of rotator cuff exercises and movements, both lateral and vertical. It also features a small weight stack sat behind the user, specific for rotator cuff exercise. The design features a small footprint with a familiar presence, allowing the machine to fit in at any gym.

Future .

Testing is to be underdone to ensure the effectiveness of the machine. Ultrasound can be used to measure the size of the rotator cuff muscles prior to use of the machine. After continued exercise over a period of time using the machine, the muscles can by scanned once more and the growth can be analyzed. Given the testing proofs successful, the machine can be developed further with the end goal being the marketing of the idea to exercise equipment companies.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 58

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -DESIGN / TEAMS

Reach High - Modular Volleyball Exercise Equipment


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -DESIGN / TEAMS

UNH LunaCats 2020 AUTHOR: Michael Cote Ioan Diaconu Andres Giraldo Mariem Hassan Ziyu Liu Nicholas Matte Nhut Nguyen Samantha Perez Ryan Reynolds Catherine Sandstrom Rui Sun Samuel Vitale Noah Vogler Shiqian Xi

The purpose of this project is to compete in the annual NASA Robotic Mining Competition. For this competition, our robot will autonomously drive on a field that has a simulated martian surface. Our robot will use a placard and a mounted camera with two degrees of freedom to determine its location on the field, and then use 4 lidar sensors to avoid obstacles. The robot will be constructed of an aluminum frame, a mining system, a deposit system, and wheels. The robot is going to navigate through an obstacle zone containing various pits and rocks, mine simulated regolith, drive back through the obstacle zone, and then deposit the regolith in a collector trough. The robot will repeat this process for 15 minutes, and collect as much gravel as it can.

ADVISOR: May-Win Thein View presentation

UNH First Responder Training Tools AUTHORS: Kelsey Buck Kirk Kaunang Thomas Kilgore Christian Hannabury Andrew Leclair Michelle Paradise FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin

The objective of this project was to develop UNH First Responder Training Tools innovative training tool designs for the UNH Police Department. This project was presented to the UNH Mechanical Engineering Department as a request for training tools and The UNH first responders undergo training to prepare themselves for was offered to the ME 755-756 class as a Senior certain situations. There might be a situation that requires first Design Project. These tools, which included responders to gain access that are behind secured doors. To train for a breaching door and target rack, were those scenarios, a breaching door would be used. Another situation that first responders are exposed to intended to assist police officers in training are ones that require firearms. In those scenarios, accuracy and for forced entry in emergency situations precision are important. For firearm training, an in-line target rack could as well as for shooting/target practice. be used. The UNH Police is interested in an innovative design The breaching door was designed to for door breaching and firearm training equipment to add to their be stable and upright as a stand-alone inventory. structure. A locking mechanism was designed to represent different locks and lock strengths by utilizing different sized wooden dowels that would simulate a breakage and opening of the door. The specially designed locking mechanism could be used as different forces to mimic possible scenarios that could occur during a forced emergency entry. The door, plate and hinges were designed to be highly durable and withstand any impact the door may take during training. An in-line target rack was designed for safety and stability during firearms training. The team utilized servo motors, which were controlled by Arduino units, to reset the targets in an upright position by a push of a button. The rack was designed to be lightweight and portable along with the ability to prevent bullets from ricocheting back in the shooter’s direction. Due to unforeseen circumstances, a physical finished product for the breaching door and the in-line target rack could not be produced. The project was turned over to the UNH Police Department ‘as is’ with the intent to continue as a Senior Design Project for next year’s class. The future steps left on this project for the breaching door include: completing construction of the support structure, attaching the locking mechanism, and testing the door for forced entry. For the in-line target rack, the future steps include: completing the welding needed for the base target set up; and completing, attaching and testing the motor control mechanisms. For both designs, what was left was testing for durability and stability, and training the UNH Police officers on the proper usage and maintenance of the equipment. Kelsey Buck, Christian Hannabury, Kirk Kaunang, Thomas Kilgore, Andrew Leclair, Michelle Paradise Faculty Advisor: Anthony Puntin Project Sponsors: Captain Steven Lee & Sergeant Jeff Mullaney and Harvey Building Products Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Criteria

Introduction

View presentation

59 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Breaching Door:

• Freestanding & portable.

• Door setup will not tip over while being used.

• Withstand repeated impacts from a 30-40pound ram tool.

• Different sized wooden dowels will be used to simulate different lock strengths.

• Simulates a lock function.

• The door, plate, and hinges will be designed with high durability.

• Contains easily replaceable parts. In-Line Target Rack:

In-Line Target Rack:

• Freestanding & portable.

• All visible parts can withstand bullets from an assault rifle and pistol.

• The metal parts will not ricochet bullets in the officer's direction.

Figure 1: SolidWorks model of door.

• Targets are easily replaceable.

• Targets recline back once bullet strikes.

• The Arduinos will allow for remote resetting of the targets, increasing safety. • Physical design will allow for increased portability.

• Installed controllers to allow for remote reset.

Future Steps

Breaching Door:

• Build baseplate

• Cut support beams

Results

Analysis

Figure 2: SolidWorks model of target rack.

Image 2

Image 1

PROJECT SPONSORS: Capt. Steven Lee, Sgt. Jeff Mullaney, UNH Police Department Harvey Building Products

Conclusions

Breaching Door:

• Drill holes for bolts

• Attach locking mechanism

In-Line Target Rack:

• Finish welding base target set up

• Fabricate and attach servo mount and reset mechanism

• Wire servos to a central controller and program

• Test the two designs for durability and reliability.

• Bring designs to UNH police and show them proper usage and how to replace the necessary parts.

Stress in Door With Metal Plate

Stress in Door Without Metal Plate

177 N

7.788e-02 mm

0.3572 mm

177 N

0.9437 MPa

0.3700 MPa

3,780 N

1.663 mm

7.629 mm

3,780 N

20.16 MPa

7.902 MPa

Force Applied

Displacement in Displacement in Door With Door Without Force Applied Metal Plate Metal Plate

References

[1] https://ratools.com/product/35-poundmegaram/

Figure 3: Prototype of door with steel plate.

Image 1: Applied force of 177 N with steel plate.

Image 2: Applied force of 177 N without steel plate.


Automated Mixing System AUTHORS: Devon Bryson Matthew Reggio Meghan Stickney Zachary Wright FACULTY ADVISOR: Todd Gross

The Durham Boat Company, founded in 1982, specializes in the creation of rowing and sculling equipment. In order to create these components, two pieces of carbon fiber are placed together with a syntactic foam mixture in the middle. Currently, the Durham Boat Company creates this syntactic foam through scooping and measuring ingredients by hand and combining them into a mixing machine. This process takes upwards of 60 minutes, and is neither efficient nor accommodating for company expansion. The automated mixing system that has been designed allows for the syntactic foam to be created quickly, accurately, and with a few pushes of a button. This new system will allow the Durham Boat Company to produce a higher volume of syntactic foam through the utilization of Arduino microcontrollers, load cells, liquid dispensing pumps, screw feeders, and hoppers. With this, the Durham Boat Company will have the capability to keep up with ever-increasing customer demand.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

PROJECT SPONSOR: Durham Boat Company View presentation

Automated Transportation Robots Designed For Industrial Machine AUTHORS: Haocheng Han Qiwei Wang FACULTY ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Kris Fargo PROJECT SPONSOR: TURBOCAM, Inc. View presentation

The Manufacturing Autonomous Robot project aims to demonstrate how an autonomous robot could work in a real manufacturing environment. The specific goal of this project is to use an autonomous robot to move palletized cutting tools from a grinding machine to an inspection machine and then return back to the charging base station. The autonomous robot is composed of two parts, a robot arm on the top and a mobile industrial robot on the bottom. The mobile industrial robot is like a car that moves items from one station to another, and the robot arm is used to grab palletized cutting tools and transfer them in the inspection machine.

Automated Transportation Robots Designed For Industrial Machine Team Members: Qiwei Wang & Haocheng Han Faculty Advisor: Brad Kinsey Industrial Advisor: Kris Fargo Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Background

• • •

● Time is extremely critical in manufacturing processes and systems. ● Manufacturing automation is becoming more and more prevalent. ● Autonomous robots can increase overall process efficiency.

End of Arm Tooling

Aluminum 6061 alloy Designed to pick up 7kg tray Low-cost, high-reliability solution

End of Arm Tooling

Project Overview

Two industrial robots working in tandem

● Use an autonomous, mobile industrial robot, i.e., MiR, to move palletized cutting tools from a CNC machine to an inspection machine and then return to the charging base station.

Tray for cutting tools

Mobile Industrial Robot (MiR) ● For smaller transport tasks within industry, logistics and healthcare ● Robot payload: 100 kg (maximum 5% incline) ● Towing capacity: 300 kg ● Running Time: 10 Hours or 20 Km ● Charging Time: Up to 3 Hours

Progress ● MiR autonomously finish the task by moving from the charging base to the CNC machine and final to the inspection area. ● FANUC robotic arm can autonomously pick up the tray from the CNC machine and drop it off at the inspection area. ● MiR battery life study completed. ● Selecte the best design for the end of arm tooling and analyzed to be sure that material could withstand the stresses induced. ● Manufacture and assemble the end of arm tooling for the robotic arm. ● Work on establishing Ethernet connection between the MiR and FANUC Industrial robotic Arm.

FANUC Industrial Robotic Arm ● LR Mate 200iD/7L ● Six-axis robot arm ● Used for moving material around a workspace ● Pneumatic Operation (7kg max load capacity) ● Maximum reach of 911mm ● Mounted to the base of the MiR

Communications and Programming

FANUC Controller: ● Use control panel to program each move MiR interface: ● Dedicated language to program the MiR ● Can combine the MiR and FANUC robotic arm into one function PLC: ● Used as a controller to bridge communications between Mir and FANUC Industrial Robotic arm

Acknowledgments: Olson Center (in particular Mike Locke), Turbocam Inc., and Jaiden Evart and Vinayak Chaturvedi for assistance with robot programming and control.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 60


Consumable Cartridge Auto-change for Plasma Cutting AUTHORS: Azhar Ali Roffiel Farhat FACULTY ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Terence O'Neil, Hypertherm

Plasma cutting has seen an increasing demand in the past few years, due to its precision, accuracy, cost and time effectiveness in metal cutting. The goal of this project is to automate the process of replacing the consumable cartridges in Plasma cutting, which will make the whole process of Plasma cutting more efficient.

Consumable Cartridge Auto-change for Plasma Cutting

Roffiel Farhat | Azhar Ali Faculty Advisor: Brad Kinsey Industrial Advisor: Terence Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Neil

Background

Company Information: â&#x20AC;˘ Hypertherm is a manufacturing company, located in Hanover, NH and founded in 1968. â&#x20AC;˘ Hypertherm specializes in manufacturing of Plasma, Laser and Water-Jet cutting systems â&#x20AC;˘ Currently, Hypertherm has an upward of 50% market share in cutting solutions. Project Information: â&#x20AC;˘ In Plasma cutting of metals, gases are exposed to each other in the torch, with presence of an electrode, this produces vast amount of energy and temperature. â&#x20AC;˘ Each cartridge contains an electrode with specific rating, which is related to the material and its thickness

Design

Plasma Torch

Consumable Cartridge

Current process to change cartridge: â&#x20AC;˘ Currently, the consumable cartridges are replaced manually by hand, by a Torch Cap technician. â&#x20AC;˘ Time intensive replacement process. â&#x20AC;˘ Human error in identifying correct cartridge can lead to exhaustion of cartridge and torch.

Proposed Process: â&#x20AC;˘ The basic process involves screwing off the torch cap and removing the cartridge by pulling it off . â&#x20AC;˘ New cartridge is replaced by pushing it up the torch, torch cap is screwed back on.

KUKA robot arm Gripper attachment designed to hold and take cartridge off.

Steel plate to house components; designed to satisfy stress and moment requirements.

Project Overview

Analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Equations that were used to analyze the forces and torque required to unscrew and take the cartridge off đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; â&#x2C6;ś đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;? = đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; Ă&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; , Nm đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;: đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š = đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; Ă&#x2014; N , N đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; is the friction coefficient and N is the normal force â&#x20AC;˘ Stresses were calculated in each component to make sure the material of choice withstands specified forces đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;: đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D; = đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ , Pa Torque (motor) Stress (consumable cap) Gripping force (gripper)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

Limit value

Safety Factor

16.05 Nm

9.151 Nm

1.92

2.379 MPa

1.393 MPa

1.7

311.3 N

467.06 N

1.5

Torch Cap, modified by producing a slot on the side to meet rotational and stress requirements.

Process Flowchart

Holes for screws (5 mm nut to hold plate & 2 mm nut to hold components to plate

Future work

â&#x20AC;˘

View presentation

Theoretical or Experimental value

L bracket to

DC Brushless motor (Bi-directional)

Gripper mount gripper

Add an additional gripper so that cartridge removal and addition locations are available. Include RFID sensors to track cartridges Incorporate disposal location to deposit exhausted cartridges â&#x20AC;˘ Integrate light curtains to prevent human interference in robot area â&#x20AC;˘ Add bearings to adapter to reduce friction and wear if required â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Adapter designed to screw torch cap

Cyclotron Electrode Cooling Test AUTHOR: Christen Gallant ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov View presentation

Antaya Science and Technology, CYCLOTRON ELECTRODE COOLING TEST Christen Gallant located in Hampton, New Hampshire, specializes in the design and build of Test Setup Results Background first-generation compact cyclotron particle accelerators to produce ondemand radioisotopes for PET imaging. In an immensely complex and compact machine, maintaining suitable cooling Objective Test Assembly is essential for maximizing function and efficiency. The proposed cooling Design Requirements method requires chilled water to be ejected through the electrode stem at the foot, a transitioning piece between the electrode and stem. To verify that Legend Conclusions this method will successfully cool the fixture when subjected to its maximum power input, Antaya requested a test be designed which mimics the cyclotron electrode and stem geometry and proposed cooling method parameters. To do this, a testing apparatus was designed and constructed which replicates the current cyclotron build specifications. By incrementally applying distributed power to the fixture under vacuum, while utilizing the proposed cooling method and monitoring temperatures across the system, the steady-state temperature distribution could be analyzed to confirm satisfactory cooling. This confirmation of effectiveness of the proposed cooling method ensures that application in the final build will sustain optimal performance. Advised by Ivaylo Nedyalkov & Andre Chouinard Mechanical Engineering University of New Hampshire, Durham NH & Antaya Science and Technology, Hampton, NH

Power Correction Curve

ď&#x201A;§ Cyclotron â&#x20AC;&#x201C; particle accelerator that produces a charged particle beam. Operates under vacuum at cryogenic temperatures (125 Kď&#x192; 0 K) ď&#x201A;§ Cyclotron use ranges from industrial to nuclear medicinal. Antaya specializes in the design of compact cyclotrons for on-demand radiopharmaceutical production (PET Scans). ď&#x201A;§ In Antayaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s newest build, the electrode & stem assembly see combined power input of 350 W. ď&#x201A;§ Proper cooling of multiple electrodes is necessary for functionality and efficiency.

Temperature & Power vs Time

ď&#x201A;§ Design a test to confirm the proposed cooling method will effectively cool the electrode & stem. ď&#x201A;§ Analyze the steady state temperature distribution under maximum power conditions.

Nichrome wire heater mounted to test fixture using varnish & cigarette paper (above left) and then wrapped with braided fiberglass insulation (above right).

Power Input & Heat Removal Comparison

ď&#x201A;§ Material & mass properties held relatively constant with cyclotron build design. ď&#x201A;§ Test fixture component geometry replicated for thermal distribution accuracy. ď&#x201A;§ Power distribution consistent with projected model ď&#x201A;§ Testing under vacuum pressure â&#x2030;¤ 5 * 10-4 bar.

In and out-flow cooling lines exiting the test fixture through the plug, mounted in CF flange. (Left) Turbo pump backed by mechanical pump to maintain vacuum pressure.

2

3

1

View of dee plate from inside vacuum chamber with power feedthroughs.

9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Winning Project

2020

61 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Dee Plate Kapton Heater Foot Stem Nichrome Wire Heater Plug Cooling Lines Retaining Clips Temperature Sensors

5

4

7

9 6

8

Variac on left used to control power to Kapton heater on dee plate, Variac on right used to control power to nichrome wire heater on stem.

Model of test fixture mounted in vacuum chamber.

ď&#x201A;§ Temperature at each sensor location was recorded and plotted with corresponding power input. ď&#x201A;§ Combined power input plotted with calculated heat removal to confirm cooling. ď&#x201A;§ With uncertainty from measurement devices accounted for, it was confirmed that the cooling method successfully removes all heat added into the system.


Microgravity Assist Device AUTHOR: Curtis Linton, Jr. ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

View presentation

The goal of this research project is to design, fabricate, and test a Computerized Exercise Platform (CEP) that enables astronauts to prevent muscle atrophy and bone mineral decrease that occurs in microgravity environments. The CEP will apply resistance to user motion, as plyometric training is an effective countermeasure to maintain the function of the human body in a microgravity environment. The CEP will be manufactured to generate resistance independent of gravity. Acquiring muscular fatigue will be the benchmark for success in the CEP, as fatigue is an early stage sign of muscular hypertrophy. The CEP will only generate resistance that is a reaction to the input effort a user exerts onto it. CEP testing will focus on the weight-bearing regions of the body (i.e. hips and ankles), as these areas are most affected by microgravity.

Mobile IV Manufacturing AUTHORS: Travis Drewing Colby LaChance Jacob Mancini Jeffrey Street FACULTY ADVISORS: Glenn Shwaery Christopher White

Mobile Intravenous Systems (MIVS) is a Mobile IV Manufacturing company based out of Phoenix, Arizona Team Members: Project Sponsor: Dale Constuble Colby LaChance, Jeffrey Street, Travis Drewing, and Jacob Mancini Faculty Advisor: Dr. Glenn Shwaery & Dr. Christopher White which specializes in transforming the 1) What Is MIVS? 2) Project Overview 3) Design quality of health care through innovative I.V. products that save time, reduce risk, Problem and improve patient outcomes. A fluid Design Design Design bag is first inserted into the pressure sleeve. A 12-gram CO2 cartridge is then inserted into the pressure regulator which applies an initial pressure of 850 psi. The regulator reduces the pressure 6) Future Work 5) Results 4) Analysis from 850 psi supplied from the cartridge • Finish machining all components • Assemble and test initial design • Determine the efficiency and practicality of design to a constant 6 psi into the bag. With a • Consider and design improvements • Implement and test improvements with the constant pressure of 6 psi being applied Design Design manufacturing teamDesign into the pressure sleeve, this allows for the fluid to maintain a constant drip rate to the patients without having to be elevated. Currently each system is handbuilt which does not keep up with the demand. To fix this issue, our senior project team was tasked to develop a system to mass produce the end cap and CO2 cartridge assembly. The goal for our project team is to design and analyze a gas cartridge and thread spacer installation machine. The machine should be scalable to produce at least ten CO2 cartridge assemblies per pressure sleeve. The final design should be precise, operator-friendly, serviceable, cost-effective and reliable. Mobile Intravenous Systems (MIVS) is a company based in Phoenix, Arizona which specializes in transforming the quality of health care through innovative I.V. medical devices that save time, reduce risk, and improve patient outcomes

The current method of manufacturing the end cap subassembly is completed manually. MIVS is interested in a new manufacturing process that will provide a multiplier effect per unit time and will be scalable.

 The machine must be scalable to 10,000 gas cartridge installations per day per 1,000 pressure sleeve assemblies.  The cost of the machine and replacement parts must be kept to a minimum.  The machine must be composed of modular/interchangeable components to accommodate for different sized CO2 cartridges and receiving chambers (cap).  The machine must seat the CO2 cartridge fully into the cap at a reproducible pressure.  There may be some measurement uncertainties with the force required to fully seat a CO2 cartridge into a cap.

Pneumatic Cylinder

Upright Support Beam

Red Clip Insertion

12-gram CO2 Cartridge

End cap Subassembly

Press Plate

Base Plate

Red Safety Clip

Plastic End Cap

Gas Chamber Plate

End Cap Plate

Upright Support Beam Motion Analysis

PROJECT SPONSOR: Dale Constuble View presentation

Deflection Stress

Units in. psi

Solidworks Hand Calculations Percent Difference 4.65E-03 1.40E-03 57.97% 1200 1513 23.00%

Stress Analysis of End Caps and Base Plate

Single Moment Calculation

Area Moment of Inertia to find Maximum Stress and Deflection

Units

Solidworks

Deflection

in.

9.25E-04

Hand Calculations Plate Hand Calculation End Caps Percent Difference Plate 1.40E-03

5.80E-04

Stress

psi

1200

450

5803

General Equations:

Percent Difference End Caps

40.84%

132.13%

90.90%

69.90%

Force Test Results

Force Test For Pressing Cartridge

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 62


Pratt & Whitney Grinding Cell Automation AUTHORS: Derick Boisvert Daniel Coburn INDUSTRY ADVISOR: James Weisheit, Pratt & Whitney

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

View presentation

The scope of the entire project went slightly beyond what Dan and myself Derick Boisvert and Dan Coburn Pratt & Whitney University of New Hampshire were tasked with. The project is very Mechanical Engineering Grinding Cell Automation new (first started last summer) and is Fixturing Concepts expected to be completed over the Z-Axis X-Axis Introduction Workholding Workholding Y-Axis course of about 5 years. Essentially, Pratt Pneumatic Piston Workholding Piston Activated Lever Pneumatic Swing Clamp & Whitney are looking to automate the Direct Piston Lock Motor Design Criteria production process behind one of the Motor turbine seals they manufacture as the customer demand continues to rise for this part. The complete automation of Current Process Recommendations grinding cell like this involves multiple systems working simultaneously to achieve a common goal. The robot needs to be able to accurately pick up and place parts in the grinder where an automated Ideal Process fixture locates the part where it needs to go. Our main focus throughout this project has been to design this automated fixture, as well as hopping on some of the other work being done. At this point, the grinder will run while the previously ran part is being cleaned off and placed in a CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) to check the dimensional accuracy of each new feature. After this, the machine will automatically take that dimensional data and update its offsets accordingly. This entire process, if done correctly, should be able to run independently and indefinitely. Pratt and Whitney is a local commercial and military aerospace engineering firm. They focus on producing engine components at a high quality and quantity. The high quantity demand from customers has led their production line to look into robotic automation. This project aims to develop at least three concepts laying out the automated process of a specific engine seal.

• Conceptualize at least 3 automated fixturing solutions • Automated fixturing, in tandem with robotic operation, must maintain or decrease current part takt time • Fixtures must be able to locate the part in the same position each cycle with a tolerance of ±0.003 inches

Load/Shim Grinder

Run Grinder

Unload and Clean

Update Offsets

Stage Part

Repeat

Load/Shim CMM

Robot Loads CMM

Racket Sports with a Humanoid Robot AUTHORS: Sean Donohue Daniel Dorci Mykola Matukhn ADVISORS: Momotaz Begum Igor Tsukrov

The goal of this project is to provide a detailed instruction on how to act and predict a ball’s position in a game of ping pong.  YuMi  ABB 14000 robot is used for this project. The team’s effort is focused on implementing control, vision and modeling in robot operating system (ROS) environment.

View presentation

Honorable Mention Project

2020 63 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Run

CMM

Unload CMM

Automatic CMM Start

Robot Unloads CMM

Tolerance Data Sent to Grinder

• Solenoid controlled • Swivels into and out of • Rotations controlled by position encoder • Low profile • Waterproof concerns

• Rotations controlled by encoder • Waterproofing concerns

• Solenoid activated • Easy implementation • Remote mounting

• Take the place of current fixture features • Mounts directly inside of the fixture • Low profile

After working independently and with Pratt & Whitney staff over the past year, a final plan was mapped out. A FANUC M10 or M20 series robot will be utilized in tandem with our automated fixture. The automated fixture will employ a piston activated lever (Z-axis), pneumatic swing clamp (Y-axis), and a pneumatic piston (X-axis). An air knife for part cleaning as well automatic offset compensation from the CMM will ensure the process consistently runs independent of an operator.

Verify Tolerances

The process detailed to the top left represents the current amount of manual work needed to impart a single feature on the part. The process detailed in the bottom right is the ideal automated operation. This will be accomplished with the help of a FANUC Industrial robot, automated selflocating fixtures, and robot to CNC communication in the form of AutoComp. The robot will load the part where the fixture can accurately and correctly position it in the CNC and CMM.

• Solenoid controlled • In-line mounting • Bulky

Robot Loads Grinder

Automatic Grinder Start

Robot Unloads Grinder

Auto-Comp Updates Offsets

Robot Stages Part

Repeat Until Stopped


3-D Virtual Tour of the Olson Center Advances in modern technology allow us 3-D Virutal Tour of The Olson Center to reproduce training environments in a way that was only thought possible in scifi films. Through virtual and augmented Results discussion goes here reality applications, new workers can gain real experience using potentially a dangerous machinery without risk to themselves and wasting valuable machine or tutor time. Once the program is created, new workers can be educated through a guided lesson. Our goal is to fill the gap that currently exists between SciFi fantasy and reality by implementing a training program through virtual reality in an efficient manner for the University of New Hampshire’s John Olson Advanced Manufacturing Center. Such an endeavor paves the road for effective training tools for other manufacturing facilities, as well as provides the Olson Center with a template for future workers. Roger Balcom Joseph Crotty NIcholas Muise Ziran Xu Background

Results

Implementation of different machine types in a 3-D atmosphere -Training or repair

Image 1&2 – Oculus headset

Image 3 – Interior of Olson Center

Better Compression of Files Different types of headsets/controlling methods -PC vs OCULUS RIFT/QUEST

Advances in modern technology have allowed us to reproduce training

environments in a way that was only thought possible in the distant future. Through

ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey

virtual and augmented reality applications, new workers can gain real experience

using potentially dangerous machinery with no risk to themselves and without wasting valuable machine or tutor time. Once the program is created, new workers

can be educated on a guided lesson with no interaction by instructors or fear of damaging expensive machinery or parts.

Introduction

Our goal is to advance the use of technology in the production industry

through the use of virtual reality to help train and familiarize new people to the

View presentation

Areas for Further Study

The figures above show the menu created from our Unity program. The goal is to create an easy to use program for the user to be able to navigate and use the menu to either watch the 3D tour or load a machine model.

Conclusions

New Hampshire’s Olson Center and its equipment. Such an endeavour paves the road for effective training tools for other manufacturing facilities, as well as provides the Olson Center with a template for future workers.

Overall, our group has successfully bridged the gap between the

References

● Unity Software ( https://unity3d.com/get-unity/download) ● Oculus VR Lens (https://developer.oculus.com/downloads/ ) ● Microsoft HoloLens (https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/hololens) ● Olson Advanced Manufacturing Center (https://ceps.unh.edu/Olson-Center)

virtual world and reality through the use of unity and oculus. We are furthering the uses of technology and training which is the future of the production industry and the goal of the Olson Center. After

Research Objectives

● Record 3D Tour of Olson Center ● Learn and utilize Unity to create a menu ● Upload final product to Oculus Quest for VR tour Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Professor Kinsey and the Olson Center

learning the Unity software programing our group was about to

utilize it capabilities to create a simple and easy to use menu page

that will allow users to have the option to take a 3D tour of the Olson Center or be able to view a machine model on the Oculus Quest

virtual reality headset. This will be used to efficiently and effectively familiarize people with the Olson Center as a whole or with specific

Contact Information

machines in the center, ultimately saving time and money.

Roger Balcom - rlb1030@wildcats.unh.edu Joseph Crotty - Jac1073@wildcats.unh.edu Nicholas Muise - nam1030@wildcats.unh.edu Ziran Xu - zx1010@wildcats.unh.edu

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 64

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

AUTHORS: Roger Balcom Joseph Crotty Nicholas Muise Ziran Xu


Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) AUTHORS: Cory Barrett Megan Barrett Travis Calley Meghan Cincotta Shane Harvey Timothy Kammerer Ian Lander Matthew Lemire Yongjin Lu David Miner John Ross Kristen Simoneau

The Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) team works in conjunction with the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) team to develop and test autonomous control systems, and vehicles for multiple marine platforms. The final mission is to demonstrate inter-operability between surface and subsurface vehicles for the purpose of seafloor mapping. This project is funded by the Naval Engineering Education Consortium (NEEC) through the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Keyport, in Keyport, Washington.

Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) Team Members: Ian Lander (OE), John Ross (ME), Meghan Cincotta (ME), Michael Jenness (ME), David Miner (ME), Kristen Simoneau (ME), Cory Barrett (CE), Megan Barrett (CE), Timothy Kammerer (CE), Yongjin Lu (CE), Travis Calley (CS), Matt Lemire (CS) Project Advisors: Dr. May-Win Thein & Dr. Yuri Rzhanov Graduate Advisors: Allisa Dalpe, Alexander Cook, & Oguzhan Oruc In collaboration with the UNH Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) project Special Thanks to Dr. Martin Renken, John Ahern, Scott Campbell, Laura Gustafson, Sheri Milllette & Tate Ellinwood (Saint Paul High School)

CONTROLS AND AUTONOMY

MISSION

TETHER MANAGEMENT

• Updated controller from a bang-bang controller to PID controls

The ultimate goal of this project is to have autonomous ASV and ROV deployment, which is also able to behave as a swarm with other ASV and ROV pairings. The intended application of this system is autonomous sea floor mapping.

• Developed autonomy:

Future goals include improving the autonomy of the system, and communication between multiple vehicles. The system would be able to serve as a testbed for evaluating the effectiveness of autonomous naval assets.

• Reduces overshoot and decreases settling time of heading control • Grid of points, to collect data, in a lawnmower pattern • GPS to track current position of vessel and determine heading and speed • Sends commands the controller in order to follow the lawnmower pattern

UUV INTEROPERABILITY

• Blue Robotics ROV2 Heavy

• Modified automotive winch • Trapdoor system for smooth UUV deployment

• Shore station equipment stored in a water/dust proof box for safe & efficient transportation

Le Guevel, Sonia. “Thales Wins French-UK Mine Countermeasures Contract.” Thales Group, 2019 Thales Group, 27 Mar. 2015, www.thalesgroup.com/en/worldwide/press-release/thales-wins french-uk-mine-countermeasures-contract.

• WiFi signal used for telemetry and control • ROS communicates across multiple machines to pass data and commands

ASV OVERVIEW

ASV laptop is vehicle control

Shore station laptop is operator station

Sonar readings and GPS location communicated to shore station

Vehicle system parameters can be monitored (Propulsion, UUV Deployment)

• XBees are used for failsafe heartbeat

UNDERWATER GPS DEPLOYMENT • Uses a Waterlinked® Underwater GPS© System •

• Rotary encoder added to allow for deployment/retrieval of tether based on distance, rather than time.

• Designed to operate with the UNH ROV team's vehicles

SHORE TO VEHICLE COMMUNICATIONS

• New pulley system added to better handle tether between ASV and UUV, and helps prevent tether slipping.

4 submersible transducers (on ASV), 1 receiver (on ROV), and an Electronics dry box (on ASV deck)

• Employs a low-power linear conveyor to deploy the transducers • System stabilizes the transducers for precise location monitoring

Catamaran-style Design

Length: 7' 9"

Beam: 5' 6"

Twin Electric Motors

4 arms for deploying UGPS sensors

Trapdoor for deploying Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV)

"Penthouse" platform to keep electronics far from waterline

Built by 2017-2018 ASV Team Many improvements and modifications have been added

• Water Depth Measurement: Blue Robotics Echosounder • Heading & Tilt: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) • Tether Deployment Length: Rotary Encoder

TUPPS (TESTING UNMANNED PERFORMANCE PLATFORMS) Purpose: A small-scale version of the ASV for indoor testing in a tank.

Fully Retracted UGPS Arm

• Detachable for transportation of ASV

SENSOR OVERVIEW • Positioning: GPS + GLONASS Receiver

• Cost-effective, modular construction • Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and other open-source components • Inertial Measurement Unit for heading control •

PID heading control in testing

• Blue Robotics thrusters

OCEAN ENGINEERING

ADVISORS: Yuri Rzhanov May-Win Thein

2018-19 Version

2019-20 Version

Waterlinked® Components

Fully Deployed UGPS Arm

Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) AUTHORS: Travis Calley Timothy Holt Kevin Johnson Matthew Lemire Logan Yotnakparian ADVISORS: Yuri Rzhanov May-Win Thein

The ROV team works along side the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) team towards a common goal. The primary goal of the ASV/ROV teams is to create an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) system that can be sent to perform a search pattern to map a section of ocean floor with sonar. When the ASV detects an object or location of interest, it will deploy the on-board AUV to take images of the area or object. One goal is to have the system capable of being added to any surface craft to give it autonomous capabilities.

Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle(ROV) Team Members: Travis Calley, Timothy Holt, Kevin Johnson, Matt Lemire, Logan Yotnakparian

Project Advisors: Dr. May-Win Thein & Dr. Yuri Rzhanov Graduate Advisors: Allisa Dalpe, Alexander Cook, & Oguzhan Oruc In collaboration with the UNH Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) project Special Thanks to Dr. Martin Renken, the UNH Parents Association, John Ahern, Scott Campbell, Laura Gustafson, Sheri Milllette & Tate Ellinwood (Saint Paul High School)

Tether System Interchangeable Tether System Goal: To make one tether system that will work with all current and future ROVs • Each ROV has a female SubConn connector, while the tethers has a male SubConn connector • Tether ROVs can switch between is capable of withstanding a tethers load of 300 lbs tensile • New Connections (ROV 008) testing are reelinline incorporates quick or on the end for capeasy (ROVset006 connections up& 007)

The figure above shows the tether connected to ROV 007.

ROV Mission The primary goal of the ROV team is to work alongside the ASV to achieve entirely autonomous ocean mapping. The main focus of the ROV team this year is to establish effective and repeatable testing to create a platform to facilitate the implementation of more advanced control systems in future years.

Deployment Goal: To autonomously deploy the ROV from the ASV • Strategy consists of custom built tether reel and guided spooling system to control the deployment process • Tether reel has been fabricated out of a 2000 pound winch motor, a cable reel, and a slip ring • 12 wire slip ring enables the connection between the ROV, the tether reel, and the ASV • Rollers will be implemented around A rotary encoder will prevent the the trapdoor in theattempting deck of thetoASV to system from deploy prevent the tether on the more tether thanfrom whatsnagging is available • ASV A force gauge and a floating pulley • A cable management will be implemented to guide the will deploy the tethersystem only when tether the spool uniformly to prevent tangling and overflow there onto is tension

Underwater GPS

ROS System Design Robot Operating System, or ROS, is a set of software libraries and tools used for the development of robot applications.

• WaterLinked Underwater GPS • Accuracy varies at +/- 1% of the distance between the Locator and the Receivers (assuming minimal reflection) theLocator underwater GPS along with controls developed, we are able •• Using New A1 improves to the ROV travel from a starting location to a thehave mobility of the ROVautonomously and the desired point accuracy of of theinterest system while • Currently using the QGroundControl system we are able to manually testing indoors select a point of interest and begin travel • Testing platform provides The figure above shows the WaterLinked Underwater GPS MavLink.

consistent, reliable node location and UGPS performance

65 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

waypoint to waypoint autonomously • The User Interface Allows us to select waypoints for the ROV to travel to. • Waypoints can be given outside of UI using a python script • The python script allows for the waypoints to be passed to the ROV from another platform since the python script can be executed though the ROS network • Navigation can be improved by tweaking the gains of the PID controllers

Controls • The current controller onboard the ROV is the proportional-integral-derivative controller. QGround control is an interface that allows each of the controller gains to be tuned appropriately from testing feedback.

The figure above shows the ROV deployment system from the ASV. It is important to note that tether reel is shown in blue.

Goal: To locate the ROV underwater using four receivers listening for a set acoustic frequency and a single locater producing a desired acoustic frequency

Waypoint Navigation Goal: to accurately navigate from

MAVROS is a ROS package used to send MAVLink messages from the ASV to the AUV using the ROS Publisher/Subscriber framework. This package allows for: • Setting mission waypoints • Arming the AUV for a mission • Returning to home (ASV)

Front Seat/Back Seat design using the ROS framework


Automated Classification of Narrow Bipolar Pulses AUTHOR: Nathan Richard Julia Tilles ADVISOR: Ningyu Liu

A narrow bipolar event (NBE) is a uniquely Automated Classification Of Narrow Bipolar Pulses high-power, electrical discharge that takes places within thunderclouds [1]. ""They are the most powerful terrestrial source of highâ&#x20AC;?frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) electromagnetic radiation in nature [2]"", there is evidence that they can initiate other thunderstorm electrical discharges [2], and the polarity of their sferics (i.e., broadband electromagnetic signals) may correlate with the physical intensity of the storm [1]. These unique properties incentivize the identification and categorizing of NBEs for use in further research. In this work, we develop a method to automatically identify NBEs and determine their breakdown polarity using the INTF dataset, which consists of measurements from three broadband VHF (20-80 MHz) radio receivers that are used for interferometry, and a single electric-field change antenna that is used to record sferics produced by lightning. The INTF array was deployed to Kennedy Space Center in 2016, and all four signals were synchronously-digitized at 180 MSps. In our approach, NBEs are identified based on their narrow (roughly 10 microsecond-wide) bipolar sferics, and then the corresponding VHF data is processed to determine the breakdown polarity of the event. Nathan Richard, Julia Tilles, Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire

Objective

ď Ź

To autonomously identify and classify potential narrow bipolar events(NBEs)

Abstract

A narrow bipolar event (NBE) is a uniquely high-power, electrical discharge that takes places within thunderclouds [1]. "They are the most powerful terrestrial source of highâ&#x20AC;? frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) electromagnetic radiation in nature [2]", there is evidence that they can initiate other thunderstorm electrical discharges [2], and the polarity of their sferics (i.e., broadband electromagnetic signals) may correlate with the physical intensity of the storm [1]. These unique properties incentivize the identification and categorizing of NBEs for use in further research. In this work, we develop a method to automatically identify NBEs and determine their breakdown polarity using the INTF dataset, which consists of measurements from three broadband VHF (20-80 MHz) radio receivers that are used for interferometry, and a single electric-field change antenna that is used to record sferics produced by lightning. The INTF array was deployed to Kennedy Space Center in 2016, and all four signals were synchronously-digitized at 180 MSps. In our approach, NBEs are identified based on their narrow (roughly 10 microsecond-wide) bipolar sferics, and then the corresponding VHF data is processed to determine the breakdown polarity of the event.

Results

ď Ź

ď Ź

References

General Methodology

Of the 545 detected NBE candidates, 137 were true NBEs 65 events were classified as having a negative breakdown polarity and 71 as positive.

Conclusion

The ability to identify and classify NBEs with minimal human intervention is currently limited by the ability to accurately identify an NBE within a data set and by the sometimes lacking temporal resolution of the VHF source data. These areas need further refinement before bulk NBE identification and classification can be implemented on a large scale. For the purposes of generating a database to be used for further research.

1) First approximate the amplitude of the noise in the electric-field change (sferic) data. Data that has a max amplitude greater then 120% of the noise level, in the first 10% of the time interval should be ignored

ď Ź

[1] Wu, T., Takayanagi, Y., Yoshida, S., Funaki, T., Ushio, T., and Kawasaki, Z. ( 2013), Spatial relationship between lightning narrow bipolar events and parent thunderstorms as revealed by phased array radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 618â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 623.

ď Ź

[2] Liu, N., Dwyer, J. R., Tilles, J., Stanley, M. A., Krehbiel, P. R., Rison, W., et al. ( 2019). Understanding the radio spectrum of thunderstorm narrow bipolar events. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10134â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10153.

2) Search for the detection time, i.e., the first time the measured change in electric field goes above 120% of the noise amplitude (vertical green line in each figure). 3)Verify the selected interval is an NBE by looking at various perimeters like, the width of the wave form, activity surrounding the event, and the general shape of the signal.

4) Define the time interval of the event as: 30 microseconds before and 100 microseconds after the detection time (the vertical blue and black lines, respectively). 5) The measurements from the three radio broadband receivers are then used to to generate the VHF source locations within the time interval of the NBE.

6) Determine the sferic polarity: We check if the electric field change signal has a positive maximum (with respect to the noise floor), then the signal has a positive polarity; otherwise, the sferic is of negative polarity. 7) Find the VHF source propagation direction by fitting a line to a elevation V.S time plot of the VHF source locations from the detection time to the next time the signal crosses below the same threshold step 2: 120% of the noise amplitude. The sign of the slope,ultimately, gives the direction of propagation. â&#x2014;? There should be no VHF sources more then approximately 5 micro seconds before the NBE detection time. If there are, question if the event is actually an NBE.

8) Determine the breakdown polarity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; if both the sferic polarity and propagation direction have the same sign, then the breakdown is negative polarity; otherwise the breakdown polarity is positive.

Positive breakdown polarity

Negative breakdown polarity

Next Steps

Improve the accuracy of of the scripts ability to identify an NBE from a data set ď Ź Verify the accuracy of the script, in regards to classifying events, by running it through larger known data sets. ď Ź

Estimating Errors from Extrapolating Finite-Radii

ADVISORS: Francois Foucart

Gravitational wave simulations form the basis of analyzing precision observational data from gravitational wave telescopes. These simulations provide us with numerical estimates of the waveforms from the merger of massive celestial objects, primarily neutron stars and black holes. Due to the complex nature of this type of computation, the propagation of produced gravitational waves are found out to a finite radius of ~60,000km135,000km. These finite radii from the simulations create a blockage in our ability to derive data close to what we would see in observations on Earth, which we consider to be at an â&#x20AC;&#x153;infiniteâ&#x20AC;? radius (arbitrarily far away from the point of merger). By performing a series of corrections to the simulated data, we were able to extrapolate the waveforms to infinity and analyze the error on the extrapolation to determine the viability of these techniques for building useful simulation waveforms close to observation. When objects move in the fabric of space-time, their displacement propagates through the universe as energy in the form of waves. These are gravitational waves (GW), carrying the energy given off by gravitational radiation at the speed of light c [1]. They are notoriously difficult to detect, requiring large, incredibly sensitive instruments called laser interferometers (pictured top right) to detect the subtle variation in the space-time fabric.

o We use the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) to simulate the mergers of massive astronomical object (black holes, neutron stars, etc). o Computational simulations of GW are crucial for identifying and cataloging waveforms in the data collected by modern observational relativistic astrophysics [2]. o Simulations give us a repository of astronomical events to search incoming data and verify results.

Due to computational constraints, gravitational wave simulations from massive compact object mergers can only be computed out to a small finite radius (~60,000km-135,000km from event). Thus, we must extrapolate from the computed data to see what a wave would look like at our observation at đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C; = â&#x2C6;&#x17E;. In order to know the viability of this data for scientific use, we must determine the extrapolation method that provides the best fit with non-significant error.

GW have two amplitudes đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;+ and đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2018;ż , that can be combined into a complex signal đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030; = đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;+ + iđ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2018;ż . We use the phase đ??&#x201C;đ??&#x201C; and amplitude A for analysis, defined below:

We then took the time array of the simulated waveform and applied a corrected time parameter đ?&#x2019;&#x2022;đ?&#x2019;&#x2022;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E; to find our relativistically adjusted retarded time, đ?&#x2019;&#x2022;đ?&#x2019;&#x2022;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C; , which is used to correct the waveform. This is required to account for wave propagation time.

o At the highest radii, the error of the waveform is ~đ?&#x;&#x2022;đ?&#x;&#x2022; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? radians, while the extrapolated waveform has error within ~đ?&#x;&#x201C;đ?&#x;&#x201C; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? radiansâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a significant improvement. o We analyze error on extrapolation methods by comparing the difference between subsequent orders of functional fitting (đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 and đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 ). o Convergence in our đ??´đ??´ and đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122; fitting error illuminates which fitting order has the most ideal error-to-fit ratio. In the higher order fits, we can â&#x20AC;&#x153;over-extrapolateâ&#x20AC;? where the noise increases significantly as the radius increases.

We then build an interpolated function with the time corrected A and đ??&#x201C;đ??&#x201C; data. From here, we ran polynomial fits of different orders to extrapolate đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? the data to our observation point at đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C; = â&#x2C6;&#x17E; ( = đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;). đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C; We used 2nd to 5th order functional expansions đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? around in đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨ and đ??&#x201C;đ??&#x201C; to build our extrapolation. đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;đ?&#x2019;&#x201C;

đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; = â&#x2C6;&#x17E;

1 đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

=0

o Formatting data into computationally friendly formats (changing â&#x201E;&#x17D;+ and â&#x201E;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; into the non-oscillatory đ??´đ??´ and Ď&#x2022;) increases the effectiveness of extrapolation methods. o Error propagation is the key factor to control in building methods for scientific work. In this case, we were seeking to find a balance between good extrapolation and low error. o The usefulness of our novel choice of đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? versus applying the naĂŻve đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; = đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;â&#x2C6;&#x2014; is underrepresented in the extrapolated data. The part of the GW analyzed here are all pre-merger, where the choice of đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? does not make a significant difference but is important for maintaining posterity with longer timeframe studies.

Using an extrapolation method from Extrapolating Gravitational-Wave Data from Numerical Simulations [3], we can apply a corrected time parameter to the simulated GW waveform, then apply polynomial fits of different orders to the interpolated function derived from the waveform to ultimately find the error on each extrapolation method.

Data from the simulation is in the format of non-time corrected waveforms in the quadrupole expansion đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;+ and đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2019;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2018;ż . The plot to the left shows the time corrected waveform (red) over the raw data from the simulation output (blue).

o [1] Carroll, S. (2019). Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity. Cambridge University Press. o [2] Abbott, Bâ&#x20AC;Ś (2019). GWTC-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing RunsPhys. Rev. X, 9, 031040. o [3] Boyle, M., & MrouĂŠ, A. (2009). Extrapolating gravitational-wave data from numerical simulationsPhysical Review D, 80(12). o [4] Tim Dietrich, Sebastiano Bernuzzi, Bernd BrĂźgmann, & Wolfgang Tichy (2018). High-Resolution Numerical Relativity Simulations of Spinning Binary Neutron Star Mergers2018 26th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing (PDP), 682-689.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 66

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY-DATA ANALYSIS, SIMULATION & THEORY

AUTHOR: Max Miller


Exploring Earth-Analog Atmospheres with the James Webb Space Telescope AUTHOR: Morgan Saidel

The search for life outside our solar system Exploring Earth-Analog Atmospheres with the James initially requires exploring potentially Webb Space Telescope habitable Earth-analog exoplanets. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 2021, will be able to detect the atmospheres of these potential Earth-analog worlds. Thus, it is imperative that we optimize the use of JWST by developing observational strategies to efficiently characterize potentially habitable Earth-like exoplanets. To develop these strategies, we identified target planetary systems for JWST analysis, determined optimal configurations of JWST instruments for characterization of Earth-analog exoplanets, and estimated the number of transits required to detect key spectral features on our target worlds. This was accomplished by simulating atmospheric observations of Earthanalog exoplanets around a sequence of K and M stars with a variety of JWST instruments. We found that Earth-analog planets around M8V, M5V, and M2V stellar hosts yield the strongest overall spectral features for detection by a wide range of JWST observing modes. Furthermore, an analysis of key spectral features, H2O at 1.4 and 2.5 microns, CH4 at 3.3 and 8.0 microns, and CO2 at 4.5 microns, was performed around the aforementioned planetary systems. Here we discuss the results of this analysis, specifically the number of transits required to detect these features, and the optimal combination of JWST instruments for their detection. Morgan Saidel1, Mark McConnell1, Nikole Lewis2, Lisa Kaltenegger2, Jack Madden2, Thea Kozakis2

1University

of New Hampshire, 2Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University INTRODUCTION

ADVISOR: Mark McConnell

MODELLED SPECTRA

The search for life outside our solar system initially requires exploring potentially habitable Earth-analog exoplanets. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 2021, will be able to detect the atmospheres of these potential Earth-analog worlds. Thus, it is imperative that we optimize the use of JWST by developing observational strategies to efficiently characterize potentially habitable Earth-like exoplanets.

The following figures are modelled transmission spectra for Earth-analog planets around a variety of stellar hosts from Madden et al. (submitted).

TRANSITS REQUIRED

H2O

Observing Mode NIRSpec G140H NIRSpec Prism NIRISS SOSS a.

To develop these strategies, we identified target planetary systems for JWST analysis, determined optimal configurations of JWST instruments for characterization of Earth-analog exoplanets, and estimated the number of transits required to detect key spectral features on our target worlds. This was accomplished by simulating atmospheric observations of Earthanalog exoplanets around a sequence of K and M stars with a variety of JWST instruments. Detection was signified by a three to one ratio between the amplitude of the spectral features and their spectral precision.

Number of Transits 5-8

J Magnitude 7-9

10+

10

10+

7

Observing Mode NIRSpec G235H NIRSpec Prism NIRISS SOSS b.

Number of Transits 1-3

J Magnitude 7-10.5

7

10

2-7

7.5-10

Table 2. a. The number of transits required to detect the 1.4 µm H2O feature for an Earth-analog exoplanet around and M8V stellar host as a function of J magnitude. b. The number of transits required to detect the 2.5 µm H2O feature for an Earth-analog exoplanet around and M8V stellar host as a function of J magnitude.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

CH4

• What planetary systems are ideal for spectral feature detection by a wide range of JWST instruments? • How many transits are required to detect key spectral features around the target planetary systems? • How does the transit number vary with J magnitude of the star? • How does the transit number vary with different observing modes?

Figure 1. The modelled transmission spectrum detected by NIRSpec Prism for an Earth-like exoplanet around M0V, M2V, K0V, K2V, K5V, and K7V stars.

Number of Transits 1-4

J Magnitude

NIRCam F332W2

Observing Mode

NIRSpec G395H

1-4

7-9.5

NIRSpec Prism

13

7-10

10

Table 3. The number of transits required to detect the 3.3 µm CH4 feature for an Earthanalog exoplanet around and M8V stellar host as a function of J magnitude.

METHODOLOGY

CO2

• Earth-analog exoplanets were modelled around stars of the following spectral type: • K0V, K2V, K5V, K7V, M0V, M2V, M5V, M8V • JWST atmospheric detection was simulated using PandExo • Detections were simulated using all four JWST instruments: • NIRCam, NIRSpec, NIRISS, MIRI • The observing modes used for each instrument are listed in Table 1 below. • Analyzed the detection of four key spectral features: • H2O at 1.4 µm • H2O at 2.5 µm • CH4 at 3.3 µm • CO2 at 4.5 µm Observing Mode

Wavelength Range

NIRSpec G140H

0.97-1.82 µm

NIRSpec G235H

1.66-3.05 µm

NIRSpec G395H

2.87-5.14 µm

NIRSpec Prism

0.60-5.30 µm

NIRCam F332W2

2.4-4.0 µm

NIRCam F444W

3.9-5.0 µm

NIRISS SOSS

0.6-2.8 µm

MIRI slitless

5-14 µm

Table 1. The JWST observing modes and their corresponding wavelength ranges that were used to detect the atmospheric features of Earth-analog exoplanets.

Acknowledgements:

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. 1659264. This research was made possible by the Cornell University Astronomy Department, the Carl Sagan Institute, and Jack Madden who created the Earth-analog models. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2019

Observing Mode

Figure 2. The modelled transmission spectrum detected by NIRSpec Prism for an Earth-like exoplanet around an M5V and M8V star.

SPECTRAL PRECISION ANALYSIS

J Magnitude

NIRCam F444W

Number of Transits 1-3

NIRSpec G395H

1-3

7-11

NIRSpec Prism

6-9

10

7-11.5

Table 4. The number of transits required to detect the 4.5 µm CO2 feature for an Earthanalog exoplanet around and M8V stellar host as a function of J magnitude.

CONCLUSIONS

• Earth-analog planets around M8V, M5V, and M2V stellar hosts yield the strongest overall spectral features for detection by a wide range of JWST observing modes. • Should be considered as target planetary systems for detection of Earth-analog exoplanets with JWST. • NIRSpec Prism detected the widest range of atmospheric features. • Only detects features for stars with Jmag > 10. • Requires 10+ transits to detect smaller amplitude spectral features. • For brighter host stars or smaller amplitude features, supplementary modes should be used in conjunction with or in replace of NIRSpec Prism: • NIRSpec G140H can detect the 1.4 µm H2O feature (amplitude: ~30ppm) in 58 transits for stars with J magnitudes between 7-9. • NIRCam F332W2 can detect the 3.3 µm CH4 feature (amplitude: ~48ppm) in 1-4 transits for stars with J magnitudes between 7-10.

REFERENCES

Figure 3. The spectral precision as a function of J magnitude for the 4.5 µm CO2 feature detected by NIRISS SOSS, NIRSpec Prism, and NIRSpec G140H.

Kalirai, J., 2018, Contemporary Physics, 59, 3 Madden, et al. (submitted) Batalha, N.E., Mandell, A., Pontoppidan, K., et al., 2017, PASP, 129, 976

Contact Info: Morgan Saidel is an undergraduate physics major at the University of New Hampshire. Email: mls1052@wildcats.unh.edu

www.PosterPresentations.com

Winning Project

2020

Machine Learning in the String Landscape AUTHOR: Ben Campbell

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY-DATA ANALYSIS, SIMULATION & THEORY

ADVISOR: Per Berglund

Modern formulations of string theory require a spacetime structure that is at least (9+1)-dimensional. For these theories to be phenomenologically relevant, six of nine spactial dimensions must be ``compactified'' to agree with experimental evidence of a (3+1)-dimensional spacetime structure. These compactified dimensions take the form of a Calabi-Yau manifold of complex dimension 3 (Calbi-Yau 3-fold). The number of choices for compactification has a lower bound of around $10^{500}$, thus the idenification of Calabi-Yau 3-folds by way of machine learning can be an important tool for research. We first identify each Calabi-Yau n-fold to a particular reflexive polytope in an (n+1)-dimensional complex projective space. The vertex coordinates for each polytope contain all the information needed to reconstruct the Calabi-Yau n-fold. These are used as the source of data for a fully-connected neural network model to learn from and identify groups of polytopes based on certain topological properties of the related manifolds. As a test case, the model is first given data for the 16 reflexive 2-dimensional polytopes as well as many different configurations of these polytopes to increase the total amount of sample data. With the 2-dimensional polytopes the model achieved at most an accuracy of 97.32%. The 4319 reflexive 3-dimensional polytopes are analyzed next and we are able to identify the correct polytope group at most 86.9\% of the time with current models. We hope to address the possibly phenomenologically relevant case of the 4-dimensional polytopes in the future.

67 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Observations of Van Allen Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation during Satellite Conjunctions of FIREBIRD-II and POES Observations of Van Allen Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation during Satellite Conjunctions of FIREBIRD-II and POES

Isabella M. Householder, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of New Hampshire Advisor: Katharine Duderstadt Introduction

Results

Discussion

Comparison of FIREBIRD-II and POES I:

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103 102 101 100

metop1 2018-09-22 19:48-19:54 Lat -68— -47, Lon +47— +33

C

D

III:

IV:

FU4 & NOAA-18, 2018-09-28, 23:27-23:32

Lat +58— +75, Lon -180— +158

MEPED Theo. Counts

It is anticipated this study will demonstrate the value of using electron flux instruments capable of higher energy resolution for future satellite missions. Using instruments similar to the FIREBIRD instrument on future satellites instead of the MEPED would ensure a more accurate observation of electron precipitation in the upper atmosphere.

MEPED Theo. Counts

B

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FU3 & MetOp-2, 2018-09-19, 07:55-08:00

Lat -58— -75, Lon -129— -152

MEPED Theo. Counts

Illustration of electron spiraling around a magnetic field B at velocity V with a pitch angle θ. Adapted from Singal [2016].

Fortunately, the recent FIREBIRD-II CubeSat mission provides an opportunity to observe higher resolution electron measurements with a wider field of view in comparison with POES. FIREBIRD-II provides higher energy resolution, with differential as opposed to integral flux, and geometric factors 600 times POES, allowing better observation of electron precipitation during quiet times. This study compares energetic electron flux between the FIREBIRD-II CubeSats (FIREBIRD Unit 3, FU3, and FIREBIRD Unit 4, FU4) and several POES satellites (NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, MetOp-1B, MetOp-2A) during conjunction times between L-shells 3 and 7, which are representative of the outer radiation belt.

II:

FU3 & MetOp-1, 2018-09-22, 19:44-19:48

Lat -48— -63, Lon +60— +51

A

MEPED Theo. Counts

Precipitating electrons impact the physical and chemical properties of the upper atmosphere; yet, the flux and distribution of these electrons is not well known. Measurements of electrons in the atmosphere are usually provided by the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), which are equipped with the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED). While these satellites have adequate coverage, they have a low energy resolution and electron measurements are impacted by proton contamination. Additionally, the POES instrument geometry provides a narrow field of view which inhibits the measurement of low-flux electrons.

FU4 & NOAA-18, 2018-09-28, 00:31-00:36

Lat -60— -77, Lon -17— -46

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Methods

V:

C G

n 2 2 4π r N

MEPED Theo. Counts

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The calculation of MEPED theoretical counts based on FIREBIRD flux allows for a comparison between MEPED theoretical counts and measured counts for the 0° and 90° detectors, where the 0° detector is oriented with the magnetic field and the 90° detector is parallel to the magnetic field. The 0° telescope observes precipitating electrons, and the 90° telescope observes mirrored electrons, resulting in the 90° detector observations to be much higher than those from the 0° detector.

In spite of these potential explanations, it is apparent that the higher energy resolution of the FIREBIRD-II instruments allows us to better quantify the variability in electron precipitation, especially during quiet times (periods of low electron flux). This information is crucial for understanding the impacts of electron precipitation from the Van Allen radiation belts on our atmosphere.

This observation of electron precipitation during satellite conjunctions of FIREBIRD-II and POES shows that: 1. POES over-predicts during periods of high ßux in comparison to FIREBIRD-II (Plot I). 2. FIREBIRD-II is able to capture the variability at low ßux while the POES noise ßoor obscures these observations (Plots II & IV). 3. The noise ßoor from POES is too high to capture the low ßux values that FIREBIRD-II sees (Plots V & VI). Future measurements that have the resolution of FIREBIRD energetic electron count observations with POES spatial and temporal coverage could allow for a better understanding and a more accurate estimate of electrons impacting the upper atmosphere.

103 102 101 100

References

(2)

VIII: FU4 & NOAA-15, 2020-02-19, 04:50-04:53

VII: FU4 & NOAA-15, 2020-02-19, 04:42-04:45

Lat -81— -72, Lon -67— -105

Lat -62— -72, Lon +29— +16

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Crew, A. B., et al. (2016), First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 5272– 5283, doi:10.1002/2016JA022485. Johnson, A. T. et al. (2020). The FIREBIRD-II CubeSat mission: Focused investigations of relativistic electron burst intensity, range, and dynamics. Review of Scientific Instruments, 91(3), 034503.

103 102 101 100 noaa15 2020-02-19 04:53-04:59 Lat -76— -57, Lon -108— -134

noaa15 2020-02-19 04:39-04:45 Lat -50— -71, Lon +27— +10

The FIREBIRD electron flux is presented in panel A of each set of plots. An exponential function is fit to the FIREBIRD differential flux, jFB, and then used along with geometric factors from the POES MEPED instrument, GM, to estimate the counts that MEPED theoretically should observe in its three integral energy channels, as seen in equation (3). j CM = FB GM

▪ The Tsyganenko T89 magnetic field model was used to calculate McIlwain L-shells from spacecraft location. This model is based on a simplified magnetic field model and can be inaccurate at higher L-shells, which might explain the FIREBIRD over-prediction at high L-shells (Plot I). ▪ POES also has a narrower field of view in comparison to FIREBIRD, which results in a high noise floor in the electron flux observations. This noise floor makes it difficult to see enhancements in higher energy levels when the electron flux is low. ▪ The MEPED also experiences proton contamination, which artificially raises the electron count rate. This explains the general over-prediction in energetic electron flux in comparison to FIREBIRD, particularly at higher energy channels. ▪ It is difficult to determine the exact orientation of the FIREBIRD-II CubeSats, which may result in electron count measurements that are between 0° and 90°. FIREBIRD may be capturing mirrored particles as opposed to precipitating particles in the bounce loss cone. ▪ The altitude difference between FIREBIRD (400-600 km) and POES (~870 km) may also contribute to the difference in electron count measurements.

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The geometric factor is a function of incidence angle, energy, and particle species and is determined using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT) particle transport model as described in Yando, et al., [2011]. The formula used to calculate the geometric factor G is defined as seen in (2), where n is the number of registered particles, N is the number of simulated particles, and r is the radius of the source. G=

Lat +74— +74, Lon +130— +115

MEPED Theo. Counts

j=

VI: FU4 & MetOp-2, 2018-09-18, 01:36-01:40

FU4 & MetOp-1, 2018-08-17, 02:53-02:55

Lat +63— +70, Lon +116— +107

FIREBIRD electron counts measured during conjunctions with POES satellites were used to calculate FIREBIRD electron flux, as seen in equation (1), where j represents the electron flux (particles s-1 cm-2 sr-1), C is the instrument count rate (count s-1), and G is a geometric factor.

There are several explanations for discrepancies between the FIREBIRD-II and POES observations.

Conclusions

The FIREBIRD-II CubeSat.

MEPED Theo. Counts

ADVISOR: Katharine Duderstadt

Precipitating electrons impact the physical and chemical properties of the upper atmosphere; yet, the behavior of these electrons is not well known. Measurements of electrons in the atmosphere are provided by the Polarorbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), which are equipped with the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED). While these satellites have adequate coverage, they have a low energy resolution and electron measurements are impacted by proton contamination. Additionally, the POES instrument geometry provides a narrow field of view which inhibits the measurement of low-flux electrons.

MEPED Theo. Counts

AUTHOR: Isabella Householder

Nesse Tyssøy, et al. (2016). Energetic electron precipitation into the middle atmosphere— Constructing the loss con fluxes from MEPED POES. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 5693– 5707. doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022752. Singal, A. K. (2016). Radiation reaction and pitch-angle changes for a charge undergoing synchrotron losses. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 458(3), 2303–2306 Spence, H. E., et al. (2012), Focusing on size and energy dependence of electron microbursts from the Van Allen radiation belts, Space Weather, 10, S11004, doi:10.1029/2012SW000869.

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Figure Caption

The above plots display a few representative examples comparing FIREBIRD-II and POES energetic electron counts during satellite conjunctions. A B Illustration of pitch angles [Tyssøy, et al. (2016)]

Yando, K., Millan, R.M., Green, J.C., Evans, D.S. (2011). A Monte Carlo simulation of the NOAA POES Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector instrument. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 116.

Acknowledgements

FIREBIRD electron flux, which is used to estimate MEPED theoretical counts (particles s-1 cm-2 sr-1). MEPED theoretical counts based on FIREBIRD flux (counts s-1).

C

MEPED counts detected by the 0º telescope (counts s-1).

D

MEPED counts detected by the 90º telescope (counts s-1).

I would like to thank the FIREBIRD team for their input and feedback, including C.-L. Huang, H.E. Spence, S. Smith, J.B. Blake, A.B. Crew, A. Johnson, D.M. Klumpar, J.G. Sample, and M. Shumko. I would also like to thank Charles Smith for providing continual insight and support.

This research was suppor ted by grants from NASA (NNX15AF66G, 135260) and NSF (1650738).

Fortunately, the recent FIREBIRD-II CubeSat mission provides an opportunity to observe higher resolution electron measurements with a wider field of view in comparison with POES. A detailed comparison of energetic electron flux between the FIREBIRD-II CubeSats (FIREBIRD-3 and FIREBIRD-4) and several POES satellites (NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, MetOp-1B, MetOp-2A) during different conjunction times were performed. Conjunction times were found within L-shells 3 and 7, which are representative of the outer radiation belt. It is anticipated this study will encourage the installation of the FIREBIRD instrument on future satellites instead of the MEPED to ensure a more accurate observation of electron precipitation in the upper atmosphere.

Obtaining the GBM Untargeted Search Confirmation Rate of GRBs

ADVISOR: Mark McConnell

On August 17, 2017, the Fermi GammaObtaining the GBM Untargeted Search Confirmation Rate of GRBs ray Burst Monitor (GBM) witnessed a short gamma-ray burst approximately 2 seconds after gravitational waves were observed from the binary neutron star Background merger GW170817. The event proved Results that short gamma-ray bursts are the result of binary neutron star collisions. In the hopes of finding more bursts Methodology coincident with gravitational waves, subthreshold GBM events are being considered. The GBM Untargeted Search is being used to find subthreshold gamma-ray signals that are too weak Conclusions or geometrically poor to automatically trigger the spacecraft. Using Python, we analyzed the candidate short gamma-ray bursts found by the Untargeted Search. These were then compared to GBM triggered bursts to verify that the Untargeted Search was successful in finding and localizing these events. Audrey Coleman1, Colleen Wilson-Hodge2, Michelle Hui2, Rachel Hamburg3

1University

of New Hampshire,

2Marshall

Space Flight Center –ST12, Huntsville

3University

of Alabama in

Artist’s rendition of the Fermi satellite with GBM detectors displayed

The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is a survey instrument aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It is comprised of 12 sodium iodide and 2 bismuth germanate scintillation detectors that span an energy range of 8keV to 40 MeV1. It reports gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5σ or greater2. On August 17, 2017, GBM detected a short GRB less than 2s after gravitational waves (GWs) from the binary neutron star merger GW1708173. The GBM Untargeted Search looks for weak signals that do not meet the threshold for the onboard triggering algorithms in order to increase potential coincidences with GWs4. We aim to quantify the success rate of the Untargeted Search in recovering triggered short GRBs. 1. 2. 3.

Compare time (within +/- 5s) and location of Untargeted Search candidates to GBM triggered short GRBs. Compare light curves of potential matches and manually verify location. Compare results of old and new version of Untargeted Search for possible improvement in locations.

Above is GW170817 and the GRB that followed roughly 2s after it. This event proved that short GRBs are the result of binary neutron star collisions3

• •

Untargeted Search confirmation rate: all but 1 triggered short GRB detected Missed burst was extremely weak Localization agreement with triggers: 21% improvement with v112 of Untargeted Search 52% improvement with new match requirements (Offset < 20 degrees is a match) • 89% of candidates now have matching locations • • •

Below and to the left are the light curves on four triggered GBM detectors for GRB141011282. The other four histograms on the right are the Untargeted Search candidate’s light curves. Note how the highest (red cross) and second highest (orange cross) peaks for the candidate correspond to high peaks on the GBM curves.

The Untargeted Search has a ~100% confirmation rate of short GRBs. It successfully located 89% of the candidates, the other 11% being the result of the short, weak nature of the GRBs. As the 20 degree requirement for a match is rather broad, the next steps would be to get the 1, 2, and 3σ contours of the candidate and GRB localizations and check how much of the candidate localization falls within the GBM contours. A large offset in location will still be consistent with the GBM localization if the GBM location has large errors.

Acknowledgements I would like to thank Colleen Wilson-Hodge, Michelle Hui, and Rachel Hamburg for their mentorship and support during this project. I would also like to express my thanks to NASA and the Space Grant Consortium for funding my involvement with this project References 1Meegan, C., et al. (2009). The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. The Astrophysical Journal, 702, 791-804. Doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/702/1/791 2Bhat, P.N., et al. (2016). The Third Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Six Years. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 223, No. 2. Doi: 10.3847/00670049/223/2/28 3Abbot, B.P., et al. (2017). Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 848, No. 2. Doi: 10.3847/2041-8214/aa91c9 4Briggs, M., et al. (In Preparation)

Of 159 GBM short gamma-ray burst triggers between January 2013 and March 2017, the search found 153. The missing 6 were found to be the result of missing data or a very weak event. An updated version of the Untargeted Search yielded a 21% improvement in candidate localization. A modification of the requirements for a location match resulted in a 52% improvement in candidate localization.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 68

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY-DATA ANALYSIS, SIMULATION & THEORY

AUTHOR: Audrey Coleman


Quantifying Electron Precipitation from the Van Allen Radiation Belts

Timothy Raeder, Advisors: Chia-Lin Huang & Katharine Duderstadt Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire (tr1067@wildcats.unh.edu)

FU4

Median Counts/6 Seconds

Kp >= 4

Kp <= 2

Data from two missions was used during this research: FIREBIRD-II, and the Van Allen Probes. The FIREBIRD-II mission consists of two satellites in a low earth polar orbit, approximately 500km, which measure electron flux with particle detectors from 2015 to the present. The Van Allen probes utilized of a wide variety of instruments to study the radiation belts from 2012 to 2019. The Van Allen probes had an equatorial orbit, with an apogee at 6 earth radii. The FIREBIRD-II mission provides two forms of data, context data consisting of two channels taken continuously throughout the FIREBIRD-II’s campaigns at 6 second intervals, and higher resolution data taken during specific events to target magnetospheric microbursts. This research uses the context data to study the behaviors of high energy (> 1MeV) electrons, filtered using geomagnetic indices to produce heat maps of median electron counts as functions of L-Shell, and MLT. In order to evaluate EMIC waves as a potential driver for electron precipitation, EMIC wave periods were first identified from power spectrum plots created by processing Van Allen probes EMFISIS magnetic field data through a Fast Fourier Transform calculation. FIREBIRD-II electron data was then filtered to match the time that these EMIC events took place in.

Median Counts/Second

Southern Hemisphere

Median Counts/6 Seconds

Northern Hemisphere

Depiction of FIREBIRD-II Cubesats and Van Allen Probes’ orbits inside the Magnetosphere

Polar Maps showing median high energy(>1 MeV) electron counts as measured by FIREBIRD-II Units 3 (left) and 4 (right). Unit 4 consistently shows higher measured electron counts compared to Unit 3. Both Units 3 and 4 detect peak activity in the same regions, namely in the late dawn (MLT 6-9) and early dusk (MLT 15-18).

Polar Maps showing median high energy(>1 MeV) electron counts as measured by FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 in the northern (left) and southern (right) hemispheres (NH and SH, respectively). Consistently higher electron counts are detected in the SH due to the South Atlantic Anomaly. In addition to this, the peak in the dawn region for the SH occurs earlier than for the NH, and the peak for the NH at dusk appears earlier than it does in the SH. The NH also displays a small amount of increased activity at nighttime, while the SH observes some increased activity from dawn up till 11 MLT. Finally the size of the dawn side peak for the SH is larger than the dusk side peak, while the inverse is true for the NH.

During recorded EMIC waves

recorded EMIC waves

• Regions of elevated electron precipitation were identified at L-shell 4-6 at late dawn (MLT 6-9) and dusk (MLT 15-21).

• Hemisphere filtering shows distinct regions of increased precipitation at late dawn and especially early dusk at L-shell 4-6 in the northern hemisphere, while being relatively quiet at all other times.

L-Profile plots of FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 during campaigns 1-23 (left), during EMIC events recorded by the Van Allen Probes (center), and during both EMIC events and from 1 hour before to 1 hour after recorded EMIC events (right). Both plots taken during recorded EMIC events display significantly increased electron counts at the 75th percentile, as well as increased counts at the 50th percentile.

Electron counts observed at northern (left) and southern (right) hemispheres. The southern hemisphere shows greatly increased activity at 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles. Of note is that 69.2% of electron counts measured by FIREBIRDII Unit 3 during EMIC events were in the Northern Hemisphere, ruling out that increases in electron count during EMIC events were caused by an overrepresentation of measured events in the southern hemisphere. Peaks at the 75th percentile are observed to occur at lower L Shell than at the 50th or 25th percentile

Seconds

Dwell time of FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 in seconds between L Shells 3 and 8. The radial coordinate represents McIlwain L Shell, and the angular coordinate represents Magnetic Local Time. There is a slight bias in data coverage towards the dayside sector, as well as more data coverage at lower L Shells.

Conclusions:

• High energy electron precipitation at LEO was observed to peak at L Shells 4.5-5, similar to distribution of radiation belt electrons

FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 High Energy (> 1MeV) Electron Counts at Northern and Southern Hemisphere Southern Hemispheres. Northern Hemisphere

Example of a Helium Band EMIC wave as observed by the Van Allen Probes

Occurrence map of EMIC wave events as measured by the Van Allen probes EMFISIS magnetometer [Saikin et al., 2015]

Median High Energy (> 1MeV) Electron Counts during EMIC events

Polar Maps showing median high energy(>1 MeV) electron counts as measured by FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 when the planetary K index is less than or equal to 2 (left) or greater than or equal to 4 (right). The data for low planetary K index closely resembles the data for all Unit 3 data, with regions of elevated activity around dusk and late dawn. The high planetary K index data shows a peak around dusk , as well as a narrow peak between MLT 6 and 7.

FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 High Energy (> 1MeV) Electron Counts at all times versus during EMIC events During and 1 hour before and after All Campaigns

During times of observed EMIC activity by the Van Allen Probes the FIREBIRD-II satellites recorded increased precipitation during MLT 0-3, MLT 6-9, and MLT 12-18, with activity being especially notable at MLT 15-18. This last region matches with a region of elevated EMIC wave occurrence rate observed in previous studies such as Saikin et al. [2015]. However a peak in the morning in the FIREBIRD-II data does not correlate with the daytime peak observed at MLT 10-12 in Saikin et al. [2015]. In future work, reasons behind this local time discrepancy between electron precipitation and EMIC wave occurrence rate will be investigated.

Median Counts/Second

FU3

Median Counts/6 Seconds

The spatial and temporal distribution of high energy electron precipitation from the Van Allen radiation belts is not currently well understood. This research intends to answer the following questions: what are the spatial and temporal behaviors of electron precipitation from the radiation belts, and what are the potential drivers of this precipitation? By using the particle detectors on board the NSF Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) satellites, as well as magnetic field measurements from the Nasa Van Allen probes, this research intends to display how electron precipitation varies with regard to distance from earth (McIlwain L-shell), local time (MLT), hemisphere, and geomagnetic activity (Kp, also referred to as planetary K index). In addition to this, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested as a potential driver for electron precipitation. By measuring precipitation during recorded EMIC wave events detected by the Van Allen probes this study aims to provide insight to whether this is the case.

Median Counts/6 Seconds

ADVISORS: Katharine Duderstadt Shawna Hollen Chia-Lin Huang

The spatial and temporal distribution Quantifying Electron Precipitation from the Van Allen Radiation Belts of high energy electron precipitation from the Van Allen radiation belts is not well-understood. The FIREBIRD-II Discussion & Conclusion Introduction Results mission (2015-present) and the Van Allen Probes (2012-2019) provide a unique opportunity to examine the behaviors and drivers of high energy electron Methods precipitation. This study quantifies electron precipitation as a function of radial distance (L-shell), local time (MLT), hemisphere, and geomagnetic indices (Kp). Electron precipitation was observed to peak at L-shell 4.5-5. Regions References of elevated electron precipitation Acknowledgements were identified at L-shell 4-6 at early late dawn (MLT 6-9) and dusk (MLT 1521). Hemisphere filtering indicated very distinct regions of increased precipitation at late dawn and early dusk at L-shell 4-6 in the northern hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere showed overall more activity, as well as particularly increased activity at early dawn and late dusk. Precipitation at high Kp indices (Kp > 2) displayed elevated activity at all local times. In addition, multiple studies have proposed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves as a potential driver of electron precipitation. This work searches for connections between EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and electron precipitation observed by FIREBIRD-II. During times of observed EMIC activity by the Van Allen Probes the FIREBIRD-II satellites recorded increased precipitation during MLT 0-3, MLT 6-9, and MLT 12-18, with activity being especially notable at MLT 15-18. This last region matches with a region of elevated EMIC wave occurrence rate observed in previous studies. Median Counts/6 Seconds

AUTHOR: Timothy Raeder

FIREBIRD-II Unit 3 High Energy (> 1MeV) Electron Counts at Low and High Kp <= 2 Kp >= 4 Planetary K indices

I would like to thank the FIREBIRD and RBSP-ECT teams, Charles Smith, and Anthony Saikin for their input and feedback provided on this research. This research was supported by grants from NSF (1650738) and NASA (NNX15AF66G, 135260). FIREBIRD data was made possible by the National Science Foundation grant numbers: 0838034, 1339414. Finally I would also like to acknowledge the NASA Van Allen probes as Craig Kletzing for the use of EMFISIS data.

Electron counts observed at low (Kp <=2, left) and high (Kp >=4, right) planetary K indices. Significantly higher electron counts were observed at high planetary K indices in the 75th percentile, with an increase at the 50th percentile as well. The 25th percentile remains largely unchanged between the two plots.

• The southern hemisphere showed overall more activity, as well as particularly increased activity at early dawn and late dusk.

• Precipitation at high planetary K indices (Kp >= 4) displayed elevated activity at all local times in comparison to precipitation at low K indices.

• During EMIC events stronger electron precipitation was recorded, with regions of stronger precipitation compares reasonably well to EMIC occurrence map

Overall, this work provides new quantitative understanding of radiation belt electron precipitation and its drivers, as well as evidence linking increased precipitation of high energy (> 1MeV) electrons to EMIC waves.

Crew, A. B. et al. (2016). First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 121(6), 5272–5283. doi:10.1002/2016JA022485 Kletzing, C.A. et al. (2013), The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP, Space Science Reviews, doi:10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6

Saikin, A. A. et al.(2015), The occurrence and wave properties of H+‐‐, He+‐‐, and O+‐‐band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 1– 16, doi:10.1002/2015JA021358

Saikin, A.A. et al. (2016), The dependence on geomagnetic conditions and solar wind dynamic pressure of the spatial distributions of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, 4362– 4377. doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022523

Search for the Common Power Law Spectrum in Parker Solar Probe's ISOIS-EPILo Data AUTHOR: Asher Merrill

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY-DATA ANALYSIS, SIMULATION & THEORY

ADVISORS: Jonathan Niehof Nathan Schwadron

Helios, the Advanced Composition Search for the Common Power Law Spectrum Explorer, and the Ulysses spacecraft in Parker Solar Probe’s IS☉IS-EPILo Data Asher Merrill revealed the presence of a common Advisors: Dr. Jonathan Niehof and Dr. Nathan Schwadron power-law spectrum in the solar wind, the Abstract Analysis shape of which is independent of solar activity. The highest energy particles in this distribution are a direct interest to Introduction human affairs as they can serve as the seed population for large, destructive events that can harm ground- and airbased equipment. Parker Solar Probe Discussion and Conclusions provides a new platform to probe this relationship. I investigate the first year and a half of Parker Solar Probe's data across fourteen distinct solar wind events to find evidence of this relationship within 0.3 AU. Event parameters such as anisotropy, flux, and duration, among others are considered to classify event type and inform the physical and temporal regions to be studied. I find weak evidence to suggest the existence of a common power-law coefficient in the spectrum of solar wind from ~60 keV to 200 keV. Further work is required to eliminate noise from Parker Solar Probe's data to elucidate the phenomena in this region and confirm the existence of a common power-law spectrum. I investigate the first year and a half of Parker Solar Probe's data to find evidence of the common power law spectrum of ions proposed by Gloeckler et. al. (2000) within 0.3 AU. I find weak evidence to suggest the existence of a common spectrum of protons from ~60 keV to 200 keV inside the region being studied. Further work is required to elucidate the phenomena in this region that determine the shape of the solar wind spectra.

Event Selection

It is necessary to identify solar wind events in order to have significant counting statistics above background. Solar wind events were identified by eye.

Fitting

The Advanced Composition Explorer and the Ulysses spacecraft revealed the presence of a common power-law spectrum of ions in the solar wind, the shape of which is independent of solar activity. The highest energy particles in this distribution are a direct interest to human affairs as they can serve as the seed population for large, destructive events that can harm ground- and air-based equipment. The mechanisms that create this common distribution are unknown, but by studying the behaviour of the spectrum at closer radii more can be learned about their origin. Furthermore, this relationship is altogether poorly studied within 1 AU. Parker Solar Probe (PSP) provides a new platform to probe this relationship. PSP flies within approx. 0.05 AU of the sun, far closer than any previous spacecraft. Additionally, the mission carries newer and more sensitive instruments, improving on previous measurements and collecting new high-resolution data in not-previously-explorer regions. The seed population of particles is of interest because it contributes to phenomena such as diffusive shock acceleration, which is capable of accelerating ions from the keV to MeV energy range. It is these particles carried by diffusive shock acceleration that are dangerous.

Fisk & Gloeckler (2006) suggest a model of compressional acceleration in solar wind turbulence that predicts a functional dependence of flux on energy as shown above. For each event, the flux was averaged along time, and then a fit to this model was applied between ~60 keV and 200 keV, depending on data source.

Event Type Analysis

It became evident from the set of fits that events needed to be distinguished based on type in order to see similarities between events of the same nature, (ie., CIR, CME, solar flare, etc…). Various characteristics for event classification were considered, as indicated in in the figures below and to the right.

Fits of Events 2 and 3. Notice neither fit agrees with Fisk & Gloeckler (2006) suggesting T-3/2.

Ten minute filtered views of the magnetic field during events 6 and 7. Some features of note exist, but are altogether hard to see.

Analysis of variance of magnetic field vs radial distance. Schwadron et. al. (1996) propose magnetic variance can be a proxy for plasma turbulence. Color indicates spectrum hardness, (brighter is harder spectrum, darker is softer), size indicates peak flux. A possible trend exists such that events closer to the sun have less variance in the magnetic field.

The tail described by Fisk & Gloeckler (2000, 2006) is noted to appear during quiet-time solar activity. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish between compressional events and other sources of acceleration.

● Ultimately, the events over which data was collected do not represent a significant sample. More data is needed. ● Further work is required to determine if a common power law tail exists in the regime <0.3 AU. ● This work may be aided by using data from missions such as SOHO and STEREO to determine the type of event, which can aid in the recognition of phenomena observed by PSP.

Left: “map” of flux across various energies and dates. Due to the format constraints of this poster, you’re probably unable to see most events as they’re only a day or two wide.

69 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

References

Acknowledgements

Fisk, L. A., & Gloeckler, G. (2006). The Common Spectrum for Accelerated Ions in the Quiet-Time Solar Wind. The Astrophysical Journal, 640(1), L79–L82. Gloeckler, G. (2000). Sources, injection and acceleration of heliospheric ion populations. AIP Conference Proceedings. (ACE-2000 symposium). Schwadron, N. A., Fisk, L. A., & Gloeckler, G. (1996). Statistical acceleration of interstellar pick-up ions in co-rotating interaction regions. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(21), 2871–2874.

- Dr. Niehof and Dr. Schwadron for their incredible patience and help throughout this project. - The IS☉IS and FIELDS teams for the titanic effort of getting data from instrumental readings. - This work was supported by NASA Prime Contract No. 136435.


Simulating Radio Images of Lightning Events

ADVISOR: Ningyu Liu

Lightning is an electrical discharge that typically Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ begins within charged regions of a thundercloud. Â&#x2020;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇŁ Â&#x201D;ǤÂ&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2014; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2014;, Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 The time varying electric currents generated during Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;

Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? lightning produce electromagnetic fields, which can C A B CC induce unwanted voltages on electronic systems, e.g., communications systems, causing serious damage to those systems. These electromagnetic fields also provide an opportunity to observe electrical G E F D discharges in thunderstorms and can specifically help to further our understanding of lightning initiation, a process which is optically obscured by

Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A; cloud. In particular, narrow bipolar events (NBEs) Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? H K I J are compact intra-cloud discharges that have been found to be intrinsically connected with lightning initiation A recent study by Tilles et al. (2019) used a three-antenna, 20-80 MHz radio interferometer to L M Figure 1 show that NBEs may be composed of extended and/ Â&#x2026;Â?Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; or multiple radio sources, which are not well-resolved by the interferometer. In this work, we first duplicate the results of Tilles et al. (2019) using a similar radio Â&#x2021;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; imaging technique, then develop a forward model to simulate the images of various source distributions/ dynamics and compare to the observational results. A high-mass X-ray binary system (HMXB) is a compact object that is in a binary orbit with a high mass companion star, the compact object usually being a black hole or neutron star. These are interesting for us to study because we are able to see how matter behaves in the strongest gravitational and magnetic fields in the Universe. The emissions from the innermost regions around the compact object are predominantly X-rays; these X-rays are a good tool to study how matter behaves in these extreme environments. A HMXB are among the brightest X-rays sources in the sky, making them easy to study. We are able to study these systems with tools like X-ray polarimetry, upcoming missions being IXPE in space and XL-Calibur on a balloon, these tools give us precise polarization measurements. The X-ray polarization properties of the compact object has been studied theoretically in great detail, but not much research has looked into what happens to the polarization levels of photons as they interact with the stellar wind. Recent work indicates that scattering in the stellar wind may have an observable effect changing the polarization. Our goal is to take a closer look at the effect of the stellar wind in different systems. To be able to study these systems we implemented a Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm. Then we track the photons through the stellar wind using a Runge-Kutta integration method in order to find the interaction point. At the interaction point we simulate Compton scattering and photon absorption. In order to test the algorithm, we simulate simple systems where the compact objects are isotropically emitting unpolarized X-rays while orbiting the companion star in a spherically symmetric stellar wind. The results we find will be important to future experiments because the equipment that is now being used is very sensitive to changes in polarization levels. In this paper, I will discuss the raytracing algorithm I implemented, and some first results I obtained with this algorithm. â&#x20AC;˘ Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2020;ǤÂ&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Ǥ

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Elevation angle (â&#x2C6;&#x2DC;)

AUTHOR: Tornike Shubitidze

â&#x20AC;˘ Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;ǤČ&#x2039;ʹͲͳ͝Č&#x152;Ǥ

â&#x20AC;˘ Â&#x203A; Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x192; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ ÇĄ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â?Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x201E;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Ǥ Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160; Â&#x201E;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021; Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x192; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x201C;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Ǥ Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;ÇĄ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Ǥ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022; đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; đ?&#x203A;˝đ?&#x203A;˝ÇĄ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; Â&#x192; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Ǥ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022; Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x161;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; â&#x20AC;&#x153;cosineÇŚplaneâ&#x20AC;? Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Ǥ

â&#x20AC;˘ Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Ǥ Č&#x2039;ʹͲͳ͝Č&#x152;Ǥ

â&#x20AC;˘  Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x152;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x192; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013; Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x203A;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â? Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â? Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013; Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Ǥ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â? Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021; Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Ǥ Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â? Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x192; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160; Â&#x2021;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2021; Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x192; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021; Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013; Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â? Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Íł Č?Í´Č?Ǥ

â&#x20AC;˘ Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;ÇĄÂ&#x2013;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily depict actual source Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?

Azimuth angle (â&#x2C6;&#x2DC;)

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â&#x20AC;˘ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013; Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2039;Â? Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x192;Â&#x153;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;ÇŚÂ&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x152;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇĄ Â&#x2122;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x153;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Č&#x2039;Â&#x153;Č&#x152; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Č&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Č&#x152; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021; Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â?Ǥ Â&#x153;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ = tanâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;) Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; El = đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? â&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 ( đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;2 + đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) .

[1] Stock, M. (2014). Broadband interferometry of lightning. PhD dissertation, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology [2] Tilles, J. N., Liu, N., Stanley, M. A., Krehbiel, P. R., Rison, W., Stock, M. G., â&#x20AC;Ś Wilson, J. (2019). Fast negative breakdown in thunderstorms. Nature Communications, 10(1).

The Effect of the Stellar Wind on X-ray Polarization in High Mass X-ray Binary Systems

ADVISOR: Fabian Kislat

A high-mass X-ray binary system (HMXB) is a The Effect of the Stellar Wind on X-ray Polarization in High Mass X-ray Binary Systems compact object that is in a binary orbit with a Phiona Vall, Dr. Fabian Kislat Faculty Advisor Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 high mass companion star, the compact object Tracking Photons In HMXBs Introduction Results usually being a black hole or neutron star. These are interesting for us to study because we are able to see how matter behaves in the strongest gravitational and magnetic fields in the Universe. The emissions from Compton Scattering of Polarized Photons Conclusions the innermost regions around the compact Raytracing Algorithm object are predominantly X-rays; these X-rays are a good tool to study how matter behaves in these extreme environments. A HMXB are among the brightest X-rays sources in the sky, making them easy to study. We are able Photon Scattering Weights to study these systems with tools like X-ray polarimetry, upcoming missions being IXPE in space and XL-Calibur on a balloon, these tools give us precise polarization measurements. The X-ray polarization properties of the compact object has been studied theoretically in great detail, but not much research has looked into what happens to the polarization levels of photons as they interact with the stellar wind. Recent work indicates that scattering in the stellar wind may have an observable effect changing the polarization. Our goal is to take a closer look at the effect of the stellar wind in different systems. To be able to study these systems we implemented a Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm. Then we track the photons through the stellar wind using a Runge-Kutta integration method in order to find the interaction point. At the interaction point we simulate Compton scattering and photon absorption. In order to test the algorithm, we simulate simple systems where the compact objects are isotropically emitting unpolarized X-rays while orbiting the companion star in a spherically symmetric stellar wind. The results we find will be important to future experiments because the equipment that is now being used is very sensitive to changes in polarization levels. In this paper, I will discuss the raytracing algorithm I implemented, and some first results I obtained with this algorithm. â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

A high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) system is a compact object that is in a binary orbit with a high mass companion star, the compact object usually being a black hole or neutron star Observations of these systems allow us to study how matter behaves in the strongest gravitational and magnetic fields in the universe, these systems can be seen in Fig. 1. The compact star emits X-rays in the system, these X-rays are created from the mass accretion from the companion star , these X-rays are how we are able to study these systems. HMXB are also among the brightest systems in the sky, also making them easy to study. X-ray polarimetry is one tool we use to be able to study X-ray emitting systems. In 2022 two different experiments will be taking flight, those are IXPE [1] in space and XL-Calibur [2] on a balloon, both of these experiments will be able to give us a precise polarization measurement. Observations indicate that there is a dense stellar wind from the massive star in many of these systems. We want to know if polarization levels of photons change as they interact with the stellar wind once they leave the compact object . To do so, I have implemented a Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm that tracks the photons and the polarization from the compact object to an observer.

â&#x20AC;˘

We first begin to track each photon through the stellar wind, this is done by giving the photon a starting energy and direction.

â&#x20AC;˘

where P and ! are the interaction cross section and ! the density, IR is the starting point of the photon, and KL is a randomly determined number of mean free paths. Irrespective of material properties KL follows a S TR distribution. Once the number of mean free paths is determined we then use a Runge-Kutta integration method [4] to determine the exact location of the interaction point in the system. If the photon goes beyond specified radius , I used 100 times the radius of the star, it escapes, if it hits the star it is absorbed, otherwise it scatters.

â&#x20AC;˘

Image #1 Sub-Title Here

Figure 1. The image above shows a HMXB with a accretion disc surrounding the compact object in blue with the companion star in yellow fueling it. (Image Credit: NASA)

Image #2 Caption Here

Figure 2: This is a flow chart showing how the photon is tracked, red lines mean the photon is deleted and the process is stared over and blue lines mean we are still working with the same photon.

O

â&#x20AC;˘

R RWU(RTXYZ[)

,

Figure 3: As we can see the lower the energy we start at the higher the polarization level will be, we see that the polarization fraction peaks when ^ is close to 90 degrees.

Figure 4: This graph illustrates the energy lost by photons with different scattering angles ^ at a function of energy. As we can see a larger starting angle will decrease the energy after scattering as the energy before scattering increases.

where \ and \ ] being the energy before and after scattering ,respectfully. The angle of scattering is ^ and the new velocity is picked at random isotropically. After the photon is scattered we then continue to track it and repeat the process.

1 J \] " 2 1 \

J

1 + cos J ^ + \ â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \ ] 1 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; cos^ sinJ ^ 0

sinJ ^ 1 + cos J ^ 0

k] =

)*lV mnop (U)

,

with q being the energy before scattering , PgTh being the total cross section and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is is the new Stokes parameter after multiplying it by the Fano matrix.

+â&#x2C6;&#x2014; +

,

Figure 6 shows observed polarization fraction as a function of phase angle of the binary system.

â&#x20AC;˘ Further improvements to the method are planned. A current student at UNH is now taking the code that I have developed and added onto it to see what happens to the photons that may be scattered off the star. The project can also continue by changing the parameters of the system to be more realistic to the ones in a HMXB. My research was only the start to see how polarization levels are affected by the stellar wind

References

0 0 2cosθ

The chance of the photon scattering is given by a specific weight, the weight starts at 1 and is multiplied by its new weight after each time the photon is scattered the equation for the new weight is

, 0 " = 01 + (03 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 01 ) 1 â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

I would like to acknowledge my advisor for this project, Fabian Kislat, who showed me guidance throughout the entire project.

they are one way to describe the polarization of light [5]. To calculate the Stokes parameters after the scattering process, we transform this vector using the Fano matrix [6,7]: fgTh =

â&#x20AC;˘

$%&'( )*+ , -(+)

We simulated 10 million 10keV photons. We found that on average 0.017 % of photons scatter.

Acknowledgements

The polarization fraction is calculated with the use of Stokes parameters which are 1 _ = b cos(2e) , â&#x2C6;&#x2019;b sin(2e) aĚ&#x20AC;

â&#x20AC;˘

789:; is the mass of the wind, "â&#x2C6;&#x2014; is the stars radius, r is the cutoff radius of the binary system, 01 and 03 is the velocity of the wind and the terminal velocity, respectively.

â&#x20AC;˘ We were unable to reproduce the polarization reported by Kallman et al. [8]. The discrepancy still needs to be investigated before final conclusions can be drawn. One possible difference could be the stellar wind density.

N

=

â&#x20AC;˘

The parameters that were chosen for this system was for the compact object to emit unpolarized X-rays in a isotropic fashion, the stellar wind was spherical and symmetric with a density of

â&#x20AC;˘ We are hoping this beginning research will help future experiments to see how much they should expect polarization measurements to be alter by stellar wind.

To locate the interaction point [3] of the photon we solve for IJ :

UV U

As a diagnostic of the raytracing algorithm Fig. 5 shows the weight of polarized 100keV photons as a function of the scattering and azimuth angles.

! " =

Image #1 Caption Here

KL = â&#x2C6;ŤN , P!QI ,

If the photon is scattered we simulate Compton scattering using the equation

â&#x20AC;˘

[1] Weisskopf M., et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE)â&#x20AC;? Proc of SPIE Vol. 9905., doi: 10.1117/12.2235240

[2] Abarr, Q., et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;XL-Calibur: Plans for a Next-Generation Hard X-ray Polarimeterâ&#x20AC;? American Astronomical Society, Vol. 51, No.4 [3] Physics Reference Manual, 10.5 ed. Geant 4 Simulation Toolkit , 2019

[4] Press, William H., and William T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997.

[5] Kislat, F., et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Analyzing the Data from X-Ray Polarimeters with Stokes Parameters.â&#x20AC;? Astroparticle Physics, vol. 68, 2015, pp. 45â&#x20AC;&#x201C;51., doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2015.02.007.

Figure 5: The weight assigned to photons as a function of scattering angle and azimuth relative to the polarization direction. This weight is proportional to the differential cross section. Backwards/forward asymmetry is reversed, which still needs to be investigated.

Figure 6: Polarization measured by an observer viewing the binary system edge on as a function of phase angle of the binary. Unlike Kallman et al. [8] we do not see any significant polarization.

[6] Fano, U. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Description of States in Quantum Mechanics by Density Matrix and Operator Techniques.â&#x20AC;? Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 29, no. 1, 1957, pp. 74â&#x20AC;&#x201C;93., doi:10.1103/revmodphys.29.74.

[7] McMaster W.H. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Matrix Reresentation of Polarization â&#x20AC;&#x153; Rev. Mod. Phys., 33 (1961) 8-27. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.33.8.

[8] Kallman, T., et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;X-Ray Polarization From High-Mass X-Ray Binaries.â&#x20AC;? The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 815, no. 1, 2015, p. 53., doi:10.1088/0004-637x/815/1/53.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 70

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY-DATA ANALYSIS, SIMULATION & THEORY

AUTHOR: Phiona Vall


PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY -EXPERIMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

Curved Microchannel Plates for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer AUTHOR: Andrew Griglun ADVISOR: Lynn Kistler Harald Kucharek

Curved Microchannel Plates for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer The Composition and DIstribution Function analyzer (CODIF) is a typical Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer Design Requirements & Challenges Project Objectives and Introduction that uses thin carbon foils and flat micro-channel plates (MCP) in chevron stacks. To measure TOF of incoming ions a start signal is initiated by secondary electrons from the carbon foil and stop Start Fixture signal is generated by the MCP chevron assembly a known distance away. The purpose of the project was to modify and design an inner bracket system for the Curved Microchannel Plates existing CODIF instrument to use newly developed curved MCPs. The MCPs are curved to simplify electron steering and accommodate the cylindrical shape of the CODIF. The goal of the bracket system was to secure a curved MCP stack in a modified holder at a desired distance from a toroidal shaped MCP stack. The bracket system created uses vertical rails with standoffs to separate thin plates that hold the start and stop chevron holders. This design allows for improved performance and efficiency of the CODIF instrument and the ability to change flight path length for various testing. Andrew Griglun Faculty Advisors: Dr. Harald Kucharek1 and Dr. Lynn Kistler1 Nick Lubinsky1, and Mark Popecki2

1Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 2INCOM

Objective: It is planned to modify the TOF enclosure to use a curved Start MCP and a toroidal Stop MCP in one of the four quadrants.. The MCPs are curved to simplify electron steering and accommodate the cylindrical shape of the CODIF. The goal of the bracket system was to secure a curved MCP stack in a modified holder at a desired distance from a toroidal MCP stack.

Introduction: The COmposition and DIstribution Function analyzer (CODIF) is a typical Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer that uses thin carbon foils and flat micro-channel plates (MCP) in chevron stacks. CODIF has flown on the CLUSTER and Equator-S missions to collect data on ion masses and their abundance in the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s magnetosphere. It uses an electrostatic analyzer to select incoming ions by their energy/charge ratio. To measure speed of incoming ions a start signal is initiated by secondary electrons from the carbon foil then a stop signal is generated by the MCP chevron assembly a known distance away. The speed and the energy/charge provide the mass/charge ratio of the ion.

(Charlton, MA 01507)

Requirement: â&#x20AC;˘ Fabricate MCP holders modified to make use of newly developed MCPs to more efficiently steer the secondary electrons to the MCP and apply a lower attraction high voltage to the face of the MCP. â&#x20AC;˘ The CODIF design change will require design and machine shop time. â&#x20AC;˘ The design effort requires electrostatic simulations (SIMION) to determine the ion/electron dynamics in the TOF section and to determine the steering voltages for the deflection electrodes Challenges: â&#x20AC;˘ The fixture clamps the MCPs firmly but without damage and allow MCP output charge to reach a test anode without charging the fixture. â&#x20AC;˘ Reusing existing components with limited alterations.

Image 1: original CODIF planned Image 2: cross-section of original CODIF to be modified design.

â&#x20AC;˘ Micro-channel plates are glass capillary arrays coated in a thin film to establish resistance and secondary emission functions. â&#x20AC;˘ These new MCPs are curved to simplify electron steering and accommodate the cylindrical shape of the mass spectrometer. â&#x20AC;˘ Secondary electrons from the carbon foil are attracted to an MCP held at a high voltage to provide a start timing signal. â&#x20AC;˘ The toroidal Stop MCP will improve TOF distributions by equalizing flight path. â&#x20AC;˘ Electrostatic simulations are used to evaluate the best radius of curvature for the Start MCP, and the width along the cylindrical axis. Left: An illustration of an ion penetrating a carbon foil is shown. The ion that loses the most energy by scattering (orange) travels a longer path to the MCP. Right: A curved MCP makes the flight paths the same for scattered and unscattered ions, improving time of flight measurements.

Modified CODIF Design

â&#x20AC;˘ The bracket system created uses vertical rails with standoffs (cylindrical metal spacers) to separate thin plates that hold the start and stop MCP fixtures. â&#x20AC;˘ One modified quadrant will feature a curved Start MCP, and the original flat Stop MCP. The other modified quadrant will include both the curved Start and toroidal Stop MCPs. â&#x20AC;˘ Electrical components underneath modified TOF enclosure are not shown because they were unaltered and were ignored during design process.

â&#x20AC;˘ The CODIF Start MCPs will be 130 mm long and 17 mm wide. They will be bent into a cylindrical shape with an 83 mm radius of curvature â&#x20AC;˘ The Start MCP is held at a positive high voltage using the modified nickel-plated holder and cover and a thin nickel contact in the middle of the chevron stack. â&#x20AC;˘ The holder uses a brass spring clamping mechanism to prevent damage from securing the MCPs. â&#x20AC;˘ The mirrored electrode and anode are used to steer scattered electrons. Placement was determined by SIMION simulations.

Image 3: cross-section of modified CODIF.

Image 4:internal rail fixture holding modified stop butterfly .

Stop Fixture

â&#x20AC;˘ The CODIF Stop curved MCPs will have a toroidal shape, with a large radius of curvature of 75 mm, and a small one of 30 mm. â&#x20AC;˘ The toroidal Stop MCP and anode are held in the existing butterfly fixture by using the designed ultem(vacuum-safe plastic) holder that gives the same TOF distance as flat stop MCP. â&#x20AC;˘ A thick ultem gasket in the flat MCP stack is used to accommodate for height offset of the butterfly clamp caused by the toroidal MCP. â&#x20AC;˘ Voltage is applied to the toroidal MCP with nickel-plated gasket and thin nickel contact in the middle of the stack.

Image 5: modified start MCP holder

Image 6:prototype holder created for testing curved MCPs in vacuum chamber.

Results

â&#x20AC;˘ The UNH machine shop has made the rail baseplate system and has begun fabrication of the modified plastic start and stop MCP holders. â&#x20AC;˘ The thin nickel contacts are being fabricated by Incom. â&#x20AC;˘ Once the start and stop fixtures are completed nickel-plating will be applied by an independent company. Impact of Research Work: Image 8: Simulation of proton(red) trajectory â&#x20AC;˘ This design allows for improved performance and efficiency of the CODIF instrument and to Stop MCP and scattered electron(yellow) Image 7: flat and toroidal MCP stop assembly. the ability to change flight path length for various testing. steering into Start MCP. â&#x20AC;˘ The location of the MCP close to the carbon foil window means that the voltage can be Acknowledgments much lower than in the earlier design of the instrument: 200 volts instead of the more â&#x20AC;˘ Original MCP holder created by Mark Granoff. â&#x20AC;˘ UNH Machine Shop: Phillip Demaine and Aaron Bolton. typical 1000 volts. This improve high voltage stability. Abbas, Zain, "Improving the Efficiency and Resolution of Time of Flight (TOF) Mass â&#x20AC;˘ The lower attraction voltage relieves the power budget and facilitates the collection of the â&#x20AC;˘ Spectrometer for Magnetospheric Applications." (2016).Honors Theses and MCP signal to electronics located at ground. Capstones. 309.

Decreasing Uncertainty in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements Through the Application of Pappus Chains AUTHOR: Ryan Williams ADVISOR: Elena Long

To make further advancements in nuclear Decreasing Uncertainty in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements polarization, the Dynamic Nuclear Through the Application of Pappus Chains Polarization Group at the University of New Hampshire requires an accurate Introduction Analysis Methods Results measurement of the polarization of their materials. Through a non-traditional method of data analysis, the uncertainty in this polarization measurement via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was reduced. To extract the polarization, we measure an NMR signal through the real The Experiment Discussion impedance of our circuitry, whose area is proportional to the polarization. However, our signal size depends on how in-tune References our circuitry is with a specific frequency, with the signal growing smaller the less in-tune it becomes. A new method of data analysis was developed to convert an off-tune signal to one that is perfectly in-tune. To do this, both the real and imaginary impedance were analyzed, creating a single circle in a Pappus Chain. Using the properties of the Pappus Chain and inversion geometry, the off-tune signal is converted to a perfectly in-tune signal. This method allows us to extract a cleaner NMR signal, as well as increase our certainty in off-tune measurements. Ryan Williams Adviser: Dr. Elena Long Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Hampshire

Conducting scattering experiments in nuclear and particle physics typically requires polarizing a relatively large percent of the nuclei in a material. This is the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) Group at UNHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current task before running a scattering experiment at Jefferson Laboratory.

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71 â&#x20AC;˘ 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

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.

A Altintas & H. Okumura, A note on Pappus chain and collinear theorem, Sangakura Journal of Mathematics, 2, 11-12 (2018) D. G. Crabb & W. Meyer, Solid Polarized Target for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Physics, 47, 67-109 (1997) D. Roe, A. Marshall, Analytical Chemistry 50, 764 (1978) A. Marshall, D. Roe, Analytical Chemistry 50, 756 (1978)


AUTHOR: Savannah Labounty ADVISOR: Fabian Kislat

When a star dies in a supernova explosion, Designing a Gamma-Ray Collimator radioactive elements are formed and as they Savannah Labounty, Fabian Kislat (Faculty Advisor) Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 decay, they emit gamma rays with short Source and Collimation Results Background wavelengths and high energies. Included in these radioactive elements formed, are the heavy elements that weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re made of. Being able to study them is important and will allow us to find out how the elements weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re made of TES Detectors are created. A Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Shielding is a cryogenic gamma-ray detector that will let us measure gamma-ray energies and will provide an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution compared to existing detectors. The goal of this work is to study the Acknowledgements & Future Work Collimator Assembly Design Parameters uniformity of calibration across the detector References by collimating an isotope source to a point in order to hit a small spot on the detector. I designed a collimator in Solidworks that will be mounted on an XY stage to produce a 0.2 mm spot on the detector, with the open end pointed at a Beryllium window on the outside of the cryostat, where the detector is located inside. This way we can check calibration uniformity or any energy variations depending on where the beam is hitting the detector, in order to collect the most precise measurements possible. A spot size of 0.2mm was chosen because we knew we wanted a spot size much smaller than the individual detectors, which are 1.4mm and located inside of the cryostat, 30cm from the Beryllium window. Aiming for a small spot size at a large distance required a source with high activity, so we chose 25mCi of 241Am. Because this involves a radioactive source, the design also had to safely shield radiation, while itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in use or just sitting in a lab. To help with the design, I wrote a ray tracing code in MATLAB that allowed me to manipulate different variables until the design and its collimation elements were optimized. In this poster I present the design for an x-ray collimator and the initial constraints, calculations and research that lead me to this design. The elements that we are made of, specifically those heavier than iron, can be formed in supernova explosions and observing these environments will tell us more about how those elements are created. The Superconducting Titanium Imager (SCOTTI) has a goal to map the 68 and 78 keV emission Figure 1: Cassiopeia A, each from decays of 44Ti and hopes to obtain an color represents a different order of magnitude improvement in spectral element [1]. resolution using Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. To optimize the spectral resolution, we will look at the uniformity across a detector. This project presents the design for a gamma ray collimator that will allow us to study uniformity with a known isotope source by hitting a small spot on the detector.

A TES detector is a superconducting film that is kept at the critical temperature between superconducting and normal conducting. Thermally coupled to the detector is a tin absorber and when a photon strikes this absorber and the Figure 2: TES biased at superconducting temperature changes, there is an increase in resistivity and a drop transition temperature. in current. This current drop is what is related back to the photon energies of our isotope source. Figure 3: a) TES detector, labeled MoCU film b) Array of detectors and TESs [2].

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Winning Project

2020

Pictured left we can see that having several disks rather than one long tube with a Figure 4a. 2D view of photon scattering small hole is better for in collimator with one long hole. collimating photons. Having vertical slits prevents the photons from scattering off the inside of the collimator like in 4a. The design in 4a would also be difficult to Figure 4b. 2D view of collimation using fabricate, as it requires cutting an extremely small multiple slits with small pin holes. hole in a long and thick piece of material. Detectors located inside cryostat, 30cm from window. Radiation Safety â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Thickness of shielding. Source with energy lines of interest: 50-100keV. 0.2mm spot size on the detector

We used ref. [3] to help us select a source with multiple high intensity lines in our range of interest, making sure there arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t any high energies that are too intense to shield. 25mCi of 241Am was chosen because of its favorable gamma-ray lines and this amount will give us approximately 1 billion decays per second. The table below shows the most intense emission lines, what kind of particles are emitted, and their energies. The đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź particles will not be an issue because they are easily shielded.

Figure 5: This graph is from a ray tracing code designed to simulate a collimator with slits of different thicknesses and diameters. The code calculates the thickness of Tungsten along each line of sight. Using absorption data from NIST XCOM [4] we calculated the fraction of 60 keV photons transmitted along each line in order to calculate the shape of the spot on the detector.

Table 1: 241Am alpha, gamma-ray, and x-ray lines [3].

Figure 6: This graph shows the effectiveness of tungsten in shielding photons of 3 different energy levels and intensities. We chose tungsten because it has a high density and a high atomic number which makes it good for shielding. Unlike lead, it is non-toxic and has mechanical properties similar to steel. Using NIST XCOM [4] and a specific Tungsten alloy from ref. [5] we were able to calculate how much tungsten we would need to shield the strongest high energy lines.

Figure 7: Dimensioned drawing of the source holder made of tungsten with 2cm shielding the source in all directions.

Figure 10: Isometric view of collimator attached to Thor Labs Linear XZ stage Assembly [7]. The vertical stage has a maximum vertical load of 10 kg, which is a factor of 3 larger than the weight of the collimator assembly which is 3387 grams.

Figure 11: This figure shows the deformation of the collimator while it is attached to a part intended to act as the XZ stage. The calculation shows a maximum sag of the the collimator to be 0.01mm , an order of magnitude smaller than the pinhole size. Having such a wide range of feature sizes made it difficult to run the simulation so the deformation test was done not including the collimation elements, however they only accounted for ~100g out of the overall ~3kg weight so it is likely their weight will not have a large impact.

I would like to acknowledge my advisor, Fabian Kislat, for his guidance throughout the year while working on this project. In the future, this design will be used by the machine shop at UNH to build the collimator.

Pin holes for disk alignment onto rods.

Smallest pin hole for collimation.

Pin holes for screen alignment onto disk.

Figure 8: Dimensioned drawing of screen and disk assembly. Figure 5 helped determine how many of these subassemblies we would need, their thicknesses, and center hole diameters to produce a 0.2mm spot size. We chose to make these two separate parts, so we could have a thick supporting disk and still be able to get the small center pin hole we need. The screen is aligned onto the disk using two pins and will be attached using epoxy.

Figure 9: Collimator assembly with dimensioned separations between collimation elements. Separation and alignment of these slits is extremely important in achieving the desired spot size. Each slit is aligned with one another by two stainless steel pins, being kept a specific distance apart with separators. Because our goal is a spot size of 0.2mm, we had to ensure we would be able to fabricate these parts and create the hole sizes we needed. This type of precision can be achieved with laser cutting, which cuts features as small as 15 microns on thicknesses as large as 635 microns [6].

[1] B.W. Grefenstette et al. Nature 506 (2014) 339.

[2] D. Bennett et al. Rev. Sci. Inst. 83 (2012) 093113 [3] NUCLĂ&#x2030;IDE-LARA on the Web (2018), www.nucleide.org/Laraweb/index.php.

[4] NIST XCOM: Element/Compound/Mixture, physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Xcom/html/xcom1.html.

[5] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Midwest Tungsten Service.â&#x20AC;? Tungsten Products, Services, and Technical Support, www.tungsten.com/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwy6T1BRDXARIsAIqCTXqMkYJ82ZBq xcGDjemgbowmTUpiW5Y0RNTDYbhNwlmvfMTzQeXoMCIaAg8hEALw_wcB [6] â&#x20AC;&#x153;Precision Laser Cutting & Fabrication Service.â&#x20AC;? Thin Metal Parts, www.thinmetalparts.com/technologies/laser-cutting/.

[7] Linear Translation Stages: 2" (50 Mm) Travel, Manual, Crossed Roller Bearings, www.thorlabs.com/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=2295.

Development of Ion Optics for a Spaceflight Ion Mass Spectrograph AUTHOR: Payson Dunn

The work is the development of the Development of Ion Optics for a SpaceďŹ&#x201A;ight Ion Mass Spectrograph ion optics analyzer of an ion mass spectrograph, REFIMS, for use in nearspace and space, on various upcoming missions. The goal is to improve the resolution and precision of the mass spectrum reading, by adjusting the shape, spacing, and voltages of the electrodes. The electrodes, which make up the ion optics analyzer, generate electrostatic lenses, which guide the trajectories of the ions through the instrument. A complete discussion of the operating principles of REFIMS, and the theory of ion optics, in general, is provided. This presentation also explains how Solidworks and the ion optics simulation software, Simion, were used to design the ion optics analyzer. Data from these simulations will show how far development has progressed towards the goal of focusing the instrument such that it is precise to a single atomic mass unit, up to 80 atomic mass units. 36, 37

4.2

0.5

0

Payson Dunn, PMD1016@wildcats.unh.edu, Faculty Advisor: Professor James Clemmons Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Hampshire

Abstract

Statement of the Problem

ADVISOR: James Clemmons

Mode of Operation

The goal is to modify the design of an existing mass spectrometer, REFIMS in order to

The work is the development of the ion optics analyzer of an ion mass spectrograph, REFIMS, for use in near-space and

First, ions diďŹ&#x20AC;use into the instrument. Then they are dropped through an

accommodate a larger detection plate and to improve performance generally so that it is

space, on various upcoming missions. The goal is to improve the resolution and precision of the mass spectrum reading, by

electric potential diďŹ&#x20AC;erence so that they all have approximately the same energy

sensitive to mass diďŹ&#x20AC;erences of one amu from one to 81 amu. In particularly, how the

adjusting the shape, spacing, and voltages of the electrodes. The electrodes, which make up the ion optics analyzer, generate

(we give them enough energy such that their random thermal energies are

geometry and voltages of the ion optics analyzer at the heart of the instrument can be

electrostatic lenses, which guide the trajectories of the ions through the instrument. A complete discussion of the operating

negligible), and focus them into a beam by the collimator. This has the eďŹ&#x20AC;ect that

optimized to do so. REFIMS is for use in space ďŹ&#x201A;ight missions, so there are constraints on its

principles of REFIMS, and the theory of ion optics, in general, is provided. This presentation also explains how Solidworks and

the heavier elements will be travelling slower than the lighter ones, a fact we will

size as well as other considerations.

the ion optics simulation software, Simion, were used to design the ion optics analyzer. Data from these simulations will show

use to distinguish them. The other electrodes also help to focus the ions, but I

how far development has progressed towards the goal of focusing the instrument such that it is precise to a single atomic mass

believe the ones before the rotating electric ďŹ eld have more of an eďŹ&#x20AC;ect.

The beam of ions is then passed through a rotating electric ďŹ eld

unit, up to 80 atomic mass units.

perpendicular to the path of the ions. The direction the ion is deďŹ&#x201A;ected depends

Methods of Simulation

on the time the ion passed through the electric ďŹ eld. In this way, the time that the

Progress towards goal

In order to develop the ion optics system, the electrodes were modeled in Solidworks

and exported into the ion optics simulation software, Simion. Simion is able to convert the STL ďŹ le into a 3D array of points, each with an associated electric potential. Simion allows the user to set the voltages of each electrode, and then it populates the rest of the points in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;potential arrayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, by the relaxation method, essentially repeated averaging, as well as

some other clever tricks. Simion will then calculate the trajectories of ions through the

ion passes through the electric ďŹ eld is encoded into its angular position. The electric ďŹ eld is generated by eight electrodes (below), set to oscillating voltage, each one eight out of phase with each other.

To the left are three plots summarizing some of the data

from my last set of comprehensive trials, testing what seemed to be the most optimal conďŹ guration from previous trials. Each

The ions are allowed to drift to larger radii before landing on the detection

plate. The detection plate has many radial channels, so it is able to detect at

what angle the ion lands. This is assumed to be the angle at which it was

plot shows the simulated data processed and presented

deďŹ&#x201A;ected. The diďŹ&#x20AC;erence of that angle and the current phase of the electric ďŹ eld

instrument. A vertical cross section of ion trajectories for mass 16 amu ions is depicted

similarly to the way data collected by the real instrument

are compared. This value, which is the rotation of the electric ďŹ eld while the ion

below. The rotating electric ďŹ eld is modeled using supplemental user programming written

would be. The plots are histograms of the rotation of the

was in ďŹ&#x201A;ight, is ultimately proportional to the square root of the mass of the ion.

in lua. The ďŹ&#x201A;oating electric potential outside of the rocket is modeling using with a box shaped electrode, with a permeable screen (ions pass through, electric potential stays in).

electric ďŹ eld during the ďŹ&#x201A;ight of each ion, which is proportional the square root of mass. (See methods of operation for more

detail). The masses included in the trials are 9, 10, 16, 17, 25, 26,

36, 37, 49, 50, 80, and 81, which I felt to be representative of the mass spectrum.

Each of the three plots represents data taken from

simulations representing diďŹ&#x20AC;erent conditions outside of the instrument. There is an eďŹ&#x20AC;ect caused by the rocket traveling

through the plasma that causes a ďŹ&#x201A;oating electric potential outside of the rocket. We expect the ďŹ&#x201A;oating potential will be around .5V, but we want the design to work for up to 5V. From

top to bottom, the plots correspond to .5 to 5V of ďŹ&#x201A;oating potential.

The masses are color coded in this distribution, but if it

Changes to Design

were actual data, we would have to infer the mass from the

data, so when two adjacent mass distributions are in contact we have no way of knowing what mass is responsible for the count. Ideally, every mass distribution would be neatly

Most of the work on the ion optics system has involved optimizing the voltages of the

separated from adjacent mass distributions. In practice, this is

electrodes with the geometry of electrodes ďŹ xed. However I also tried dozens of variations

diďŹ&#x20AC;icult to achieve. Fortunately, so long as the distributions

of electrode conďŹ gurations. The ďŹ rst major change to the geometry of the system is to the

have distinct peaks we can still get some sense of the size of the distribution from measurements like the full width at half

collimator.

The previous design of the collimator had a ďŹ xed inner radius for every electrode. (the

electrodes are washer shaped.) Instead I gradually decreased the radii so that the ďŹ rst electrode was wider than the original, and the last was narrower. The eďŹ&#x20AC;ect of this is that

maximum. We would like to be able to distinguish between

ions by 1 amu all the way up to 81 amu (as you can see if becomes more and more diďŹ&#x20AC;icult to do so, as the mass

increases), however we do not seem to be at that level yet.

an ion coming in at a slightly eccentric angle has more time to get back on track before it

Fortunately most of the masses we are really interested in are

collides with one of the electrode plates rather than pass through to be analyzed by the

much smaller mass, where we have fairly decent separation.

instrument. The intention is to get more ions to pass through a smaller aperture. Despite electrodes are static, and it operates under vacuum.

Several changes we made to the inner radii of the other electrodes as well. The ďŹ rst

electrode after the collimator was made narrower, which I found limited how much the

beam spread out, and the electrodes after the eight electrodes which generate the rotating

electric ďŹ eld were widened, which helps to accommodate the larger detection plate, and stops them from causing interference with the ions which can happen if they get too close.

Theory of Ion Optics

The ions that pass through REFIMS are guided by electrostatic lenses,

the similar appearance, this is not an ion funnel. Unlike an ion funnel, the voltages on the

generated by the electrodes. The electric potential diďŹ&#x20AC;erence between adjacent

Acknowledgement and Citations

electrodes creates a curved electric ďŹ eld. Ions that are traveling further from the central axis of the device are accelerated towards the central axis. You can imagine it a bit like an electromagnetic shoot.

I would like to thank Professor Clemmons for taking me on to work on this project, which continues his original research, and for his extensive guidance on the project. His article on REFIMS is cited below Clemmons, J. H., and F. A. Herrero. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Mass Spectroscopy Using a Rotating Electric Field.â&#x20AC;? Review of ScientiďŹ c Instruments, vol. 69, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 2285â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2291., doi:10.1063/1.1148933

Working out the trajectories of ions through a system like this analytically

would be extremely diďŹ&#x20AC;icult, if not impossible. For this reason we use simulations. See methods of simulation for more details.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 72

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY -EXPERIMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

Designing aGamma-Ray Collimator


PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY -EXPERIMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

Directly Measuring Electrical Current in the Aurora Borealis Using a Rogowski Coil AUTHORS: Jonathan Amrein Jessie Greenhalgh Joseph Lazzaro ADVISORS: Matthew Argall Wayne Smith

The objective of this project was to Directly Measuring Electrical Current in the Aurora Borealis Using a Rogowski Coil design a device capable of directly measuring the electrical current in the Objective Testing aurora borealis. This current has never Computer Model been directly measured and doing so will provide important information Mechanical Design on how energy is coupled from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. To accomplish this task, Jonathon Amrein designed the mechanical device while Joe Lazzaro designed the electronics and Jessie Greenhalgh created a computer Electrical Design program to model the instrument. A Rogowski coil, comprised of 10,000 turns of copper wire around a magnetic torus, Recommendations for Future Work was chosen as the device to capture the auroral current. Jonathon designed the prototype Rogowski coil as well as legs and separators to mount the coil onto a holder. Joe designed electronics to filter, amplify, and digitize the signal exiting the coil. Jessie created a computer model of the coil response to compare the theoretical and tested response as well as allow for future modifications.The designed device serves as a prototype for a device that will be on a NASA rocket in 2021. Jessie Greenhalgh, Jonathon Amrein and Joe Lazzaro Advisors: Dr. Wayne Smith, Dr. Matthew Argall Department of Space Science University of New Hampshire

The objective of this project was to design a device capable of directly measuring the electrical current in the aurora borealis. This current has never been directly measured and doing so will provide important information on how energy is coupled from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. The designed device will serve as a prototype for a device that will be on a NASA rocket in 2021.

The goal of the computer model was to predict the response of the coil as it flies through the auroral currents. The Rogowski coil is modeled as an RLC circuit where the resistance, inductance, and capacitance are functions of the coil’s physical dimensions, the permittivity of the core material, and the number of turns of wire. These parameters can be adjusted and optimized for future alterations to the coil design.

The goal of the mechanical design was to design a Rogowski Coil that can capture the desired current. This coil is able to directly measure current through its use of wire turns around a magnetic torus. An alternating current passing through the center of the ring induces an AC magnetic field in the torus and thus a current in the copper winding.

RLC circuit and parameter equations used to model the coil where ρc , lw , d, and N are the resistivity, length, diameter, and turns of the wire, a, b, and drc are the inner and outer radius of the coil, and the diameter of the core cross-section respectively, and µ˳ has been replaced with the permittivity of the core.

Testing was completed with the use of an Agilent 35670A Dynamic Signal Analyzer. This had a built in function generator which was used as a source to the coil. This source was set to 1 Vpp and connected to a 1 kilo Ohm resistor which was in series with a foot-long copper wire. The copper wire was run through the middle of the coil and induced a current on the coil. A dual power supply of +/- 5 volts powered the operational amplifiers in the circuit.

The testing setup is shown above. The signal analyzer is on the left and the power supply is on the right.

Prototype Ferrite Metal Core with 7500 turns of 48gauge copper wire.

3D Printed Stand used for testing with the coil

3D model of the mechanical support created in SOLIDWORKS

The goal of the electrical design was to filter, amplify, and digitize the signal coming out of the Rogowski Coil. This was accomplished by using an active bandpass filter and an Arduino with an analog to digital convertor.

Modeled Frequency Response of the Rogowski Coil

This figure shows the design of the analog circuit used to amplify and filter the signal. The first stage is a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 512 Hz. The second stage is a high pass filter with a cutoff frequency of .1 Hz. The third stage is an amplifier with a gain of 40.

Measured Frequency Response of the Rogowski Coil

The output of the coil was attached as the input to the circuit built on a breadboard. An AC sweep from 1 Hz to 4 KHz was performed and the measurement across the output of the circuit is shown above. These results met all design specifications and proved the designed device worked correctly. • Add a feedback winding to the coil to flatten the frequency response so all frequencies are weighted equally • Put the circuit on a printed circuit board and permanently attach it to the coil • Design a casing for the device to protect it from the atmosphere it will face in space

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and their Applications in Medical Physics AUTHOR: Tristan Anderson ADVISOR: Karl Slifer

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and their Applications in Medical Physics is an effective technique used to align the magnetic moments of nucleons (or nuclei) within a strong magnetic field. We measure a substance's polarization via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), which is a technique used to detect nuclear magnetic transitions or spinflips. In a spin 1/2 system such as the proton or 13C, The measured NMR signal is directly proportional to the difference of populations of spins in the + 1/2 and - 1/2 states. The proportionality factor, also known as the calibration constant, can be determined by measuring the NMR signal for a sample with known polarization. DNP techniques have been used to polarize atoms such as 13C within molecules (such as 13C-Urea) that are essential compounds in metabolic processes. 1University

Tristan Anderson1; Karl Slifer1,2 of New Hampshire, 2Project Advisor and Professor of Physics

Introduction

Thermal Equilibrium Polarization

The Solid State Effect, discovered in 1958 is the simplest view of DNP [2, 5]. Any particle with a magnetic moment precesses about an external magnetic field at its larmor precession which is the product of that particle’s gyromagnetic ratio, and the external magnetic field strength. DNP side-steps the difficulty of directly polarizing the nucleon by instead polarizing free-electrons that are spin-coupled with the nucleon. DNP uses microwaves to excite free electrons into a higher energy state, and the nucleon or nuclei in this two-level system can undergo a spin-flip. A few milliseconds later, the electron relaxes out of this excited state, and is able to spin-pair again with another nucleon, leaving its former nucleon polarized for tens of minutes or until the next spin-flip. In this repetitive fashion, materials are polarized [4,5]. NMR was discovered in 1946 and since then, many NMR-based technologies have been developed. A well-known application of NMR is NMR spectroscopy, which is a analytic tool used to identify elements by their unique magnetic resonance. NMR also has an application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which is a non-invasive clinical imaging technique. Despite the success of these NMR applications, they are still held back by their low sensitivity that comes from the low magnetic energy of the thermally-polarized nuclear spins. Although MRI is an effective imaging technique, the polarizations of the contrast that produce MRI images are relatively low. Since NMR signal strength is directly related to MRI image quality, If the MRI contrast is able to be pre-polarized with DNP (to increase the NMR signal) MRI image resolution could be effectively increased. This poster delves into the physics behind DNP and NMR, and lays the foundation for my undergraduate capstone project to be completed in the 2020 Fall semester.

The thermal equilibrium (TE) polarization of a material is the response of the spins in the material at thermal equilibrium to an applied magnetic field [4,5]. This quantity is exactly calculable if the temperature T and the magnetic field B are known. Constants μ, and k are the magnetic moment of the nucleon or nuclei, and the Boltzmann constant respectively.

13

C Material Synthesis

Research that I conducted last academic year under the supervision of Professor Slifer focused on Target-Material production for polarized Nuclear Physics scattering experiments. This year’s application of my earlier research has shifted the focus away from material production for nuclear-physics scattering experiments towards material production for MRI contrasts, motivated by [3]. Similar material synthesis techniques used in my 2019 UNH URC poster [1] will be used this coming 2020 Fall semester to create Trityl-Doped 13C-Urea. The procedure for material synthesis is identical.

The Slifer laboratory measures the degree of spin orientation, or “polarization” of a material using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The output signal of the NMR system is a complicated function of the geometry of the NMR pickup coils, the structure of the material, the filling factor of the coils and the amplification of the NMR circuit. It is extremely difficult to calculate the system response from first principles. So instead, we determine the correspondence between system response (NMR signal) and material polarization by measuring the NMR signal when the material is at Thermal Equilibrium. Below is a TE NMR signal.

DNP and NMR System

Step 1: 13C-Urea will be disolved into glycol, and a free radical (Trityl) will be added to introduce free-electrons used in the DNP process.

Figure 3: NMR TE signal of TEMPO-doped Araldite at T=2.18 Kelvin, B=5 Tesla.

Step 2: The homogenous 13C-Urea solution will be frozen, harvested, then placed into the DNP system for polarization.

Extracting Polarization from NMR Signal

Data Aqusition of Baseline NMR and TE NMR signals

Python File Parsing

Extract Raw Signals

Extract Physics from NMR circuit with a fit subtraction

Figure 1: Schematic overview of the sysyems required for dynamic nuclear polaization. Courtesy of Maxwell [5]

Step 3: Will focus largely on the polarization result of step 2. If the 13C-Urea polarizes well using DNP, Slifer Lab and the UNH-NPG will continue testing the feasibility of possible in-vivo studies with 13C.

Convert raw signals to NMR circuit imepdence then fit the impedence

Enhanced Polarization

Figure 2: Reproduced from [5]. Energy levels of an electronProton system in a magnetic field. The violet arrow indicates the coupled spin flip we induce with the microwave radiation during DNP.

Integrate signal data to solve for the calibration constant as in Fig. 3. Then begin DNP to increase target polarization, and determine enhanced polarization by relating the area under the red curve, to the area under the black curve in Figure 4.

Contact Information Tristan Anderson

University of New Hampshire Nuclear Physics Group Email: tja1015@wildcats.unh.edu

Applications

The same DNP techniques we used here to polarize a proton, we can also use to polarize entire atoms like 13C. DNP polarized 13C for use as a first-pass signal agent (contrast) improves MRI signal quality resulting in a stronger NMR signal [3]. Research that I conducted last academic year under the supervision of Professor Slifer focused on Target-Material production for Nuclear Physics scattering experiments [1] focused on proton polarization. This year’s adaptation of my earlier research has shifted the focus away from material production for nuclear-physics scattering experiments towards material production for MRI contrasts. The same DNP technique has applications for both nuclear physics and medical imaging.

What’s Next?

● ● ●

Synthesize Trityl-Doped 13C-Urea. Polarize 13C material, and analyze the NMR spectra Conclude whether 13C is suitable material for polarization in our lab.

Figure 4: The area under the red curve is the enhanced polarization signal of the sample of n-butanol. The black line is the signal of the thermal polarization.

References

1. Anderson, T., Slifer, K. “Synthesis of TEMPO Doped n-Butanol Proton Targets.” The University of New Hampshire Undergraduate Research Conference. (2019) 2. C.D. Jeffries, Phys. Rev. 106 (1957) 164. 3. J. Wolber, et al. “Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in Solution using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.” Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A:526:173-181 (2004) 4. Maxwell, James. “Probing Proton Spin Structure: A Measurement of g2 at Four-momentum Transfer of 2 to 6 GeV2.” United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1350087. 5. Mellor, Jonathan E, et al. “Studies and Measurements of Irradiated Solid Polarized Target Materials.” Studies and Measurements of Irradiated Solid Polarized Target Materials, Aug. 2006, doi.org/10.18130/V3J670.

Acknowledgments

It took a team of people to operate the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization system in the Slifer Lab. Without Professor Karl Slifer, Professor Ellie Long, Nathatly Santiesteban, David Ruth, Michael McClellan, and other researchers of the UNH-NPG, this project would not have been possible without their support. Thank you, to all who advised, and I hope that the many people who contributed to this research are aware of my gratitude.

The research that I present is largely motivated by work done in a 2004 paper on the polarization of a 13C-Urea solution and its application as a first-pass signal agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This research is the initial step into testing the feasibility of possible in-vivo studies with 13C within the University of New Hampshire Nuclear Physics Group (UNH-NPG). My first steps towards analyzing 13C data has been to develop fitting algorithms for proton NMR data. This includes DNP enhanced materials as well as NMR data acquired while the materials were at thermal equilibrium. This poster delves into the physics behind DNP and NMR and explores their applications in medical physics. 73 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Landon Buell

Recent advancements in high performance computing, large Examining Attacks on Neural Networks information densities, and the need for complex pattern recognition, have Introduction Network Model Attack Functions found learning models such as neural networks near the forefront of advanced problem-solving. This widespread use of networks in several fields makes them Experimental Results likely targets for potential cyber-attacks or other external programs that seek to manipulate the performance of such a model. Most standard machine learning algorithms do not yet possess a reliable set of measures that proactively monitor Conclusions system behaviors and properties to counter these possible vulnerabilities. To explore how Neural Networks respond to cyber-attacks, we train and test a series of Multilayer Perceptron Image-Classifiers subjected to different forms of attack functions over varying network depths and neuron densities. Each attacked model is used to examine qualities of the network such as average training iterations, training loss function and average classification performance metrics as compared to an unperturbed baseline. This research will allow for the identification of behavioral differences in classification neural networks based on the complexity of the model, which can then be implemented as a series of counter measures to secure a network against external attacks. 1

Adviser:

2

Landon Buell

Prof. Qiaoyan Yu

1 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy 2 Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA

ADVISOR: Qiaoyan Yu

Introduce Pseudo-Random Noise

• Neural Networks are applied in numerous systems

Reduce Numerical Accuracy

worldwide — search algorithms, pattern detection, image recognition, and security. [1,2]

• This widespread use makes them possible targets

for Cyber Attacks, which may lead to large consequences including data leakages, and further security vulnerabilities.

[4]

Standard Feed Forward Model

• It is imperative that Networks have proactive

measures in place that may counter-act an attack if it is detected.

• Using a Image-Classification Neural Network [1,3],

Two different “A” functions are modeled using a color map to indicated how activations are changed by an attack

1 Hidden Layer

View presentation

Attacked Feed Forward Model

we explore how an attack can show changes within the model, over varying layer depth and neuron density.

2 Hidden Layers

Acknowledgements

• For the studies on layer depths and neuron densities, attacks that target numerical accuracy

show minor deviations from baseline models. These attacks would be consider stealthy as they are hard to detect with the given metrics.

• Both attacks that introduce noise, and those that reduce numerical precision show fewer iter-

ations before either converging or arriving at a stopping criteria [2,3].

• The two network depths shown indicates that for both attacks types, precision and recall

scores are greater affected by networks with more layers and higher neuron densities.

• We can expand future explorations into studying how attack functions change precision and

recall score metrics given network depth and neuron densities.

This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation, award number CNS-1652474.

I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Short in the UNH mathematics department for recommending me to this research position and providing additional consultation on this topic

References

[1] Géron Aurélien. Hands-on Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems. O'Reilly, 2017. [2] Goodfellow, Ian, et al. Deep Learning. MIT Press, 2017. [3] Pedregosa et al., JMLR 12, pp. 2825-2830, 2011. [4] Choudery, Haroon. “What Are Neural Networks?” Aiforanyone.org, 13 Aug. 2018.

MCX Upper Function and Proofing Fixture Sig Sauer AUTHOR: Andrew Reid

Sig Sauer rifles must be held to the MCX Upper Function and Proofing Fixture highest standard in quality especially Sig Sauer since they are sold to armies and police forces across the world. One of Sig Sauer’s top selling line of rifles is their MCX series, a short stroke gas operated AR style rifle chambered for 5.56 NATO rounds. This is the trusted rifle of police and armed forces in countries like Australia, Canada, Belgium, Germany, The United Kingdom, the United States and many others. Before a Sig rifle leaves the facility, it must be put through extensive testing to ensure the quality of the rifle meets and exceeds expectations. These tests include line checks, function tests, rate of fire proofing tests, accuracy tests and final inspection. Once a rifle has been cleared of these tests will it be allowed to be packaged and shipped. When completing contracts or selling to consumers it is sometimes necessary for Sig Sauer to manufacture the MCX upper as a separate unit. Over the past few years this has posed a problem for the manufacturing team at Sig. Without an MCX lower there is no way to function and proof an MCX upper. My design is a system that can be used to function and proof an MCX upper without the need for a lower. An operator will be able to place an upper securely in the fixture and from a safe vantage point be able to operate the fixture to cycle rounds through the MCX upper. This completes the function testing, ensuring the bolt and piston in the upper function correctly and will also complete rate of fire testing for fully automatic rifles. With this fixture as a part of the quality line for the MCX rifle, Sig Sauer can continue to manufacture rifles with world class quality. Andrew Reid, Department of Engineering Physics, University of New Hampshire

Introduction

FACULTY ADVISOR: Marc Lessard INDUSTRY ADVISORS: John Berg Pete Card Nick Fappiano Ben Londrigan Andy Packard Sid Spreadbury Don Webb Wayne Wilson Sig Sauer

• Ensuring the quality of products leaving the manufacturing floor is one of Sig Sauer’s primary focuses.

Analysis

• The Fixture must be strong enough to withstand impact of the firearm being fired.

• With the Sig MCX rifle line being one of their most popular products, making sure it meets quality standards is of great importance. • Currently Sig Sauer is using slave lowers to proof and function the uppers that are shipped from the facility.

Conclusions

• Sig Sauer has a design for a plausible way to function and proof their MCX uppers.

• Learned a lot about troubleshooting manufacturing designs.

• The Piston must be able to simulate the forward pressure of a human shoulder

• Even though I have produced a solid design, there is always room for improvements • Never be afraid to ask questions!

• This device has been designed to test MCX uppers and ensure they fire and function correctly when coming from the assembly floor.

Next Steps

Criteria

• Required to operate with all models of MCX • Take down and pivot pin must be ergonomic; Must lock into place

• Fixture must sit at correct height to fire into the tube in the range • Must include a 3-position safety

• Must satisfy safety check list from Sig Sauer • Magazine must be removeable

Results

• The fixture was brought before a board of 8 Sig Sauer Engineers

• Determined this was a great solution to the problem however needs some structural changes before ordering parts

• Complete the list of improvements gathered from my meeting with the Sig engineers

• Create a control system sequence for the fixture

Special Thanks

Nick Fappiano, Andy Packard, Wayne Wilson, John, Berg, Sid Spreadbury, Don Webb, Pete Card Ben Londrigan and all the Sig Sauer employees who helped me with this project.

Also a special thanks to my advisor through UNH, Marc Lessard.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 74

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY -EXPERIMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

Examining Attacks on Neural Networks


AUTHORS: Reed Dannar Cameron Lamarre Robert Wells ADVISOR: Amy Keesee

Geomagnetic storms are temporary UNH CubeSat disturbances of the Earth’s Reed Dannar, Cam Lamarre & Robert Wells Physics Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 magnetosphere caused by a solar wind 3-U Cube Satellite Abstract Orbital Design shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field. These storms can have various implications that include spacecraft surface charging, blocking Future Work radio communications and inducing current in electricity lines. The more we Introduction can understand and predict these storms the earlier we can prepare spacecraft Conclusion and electrical grids to avoid being affected. Dr. Amy Keesee is developing Plasma Spectrometer Acknowledgements an ultra-compact, low-voltage plasma References spectrometer that can analyze the flux of ions and electrons in a plasma. The UNH CubeSat team is developing a 3U Cube Satellite that will house Dr. Keesee’s spectrometer with intentions to fly and collect relevant data to bring the instrument’s Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from a 5 to a 7. This will allow for the instrument to be used on future satellite constellation missions with aspirations to predict space weather. Our CubeSat has stackable subsystems that include the payload, ADCS, power system, communications and command and data handling. The UNH CubeSat has a deployable antenna and solar panels to take advantage of the orbit. The CubeSat’s launch vehicle will be a rocket that allows for the Satellite to achieve a sun synchronous, polar/ high-inclination orbit, that we simulated. The next step is to write a proposal to receive funding. Once we receive funding the UNH CubeSat team can begin the building and testing phase with a launch projection of 3 years from now. Geomagnetic storms are temporary disturbances of the Earth’s magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field. These storms can have various implications that include spacecraft surface charging, blocking radio communications and inducing current in electricity lines. The more we can understand and predict these storms the earlier we can prepare spacecraft and electrical grids to avoid being affected. Dr. Amy Keesee is developing an ultra-compact, low-voltage plasma spectrometer that can analyze the flux of ions and electrons in a plasma. The UNH CubeSat team is developing a 3U Cube Satellite that will house Dr. Keesee’s spectrometer with intentions to fly and collect relevant data to bring the instrument’s Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from a 5 to a 7. This will allow for the instrument to be used on future satellite constellation missions with aspirations to predict space weather. Our CubeSat has stackable subsystems that include the payload, ADCS, power system, communications and command and data handling. The UNH CubeSat has a deployable antenna and solar panels to take advantage of the orbit. The CubeSat’s launch vehicle will be a rocket that allows for the Satellite to achieve a sun synchronous, polar/high-inclination orbit, that we simulated. The next step is to write a proposal to receive funding. Once we receive funding the UNH CubeSat team can begin the building and testing phase with a launch projection of 3 years from now.

Cost: $300,000

Need for KeV particle measurement for space weather monitoring Ions or electrons ~5-20 keV Voltages < 100V Volume < 2 cm3 Manufacturing process like computer chips Price per 25 stack plus detector ≅ $100k Ideal for future satellite constellation missions

Detector

• Sun Synchronous, Polar/High Inclination, LEO • Desired: i = 86° (75-105°), altitude = 450 km (400-600 km) - Must align the spectrometers (z-axis) with Earth’s magnetic field lines to ##collect plasma flux at poles. +Z • Launch Vehicle CubeSat Orbit - Rocket • Launch Device - Pea Pod

Lifetime: 1-5 yrs

+Y

+X

SUN

CubeSat Deployer: ISIS ISIPOD 3-Unit

Power Systems: • Battery: - ISIS iEPS Electrical Power System - 3.3 & 5V regulated buses - Power Delivered: 20W @ 5V over 4 ###channels - Energy storage: 22.5 Wh - iEPS board w/ modular 4-Li-ion cell ###battery pack and daughterboard • Solar Panels: - ISIS CubeSat Solar Panels - Sun sensors - Temperature sensors - Deployable to increase surface area in ###sunlight - Collects 6.9W for 3U and 2.3W for 1U

Orbital Simulation

• Thermal Protection System - Design a thermal protection system ###to maintain -10 to 60 ℃ • Project Proposal - Must be selected to receive funding • Building & Testing Phase: - Center of Mass - Moment of Inertia - Thermal Cycling - Thermal Vacuum - Vibration - Shock • Launch: Projected Summer 2023

SolidWorks CubeSat Frame/Structure: • Space grade aluminum alloy <285g

Attitude Control: • ADCS: KU Leuven ADCS - Star tracker - 3 reaction wheels - 3 magnetorquers - 3 gyroscopes - 3 magnetometers (external) - 6 photodiodes (from solar panels) - Pointing accuracy <0.1 deg

Collimator Energy Analyzer Solid State

Spectrometer

Attitude Control: <0.1°

Command & Data Handling: • OBC: ISIS On Board Computer - Processor speed of 400 MHz - 512 kB FRAM

.

● ● ● ● ● ●

Temp. Range: -10 to 60 ℃

Communications: • Antenna: ISIS Deployable Antenna System - Greater than 10 MHz usable bandwidth - Max RF power: 2W • Transceiver: ISIS UHF Downlink/VHF ##Uplink Full Duplex Transceiver - 4W power consumption - Transmitter: • Frequency range: 435-438 MHz • Data rate selectable: 1200-9600 bps - Receiver: • Frequency range: 145.8-146 MHz • Data rate: 9600 bps • GPS: GPS Receiver

• Geomagnetic storms are temporary disturbances of the Earth’s magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field. • These storms can have various implications that affect different technologies at Earth. • These include: surface charging of spacecraft flying at high latitudes, blocking radio and satellite communications and inducing current in electricity lines, which could degrade power grid operations and lead to blowing a transformer. • The more we can understand and predict these storms the earlier we can prepare our spacecraft and electrical grids to avoid being affected.

Mass: 2.1 kg

Payload: • Spectrometer: Low-Voltage, ##UltraCompact Plasma Spectrometer

To further this project, a thermal protection system needs to be designed and a proposal needs to be written to receive funding. If our project proposal is selected, the UNH CubeSat team can begin the building and testing phases. During this time the team will need to find a suitable launch vehicle (rocket) that will allow the CubeSat to obtain the desired orbit. Completing these final stages will allow for a projected launch date of Summer 2023.

SolidWorks CubeSat Subsystems Model

Supported by Research Advisor: Dr. Amy Keesee

• EnduroSat - Class-leading CubeSat Modules, NanoSats & Space Services. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.endurosat.com/

CubeSat SolidWorks Model

• One-stop webshop for CubeSats & Nanosats. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cubesatshop.com/

UNH SEDS Department of Physics and Department of Mechanical Engineering

Author: Thomas Collins Advisor: Marc Lessard Team Members: Charlie Nitschelm, Zachary Raboin, Silas Johnson, Lucas Simmonds, Carly Benik, Nathan Gunter, Darren Otten.

Who We Are

Nose Cone

The nose cone was 3D printed to an ogival curve responsible for directing the flow of air outside of the rocket.

Nose Cone Tip

Aluminum was machined to the tip of an ogival curve with a surface finish of 32 Ra. Vital to minimizing drag at the most critical point on the rocket.

Recovery Bay

Hot fire Test, March 2020

Year One

Rocket Building Simulating Launching Optimizing

The 3 Year Plan Year Two

Hybrid Engine Design Manufacture Cold / Hot fire test

Year Three

Hybrid Rocket Engine Optimization Rocket Integration

Responsible for the recovery of the rocket via dual stage deployment. Raptor CO2 cartridges are used as stored internal energy devices.

Electronics Bay

An enclosed volume where the electronics of the rocket are stored. A combination Raspberry pi’s, Arduino’s and an Altus Metrum Telemega are used.

Payload Bay

An enclosed volume where the payload is contained. This payload can be a measurement device or dead-weight.

A highly pressurized vessel that contains liquid nitrous oxide, acting as our oxidizer within the combustion chamber

Injection Plate

Fins

Tapered Base

The tapered base helps to reduce the aerodynamic base drag on the aft portion of the rocket.

75 • 2020 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

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Stainless steel nozzle was machined at Seneca Machining. This geometry is responsible for directing the flow of hot gases outside of the combustion chamber into the environment providing thrust.

Current and Future Work

The structural frame will act as the “house” for all components, to incorporate, propulsion, avionics, and recovery. The design of our rocket frame is centered around cost, manufacturability, weight, strength, and availability. A minimum FOS of 9.04 and maximum displacement of 0.177 mm was seen for an applied force of 200 lbf.

50 40

An enclosed volume where the solid reducer and liquid oxidizer react to produce a superheated, highly pressurized chamber of gas

Fins provide stability during flight, allowing the rocket to maintain its orientation in flight. Critical to the relationship between CP and CG.

Factor of Safety: 200lbf applied Displacement: 200lbf applied to combustion chamber region to combustion chamber region of structure with fixed top. of structure with fixed top.

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Responsible for providing desired oxidizer flow into the combustion chamber with the assistance of the impinging plate

Thermocouple Data

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A solenoid valve that controls flow of the oxidizer into the injection plate. Flow regulation can also be used to vent the rocket fuel incase of an emergency.

• On March 6th, 2020 UNH SEDS conducted its second hot fire. • “V2”, utilized Paraffin wax and liquid nitrous oxide. • Maximum thrust of 25 lbf was recorded. • Specific impulse is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant as fuel. We achieved an Isp=177.12 sec • Our engine lacked the temperature and pressure required for stable combustion.

March 6th, 2020 hot fire test

Engine Load Cell Data

90

Flow Regulator

Oxidizer Tank

Frame Design

Propulsion

Temperature (C)

SEDS General Meeting, Spring 2020

• On August 20th, 2019 UNH SEDS conducted its first of three hot fires for 2019-2020. • An unscheduled disassembly of the graphite nozzle led to inadequate data for analysis. • “V1”, utilized hydroxylterminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and liquid nitrous oxide. • Stainless steel was used in all further nozzle designs. • The initial use of graphite was due to its ablative properties.

• Re-design of the rocket body around a reduced diameter Oxidizer tank. • Optimum design of “V2” combustion chamber and nozzle. • Integrate thrust vectoring system onto the propulsion system • Further development into rocket payload, onboard or deployable instrumentation for Spaceport America Cup Competition. • Continuation of UNH SEDS within the CEPS community.

Acknowledgments

A huge thanks to all the members of UNH SEDS, Scott Campbell, Ronald O’Keefe, Dr. Ivo Nedyalkov, Dr. Alireza Ebadi, Sheldon Parent, James Abare, Andy Globe, Dave Emanuel, Adam Smith, Chief Dean, TURBOCAM International, Reilly Webb, Ross Thyne, Seneca Machining, the UNH Makerspace and our Mechanical Engineering advisor Dr. Todd Gross for all the support.

Moment of chamber breach

March 20th, 2020 hot fire test

Aluminum and Paraffin fire

• On March 12th, 2020 UNH SEDS conducted its third hot fire. • “V2”, utilized Paraffin wax with 0.05% by weight Ferrocene Catalyst and liquid nitrous oxide. • Changes made since March 6th hot fire: • A reduction in nozzle throat diameter was made to increase chamber pressure. • An improved ignition system was used to increase chamber temperature prior to nitrous flow. • Maximum thrust of 45 lbf and an Isp=318.522 sec was recorded. • Inconsistences in fuel grain led to a breach of the combustion chamber. Thermocouple Data

Engine Load Cell Data

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• A third-year engineering organization comprised of students of all classes and CEPS majors • A primary engineering goal of pursuing the art of high-power rocketry with custom-made hybrid engines

Temperature (C)

ADVISOR: Marc Lessard

UNH SEDS is a multidisciplinary student organization consisting of students from all classes who have a love for space. Since its foundation in 2017, each year of UNH SEDS has been focused on a set of challenges. The 2017-2018 school year was dedicated to developing a strong foundation of basic rocket mechanics. Using this knowledge, the 2018-2019 team members were able to design, manufacture, and test a first iteration high-powered hybrid rocket engine. This engine was passed on to the members of the club for the 2019-2020 school year to optimize and implement into a final rocket design for competition. This year took UNH SEDS on its largest step yet. Avionics, Frame, Operations, and Propulsion teams all came together with hopes to build New Hampshire’s first undergraduate hybrid rocket. The trials and tribulations faced this year will assist UNH SEDS and its endeavor to compete in the Spaceport America Cup competition located in Las Cruces, New Mexico in June 2021. Thrust (lbf)

AUTHOR: Thomas Collins

Thrust (lbf)

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY -EXPERIMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION

UNH CubeSat

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A Note About The 2020 Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium

The 2020 URC ISE was scheduled to be held on Wednesday, April 22, 2020 in the Hamel Recreation Center on the campus of the University of New Hampshire in Durham. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in-person classes and on-campus events were suspended beginning in late-March through the end of the spring semester. With the change to online learning, the URC became a virtual event, with departments determining how best to showcase research projects while maintaining capstone requirements. Students continued to work remotely with their faculty and industry advisors during this time. Much of the research found in this booklet represent years of hard work, inquiry and experimentation. Students and mentors are to be commended for their unwavering committment to excellence, even in the face of a daunting global crisis. We hope you take the time to view the abstracts, posters, powerpoint presentations and presentation videos from over 100 research projects by undergraduates from the science, engineering and mathematics perspectives.

unh.edu/urc/ise


Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium

unh.edu/urc/ise

Profile for UNH URC ISE

2020 UNH URC ISE Abstracts  

Abstracts and presentations from the 2020 University of New Hampshire Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engine...

2020 UNH URC ISE Abstracts  

Abstracts and presentations from the 2020 University of New Hampshire Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engine...

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