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Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium

Spring 2017

Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS


Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium Acknowledgements Event Sponsors BAE Systems College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space The Joan and James Leitzel Center for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education

Award Sponsors College of Engineering & Physical Sciences College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Advisory Board College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Alumni Society College of Life Sciences & Agriculture Department of Chemical Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of Computer Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Fidelity Investments Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium The Joan and James Leitzel Center for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education UNH Interoperability Laboratory

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Planning Committee Co-Chairs: Carole Berry (Office of the Dean, CEPS) and Tara Hicks Johnson (EOS / CCOM) Committee Members: Orly Buchbinder (Mathematics & Statistics), Kent Chamberlin (Electrical & Computer Engineering), Robin Collins (Civil & Environmental Engineering), John Gianforte (Mechanical Engineering), Stephen Hale (Leitzel Center), William Hersman (Physics), Anne Lightbody (Earth Sciences), Collette Powers (Computer Science), Riannon Nute (CEPS Careers), Brooks Payette (CEPS Office of the Dean), Roy Planalp (Chemistry), Ruth Varner (EOS / Leitzel Center), Stephanie Whitney (Office of the Dean, CEPS), Wil Wollheim (COLSA), and Kang Wu (Chemical Engineering)


Undergraduate Research Conference 2017

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS

Table of Contents

Judging Group

Pages

Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 Chemical Engineering/Bioengineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18 Civil Engineering-Dry Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-25 Civil Engineering-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-29 Civil Engineering-Wet Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-33 Computer Science-Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-39 Computer Science-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-43 Earth Sciences/Environmental Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-51 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Hardware Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-55 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Software/System Design . . . . . . . . . . 56-60 Mechanical Engineering-Competition Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-63 Mechanical Engineering-Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-67 Mechanical Engineering-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-74 Ocean Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-78 Physics/Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-85

unh.edu/urc/ise


AUTHOR: Shuhan Long

Coffee is the main export commodity Transitioning From Sun-Grown System to Shade-Grown System of Coffee of many tropical nations. Many coffee A Bioeconomic Model farmers in the tropics now face the uncertainty associated with climate Problem: change. Warmer temperatures are expected to negatively affect the Results and Discussion: sustainability of coffee production. Evidence indicates increasing levels of infestation by insects during warmer Methods: Recommended solution: seasons, leading to a decrease in coffee yields and farm revenues. An adaptation strategy that is recommended to farmers Data and Observations: facing warmer climates consists of How robust is this solution? transitioning from sun-grown to shadegrown coffee systems. This method has proven to influence the yield of coffee by providing many ecosystem services: shade trees provide pest control, crop growth through improved soil fertility, and timber. But, beyond a certain shading level, there is competition for resources and reduced revenues. A model was developed to identify the shading levels that are optimal both ecologically and economically, under various conditions. We conduct computational sensitivity analyses and parameter variation experiments to identify the bio-economic conditions under which a transition from sun-grown to shade-grown might not be economically sustainable for a farmer, unless consumers are willing to pay a large price premium for shade-grown coffee. •

By Shuhan Long, Biomedical Science — Medical Laboratory Science (Major), Economics (Minor) Dr. Shadi Atallah, Faculty Advisor Department of Natural Resourcces and The Environment University of New Hampshire •

ADVISOR: Shady Atallah

Coffee is the main export commodity of many tropical nations. Many coffee farmers in this region now face the uncertainty associated with climate change. Warmer temperatures are expected to negatively affect the sustainability of coffee production. Evidence indicates increasing levels of infestation by insects leading to a decrease in coffee yields and farm revenues.

Lin Brenda, Ciapas, Mexico.

The Coffee Museum, Santos, Brazil.

Although, in terms of fending off coffee berry borer, the shade-grown method is far superior than its sun-grown counterpart, its economic advantage is limited to a shade range of 10-40%.

Wrigh Michael, 2004

Fondo Nacional del Café

1.Use software Anylogic to conduct 300 runs of the computational

Agencies and scientists have proposed transitioning from sungrown to shade-grown coffee system, by planting shading trees on the farm, as a response to increased infestations. Such transition would provide many ecosystem services: shade trees provide pest control services, crop growth services through improved soil fertility, and timber.

However, depending on prices and other factors the recommended shading levels might not be affordable to coffee smallholders (Atallah, Gomez, and Jaramillo, In review).

bioeconomic models of Atallah, Gomez, and Jaramillo (In re-

view).

2.Adjust various input, and parameters like initial infestation rate, temperature, shading levels, prices, discount rate.

3.Obtain simulated data on the net discounted revenues reduction as a function of increase levels of shade, for each parameter value, holding other parameters values constant.

This range of shading, according to this research, is highly dependent on the premium price. If the consumers are willing to pay a higher price premium, this will compensate for the fixed cost of planting and maintaining shade tree, and make for a smoother transition for the farmers.

This shading range of shading is also sensitive to the fixed costs and farm size.

Here, we conduct computational sensitivity analyses and parameter variation experiments to identify the bio-economic conditions for which the recommendation of transitioning to a shade-grown system is cost-effective for coffee smallholders.

40,000

L. Shyamal, Hypothenemus hampei

Hoffmann James, Coffee bean (infested)

Palmer Neil, FLICKR,

Expected net revenues ($/ 0.5 ha)

BIOLOGY

Transitioning From Sun-Grown System to Shade-Grown System of Coffee-- A Bioeconomic Model

30,000 20,000 10,000 -

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sun-grown coffee

• • •

(30,000) (40,000)

Coffee Berries © Biodiversity International via Flickr (License CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Jessica Weiss, Coffee farmers from Colombia

References:

Shade-grown coffee

0

(10,000) (20,000)

Shade level (%)

Lisa Monon, Coffee bean with parchment.

Maeen Hura, Coffee Berry

Coffee Berries © Biodiversity International via Flickr (License CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0) Fondo Nacional del Café, Tilt-shift coffee berry picture.

Hoffmann James, March 2, 2011, Coffee Berry Borer & Global Climate Change, Jimseven blog. http://www.jimseven.com/2011/03/02/coffee-berry-borer-global-climate-change/

Hofmann James, December 12, 2007, Broca (Coffee Berry Borer), Jimseven blog. http://www.jimseven.com/2007/12/12/broca-coffee-berry-borer/

• • • • • • •

Lin Brenda, Low shade coffee system, where the rows of coffee are visible under the shade of mainly inga sp. Trees, Ciapas, Mexico. L. Shyamal, Hypothenoemus hampei, Mudigere, Karnataka, May 2013.

Lisa Manon, Learning about coffee in Costa Rica, Coffee bean with parchment, April 2011 The Coffee Museum, Sun-grow coffee system picture, Santos, Brazil.

Palmer Neli, Flickr, Coffee plants abandoned in Colombia becasue of the coffee berry borer beetle, known as broca.FLICKR, NEIL PALMER Weiss Jessica, Colombian Coffee farmer, Fast Company, A man and a bean, Aug, 2014. Wrigh Michael, 2004, Coffee Berry Borer entering a coffee berry picture.

Barosafe: Increasing the Survivability of Bycatch that Experience Barotrauma in the Recreational Fisheries AUTHOR: Jared O’Brien ADVISOR: Erik Chapman

Many fishing practices result in undesirable fish being caught. Some of the reasons why these fish can be considered undesirable including sublegal size juveniles, wrong species, wrong sex, etc. These fish are known as bycatch. If these fish are caught and retrieved from deeper water, many will experience severe barotrauma. When they are released at the surface, they may not be able to recover and will eventually die, defeating the purpose of throwing them back.

Barosafe: Increasing the Survivability of Bycatch that Experience Barotrauma in the Recreational Fisheries Introduc2on

Groundfishing Charters like Eastman’s Fishing Fleet target fish that are at depths greater than 250 feet. When these fish are caught and brought to the surface, the extreme difference in pressure can cause life threatening injuries. These injuries are known as barotrauma (Fig.4). In the ocean, for every 33 feet of depth, the hydrostaCc pressure increases by 14.5 pounds per square inch (psi). If these fish are caught at 250 feet below sea level, their bodies are accustomed to a pressure of around 109.8 psi. When brought to the surface, where pressure is only about 15 psi, the air in the fish’s organs (such as the swim bladder and eyes) expands and disrupts the internal anatomy. Many fishing pracCces result in undesirable fish being caught. Some of the reasons why these fish can be considered undesirable include: sublegal size (juveniles), wrong species, wrong sex, etc. These fish are known as bycatch. If these fish are caught and retrieved from deeper water, many will experience severe barotrauma. When they are released at the surface, they may not be able to recover and will eventually die, defeaCng the purpose of throwing them back. The Barosafe cage is a device created by Blue Water Concepts with input from a recreaConal charter boat captain from Eastman’s Fishing Fleet, and UNH fisheries scienCsts. The cage (Fig. 1) is designed to rapidly transport distressed bycatch back to the original depth they were captured. This rapid, automated descent gives the fish a safe ride back to the bo?om, and causes the air inside the fish to compress back to normal, thus greatly increasing their chances of survival.

Experimental Procedure

The device was tested in the Gulf of Maine, off the coast of Hampton Beach, on 4/29/16 and 5/25/16 by the members of the UNH Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture Club, Eastman’s Fishing Fleet, NH Sea Grant Extension Specialists, as well as the design team from Blue Water Concepts (Fig. 2-3). The fish were caught by rod and reel that were dropped to the bo?om of our randomized locaCon. All fish, once at the surface, experienced barotrauma (Fig 4). The bycatch were put into the top Barosafe’s tube shaped cage. No more than 3 fish were placed in the cage for each drop. The bycatch were only leb out of the water for no more than 3 minutes at a Cme. The one bu?on on the control pan would release the magnet that held the tube suspended and lower the device down to depth. On the way down, the bycatch would compress to normal. At depth, the cage’s bo?om would open and the bycatch would be released (Fig.5). The cage is than motorized to go back up to the surface, rea?ach to the magnet and be ready for the next decent. The process was GoPro’ed all the bo?om and the fish were filmed compressing back to their livable state. The device took an average of about 1 to 2 minutes for the full descent and surface. CTD analyses were taken on both trips and showed just how much pressure change these fish were experiencing. The device was tested several Cmes at randomized locaCons.

2

3

1 Fig. 1: Barosafe device on deck prior to deployment.

Fig. 2-3: Device being setup and loaded during first sea trial on 4/29/16.

Conclusion and Future Goals

Results

4

Over the two tesCng days, the cage was tested mulCple Cmes. Out of about the 32 to 50 fish that were considered bycatch for Eastman’s Fishing Fleet, only 2 were observed returned to the surface (deceased). This is a smaller raCo of deceased bycatch than the normal fishing day raCo without the Barosafe. CTD analysis showed that the fish were experiencing a change in pressure from about 60 to 70 dBars at depth of about 60 meters to about 0 dBars at the surface in a ma?er of minutes.

The Barosafe device was a success as the videos showed fish compressing back to normal as they were being brought down to depth. GoPro videos did show the fish compressing back to their livable state and flu?er swim out of the cage with depth Goals: •  More research and trials need to be conducted to improve the effecCveness of the device as well as further development and improvements. •  Increase the publics interest in the device •  Explore funding to build a next generaCon of the Barosafe cage to be used on mulCple vessels in New Hampshire’s RecreaConal Fishing Fleets.

The Barosafe cage is a device created by Blue Water Concepts with input from a recreational charter boat captain from Eastman’s Fishing Fleet, and UNH fisheries scientists. The cage is designed to rapidly transport distressed bycatch back to the original depth they were captured. This rapid, automated descent gives the fish a safe ride back to the bottom, and causes the air inside the fish to compress back to normal, thus greatly increasing their chances of survival.

Fig. 4: Acadian Redfish suffering from severe barotrauma before release. NoCce Bulging eyes and air bladder protruding from mouth. Fig. 5: Same Redfish aber release with the Barosafe. The fish appears normal and swims away under own power.

5

Acknowledgments

Poster Design: John Taylor and Jared O’Brien

Picture Credits: Rebecca Zeiber, N.H. Sea Grant // UNH Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture Club For more informaCon contact: Erik Chapman, Ph.D., NH Sea Grant, Erik.Chapman@unh.edu

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Predator induced plasticity in the model organism, Ambystoma mexicanum, the Mexican Axolotl

ADVISOR: Jessica Bolker

Amphibian development depends on both internal genetic instructions, and the interaction of external epigenetic Predator induced plasticity in the model organism Ambystoma mexicanum, the Mexican Axolotl factors (EFs). EFs, or signals from Introduction Results Results the embryo’s environment, can affect phenotypic expression; such environmentally induced changes are termed phenotypic plasticity. EFs that may induce phenotypic plasticity include: Conclusions and Discussion Methods temperature, salinity, pH, exposure to light, and chemical/physical cues from other organisms. Many species show an adaptive form of phenotypic plasticity namely the ability to develop defensive structures - when developing in the presence of predators. We investigated predator-induced plasticity in the model salamander, the axolotl (Ambystoma Mexicanum). Although the axolotl has been used as a developmental model for decades, little is known about its predator-induced morphologies. To fill this gap, we reared axolotl embryos from early blastula to larval stages in the presence of three potential predators: goldfish, crayfish, and adult axolotls. Axolotl larvae delay hatching in the presence of predators, as has been found in other amphibians; this may be an adaptation to help newly hatched larvae survive in a hostile environment. Preliminary results also suggest axolotls exposed to predators may develop broader tail muscles and larger heads. Tara Cieszka and Andrew Butts Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824

• • •

• •

Embryonic development depends on both internal genetic instructions and external environmental signals. Environmentally induced changes in development are termed phenotypic plasticity (1). Many aquatic species respond to chemical cues indicating predator presence during development by altering their phenotype in adaptive ways (2). Axolotl salamanders are a completely aquatic, tractable model system used in many developmental studies. Hypothesis: Axolotls reared in the presence of predators will exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to water-borne chemical cues.

196 axolotl larvae were raised from early neurula to larval stages while exposed to one of three predators: adult axolotls, goldfish, or crayfish. Larvae were photographed at hatching, and one week later (1 mm background grid shows scale).

• • •

Figure 1. Percentages of larvae hatched by day during the five day hatching period. All predator treatments significantly delayed hatching compared to the control treatment (p-valueA=0.041685, p-valueF =0.016865, p-valueCF=0.046537. T-test).

• • •

• •

Photographs were analyzed for 11 measurements using GIMP and ImageJ. (4,6). Treatments were compared using T-tests and ANOVAs performed in JMP.

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Jessica Bolker for her contributions and guidance. Thanks to the ARC/Berlinksy Lab for supplying well water, and to Linas Kenter for assisting in data analysis. This research was funded by the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research.

Honorable Mention Project

2017

Figure 2. Body length plot with diamonds depicting the standard mean error for the means of each treatment. Side figure depicts mean variance between treatments. All predator treatments were significantly smaller than the control treatment (p-valueA=0.0004, p-valueF=0.0022, pvalueCF<.0001. ANOVA).

Control larvae (CL) were significantly different from larvae exposed to predators (PL) during early development. 85% of CL hatched on day 1, while majority of PL delayed hatching past day 1 (Fig. 1). PL were also significantly smaller than CL (body length means: meanC=18.6mm, meanA=17.9mm, meanF=17.9mm, meanCF=17.7mm. Fig. 2).

Our results support the hypothesis that axolotl larvae exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to predators. Delayed hatching may be an adaptive mechanism to avoid predation, as observed in other salamander species (5). Smaller body lengths among predator treatments may indicate an adaptive response to visual predation, which has been seen in newts (3). Our results suggest changes in pigmentation and behavior in PL; however more data are needed to test these effects.

References

1. Warkentin KM. 2011. Plasticity of hatching in amphibians: evolution, tradef-offs, cues, and mechanisms. Integrative Comparative Biology 51:111127. 2. Warkentin KM. 2011. Environmentally cued hatching across taxa: embryos respond to risk and opportunity. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51:14-25. 3. Buskirk JV and Schmidt BR. 2000. Predator induced phenotypic plasticity in larval newts: trade-offs, selection, and variation in nature. Ecology 81(11): 3009-3028. 4. https://www.gimp.org/ 5. Sih A, and Moore RD. 1993. Delayed hatching of salamander eggs in response to enhanced larval predation risk. The American Naturalist 142(6): 947-960. 6. https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/

The relationship of life stage to daily social patterns of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and the correlation of handler perceptions of elephant personality to demonstrated social behaviors AUTHOR: Alison Jeffrey ADVISORS: Vanessa Grunkemeyer Clare Padfield Debbie Young

The relationship of life stage to daily social patterns of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) Social interactions between individuals and the correlation of handler perceptions of elephant personality to demonstrated social behaviors of an elephant herd depend upon many factors, including maternal lineage, age, and sex. This study was designed to determine how social behaviors among a herd of captive African elephants vary hourly, to establish if the frequency of social interactions and age class are correlated, and to determine if handler perceptions of elephant personality are an accurate predictor of social behaviors. Research was performed with the African Elephant Research Unit at Knysna Elephant Park (KEP) in South Africa. The herd included 7 elephants in 3 age groups. Continuous, all-occurrence sampling of pre-determined affiliative, agonistic, and ambiguous social interactions was performed. Results indicate that there is a statistically higher rate of affiliative, agonistic, and total social behavior in the mid-morning than mid-afternoon. Additionally, elephant handlers were individually surveyed regarding perceptions of elephant personality traits (dominance, activeness, boldness, confidence, curiosity, sociability, and aggressiveness). Results indicate that there is a positive correlation between observed agonistic social behavior and rated activeness. Results are intended to influence management of captive elephants at KEP and elsewhere. Alison Jeffrey1, Vanessa Grunkemeyer, DVM, Dipl ABVP (Avian)2, Clare Padfield, MSc3, Debbie Young, PhD3

1Department

of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences and 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 3African Elephant Research Unit, Knysna Elephant Park, South Africa

Social interactions between herd elephants include affiliative, agonistic, and ambiguous behaviors and depend on many factors, such as maternal lineage, age, and sex. This study was designed to determine how social behaviors among a herd of captive African elephants vary throughout the day and to establish if the frequency of social interactions and age class are correlated. The study also aimed to determine if perceptions of elephant personality were an accurate predictor of social behaviors. Research took place with the African Elephant Research Unit at Knysna Elephant Park (KEP) in South Africa (Fig. 1). The herd included 7 elephants in 3 age groups: juvenile, young adult, and adult. The elephants had controlled free-roam of 200 acres on park property during the day. Continuous, all-occurrence sampling of pre-determined affiliative, agonistic, and ambiguous social behaviors was performed. Results indicate that there is a statistically higher rate of affiliative, agonistic, and total social behaviors during mid-morning than during mid-afternoon. Elephant handlers were individually surveyed regarding perceptions of each elephant’s personality traits, including dominance, activity level, boldness, confidence, curiosity, sociability, and aggressiveness. This characterization was compared to the recorded elephant social behaviors, and results indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between observed agonistic rate of social behavior and rated activity levels. Results are intended to influence the management of captive elephants at KEP and elsewhere.

Elephant Social Behavior and Personality

Wild African elephants live in herds of related females & juvenile males7 and exhibit strong social bonds.5

Known social behaviors include affiliative (friendly; Figs. 2 & 3), agonistic (hostile/dominant), and ambiguous interactions (Fig. 4).3

Elephants have personalities, which are the characteristics that each elephant portrays, such as exploration, activity, and aggressiveness.4

Research Purpose

Knysna Elephant Park

Figure 1: Map of South Africa & South African flag

1.

(“South Africa” available at localdemocracy.net; “Flag of South Africa” available at en.wikipedia.org.)

To determine how social behaviors among captive elephants vary throughout the day, and how this variation is related to age.

Figure 3: Affiliative social interaction

2. To determine if handler perceptions of elephant personality are an accurate predictor of social behavior.

Methods

Social Behavior Assessment

Personality Survey

• Handlers ranked elephants in comparison to each other as least to most fitting of personality traits: dominance, confidence, curiosity, activity, friendly socialization, and aggression.6

• Recorded all social interactions between elephants.

• Analyzed trends to determine differences between age group interactions throughout the day.

Results

Figure 2: Affiliative social interaction

Social Behavior Assessment

Figure 4: Ambiguous (play/spar) social interaction

Personality Survey

• Agonistic behaviors initiated correlated with perceived activity levels (r=0.887, n=7, p=0.008).

• Agonistic behaviors received correlated with perceived dominance (r=0.794, n=7, p=0.033) and perceived sociability (r=0.826, n=7, p=0.022). • There was no correlation between neither affiliative nor ambiguous behaviors and any perceived personality traits.

Social behavior rates peaked during mid-morning and were lowest during mid-afternoon for all age groups.

Young adults displayed the highest daily average rates of agonistic behaviors (0.041 behaviors/minute), followed by adults (0.030 beh/min), and then juveniles (0.025 beh/min).

Young adults displayed the highest daily average rates of affiliative behaviors (0.038 beh/min), followed by adults (0.029 beh/min), and then juveniles (0.023 beh/min).

Juvenile elephants displayed the highest daily average rates of play behaviors (0.004 beh/min), followed by young adults (0.003 beh/min), and then adults (0.001 beh/min).

Juvenile male total social behavior rates positively correlated with each other (r=0.707, n=104, p<0.001).

Conclusions

• Perceived exploration, aggressiveness, and dominance traits positively correlated: • Exploration & aggressiveness (r=0.876, n=7, p=0.010) • Exploration & dominance (r=0.806, n=7, p=0.029) • Dominance & aggressiveness (r=0.819, n=7, p=0.024)

References

1. Digman JM. 1990. Personality structure: emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41:417-40.

• Patterns of daily social behavior in the study herd of captive elephants reflected patterns of wild African elephants found in previous studies.2,9

2. Guy PR. 1976. Diurnal activity patterns of elephant in the Sengwa Area, Rhodesia. East African Wildlife Journal, 14:285-295.

• As is consistent with the typical dominance hierarchy and mother-offspring relationships within a herd3,8, mature elephants displayed higher rates of affiliative & agonistic behaviors than juveniles.

4. Lee PC and Moss CJ. 2012. Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126:224-232.

• Correlations between exploration, aggressiveness, and dominance personality traits indicate that further study is necessary regarding personality typing in elephants, similar to factor analysis in humans.1

3. Horback KM, Miller LJ, Andrews JRM, and Kuczaj SA. 2014. Diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of zoo elephants in an outdoor facility. Zoo Biology, 33:403-410.

5. Moss CJ and Poole JH. 1983. Relationships and social structure of African elephants. In Hinde, R.A. ed. Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 315-325. 6. Rossman Z. 2015. Elephant-initiated interactions with humans: individual differences and specific preferences. Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis, UC: Davis.

7. Shulte BA. 2006. Behavior and Social Life. In: Fowler M.E. & Makota S.K., eds. Biology, Medicine, & Surgery of Elephants. Ames (IO): Blackwell Publishing, 35-43. 8. Vidya TNC and Sukumar R. 2005. Social and reproductive behaviour in elephants. Current Science, 89(7):1200–1207.

9. Wyatt J and Eltringham S. 1974. The daily activity budget of elephant in Rwenzori National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 12:273-289.

Thank you to the following for support of this research: Dr. Drew Conroy, Dr. Rebecca Warner, Dana Hamel, Frank & Patricia Noonan, and John & Marjorie Beyersdorf. Great thanks also goes to the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research, the Dean's Office at the College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, and the Office of the Senior Vice Provost for Research, all at the University of New Hampshire.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

BIOLOGY

AUTHORS: Andrew Butts Tara Cieszka


AUTHOR: Jasmin Buteau ADVISOR: Jennifer Miksis-Olds

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Characterizing an unknown blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) subpopulation in the South Atlantic populations produce regionally distinct Ocean through acoustic analysis of song Jasmin Buteau songs varying in structure, tone, and Advisor: Dr. Jennifer Miksis-Olds School of Marine Science and Ocean Engineering, University of New Hampshire frequency. Song variability serves as a metric for identifying populations and quantifying their spatial distributions. An unknown song has been recorded surrounding Ascension Island with tonal components at 26 Hz and 32 Hz. To determine the acoustic presence and seasonality of this unidentified subpopulation, hydrophones were deployed and recorded continuously at 250 Hz resulting in a usable frequency range up to 125 Hz. From March 2006 March 2007, variability was observed insomuch that both components of the call were not always present. Preliminary analyses indicate that the 32 Hz tone is rarely encountered alone outside the austral fall season. The 26 Hz tone and combination of both tones were observed consistently throughout a greater portion of the year. While this could be due to the seasonal propagation environment, it is more likely that the two components, or the combination thereof, may contain unique communicative information. In addition to gaining insight on the abundance and distribution of the population, its identification will provide baseline information useful for further understanding the variation, function, and significance of blue whale song. INTRODUCTION

METHODS

• Blue whales produce high intensity, low frequency calls that likely serve a social function associated with foraging and mating behaviors (Širović et al, 2007). • Blue whale populations worldwide produce unique, regionally distinct songs varying in structure, tone and frequency (McDonald et al, 2009). • Song variability serves as a metric for identifying subpopulations and quantifying their spatial and temporal distributions. • Not all types of song have been documented and/or characterized to date, specifically songs in the South Atlantic Ocean. • Detection of a previously undocumented song at Ascension Island (07°50'45.6000” S, 014°28'48.0000” W) with tonal components at 26 and 32 Hz is investigated here.

• Data were collected on the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) monitoring system that continuously recorded low frequency sound (<1-125 Hz) from two triads of omni-directional hydrophones positioned on opposite sides of Ascension Island (Figure 1). • Spectrograms of a time series from March - December 2006 were manually analyzed in Adobe Audition (Figure 2). • A time series analysis of the song component combinations was performed to represent acoustic presence and relative component detection. • Exemplars were extracted to aid in the development of Matlab autodetection algorithms for application to a decadal data set.

CONCLUSIONS

• The observed trend in the data corresponds to seasonal distribution and annual migratory patterns. • The 32 Hz tone, when detected at the beginning of the season, could potentially indicate age-sex class segregation during migration. • An alternative hypothesis for the lack of the 32 Hz tone detected alone could be due to the seasonal propagation environment, but it is more likely that each tonal component, or combination thereof, may contain unique communicative or behavioral information. • Knowing the relative contribution of this blue whale song to the general ambient acoustic environment could provide insight to future soundscape ecology research projects. • Seasonal characterization provides baseline data that can later be compared to changes in ecosystem dynamics, ocean noise, and climate. • This new information will enable further development of hypotheses for blue whale population structure based on acoustics.

Figure 1. Location of Ascension Island and CTBTO hydrophones

MOTIVATION

RESULTS

• Wide geographic distribution coupled with the existence of both migrating and resident populations makes identifying subspecies within blue whales challenging (McDonald et al, 2006). Acoustic analysis of the unknown song will provide baseline information for further understanding its variation, function and significance of the previously undescribed subpopulation and how it contributes to global blue whale song.

FUTURE RESEARCH

• Preliminary analyses indicate that the 32 Hz tone is rarely encountered alone outside the austral fall season (Figure 3).

• Apply auto-detection algorithms to a decadal long data set. • Interpret the newly defined song structure investigated here in the context of global blue whale population structure.

• The 26 Hz tone and the combination of both 26 and 32 Hz tones were observed consistently throughout a greater portion of the year (Figure 3).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

25

Special thanks to Dr. Jennifer Miksis-Olds and Dr. Kerri Seger for their help and support. Data collection funded by the Office of Naval Research under grants # N000141110619 & N000141612860.

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Number of hours song components detected in

BIOLOGY

Characterizing an unknown blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population in the South Atlantic Ocean through acoustic analysis of song

MAIN OBJECTIVE

2017

26 hz 32 hz

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REFERENCES

Both

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• Determine the acoustic presence and seasonality of unknown stereotyped song units in order to characterize an unknown blue whale subpopulation in the South Atlantic Ocean.

Winning Project

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Julian Day (2006)

Figure 2. Spectrogram with 26 Hz & 32 Hz components present

Figure 3. Detection of tonal components at Ascension Island from March-December 2006

McDonald, M.A, Mesnick, S.L & Hildebrand, J.A. 2006. Biogeographic characterization for blue whale song worldwide: using song to identify populations. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 8(01):55-65. McDonald, M.A, Hildebrand, J.A, Mesnick, S.l. 2009. Worldwide decline in tonal frequencies of blue whale songs. Endangered Species Research. 09:13-21. Širović, A., Hildebrand, J.A, Wiggins, S.M. 2007. Blue and fin whale call source levels and propagation range in the Southern Ocean. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 122(02):1208-1215.

The distribution and possible roles of the neuropeptide SCP in Melibe leonina AUTHOR: Allison Nash ADVISOR: Winsor Watson

The neuropeptide small cardioactive peptide (SCP) plays an integrative role in exciting various motor programs involved in the feeding and locomotion of many gastropod species. In this study, immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against SCP was used to localize SCP neurons in the Nudibranch Melibe leonina. One large SCP-immunoreactive neuron was found in each of the buccal ganglia, 37-45 neurons were identified in the Melibe brain, and extensive innervation was seen in the esophagus. Using a combination of Neurobiotin backfills and staining for SCP, we demonstrated that SCP axons and terminals in each pedal ganglion originated from neurons in the opposite pedal ganglion. Studies using live preparations showed that perfusion with SCP stimulated peristaltic contractions of the esophagus. Furthermore, Melibe injected with SCP at night swam for a longer duration of time than control animals injected with saline, while animals injected during the day yielded no significant response. These data suggest that SCP enhances the swimming behavior that normally occurs in this nocturnal species. Finally, the close association of circadian clock neurons and SCP neurons suggests that SCP is released at night to stimulate feeding and swimming motor programs in M. leonina. The neuropep*des  SCPa  and  SCPb  were  first  iden*fied  in  the  nervous  system  of  the  Nudibranch   Aplysia  californica  (Lloyd  et  al.  1984),  where  they  were  shown  to  increase  the  frequency  and   amplitude  of  heart  contrac*ons  (Lloyd  et.  al.,  1985).  Subsequently,  they  were  shown  to  also  play  an   integra*ve  role  in  exci*ng  various  motor  programs  involved  in  the  feeding  and  locomo*on  of  many   gastropod  species  (Watson  &  Willows,  1992).  This  study  sought  to  characterize  the  roles  of  SCP  and   iden*fy  its  distribu*on  throughout  the  CNS  and  gut  of  the  Nudibranch  Melibe  leonina.  Melibe  serve     as  ideal  model  organisms  for  this  work  because  they  have  large,  iden*fiable  neurons  and  express  an   endogenous  circadian  rhythm  of  crawling  and  swimming  (Newcomb  et.  al.,  2014),  which  makes  it   easier  to  demonstrate  how  SCP  injec*on  influences  both  short  and  long-­‐term  paSerns  of  behavior.        

Immunohistochemistry

Figure 1:  Isolated  M.   leonina  brain  in  live   prepara*on.  

Objec&ves

1. Map the  distribu*on  of  all  the  SCP-­‐immunoreac*ve  neurons  in  the  Melibe  CNS,  as  well  as  other  organs  and  *ssues.     2. Determine  the  impact  of  SCP  on  the  behavior  of  whole  animals  during  in  day*me  versus  the  nighVme.     3. Quan*fy  the  impact  of  SCP  on  the  isolated  esophagus,  buccal  ganglion  and  heart.    

Immunohistochemistry

About 28-­‐36  SCP-­‐containing  neurons  were  present  in   the  brain  and  there  is  1  large  SCP  neuron  in  each  buccal   ganglia.  The  circadian  clock  protein  CLOCK  was  also   found  in  the  SCP  cell  in  the  buccal  ganglia  (Fig.  5).  

Figure 5:  SCP  staining  (L)  and  CLOCK  staining  (M).  Merged   images  showing  co-­‐localiza*on  (R).  

Behavioral Assays  

Melibe injected  with  SCP  at  night   (Fig.  8)  swam  for  a  longer  dura*on   of  *me  than  control  animals,  while   animals  injected  during  the  day  did   not  show  a  response.    

Figure 8:  Actogram  showing  the   behavior  of  one  Melibe  over  the   course  of  5  days.  The  red  star   indicates  the  *me  of  SCPb  injec*on   (7:30PM).  The  ac*vity  level  is   increased  in  the  two  days  following   the  injec*on.    

The IHC  procedure  outlined  in  Prior  and  Watson  (1988)   was  used  to  prepare  single  and  double-­‐stained   wholemounts  of  Melibe  brains  and  buccal  ganglia  (Fig.  2).   Monoclonal  an*-­‐SCP  and  polyclonal  an*-­‐CLOCK   (Circadian  Locomotor  Output  Cycles  Kaput)  primary   an*bodies  were  paired  with  corresponding  secondary   an*bodies  labeled  with  different  fluorescent  tags.  The   finished  *ssues  were  viewed  and  photographed  using  a   confocal  (Zeiss  LSM  510)  microscope.       Figure  2:  Schema*c   diagram  of  the  IHC   double-­‐staining   procedure.  

Behavioral Assays  

Figure 6:  SCP  staining  in  whole  brain  and  esophagus  (R),   and  consensus  map  of  SCP  immunoreac*vity  (L;  n  =  12).   Also  note  innerva*on  of  the  esophagus  in  the  right  image.  

Retrograde Tracing  

Pedal SCP  neurons  innervate  the  opposite  pedal  ganglion.  

Figure 7:  Neurons  with  axons  innerva*ng  the  pedal   ganglion  were  stained  with  NB  (M)  and  then  processed  for   SCP  (L).  Note  that  some  stain  for  both  (R).        

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Figure 9:  Influence  of   SCP  on  an  isolated   Melibe  heart.  Refer   to  figure  4  for   experimental  setup.      

Figure 10:  Influence   of  SCP  on  an  isolated   gut  with  the  buccal   ganglia  aSached.   Figure  11:  Influence   of  SCP  on  an  isolated   gut  with  no  buccal   ganglia  aSached.  

To examine  the  effect  of  SCPb  on  the   esophagus,  the  Melibe  gut  (esophagus  and   stomach)  was  removed  from  the  animal,   with  or  without  the  buccal  ganglia  aSached,   and  pinned  in  a  dish.  To  determine  the   effect  of  SCPb  on  the  heart,  animals  were   cut  open  to  reveal  the  heart  and  then   pinned  out  in  a  dish  of  saline.  To  record   esophagus  or  heart  contrac*ons,  a  metal   hook  connected  to  a  force  transducer  was   linked  to  the  *ssues  (Fig.  4)  and  the  output   of  the  transducer  was  recorded  with   LabChart  sojware.  Muscle  ac*vity  was   recorded  before,  during  and  ajer  adding   100-­‐500uL  of  10-­‐5M  SCPb  dissolved  in  0.5M   NaCl.  The  prepara*ons  were  washed  with   fresh  seawater  between  each  trial.     Figure  4:  Example   of  the  experimental   setup  used  for   recording  the   contrac*ons  of  the   Melibe  heart   (arrow).  

Animals were  placed  in  individual  bins  in  a  tank  of   aerated  seawater  (Fig.  3,  L).  Their  ac*vity  was  recorded   using  a  *me-­‐lapse  video  system  and  analyzed  using   Ethovision  XT  (Fig.  3,  R).  Animals  were  either  injected   with  0.5mL  of  10-­‐5M  SCPb  dissolved  in  0.5M  NaCl,  or   0.5M  NaCl,  as  a  control.  Trials  consisted  of  day*me   injec*ons  (12PM)  or  nighVme  injec*ons  (7:30PM).    

Retrograde Tracing  

Pharmacology

Adding 500uL  of  10-­‐5M    SCPb  increased  the  amplitude  of   myocardial  contrac*on  (Fig.  9)  and  s*mulated  peristal*c   contrac*ons  (Figs.  10  &  11).  

Pharmacology

Figure 3:  Example  experimental  setup  (L),  and  view  of   the  Ethovision  system  tracking  four  animals  (R).    

•  NB backfills  coupled  with  SCP  staining   showed  that  SCP  axons  and  terminals  in  each   pedal  ganglion  originated  from  neurons  in   the  opposite  pedal  ganglion.   •  Experiments  with  isolated  organs  showed   that  SCP  excited  both  the  heart  and  the   esophagus.   •  Behavioral  assays  suggest  that  SCP  enhances   the  probability  of  Melibe  swimming  at  night.       •  The  close  associa*on  of  SCP  and  CLOCK   neurons  suggests  that  SCP  is  released  at   night  to  s*mulate  feeding  and  swimming   motor  programs  in  Melibe.    

The pedal-­‐pedal  connec*ve  (PPC)  was  cut   and  backfilled  with  4%  neurobio*n  (NB)   dissolved  in  1M  KCl.  Prepara*ons  were  then   processed  through  IHC  using  an*-­‐SCP   an*bodies  to  determine  if  SCP  neurons  in   one  pedal  ganglion  innervate  the  opposite   pedal  ganglion.    

•  This research  was  supported  by  the  New     Hampshire  IDeA  Network  of  Biomedical     Research  Excellence  (NH-­‐INBRE).     •  Thank  you  to  Mark  Townley  for  assistance     in  the  use  of  the  LSM  510  confocal  microscope  and   Victoria  Duback  for  helping  analyze  Ethovision  data.    

References

Newcomb, J.,  Watson,  W.,  Kirouac,  L.,  Bixby,  K.,  Lee,  C.,  Malanga,  S.,  &  Raubach,  M.  (2014).                      Circadian  rhythm  of  locomo*on  in  the  nudibranch  mollusc  Melibe  leonina.  Fron3ers  in                    Behavioral  Neuroscience,  1(3),  263-­‐273.   Watson,  W.H.  III  and  A.O.D.  Willows.  (1992).  Homologous  pep*dergic  neurons  in  the  buccal                ganglia  of  diverse  nudibranch  mollusks.  J.  Neurobiol.  23:  173-­‐186.   Lloyd,  P.E.,  I.  Kupfermann,  K.R.  Weiss.  (1985).  Two  endogenous  neuropep*des  (SCPA  and                SCPB)  produce  a  cAMP-­‐mediated  s*mula*on  of  cardiac  ac*vity  in  Aplysia.  Journal  of                Compara3ve  Physiology  A.  156:  659-­‐667.   Lloyd,  P.  E.,  Mahon,  A.  C.,  Kupfermann,  I.,  Cohen,  J.  L.,  Scheller,  R.  H.,  &  Weiss,  K.  R.  (1984).                Biochemical  and  Immunocytological  Localiza*on  of  Mulluscan  Small  Cardioac*ve  Pep*des                in  the  Nervous  System  of  Aplysia  californica.  The  Journal  of  Neuroscience,  5(7),  1851-­‐1861.    


Measuring somatic mutation in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans Measuring somaCc mutaCon in the nematode, Caenorhabdi+s elegans Somatic mutations underlie cancer and many other human disorders. However, they are poorly understood because they are difficult to measure, since they are not passed on to the next generation. To gain a better understanding of the nature and rates of such mutations, whole genome sequence analysis was used to identify and characterize somatic mutations in early embryos of the nematode C. elegans. This is an ideal system for such studies for many reasons; most notably, the complete genome sequence is available as a reference for identifying de novo mutations and the embryonic cell lineage is completely known and invariant. To accomplish this, hundreds of embryos were collected, sorted by cell number using a fluorescent cell sorter and dispensed individually to wells of microtiter plates. Each embryo was subjected to whole-genome DNA sequence analysis using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 automated sequencer in the Hubbard Center for Genome Studies here at UNH. Using a combination of bioinformatics and statistical analyses, new mutations that arose within the first few cell divisions in each embryo were analyzed. These studies will provide important insight concerning what kinds of mutations occur in somatic cells and the rate at which they occur.

Q U I C K S TA RT ( c o n t . )

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Emily Vulgamore (Biology); Meghan Gillespie (Biology) Faculty Advisers: Dr. John Collins (Gene/cs); Dr. Kelley Thomas (Hubbard Center for Genome Studies) The University of New Hampshire

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ABSTRACT

METHODOLOGY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Soma/c muta/ons underlie cancer and many other human disorders. However, they are poorly understood because they are difficult to measure, since they are not passed on to the next

genera/on. To gain a beOer understanding of the nature and rates of such muta/ons, whole

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genome sequence analysis was used to iden/fy and characterize soma/c muta/ons in early

embryos of the nematode C. elegans. This is an ideal system for such studies for many reasons;

muta/ons and the embryonic cell lineage is completely known and invariant. To accomplish this, hundreds of embryos were collected, sorted by cell number using a fluorescent cell sorter and

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dispensed individually to wells of micro/ter plates. Each embryo was subjected to whole-

genome DNA sequence analysis using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 automated sequencer in the

Hubbard Center for Genome Studies here at UNH. Using a combina/on of bioinforma/cs and

- Sequence “genomified” DNA

-  Align results with the wildtype DNA to physically iden/fy muta/ons

under fluorescent light. The

morphogenesis, development,

nerve func/on, behavior and

aging.1

Time

C. elegans are model, eukaryo/c nematodes frequently used in laboratory experiments due

to their known and complete genome that is invariant. There are an es/mated 17,800 genes and 959 soma/c cells. These organisms grow around 1 mm and are hermaphrodites making for quick reproduc/ve cycles. The first larval stage, known as L1 contain the first cellular

divisions (Figure 2).. At roughly 8 genomes, the organism begins to develop sex cells. Though primi/ve, these organism share many characteris/cs that are central problems of human

Figure 2. The larval stages of C.

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T2: 5-6 minutes in bleach Adults are becoming s/ff and fragmented Complete lysis of adults; embryos remain intact

1.  Cancer is derived from a single somaCc cell that has accumulated mulCple DNA mutaCons

2.  Cancer is a disease of cell proliferaCon caused by mutaCons in genes that control

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PHASE 2: How to dispense single embryos of known cell number into microCter wells

-  Stain with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) which binds to DNA

The goal is to iden/fy genes that have an effect on the muta/on rate in the worms. In par/cular,

genes that, when knocked out, increase the rate of soma/c muta/ons. These can then be

focuses on the L2 stage, as the

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-  Use a fluorescent cell sorter to collect embryos with 8 or less cells, based on fluorescent concentra/on

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translated to candidate oncogenes in humans. Oncogenes are genes that control the cell cycle

embryos are in early, cellular

and cell division. Genes found in the nematodes correspond with homolog genes in humans5.

development.

From there, it can be dis/nguished if they are known oncogenes or new ones that have yet to be

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discovered. Because cancers caused by soma/c muta/ons have later onsets, there could be a

significant applica/on to preventa/ve health. The same parameters apply to human disorders.

About somaCc mutaCons:

Genes and chromosomes have the ability to mutate in soma/c or germinal /ssue (Figure 3).

REFERENCES

Soma/c muta/ons are not passed on to the progeny. The earlier the soma/c muta/on

ORIGINAL

occurs, the larger por/on of mutant cells accumulate. 2

DISTORTED

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A microscopic view of DAPI stained embryos visible in blue light

Figure 3. Soma/c muta/ons are random muta/ons that occur outside of the germ line during cell replica/on and do not pass on to the next genera/on. These o`en cause cancer or other human disorders, as they begin to accumulate. 2 RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

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Le` tube Waste Right tube

5 cells - viable Too many cell divisions 8+ cells - discard

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is the stage right before

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proliferaCon and the cell cycle4

larval stage past the egg, while L4

elegans. L1 denotes the earliest

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Stage in lysis

T1: 1-2 minutes in bleach Adults are intact

T3: 12-15 in bleach

biology.1

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CANCER AND HUMAN DISORDER IMPLICATIONS

The soma/c muta/on theory of cancer has been a long las/ng paradigm:

exhibits embryogenesis,

BACKGROUND

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EXAMPLE: if 50% of the genome has the same muta/on, it can be determined that the muta/on occurred at the first stage of cellular division when there were only two cells FUTURE WORK PHASE 4: Repeat and analyze

Figure 1. C. elegans visualized

About the model organism:

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- Amplify DNA of individual embryos

Further implicaCons: Providing a star/ng point to compare with humans

occur in soma/c cells and the rate at which they occur.

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Sequencing is in progress.

knowing the kinds of muta/ons to create a wildtype muta/on rate

were analyzed. These studies will provide important insight concerning what kinds of muta/ons

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PHASE 3: How to sequence whole genome of each embryo and idenCfy mutaCons

Immediate implicaCons: knowing the rate of soma/c muta/ons for mul/cellular animals, and

sta/s/cal analyses, new muta/ons that arose within the first few cell divisions in each embryo

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ADVISOR: John Collins

most notably, the complete genome sequence is available as a reference for iden/fying de novo

Q U I C K S TA RT

Goal: Measure the rate of somaCc mutaCons to create a standard for mulCcellular organisms

PHASE 1: How to obtain a lot of early embryos - Allow worms to grow un/l adult stage. Development can take 2-4 days depending on temperature 3 Recover gravid adults. -  Add bleaching solu/on and monitored for complete lysis of worms -  Fix with methanol to arrest development

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1. Edgley, M. (2017, April 19). College of Biological Sciences. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from hOps://cbs.umn.edu/cgc/what-c-elegans 2. Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, et al. An Introduc/on to Gene/c Analysis. 7th edi/on. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000. Soma/c versus germinal muta/on. Available from: hOps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21894/ 3. Porta-de-la-Riva, M., Fontrodona, L., Villanueva, A., & Cerón, J. (2012). Basic Caenorhabdi0s elegans Methods: Synchroniza/on and Observa/on. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE, (64), 4019. Advance online publica/on. hOp://doi.org/10.3791/4019 4. Watson IR, Takahashi K, Futreal PA, Chin L. Emerging paOerns of soma/c muta/ons in cancer. Nature reviews Gene0cs. 2013;14(10):703-718. doi:10.1038/nrg3539. 5. Bernard Kadio, Sanni Yaya, Ajoy Basak, Koffi Djè, James Gomes, Chris/an Mesenge, Calcium role in human carcinogenesis: a comprehensive analysis and cri/cal review of literature, Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 2016, 35, 3, 391

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INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

BIOLOGY

AUTHORS: Meghan Gillespie Emily Vulgamore


RPIMapPr: A Novel Approach to Predicting Interfacing Protein Residues in RNA-Protein Complexes AUTHOR: Michael Beck

RNA-protein interactions play a key role RPIMapPr in many biological processes such as A Novel Approach to Predicting Interfacing Protein Residues in RNA-Protein Complexes gene regulation and viral replication. It remains challenging to characterize Introduction Results structures of RNA/protein complexes experimentally, but given abundant sequence information, computational methods can be trained using existing Methods structures to develop algorithms for predicting residues in RNA/protein interfaces. We have therefore developed a web server and a standalone tool, RPIMapPr, which is based on data Conclusions extracted from 1,484 known structure files of RNA/protein complexes. This tool uses an efficient method for predicting interfacing residues compared to other tools such as PSSM profile and physiochemical profile tools, while also exceeding or maintaining key statistical metrics of other tools. RPIMapPr uses mean probabilities of interaction for the combinations of groups of residues surrounding a queried residue. Due to being comparable in accuracy and other metrics to current predictive tools, this tool has the potential for substantially accelerating and increasing the utility of sequentially based predictive methods for RNA-protein interactions. RPIMapPr is available for free use and can be downloaded from: http:// rpimappr.appspot.com. Michael Beck [mpj59@wildcats.unh.edu] Dr. Harish Vashisth (Advisor) [Harish.Vashisth@unh.edu] Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

ADVISOR: Harish Vashisth

NSF Grant Number: CBET-1554558 (CAREER)

ď ą RNA-protein interactions account for many key biological processes, including gene regulation, viral replication, and expression of protein complexes

ď ą Experimental determination of RNA-protein complexes is difficult, therefore computational methods are often used

ď ą The goal of this project is to produce a unique and efficient computational method/tool for predicting RNA-protein interfaces

ď ą All PDB files (dataset DS1) available on Protein Data Bank containing only a protein-RNA complex were downloaded and data mined

ď ą Partially independent dataset RB111 was also collected and data mined

(2) Example of RPIMapPr webserver output for PDB file 1h2d.

ACC 0.865 0.751 0.720 0.835 0.761 0.775 0.752

CHEMICALENGINEERING/BIOENGINEERING

RPIMapPR FastRNABindR RNABindR v2 BindN+ PPRInt KYG PRIP

Sn 0.52 0.61 0.63 0.43 0.48 0.47 0.45

Sp 0.91 0.76 0.73 0.87 0.79 0.80 0.78

MCC 0.38 0.24 0.22 0.24 0.18 0.19 0.15

(3) Comparison of different RNA-protein predictive tools for confusion matrix metrics for dataset RB111. ACC: Accuracy; Sn: Sensitivity; Sp: Specificity; MCC: Matthew Correlation Coefficient

(1) Diagram of sequence chain used in probability equation.

ď ą Multiple lengths of amino acid chains (up to 4 amino acids long for this project) that the central amino acid is part of has the probability of amino acidnucleic acid interaction

ď ą Probabilities are then combined with calculated coefficients in the formula to the right to create probability of interaction

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đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;đ?&#x2019;&#x2020;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;

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(4) Equations to determine probability of interfacing. đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160; and đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x201A;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;,đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039; are the calculated coefficients, 2đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160; + đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? is the length of the chain in diagram ďż˝đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š â&#x2C6;&#x2014;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;,â&#x2C6;&#x2014;+đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039;đ?&#x2019;&#x2039; is the mean probability of interfacing for a given (1), đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018; chain, and đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š is the predicted probability of interfacing.

(5) Interface coloring of example files of dataset DS1, including actual coloring and prediction coloring by RPIMapPr and PPRInt. Orange represents noninterfacing and blue represents interfacing.

ď ą RPIMapPr was a successful achievement of the goal

ď ą RPIMapPr is able to accurately predict 86.5 % of residues as either noninterfacing or interfacing based solely on sequence ď ą Does as well as or outperforms competitors in confusion matrix metrics while being a statistical method

ď ą Visual comparisons with PPrint in dataset RB111 confirms this, while also showing that RPIMapPr is visually similar to the actual interfacing ď ą Webserver is available at: rpimappr.appspot.com

Bioremediation of lead using spore surface displayed proteins AUTHOR: Sofia Diaco ADVISOR: Kang Wu

Lead is a toxic pollutant very harmful to of lead using spore surface displayed proteins human health since it accumulates in the Bioremediation Sofia Diaco Kang Wu body and affects the brain, liver, kidney, Adviser: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire and bones. Fetuses can be exposed Abstract Lead binding protein PbrR Results to lead during pregnancy, which can cause problems with learning later on in the babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life. The purpose of this project is to display a lead binding protein on bacterial spore surface for Introduction the bioremediation of lead from water. Future Work Spores from Bacillus subtilis are very robust and resistant to various harsh Experimental Design environments. Genetically fused to a spore surface protein, the displayed proteins demonstrate enhanced References robustness and can be easily produced through sporulation without the need of further purification. PbrR is a regulatory protein that modulates the lead resistance in bacteria. In this project, we fused seven variants of PbrR to the spore surface protein CotC (CotC-PbrRs). The lead binding affinity and specificity of these PbrR variants on the spore surface will be characterized. The robustness of these spores with PbrR will be also evaluated using wastewater samples. Lead is a toxic pollutant very harmful to human health since it accumulates in the body and affects the brain, liver, kidney, and bones. Fetuses can be exposed to lead during pregnancy, which can cause problems with learning later on in the babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life. The purpose of this project is to display a lead binding protein on bacterial spore surface for the bioremediation of lead from water. Spores from Bacillus subtilis are very robust and resistant to various harsh environments. Genetically fused to a spore surface protein, the displayed proteins demonstrate enhanced robustness and can be easily produced through sporulation without the need of further purification. PbrR is a regulatory protein that modulates the lead resistance in bacteria. In this project, we fused seven variants of PbrR to the spore surface protein CotC (CotC-PbrRs). The lead binding affinity and specificity of these PbrR variants on the spore surface will be characterized. The robustness of these spores with PbrR will be also evaluated using wastewater samples.

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż PbrR is a protein that regulates the pbr lead resistance operon [3]. The lead ions bind to the PbrR dimer and the resulted complex can bind to the promoter region of the operon and active the expression of genes in both directions.

pbrRT

p/o

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Plasmids for the expression and purification of PbrRs in E. coli have been successfully constructed. PLtetO

pbrR

CmR

pbrABCD

PbrR PbrR

Pb2+

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Structural prediction shows that PbrR is similar to MerR in structure and it has two domains: lead binding domain and DNA binding domain.

Col E1 ori

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Linear DNA containing cotC-pbrRs (with and without His-tag) for integrating them into the amyE site on the chromosome of B. subtilis have been assembled. 5â&#x20AC;&#x2122; amyE

CmR

cotC-pbrR

3â&#x20AC;&#x2122; amyE

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Transformation of B. subtilis was not successful, and it is likely due to the length of the linear DNA being too short. New DNA fragments have been designed and amplified to assemble the integrating DNA to be about 8 kb long.

Core

Cortex

Inner Coat

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Purify the seven PbrRs using His tag purification column.

Outer Coat

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Integrate each cotC-pbrR into B. subtilis.

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Collect spores displaying PbrRs and quantify the concentration of PbrR on the spore surface using ELISA.

Anchor

PbrR

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Spores, released from vegetative cells through sporulation, have rigid, protective layers around the core which contains the DNA [2]. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Spores are able to survive under harsh conditions like extreme temperatures, a wider range of pH levels, radiations, and in the presence of organic solvents

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż 3 variants of PbrR (PbrR, PbrR2, and PbrR3), and 4 truncated variants of PbrR (Î&#x201D;42, Î&#x201D;60, Î&#x201D;76, and Î&#x201D;76Î&#x201D;126-145) are used in this project to investigate the essential lead binding domain and compare their binding affinity. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Each PbrR variant with a C-terminal His tag is expressed in E.coli using the plasmid pPROTet.E for purification of the protein.

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Each PbrR variant, with and without His tag, is genetically fused to the anchor protein CotC in B. subtilis, an abundant protein in the outer coat [1]. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Lead binding affinity of PbrRs displayed on the spore surface and the purified soluble PbrRs will be compared.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Measure lead binding affinity of each purified PbrR protein and spores displaying each PbrR variant using a wild type spore as the control at room temperature and neutral pH. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Study the effect of temperature and pH on the lead binding affinity. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ż Design a process of reversible lead binding using spores displaying PbrRs for lead recovery.

.

1.â&#x20AC;Ż R. Isticato and E. Ricca. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Spore surface display,â&#x20AC;? in Microbiology Spectrum, 2016. 2.â&#x20AC;Ż Molecular Biology for Masters. Regulation of Gene Expression during Sporulation, [Online]. Available: http://mol-biol4masters.masters.grkraj.org/html/Gene_Expression_I5GRegulation_of_Gene_Expression_During_Sporulation.htm 3.â&#x20AC;Ż B. Borremans, et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cloning and functional analysis of the pbr Lead Resistance Determinant of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34,â&#x20AC;? in American Society for Microbiology, vol. 183, no. 19, May 2001.


Copper-Titanium Dioxide: Synthesis, Characterization, and CO Oxidation AUTHOR: Justin Cournoyer ADVISOR: Nan Yi

A series of copper-titanium catalysts for use in the CO oxidation reaction were prepared by varying select synthesis parameters. These included: the number of times the sample was washed, with which solvent the sample was washed, and the temperature of hydrogen doping. These catalysts were then characterized using H-TPR and TGA. RGA and GC were then used to determine the comparative efficacy of each catalyst for the CO oxidation reaction.

CHEMICALENGINEERING/BIOGENGINEERING

Revealing the Role of Sodium-Gold Clusters in Preferential Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in Hydrogen (PROX) Liam Corless and Nan Yi, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reaction (H2-TPR) A) â&#x20AC;˘ Pretreatment: Pure helium (He) or 10% oxygen (O2) with helium â&#x20AC;˘ Test Condition: 10% H2/argon heated at 5oC/minute to 250oC.

B

H2-TPR Results Revealed â&#x20AC;˘ Reduction peak at 100oC is attributed to gold nanoparticles[2] â&#x20AC;˘ Pure helium pretreatment preferred â&#x20AC;˘ Pretreatment temperature at 150oC is favorable

0.006 0.005 0.004

0.003

0.003 0.002

0.002

0.001

0.001 0.000

0.000 80

100

-0.001 140

120

Temperature (oC)

Figure 2: H -TPR profiles of Na-AuTiO2 pretreated with: A)Pure He and B) 10%O2/He.

2

đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľ + đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨(đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľ)đ?&#x;&#x2018;đ?&#x;&#x2018;đ?&#x;&#x2018;đ?&#x;&#x2018; â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľ

250oC 150oC

0.005

0.004

Signal (a. u.)

â&#x20AC;˘ Proton exchange membrane fuel cell dependence on PROX reaction[1] â&#x20AC;˘ CO concentration <10 ppm â&#x20AC;˘ Gold bimetallic proven to be effective in catalytic transformation of CO to CO2[2]

Signal (a. u.)

ADVISOR: Nan Yi

The proton exchange membrane fuel Revealing the Role of Sodium-Gold Clusters in Preferential Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen (PROX) cell relies on the reaction of preferential carbon monoxide oxidation in hydrogen Introduction Results and Conclusions (PROX) to reduce the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 10 ppm, to protect the platinum anode from carbon ) monoxide poisoning and deactivation. Gold bimetallic materials have been proven to be effective in the catalytic Synthesis of sodium-gold clusters on TiO transformation of CO to CO2. We presented a novel one-step approach to synthesize alkali-gold cluster supported on titanium dioxide. Results from spectroscopy and temperature programmed reactions revealed the interaction between alkali-gold cluster and small molecules, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The findings will guide the future study in developing robust and cost-effective gold catalysts.

2

65

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) â&#x20AC;˘ Test Condition: room temperature, static air â&#x20AC;˘ Peak centered around 2350 (cm-1) is attributed to gold clusters[3]

% Reflectance

AUTHOR: Liam Corless

60

55

50

45 2200

2250

2300

2350

2400

2450

Wavenumber (cm-1)

Figure 3: FT-IR spectra of Na-Au-TiO2

Figure 1: Progression of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and gold hydroxide (Au(OH)3 reaction in solution. Time elapsed: one hour (left), one day (center), one week (right).

Preparation â&#x20AC;˘ Mass ratio of NaOH to Au(OH)3 50:1 â&#x20AC;˘ Temperature at 115oC â&#x20AC;˘ Wet impregnation to introduce gold to TiO2

Advantages â&#x20AC;˘ Single step synthesis â&#x20AC;˘ No harmful chemicals (e.g. cyanides or strong acids) used

Future Work â&#x20AC;˘ How does CO interact with catalyst surface? Three possible orientations of CO molecule upon contact[4]

[4]

References:

(1) T.R. Reina, E. Papadopoulou, S. Palma, S. Ivanova, M.A. Centeno, T. Ioannides, J.A. Odriozoloa, Applied Catalysis B, 15-151 (2014) pp. 554-563 (2) M. Yang, S. Li, Y. Wang, J. A. Herron, Y. Xu, L. F. Allard, S. Lee, J. Huang, M. Mavrikakis, M. Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Science 346 (2014) pp. 1498. (3) Y. Wang, D. Widmann, R.J. Behm, ACS Catalysis 332 (2017) pp. 2339-2345 (4) M. Hinojosa-Reyes, R. Zanella, V Maturano-Rojas, V. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Applied Surface Science, 368 (2016) pp. 224-232

Acknowledgements: The Hamel Center is acknowledged for providing INCO 790 funding along with 2017 Undergraduate Research Award funding for this project.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Tunable systems for protein display on bacterial spore surface AUTHOR: Jiacheng Wan ADVISOR: Kang Wu

Bacterial spores have been used for the Tunable Systems for Protein Display on Bacterial Spore Surface display of various proteins including enzymes and vaccines. These proteins Abstract become an integral part of the spore coat and benefit from the robustness of the spore. The resulted spores with the displayed proteins provide excellent Introduc.on Experiment Design Results and Future Work biocatalysts and drug carriers that are resistant to harsh environments. However, due to the complexity of the spore coat layer, currently protein display on spore surface relies on a few anchor proteins and their expressions are all under native regulatory elements, which means there are no tools to modulate the abundance of the proteins displayed on References the spore surface. In this work, tunable expression systems are designed and built using the natural regulatory elements for the anchor proteins and binding sites for non-sporulation transcription factors such as LacI. Using GFP and mCherry as the reporters, we plan to map the display pattern of the commonly used anchor proteins and explore the regulatory limits of these hybrid promoters. This work will provide valuable tools for protein display on spore surface as well as a better understanding of how the composition of the spore surface layer affects the spore integrity. Jiacheng Wan and Kang Wu Chemical Engineering Department University of New Hampshire

Bacterial spores have been used for the display of various proteins including enzymes and vaccines. These proteins become an integral part of the spore coat and benefit from the robustness of the spore. The resulted spores with the displayed proteins provide excellent biocatalysts and drug carriers that are resistant to harsh environments. However, due to the complexity of the spore coat layer, currently protein display on spore surface relies on a few anchor proteins and their expressions are all under naGve regulatory elements, which means there are no tools to modulate the abundance of the proteins displayed on the spore surface. In this work, tunable expression systems are designed and built using the natural regulatory elements for the anchor proteins and binding sites for non-sporulaGon transcripGon factors such as LacI. Using GFP and mCherry as the reporters, we plan to map the display paOern of the commonly used anchor proteins and explore the regulatory limits of these hybrid promoters. This work will provide valuable tools for protein display on spore surface as well as a beOer understanding of how the composiGon of the spore surface layer affects the spore integrity.

•  •  • 

Spores from bacteria have a rigid surface layer composed of over 70 proteins to protect them from harsh conditions such as extreme temperatures, pH, radiation, and toxic solvent. By genetically fused to an surface anchor protein, a foreign protein can be displayed on the spore surface. Using spores as a protein display platform has many advantages:

CHEMICALENGINEERING/BIOENGINEERING

•  Enhanced robustness •  No need for protein purification •  Reusability Cortex Ancho r Inner Core Coat Protein Outer Coat •  Problem of current spore surface expression and display methods: •  The organization of spore surface proteins is unknown. •  No tunable expression system is available.

Hybrid promoters: •  Hybrid promoters composed of the native regulatory sequences and a LacI binding site (lacO) were constructed. •  LacO is located either between the native regulator binding sites, or before +1, or after +1. Reporters: •  GFP and mCherry are used for CotC and CotG respectively to study their abundance and co-localization. Integration: •  Instead of using integration vectors which needs cloning in E. coli first, DNA fragments are directly assembled after PCR amplification.

GerE activator binding site SpoIIID repressor binding site LacI repressor binding site

Native cotC promoter

Hybrid cotC promoter Native cotG promoter

Hybrid cotG promoter

Transcription initiation site +1 cotC-gfp

Promoter

cotG-mCherry

Promoter

5’ amyE

mR

cotX-FP

3’ amyE

chromosome DNA

amyE

5’ amyE

mR

cotX-FP

assembled linear DNA

3’ amyE

chromosome DNA

•  •  •  •  • 

A method has been designed to directly assemble linear DNA fragments to integrate the target cotX-FP into the chromosome. Compared with commonly used integration vectors, this method could reduce a typical cloning procedures from 3-4 weeks to about 1 week. However, the efficiency of transformation/ integration is extremely low, which is likely due to the small size of the linear fragment. New homologous fragments have been designed to improve the efficiency. Collect spores displaying CotC-GFP and/or CotG-mCherry either with their native promoters or hybrid promoters at different concentrations of the inducer IPTG.

Measure the fluorescence intensity at the bulk level using fluorescence microplate reader and at the individual level using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Design hybrid promoters using other regulators, such as TetR and PbrR.

•  Zeigler, D. R. (2002). IntegraGon Vectors for Gram-PosiGve Organisms, 7(4), 6-9. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from hOp://www.bgsc.org/_catalogs/Catpart4.pdf •  Weiner, A. (2006). The Bacterium Bacillus subtilis taken with a Tecnai T-12 TEM. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_subtilis.jpg •  IsGcato, R., Ricca, E. (2014). Spore surface display. Microbiol Spectrum, 2(5). Retrieved October 15, 2012, from hOp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555819323.chap17

Nitrogen and Carbon Stable Isotope Composition Informs Metabolic Routing in Blarina brevicauda Tissues AUTHOR: Altai Perry ADVISOR: Erik Hobbie

Isotopic routing, a manifestation of metabolic processes and the kinetic isotope effect, in the lipids, hair, and proteins of wild Blarina brevicauda was investigated using mass spectrometry for 13C and 15N. It was found that hair had the highest 15N signal followed by muscle protein and finally by muscle lipid. It was also found that muscle protein had the highest 13C signal followed by hair and finally by muscle lipids. These are consistent with the expected theoretical results. Gastrointestinal contents were also analyzed also through mass spectrometry to gain insight on the absorption and integration of 13C and 15N into tissues.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


The Effect of Evaporating Dicarboxylic Acids on Aerosol Size AUTHOR: Jackson Kaspari ADVISOR: Margaret Greenslade

Dicarboxylic acids have been observed in ambient aerosols. Beyond inorganic salts (like sea salt), dicarboxylic acids are a key to the growth of aerosols driven by increases in relative humidity (RH). Evaporation of dicarboxylic acids, such as glutaric and malonic acid, following water exposure will introduce error into laboratory measurements analyzing size changes at a specific RH and thus underrepresent growth. In addition, these effects could be the cause of some of the conflicting vapor pressure measurements reported in the literature. In this work, bulk scale measurements using the CAHN 2000 Electrobalance in a controlled environment are used to verify and expand current observations to provide quantification of the amount of evaporation occurring for a series of dicarboxylic acid solutions in water. Current results suggest that solutions with higher weight percentages of glutaric and malonic acid correlate to faster initial evaporation rates. As the concentration of dicarboxylic acid increases, due to water evaporation, crystallization occurs. These crystalline structures correlate to slower secondary evaporation rates observed in all trials. Understanding this evaporation will lead to more accurate future data collection and necessary refinements in climate models.

Isolation and Characterization of Microplastics Used in Soaps and Cosmetics

ADVISOR: Margaret Greenslade

Microplastics are small plastic particles most often composed of polymers such as: polyethylene (PE), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). They are also commonly referred to as microbeads. Interest in these particles began ten years ago when the term “microplastics” was first used, defining them as synthetic plastic particles under 5 mm in size. A common use of microplastics is in cosmetics and other personal care items such as face wash, soap, shampoo, and even toothpaste. Some of the purposes for including these particles in products include film formation, viscosity regulation, skin conditioning, and emulsion stabilization among many others. In this study, I report some of the findings by other researchers of how these plastics have affected aquatic life and marine habitats. I also isolated some of these small beads myself from some common products known for having microbeads.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CHEMISTRY

AUTHOR: Cynthia Gerber


Light Induced Dehalogenation of Halobenzene Using Carbon Quantum Dots AUTHOR: Anthony Lemieux ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) are a Light Induced Dehalogenation of Halobenzene using Carbon Dots relatively new type of photosensitizer Anthony J. Lemieux, Christine A. Caputo Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 that have applications extending to Introduction Conclusions Figures and Data biochemical sensing, drug delivery, bio-imaging, and catalysis. They are synthesized by thermolysis of citric acid and are non-toxic, extremely inexpensive, and fully tunable across Future Work the visible spectrum. CQDs have the Results and Discussion potential to replace expensive and toxic organic dyes, transition metal dyes or Acknowledgements heavy metal quantum dots. As CQDs have been shown to mediate highly selective References oxidation reactions using NIR light, likely via a radical mechanism, it is possible that CQDs may also mediate photodehalogenation reactions. Preliminary results indicate that CQDs can act as light induced radical mediators for dehalogenation reactions. Progress towards the use of CQDs as a replacement for organic photosensitizers will be presented. Carbon Dots (CDs) are fluorescent nanoparticles that consist of a graphitic carbon core with a passivated surface and are typically 2-10 nm in diameter.1,2 CDs are non-toxic and can be made from inexpensive materials such as citric acid. CDs possess unique electronic, redox, and optical properties which can be exploited for use in photocatalytic systems for energy conversion.2 As such, CDs are most often used in biochemical sensing, drug delivery, bioimaging, and catalysis.1 Interestingly, CDs show great potential to replace other expensive photosensitizers, including organic and transition metal dyes, which are short-lived due to photodecomposition and are toxic.1,2 It is also possible to dope CDs with group 13 and 15 elements such as boron and nitrogen to improve or further tune the photoluminescent properties.1 To this end, un-doped CDs and boron-doped CDs (B-CDs) have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. As CDs have been shown to mediate highly selective oxidation reactions using NIR light, likely via a radical mechanism, it is possible that CDs may also mediate photo-dehalogenation reactions.3 O

O

HO

OH

OH

HO

OH

O O O O

O

H2O, CO2, H2

Figure 4. SEM images of un-doped CDs deposited via drop casting and allowing the solvent to evaporate.

OH O

O

1)180°C, ~48 h 2)H2O

O

OH

Figure 1. Fluorescence of various types of CDs under a handheld UV lamp. From left to right: un-doped CDs, borondoped CDs, zinc-doped CDs, â&#x20AC;&#x153;sour patch kidsâ&#x20AC;?/potential phosphorous-doped CDs.

HO

OH

O

OH HO

O

Scheme 1. Synthesis of Undoped CDs

O

O

HO

OH

1)H2O, 180°C, ~4 h 2)H2O

OH

O

+

OH

OH

B

HO

OH

HO

O B B O

HO

OH OH B OH O

Figure 2. The fluorescence emission spectra of CDs showing the excitation wavelength-dependent emissions of un-doped CDs.

OH HO

O

Scheme 2. Synthesis of B-CDs

CO2Et

EtO2C

1.1 eq.

Br

O

or

2.5 mol% CD

O

Br

O

O

Br

2 eq. DIPEA, DMF, RT, hν, 18 h

Br

Special thanks to the Department of Chemistry, UNH for funding. Dr. Caputo for taking me on and allowing me to pursue this project. Dr. Planalp and Dr. Pazicni for their input on Raman Spectroscopy. Dr. Berda and Dr. Boudreau for use of their instruments. As well as Ashley Hanlon, Sharon Song, and Lea Nyiranshuti for their assistance with instrumentation.

Figure 5. TEM images of un-doped CDs showing the approximate size regime of a batch of acidic un-doped CDs.

COO

Br

N H

O

1 Cayuela, A; Soriano, M. L.; Carrillo-CarriĂłn, C.; ValcĂĄrcel, M. Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 1311-1326. 2 Martindale, B. C. M.; Hutton, G. A. M.; Caputo, C. A.; Reisner, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6018-6025. 3 Li, H.; Liu, R.; Lian, S.; Liu,Y.; Huang, H.; Kang, Z. Nanoscale. 2013, 5, 32893297. 4 Shiral Fernando, K. A.; Sahu, S.; Liu Y.; Lewis, W. K.; Guliants, E. A.; Jafariyan, A.; Wang, P.; Bunker, C. E.; Sun, Y. P. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 8363-8376. 5 Neumann, M.; FĂźldner, S.; KĂśnig, B.; Zeitler, K. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 951-954. 6 Discekici, E.H.; Treat, N.J.; Poelma, S.O.; Mattson, K.M.; Hudson, Z.M.; Luo, Y.; Hawker, C.J.; Read de Alaniz, J. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 11705-11708.

H

Scheme 3. Photocatalytic Îą-dehalogenation of Îą-bromoacetophenone

OH O

O

O

H2 N

O

+

NH2

HO

O

OH O

OH

+

OH

Further dehalogenation reactions, via different mechanisms, will need to be performed to probe the ability and efficacy of CDs as replacements to traditional photosensitizers. Additional doping and surface functionalization will be conducted to study the effects this has on the electronics and reduction potential of CDs.

OH O

O

B

HO

H2O, CO2, H2

Fluorescent doped and un-doped CDs have been synthesized and characterized. Un-doped CDs have been applied to various dehalogenation reactions with mixed results. Results suggest that CDs do not have enough driving force to dehalogenate unsubstituted aryl rings. This can be attributed to the low reduction potential of CDs to act as both the photosensitizer and electron transport mechanism. In order to dehalogenate an aryl ring using CDs as the photosensitizer, it may be necessary to activate the aryl ring with various electron donating groups to reduce the potential needed to carry out the reaction. Additionally, it may also be possible to dope and otherwise functionalize the CDs to increase their reduction potential. At the present moment, CDs have the inability to proceed with radical mediated dehalogenation of aryl rings, but can photocatalyze the dehalogenation of an Îą-bromide via a hydride donation mechanism.

Zn

Zn

Toluene

Cl Zn Cl

Zn O O Zn

O

165°C, 22hrs

HO

Scheme 4. Synthesis of zinc doped CDs

O

Figure 3. The fluorescence emission spectra of B-CDs showing the shift from excitation dependent emissions of doped CDs.

OH

O

OH Zn

Figure 6. Gas chromatogram of the dehalogenation of bromoacetophenone using CDs as photosensitizers after simulated solar irradiation.

CHEMISTRY

Dicarboxylic Acid Shell on an Inert Aerosol Core: A Variable Controlled Hygroscopicity Investigation with Unexpected Results AUTHOR: Brent Lawson

Two models describe the internal Dicarboxylic Acid Shell on an Inert Aerosol Core: mixing state of atmospheric aerosols, A Variable Controlled Hygroscopicity Investigation with Unexpected Results Brent Lawson, Margaret E. Greenslade homogenous well-mixed or core shell, where both have been observed in Introduction Discussion the field. Lab studies have shown stark differences in hygroscopic properties between mixing states. A method to study the water uptake of a Results hygroscopic organic shell on an inert core was developed to examine the shell properties independent of the core. Using a hygroscopic tandem differential Experimental Methods Future Work mobility analyzer, the change in diameter of aerosolized polystyrene latex Acknowledgments microspheres coated via heating oven References with either malonic, succinic, glutaric or adipic acids was measured after exposure to a range of relative humidity (RH). Initial observations indicated continuous water uptake between 50-85% RH for malonic and glutaric acids. Succinic acid remained nonhygroscopic below 65% RH and then gradually took up water. Adipic acid remained nonhygroscopic below 90% RH. An explanation for these results which deviate from expectations is the possible formation of metastable liquid or amorphous solid malonic, glutaric and succinic acids coatings instead of expected crystalized solid coatings under these experimental conditions. Future research will be conducted using alternative methods to determine the phase state or viscosity of the coated particles. University of New Hampshire, Chemistry Department, Durham, NH 03824

ADVISOR: Margaret Greenslade

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External Mixture

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Well-Mixed Internal Mixture

Core Shell Internal Mixture

Atmospheric aerosols play a significant role in the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy balance and atmospheric processes, specifically their interaction with water vapor are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global modelling1. They exist typically as complex mixtures of organics, salts, dust or soot in one of three possible mixing states. The mixing state of an aerosol depends on how it was formed initially and secondary changes while in the atmosphere (e.g. seawater spray evaporating leaving salt and organic aerosol, soot from forest fire coated in organics from forests or cities). Both internal mixing states have been commonly observed in field measurements though lab data is mostly well-mixed due to experimental cababilities2,3. The core shell model needs to be better understood especially how each component interacts with water vapor independently and together. Dicarboxylic acids are often used to study how organics take up water in aerosols since they are often observed in field research and have been well characterized and modeled. In this work, a new method was designed to simulate the hygroscopicity of an organic shell condensed onto an inert nonhygroscopic core. The benefits are â&#x20AC;˘ New data on the core shell model using dicarboxylic acids â&#x20AC;˘ Ability to determine if the organic shell follows bulk models and previous research â&#x20AC;˘ Reduction in the mass transfer effect that might arise with organics by having high surface area to volume ratio Goal: To measure the water uptake over a range of relative humidities (RH) of different dicarboxylic acids coated onto an inert polystyrene latex microsphere (PSL) core.

In the first panel, uncoated PSLs pass through a heated region with a high concentration of the organic vapor. In the second panel, coated PSLs (dry) form by the condensation of the organic vapor onto the surface of the PSLs due to the decrease in temperature between the two regions. In the final panel, coated PSLs (wet) form as the dry coated PSLs are exposed to a humidified region and take up water.

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Atomizer PSLs in H2O

Diffusion Dryer

Flow Equalizer

Diffusion Dryer

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Malonic Acid

Succinic Acid

Aerosol Core Particle Generation

N2 gas

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

1ďż˝ 3

Differential Mobility Analyzer

â&#x20AC;˘

Measurement of the organic shell independent of the core, indicates some unexpected and new results. This work represents a significant advancement of experimental data supporting core shell models.

â&#x20AC;˘

Make measurements of organic shells on larger and smaller diameter PSLs to determine if size has any effect. Find an alternative instrumental method to identify the phase state of the organic shell on the PSL core such as aerosol particle bounce or FTIR spectroscopy. Determine hygroscopic growth curves for larger dicarboxylic acids and other types of organics such as terpenes, saccharides, or carboxylic acids.

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Condensation Particle Counter

Coat and Humidify Aerosol

Differential Mobility Analyzer

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Winning Project

2017

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

RH Probe

Humidifier

Condensing Tube

Coating Oven

PSLs were atomized from an aqueous suspension and dried to < 10% RH before size selecting 220 nm PSLs with the differential mobility analyzer (DMA). They were then passed through a coating oven (60-80 °C) saturated with the dicarboxylic acid (DCA) vapor, where solid DCA was deposited inside the tube. As the PSLs exit the oven and the flow cools to room temperature, the organic vapor condenses on the PSLs with a shell thickness dependent upon the coating oven temperature. Once a stable thickness is achieved, the coated PSLs are humidified to variable % RH and the change in size is measured by another DMA with humidity control. The measured physical growth factor (GF) of the organic shell was calculated as a function of RH and was compared to theoretical models and previous research.

Glutaric Acid

The growth curves for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 show the experimental set up works as expected with accurate measurements. The PSLs are a valid proxy to represent a nonhygroscopic inert core. Malonic acid: The growth curve matches both theory and previous data very well. At all RHs, the malonic acid shell acts as a liquid and does not go through deliquescence. Often liquid particles are associated with water, but no water should be present in this DCA coating. Succinic Acid: The shell did not take up water below 60-65% RH, at which point it gradually took up water until 75% RH and then it followed the theoretical model. Succinic acid should deliquesce at 99% RH. The shell seems to act like a glass or amorphous solid instead of the expected crystalline solid. Glutaric Acid: The shell continuously takes up water similar to malonic acid instead of deliquescing at 80â&#x20AC;&#x201C;90% RH as expected. Despite formation of the glutaric acid shell in dry conditions, the shell acts like a liquid, easily taking up water. Adipic Acid: The shell does not take up any water and matches previous measurements. This indicates the shell formed a crystalline solid. Both succinic acid and glutaric acid have two observed crystalline polymorphs. When condensed from vapor to the surface of the particle, both polymorphs can exist simultaneously preventing stable crystallization. This might lead to a glass or amorphous solid shell which can exist stably on relatively large timescales. Amorphous solids and glasses exhibit different hygroscopic properties from their crystalline counterpart due to a different viscosity and diffusivity coefficient with water. (Koop et al., 2011)10 found the growth curve for an amorphous solid as a function of RH to be similar to that measured for succinic acid.

Adipic Acid

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

Funding from UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, the Chemistry Department and URA support from the UNH Hamel Center Dr. Greenslade and the Greenslade Group

1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2. Ramachandran, S.; Srivastava, R. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2016, 23, 11109-11128. 3. Maskey, S.; Chong, K. Y.; Kim, G.; Kim, J.; Ali, A.; Park, K. Particuology. 2014, 13, 27-34. 4. Peng, C.; Chan, M.N.; Chan, C.K. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2001, 35, 4495-4501. 5. Pope, F. D.; Dennis-Smither, B. J.; Griffiths, P. T.; Clegg, S. L.; Cox, A. R. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2010, 114, 5335-5341. 6. Prenni, A.J.; DeMott, P.J.; Kreidenweiss, S.M.; Sherman, D.E.; Russell, L.M.; Ming, Y. J. Phys. Chem. A., 2001, 105, 11240-11248. 7. Marsh, A.; Miles, R. E. H.; Rovelli, G.; Cowling, A. G.; Nandy, L.; Dutcher, C. S.; Reid, J. P. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., in review, 2016. 8. Cruz, C. N.; Pandis, S. N. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2000, 34, 4313-4319. 9. Chan, M. N.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Chan, C. K. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, 3602-3608. 10. Koop, T.; Brookhold, J.; Manabu, S.; Poschl, U. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 19238-19255.


Exploration of the Synthesis of Silatranes and the Contest for Nitrogen’s Lone Pair AUTHOR: Kassie Picard ADVISOR: Arthur Greenberg

Silatranes are bicyclic molecules with Exploration of the Synthesis of Silatranes and the Contest for Nitrogen’s silicon coordinated to the nitrogen. Lone Pair This weak bond between nitrogen and silicon is formed by delocalization of Future Work the nitrogen lone pair. These molecules exhibit biological activities in hairResults and Discussion growth, wound healing, and antibacterial effects. This project aimed to explore the strength and bond length of the dative Conclusions bond between nitrogen and silicon Experimental Design when there is an adjacent carbonyl Acknowledgements group competing for nitrogen’s lone pair. 1-Methyl-4-silatranone would be References the first example of a medium-sized, bridgehead bicyclic lactam anticipated to have considerable resonance stabilization. The alpha carbonyl group is predicted to compete with silicon for the nitrogen lone pair. Synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone, via a four-step reaction, is in progress. Attempts to produce the precursor pseudosilatrane via reaction of diethanolamine and methyltrimethoxysilane were unsuccessful using multiple reaction conditions. Future work would include continuing efforts to pursue the synthesis of the œpseudosilatrane by changing reaction conditions with the expectation of producing the final target molecule, 1-methyl-4-silatranone. Kassie Picard, Arthur Greenberg, Holly Guevara klp2000@wildcats.unh.edu, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH Spring 2017

Table 1. Modified reaction conditions for the synthesis of the “pseudosilatrane”.

Silatranes are bicyclic molecules with silicon coordinated to the nitrogen. This weak bond between nitrogen and silicon is formed by delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair. The typical N—Si bond is 2.45 Å, like in compound 1. These molecules have important biological functions in hair-growth, wound healing, and antibacterial effects. This project aimed to explore the N—Si bond length when there is a carbonyl group adjacent to nitrogen, competing with silicon for the lone pair. The goal of this product was to produce compound 2, 1-methyl-4-silatranone, via a simple four-step reaction with a “pseudosilatrane” intermediate. The final step in the synthesis was closing the third bridging ring making the amide linkage (scheme 2).1

Moles Methyltriethoxysilane 5.6 mmol

Neat, 50-600C

3.05 mmol

Basic Conditions, dilute in toluene, 50-600C

2.83 mmol

Dilute in DCM (500 mL), 40-500C

Conditions

Moles Methyltrimethoxysilane

Moles Boc-protected Diethanolamine (scheme 1B)

Conditions

2.36 mmol

1.72 mmol

Dilute in DCM (500 mL),

The original goal for this project was to produce the pseudosilatrane, 3, which could then be closed into the final product, 1-methyl-4-silatanone, 2, that contained a carbonyl group adjacent to the nitrogen (scheme 2). Future work for this project would include continuing to modify reaction conditions to produce 3, then add the correct substituents to produce the product, 1-methyl-4-silatanone.

30-350C

The synthesis of the pseudosilatrane is still in progress. All 1H NMR data acquired were overwhelmingly populated with solvent and reactant peaks. The unknown peaks in the NMR spectra are likely byproduct that polymerized during the reaction. 50-600C

50-600C neat

A

1

Moles Diethanolamine (scheme 1A) 5.7 mmol

3.05 mmol

2.39 mmol

A

B

2

B

4

3

KOH dilute

2

5

Scheme 2. Proposed route for the synthesis of 1-methyl-4silatranone.

B

Figure 1. Dative bond between nitrogen and silicon in a silatrane and in the proposed silatranone.

toluene

Chloroform

B

B

The first part of this project focused on the synthesis of the “pseudosilatrane” (3), using diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane (Scheme 1).2 Different reaction conditions were explored to drive the production of product 3, including adding a protecting group to diethanolamine (Scheme 1B). Each product was analyzed by 1H NMR to determine the abundance and purity of the product.

A

A

toluene

Unknown

Figure 2. 1H-NMR for the reaction of diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane neat at 50-600C (in CDCl3).

Figure 3. 1H-NMR for the reaction of diethanolamine with potassium hydroxide and methyltriethoxysilane in toluene with a 2.5 hour reflux at 50-600C (in CDCl3).

dilute

B

C

A.)

B

D

dilute

Thank you to the UNH Department of Chemistry for their efforts and support during this research project.

E

toluene

3

E

B

B

Methanol

B.)

E

A A E E

Scheme 1. Proposed routes for the synthesis of the “pseudosilatrane”.

The synthesis of the pseudosilatrane, 3, is in progress. Neat and dilute reaction conditions were not enough to drive the production of the pseudosilatrane. The effects of adding a protecting group to diethanolamine are still being explored.

30-350C

40-500C

A

B

B

1. Morgan, J., Guevara, H., Ritzgerald, R., Dunlap-Smith, A., Greenberg, A. Ab initio computational study of 1-methyl-4-silatranone and attempts at its conventional synthesis Structural Chemistry. 2016. 2. Piekos, R., Sujecki, R., Sankowski, M. Z. anog. Allg. Chem. 1979. 454, 187-191. 3. Puri, J., Raghubir, S., Cahal, V. Silatranes: a review of synthesis, structure, reactivity, and applications. Chem. Soc. Rev., 2011. 40, 1791-1840. 4. Sliter, B., Morgan, J., Greenberg, A. 1-Azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-2one: nitrogen versus oxygen protonation. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2011. 76, 2270-2781.

Figure 5. 1H-NMR for the reaction of boc protected diethanolamine and methyltrimethoxysilane in DCM with a 2.5 hour reflux at 30-400C (in CDCl3).

Figure 4. 1H-NMR for the reaction of diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane in DCM with a 2.5 hour reflux at 30-400C (in CDCl3).

Precise Spacing of Pendant Vinyl Crosslinking Functionality Along a Polymer Chain Robert Biro, John Tsavalas* Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Many polymers used in industry today are crosslinked by addition of a crosslinker to the polymerization, however some are crosslinked postpolymerization. Both of these methods leads to a random (wide) distribution of crosslinking functionality along the polymer chain, and therefore a random crosslink density distribution. This study focuses on the synthesis of a polymer chain with precise spacing between pendant vinyl crosslinking functionalities. Once prepared, the polymers can then be crosslinked to form a polymer network with a more narrow crosslink density distribution. Thermal and mechanical properties of properties of the linear and networked polymer can then be compared to analogous polymers without precise spacing of crosslinking functionality.

Synthesis of 1 was accomplished successfully following a procedure by Tsarevsky. Nitroxide mediated polymerization of styrene to form 2 was accomplished and characterized by NMR, DSC, and SEC.

The lack of polymer solubility, and choice of weak reducing agent to reduce the alkoxyamine and ester both led to the unsuccessful synthesis of diol 4. The polymer demonstrated low solubility at moderate temperatures in acetic acid and with the low solubility zinc dust, the alkoxyamine could not be reduced similar to literature. Stronger reducing agents like LiAlH4 and NaBF4 might prove successful, however might deprotanate the protection group to form a triphenylphosphine ylide. O

O

56

O

N

1) Zn, AcOH, 130°C

HO

56

OH

2) NaOH, DMF, 70°C

BF4

BF4

PPh3

Random Spacing

2

3

Mw (g/mol)

6020

6490

Mn (g/mol)

5820

6320

PDI

1.03

1.03

Rh (nm)

1.97

2.17

Precise Spacing

2

Previous work has been done in the polymerization of protected crosslinkers (DVB, EDGMA) and post-polymerization deprotection to yield a pendant crosslinking functionality embedded in polymer chains. To maintain precise spacing between crosslinkers, a polymerization method that targeted monodisperse polymer chains was needed. Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP) was chosen due to its slow propagation of styrenic monomers, high molecular weight control, and low polydispersity products. NMP coupled with a protected crosslinker and comonomer, would allow for the precise spacing between crosslinking functionalities without crosslinking during polymerization.

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

1

2

0.025

O

BPO, TEMPO

NaBF4

PPh3

0.02

N

56

0.015

BF4

PPh3

Cl

PPh3

0.01

O

O

N

56

4-VBTPPBF4

4

3

O

O

O

O

130°C, 30hrs

H2O, rt, 16 hrs

Cl

O

O

56

HO

1) Zn, AcOH, 130°C

N

DMF, 130°C, 12hrs

0.005

OH

56

0

2) NaOH, DMF, 70°C

BF4

BF4

PPh3

PPh3

HO

56

O

OH

5

O

6

O

56

O

O

Adipic Acid

n

DMF, rt.

BF4

PPh3

6

O

6

KOH, Aqueous Formaldehyde

DMF, 100°C

BF4

PPh3

O

56

O

n

15

15.5

16

Retention Time (minutes)

0.03

MeCN, 50°C 24hrs

14.5

3

The increase in polymer molecular weight given by SEC data showed that TEMPO-mediated chain-growth polymerization to synthesize 3 was successful with only one unit of 1 added to form the block copolymer. This is partly due to the 1:1.2 ratio of 2 and 1 respectively added to the reaction and the slow kinetics of TEMPO-mediated (NMP) styrenic polymerization.

J/g(°C)^2

ADVISOR: John Tsavalas

A study of using nitroxide mediated Precise Spacing of Pendant Vinyl Crosslinking Functionality Along a Polymer Chain polymerization (NMP) to precisely space pendant vinyl crosslinking functionality Results and Discussion Introduction Work in Progress along a polymer chain is presented. Using a bimolecular initiator (bis(bromomethyl) benzoyl peroxide; BBMPO) and alkoxyamine (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1Summary and Future Work piperidinyloxy; TEMPO) with a molar ratio of 1.2, a polymerization of styrene was performed resulting in a polymer with narrow molecular weight distribution. Continuation of NMP at Synthetic Scheme lower temperature with a phosphonium salt-type monomer allowed precise spacing of the monomer in the polymer chain. Post-polymerization modifications efficiently converted the phosphonium salt into a pendant vinyl crosslinking functionality, and allowed for end-group modifications. Step-growth polymerization was attempted to form large linear polymer chain with precise spacing of pendant vinyl crosslinking functionality. 40

50

60

70 80 Temperature (°C)

90

100

DSC of 2 and 3 gave identical results, reporting a Tg, of 76.2°C. This deviates from a Tg of 100°C given given in most literature, but can be explained due to the low molecular weight as there is 2 less intermolecular chain entanglement 3 than high molecular weight polymers. 2 and 3 were expected to have similar Tg because the addition of styrenic salt 1 to the polymer chain would not drastically change molecular weight nor 110 the polymers free volume.

The reduction of the alkoxyamine and ester of 3 to form diol 4 was attempted and proved unsuccessful. This is due to weak reducing agent initially used. The reactant and products showed nearly identical FTIR spectra; ester at 1730cm1, and TEMPO at 1500 and 1450cm-1.

3

4 (attempted)

3500

3000

2500 2000 Wavenumbers (1/cm)

1500

1000

PPh3

LiAlH4, DMF, 30°C

The synthesis and characterization of 1,2, and 3 was successful. However, the synthesis of 4 was incomplete as conditions and choice of reducing agent for the reduction of the ester and alkoxyamine to a diol proved challenging. The synthesis and characterization of 1,2, and 3 was successful. Better reducing agents (LiAlH4, NaBF4, SnI2, etc..) might prove more successful in synthesizing 4.

Once 4 has been synthesized, the step growth condensation polymerization with adipic acid to form polyester 5 will be attempted. Finally, a Wittig olefination will be conducted to form 6, a pendant vinyl crosslinking functionality with precise spacing along a polymer chain.

The thermal and mechanical properties of 6 can then be tested and compared to polymers with random incorporation of crosslinking functionality.

Acknowledgements

I’d like to thank my research supervisor Dr. John Tsavalas and the rest of the group (Pei, Maryam, and Chang) for their support and help on the project. I’d also like to thank Dr. Wilkinson and Dr. Rodriguez, and the Berda group for their useful discussion further advice.

References

(1) Borguet, Yannick P., Tsarevsky Nicolay V. “Low- catalyst concentration atom transfer radical polymerization of a phosphonium salt-type monomer.” Polym. Chem., 2012, 3, 2487. (2) ”Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization: From Fundamentals to Application in Materials Science.” Royal Society of Chemistry. 2012. (3) Lin, Y. H., “Entanglement and the molecular weight dependance of polymer glass transition temperature.” Macromolecules, 1990, 23, 5292. (4) Rudin, Alfred. “The Elements of Polymer Science and Engineering” Academic Press, 1999. (5) Solomon, Rizzardo, Cacilo. “Polymerization process and polymers produced therby.” US Patent 4,581,419A, April 8, 1986.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CHEMISTRY

AUTHOR: Robert Biro


Synthesis of p-xylene diisocyanide and Subsequent Polymerization to Form Poly (2,4-pyrrole-alt-p-phenlyene) AUTHOR: Joseph Mancinelli

Conjugated polymers created in laboratories may one day replace Synthesis of p-xylene diisocyanide and Subsequent Polymerization to Form Poly(2,4-pyrrole-alt-p-phenylene) outdated materials that have been used throughout the industrial world; Future Work: Introduction: these polymers are often lighter than the outdated materials and can be synthesized easily in a laboratory Results and Discussion: setting. Polypyrrole is one example of a conjugated polymer that has many Conclusions: applications in the real world, including use in batteries, organic solar cells, and chemical sensors. These polymers are Acknowledgements: very versatile; many different routes for the synthesis of polypyrroles have References: already been explored, and new ways to synthesize polypyrroles are constantly being developed. This experiment aims to synthesize poly(2,4-pyrrole-alt-pphenylene) using an unexplored method. Traditionally, polypyrroles are substituted in the 2,5 position, however this polypyrrole is substituted in the 2,4 position. This bent conformer could give this polypyrrole unique properties compared to other polypyrroles and open a new door in the chemistry and synthesis of polypyrroles. The experiment has shown successful synthesis of the diisocyanide monomer that is needed to make the target 2,4 polypyrrole. The diisocyanide monomer, however, was isolated in considerably low yields. Synthesis of the target polypyrrole is inconclusive based on NMR data; further research is required. Joey Mancinelli, Justin Cole, Erik Berda jpm2006@wildcats.unh.edu, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 4/19/17

ADVISOR: Erik Berda

Polypyrrole is a conjugated organic polymer that has many practical applications, including use in organic solar cells, batteries, and chemical sensors1. The scope of the research is the promise of new organoelectronics that will replace archaic, outdated materials. This experiment is a novel synthetic route to 2,4 substituted polypyrrole (Scheme 1). There are many reported ways of making 2,5 substituted polypyrroles, however synthetic routes to achieve 2,4 substituted polypyrrole have not been reported in the literature. The classic structure of polypyrrole is shown below in the 2,5 substituted conformer (Figure 1). The synthetic route utilized an efficient two-step synthesis to synthesize p-xylene diisocyanide starting from pxylene diiamine. The p-xylene diisocyanide monomer will then be polymerized to afford poly(2,4-pyrrole-altp-phenylene) (Figure 2).

Scheme 1. Synthetic route to obtain p-xylene diisocyanide and polymerization to obtain poly(2,4-pyrrole-alt-p-phenylene)2.

Successful synthesis of both (2) and (3) were conclusive based on NMR analysis, however the yields on both (2) and (3) were low. Each product was characterized by NMR below and based on the spectrum synthesis of the (2) and (3) was successful. However, based on the NMR data for the polymerization of product (3), results do not show conclusively that polymerization was achieved to afford product (5), as there is an absence of broadening on the NMR of the polymer compared to the NMR of the monomer.

Figure 1. Sample structure of the classically synthesized 2,5 substituted polypyrrole.

b

d

Synthesis of both the intermediate product and final product in the diisocyanide monomer synthesis were conclusive by 1H NMR characterization. However, further experimentation is needed to synthesize the final polypyrrole, as 1H NMR data shows no broadening of the peaks between the monomer NMR and the NMR taken of the polymer after the reaction ran for 24 hours.

I would like to thank Justin Cole, Erik Berda, and the rest of Berda Research Group. I would also like to thank the University of New Hampshire Chemistry Department.

a

b

The two-step synthesis used to synthesize the diisocyanide monomer will continue to be used in the future to obtain purified product (3). Further, the polymerization step (Scheme 1) which was unsuccessful in this experiment, will be used again to polymerize p-xylene diisocyanide and afford poly(2,4pyrrole-alt-p-phenylene). Steps of the synthesis could also be performed with different reagents. For example, many reagents exist that can formylate the diamine. Examples include formic acid or formaldehyde3. Also, a different copper (I) source or a different ligand could be used in the cycloaddition polymerization.

c

a

Figure 2. The target 2,4 substituted polypyrrole, Poly(2,4-pyrrole-alt-p-phenylene).

1. Lange, U.; Roznyatovskaya, N. V.; Mirsky, V. M. Conducting polymers in chemical sensors and arrays. Analytica Chimica Acta 2008, 614, 1-26. 2. Daniel G. Rivera, DGR.; and Ludger A. Wessjohann, LAW. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 7122-7123. 3. Gerack, C. J.; and McElwee-White, L.; Formylation of Amines. Molecules 2014, 19, 7689-7713.

Figure 2. 1H NMR of diformamide, diisocyanide, and polypyrrole.

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis of a Hydrogel for the Protection of Phosphorene AUTHOR: Erin Braker ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Black phosphorus, or phosphorene, has a semi-conductive surface that has only just become of interest to chemists. This semiconductor is similar in characteristics to graphene, which suggests that phosphorene may be a more efficient photosensitizer. Phosphorene, however, is degradable in the presence of water, light, and oxygen which makes it rather complicated to use. With the proper protection, however, it is possible to store and utilize this substance. In order to protect this phosphorene, the synthesis of a redox active hydrogel has been developed to protect it from oxygen which will allow exposure to water and light without degradation. The synthesis and polymerization of this hydrogel, 1-(3-(acetylthio)-propyl)-1-(3isothiocyanato-propyl)-[4,4-bipyridine]-1,1-diium iodide bromide, was not completed, but the synthesis of the first iodo substituent and its addition to bipyridine were achieved. Two separate paths were tried, with both yielding positive results for an exchange of a halogen on the first substituent, thioacetic acid S-(3iodopropyl) ester. The conclusion was that one of the paths was more efficient in this synthesis. The first substituent was recovered successfully with an 82% yield.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Synthesis of a Bifunctionalized Bipyridine Ligand for Iron Coordination and Chain-transfer Polymerizations AUTHOR: Madison Dombrowski ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

Diiron hydrogenase is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes H2 production from water. Small model complexes of the diiron portion of the active site are not as robust as the native enzyme. The protein environment must be important for enhancing catalysis. Tooley and coworkers previously reported a method to attach a diiron cluster to the polymer chain end subsequently folded into a single-chain nanoparticle. Building upon this work, a new technology for incorporating a diiron cluster into a polymer chain will be discussed.

Synthesis of Single-chain Nanoparticles to Model [FeFe] hydrogenase

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

[FeFe] hydrogenase is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the production of molecular hydrogen from water. Electron transfer via iron-sulfur clusters is important for catalysis to occur at the active site of the native enzyme. Design of a polymer dyad system that mediates electron transfer to a diiron cluster within a polymer framework will be presented. Specifically, the electron donors in the dyad system will consist of ruthenium photosensitizers. Photosensitizers take advantage of the availability of visible light for redox catalysis. Tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) complexes are frequently used because of their large molar extinction coefficient in the blue region of the visible spectrum, which results in a MLCT3. Discussed herein is our strategy for incorporating tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) complexes with pendant functional groups into polymer scaffolds.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CHEMISTRY

AUTHOR: Colman Wimsatt


Investigation into the Synthetic Route and Characterization of 2,3-Dimethylmaleimide Functionalized Monomer for Photo-cross-linking Investigation into the Synthetic Route and Characterization of 2,3-Dimethylmaleimide Functionalized Monomer for Photocrosslinking Matthew Currier, Christian Tooley, and Samuel Pazicni; Department of Chemistry mc1151@wildcats.unh.edu

Step 1: The boc-protection of ethylenediamine resulted in an 89% crude yield. Characterization presented in figure 2. 1.45

Acetone 2.17

3.17

B

8

7

6

Figure 2:

Dimethylmaleimide-functionalized monomers grant access to single-chain nanoparticles (SCNP’s) when polymerized with a comonomer spacer (Fig. 1). The long-term goal of this research is to investigate the effects of a defined macromolecular architecture for a more efficient alternative of hydrogen production, and advancement in a clean energy alternative.

E

2

1

1.30

0

3.2

3.0 f1 (ppm)

1.6

2.8

2.15

9.21

2.00

1.92

1.30

2.80

3

f1 (ppm)

-0.00

E

3.17 1.92

4

TMS

C B

3.71

A

5

9.21

DCM

7.27

1,4-Dioxane

N R

2.15

1.4 f1 (ppm)

1.2

Step 2: The addition of the dimethylmaleimide opposite the bocprotected amine resulted in a 90% crude yield. Characterization presented in figure 3. D

O

O O

D

B

1.90

HA BH 2 N C C N CH2

DH 3C

R N

1.90

O

D H 3C

CH3 E CH3 E CH3 E

O

O O

6

5

4.73

TMS

3.24

1

4.8

0

4.4

4.2

4.0 3.8 f1 (ppm)

3.6

3.4

8.83

5.76

2.00

4.6

2.00

0.75

2

3.2

2.0

1.8

1.6 1.4 f1 (ppm)

1.2

O

HD

5.58

Fe Fe

OC 5.97 6.00 6.10

3.63

N

CH2(CH2)10CH3

O

CO

S N S

Figure 4: Proposed synthetic diiron cluster for the hydrogenase active site

TMS

F 0.00

E

3.46

D 5.58 5.55

6.19 6.10 6.00

CO

OC OC OC

5.55

C HA

B ABC

S

S NH

O O

Once polymerized, the 2,3-dimethylmaleimide can undergo a [2+2] cycloaddition, creating a SCNP. When functionalized with a suitable sulfur-diiron complex (Fig. 4), the SNCP adopts synthetic structure similar to the secondary folding of proteins.

D

C 6.15

HC C O

G

6.01

H 2E H B N C C N H2F

6.19

Roy, D.; Sumerlin, B.S. Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2013, 35, 174-179. Tooley, C.A.; Pazicni, S; Berda, E.B. Polym. Chem., 2015, 6, 7646-7651.

A

O

CH2(CH2)10CH3

AIBN, DMF, 70 oC

Scheme 3: RAFT polymerization of the 2,3-dimethylmaleimide functionalized monomer

1.0

Figure 3: 1H NMR of N-[2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)aminoethyl]-tert-butyl-carbamate

GH 3C

S n

HO

S S

O

-0.00

3

8.83

5.76

4 f1 (ppm)

Step 3: The boc-deprotection, followed by the addition of acryloyl chloride affording the acrylamide final product in a 6% yield. Characterization presented in figure 4. GH 3C

References:

1.34

1.34

CHCl3 7.20

4.73

7

S

HO

H N

6.04

Figure 1: Following functionalization with a diiron cluster and the collapse of the polymer to form the SCNP, the polymer scaffold can mimic a secondary protein structure environment of hydrogenase.2

This experiment focuses on the method of the synthesis of the 2,3dimethylmaleimide functionalized monomer (4) as proposed by Roy and Sumerlin.1 1. 2.

8

N R

C

2.00

O

O

A B

A

1.90

O

N R

3.55

O

O

0.75

O

R N

O

O

R N

O

O

2.00

R N

O

polymer folding

N

E

E

hn (l = 254 nm)

The future progress if this project is to incorporate the synthesized 2,3-dimethylmaleimide functionalized monomer into a polymer compound via reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization (Scheme 3).

C

O

3.24

O

The proposed synthetic route to produce N-[2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)-ethyl]-acrylamide proved to be a successful path. 1H NMR spectroscopy confirmed to match the previously known literature results. Increased yields may be possible improved techniques to limit mechanical loses and an optimization of reaction conditions. The work-up and purification of the final product revealed itself to be both excessive, time consuming, and very low yielding; suggesting the most prevalent area for potential improvement in efficiency.

NMR of tert-butyl-N-(2-aminoethyl)carbonate

1H

3.55

O

O

R N

Scheme 1: Photodimerization of 2,3-dimethylmaleimide

2.00

O

O

CHCl3

hn (l = 254 nm)

D

C

CH3D CH3D CH3D

5.30

O

D

O O

4.88

R N

H 2 B HA H 2N C C N H 2C

0.63

O

2

E

2.80

2,3-dimethylmaleimide has been reported to undergo a [2+2] cycloaddition (Scheme 1) when irradiated with UV light (l = 254 nm).1 Recently, Sumerlin et al. reported a system that utilized an acrylamide functionalized with 2,3-dimethylmaleimide cross-linker to yield core cross-linked micelles.1

7.20

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

The utilization of photocrosslinking in organic chemistry has been useful in a wide variety of chemical synthesis. Specifically, the [2+2] cycloaddition makes use of 2,3-dimethylmaleimides that cross-link when irradiated by ultraviolet light (wavelength = 254 nm). This 2,3-dimethylmaleimide cycloaddition has previously been used in the dimerization of dimethylmaleimidefunctionalized polyacrylamides with surprisingly high efficiency, in addition to controlled reactivity.

CHCl3

AUTHOR: Matthew Currier

In an acidic medium, the polymer scaffold in combination with the synthetic active site of a sulfur-diiron cluster and a reducing agent, can replicate the same sort of hydrogen production seen in hydrogenase enzymes of select bacteria and archaea.2

8

O

1

NH 2

H 2N O

O

O

Toluene Dean-Stark Reflux

O

O

O

H 2N

O

H N

O

O

3

7

6

4

f1 (ppm)

3

2

1

0

6.2

6.1

f1 (ppm)

1.06

1.00

0.87

1.15

6.00

2.52

2.38

5

6.0

5.58

5.56 f1 (ppm)

5.54

Figure 4: 1H NMR of N-[2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl]-acrylamide

O

O

O

Toluene Dean-Stark Reflux O

H N

N

O

O

O

2

O

1,4-Dioxane

1.06

1.15 0.87 1.00

This work examines the effectiveness and efficiency of the synthesis of N-[2(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydropyrrol-1-yl)-ethyl]-acrylamide in forming single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). This monomer will be later polymerized with an active-site model of the enzyme diiron hydrogenase. The reactive functional groups of the 2,3-dimethylmaleimides will permit collapse of the resulting polymer, creating a scaffold around the active site model complex that mimics the environment of the native protein. The long term goal of synthesizing an artificial hydrogenase enzyme in this way is to efficiently create hydrogen gas in the presence of a reducing agent and in acidic medium. 1. TFA, DCM 2. O

H N

N

O

Cl TEA, DCM

4

O

Scheme 2: Proposed synthetic route to the 2,3-dimethylmaleimide functionalized monomer

I would like to thank the UNH Chemistry Department, the UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research, the Professor N. Dennis Chasteen Fellowship, Professor Greenberg, William Butler, Brian Patenaude, Professor Berda, and Sarah Lachapelle

By exploring various polymer frameworks (e.g., amides, methacrylates, styrenes, etc.) to find an improved secondary coordination sphere environment to optimize H2 production will reduce the cost on an industrial level. The broad impact of this research is to progress toward clean and reliable source for hydrogen production, decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels.

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis of carbapenem β-lactams containing bulky hydrophobic C-6 side chains as potential inhibitors of carbapenemases AUTHOR: Bryanna Dowcett ADVISOR: Marc Boudreau

Every antibiotic introduced to the Synthesis of carbapenem β-lactams containing bulky clinic has developed resistance against hydrophobic C-6 side chains as potential inhibitors of carbapenemases Bryanna Dowcett, Marc Boudreau it, making the discovery of new Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 What is a Carbapenem? Results Introduction antimicrobial drugs one of the top public health priorities. β-Lactam antibiotics are among the most successful antibiotics ever introduced to combat bacterial infections, however the rise of resistance Future Work has called for structural modifications in the search for new methods of fighting Experimental against infection. This has resulted in the Acknowledgements introduction of the carbapenem class β5-β6 Loop of β-lactams into the clinic, however, resistance to this class has emerged as well. Carbapenems are often used to treat infections as a last resort; therefore the increasing resistance against them is particularly alarming. β-Lactamases are the major defense mechanism of pathogenic bacteria against β-lactam antibiotics as they are able to hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, destroying its antimicrobial activity. One approach to hindering this resistance mechanism has been through the development of β-lactamase inhibitors. It is hypothesized that by introducing a bulky, hydrophobic, C-6 side chain to a carbapenem, β-lactamases will be unable to hydrolyze the β-lactam. Progress has been made towards the synthesis of the potential inhibitor and future efforts will be made to examine inhibitory activity. β-Lactam antibiotics disable cell-wall synthesis resulting in bacterial cell death. They are among the most successful antibiotics ever introduced to combat bacterial infections, however the rise of resistance has called for new methods of fighting against infection. This has resulted in the introduction of the carbapenem class of β-lactams into the clinic, however resistance to this class has emerged as well. β-Lactamases are the major defense mechanism of pathogenic bacteria against β-lactam antibiotics as they are able to hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, destroying its antimicrobial activity. One approach to hindering this resistance mechanism has been through the development of β-lactamase inhibitors. It is hypothesized that by introducing a bulky, hydrophobic, C-6 side chain to a carbapenem, βlactamases will be unable to hydrolyze the β-lactam. Progress has been made towards the synthesis of the potential inhibitor as shown in Scheme 1 and future efforts will be made to complete the synthesis and test it against several β-lactamases.2,3

• Last resort antibiotic • Used when multi-drug resistant infections are of a concern • Resistant to inactivation by many βlactamases

β-lactamases are able to hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, disabling the function of the antibiotic.

B

DMF

E

A

D

C

C

H2 O

A

B

D

E

DMF

Figure 2. Representative carbapenem structure.

Figure 3. Mechanism of β-lactam hydrolysis by a β−lactamase.

Figure 4. β-lactam mechanism of action: inhibition of cell-wall synthesis.4

Figure 5. H1NMR (CDCl3) spectrum of methyl 6,6dibromopenicillanate.

• Complete homolygation of aldehyde using an alternative base, and more of it. • Continue the synthesis to couple aldehyde to methyl 6,6-dibromopenicillanate. • Complete synthesis of compound 2. • Test compound against several β-lactamases to examine inhibitory activity of new compound.

.

Scheme 1. Multi-step synthesis of new compound with hydrophobic C6 sidechain.

I would like to gratefully acknowledge the McNair Scholars program, my McNair 2016 cohort, Dr. Marc Boudreau’s research group, Christian Tooley, and the chemistry department at the University of New Hampshire for their support and help with my research project.

Displacement of the β5-β6 loop by oxacillin

References

(1) Brown, E. D., & Wright. Nat. 2016, 529 (7586).

Scheme 2. Progress towards the synthesis of compound 2 via bromination, methylation, and coupling of the aldehyde.5

(2) Santillana, E., Beceiro, A., Bou, G., & Romero, A.; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016, 104 (13). (3) Luca, F. D., Benvenuti, M., Carboni, F., Pozzi, C., Rossolini, G. M., Mangani, S., & Docquier, J; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016, 108 (45). (4) Zeng, X., & Lin, J.; Front. in Microbio., 2013, 128 (4).

Figure 1. Close-up of active site. There is strong evidence that suggests that the loop plays an important role in the inactivation of β-lactams.2,3

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Scheme 3. Synthesis of homologated 5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazole-4-carboxaldehyde.

(5) Micetich, R. G.; Maiti, S. N.; Tanaka, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Ogawa, K. J. Org. Chem. 1986, 17 (34).


Synthesis of Single-Chain Nanoparticles via Atom-Transfer Radical Coupling AUTHOR: Claudia Willis ADVISOR: Erik Berda

A cross-linkable monomer, dimethyl bromoethylmethacrylate (Me2Brema), was synthesized and polymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) at 10%, 20%, and 50% incorporations through reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. After polymerization, each polymer was collapsed into single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) via atom-transfer radical coupling (ATRC). This method of SCNP formation offers mild conditions with minimal synthetic steps. Polymers and SCNPs were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and a shift in retention time was observed. SCNPs displayed a longer retention time, indicating successful collapse of the parent polymer. Structures and incorporations of all species were verified by NMR.

Development of New Fluorescent Materials: Putting Quantum Dots to Work

ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) are Development of New Fluorescent Materials: Putting Quantum Dots to Work known for their easy fluorescence and great ability to be manipulated for applications in detection, nanomedicine, and dyes. Due to their ease in creation and relative low impact on environment, CQDs have replaced many conventional semiconductor quantum dots in multiple scientific fields such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. This project is taking one step forward, for the development of a CQD based silicon polymer in order to determine changes with fluorescence and conductance compared to normal CQDs as well as determining any new applications for CQD polymers. Current CQD fluorescent concepts involve the quantum dots in solution or doping other materials, not as a connecting linkage in polymers. The introduction of such a polymer could lead to increased applications towards current and future fields of research using CQDs and CQD polymers. So far the creation of both a CQD polymer and a Boron doped CQD polymer are in developmental steps. This means that the polymers are possible to make, however certain problems still persist before moving to a larger scale of the reaction. Determination of fluorescence and conductance changes are still in progress at this time. Ian Smith, Miriam Velasquez Hernandez, Anthony Lemieux, Christine Caputo imw8@wildcats.unh.edu, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 4/14/2017

O

Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) which are a relatively new carbon nanomaterial and have garnered attention for their numerous applications in multiple fields. This project aims to develop a CQD based silicon putty in order to determine if changes in fluorescence occur upon surface functionalization of the CQD. This could lead to interesting applications and progress towards the use of the fluorescent CQD based materials. Carbon Quantum Dots are known for their strong fluorescence in an aqueous solution and great ability to be easily tuned for applications in sensing, imaging, and photo catalysis. Due to their straightforward synthesis and relative low toxicity, CQDs have replaced many conventional semiconductor quantum dots in multiple scientific fields such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. This project aims to develop a CQD based silicon putty. Progress toward this goal will be presented.

The synthesis of carbon quantum dots is performed by thermolysis of citric acid. The citric acid is placed into a furnace/oven and left for up to 40 hrs at 180°C. This allows for the creation of acidic CQDs, at pH 3-4.

HO

OH

(1)

(2)

The synthesis of carbon quantum dots have been carried out (Figure 1). Characterization of the CQD has been carried out by Anthony Lemieux.

Current work is focused on the synthesis of a control silicon putty using boric acid as a cross linking agent and small scale sample of the CQD silicon putty. (Schemes 2 & 3)

Si

Si

HO

O

(3)

(3)

OH

O

Si

O (6)

O

Scheme 3. This shows the proposed reaction pathway for the Carbon Quantum Dot (2) with a silicon chain (PDMS) (3) to form the desired product (6).

The research is still underway for creation of a CQD silicon based putty. The research progress thus far has provided us with many more possibilities to make such a polymer and increased the drive for this research likewise. Development of the polymer will hopefully lead to new synergies in the scientific community. However, conclusions can’t be made at this time due to the research being in the starting phases.

Anthony, Miriam, and Professor Caputo of the Caputo research group and UNH chemistry department are gratefully acknowledged.

OH

H

OH

Scheme 1. Synthesis of CQD’s (2) from Citric Acid (1)

B

O

OH

OH

O

OH

(4)

OH

O

O

Figure 1. Fluorescence of CQD under UV light irradiation

A control for the CQD silicon based putty was created through the suggested manner of creating normal silly putty. The control is made through the process of combining boric acid B(OH)3 and PDMS at a ratio of 0.3 g to 1.0 mL respectively. This ratio of reactants is mixed to a homogenous mixture of a white semitransparent solution and then gradually heated to ~180°C. This solution is left to stir for 1hr and then left to cool. This reaction allows the dehydrogenation reaction to occur with Boric acid and PDMS, which allows the chains of PDMS to be crosslinked to each other by the boric acid groups. (Scheme 2) (2,4)

Si

Si

HO

O

Si

HO

O

O

O

OH

OH

(2)

R R

Si

O

Si

O

O

Si

O

Si

B

(5)

R R

Scheme 2. Synthesis of silicon polymer (5) with boric acid (4) as a crosslinker using polydimethylsiloxane (3) (PDMS).

Once completed, characterization of the CQD crosslinked PDMS product will be carried out and conductance and fluorescence studies will be performed. Differences between boric acid silicon putty and the CQD silicon based putty will be quantified. (1,3,5)

(1) Barman, M. K.; Jana, B.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Patra, A. The J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118, 20034–20041.

(2) Boland, C. S.; Khan, U.; Ryan, G.; Barwich, S.; Charifou, R.; Harvey, A.; Backes, C.; Li, Z.; Ferreira, M. S.; Mobius, M. E.; Young, R. J.; Coleman, J. N. Science 2016, 354, 1257–1260. (3) Ma, Y.; Li, Y.; Ma, S.; Zhong, X. J. Mater. Chem. B 2014, 2, 5043.

(4) Martindale, B. C. M.; Hutton, G. A. M.; Caputo, C. A.; Reisner, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 6018–6025.

(5) Mishra, M. K.; Chakravarty, A.; Bhowmik, K.; De, G. J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, 3 , 714–719.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CHEMISTRY

AUTHOR: Ian Smith


Exploring the Synthesis and Internal Cross-Linking Abilities of Single Polymer Chains via Diels-Alder Reactions AUTHOR: Jennifer Chouinard ADVISOR: Erik Berda

Using simple thermal Diels-Alder (DA) Exploring the Synthesis and Internal Cross-Linking Abilities of Single Polymer Chains via Diels-Alder Reactions chemistry and a copper mediated controlled radical polymerization Results Discussion technique, we were able to fold Introduction linear polymer chains into singlechain nanoparticles (SCNPs) of sizes ranging from 5-10 nm. We synthesized Future Work random terpolymers by varying the incorporations of methyl methacrylate (MMA), furfuryl methacrylate (FMA), and Experimental Conclusions a maleimide functionalized methacrylate (MIMA). We were able to explore the internal folding abilities of the linear polymer chains through thermal DA reactions between the pendent furan and maleimide groups. This strategy introduced a simple polymer synthesis by using two commercially available monomers (MMA and FMA), and a two-step synthesis of the MIMA monomer. The collapse of the single polymer chains via thermal DA chemistry occurred at moderate temperatures with no need for additional reagents or catalysts, making this a simple route to the synthesis of SCNPs. Jennifer Chouinard, Prof. Erik Berda jmr386@wildcats.unh.edu; Parsons Hall, 23 Academic Way, Durham NH 03824

MMA and FMA monomers were commercially available and the MIMA monomer was obtained through a simple two-step synthesis. The initial approach to polymer synthesis was through reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) but was unsuccessful. Using a coppermediated CRP technique, polymers were obtained as white powders. 1H NMR was used to determine the percent monomer incorporations3,4. Removal of the protecting group from the maleimide allowed for DA reactions to occur between the maleimide and furan pendant groups. SCNP formed easily by heating precursor polymers under dilute conditions (1 mg/mL). MALS-SEC traces and 1H NMR spectra each indicated the formation of SCNP.

Polymer synthesis is studied to gain an understanding of polymer units found in nature; proteins. Proteins are found in quaternary structures which can be broken down into tertiary structures and then into secondary structures, which include α-helices and β-sheets. These secondary structures are composed of primary structures which are perfectly sequenced polymers of approximately 20 possible monomers. The goal of my research was to synthesize linear random co-polymers using the monomers methyl methacrylate (MMA), furfuryl methacrylate (FMA), and a maleimide functionalized methacrylate (MIMA). I was able to explore the internal cross-linking abilities through thermal Diels-Alder (DA) chemistry between the pendant furan of FMA and the maleimide group of MIMA to form single-chain nanoparticles (SCNP).

Figure 2. 1H NMR of MIMA in CDCl3 δ 3.5ppm: 1.00 δ 6.5ppm: 0.18 δ 7.4ppm: 0.12

P1 MMA: 61.5% FMA: 22.2% MIMA: 16.3%

Internal cross-linking via thermal DielsAlder chemistry

Figure 1. Linear polymer chains internally cross-link to form

SCNP1

2

1

3

4

Figure 4. MALS-SEC trace overlays from parent polymer (P1) to nanoparticle (NP1)1

Figure 3. 1H NMR of P1 in CDCl3

In a simple two-step synthesis using reagents 1-4, MIMA 5 was made. FMA 6, MMA 7, and MIMA 5 were polymerized using a copper-mediated controlled radical polymerization (CRP) technique. Monomer conversion was monitored using 1H NMR. The solution was worked up, precipitated in MeOH and collected as a white powder 82. 8 was diluted in DMF and heated to 120 °C overnight then cooled to room temperature, precipitated in MeOH and SCNP 9 was collected.

P2 MMA: 81.7% FMA: 11.4% MIMA: 6.9%

δ 3.5ppm: 1.00 δ 6.5ppm: 0.06 δ 7.4ppm: 0.05

Figure 6. MALS-SEC trace overlays from parent polymer (P2) to nanoparticle (NP2)1

Figure 5. 1H NMR of P2 in CDCl3

5

Scheme 1. Synthesis of MIMA monomer

2

5

6

7

Figure 7. 1H NMR of NP1 in CDCl3 Sample

P1

NP1

8

9

We developed a way to form SCNPs using simple thermal DA chemistry. Our synthetic design was easy and tunable throughout multiple approaches, such as RAFT and copper-mediated CRP. SCNPs utilize chemistry in a way to intramolecularly cross-link polymer chains, however, many approaches are not as easily modified. A one-pot internal folding to form SCNP was achieved using the random terpolymer of MMA, FMA, and MIMA and heating under dilute conditions.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Prof. Erik Berda and Ashley Hanlon for their help and enormous amount of support. I would also like to thank the UNH Department of Chemistry for their funding and the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for their support through the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

References

8

Scheme 2. Polymer synthesis via copper mediated-CRP

Scheme 3. Formation of SCNP

The work done after my experiments was to determine the reversibility of the internal cross-links using retro-DA chemistry. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the strength of these DA adducts as crosslinkers, as this reaction is known in many cases to be reversible. Although, it has been reported that some elastomers incorporated with DA linkages show the formation of nonreversible DA adducts. With this system, it was verified that the DA adduct cross-links were essentially nonreversible5.

diene

dienophile

Figure 8. Diels-Alder reaction mechanism between furan and maleimide pendant functional groups

P2

NP2

Mn [kDa] 15.8 12.3

Mw [kDa]

PDI

%FMA %MIMA

21.5

1.36

16.3

13.4

15.5

1.26

-

-

13.6

1.33

11.4

6.9

13.5

1.18

-

-

13.5

9.4

12.5

8.7

10.3

22.2

Peak Retention Time (min)

Figure 9. Mn, Mw, PDA, monomer conversions, and peak retention times2

(1) Hanlon, A.M.; Martin, I.; Bright, E. R.; Chouinard, J.; Rodriguez, K. J.; Pantenotte, G. E.; Berda, E. B. Polym. Chem., 2017, Advance Article. (2) Zhang, Z.; Wang, W.; Xia, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhu, X. Macromolecules 2009, 42 (19), 7360-7366. (3) Nguyen, N. H.; Levere, M. E.; Percec, V. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 2012, 50, 860-873. (4) Konkolewicz, D.; Wang, Y.; Krys, P.; Zhong, M.; Isse, A. A.; Gennaro, A.; Matyjaszewski, K. Polymer Chemistry 2014, 5, 4396-4417. (5) Pramanik, N. B.; Nando, G. B.; Singha, N. K. Polymer 2015.

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis and Charactarization of Porphyrin containing Nanoparticles to Model Heme Proteins AUTHOR: Graham Beaton ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

Heme proteins serve many vital functions in biological systems, including oxygen delivery, electron transport and redox catalysis. Their function depends largely on the reactivity of the iron metal center, which is influenced by interactions of the secondary coordination sphere. A porphyrin cored nanoparticle was synthesized to model heme cofactor iron coordination and the effects of the Heme’s secondary coordination sphere on the iron center’s reactivity were explored. Several methacrylic monomers were synthesized and subjected to RAFT polymerization with porphyrin cored CTA to create a functionalized porphyrin cored polymer. An Iron insertion incorporated the metal center into the porphyrin cored polymer and upon photodimerization with 350 nm light, it was collapsed into a nanoparticle where functionalized chains allowed for a hydrophobic environment around the metal center, modeling that of a native Heme protein.

Honorable Mention Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Concrete Cold Weather Design AUTHOR: Lei Zhang ADVISOR: Charles Goodspeed

Our purpose of the project is to design an accelerated bridge for NH. Because of the cold condition of NH in winter. Because we are trying to design an accelerated bridge, the bridge should be made in pieces previously. When building the bridge, the only thing needs to do is to put those pieces together by joints in order to reduce the construction time. As a result, concrete formula and joints are the most important parts of the project. one of the most important parts of our project to find the best product to enhance concert properties in order to ensure the concrete can work well in cold condition. We are trying to test each one product, such as plastic fiber, many times with different amount of water, accelerator and water reducer. Tests include Compression test, tensile test, flexural test, and Creep test. Once we choose the best product and the best formula of concrete, we will start to design joints of the bridge. As we design joints, we will make full-size joint samples to test by different tests and choose the best one for the bridge.

The Synergy Project AUTHORS: Monica Decicco Shaun McKenna Justin O’Blenes Lindsey Rago Brendan Slight

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.

.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

ADVISOR: Robert Henry

The broad goal of the cargo mall project was to design a 3-story shopping center with the heart of its design rooted in sustainability. The idea of creating a mall out of cargo ship containers was inspired by a similar mall in existence in Africa. Cargo ship containers are in massive surplus throughout the world, and after further study, they also double as a perfectly feasible and structurally adequate component to be used in infrastructure. Another major goal was to minimize the variation of materials used in the process of constructing the frame of the structure. This structure will lead the switch to sustainable infrastructure in the Northeast. On more specific terms, the project was pursued in the Pease area of New Hampshire in order to do the following: • Provide a unique experience that will draw tourists into New Hampshire • Provide small businesses a new location where their business will certainly strive • To design and build an exclusive structure unlike any in the area • To promote sustainability and lean construction techniques • Provide a quality location for events such as festivals & food tours • To add dynamic to the existing Pease area in Portsmouth • To draw the dense tourist population out of downtown Portsmouth and spread it to other areas


Six Flags Interactive Water Feature AUTHORS: Christopher Chiaramonte Jacob Davis Bryan Dube Michael Dunkley Liam Houghton Gerson Lai Minhtam Nguyen ADVISORS: Erin Bell Christopher White

The main focus of our project was to design an interactive water element for the Six Flags New England water park. Our team wanted to create something that would immediately grab the attention of children when they walked into the park. We concentrated on making something that is cost effective, sustainable, safe for everyone, and incorporated the elements of STEM education. We combined our civil and mechanical engineering backgrounds to create a practical design. Incorporating STEM education into the design was the most challenging part. Our team thought of using a wheel, a series of gears, and a rotating head to allow children to see how a energy can easily be transferred through the system. The design consists of a vertical stainless steel pipe with pressurized water. Attached to it is the wheel, gears, and a rotating head that expels the inflow of water. The gears will have a transparent cover so the rotating gears can be seen, but without fear of anyone getting hurt by touching them. Above the rotating head is a steel support that holds up a large wave. The wave was put around the feature for two reasons. One was to provide shade from the sun, per the request of our contact at Six Flags. The other was to incorporate another element to grab attention.

Atlanta Botanical Garden Walkway Collapse Forensic Analysis

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

AUTHORS: Katherine Bemis Zachary Jarosz Adam Murphy Taylor St. Peter Gregory Stragnell ADVISORS: Zachary Chabot Raymond Cook

On December 19, 2008 in the Atlanta Botanical Garden an elevated walkway collapsed during construction. With guidance from Simpson, Gumpertz, and Heger (SGH) a forensic analysis of the elevated walkway was performed to determine the probable cause of collapse and identify the responsible party. The investigation began with processing documents that included pre and post failure photographs in addition to construction drawings. The collapse sequence was analyzed to identify locations of interest and narrow the forensic analysis. Shear failure between the steel connections, buckling of the shoring towers, as well as vertical and lateral capacity of the scaffolding foundations were analyzed using structural analysis software.

Winning Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Nelson Reconstruction Project AUTHORS: Demetri Decoulos Benjamin Kapnis Nicholas Kondek Joshua White

The Nelson Street Reconstruction Project, Nelson Street Reconstruction Project located in Dover, New Hampshire, is being undertaken due to old road and pipe conditions that date back to the 1800’s, which are in need up an upgrade. The scope of the Nelson Reconstruction Project are street, pavement, green infrastructure and drainage design. Street design is implemented to ensure that the public has a convenient, safe and accessible mode for transportation users. For the complete repaving of Nelson Street, asphalt concrete was determined the best fit for the surface layer. This is because asphalt concrete is less likely to experience any structural damage due to temperature fluctuation than Portland cement concrete. The drainage design includes the addition of catch basins which will decrease the amount of water runoff down the street. The proposed bio-swale will also decrease the flow and will incorporate an aspect of green infrastructure to the street. University of New Hampshire Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Bill Boulanger, City of Dover, NH Gretchen Young, City of Dover, NH

The scope of the project will include a complete street, drainage design, green infrastructure, and erosion control. A complete street is designed to provide a means of transportation for all users including pedestrians of all ages and abilities, bicyclists, and motorists. With the addition of catch basins and a bio-swale, the street will be able to handle future flows while maintaining its historic integrity. Maintaining the historic look of the street and the existing trees is an important part to the project as well as to the residents of Nelson Street.

Proposed Layout of Nelson Street:

Alternative Designs:

Two way traffic – No parking One way traffic - No Parking One way traffic Parking

Client: Bill Boulanger & Gretchen Young, City of Dover Faculty Advisor: Jo Sias Daniel, UNH

Scope:

Nelson Street is a historic residential street located in Dover, NH. Infrastructure on the street dates back to the late 1800’s and is in need of repair. The existing storm water drains and water lines are not adequate enough to handle future flows. Multiple water lines were unable to be located which raises major concerns. A complete reconstruction of street is critical to ensure safety for the residents and to improve the overall performance for the future.

Complete Street

ADVISOR: Jo Daniel

Nicholas Kondek, Demetri Decoulos Joshua White, Benjamin Kapnis

Background:

Drainage/Green Infrastructure Tree filters

Erosion Control

Increase catch basins Bioswale

Street sweeper

Silt socks

Gravel on site entrance

Porous Asphalt

Legend

Granite Curb Sidewalk Bioswale Catch Basin Right-of-Way

The alternative designs were chosen using decision matrices. To ensure safety and to maintain an even flow of traffic, a one-way street is recommended with no parking. Due to space constraints, a bio-swale was chosen over tree filters along with the addition of 10 catch basins. Silt socks will be used to catch sediment from entering residents lawns and gravel will be placed at the entrance of the site to minimize the dust in the air.

Pavement Cross Section:

• Designed using the AASHTO Method • AASHTO minimum layer thickness values were applied to each layer • NHDOT typical values were used for the roads serviceability • Base and subgrade layers provide drainage within the structure

Nelson Street Bioswale:

http://www.designsponge.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/jb05.03_stormdrain01.JPG

• Gently sloped vegetation surface • Reduces storm water runoff volume, velocity, and pollutants • Consists of native plants • Aesthetically pleasing • Less costly than normal storm water management systems • Easily maintained

Albacore Visitor Center Expansion Senior Project AUTHORS: Emily Frazzoni Ryan Murphy Aaron Wolfson-Slepian

The Portsmouth Submarine Memorial Albacore Park Visitor Center Expansion Association (PSMA) is the owner of Portsmouth Submarine Memorial Association Albacore Park in Portsmouth, NH, where the historic submarine ex-USS ALBACORE Introduction Final Design Design Criteria is on display in a dry basin. The Park also includes a memorial garden and a building housing the museum and visitor center. PSMA’s mission, is to increase the public’s appreciation of the naval and maritime heritage of the Piscataqua River History region of Portsmouth and southeastern Projected Project Cost Maine. The PSMA was interested in expanding Final Remarks the Museum and Visitor Center as well as adding auxiliary storage at the Albacore References Park in Portsmouth, NH. The basic need was to gain more space for the display of artifacts and exhibits to help carry out the PSMA’s mission and to add area for the maintenance and administration of the facilities. The immediate need was to obtain a conceptual design of an expansion and an estimate of costs which could be used to determine whether the PSMA has the capacity to complete such a project. Our team investigated the details of this expansion, developed three alternative designs and cost estimates associated with this expansion. Emily Frazzoni, Ryan Murphy, Aaron Wolfson-Slepian Faculty Advisor: Tony Puntin Industry Advisor: Gerry Sedor and Phil Munck Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

The Albacore Submarine Park is owned by the Portsmouth Submarine Memorial Association (PSMA). The Park currently includes the ex-USS ALBACORE on display in a

dry basin as well as a memorial garden, a museum and a visitor’s center. The museum and park are used to increase the public awareness of the naval and maritime heritage in

the Southeastern Maine and Portsmouth area. The submarine was floated to the existing location in 1985 and in 1989 it was designated a National Historic Landmark. The USS-

ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin

1,100 square foot addition to the existing building 800 square foot auxiliary storage building Relocation of the propeller field

Storage of merchandise- 120 sq.ft. +/-

ALBACORE was instrumental in the design of the hull, the systems layout and the overall

Reuse the existing structure to minimize costs

submarine engineering and tactics.

Not encroach on or overpower the appearance of the submarine and the

The PSMA is in need of a new museum and visitor’s center. There is a need for more

Memorial Garden.

museum space for the newly acquired artifacts and new exhibits, as well as more

Meeting room large enough for 20 - 25 persons

administration and meeting spaces. The PSMA asked our team for a conceptual design

Workshop for a typical 6' workbench and storage space for small repair supplies

and cost estimate for this additional square footage.

The final design consists of three major aspects

obvious to exiting visitors.

Museum Multipurpose Conference Room Office

Existing Conditions 443 ft2

Storage and Workshop Gift Shop

Proposed Conditions 1100 ft2

-

443 ft2

62 ft2 130 ft2 and off site storage 500 ft2

800 ft2

132 ft2 500 ft2

Proposed Expansion

The USS ALBACORE was built at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and served with the United States Navy from 1953 to 1972. The ALBACORE never went to war and never

fired a missile. The motto of the submarine was Praenuntius Futuri (Forerunner of the Future), ALBACORE was an experimental vessel. It’s innovative teardrop hull design

made her the world’s fastest submarine at the time, becoming a model for the next generation of submarines. With all the innovative research done, ALBACORE was the first of its class.

In 1984 the USS ALBACORE was towed from Philadelphia to the Portsmouth Naval

shipyard. In 1985 the submarine was floated to the current site. This was done by

dismantling a railroad bridge and a dual roadway. A system of locks were used to float the submarine into the permanent basin. The park was officially opened to the public on August 30th, 1986.

Item

Cost

Core and Shell Cost

$ 118,000

Interior Finishes and Systems

$ 16,000

Site Work Cost

$ 3,000

Subtotal

$ 137,000

Design/Permitting (20% subtotal)

$ 27,400

Contingency (10% subtotal)

$ 13,700

Total Project Cost:

$ 178,100

Project Challenges

What’s Next for PSMA?

Understanding and

Permitting

interpreting client needs

Developing funding

Working with available

Putting the project out to bid

space to meet client needs

Thank you to the Portsmouth Submarine Memorial Association, Gerry Sedor and Phil Munck. Thank you Tony Puntin. Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved December 12, 2016, from http://maps.google.com/ Munck, P. (2016, October 10). Request for Proposal [Letter to Albacore Museum Expansion Project team]. Rs Means Engineering Staff. (n.d.). RS Means Building Construction Costs 2016 (37th ed.) (M. Phelan, Ed.). RS Means; 37th edition. Visitor Center and Museum. (n.d.). Retrieved December 12, 2016, from http://ussalbacore.org/html/visitor_center.html

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Phil Munck Gerry Sedor

Exhibit space- Two or three times the present 450 sq.ft.

Retail sales space- same size as the present store (500 sq.ft. +/-) located to be

Storage and filing of records and artifacts- 400 sq.ft. +/-


Tunnel Under Gulf Road Senior Project AUTHORS: Ken Chow Connor Golden Nolan Jacques Matthew Kiritsy Sean Philbrick Troy Reinold ADVISOR: Jean Benoit Eshan Dave

Honorable Mention Project

2017

The Cochecho Country Club is a private golf facility in Dover, NH. The first nine holes of the course are situated on the south side of Gulf Road while the back nine holes are located on the north side. Gulf Road is a two-lane state road that bears up to 560 vehicles per hour averaging 41 mph. As of now, golfers with and without carts are at risk when crossing. There is a blind spot to the east that allows approximately 330 feet of sight distance; however, if a vehicle is traveling at 45 mph the stopping distance becomes greater than the line of sight, therefore making this crossing unsafe. As a result, the main objective of this project is to provide a safe and economically viable alternative for golfers to cross the road. The optimal solution for this scenario is an aluminum tunnel provided by Contech Engineered Solutions. The recommended structure will span about 27 feet under Gulf Road, will offer 8 feet of clear height, and will be roughly 16 feet wide at the base. The tunnel superstructure will cost $30,000 and the total project budget will be nearly $200,000. The physical construction will last four weeks and Gulf Road will be under construction for two weeks. Overall, an aluminum tunnel balances cost, feasibility, and safety the best compared to all other options reviewed.

Automated Concrete Bridge Curb Cracking Survey AUTHORS: Oluwafemi Ekundayo Andrew Martin Duncan McGeehan

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

ADVISORS: Raymond Cook Eshan Dave

This project was brought forth by the Automated Concrete Bridge Curb Cracking Survey NHDOT to address early-age cracking in concrete bridge curbs. Cracking has occurred on concrete bridge curbs as early as five days after they are poured which presents a durability and safety concern for the curb. The goal of this project was to develop a system that would be used to document the visible cracking on the curb quickly and accurately through digital imaging. The initial design for the structure was a cart system that would ride on the curb and over the guardrail. The final structure consists of a fixed horizontal distance and telescoping vertical elements to adjust the height as needed. Using a cantilever arm, allowing up to four cameras to be mounted on the system at any one time, all necessary angles of the curb can be captured at once while the cart rides against the curb. To ensure the cart travels at a set distance from the curb, an adjustable guide system was developed using caster wheels. The final step in this project is processing the images to measure the cracking present. This will be done with image processing software, and upon completion, the system will be used to gather data regarding the visible cracking, which will be used to help discover the root of the early-age cracking. Duncan McGeehan | Andrew Martin | Oluwafemi Ekundayo University of New Hampshire – Civil Engineering – Dry Infrastructure

INTRODUCTION

DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

PROTOTYPE TESTING

This project was brought forth by an unusual problem arising on bridge curbs across New Hampshire. The problem that has started happening in the last few years is early-age cracking in concrete bridge curbs. This essentially means that the bridge curb is showing signs of cracking, similar to the cracking shown in Figure 1, relatively soon after construction, sometimes just days after pouring. This is a major problem for the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) since cracking in bridge curbs leads to more rapid degradation of the structure. The main reason that the structure deteriorates at a more rapid pace is due to the cracks allowing water and other harmful materials, such as deicing salt, into the concrete structure which then has the potential to rust the steel reinforcement. This project is the beginning of a larger, more in-depth project that the NHDOT plans to conduct in the near future. The main goal of this project is to develop a visual crack surveying system that can be implemented on most bridge curb configurations. This system is a key component of the long-term goals of the larger project, as it will be the primary method for data collection regarding the cracking. This data will be used to monitor bridge curb cracking over time and help to hypothesize what could be causing the cracking.

Initial designs for the cart all had the basic idea of a cart that would be pushed along the side of the curb with a cantilever arm extending out between the curb and the guardrail. The main issue with this design was that when the cart came to a guardrail post the cantilever would not be able to move past the post. To overcome this problem the next design for the cart had the structure in the shape of a lowercase “n” that rides and over the guardrail, with the wheels on top of the curb. It was decided that the project should proceed into the construction phase using this as our design. The first frame is shown below in Figure 2, and uses steel bolt together framing for rigidity, quick construction and adaptability to most curb and guardrail configurations.

Prototype testing was an essential part of the design process for this project. Since there were no calculations to be done, everything was designed with functionality in mind. This led to a significant amount of assumptions that would need to be checked through testing, both in the field and in ideal lab conditions.

Lab Testing One of the first things that was done once the structure had been completed and the wheels were attached, was to build a replica of a bridge curb to test different system designs. This curb was built to replicate the most common bridge curb in terms of geometry and dimensions, additionally, a small section of guardrail was acquired to replicate the obstruction it causes for the cart. After the structure of the cart was finalized, the replica-curb was used to test cantilever arm/camera configurations to find the best viewing angles while still avoiding the obstructions of the curb and guardrail.

Field Testing The field testing of the cart system was done on Rt. 101 over Brown’s River in Hampton, NH. This bridge was an ideal candidate because at the time of the initial field testing, one side of the bridge curb had been constructed and showed signs of early-age cracking. One of the goals of this field testing was to develop a procedure for how to transport, assemble, use, and disassemble the cart system. In addition to this, the field testing allowed for the cart system to be tested on an actual curb, with real world conditions. The field testing showed that there are fine adjustments that still need to be made, but it also proved that the cart does make the bridge curb crack survey process faster.

Figure 4 – Outside side of curb

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Andrew Hall, NHDOT Elizabeth Klemann, NHDOT

Figure 5 – Outside top of curb

Figure 6 – Inside top of curb

Figure 7 – Inside side of curb

FINAL DESIGN

Figure 2 – Initial design – Telescoping Steel Bolt-together framing

Figure 1 – Early-age cracking along bolt line – Hampton Bridge along rt. 101 – 5 days after pouring concrete curb

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Figure 3 – Field testing cart on Rt. 101 over Brown’s River

Crack Imaging The figures, 4-7, shown to the right are examples of the images taken using the cart system. At this point in the project, the image processing is the final step to completing the system. The image processing includes fisheye correction and picture stitching.

Initially the cart was adjustable both horizontally and vertically to adjust the cart to fit on most curbs. However, after preliminary testing it was found that the adjustable telescoping horizontal bars allowed the frame to sway horizontally. The telescoping bars were replaced with fixed length bars that made the cart 18” wide so it could safely fit on a curb that is 20” wide which is a very common bridge curb width in New Hampshire. Before the first field test, concerns were raised about having the cart ride on the curb because the outer set of wheels would be just inches from the edge of the bridge and if those wheels were to come off the curb the cart could fall off the curb, creating a hazard. After the first field test it was determined that these concerns were warranted. The cart was adapted so that it would no longer ride on the curb but alongside it with a cantilever that extends over the curb and guardrail. The frame of the cart was able to stay as is, which made the transition to the cantilever arm system smooth.

• Rigid steel frame on caster wheels • Fast assembly/disassembly with only a few bolts • Guide wheels • Allows cart to travel a consistent distance from the curb for the entire length of the curb • Adjustable horizontally to move the cart closer or farther from the curb as needed • Adjustable vertically so they work on different curb heights • Telescoping vertical columns • Adjustable height so the cantilever can clear most guardrails • Cantilever arm • Allows for the attachment of multiple cameras to get pictures of all necessary angles • Camera configuration • 3 cameras mounted on the cantilever, one mounted on the cart frame • Cameras positioned to get top views on both sides of the guardrail and the inside and outside edges of the curb • Image Processing • Fisheye removal • Photo stitching

Project Advisors

Faculty: Dr. Eshan Dave | Dr. Raymond Cook NHDOT: Andrew Hall | Elizabeth Klemann

Figure 8 – Final Cart System Design


Embankment of Soft Clay Design AUTHORS: Evan Appleton Sabrina Ayrton Jane Leven Serena Pape

The Spaulding Turnpike expansion in the Embankments on Soft Clay Newington-Dover area was proposed to increase the capacity of the turnpike. This includes the reconfiguration and rerouting of exits 6N and 6W, in which UNH was tasked with evaluating. Numerous studies were performed on the soil in this area in order to examine the properties affecting the strength. The predominance of soft marine clay in this area indicated the potential of significant settlement under the weight of the new construction. A test embankment was built between the southbound on-ramp (exit 6) and the Spaulding Turnpike to better understand the behavior of the soil in the area. The amount of settlement produced from this embankment made it clear that further methods were needed to expedite the process of the removal of excess pore water pressure from the clay. Wick drains as well as a surcharge were added to facilitate this process. The current project is focused on the effects of an embankment design for the exit 6N off ramp, through analyzing and correlating the existing data from the test embankment. It is the intent of the New Hampshire Department of Transportation and UNH to create a cost effective and timely design for this section of reconstruction using the data provided. Introduction

• 2013 the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) began the widening and reconstruction of the Spaulding Turnpike. • Project includes building a large embankment at the Exit 6N off-ramp. • NHDOT built a test embankment due to the prevalence of soft marine clay in the area. • The predicted settlements of the test embankment were compared to the recorded settlements. • The differences between the predicted and actual settlements were interpreted and applied to the predictions of the total settlement and time rate of consolidation at the Exit 6N site. • The prediction charts developed in this project will be used by NHDOT in future construction.

Serena Pape, Evan Appleton, Sabrina Ayrton, Jane Leven Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jean Benoit Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Industry Advisor: Noah Chinburg, New Hampshire DOT

Analysis of Proposed Embankment • •

Results

The embankment at Exit 6N included stations 300 through 312 (1200’). Station 311 is used as an example. Stage 3 – 3 ft Stage 2 – 5 ft Stage 1 – 11 ft

Clay Consolidation Overview

Placing a load on compressible clay causes water in the soil to be “squeezed out”, which reduces the volume. The vertical displacement this causes is referred to as consolidation or settlement. There are two ways to accelerate this process:

Upper Marine Clay

Lower Marine Clay Glacial Till

STA 311 Fence Diagram

• Prefabricated vertical drains give water a shorter drainage path, dramatically cutting down on the time it takes to reach full consolidation.

ADVISOR: Jean Benoit INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Noah Chinburg, NHDOT

A commercially available software, Settle3D, was used to predict the total consolidation and time-rate of consolidation of the embankment at Exit 6N. The difference that was found between predicted and measured settlement using the test embankment was applied to the Exit 6N embankment.

STA 311 Settle 3D Model

• Staged embankment construction reduces the risk of soil failure due to rapid settlement. Along with the local effects of rapid settlement, it is used to prevent potential damage to nearby roadways and structures.

Soil Stratigraphy at Test Embankment The figure to the left shows the variability of the soil below the test embankment.

Prefabricated Vertical (PV) Drain

PV Drain in Place

Predicted Consolidation Settlement (in)

Corrected Settlement (in)

300

6

31

2.9

4.9

301

7

42.5

3.2

302

9

42.5

3.5

303

8

33.5

3.0

304

9

33.5

5.2

305

8

36.8

3.7

306

10

37.5

5.9

7.9

307

14

35.3

8.6

10.6

308

15.5

28.5

10.9

12.9

Station

Test Embankment Data Section

Installation of PV Drains

Group of Pre-drilled PV Drain Holes

Stations

PV Spacing (ft)

Fill Height (ft)

Clay Thickness (ft)

Predicted Actual Total Total Settlement Settlement (in) (in)

Difference (in)

1

602-604

6

12

59

19.9

23.1

3.2

2

604-606

10

12

53

19.6

23.6

4.0

3

606-608

10

12

60

19.9

22.2

2.3

4

608-610

10

18

63

28

26.0

-2.0

5

610-612

14

12

59

19.9

21.4

1.5

Embankment Clay Height (ft) Thickness (ft)

5.2

5.5

5.0

7.2

5.7

309

18.5

23.5

12.7

14.7

310

19

21.6

12.4

14.4

311

22

17.3

21.2

23.2

312

18

8.8

13.3

15.3

Conclusions

Without Drains

With Vertical Drains

References

Soil properties and embankment dimensions come from Amy Getchell (2013), Americo Santamaria (2015), and Adam Coen (2016).

The adjusted values for the consolidation settlement and time rate of consolidation will provide NHDOT more accurate settlement predictions for future construction in the area. Design Charts were created for each station along the embankment at Exit 6N. In conclusion, the test embankment data showed that the predictions were slightly lower than the actual settlement data. This increase in settlement was an average of 2 inches per station. Settle 3D also provided time rate of consolidation values for 90% consolidation of the clay layer. STA 311 resulted in the highest amount of predicted settlement, of 2.46 ft in 20 years. To reach 90% consolidation, it would take this section of the Exit 6N embankment approximately 10.8 years at the crest. STA 300 resulted in the lowest amount of predicted settlement, of 1.06 ft in 20 years. To reach 90% consolidation, it would take this section approximately 2.75 years at the crest.

Cargo Container Concept Mall: Blue Sky Mall in Portsmouth, NH AUTHORS: Jason Connaughton Kimberly Hamel Andrew Kahr Benjamin McCarthy Dzijeme Ntumi

Cargo Container Concept Mall: Blue Sky Mall in Portsmouth, NH Dzijeme Ntumi │ Kimberly Hamel │Andrew Kahr │ Benjamin McCarthy │ Jason Connaughton │ Faculty Advisor: Dr. Robert Henry University of New Hampshire – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Introduction

Figures 1 and 2: Map location of proposed mall building site in Portsmouth, NH

The purpose of this project is to design a shopping mall concept for the Portsmouth, New Hampshire area. The project is purely educational; it is not a project being considered for actual implementation. The ultimate goal is to create an enclosed mall out of used cargo shipping containers that is fully functional and sustainable. This project includes details such as architectural design, structural analysis, environmental considerations, and foundation designs. The proposed location is a 19.52 acre lot on Lafayette Road and White Cedar Boulevard. The lot is divided into two separate plots of land; a 12.10 acre section, and a 7.42 acre section. The mall will be constructed on the 12.10 acre section.

Scope of Work • • • • • • • • • • • •

Location Decision and Site Inspection Soil Analysis and Boring Logs Transportation Analysis Mall Layout and Design Materials 3D Model Structural Analysis Heating and Insulation Parking Lot Layout Stormwater Management Waste Management and Loading Docks Cost Analysis

Mall Design (2D and 3D)

Costing

Figures 3 and 4: Mall 3D BIM Model side view, including external and internal components such as glass roofs and elevator structures.

*All Costs have been rounded up to the nearest thousand dollar to account for any possible extra costs that could come up during implementation

Figure 5: Forces and loads experienced by the cargo container structure.

Key Concepts • Creating a mall out of used cargo containers creates a unique design and an innovative method of recycling used containers. • Blue Sky Mall is approximately 65,000 ft2. • Typical mall structures cost an average of $442 /ft2, including costs of construction, materials, internal wiring and plumbing, etc. • A typical mall of this size would cost roughly $29 Million. • Due to the use of recycled materials in this project, this cargo container mall would cost about half of the cost of a typical, similarly sized mall.

Figure 6: AutoCAD drawing of mall structure from above, sidewalks and landscaping parking lot layout, access roads locations, waste management and loading dock locations, and stormwater management systems.

• Repairs to containers would be much more cost effective since containers can be easily removed and replaced.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

ADVISOR: Robert Henry

The purpose of this project is to design a cargo container mall in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The project is purely educational, it is not an existing project. The ultimate goal is to create a mall out of used cargo containers that could be fully functional and sustainable. This project includes details such as architectural design, structural analysis, environmental considerations, and foundation designs. This project allowed the group to go beyond typical building analysis, look into architectural design and aesthetics, as well as implement concepts taught in class in a practical manner.


Indian River Suspension Bridge AUTHORS: Thomas Holter-Sorensen Matthew McGinnis Johan Pellumbi Rachael Simms Michael Vittiglio ADVISOR: Raymond Cook

This project details the full design Indian River Suspension Bridge and construction methods for two suspension bridges located in the Site Layout Design Criteria Background & Scope Riverbend Conservation Area (RCA), in West Newbury, Massachusetts. The RCA Construction Methods Foundation is 68 acres of forested wetlands, old farmland, and freshwater tidal marshes Structural located along the banks of the Merrimack River. Since purchased, the RCA has been constructing trails throughout the landscape to increase public access and appreciation of the unique ecosystem. The current trail system has a circular shape with the Indian River, Cost Analysis And Recommendations and corresponding wetlands, hindering conventional trails from passing through the middle of the property. Due to the sensitive landscape, two suspension bridges were chosen as the least invasive design to connect two existing trails. The bridge will allow for pedestrian and canine traverse above the protected wetlands. Matthew McGinnis, Mike Vittiglio, Rachael Simms, Thomas Holter-Sorenson, Johan Pellumbi Faculty Advisor: Dr. Raymond Cook

Location: West Newbury, MA Client: Riverbend Conservation Area (RCA) & Essex County Trail Association (ECTA) Objective: Design two bridges spanning the Indian River to aid pedestrian and canine recreational usage of trail network Constraints: The landscape contains unique and protected wetlands, creating physical and environmental opposition to trail construction in certain areas Proposed Design: Two Suspension bridges chosen as the least invasive option to connect the Indian River Trail (A) & Tupelo Trail (B)

1. Span Size of Bridges: 145 ft and 100 ft 2. Width Requirements: 3 ft total 3. Deck Design: 5 ft repeatable 4. Codes Referenced:  AISC Manual, 14th Edition  ACI 318-14  AWC – NDS 2015  IBC 2009  ASCE 7-10

Tupelo Trail

B

C

Indian River Trail

  

Create temporary construction trail to access central site (C) from Tupelo Trail Use Indian River Trail North-West of Page School to supply southern site (A), and the Tupelo Trail from the North-West to supply northern site (B) Powered wheelbarrows will transport concrete and water to site, volunteers will transport steel and cabling to site

 Anchor sized to have weight equal to vertical cable tension, and plowing resistance equal to horizontal cable tension  Lowest allowable foundation pressure and lateral bearing assumed

+

A

General Forces

 Heights of Towers calculated with 0.12 Aspect Ratio  Governing Load Case is D + L with Live Load = 80 psf  Pressure-Treated wood timbers used for deck frame with pinned connections every 5 ft to allow for replacement over time

3340

lbs

Total Cable Dead Load

1510

lbs

Max Live Load (80 psf)

Total Deck Dead Load

23,200

lbs

Load Per Column

23,200

Max Tension in Main Cable

29,500

lbs lbs

Horizontal Force on Anchor

26,900

Vertical Force on Anchor

12,000

lbs

Tension in Suspender Cable

760

lbs

lbs

Deck Plan View:

Indian River Bridge Project Costing

Project Costs

Bridge Component

 Overall cost of the project is under $40,000 excluding labor costs  This project assumes ample volunteer labor (no expense)  Cheaper option: can make construction trail permanent and solely construct 145 ft bridge for about 2/3 project cost  Structural components are most significant cost  Cable clips represent largest cost at $11,700, or 32% of overall cost

Decks (fiberglass)

145 ft Bridge $1,572

100 ft Bridge $1,048

Total Cost $2,620

Bridge Structures

$14,250

$11,000

$25,250

Foundation

$2,250

$2,250

$4,500

Logistics/Utilities

$2,600

$1,750

$4,350

Total

$20,700

$16,050

$36,750

Costs Per Bridge 4,350

69%

24%

7%

Decks (fiberglass) Foundation

12%

12%

14,300

18,100

Inherent Constructio n Costs 145 ft Bridge Total 100 ft Bridge Total

Bridge Structures Logistics/Utilities

The proposed suspension bridges focus on five aspects: a) main tower, cables, and connections, b) interlocking deck design, c) foundation design for towers and anchor blocks, d) excavation and erection plan for both locations, e) cost estimate for various materials. Once the design is complete, the plans will be offered to the Open Space Committee of West Newbury and the Essex Country Trail Association.

Cargo Container Mall - Dover, NH

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

AUTHORS: Daniel Dadmun Mitchell Dutton Anthony Moglia Varavut Suwanchinda Richard Zaharek ADVISOR: Robert Henry

The goal of this project is to design a shopping mall constructed of cargo containers for the city of Dover, New Hampshire. The purpose of this project is to provide a unique and friendly shopping center for people to enjoy. Cargo container malls are becoming more popular due to their unique and aesthetically pleasing modern look. These shopping centers are also environmentally friendly because they are constructed almost entirely of recycled material. Using cargo containers as a building material is an interesting concept that eliminates the carbon emissions produced when constructing new building materials. The savings of these emissions can make up for many years of operating emissions costs. Cargo containers can present challenges for the designer due to the harsh weather they will need to withstand in the northeast. This shopping center will be designed to meet necessary construction, structural, safety, and city regulations. Many people are often surprised by this concept and do not fully understand how a mall like this would work or operate. This project aims to inform others that unused storage containers can be utilized in creating an eco-friendly structure that functions just as well as other construction materials and methods.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


High-Strength, Light-weight Concrete in Residential Design AUTHOR: Paul Lovely

Concrete is an integral part of many High Strength, Light-Weight Concrete Wall Panels structures. Its physical properties allow for the relatively inexpensive construction of high performance structural members. Materials/Equipment Used Curing Cycle Introduction Concrete wall panels are an example of structural elements that are abundant in commercial buildings, and are also found Future Research in residential structures. They serve as an example of concrete’s practicality, Research Objectives demonstrating its structural and Testing Methods aesthetic capabilities. However, despite its versatility and high compressive Procedure strength, concrete is weak in tension and Works Cited tends to be a poor insulator. An efficient Acknowledgments concrete wall panel with improved tensile and insulating capabilities would be a cost-effective and sustainable alternative to existing wall panels. Using a concrete mix with steel fibers, steel reinforcement, and a unique cross sectional design, model concrete wall panels can be poured that sandwich insulation between exterior layers of concrete, improving both insulation and tensile capacity. The model panels will be cured in both hot and cold environments, and will be tested to withstand compressive forces, wind loads, and projectile impacts. Depending on its performance, the wall panel design could be further developed to become a sustainable building alternative for the future.

Printing:

Paul Lovely | Charles Goodspeed | University of New Hampshire

ADVISOR: Charles Goodspeed

Concrete is an integral part of various structures, ranging from small houses to large commercial buildings. Its high compressive strength makes it a great candidate for high-performance structural members, while its workability allows for the construction of structural elements varying in shape and size. However, despite its versatility, concrete is relatively weak in tension and tends to be a poor insulator. These weaknesses necessitate additional reinforcement and insulation to compensate for its limited tensile strength and insulating capacity, ultimately increasing the cost of residential and commercial construction projects. Concrete wall panels are a great example of an abundant building element, demonstrating concrete’s structural and aesthetic capabilities. A unique, efficient, and high-performance concrete wall panel design could retain concrete’s traditional benefits, while improving its tensile strength and insulating ability, creating a sustainable and cost-effective alternative to existing concrete wall panels.

• Ductal® Ultra-High Performance Concrete Mix

7 Day

14 Day

28 Day

• Concrete will generally reach roughly 65% of its compressive strength

• Concrete reaches roughly 90% of its compressive strength

• Concrete reaches 99% of its compressive strength, and continues to cure indefinitely

• 460 Volt Concrete Mixer • 2x4 Lumber & Plywood

• Foamular 2” Thick Rigid Foam Insulation • Climate Controlled Curing Laboratory • Concrete Compression Machine

• Determine how a high performance concrete mix affects the wall panel’s compressive and tensile strength

• Determine how steel fibers in the concrete affect the wall panel’s resistance to impacts and overall ductility

• Determine the effect of both hot and cold climates on the curing process of the wall panels

Step 1

Construct Form & Pour Concrete Wall Panel

Step 2

Allow 14 Days to Cure in both Hot and Cold Environments

Step 3

Conduct Wind Load Impact Test to Evaluate Resistance to Projectiles

Step 4

Conduct. Tensile & Compressive Tests for Structural Evaluation

• Wind Load Impact Test- This test is conducted to determine the wall panel’s ability to resist impacts due to airborne projectiles. A standard 2x4 will be launched perpendicularly to the wall panel, and its performance will be assessed based on cracking, and overall failure. • Compression Test- This test is conducted to determine many properties of the concrete including its yielding point, ultimate compressive strength, and its rupture strength. Concrete cylinders will be loaded axially in a compression machine until rupture, and its stress vs. strain during loading will reveal its compressive strength.

• Splitting Tensile Test- This test is conducted to evaluate the concrete’s tensile strength. Concrete cylinders will be loaded horizontally, resulting in a uniform tensile stress. The cylinder will be loaded until rupture, and the tensile stress can be calculated as a function of compressive load, length of cylinder, and diameter.

• In the future, the wall panel design can be further researched and developed to include detailed joint connections for efficient, largescale assembly. • A full-scale cost analysis of the wall panel’s production can be conducted to evaluate its profit potential.

Limbrunner, George F., and Abi O. Aghayere. Reinforced Concrete Design. Boston: Pearson, 2014. Print.

Russell C. Hibbeler (Author). "Statics and Mechanics of Materials (5th Edition) 5th Edition."Statics and Mechanics of Materials (5th Edition): Russell C. Hibbeler: 9780134382593: Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.

Tensile Test on Concrete. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Apr. 2017.

• Professor Charles Goodspeed • Dr. Samuel Pazicni

• Dr. Margaret Greenslade • Andrew Kahr

Parking Lot Resurrection - ContiTech Thermopol AUTHORS: Tyler Gagnon Anthony LoPresti Ryan Malcolm Wyatt Wolverton ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVILENGINEERING-DRYINFRASTRUCTURE

ContiTech Thermopol LLC is a manufacturing company located in Somersworth, NH. The current Facilities Manager, Dan Stansfield, reached out to the University to have a group of students research and develop plans for a parking lot that is desperately in need of renovation to help encourage the company to follow through with some sort of project in the near future. The existing parking lot was originally constructed in the late 1950’s with no drainage or lighting system in place. The parking lot has many infrastructure issues such as pot holes, alligator cracking, settling, flooding, and has not been painted in recent years. The group’s goal was to develop multiple alternatives that include site layouts, drainage/grading plans, and increased overall aesthetics for the parking lot while meeting New Hampshire standards and regulations. The group researched possible low-impact development options, such as rain gardens, and different pavement crosssections, like permeable asphalt, to see if these environment friendly options would be reasonable for the parking lot. Lastly, the group was able to develop rough costing and scheduling estimates for each of the alternatives which will be able to assist the company if it decides to go forth with a project in the near future.


AUTHORS: Ashley Filion Eric Petersson Jia Xian Siew

Transportation is a key component Applying Sustainable Infrastructure Ra5ng Systems to to sustainable development and it Transporta5on Planning and Design is important to understand the links between environmental, economic, and social responsibility in the way we move society. However, the social aspect of sustainability has been difficult to be addressed in current sustainability rating systems. Using UNH transportation as a familiar and well-researched testbed, the ENVISION, LEED ND, and INVEST rating systems were applied to better understand the important considerations in transit sustainability. Each rating system was originally tailored to a different type of project and came with unique approaches to challenges such as stormwater management, material recycling, and energy reduction. However no single, widely used system is applied to most transportation projects and some important criteria such as wetland protection, parking footprint, and noise management were not included in every system. Additionally, regulation overlap and scoring discrepancies can allow for projects to score significant points without making a positive impact. The goal of this project is to identify optimum assessment methodology, criteria, and application practices for each system in order to make recommendations for the best practices in sustainable transportation development. Contacts:

Ashley Filion – aml673@wildcats.unh.edu Eric Petersson – ewo32@wildcats.unh.edu Jia Xian Siew – js2019@wildcats.unh.edu

Ashley Filion, Eric Petersson, Jia Xian Siew Faculty Advisors: Dr. Eshan Dave and Dr. Weiwei Mo

Mo-va-on & Introduc-on

Sustainability ra5ng systems are being used to promote be<er development prac5ces in a variety of fields. Transporta5on is key yet there is no clear standard for assessment. This project aims to iden5fy the best prac5ces for assessing transporta5on sustainability through comparison and applica5on of different systems.

ADVISORS: Eshan Dave Weiwei Mo

ENVISION Category Group Scores

100%

Air Pollutants Low Energy Input Materials Community Mobility During Project Culture, History, and Local Character Environmental Quality Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Impact Resiliency to Environmental Change Construc5on Noise

INVEST

Current Programs

Exis5ng models for sustainability assessment are studied in order to examine current prac5ces. Three popular systems were chosen: ENVISION – System developed by the Ins5tute for Sustainable Infrastructure among other groups with the intent of developing a model that can be applied to a range of infrastructure projects LEED ND – Neighborhood development component of the popular U.S. Green Building Council program with strength in livability around transporta5on. INVEST – Federal Highway Administra5on program focused on sustainable development of large scale regional or statewide transporta5on network.

Case Study Results

Comparison of Exis-ng Ra-ng System Categories

Transporta5on Noise Freight Mobility Management & Opera5ons Employee Engagement Intelligent Transporta5on Systems Safe Wildlife Ac5vity

Incorpora5on of Local Plant Life Travel Demand Management Compact Development

ENVISION

80% 60% 40%

Local By-Product Synergy Counter Produc5ve Regula5ons Resource Scarcity Planning Local Materials End-of-Life Planning

20% 0%

Infrastructure Integra5on Energy Consump5on Public Space Community Transporta5on Access Stakeholder Collabora5on S5mulate Community Growth Short Term Hazards Local Skilled Labor Prime Habitat Public Transporta5on Connec5on Hazardous Geology Landfill Waste Input Heat Islands Storm Water Pedestrian Accessibility Prime Farmland Water Quality Renewable Energy Greyfield & Brownfield Disturbed Soil Bicycle Infrastructure Si5ng Invasive Species Public Health Wetland Protec5on Recycled Materials Light Pollu5on Limit Water Use Limited Mobility Access

Quality of Life

Leadership

Resource Alloca5on

Natural World

Climate & Risk

LEED ND Category Group Scores

100%

80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Neighborhood Pa<ern & Design

Smart Loca5on & Linkage

Green Infrastructure & Buildings

INVEST Sample Category Scores

100%

80% 60% 40%

Reduced Parking Footprint

20% 0%

LEED ND

Benchmarks – Baselines to compare quan5ta5ve values in criteria require clear and consistent benchmarks that are well defined and applicable to the type of project. Points – Scoring points award should reflect importance and impact changes across different types of projects and local needs Regula-ons – Points should not be awarded for criteria that overlap with local regula5ons, scoring systems should incen5vize going above and beyond legal requirements. Responsibility – Owners, Project Leaders, Contractors, and Operators should all be held to the same applicable sustainability standards within clearly defined boundaries of responsibility Complexity – Sustainable prac5ces should be elaborate enough to address the complex challenges at hand, but should be within reach for the majority of professionals and community members in a project. UNH Transporta-on – Because the university follows the STARS ra5ng system they have iden5fied ways to become more sustainable.

Example of UNH Category Applica6on -ENVISION NW1.2 Protect Wetlands & Surface Water ENHANCED

SUPERIOR

CONSERVING

Electrical Energy Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Reduce, Reuse & Efficiency & Use & Use Recycle

Addi5onally, observa5ons encountered in research and case study applica5on indicated other types of considera5ons worthy of future development: Units – In addi5on to percentages or ra5os specified in criteria assessment, specific units must be specified to promote consistent assessment.

The University of New Hampshire is a small but complex network with many mixed modal transporta5on opera5ons. The University par5cipates in the Associa5on for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Educa5on (AASHE) STARS program. Based on exis5ng infrastructure, sustainability goals, and project requirements many criteria of each system could be assessed. The selec5on of a common piece of infrastructure ensured systems were compared consistently.

LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT IMPROVED

Internal Sustainability Plan

Conclusions

Case Study

RESTORATIVE

(1) Avoid development and establish at least a 50- (4) At least a 100-foot (9) At least a 200-foot (14) At least a 300-foot (18) Aquatic and wetland foot buffer. buffer. buffer. buffer. restoration. Avoid development on sites that contain or are Establish a VSPZ for an Establish a VSPZ for an Establish a VSPZ for an In addition to establishing located within 50 feet of wetlands, shorelines, or area within 100 feet of any area within 200 feet of any area within 300 feet of any a VSPZ with a 300-foot waterbodies. Additionally, if applicable, establish a wetland areas, shoreline, wetland areas, shoreline, wetland areas, shoreline, buffer, the project restores vegetation and soil protection zone (VSPZ) for an area or waterbody or within or waterbody or within or waterbody or within previously degraded buffer within 50 feet of any wetland areas, shoreline, or setback distances from setback distances from setback distances from zones to a natural state, waterbody or within setback distances from wetlands wetlands prescribed in wetlands prescribed in wetlands prescribed in making them elements of prescibed in state or local laws and/or regulations, state or local laws and/or state or local laws and/or state or local laws and/or the VSPZ. whichever is more stringent. Activities prohibited in regulations, whichever is regulations, whichever is regulations, whichever is (A, B, C) this buffer zone include construction of any structure more stringent. more stringent. more stringent. or road, native vegetation removal, and grading, (A, B) (A, B) (A, B) filling, dredging, or excavation. (A, B)

UNH Transportation Data IMPROVED

(1) Avoid development and establish at least a 50-foot buffer.

UNH Facilities utilizes a shore protection setback of 50 feet for site structures, 25 feet for fertilizer application, and that a natural woodland buffer be maintained within 150 feet.

Future Work

Research should con5nue to be done on the many other ra5ng systems and poten5al innova5ve categories that were outside the insight of these three systems. Addi5onally the recommenda5ons should be applied to exis5ng ra5ng systems to ensure that missing categories are addressed in a more holis5c approach. New transporta5on projects should begin to follow consistent standards for addressing sustainability for the economy, environment, and surrounding community.

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge insight, sugges5ons, and resources provided by UNH Transporta5on Policy Commi<ee, UNH Sustainability Ins5tute and UNH Facili5es throughout the research process.

GIS Data Source: UNH Campus Planning

Snare Performance for Submerged Oil Detection and Monitoring AUTHORS: Kirsten Bailey Joanna Lewis John Little Jesse Ross

The United States imports an average SNARE PERFORMANCE FOR SUBMERGED OIL of 168 million gallons of heavy crude DETECTION & MONITORING oil every day (EIA, 2016). At this rate of RESEARCH GOALS & OBJECTIVES RESEARCH NEEDS APPLICABILITY transportation, the question is not if the oil will spill, but when. Unlike common light oils, when heavy crude spills it does not float on the surface of the water, but RESEARCH RESULTS Adsorption rather recedes into the water column or down to the seafloor. When this happens, the oil is defined as submerged and KEY TERMS floating response techniques no longer FUTURE RESEARCH apply. In the case of the DBL-152 spill Desorption in 2005, 1.9 million gallons of heavy crude oil sank in the Gulf of Mexico Movement resulting in the coating of 45,000 acres of ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS seafloor. Only 5.1% of the oil was found and recovered (NOAA, 2013). A spill response is limited by the crew’s ability to locate the oil. Research is necessary to improve current detection protocols to allow for higher recovery percentages. \\The purpose of this research was to contribute to the understanding of snare, a commonly used oil adhering sorbent, as a detection tool. The experiments conducted gave insight to the optimization of snare for spill response under varying water velocities, temperatures, and salinities. This contributes to the understanding of how snare capability changes under varying conditions, and allows for the revision of recovery protocol for spill responders. Kirsten Bailey, Joanna Lewis, J. Wiley Little, Jesse Ross Faculty Adviser: Dr. Nancy Kinner

Oil Type • Snare is more effective for adsorption of No. 6 Fuel Oil than Bitumen • Bitumen’s physical properties make snare less applicable for oil detection Temperature • In cold waters snare captures more oil • In warm waters snare captures less • Snare drags in cold water have a higher chance of yielding false negative encounters Velocity • Snare does not encounter the bottom at tow velocities under 1.5 knots • The addition of weight to a chain is necessary to maintain bottom contact • Optimal snare spacing on a chain is a function of tow or current velocity

Characterize snare ability to capture & retain oil

Measure oil adsorption to snare (varying temperature,

Investigate oil desorption due to drag in water

salinity, oil type)

Characterize snare movement in water (varying velocity)

(varying temperature, velocity)

DBL-152 heavy crude oil spill (2005); 1.9 million gallons sank to seafloor, only 5% recovered (NOAA)

ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner

• •

Increased shipping of oil

Spilled oil can submerge if

No. 6 Fuel Oil

• Initial density is greater than water, or

Submerged oil is difficult to locate

Limited options for submerged oil detection and recovery

Oil Adsorbed vs. Temperature

• Temperature drives adsorption

• Mixes with sediments, increasing density

• As temperature increases, mass of oil adsorbed decreases

Bitumen

• Interaction of salinity and temperature drives adsorption

• Lower affinity to adsorb to snare

Bitumen at 20°C

• Percent desorbed increases as temperature decreases

An arsenal of snare towed for submerged oil detection

Snare: sorbent made of polypropylene material, deployed for detection and recovery of submerged oil • • • •

Commonly used Inexpensive Readily available Towed by local vessels

Frond: a single strand of snare

Bitumen: highly viscous heavy oil, formed as a residue from petroleum distillation

• Percent desorbed decreases as velocity increases

refining crude oil

% Oil Desorbed vs. Velocity

70 60 50 40 30 20

0 knots

2.0 knots

3.5 knots

38°C

10

0

No. 6 Fuel Oil erosion at 1 knot (looking upstream under water)

No. 6 Fuel Oil: heavy fuel oil, formed from

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Influence of temperature on the adsorption of No. 6 Fuel Oil to snare

No. 6 Fuel Oil

% Oil Desorbed

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Steve Lehmann

6°C

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Drag Velocity (Knots)

• Diameter decreases as tow speed increases • Asymptote at 2 knots

• Optimal speed for snare to encounter the bottom but not disengage

• Conduct desorption experiment at greater velocities to simulate faster tow speeds • Investigate more oil types for adsorption and desorption to snare • Optimize chain weighting for contact with the seafloor • Conduct experiment to include snare encounter of oil in water column

Snare Diameter vs. Drag Velocity

Snare Diameter (in)

CIVIL ENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Applying Sustainable Infrastructure Rating Systems to Transportation Planning and Design

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Drag Velocity (Knots)

3

3.5

4

• • • • •

Steve Lehmann, NOAA Melissa Gloekler, CRRC John Ahern, UNH CEE Phil Ramsey, UNH Mathematics Brian House, MER


AUTHORS: Weiru Tao Yaohan Wang ADVISOR: Erin Bell

Bridges undergo several stress reversal cycle through their service life. Bridge managers and engineers must keep track of these cycle to avoid fatigue-related failures. For measuring the strain of the steel bridge, the traditional foil gauge method is used commonly. However, for doing the measurement, the foil gauges must be epoxied or welded to the bare steel of the structural element. This requires grinding off the protective coating so the bare steel will be exposed. This could lead to corrosion of the steel, especially in harsh marine environments. Also, the strain foil gauge must be connected to wires for power and communicated. The installation process is lengthy and infrastructure needed to collect the measurements is extensive. DIC (Digital Image Correlation) use pixel movement to measurement structural response. DIC ca measure deflection of a system or strain of an element. With DIC, there is no need to “touch” the bridge, provided that the coating has a strong adherence to the base metal so that you are measurement the strain in the steel and not the coating. The purpose for this project is to identify the variation between the two collection methods and determine the best practices for DIC strain measurement.

Modeling Rock Mechanics with 3D Printed Geomaterials AUTHORS: Ryan Conroy Taylor Kirk

The aim of this research project has Modeling Rock Mechanics with 3D been to develop physical models for Printed Geomaterials mechanical behavior of rocks using conventional 3D printed plastics. The 1 Objective 4 Results & Analysis (Continued) properties of most interest encompass 2 Introduction those regarding compressive strength of 5 Conclusion soft rocks like coarse-grained sandstones, as they possess Young’s modulus values near that of plastics used in 3D printing. More qualitative properties of interest 3 Methodology 6 Goals for Future Research include up-scaled modeling of pore size, shape and pore network structure to achieve shear failure patterns as seen in compression of rock. Construction of models can be based off CT imagery of natural sandstones or geometric lattices 4 Results & Analysis that are based on pore structure and particle interaction of natural sandstone. Use of both in-lab mechanical testing and finite element analysis software are employed to determine the properties of these models. In addition to prototyping the design of physical models, design of the procedures for digital construction of models, 3D printing of models and mechanical testing is a major focus of the project. If the technology shows promise, it may have future applications as an illustrative tool for use in geoscience institutions or as an inexpensive and reliable substitute for core samples of rock for use in the study of rock mechanics. Research by: Taylor Kirk & Ryan Conroy Faculty Advisor: Majid Ghayoomi University of New Hampshire - Department of Civil Engineering

Typical Cost and Print Time

`

Develop physical models for certain mechanical behavior of rock, using conventional 3D printing technology and materials, for use in the study of rock mechanics.

Stress vs. Strain of ABS & PLA

3D Printing •

Most common type of printing, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Materials are heated and extruded in layers to produce a solid part.

Axial Stress (MPa)

ADVISOR: Majid Ghayoomi

• Multiple destructive tests can be performed on 3D printed samples thus preserving the actual core sample they replicate. • Cheaper to print multiple 3D printed samples as apposed to obtaining larger or additional core samples. • More efficient distribution, a lab can digitally send a part file to be 3D printed at another lab site with 3D printing capabilities.

• Academia

• Different failure modes can be easily modeled and illustrated to students. • The impact of changing various physical properties and observing the subsequent change in mechanical properties can be presented to students.

ABS

Better environmental • durability, non biodegradable

Lower environmental durability, biodegradable

Relatively flexible, non-brittle

Stiffer than most 3D printed plastics

Measured printed elastic modulus of 2.12 GPa

Measured printed elastic modulus of 3.40 GPa

20 15 10

5

0 0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

Axial Strain

2.0%

2.5%

PLA

25

Potential Applications • Geotechnical Research

ABS

PLA

30

The typical cost to print each part was between $4 and $5. The typical print time was between 12-14 hours.

Material Selection

40 35

Model Development

Rock CT: n = 20.86%

Lattice 1: n = 9.50%

no visible deformation

• Sandstone CT sample can fail along a shear plane, however it will only experience a partial fracture due to high ductility.

Lattice 2: n = 16.05%

pronounced Poisson effect

Lattice 3: n = 25.76% shear, partial fracture

• Using a stiffer printing material or alternative printing technique may allow for enough of a reduction in strain and increase the compressive strength allowing for a closer representation of actual soft sandstone.

CT Model Vs Typical Values for Sandstone

• Achieving yield stress similar to rock, while also maintaining reasonable porosities. • Overcoming large Poisson effect characteristic of plastics. • Reducing amount of strain at failure, while maintaining realistic yield stress.

Elastic Modulus (GPa) Porosity Strain Compressive Strength (MPa)

50

Stress Vs. Strain of Models n = 9.5%

45

Axial Stress (MPa)

40

Solid PLA

n =16.1%

35

• Use of FDM 3D printer to construct specimens

• Actual porosity determined gravimetrically

• Specimens tested for yield & ultimate strength

• Calculate Young’s modulus to measure model stiffness

• Assess and compare each models’ ability to mimic the Data behavior of rock in unconfined compression Analysis

Effect of Porosity on Elastic Modulus

Rock CT

25 20

2.5

n = 25.8%

5

0 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 4.5% 5.0% 5.5%

Axial Strain

0.0 0.0%

5.0%

10.0%

15.0%

20.0%

Model Porosity

25.0%

Honorable Mention Project

2017

Analysis Performed

Axial Loading • Axial Displacement • Density of Printed Material • Mass of Samples •

Porosity Stress Strain Elastic Modulus

30.0%

Analysis

• Lattice models with lower porosities exhibit a more brittle failure (higher elastic moduli).

Experimentation

• Careful consideration of load rate dependence • Design and perform tests for flexural and tensile strength of simulated rock • Obtain and test cores of natural sandstone for direct comparison • Use of larger sample size for printed specimens

• Lattice models with high porosities exhibit behaviors less characteristic of one solid part; spheres begin to lose adhesion, resulting in a very low elastic modulus. • Rock CT of n = 20.86% demonstrates higher stiffness than lattice model of n = 16.1% due differences in pore geometry.

Model Properties

Data Collected

Use of stiffer plastics less susceptible to ductile behavior Carbon fiber-infused PLA known for brittleness

• Evaluate effects of print “grain” orientation relative to load direction/deformation • Closer analysis of print layer interaction along FDM cold joints

1.0 0.5

• All samples have high percentage of strain relative to rock, Which experiences minimal strain (typically less than 2%).

• • • •

Sandstone Typical Values 20 5%-30% <2% 20-40

Model Development

2.0 1.5

15

Sandstone CT Model 1.56 20.86% 2.50% 30

Material Selection • •

3.5 3.0

30

10

UCS Testing • Loaded until failure or exceedance of load cell

4.0

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

• Build 3D models of specimens in CAD programs

3D • PLA/ABS plastic deposited at 100% print density Printing

$ 4.95 $ 4.55 $ 4.28 $ 3.73 $ 4.10

• Much of the strength and brittleness of the solid PLA is lost when printing a porous sample.

Challenges

Derive • From CT scan of sandstone or 3D lattice structure based on pore structure of sandstone Models

Cost ($)

• Sandstone CT sample possesses an elastic modulus of 1.56 GPa, this is at the very low end of sandstone.

• Specimens printed using HONGDAK brand 1.75mm PLA plastic. • Prints were completed using 100% fill on the LulzBot TAZ 6 3D printer. • Tested in uniaxial unconfined compression on the MTS Landmark

shear, partial fracture

Sample Cost

Sample Name Mass (g) 235.89 Solid PLA 216.52 Lattice 1 204 Lattice 2 177.5 Lattice 3 195 Rock CT

Sample Name Porosity Elastic Modulus (Gpa) 0.0% 3.40 Solid PLA 9.5% 1.72 Lattice 1 16.1% 1.09 Lattice 2 25.8% 0.31 Lattice 3 20.9% 1.56 Rock CT

Acknowledgements

Thank you to the Staff of the Parker Media Lab in Dimond Library for their assistance and allowing us to occupy 80+ hours of their printing queue. We also thank Christopher DeCarlo, for his assistance with mechanical testing of our models.

Compressive Strength (MPa) >45 >45 41 11 30

Source

Jiang, Chao & Zhao, Gao-Feng, A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales. Published June 18, 2014.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVIL ENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Traditional Strain Gauge vs DIC (Digital Image Correlation)


CIVIL ENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Waste Reduction Engineering Decision Platform AUTHORS: Nathan Edwards Sarah Ehrmentraut Tanner Kent Amy LeBel Pia Marciano

The Waste Reduction Engineering Decision Platform (WRED Platform) is a Waste Reduction Engineering Decision (WRED) Platform An Engineering Tool to Achieve Zero Waste tool designed to analyze a waste stream based on mass balance and cost as P F I well as identify areas of improvement O for an institution as it moves towards Zero Waste. The Zero Waste movement strives to divert waste from the landfill and the WRED Platform is designed to connect this idea with the engineering decision-making-process. Star Island off O U WRED P WRED C the coast of Rye, NH is conscious of waste production and disposal. Their resource R recovery center includes compost and reuse of materials. However, the Island still produces a substantial amount of waste and is an ideal case study for developing the WRED Platform. The WRED Platform categorizes waste based on type and end fate, and produces diagrams that help engineers identify areas and possible methods for waste reduction and cost savings. The WRED Platform will be used to help develop a Zero Waste Internship at Star Island and guide waste analysis. Connecting sustainability concepts such as Zero Waste with quantitative metrics and the engineering decision-making-process is increasingly important as resources become more scarce and WRED strives to bridge this gap. Sarah Ehrmentraut, Amy LeBel, Nathan Edwards, Pia Marciano and Tanner Kent

NTRODUCTION

"Zero Waste" is a solid waste management strategy that aims to reduce waste entering landfills; it is commonly defined as 90% of the waste diverted from landfills through prevention, reuse, recycling, and composting.

ROJECT

Pressure Treated

Grease

Food

BJECTIVES

Organic Waste

Plates

Cardboard

Summary of Star Island Data

Glass Bottles

Plastic Bottles Aluminum Cans Plastic Containers Styrofoam

Biosolids

Electronic

First page of the WRED tool

Human

Other

Oil

Office Paper

Second page of the WRED tool

• Organizes waste by category • Quantifies the mass of waste to each fate • Allows for entry using purchases or mass • Combines data into graphics

Brush

Yard Waste

Sharps

Compost ready for use on Star Island

UTCOMES

1. A prototype of the WRED Platform was created.

2. It was determined that Star Island does not have enough data about waste to make engineering decisions. 3. A two-year study for Star Island was designed.

EFERENCES

Bao-guo, T., Yan, Z., Hong-tao, W., & Ji-ming, H. (2007). Approach of technical decisionmaking by element flow analysis and monte-carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 633-640. Callan, S., & Thomas, J. (2001). Economies of scale and scope: A cost analysis of municipal solid waste services. Land Economics, 77(4), 548-560. Change, N., & Wang, S. F. (1996). Solid waste management system analysis by multi objective mixed integer programming model. Journal of Environmental Management, 48, 1743. Griffin, M., Sobal, J., & Lyson, T. (2009). An analysis of a community food waste stream. Agricultural Human Values, 26, 67-81. Kumar, V., Bee, D., Shirodkar, P., Tumkor, S., Bettig, B., & Sutherland, J. (2005). Towards sustainable "product and material flow" cycles: Identifying barriers

Other

Waste Classification

SAGE OF

LASSIFICATION

Categories:

Fates:

44040 lb 23953 lb

First Year: • Identify waste streams • Create classifications • Develop excel tool Second Year: • Fill data gaps • Develop solutions • Improve WRED

LATFORM

1. See introduction page with

instructions

• C&D

• Hazardous Waste

• Food Waste

• Landfill

2. Select waste category

• Packaging

• Recycling

3. Select waste type

• Biosolids

• Compost

4. Select fate of waste type

• Electronics

• Reuse

5. Enter quantity or mass of waste

• Energy Waste

• Stagnant

6. WRED produces summary table

• Miscellaneous

• Incineration

7. WRED produces mass graphics

• Yard Waste

• Unknown

8. Enter Tipping Fees

• Medical Waste

29131 lb

Waste Composted Waste Recycled

Toilet Paper

Tissues

Medical Waste

Waste to Landfill

5. Created 2-year Plan

Animal

Batteries

Miscellaneous

Waste being shipped off star Island

• Noticed substantial gaps in data

Metal

Packaging

Waxy Cardboard

4. Gathered Star Island Data

Data Source: Star Island Staff

Normal Wood

Plastic

Utensils

Connect “Zero Waste” concept with engineering principles by: • Quantifying waste streams • Identifying the largest sources of waste produced using a systems approach • Moving Star Island towards “Zero Waste”

Energy Waste

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Kristin Semard

3. Created WRED Platform

Pipes

Concrete

C&D

C&D Waste on Star Island

ADVISOR: James Malley

LOW

2. Created Waste Classification

1. Visit to Star Island

• Toured waste recovery center • Identified waste streams • Identified needs of Star Island

9. WRED gives financial estimate

Project Advisor: Dr. Jim Malley Star Island Personnel: Kristin Semard

Modeling a Pavement System to Measure Pore Water Pressure in Subgrade Soil AUTHOR: Kimberly Perkins ADVISORS: Eshan Dave Majid Ghayoomi

The structural capacity of pavements is greatly affected by the moisture content of the soil in the subgrade layers. This is evident in the spring when roads get fully saturated as a result of freeze-thaw process or after a flooding event. An increase in internal pore water pressure when a load is applied to saturated or nearly saturated soil could be the reason why high moisture content in subgrade is so detrimental to the pavement’s capacity. To study this, a scaled model of a pavement system is built and the system’s reaction to an impulse load is observed. A dimensional analysis on the stress distribution due to a load on a multi-layered system is performed to calculate the minimum allowable model size. Pore water pressure sensors and volumetric moisture sensors are calibrated and placed at varying depths in the soil. It is predicted that higher soil moisture content will cause a spike in pore water pressure and therefore, a weaker pavement as the load hits. With this information and follow-up investigation, there will be a more accurate framework for highway agencies to predict a road’s load limit at different times of the year.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


ADVISOR: M. Robin Collins

According to the United Nations, CONSTANT FLOW IN A DRIP CHLORINATION SYSTEM about 783 million people around the Joanna Lewis & Paige Taber Faculty Advisor: Dr. M. Robin Collins, P.E. world lack access to affordable clean 2. Overall Objective 3. System Requirements drinking water, and up to 8 million die 1. Background each year from waterborne disease. There is a need for innovative, practical solutions in water disinfection that can be implemented worldwide in rural, 5. Outlet Control System and Performance 6. Conclusions & remote, and developing communities. 4. Inlet Control System and Performance Further Research One such community is San Pedro de Casta, a remote town of 1,200 in the Peruvian Andes Mountains. The drinking water supply there has been found to be contaminated with E. coli, making residents ill. However, lack of Acknowledgements reliable electricity, limited materials, and a water keeper with limited time and expertise have become the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s major constraints to implementing a disinfection system. Drip chlorination is a simple, effective disinfection method which relies on a steady flow of liquid chlorine solution (bleach) to be delivered to a water supply line. This can be achieved by maintaining a constant driving head, which in these systems can essentially be described as the height difference between the solution level in a reservoir and the outlet of the reservoir. This project investigates different configurations to achieve a steady chlorination drip rate by maintaining a constant driving head while taking into account San Pedro de Castaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s limitations. San Pedro de Casta, Peru is located at 10,300 ft. elevation in the Andes Mountains. It is home to 1,200 people who maintain a traditional, agrarian way of life with few modern day conveniences such as reliable electricity.

Drip chlorination delivers a steady stream of hypochlorite (bleach) solution to a constant flow rate of water. It is an effective disinfection tool for rural and remote systems that lack access to electricity.

Their drinking water source is contaminated with E. coli, which is making community members ill. A disinfection system is necessary to lower instances of waterborne illness.

The goal of this research is to determine ways to control chlorine dose through both inlet and outlet controlled systems. The most hydraulically restrictive point in the conduit determines the location of control.

Phase 1: Initial Assessment

â&#x20AC;˘

62.2 Âą 8.9 cm for the Green Zone

Flow Rate, mL/min

2.50

26.7 Âą 8.9 cm for the Red Zone 0.64 Âą 0.10 mL/min

0.50

0

4

8

12

16

20

44.5 Âą 8.9 cm for the Yellow Zone 1.18 Âą 0.42 mL/min

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

68

â&#x20AC;˘

72

Dispensing Tank Water Height, cm

Figure 1: Flow Rate vs Dispensing Tank Water Height with: 4/64â&#x20AC;? orifice diameter, 55 gallon drum, 3 mm orifice depth, 0.19 diameter tubing, 29â&#x20AC;? tubing length, 1/8" inlet and 1/4â&#x20AC;&#x153; outlet barb connection.

Figure 2: Float bulb chlorination system.

y = 6.396x - 15.919 R² = 0.986

35

â&#x20AC;˘

IV Restrictor

â&#x20AC;˘

Needle Valve

Flow Rate, mL/min

y = 0.3874e2.4021x R² = 0.9674

25

y = 0.7147x + 4.9511 R² = 0.9771

20 15 10

0.50

5

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

Tubing Slope (Tubing Verticle Height/Overall Tubing Length), cm/cm

â&#x20AC;˘

Floating Apparatus

3/64â&#x20AC;? orifice diameter converts the system to inlet control. Further testing needs to be done to evaluate if less variability in flow occurs as the dispensing tank water height and slope decrease. â&#x20AC;˘ Bobber Valve and IV Restrictor produce the most consistent drip rate â&#x20AC;˘ Both need to be tested using chlorine solution to ensure functionality

Figure 5: Discharge tubing slope change in the 55 gallon drum.

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Results As the slope decreases, the flow exponentially decreases. Therefore, focus on making inlet orifice diameter warrants further study, shown in Phase 3.

â&#x20AC;˘

Dosing Rate Over Time

1

6.00

0.5

Bobber

Toilet Valve

-2

35

1000

2000

3000

4000 5000 Time (min)

Figure 6: Orifice Depth vs Flow Rate in a 5 gallon bucket, with 9 7/8â&#x20AC;? tubing length and changing orifice, tubing, and inlet/outlet diameters.

6000

7000

8000

9000

Results Orifice diameter is the controlling design variable for inlet controlled systems. The smaller the orifice diameter, less likely other design variables will impact flow rates.

IV Restrictor; (Bobber, 1)

Float Apparatus (Toilet Valve)

-1

-1.5

IV Restrictor (Toilet Valve)

-2

-2.5

0

1

2

3

4

5

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Needle Valve (Bobber) 8000 9000

â&#x20AC;˘ Water surface controls were able to maintain water level to within 2.5 cm â&#x20AC;˘ Bobber valve maintained most consistent water level â&#x20AC;˘ IV restrictor maintained most consistent dose rate

0

-0.5

IV Restrictor (Bobber, 2)

IV Restrictor; (Bobber, 1)

0

Time (min)

Needle Valve (Bobber)

IV Restrictor (Bobber, 2)

IV Restrictor (Toilet Valve)

2.00

0.00

Drip Rate Response to Water Level

0.5

4.00 3.00

1.00

Toilet Valve

0

Float Apparatus (Toilet Valve)

5.00

Bobber

0

-1

-1.5

Orifice Depth, mm

Figure 4: Flow Rate vs Tubing Slope for the same system as Phase 1.

IV Restrictor

-0.5

-2.5

Water Level (cm)

0.00

0

6

Drip Rate (mL/min)

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż â&#x2C6;&#x2014;131.4 đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; 82.5 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż

â&#x20AC;˘

Needle Valve

Water Surface Levels Over Time

4/64" orifice, 0.12" tube, 1/8" inlet/outlet barb diameters 3/64" orifice, 0.12" tube, 1/8" inlet/outlet barb diameters 3/64" orifice, 0.31" tube, 1/4" inlet/outlet barb diameters Linear (4/64" orifice, 0.12" tube, 1/8" inlet/outlet barb diameters) Linear (3/64" orifice, 0.12" tube, 1/8" inlet/outlet barb diameters) Linear (3/64" orifice, 0.31" tube, 1/4" inlet/outlet barb diameters)

y = 0.8516x + 2.4559 R² = 0.9968

30

1.50 1.00

1

đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; =

Controlling Dose Rate

IV Restrictor

Orifice Depth vs Flow at a Constant Water Level in the Green Zone

40

2.50 2.00

Bobber Valve

Water Surface Level (cm)

3.50 3.00

Flow Rate, mL/min

Therefore, desired drip rate = 1.6 mL/min

Results

Phase 2: Assessing Discharge Tubing Phase 3: Inlet Control Thru Orifice Slope (as water height decreases) Diameter Flow Rate vs Tubing Slope

2017

â&#x20AC;˘

Water Surface Level

Figure 3: 55 gallon drum and

zone separation. Results Decreasing flow with decreasing water height suggests poor inlet control due to increasing flow restrictions from decreasing tubing slope as depicted in Phase 2.

Winning Project

đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ś

Desired chlorine residual of 1 mg/L Flow rate in community = 50,000 gal/day = 131.4 L/min Chlorine can be sourced at 8.25% hypochlorite = 82.5 mg/mL

Water Surface Level

1.00

0.00

đ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; =

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Toilet Valve with spout

Bobber, attached to valve

1.50

0.00

â&#x20AC;˘ Materials common to rural areas â&#x20AC;˘ Operate without electricity

Low Cost Easy to maintain

Desired Drip Rate

Toilet Valve

2.15 Âą 0.49 mL/min

y = 0.0424x - 0.5644 R² = 0.9726

2.00

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Controlling Water Surface Level

Flow Rate vs Dispensing Tank Water Height

3.00

Drip Rate (mL/min)

AUTHORS: Joanna Lewis Paige Taber

Dr. Thomas Ballestero, P.E., Damon Burt, Peter Dwyer, Kellen Sawyer, and UNH Students Without Borders

Exploration of Temperature and Loading Rate Interdependency for Fracture Properties of Asphalt Mixtures The importance of studying asphalt Exploration of Temperature and Loading Rate Interdependency for Fracture Properties of Asphalt Mixtures mixture and the effect of temperature on fracture properties to improve cracking performance, service life expectancy, and design effectiveness of roads is critical. The increased use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and other additives in mix design requires greater understanding on the effects of loading rate and temperature on fracture behavior. The objective of this study was to assess interdependence of loading rate (time) and temperature on asphalt fracture properties and evaluate the adequacy of standard testing conditions. Evaluation consisted of 5 mixtures from two regional sources, Vermont and Virginia. Fracture tests were conducted through the Diskshaped Compact Tension and the Semi-Circular Bending geometries using varying loading rates in an effort to study the applicability of the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). Comparisons were made between 4 combinations of temperatures and loading rates. The goal of this effort was to evaluate loading rate adjustments to compensate for changing test temperatures. Results indicated that linear viscoelastic TTSP is valid in the pre-peak region of asphalt fracture behavior. SCB test results at low temperature with an adjusted loading rate were able to match the pre-peak behaviour. Undergraduate Researcher: Katie Haslett (keh11@wildcats.unh.edu) Advisors: Dr. Jo Sias Daniel, Dr. Eshan V. Dave

Results

VA 20% RAP 25C E at 25C E at 13C

1.E+01 1.E-03

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1

-1 -2 -3

1.E+03

1.E+04

0

Reduced Frequency (Hz)

Objectives

ď&#x192;ź Characterize fracture behavior of asphalt mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures and varying loading rates. ď&#x192;ź Investigate the validity of time-temperature superposition principle for bituminous mixtures in context of fracture processes at low and intermediate test temperatures and different loading rates. ď&#x192;ź Determine effects of RAP amount on low and intermediate temperature fracture behavior.

Materials and Specimen Preparation

Virginia

Vermont

=

Trial 3 loading rate:

=

50 ?

Virginia

Semi-Circular Bend (SCB) Results

Virginia 0% RAP

8

Trial 1: 13°C & 50mm/min Trial 2: 25°C & 50mm/min Trial 3: 13°C & 1.86mm/min Trial 4: 13°C & 10 mm/min

6 5 4 3

8

Load Line-load Displacement Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD)

Outcome â&#x20AC;˘

Fracture Energy (đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; )

đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; =

đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160; đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;

5 4 3 2 1

0

2

4 6 CMOD (mm)

0

8

Trial 1: 13°C & 50mm/min Trial 2: 25°C & 50mm/min Trial 3: 1°C & 50mm/min Trial 4: 1°C & 2 mm/min

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0

2

4 6 CMOD (mm)

0

2

4 6 CMOD (mm)

8

Average Fracture Energy at 50 mm/min Loading Rate

Vermont 20% RAP

8

0

Trial 1: 13°C & 50mm/min Trial 2: 25°C & 50mm/min Trial 3: 13°C & 1.86mm/min Trial 4: 13°C & 10 mm/min

6

2

Measurements â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Virginia 40% RAP

7

8

Average Facture Energy (J/m2)

SCB Testing (AASTHO TP 105)

400 200

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

VT Mix Average Fracture Energy CMOD

VA 0% RAP

VA 20% RAP

1

600 400 200 0

VA 40% RAP

Virginia

0

800

0% RAP 20% RAP 40% RAP

2 3 CMOD (mm)

4

5

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

VT 20% RAP

VT 40% RAP

Vermont

0

1

2 3 CMOD (mm)

20% RAP 40% RAP

4

5

Conclusions

Vermont

Temperature (Âş C) Trial 1 13 ÂşC & 50 mm/min 13 ÂşC & 50 mm/min 25 Trial 2 25 ÂşC & 50 mm/min 25 ÂşC & 50 mm/min 13 Trial 3 13 ÂşC & 1.86 mm/min 1 ÂşC & 50 mm/min Trial 4 13 ÂşC & 10 mm/min 1 ÂşC & 2 mm/min

1

DCT Testing (ASTM D7313)

0.0376 + 0.0344 + 0.0397 = 0.0372 3

Note: Trial 2 is AASTHO TP 105 standard testing conditions.

0

Testing

600

0

đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸13 đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸25

= Avg Ratio Total Gf * Standard Loading Rate

Loading Rate (mm/min)

Results

SCB

40

800

= 0.0372 * 50 mm/min = 1.86 mm/min

7

0 20 40 20 40

E13 E E + VA 20% 13 + VA 40% 13 E25 E25 E25 3

=

Load (kN)

VA 0%

đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;13 đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;25

Temperature and Loading Rate Evaluation

PG RAP %

76-22 70-22 64-22 52-34 52-34

đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą =

Average ratio total đ?&#x2018;Žđ?&#x2018;Žđ?&#x2018;Žđ?&#x2018;Žđ?&#x2019;&#x2021;đ?&#x2019;&#x2021;đ?&#x2019;&#x2021;đ?&#x2019;&#x2021; :

DCT

Mixture

20 Temperature (°C)

Trial 3 loading rate sample calculation

Load (kN)

There are economically sound and sustainable incentives to continuously improve the design of mixtures with respect to cracking at low and intermediate temperatures, especially as the percentage of RAP increases.

VA Mix Average Fracture Energy CMOD

0

Fracture Energy (J/m^2)

1.E+02

2

Fracture Energy (J/m^2)

VA 20% RAP 13C

Disk-shaped Compaction Tension (DCT) Results

Shift Factor 4.4 21.1 37.8

3

1.E+03

Load (kN)

4

1.E+04

Log Shift Factor a(T)

Performance testing is increasing in popularity due to increased demand for improving the pavement service lives. There is a need for better understanding of the temperature variation effects on asphalt fracture behavior.

Load (kN)

ADVISORS: Jo Daniel Eshan Dave

TTSP Experimental Approach Dynamic Modulus (MPa)

Introduction

Load (kN)

AUTHOR: Katie Haslett

5000 4500 4000 3500 3000

VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

2500

â&#x20AC;˘ SCB results show promising results in validating the applicability of TTSP in the pre peak region for bituminous mixtures within the temperature range of 1 ÂşC to 25 ÂşC.

â&#x20AC;˘ It is proposed that for the SCB test the testing temperature should be adjusted on the basis of varying PG grades, similar to system used for DCT test. â&#x20AC;˘ In general, as the percentage of RAP increased, fracture energy decreased. However, it is important to note that testing temperature has a significant impact on fracture energy in addition to the content of RAP.

Future Work

Further testing be conducted to conclude the applicability of TTSP beyond the linear viscoelastic region for different mixtures from other climatic regions.

Acknowledgments

2000 1500 1000 500 0

The importance of studying asphalt mixture fracture properties to improve cracking performance, service life expectancy, and design effectiveness of roads is critical.

1C

13 C

25 C

ď&#x201A;§University of New Hampshire Hamel Center (SURF Program) ď&#x201A;§Asphalt Research Group, University of New Hampshire ď&#x201A;§Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) 5(230)

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVIL ENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Constant Flow in a Drip Chlorination System


Chestnut Street Combined Sewer Separation AUTHORS: Noah Goldstein Ian Howard Nathan Seed ADVISOR: James Malley

The Chestnut Street Combined Sewer Separation team is working with Neal Chestnut Street Combined Sewer Separation Project Campbell from CDM Smith in Manchester, NH to complete a design for the sewer separation of Chestnut Street from Elm Street. CDM Smith won the bid to do a sewer separation for the entire city of Manchester, and this area is the first one that was completed. A combined sewer separation is performed when the current sewer pipe can not handle extreme runoff flows during a storm and a second sewer pipe is installed. The new pipes were sized according to the Rational Method for the 10 and 20 year 1 hour precipitation events. Taking into account traffic load maximums and already existing utilities and buildings, a final piping network including pipe depth was created onto the existing AutoCAD layers. In addition to the final piping network various construction issues and concerns are discussed in our report. Noah Goldstein, Ian Howard, Nathan Seed University of New Hampshire – Civil and Environmental Engineering

Introduction

Rational Method Calculations

The Chestnut Street Combined Sewer Separation team worked with CDM Smith in Manchester, NH to complete a design for the sewer separation of Chestnut Street from Elm Street. CDM Smith won the bid to do a combined sewer overflow abatement for the entire city of Manchester, and this area was the first one to be completed. Combined sewer separations are currently occurring all over the east coast. They are necessary because current sewer systems are not able to handle extreme precipitation events. Extreme precipitation events put a lot of stress on the piping networks currently in place, and this stress leads to bursting pipes or pipe failures. Issues with piping are very expensive to fix and can have large negative environmental impacts such as flooding and river contamination.

Proposed Pipe Network

10 and 25-Year One-Hour Node Diagrams

Objectives

CIVILENGINEERING-WETINFRASTRUCTURE

The ultimate objective of this project was to prepare a map on AutoCad showing the depths and sizes of the pipes in the new recommended piping network for this area of Manchester. To achieve this goal: • Subcatchment areas were delineated. • Subcatchment nodes were laid out along City streets to create a drainage pipe network. • A node diagram was made showing how the subcatchment areas connected to each other. • For each subcatchment node the area, rainfall intensity, and runoff coefficient were determined to find the flow to each node. • New pipes were sized taking into account the materials and manufactured sizes of the pipes. • The depth of each pipe run was calculated. • Installation and construction issues were also accounted for. .

Methods

To create the new pipe network, the team was given a map with contour lines of the area to be separated.

• First, flows needed to be calculated from each subcatchment using the Rational Method. The Rational equation is q=AIC, where q=flow, A=area of subcatchment, I=rainfall intensity factor, and C=runoff coefficient. • To obtain the flows, the area of each node was calculated using AutoCAD. Runoff coefficients, which are dependent on the permeability of the surface where the precipitation lands, were determined using the rationale runoff coefficients. • Then, a node diagram was created to assess the flow at each node. Ten and twenty-five year one hour storm events found in NOAA Atlas 17 were used to determine the I factor in the Rational equation. • Once the flows were determined, pipes were sized using Manning’s equation, which is D=1.335*[Q*n/(s^1/2)}^0.375, where D=pipe diameter, Q=flow, n=Manning’s roughness coefficient, and S=slope of pipe. PVC piping was chosen as the pipe material, and then the depth of each pipe upstream and downstream was calculated, making sure that the flushing velocity stayed above 3 ft/s. • Additional issues and concerns that could come from construction occurring in a densely populated and busy area of Manchester were considered, and eventually a map showing the final recommended pipe network was produced.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge industry advisor Neal Campbell of CDM Smith in Manchester, NH and faculty advisor Professor James Malley from the University of New Hampshire for their aid on this project. Also JM eagle Gravity sewer specifications were used for nominal PVC pipe sizes.

Leighton Way Pump Station Renewal

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Gretchen Young Bill Boulanger

Team Members: Paige Howard, Jack Reitz and Jessica Wilson Faculty Advisor: Dr. Tom Ballestero

Methodology

Abstract The Leighton Way Pump Station project consists of proposed upgrades to a sewage pumping station located in Dover, NH. This project utilizes a hydraulic analysis on the existing flows and fluid properties. The recommended improvements and plan will be constructed for a new 20year design life. The upgrades consist of the design and construction of a new wet-well, Gorman Rupp pumps, piping, building, and stand-by generator.

Phase 1: Present & Future Site Investigation ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Estimated present and projected service population Developed average and peak influent flows Established present and future sewage storage demands Calculated possible pump outflows

Phase 2: Sizing of New Tankage & Equipment ▪ ▪

SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

15.8

Existing System

15.7 15.6

Leighton Way Pump Station System: Age:

1. Wet Well Calculated the required daily storage capacity Determined desired pump outflow, pump run time, and pump cycles per day 2. Pump Design Using the principles of energy conservation, the total system head and net positive suction head curves were developed TDH and NPSH were used to select desired pump using Gorman Rupp pump performance curves

Injector 31

years

Service Population:

14

Homes

Average Daily Flow:

4.4

gpm

Station Inlet Elevation to MH#L5-8A:

12

ft

Inlet Piping ID:

4

Inches

Force Main ID:

4

Inches

4" ID Piping on intake and outlet

15.5 15.4 15.3 15.2 15.1

60

15

14.8

Proposed Wet Well Hydrograph

50

14.9 10

20

30

40

50 Flow (GPM)

60

70

80

90

Flow (gpm)

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Bill Boulanger, City of Dover, NH Gretchen Young, City of Dover, NH

Acknowledgments:

TDH (ft)

ADVISOR: Thomas Ballestero

The Leighton Way Pump Station project consists of proposed upgrades to the Leighton Way pump station located in Dover, NH. This project utilized a hydraulic analysis on the existing flows and fluid properties. The recommended improvements and plan will be constructed for a new 20-year design life. The upgrades consisted of the design and construction of a new wet-well, Gorman Rupp pumps, piping, building, and stand-by generator. These upgrades were accomplished through an analysis of the existing system, sizing of new tankage /equipment, as well as drafting a new site layout. Throughout the design, financial, O&M, and feasibility constraints were taken into consideration in addition to the principles of the triple bottom line.

40 30 20 10

0 12:00:00 AM

Inflow Hydrograph

50

4:48:00 AM

9:36:00 AM

2:24:00 PM

7:12:00 PM

12:00:00 AM

Time (1 day)

40 Flow (gpm)

AUTHORS: Paige Howard Jack Reitz Jessica Wilson

Summary

30 20

Leighton Way Pump Station Upgrades

10 0 12:00:00 AM

4:48:00 AM

9:36:00 AM 2:24:00 PM Time (1 Day)

7:12:00 PM

Challenges & Constraints ▪ Low average daily influent flow ▪ Large peaking factor ▪ Wet well depth restrictions ▪ Lack of accurate minor loss coefficients

System: Pumps: Pump Run Time per Day: Inlet Piping Length & ID:

12:00:00 AM

3. Piping ▪ Inlet piping to be ductile iron and force main to be HDPE 4. Generator ▪ 7 kW natural gas

Force Main Length & ID: Pumping Volume: Wet Well Dimensions: Building Dimensions:

Suction Lift Two T2A3-B in parallel Self Priming Centrifugal 2.38 Hours 18, 4 LF, Inches 150, 4 585 8 X 16

13 X 11.25

LF, Inches Gallons Diameter x Depth, ft ft

The capital cost of the improvements is estimated to be around $42.5K and an annual O&M cost of $5K.


Derecktor Robinhood Marine Center Stormwater Management Design AUTHORS: Kendra Dow Thomas Gerhard Trina Lafata ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner

This is a stormwater management project for the Robinhood-Derecktor Marine Center (DRMC), located on Riggs Cove in Georgetown, Maine, about one hour north of Portland. The marina consists of three large boat storage buildings, a boat maintenance building, a spare parts storage building, a restaurant, and some smaller, historical buildings. Due to the large amount of impervious cover and the nature of the soil being clay and gravel, the marina experiences a large amount of sediment washout and incision during rain events, which forces them to regrade, even after small storms. They also experience ponding in the corner of South Shed, one of the primary boat storage buildings, which is problematic when storing large and expensive boats. DRMC is seeking a solution to these issues, and has called upon us to design a system, or series of systems, to reduce the sheet flow runoff such that it is no longer problematic.

CIVILENGINEERING-WETINFRASTRUCTURE

Georgetown Culverts Flow Analysis AUTHORS: Morgan Ellman Jacqueline Hozza Jacob Riehl

This project has two overall goals: considering the culverts along three roads Georgetown Culverts Flow Analysis in Georgetown, ME, make a database 1. Introduction 4. Data Analysis of culvert locations and characteristics, and do a hydrologic analysis of at least 30 culverts to determine whether each culvert is passing, transitional, or failing under the nth year storm, assuming the 2. Project Purpose nth year flood corresponds with the nth year storm. The n values used were 6. Conclusions 2, 10, 25, 50, and 100. For each culvert, 3. Field Work our team took various elevation and 5. Results length measurements, delineated the watershed areas, and determined peak flows. Then, we utilized a program called 7. Next Steps StreamWorks to determine whether the water stage for each culvert would be above a failure elevation, or at a transitional or passing elevation. Of the 42 culverts located on the three roads considered, measurements were taken and a hydrologic analysis was completed for 31. Of the culverts analyzed, 55% passed the twoyear flood, 16% were transitional, and 29% were failing. In general, the culverts were not passing for larger storms, except for those culverts with extremely small watersheds. This is considered normal, as these culverts are mostly standard 12” culverts, and are not sized to pass higher flows. Morgan Ellman, Jackie Hozza, Jacob Riehl

Advisors: Dr. Nancy Kinner and Joel Ballestero

Programs Used:

RD

Georgetown

Figure 1: Project location

ADVISORS: Joel Ballestero Nancy Kinner INDUSTRY CLIENT: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner

Client: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner

• Georgetown is a rural island in southern Maine • Year round population is about 1000, which triples in the summer due to the island’s coastal location • There are approximately 90 culverts on the island • This project focused on the 42 culverts on Webber, Jewett, and Flying Point Roads

Two main foci: • Update and expand Georgetown’s existing culvert database • Collect measurements on the culverts characteristics • Determine hydraulic capacities for the nth year storms

Data collected for each of the 42 culverts: • Composition • Diameter • GPS coordinates

AutoCAD - Delineate watersheds • Determine watershed area • Determine longest flow path length and slope

TR-55 – Calculate peak flows – Open-source program created by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Data Inputs: Figure 6: Example AutoCAD • Watershed data from AutoCAD, watershed delineation storm data (collected from NOAA Atlas), and soil and land cover type

StreamWorks – Determine whether culverts can pass the nth year flood, where n = 2, 10, 25, 50, 100 – Program created by the UNH Stormwater Center What is considered failing? • 6” below the lowest nearby point on the road or the top of the culvert, whichever is higher

Figure 7: Examples of failure elevations

Figure 2: Photo points for each culvert

Figure 4: Photo Point 3

Figure 5: Photo Point 8

Figure 10: Percent of culverts in each category vs. flood level

• The majority of culverts are failing at the 10-year storm and above • Many are standard sizes, designed to manage normal rather than pass large flows

In order to reduce the risk of flooding: • Larger culverts could be installed in locations of concern • This depends on road usage, the town budget, etc. • May be more practical to replace problem culverts when roads are repaved or other maintenance is being done • Culvert condition should be assessed frequently and maintained when needed, especially to remove sediment or other blockage

Additional data collected for 31 culverts: • Culvert length • Rise and span of culvert inlet and outlet • Relative elevation measurements • 8 photos taken of each culvert (Figure 2)

Figure 3: Photo Point 5

Figure 9: Measured culverts’ ability to pass flow

StreamStats – Determine watershed areas and peak flows for large watersheds – GIS-based web application created by USGS

Figure 8: Map with locations of all 42 identified culverts on Flying Point, Webber, and Jewett Road

• There are a lot of culverts remaining on the island that have not been analyzed and are not in the database. • New culverts should be sized according to their watershed size and peak flows

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Nature-Like Fish Passage Design to Replace Newmarket’s MaCallen Dam

ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

This project involves finding an Nature-Like Fish Passage Design to Replace alternative solution for Newmarket’s Newmarket’s MaCallen Dam MaCallen Dam. The deficient dam David Thibault, Julia Camacho, Liam McGrath, Casey Melrose Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kevin Gardner poses a risk of failing and increasing Preliminary Design Costing/Funding Introduction flood potential for 100+ year storms. However, Newmarket relies on this dam for historical value, its aesthetics and maintaining commerce upstream. This project investigates the trade-offs of Existing Conditions Summary and Future dam removal vs maintaining the dam Considerations and the best way both fish passage and safety can be improved. The alternative Dam Removal Trade-offs this project focuses on is replacing the Design Criteria dam with a nature-like (step-pool) fish passageway. Design of the fish passage References/Acknowledgements is based off NOAA guidelines for the native fish of the Lamprey River. The fish passage consists of broad crested weirs formed by large (~3ton) rocks, and resting pools in between each set of weirs. The design will improve the inundation area and risk involved with large flood events at the dam while also improving fish passage during migratory season. The design will open miles of native spawning ground to thousands of fish and new species that were previously restricted such as American Shad, River Herring and Sea Lamprey. This design via dam removal lowers the water levels upstream but preserves an adequate water level that lowers flood potential and restores Lamprey River’s natural channel while creating new aesthetics. Alterna;ves Compared  

MaCallen Dam

•  Constructed in 1887 in Newmarket, NH •  Located on Lamprey River, later flows to Great Bay •  In 2008, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) Dam Bureau deemed MaCallen Dam structurally deficient. •  2008-2014 feasibility reports were conducted by Wright Pierce and Gomez and Sullivan

Current View of MaCallen Dam

4.6

Total Cost  ($millions)  

AUTHORS: Julia Camacho Liam McGrath Casey Melrose David Thibault

Typical Side profile of Nature-like Passage-Way

Nature-Like Fish Passageway in Acushnet, MA

•  An alternative to upgrading the dam: remove the dam and focus this project on designing a nature-like fish passageway (NLFP). •  A NLFP is a series of pools built like steps to allow fish to bypass a water barrier. •  These passageways are intended to reflect the natural environment and it provides proper fish passage, improves the ecosystem, and is visually appealing.

tw D Pw Hw Hg

varies varies 3.5 or 2.5 ft 2.05-7.00 ft ~5 ft

Rock/Weir Thickness Hydraulic Drop Rock Diameter/Height Rock/Weir Head Range Gross Head

Lt LP S0 Q V

400 ft 40 ft 1:30 500 cfs 6 fps

Total Length of Fishway Minimum Pool Length Maximum Slope Design Flow Maximum Velocity based on species

DAM REMOVAL  &  NLFP  INSTALLED  

DAM HEIGHT  LOWERED  &  WIDTH   EXTENDED  

Methods Used

Summary •  The design presented is based on the assumption that the Town of Newmarket will remove MaCallen Dam. •  The general design is 10 rows of boulders placed 40 ft from each other along a 400 ft length of the Lamprey River. •  Design was established using the broad-crested weir equation and fish passage design criteria. •  Materials for the design include large diameter rocks, sediment for bed leveling. •  Replacing MaCallen Dam with a nature-like fish passage will meet primary design criteria (fish migration and flood flow). •  Public input could enhance the design of the fish passage as well as how large to make the rocks to keep impoundment as much as possible.

Dam Abutment

Future Considerations Dam Removal Impacts •  Lamprey River sediment profile •  Foundations of the adjacent buildings Additional Considerations •  Maintenance of the fish passage •  Possible Widening of Veteran’s Bridge •  There are multiple funding opportunities to have dam removal and fish passage subsidized.

View of MaCallen Dam Looking Upstream

Fish Migration

Flood Event April 2007

Primary (essential): •  Fish Passage/Migration – Upstream migration of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Lamprey, and American Shad will not be reduced. •  Meets Capacity – Design meets maximum flow during fish migration season in the Newmarket Region (500 cfs). Secondary (desirable): •  Reduces Flooding Upstream – Town’s goal of flood reduction is met. (site specific)

2017

CREST GATE  ADDED,  ABUTMENT   RAISED,  HEIGHT  LOWERED,  WIDTH   EXTENDED  

GIS Aerial Rendering of Fish Weirs

Aerial Schematic Profile

Broad Crested Weir Equation Q =!"​$↑1.5  C = 3.32 for H > 4’ C = 2.48 for H < 4’ L = Crest Length H = height of water above crest = WSE – Rock diameter

Flood Event March 2010

Winning Project

RIGHT ABUTMENT  RAISED,  HEIGHT   LOWERED  &  WIDTH  EXTENDED  

Possible Solu;ons  

Alternative Project Costs

Approximate NLFP Cost…………………….......$350,000 Approximate Total of Dam Removal..……..….. $995,700 Overall Total Project Cost..…….………….…. $1,345,700

With around $100,000 of possible grant money to be collected for such a project. From sources such as: •  NHDES Wetlands Bureau, Mitigation Program Grants, “ARM” •  NFWF (National Fish and Wildlife Foundation) •  NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) •  Moose Plate NH Conservation

•  Many significant floods over the past decade (2006 and 2010) •  Dam cannot pass 100-year flood flow •  Received a letter of deficiency in 2008 & 2010 •  Requires fish ladder improvements

CIVILENGINEERING-WETINFRASTRUCTURE

3

2.9

1.4

Fields Pond Step-Pool Fishway Orrington, ME

Rendering of NLFP Looking Upstream

Keeping the Dam

Replacing Dam with Fish Passage

•  Keep historical look •  Water level remains high upstream •  Increased inundation (flood) potential upstream and downstream with increased risk of dam failure •  Costly repairs to upgrade/improve •  Wright Pierce estimate: $1,415,500 to $3,315,500 (2013 dollars)

•  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Fish passage is highly improved Natural channel shape restored Miles of restored habitat to fish Aesthetics of nature like fish passage Water level is lowered Economic impact upstream unknown G&S dam removal total cost: $743,000 (2014 dollars)

•  Gomez and Sullivan’s Final Feasibility Report: Dam Feasibility and Impact Analysis MaCallen Dam, Newmarket NH •  NOAA Fish Passage Design Guidelines •  NMFS Anadromous Salmonid Passage Facility Design •  Federal Interagency Nature‐like Fishway Passage Design Guidelines for Atlantic Coast Diadromous Fishes

Four Hills Landfill Expansion AUTHORS: Aidan Cleaves Daniel Sievers Chandan Singh Lucas Withers ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

A landfill in New Hampshire has disposal capacity till the year 2025. The city needs capacity past 2025 which will require the evaluation and design of a new landfill cell within the current area of the existing landfill. The landfill must comply with current federal and local regulations and uninterrupted operation of the landfill. Also positioning of a new landfill expansion within the current operational landfill site will require re-location of roads and utilities on site.\ \The immediate task that needed completion was the location of a new disposal area. Once this was located, our team developed drawings for the limits and volume of the new disposal site, a preliminary liner design, preliminary gas generation estimates and, air space optimization strategies. The new disposal site will be placed in between two closed landfills making it so extensive excavations are not required to construct a cell.

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Lisa Damiano, P.E. Eric Steinhauser, P.E., CESC, CPSWQ

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


UNH Pilot Water Treatment and Training Facility AUTHORS: Nathan Bujwid John Collins Jillian Crowley Chao Du Shawn Murphy Huancheng Zhang

A pilot drinking water treatment facility is being designed for the new UNH/ Durham Drinking Water Treatment Plant 6. Plan View of Pilot Facility 3. Process Flow Diagram (WTP), which will begin construction 1. Project Goals in 2018. The current WTP was built in the 1930s and is at capacity. This pilot facility will serve as a research space 4. Treatment Capabilities 7. Cross Section: Treatment Train and as a laboratory for water treatment 2. Site Layout design courses and those involving water sampling and analysis. It will provide the ability to test multiple variables 8. Project Costs in water treatment processes such as 5. Design Criteria different ratios of influent source waters, pretreatment schemes, and filtration systems. The main treatment processes include equalization, chemical mixing and coagulation, solid-liquid separation, Acknowledgements: | References: and filtration. The project team is collaborating with the chief operator of the existing plant and an engineering representative from Woodard & Curran, the consulting company that will design the new WTP. The team will also work closely with its faculty advisor, Dr. Robin Collins and operators of other pilot facilities in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Communicating with other pilot plant operators will assist the team with designing a modern pilot facility and evaluating technical decisions in terms of purpose, space, and effectiveness of treatment processes.  Design a pilot drinking water facility that tests and optimizes the processes of equalization, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration for the main UNH/Durham Drinking Water Treatment Plant (WTP)  Develop an educational training facility to enhance water treatment courses and research of drinking water treatment processes in a pilot field setting for both undergraduate and graduate students

A. Equalization •

Evaluate various source water qualities

Opportunities to add various chemicals (i.e. Alum, Ferric Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, etc.) to destabilize & aggregate particulates

B. Rapid Mix/Slow Mix

C. Gravity Plate Settling and DAF

You are here

ADVISOR: M. Robin Collins

Enhance bio-filtration processes

Evaluate various granular media configurations (Sand, Anthracite, GAC, etc.)

F. GAC Adsorption and Ion Exchange •

Enhance removals of dissolved constituents

Estimated Total Project Cost: $68,000 Cost Breakdown

Tanks Unit Process Residence Time @ 3 GPM Volume (gal) Other Criteria Equilization Tank 92 minutes 275 Rapid Mix Tank 36 seconds 1.8 G=300-800 s-1 Slow Mix Tank 30 minutes 90 G=10-80 s-1

Pumps

15%

Plate Settler Tank

13 minutes

38

HLR= 0.9-1.8 gpm/ft2

DAF Tank

10 minutes

30

2

Filters Rapid Rate 2.5-10 2 0.5

Design Parameter

Filtration Rate (gpm/ft2) EBCT @ 3 GPM (min) Diameter (ft)

HLR= 0.5-1.0 gpm/ft

5%

46%

11%

Slow Sand

14%

9%

0.03-0.1 13 1.5

Dr. Robin Collins P.E., Nathan Little P.E., Wesley East, UNH Environmental Engineering Department

Metering Devices Mixers and Tanks Construction Materials Lab Bench Equipment Labor

AWWA Water Treatment Plant Design Textbook, ENE 744 Class Notes, Engineering News Record (March 2017)

2017

Sustainable Water Heating for Star Island AUTHORS: Daniel Jacobson Kasey Kenyon Jessica McNeill Amanda Szymanski Paige Taber

Star Island located off the coast of Rye, Sustainable Water Heating for Star Island NH is a community that strives to be Dan Jacobson, Kasey Kenyon, Jessica McNeill, Amanda Szymanski, Paige Taber Omega Cats Faculty Advisor: Dr. James P. Malley sustainable. Therefore, the Omega CATS Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering capstone project group is looking at efficient ways to heat the water used on the island. Currently, the island has solar arrays to generate energy, but they do not supply enough to meet the hot water needs. As a result, the island uses a diesel generator for additional energy. Hot water is needed at the year-round employee house, the employee dining hall (Newton), and the hotel. Two energy recovery systems have been evaluated, one uses solar collectors to heat the water. The other uses a heat exchanger to harnesses thermal energy from the current diesel generator’s exhaust to heat the water. Each location will include one of these systems based on hot water needs and space availability. Selection and design will consider operational costs, capital costs, and maintenance. The comparison of cost and efficiency will lead to a final recommendation for each location. Introduction

Drainback Flat Plate

3

2

Existing •

Figure 4: Drainback Flat Plate

Flat plate solar collectors are insulated boxes in which water flows  through copper piping and is heated by solar energy. The heated water  flows through coils in a storage tank, which heats the water in the tank.    Water drains into a reservoir when not in operation to avoid freezing. 

Evacuated Tube Schematic

Evacuated Tube

9 collectors to fill current 160 gallon storage tanks Capital Cost: $32,500 Electricity Savings: $6,000/year

• • •

840 gallon storage tank to harness more of the generator’s energy Capital Cost: $1,200 Electricity Savings: $0/year

Figure 8: Hotel

Evacuated Tube

Additional Storage

Figure 6: Evacuated Tube

1 heat pump, paying $0.65/kWh

System which connects to a  generator in order to harness the  exhaust heat to heat a fluid.

Figure 9: Heat Exchanger (Polar Power, Inc.)

Proposed Drainback

Drainback

90 gallon storage tank 3 evacuated tube collectors Capital Cost: $18,500  Electricity Savings: $850/year

• • •

Existing

Proposed

• • • •

1 heat exchanger  Add 1,500 gallon storage tank Capital Cost: $6,200 Electricity Savings: $2,000/year

Employee House

Electric hot water heater, paying $0.65/kWh

90 gallon storage tank 2 flat plate collectors Capital Cost: $13,800 Electricity Savings: $850/year

Heat Exchanger

• • • •

Evacuated tube solar collectors are insulated vacuum sealed glass tubes  that water flows through to be heated by solar energy. 

Newton Dining Hall

• • • •

Two 160 gallon storage tanks 7 electric heat pumps,  paying $0.65/kWh Generator runs overnight 

Proposed

Figure 3: Drainback Schematic

Figure 5: Evacuated Tube Schematic

Figure 1: Locations of the three proposed systems. 1‐ Newton Dining Hall 2‐ Employee House 3‐ Hotel

Hotel

Existing • •

Sustainable Hot Water Goal:

•Assess different methods for efficient and cost effective water  heating systems:  •Newton Dining Hall •Employee House •Hotel 1

ADVISOR: James Malley

Drainback Schematic

Star Island is located about 7 miles off the coast of Rye, NH. There is a hotel located on the island that serves guests during  the Summer months. Star Island prides itself for its sustainable  practices. Currently water is heated using electric hot water  pumps, which is costly and inefficient. The island is currently not  gaining enough electricity from their solar array. 

• • • •

Evacuated Tube

Conclusion

•Newton Dining Hall: The drainback was chosen because the two alternatives  have the same annual savings, but the drainback has a lower capital cost. •Employee House: The drainback was chosen because this system is most fitting  for a residential water demand.  •Hotel: The heat exchanger was chosen because it has the highest hot water  storage capacity, while having a relatively low capital cost. 

90 gallon storage tank 1 flat plate collector Capital Cost: $13,000 Electricity Savings:  $750/year

Figure 2: Newton Dining Hall

Figure 7: Employee House

Acknowledgements:

Kristen Simard, Jack Bingham, and Tyler Kane

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

CIVILENGINEERING-WETINFRASTRUCTURE

Honorable Mention Project

Evaluate different liquid-solid separation processes

E. Filtration Units

Pilot Treatment & Training Facility

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Nathan Little, P.E., Woodard & Curran

D. Ozone Contact Column

Proposed WTP


Food Recall Application AUTHORS: Zachary Mailhot Jasdeep Singh ADVISOR: Matt Tonelli

Products are recalled on a daily basis, Food Recall Application University of but how should we stay informed New Hampshire as consumers? This project allows consumers to have a better grasp on recall information. Each individual using the application will receive personalized recall information based on their scan data. However, a user feeling more compelled to do so can look up any recall through a search functionality. Recalls are verified by the OpenFDA dataset which is run directly by the FDA, this means users have an accurate source. When a user’s scan is recalled they will receive a notification both in app and as a push notification. The app currently exists on the android platform but there are hopes that it will later expand to become multiplatform. The overall goal of the application is to make the everyday life of the consumer easier and to make sure they no longer have to worry about if their purchases have been recalled. Jasdeep Singh | Zachary Mailhot | Advisor: Matt Tonelli

Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Database

Software & Libraries

Problem

· Database engine: Mariadb · Two tables: users info & user scans. Demo table for URC called urcdemo · Use of Apache & MySQL from XXAMP for hosting · Export databases created in Mariadb and imported into phpMyAdmin

Recall information is not targeted to individuals

Best way to keep track is of recall information is through FDA recall table seen to the left

Searching through tables on webpages on a mobile device can be time consuming and frustrating

Recalls are not common knowledge unless explicitly stated by media

Alerts

How it works

Scanner

· It will contain all recalls that are relevant to the users scan history

· The application will have an inapp recall notification but also a push notification to alert users of a recall that is relevant to them

Press scan button

Successful scan

· Implemented using “ ZXing” or “ Zebra Crossing” . Chosen because of its ability to be multi-platform, which will be important for later use

Recent Recalls

· Even if the application is not actively open they will receive information about their products

1) 2) 3)

My Account

· Successful scan of the UPC number is mapped to a product name using upcdatabase.org

Scan in a UPC of any product Receive updates on the recall status of that product Unique history and notifications based on your scan data

Search/History

· History page is used to select a date range to display items scanned within that range

· The user is also able to change their account information and/or delete their account

· Accounts allow for each user to have a personalized report of recalls as opposed to being alerted by every recall that is released

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Future Plans

Conclusion

· Account based system allows application to provide a unique experience based on what each user has scanned

· Search page has items that have been recalled or allows the user to search for the most recent recalls on a particular product

• Finding recalls that may not be communicated by media

• Bar code on bottom of receipt to scan in all products at once

• Users only receive recall notifications on products they find important

• Partnership that allows us to get more information from UPC’s

• Simple UI compared to alternative options

• Expanding to different platforms

Curtailed Operations Dashboard AUTHORS: Daniel Briggs Nicholas Guidoboni David Lademan Rayvoughn Millings Christopher Plankey Bibek Thapa

Curtailing Operations at the University Curtailed Operations Dashboard of New Hampshire (UNH) is a decision Project Advisor: Scott A. Valcourt Christopher Plankey, David Lademan, Bibek Thapa UNH Information Technology Daniel Briggs, Rayvoughn Millings, Nicolas Guidoboni making process that utilizes various types of data from many different data sources to determine when (or if ) classes and campus operations should be cancelled due to situations involving inclement weather, power outages and other emergency situations. The project streamlines the process of data collection in order to assist the key decision makers. The curtailing process demands that the decision makers leverage key data points from many sources and make judgment calls based off of the severity of these factors, such as but not limited to snow accumulation, weather pattern and road conditions. This project centralizes the critical data sources used in the decision making process into one aggregate, forming a dashboard with an informative visual representation powered by PHP, JavaScript, JQuery, Python, Bootstrap and external APIs. This dashboard allows users to leverage synchronized, up-to-date, data from multiple sources, select different data types from these sources, and provide sufficient information for cross analysis to ensure the decision making process is quicker and the room for error is reduced. Abstract

Dashboard

Home Page

Curtailing Operations at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) is a decision-making process that utilizes various types of data from many different data sources to determine when (or if) classes and campus operations should be cancelled. The purpose of this project is to streamline the process of data collection in order to assist the key decision makers. The curtailing process demands that the decision makers leverage key data points from many sources and make judgment calls based off of the severity of various factors. Factors:

 Snow Accumulation  Weather Patterns  Road Conditions

 Schedule of Classes

Application Description

ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt

Application will allow users to:

 Choose a county in New Hampshire and find the city from which they wish to see data.

 Choose weather sources and weather information for the city that has been selected.

 Choose from a list of roads in New Hampshire to see the traffic and road conditions.

 Choose a time window to check the total number of classes in session at the three University of New Hampshire locations that may be impacted.

Technologies Used

 Visual Representation: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Bootstrap, JQuery  Data Extraction from APIs : PHP, Python

Resources

To collect and incorporate data, external Application Programming Interfaces (API) were used. These APIs are being used to leverage the information from their respective database sources into an aggregate to be displayed back to the user in a rich, informative dashboard. The external APIs were gathered from the following sources:

Weather Sources

 Weather Underground  NOAA

 Dark Sky

Challenges

 Collecting and bringing in data from multiple external sources together in one application.  Gaining access to the APIs and becoming familiar with certain data formats.

 Choosing the right resources for the dashboard. Several data providers that were researched all had the same core data source, meaning that our application would have displayed the same data multiple times.

Future Work

 Improve the graphical elements of the user interface.

Road Conditions Source

 NH Department of Transportation Class Schedule Source

 UNH Course Catalog

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Full Dashboard

 Add further traffic and weather resources for users to select.  Implement functionalities, such as an admin page, social media accounts, email/contact page to notify students of cancellations, and other resources under one tool.


K-12 Data Collection Portal AUTHORS: Matthew Arroyo Sebastian Coraccio Charles McNaughton Auderien Monareh David SanAntonio Tiffany Winn ADVISORS: Brian Shepperd Scott Valcourt

The New Hampshire School Connectivity Initiative (NHSCI) was created to K-12 Data Collection Portal understand and improve the Internet speeds and associated costs for the Database Schema Portal Components Background and Motivation funding of K-12 schools throughout New Hampshire. The goal of our K-12 Data Collection Portal is to provide a user-friendly interface for users to enter information about their schools’ connectivity, view the information Future currently on file, and update that information as needed. Users of the Design Considerations site include School Administrative Unit (SAU) officials, school technical directors, NHSCI officials, legislators, and others. Technologies Utilized This project implements a website that enables individuals within the SAUs to maintain their school’s connectivity data, which is stored within a SQL database. Existing data from previous years have been entered into the database and data collection is ongoing for the current year. Officials from the NHSCI will be able to see the data in an aesthetically pleasing and informative way and utilize the data to make educated decisions about districts needing broadband enhancements and reduced bandwidth costs. Matthew Arroyo, Sebastian Coraccio, Charles McNaughton, Auderien Monareh, David San Antonio, Tiffany Winn

-Sponsored by Scott Valcourt and Brian Shepperd Advised by Collette Powers

Department of Computer Science | University of New Hampshire | Durham, NH

Login Page Users log in with school, district, or SAU ID and their password.

New Hampshire School Connectivity Initiative (NHSCI) • Aims to provide fiber optic internet connectivity to all K-12 schools in NH • Goal: 100 Mbps per student by 2020 • Utilize E-Rate funding and alleviate price disparity between school districts

This K-12 Data Collection Portal will be utilized to help the NHSCI administrators make decisions concerning broadband for K-12 schools.

Initial data consisted of 10 worksheets, the largest having 47 columns and 513 rows. This data was collected via phone calls to all individual school technical directors, proving to be too timeconsuming and inefficient.

School Selection ID type determines which schools are displayed. User selects school to edit.

Analytical Database • Not normalized • Might have redundancy • “Data warehouse” • What we needed

We are not frequently updating the database (i.e., we are storing static data). Therefore, there is no need for an operational database.

School Details Data from database is displayed per school year. Users are able to update and save new data. Database can be exported as a CSV file.

End Users • SAU/District/School Technical Directors • NHSCI Leaders • State Legislators

Needs a user-friendly interface to: • Collect data from end users • Visualize data in an aesthetically pleasing and informative way • Be as intuitive as possible as users have varying levels of technical knowledge Mobile friendly • Technical directors may not have the time to sit down at a computer to fill in the form • Tablets and mobile devices are commonly issued to technical directors, so they are readily available to access the portal

Operational Database • Normalized • Optimizes speed of query • Day-to-day input • What we initially designed

Contact Us Users are able to contact the website administrator through this e-mail form to retrieve passwords, submit bugs, or ask general questions.

Beta testing to begin during 2018 E-Rate filing season.

Future Uses • Scope may be able to be extended to a nationwide data collection system for E-Rate Funding • Portal could be adapted to collect data from other community anchor institutions Future Features • Exported data can be filtered based on needs for analysis • Data visualization available through web portal

Password Change Initial login using predetermined credentials will prompt password change.

AUTHORS: Joshua Andrews Gina Bueno

The University of New Hampshire’s Anthro-Perspectives Anthropology Department is part of A Blog Platform for Course Collaboration the OER/Open Pedagogy movement, Gina Bueno & Josh Andrews Advisors: Dr. Marieka Brouwer-Burg & Dr . Sara Withers which encourages students to be active participants in generating and contributing to course knowledge. The introductory anthropology course is designed to incorporate a blogging platform that enables students to share their knowledge as well as their interpretation of course material. Previously, students complete blog assignments by submitting a photo and description that reflects the subject defined to their instructor. Instructors would then choose a few to showcase on WordPress. However, in order to embrace the OER/Open Pedagogy movement, students should have the ability to control and showcase the work they produce, as well as collaborate with their peers. This new Anthro-Perspectives web application, enables students to publish their own blog posts and communicate with their peers through comments; reducing instructors’ manual overhead. In addition, instructors can grade assignments, manage student comments and create grade reports that can then be imported into Canvas. This new application results in a more efficient administrative process for the course and is designed for easy maintainability, through the implementation of PHP classes, controllers, and templates. Overview

Database Schema

Each semester, the introductory anthropology course assigns “Culture Snapshots”, blog posts that reflect course modules. Blog posts need a customized blog platform to support the collaboration of over 600 students.

ADVISORS: Marieka Brouwer Burg Sara Withers

Current System: anthrolens.wordpress.com

• •

Hosted by WordPress Only instructors have access to upload o Students upload assignments to Canvas and instructors select highlights for each module to upload • Limited number of posts Our System: Anthro-Perspectives.com

Instructors have the ability to add assignments each semester as well as point values that can be used for grading Instructors and students can upload blog posts and view other user’s posts Instructors can create courses, assignments, and grade reports from their dashboards Grade reports are exported in CSV format and can be uploaded to Canvas gradebooks Custom domain name

• • • • •

Reduced instructor overhead Aligned with the OER/ Open Pedagogy Movement Grading functionality Opportunity to collaborate across disciplines Overcomes the limitations of WordPress

• • •

Technologies Used

Benefits

Future Work:

Beta: April 2017 o Instructors will test the blog platform with current students • Release 1: Summer 2017 • Release 2: Fall 2017

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Anthro-Perspectives: A Blog Platform for Course Collaborations


Memorial Bridge Project AUTHORS: Peter Guarino Benjamin Mager William Pugh Yiming Yin

The Living Bridge - Live Stream Data Memorial Bridge Project Project is a website application project with an overall objective of designing and creating a website interface that PROJECT OVERVIEW DATA VISUALIZATION will be used to display data from sensors located throughout the Portsmouth Memorial Lift Bridge. Through the use of various structural sensors, underwater turbines, weather stations, and other data AUTHENTICATION sensors recently installed throughout the structure, the Portsmouth Memorial Lift ABOUT THE BRIDGE Bridge will in essence become a “Living Bridge”. Data Collected from these various sensors will enable both the Department of Transportation and researchers alike to view visual representations of classified live data through the use of a private website application requiring user authentication. Additionally, a public facing website application will provide the general public with an overview of certain unclassified structural sensor data in an interactive and easy to use way. Both website applications will display sensor data using different data visualization techniques in the form of graphs, charts, plots and more. Team Members: Benjamin Mager, William Pugh, Peter Guarino, Yiming Yin Faculty Advisors: Erin Bell, Collette Powers Department of Civil Engineering | Department of Computer Science / Information Technology

● Collect data from various sensors located throughout the structure of the bridge. ● Design and create a public and a private online interface to display sensor data.

ADVISORS: Erin Bell Collette Powers

● Communicate with researchers to create an ideal, versatile, and informative interface.

Homepage contains an Interactive image mapping of all data sensors located on the bridge for the general public. Researchers must click “Login” and enter valid credentials to view the restricted data.

● Use authentication to secure the private interface.

● Display data in real time using graphical

software.

● Due to the proximity to the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, there are restrictions to the data that can be displayed.

Users are able to hover over hotspots to view information about the specific sensor. There is a “More Information” link provided to allow users to view more information and unrestricted live data.

● Researchers and DOT personnel wishing to view sensitive (and restricted) realtime data will need to become authenticated before viewing the content.

● Once the user is authenticated, they will be granted acces to a “Private” area of the site containing live sensor data for “Turbines”, “Weather Station”, and “Estuary” data.

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

● Name: Portsmouth Memorial Bridge ● Location: Portsmouth, NH & Kittery, ME ● Bridge Type: Vertical Lift Bridge ● River Span: Pascataqua River

● All data will be displayed via a direct connection with SQL server located on the Memorial Bridge itself

Users are able to view visual representaions of less sensitive data. Researchers are able to adjust the timeframe and change specific sensors to display data most relevent thier research.

UNH Programming Assistance Center Automation AUTHOR: Nicholas Goodman ADVISORS: Andras Fekete Arvind Narayan

The Programming Assistance Center UNH Programming Assistance Center Automation (PAC) helps students with their PAC Help Application – Technical Design Specifications programming assignments. Students raise their hand to request for help. With a hand raised, the students are unable to continue debugging and developing their assignments. Additionally, there is no way to track the number of students in the PAC requesting help. The goal is to make the PAC more organized and efficient by implementing a web-based queue system to create a better workflow for consultants. The help application is designed using the Django framework, including Python, JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. This help app will facilitate record keeping on student traffic in the PAC and allow administrators to make better predictions on PAC utilization based on statistical data. This system creates a virtual queue and allows students to continue to learn on their own with the knowledge that help is on the way. Abstract

The Programming Assistance Center (PAC) helps students with their programming assignments. Students raise their hand to request for help. With a hand raised, the students are unable to continue debugging and developing their assignments. Additionally, there is no way to track the number of students in the PAC requesting help. The goal is to make the PAC more organized and efficient by implementing a web-based queue system to create a better work-flow for consultants. The help application is designed using the Django framework, including Python, JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. This help app will facilitate record keeping on student traffic in the PAC and allow administrators to make better predictions on PAC utilization based on statistical data. This system creates a virtual queue and allows students to continue to learn on their own with the knowledge that help is on the way.

Detailed Design

User Interface

Log in/log out: Users enter their UNH ID and password to login and clicks the logout button in the navigation bar to logout.

Architecture

This view is only visible by consultants. It displays the students in the queue including their queue position, first name. last name, computer they’re using, and the time they entered the queue.

RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

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2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

This view is only visible by superusers. This view displays the average queue size and wait time over a week.

This figure shows the models that are used to create the user queue. Most of the models in this figure are “under the hood” meaning Django creates and manages these models in the database.

Leaderboards:

Consultant Queue:

 Django Framework A Django-based application consists of models, templates and views with additional data processing components.  Programming Languages Django is built using Python, which is an interpreted high level programming language that supports object-oriented programming. Templates consist of HTML code with tags.  Models, Templates, and Views Models describe the logical grouping of data and functionality, like classes in the model-view-controller pattern. Templates define the look of the user interfaces of a Django application . Views define the structure of a Django application.  Request Processing The way a user interacts with a web application can be described as a sequence of requests from the user to the application, each followed by a response of the application.  Celery: Distributed Task Queue Celery is an asynchronous task queue/job queue based on distributed message passing.  Server Information The project is running on an apache webserver running on a linux(Fedora 23) server.  Development Development is done through a subversion repository on the server.

Queue Database Models

Statistics:

This view is visible to everyone. This view displays a leaderboard of the top ten consultants who helped the most students and top ten students who required the most help.

Statistics Database Models

Student Queue:

This view is only visible by non-consultants. The user (student) clicks the “Get Help” button to enter the queue to get help from a consultant. It then displays their position in the queue.

Project Flow

This figure shows the models that are used to populate the leaderboard and statistics views. All of these models are created by the developer and automatically stored in the database by Django. “AutoField” means that Django creates it. “ForeignKey” is used to represent a Many-to-One relationship. So, a model with a “ForeignKey” field signifies that the model is or will be part of a set in a different model.


Every Cloud Needs A Secure Lining AUTHORS: Kelsey Aten Marshall Thompson Nikita Yerram Samuel Young ADVISOR: Kenneth Graf

A web based training application to enhance employee knowledge and understanding of security responsibilities when deploying Amazon Web Services (AWS). The goal of this project is to create a training program for IT professionals to help make sense of AWS security that will help mitigate deployment concerns. This application contains fifteen online training exercises to ingrain and scale knowledge of security attacks. It was developed using AWS, a secure cloud services platform. AWS allows their customers to “build sophisticated applications with increased flexibility, scalability and reliability.

INTRODUCTION

Every Cloud Needs A Secure Lining

Kelsey Aten (CS), Nikita Yerram (CS), Sam Young, (IT) Marshall Thompson (IT) Sponsor: Ken Graf Project Manager: Collette Powers

OVERVIEW

HOME

- Cloud computing services AWS - Create web-based security training application - Help mitigate security concerns during deployment - Increase of development and deployment on AWS

DESIGN - Education Environment - Scenario: Main concern or Typical security risk - 15 Security Scenarios - Overview - Discovery - Remediation - Prevention

Top 5 Cloud Service Providers

DISCOVER Y

AWS

REMEDIATION

PREVENTIO N

NAVIGATION

- Secure Cloud Services Platform - Offers: - Increased computing power - Database storage - Content Deployment - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) - Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

PROCESS OVERVIEW

FUTURE PLANS

CYBER-KILL CHAIN

WEBSITE - Launching the Instance on AWS - Modifying the layout of the website - Create a more interactive experience

- Create Website Wireframe - Determine 15 Security Scenarios - Research Scenarios - Find Relevant Photos and AWS Screenshots - Fill Website with Information, Photos and Screenshots - Rework Website Navigation

DATA COLLECTION - Researching and gathering detailed information for level 2 and level 3 use cases - Updating AWS information as necessary

The application design includes a homepage with links to all lessons. Each lesson contains an overview, discovery, remediation, and prevention phase, as well as, a summary. The overview comprises of a realistic scenario of the attack. The discovery explains what to look for to see if anything has been compromised. The remediation and prevention phases review how to protect yourself from such an attack in the present and future. Finally, the PDF incorporates a summary of the scenario and each phase for easy review. This highly accessible application will prove as a quick reference to ensure safe and secure development on the AWS platform.

AUTHORS: Brandon Bryant Alexander Caruso George Ruseski Eric Warner ADVISOR: Kevin Short

Learning foreign languages is made Vocal Visualization difficult by the lack of effective methods Alex Caruso | Brandon Bryant | Eric Warner | George Ruseski | Advisor: Kevin Short for learning the correct pronunciation of words. In particular, tonal languages present an especially difficult challenge since the student must rely on audio feedback to tell if they are pronouncing a word correctly. VocalViz is an app that aims to solve this problem by providing visual feedback to the user. Using algorithms developed by Setem Technologies Inc., the app visualizes the user’s voice as they pronounce a word they selected from a database and displays it next to a visualization of the correct pronunciation of the word. Viewing this information provides the user with a better understanding of how to correctly pronounce words and makes the process of learning a new language easier.

Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH Introduction

Learning new languages is made more difficult by the lack of effective methods for instant feedback about the student’s pronunciation. In particular, tonal languages present an especially difficult challenge since the student must rely on a domain expert (e.g., native speaker) for feedback about pronunciation.

Vocal Viz aims to solve this problem by providing visual feedback to the user. This goal of this project is to build a multi platform application that visualizes the user’s voice in real time as the user is learning and practicing the new language.

Application

The top figure is a screenshot of two compound words being compared, blacklist and blackberry pronounced by the same speaker. The blue boxes highlight the “black” portion of the word. The red boxes highlight the differences between “list” and “berry”.

Viewing this information in comparison to a pre-recorded correct pronunciation provides the user with a better understanding of how to correctly pronounce words through instant visual feedback, making the process of learning a new language a little bit easier.

Technologies Used

•Setem Technology API, processes and cleans audio being analyzed •LIbGDX, framework for multi-platform applications

•Amazon Web Services, Apache server hosts database of pre-recorded phrases •Java sound library, used for audio capture

In the bottom figure, a user’s voice is being visualized on the left panel. On the right panel the user’s voice is being compared to a pre-recorded version of the same word.

• Gradle Build System

Analysis

• Color mapping • Display

• Transpose and overlay for comparison

Future Workings

• Portability across all platforms; continue developing for all platforms iOS, android, Linux etc,,,

• Support multiple languages

• Extend to include phrases and sentences • Automatic analysis, implementing machine learning algorithms to compare user’s voice and recordings

Figure 1: Application workflow

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Vocal Visualization


Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) AUTHORS: Ryan Ducharme LuYao Zhang ADVISOR: Scott Kitterman

Vulnerabilities in the Domain Name Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) System have been discovered that Department of Computer Science allow attackers to hijack sessions and deceive users into visiting their web Abstract server. Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of extensions that are designed to make surfing the web safer by validating you Project Goals are getting the information you asked for. Since only 8% of .EDU domains are DNSSEC-enabled, this project’s purpose is to propel the University of New Hampshire to join the minority What’s Next? and eventually implement DNSSEC on www.UNH.edu. This involves creating reporting tools to monitor the health of a test DNS server with DNSSEC capabilities. The goal is to build tools that will give UNH network administrators confidence to implement DNSSEC at the University so users can be always be connected to valid sources. Project Team: Ryan Ducharme + LuYao Zhang Project Advisor: Scott Kitterman

Vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System have been discovered that allow attackers to hijack sessions and deceive users into visiting their web server. Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of extensions that are designed to make surfing the web safer by validating you are receiving the information you asked for.

Since only 8% of .EDU domains are DNSSEC-enabled, this project’s purpose is to propel the University of New Hampshire to lead the way and implement DNSSEC on www.UNH.edu.

DNSSEC Chain of Trust

Long-Term • Sign the UNH.EDU zone at the University using appropriate keys • Configure all name servers to support DNSSEC

.GOV DNSSEC Implementation

Snapshot of a Report on the Project Web Server

Short-Term • Create reporting tools on a remote server using MySQL database • Run queries against an isolated test domain that is signed with DNSSEC • Scripts query the domain automatically from the remote server using Bash scripts • Maintain a web server to display reports and health checks of the signed zone

• • •

Install and test DNSViz alert tools on the remote server • These tools will alert administrators if keys are nearing expiration or if the trust chain is broken Monitor the website regularly to ensure the zone is being signed automatically Analyze DNS log files for unusual activity or potential DDoS attempts

A Simple DIG ANY of www.it710.net

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

.EDU DNSSEC Implementation

Peer Review Dashboard AUTHORS: Mitchell Fillion Kylie Patton

The Computer Science department at the PEER REVIEW DASHBOARD University of New Hampshire currently has no uniform platform available to manage Senior Capstone peer reviews. The peer reviews are used to monitor how teams work together and help identify any issues that evolve during the senior project creation. The Peer Review Dashboard project aims to provide a uniform interface that will allow for the creation, distribution and analysis of student reviews. The dashboard is a custom-made website, written primarily in PHP, running on a Linux web server. Professors in the Computer Science department will be able to create and share review questionnaires with their students within a secure web application. Once review data has been submitted by a student, the professor can log into the administrative portal and view a summary of the review data that has been entered by the students. The administrative portal will also allow the professor to manage users and teams, retrieve various statistics, and more. The Peer Review Dashboard eliminates the need to export data from one platform to another, keeping the data contained in one central repository. Authors: Mitchell Fillion & Kylie Patton Project Sponsor: Collette Powers

Problem Statement

Solution

Google Forms is the current platform for CS/IT Senior Capstone Peer Reviews. This allows for little to no

administrative abilities such as searching, scalability, data manipulation, and the like.

CS professors will be administrators

Administrators will have the ability create and share review questionnaires with their students visa a secure web application

ADVISOR: Collette Powers

Additional Issues with Previous Format

Administrative portal will have the following capabilities:

A view of summary review data

Management of users and teams

Google tools only allows for viewing forms by submission No usable analytics for data being collected

Export data efficiently

Various statistic retrieval

Need for customized creation, distribution, and analysis of peer reviews

And more!

Comparison

Old format: Google Form • Date exported to an excel sheet • Group size and other variables were not scalable • No ability to search among reviews • No efficient way for an administrator to manage or visualize data New format: Website/Dashboard • Unified engine • Manage users and teams directly from application • View responses by team or individuals

Technologies Used:

Security

The Peer Review Dashboard was built with security in mind.

• Secured with the latest standards to keep your data safe

• Encrypted connections using TLS 1.2 authentication protocol, ECDHE_RSA with P-256 key exchange, and AES_256_GCM ciper

• Advanced controllers prevent unauthorized access to web pages • Backups are encrypted to help prevent data breaches • Trust certificate: InCommon RSA Server CA

Winning Project

2017

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Backups & Reliability

Next Steps: Optimization & Usability

Automated backups – ensures the data stays the way you intended it to.

Optimization

Crontab ensures that the backup scripts run reliably and predictably

rsync keeps I/O operations low by only copying modified files

Usability

Code will be revised and optimized to reduce server overhead

Application will be deployed to small test groups to determine areas of improvement

Application will be revised to enhance usability based on user feedback


See, Sign, Say AUTHOR: Joseph Janiak ADVISOR: Deb Hamlin

Some differently-abled students are unable to communicate through speech. Teaching American Sign Language (ASL) to these students is a common method to help foster communications with others to express needs and wants. However, some of these students do not have the ability to read, which makes traditional methods (by reading the word and accompanying sign) of teaching ASL ineffective. The purpose of this application is to help in this case by assisting in teaching illiterate students learn to ASL. The application is required to be able to be used by those who cannot read, so will use short videos to teach students how to speak ASL. Many applications currently exist by using a search bar or a list of words to identify which signs the user wishes to use. However, because the students in mind do not have the ability to read or write, these applications are ineffective. To identify the ASL signs, symbols will be used. These symbols will be grouped in pre-determined categories for simple navigation. Examples of these groups are the alphabet, colors, school words, among others.

AUTHORS: Theodore Belanger Jeffrey Guichard Karl Hamnqvist ADVISOR: Whitney Weller

Honorable Mention Project

2017

UNH and Force5Networks partnered together to create a green energy surveying platform. The project was originally focused on surveying solar energy installations that use photovoltaic cell technologies, hence “PV Inspections.” After a semester of planning and learning the required technologies, we generalized the platform to work for both wind turbine and solar installations. Our primary project goal was identifying devices in need of repair. After research and evaluation of our groups skill set we selected a LAMP model architecture for the framework of our web based application. We chose to develop a web application to be non-OS specific and utilize PHP, HTML5, and MySQL.

Photovoltaic Inspec0on Tool Jeffrey Guichard, Karl Hamnqvist, Theodore Belanger Department of Computer Science University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824 Force5 Networks LLC.

Goals

Background Inspection of Green energy equipment can be expensive and time consuming, and as such the usage of drones and other camera equipment has surfaced. These new methods of inspection bring the need for a tool which can handle off-site analysis and reporting of the video and photographs collected

Implementation Logic

Ø  Support Uploading Videos with associated inspection details Ø  Provide intuitive analysis UI/UX for reviewing surveyed video Ø  Reporting page that produces a .pdf that includes all flaws found in the analysis phase Ø  Develop solution as a Web-Application in order to stay non-hardware specific

Usage Administrator: Maintains Database information on each registered company: locations under management, features at locations Surveying Pilots: Upload video of feature with associated telemetry Platform Analyst: Select videos for different locations, record flaws for locations

Build back end: linux, mySQL Front end: HTML5, CSS Backend Calls: PHP, AJAX, JQUERY, JAVASCRIPT

Conclusion

Ø  Uploading survey data and associated inspection info Ø  Analysis page to log errors found in features and stores in database Ø  Reporting page to aggregate errors found at a site Ø  User permission system for site navigation control Ø  Login System implemented with password salting Ø  Live updating web-elements (Ajax & MySQL)

Future Work

Ø  Generalize DB tables to extend platform to other surveillance types Ø  Automate analysis procedure with machine learning Ø  Expand Customer Options Ø  Allow for customization of error types Ø  Company defined user roles Ø  Platform API and mobile interfaces

Database Schema

Our users will be pilots, analysts and reporters. The pilots upload the data into the database for the analysts to then identify potential flaws in the equipment. These flaws are then recorded for the reporter to collect into a downloadable PDF. The goal for our implementation is to be able to provide a smooth multi-user experience that allows for data from aerial surveying to enter our system, be processed, and exit as a consolidated field report. Our implementation serves as a proof of concept for Force5Networks to be able to further evaluate an investment in technology infrastructures for this sector. INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Photovoltaic Inspection Tool


Internet of Things AUTHORS: Patrick Fleming Andrew Johnson Trevor Maddaus Andrew Mitchell Michael Schoerner ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an inter-networking trend that connects Internet of Things everyday objects to the Internet to Improving Students’ Lives in the Always-Connected World enable the collection and exchange of Introduction Recommended Solution Wi-Fi Trilateration information. Through these IoT devices, a simplified and mo‑e convenient lifestyle in the home, workplace, and everywhere in between can be achieved. Our project focuses on the application of IoT to Requirements Research a university setting in order to better Mapped Floor Plan accommodate students­ ’ lives inside or outside of the classroom. University What’s Next Library patrons have expressed a desire Problem Definition to control their environment around temperature, lighting, noise levels, and resource availability in the library. This would offer an environment where an IoT solution could greatly enhance a student’s experience. Different devices could be used to gather information about the current state of the library to help students find a suitable place to conduct their studies. This solution could also be applied to other areas on campus to address similar concerns. An IoT model to address this environment is proposed. ● Internet of Things ○ The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as an inter-networking trend that connects everyday objects to the Internet. This enables the collection and exchange of information to be analyzed. IoT technology can easily be adapted to simplify the world around us so people can have a more convenient lifestyle in the home, workplace, and everywhere in between. Our project focuses on the application of IoT to a university setting in order to better accommodate students’ lives inside or outside of the classroom. ● Project Goals ○ Research potential IoT applications that could be used to better students’ lives on campus ○ Develop a plan for deploying an IoT application in order to solve an existing problem

d = 10

Previous project considerations: ● NFC enabled student IDs ○ Housing Department already has a solution ○ Intercommunication between departments is nonexistent ● Self checkout system for library ○ Proprietary software prevents creation of plugins ○ Would require use of open source library management software ● Library whiteboard tracking ○ RFID for tracking ○ GPS tracking ○ Wi-Fi triangulation

● Whiteboard Tracking ○ Attach Raspberry Pi with altimeter to the whiteboards ○ Use Raspberry Pi to scan for all Wi-Fi access points (APs) ■ Provides information on MAC address, operating frequency, signal strength ■ Calculate distance between Pi and each AP using the FreeSpace Path Loss formula ○ Pass distances, MACs, and altitude of Pi to backend server ■ Map APs to altitudes and (x, y) coordinates ■ Use Pi altitude to pick APs to use for trilateration ■ Perform trilateration with n APs to get whiteboard location ○ Save whiteboard location to database ● Temperature Monitoring ○ Raspberry Pi connected with thermometer ○ Pass temperature to backend server and store in database ● Noise Tracking ○ Raspberry Pi connected with sound sensor ○ Pass decibel values to backend server ○ Map decibels to noise level and store data in database ● Brightness Measuring ○ Raspberry Pi connected with photocell ○ Pass light level values to backend server ○ Map values to brightness and store data in database ● Displaying Information ○ Create webpage or mobile app to pull information from database ○ Display information on interactive map of building ○ Allow filtering of different data being tracked ○ Students can select a study location based on this information

27.55−20log10 f +|⋋| 20

FSPL dB = ⋋ = 20log10 d + 20log10 f − 27.55

● Web interface ○ Shows map of each floor of the library ○ Each floor shows whiteboard locations ○ Each room/area would show ■ Temperature ■ Noise level UNH MOBILE ■ Light level ○ Could easily be expanded to show additional information ● Mobile app ○ Displays similar information ○ Easier to access ○ Could be integrated into new library section of UNH Mobile ■ Students already have UNH Mobile on their phone

● Dimond Library wants their patrons to be happy ● Everyone has their own prefered work environment ○ Some people like quiet and dark environments ○ Others prefer bright and hot areas ● Librarians offer patrons as many tools as possible, such as ○ Conference rooms ○ Computers, printers, and scanners ○ Whiteboards on wheels ● Patrons find whiteboards inaccessible ■ The library is too large ■ The library only has 12 mobile whiteboards ■ Patrons have a hard time locating the whiteboards

Andrew Johnson | Andrew Mitchell | Michael Schoerner | Patrick Fleming | Trevor Maddaus Project Advisor: Scott Valcourt

Evaluation of gRPC

Warren Edgar & Irene Hardjono Advisor: Prof. Phil Hatcher Department of Computer Science

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

The solution to this is gRPC. A custom built communication framework by Google and Square, designed to reduce latency and minimize transmit time.

Are the claims they made true? • Measure the round trip time of a remote procedure call • Measure number of bytes over the wire • Evaluate the usability of the framework And compare to the “traditional” alternative JSON via REST.

1000 Random 64-bit Integers - Bytes over the Wire

Total Number of Bytes on Wire

How does the protocol save so much space transmi8ng numbers? Using variable integer sizing. For example take the number 127.

35000 30000 25000 20000

gRPC REST

Google allegedly experiences 1010 internal/external remote procedure calls per second in their datacenters. Traditional HTTP/REST has had problems scaling to this level for them.

Total Number of Bytes on Wire

ADVISOR: Philip Hatcher

In the last decade of the software industry there has been exponential growth in the Evaluation of gRPC number of users simultaneously using online services. The demand placed upon Problem Results Analysis the existing technical infrastructure has been excessive, leading to the fragmented 0x0000007F responsibility of programs as micro 0x0000007F Solution services. Since these smaller services 0x7F tend to be in different programming languages and technology stacks, it Goals 0xEB8688 has become increasingly confusing and inefficient to transmit data between them. Due to this there has been a need to seek out faster, more efficient ways for Conclusion computers to communicate with each Methods other. gRPC (gRPC is a Remote Procedure Call) is an answer to the aforementioned challenges. Designed to be a sleek, fast way for programmers to enable multiple services to communicate to each other. In this project we expect to test the claims made about gRPC by the main developers (Google), and to determine if this protocol stacks up against a more traditional architectural style, REST (Representational State Transfer). This project aims to test three variables of data transmission: speed of the round trip time of a call, savings from compression of data and ability to handle simultaneous number of clients. 15000 10000 5000 0

0 – 216

0 – 232 0 – 248 Range of numbers value

0 - 264

UTF-8 Transmission - Bytes over the Wire

10000000 1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1

0x00-0x7F

0x80-0x7FF

0x800-0x7FFF 0x10000-0x1000FF

1000 Random 64-bit Integers - Round Trip Time

6 5 4 3

REST gRPC

2

Used tcpdump to capture traffic and analyzed with Wireshark. Measured round trip time from client to server with Python’s built-in time libraries.

Honorable Mention Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Every bit is significant, no easy compression.

By keeping a TCP socket open gRPC is able to minimize the time needed to communicate from client to server and back. Traditional lessintelligent REST libraries will open up a new socket on every call.

Range of UTF-8 Blocks Sent

7

Remove the extra zeroes, since they don’t hold any informaFon. Saves 24 bits of space!

Conversely, UTF-8 is already compressed. Every bit has significance. For example the Korean Hangul 놈

gRPC REST

Round Trip Time (ms)

AUTHORS: Warren Edgar Irene Hardjono

1 0

0 – 216

0 – 232

0 – 248

Range of numbers value

0 - 264

gRPC is a efficient, robust protocol. When dealing with a high volume of daily transfers it is something to be considered. The compression schemes have already been optimized for the end user. The automatic code generation features save the developer time and energy.


Evaluating the Go Programming Language AUTHORS: Devon McAvoy Daniel Spencer ADVISOR: Philip Hatcher

The Go programming language was Evaluating the Go Programming Language created by Google, claiming that Group: Devon McAvoy & Daniel Spencer concurrency in Go shows increased Advisor: Professor Hatcher performance and is easier to implement Purpose Concurrency claims that Go concurrency gives than other languages. This project ● Examine improved performance & is easy to use performance of other programming evaluates these claims by examining ● Examine aspects in Go qualitative differences in writing and using concurrency in Go, as well as the benefits ● Examine Go compared to other languages or drawbacks of other aspects of Go, Object-Oriented Programming Garbage Collection including garbage collection, objectoriented design, and building clientserver applications. Quantitative data such as run time, memory usage, and cache usage were collected and analyzed Server-Client Conclusion Go was unable to provide performance improvements when on pairs of programs that accomplish compared to popular, established languages in aspects such as concurrency, object-oriented design, and garbage collection, but the same function, with one program qualitative improvements in the ease of use of channels compared to threads and mutexes were observed. written in Go and the other written in the language to be compared, such as C or Java. In addition, qualitative data was collected and analyzed. This includes observations while creating the program pairs, such as tools available for the language and ease of use in writing a program in that language. Path searching algorithm that generates and discards state objects throughout run.

Simple object-oriented application that makes successive calls to the parent methods from a child class.

# of GC Events

Go

Java

49

5

Server takes IP address and prefix length and responds with addresses such as broadcast, netmask and other significant addresses on network.

Network-based Precise Time Synchronization AUTHORS: Aaron Blais Cody Shaw ADVISOR: Radim Bartos

Time synchronization in both wired Network-Based Precise Time Synchronization and wireless networks is becoming increasingly important. With networks Method Setup Overview growing in size as a result of the Internet of Things (IOT) time stamping capabilities must become more accurate, specifically in a scenario involving actuators and sensors. Global time allows devices on a network to communicate with each other in order to accurately execute tasks Results Conclusion as well as conserve energy. This project focuses on finding cost effective high precision time servers to serve as the sole clock source for these networks, which provides a global time. Two time servers have been implemented by our team under existing time precision protocols, NTP and IEEE 1588. Both time servers use accessible hardware components such as the Raspberry Pi and Adafruit GPS. Data was polled and graphed over an extended period of time in order to measure the accuracy of the two protocols. Both servers, as a result produced time keeping abilities down to the microsecond level. Aaron Blais and Cody Shaw Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire Advisor: Radim Bartos

Introduction Time synchronization in networks is becoming increasingly important, specifically in applications involving actuators and sensors. With networks growing in size as a result of the Internet of Things (IoT), time stamping capabilities must become more accurate. Having Global Time allows devices on a network to communicate with each other in order to accurately execute tasks as well as to conserve energy. Goal • Implement a low cost precise time source using low cost components. • Achieve accuracy down to the millisecond level. • Compare the performance of two software implementations of protocols, IEEE 1588 and NTP.

• Implement two separate time servers both using a GPS for its clock source . o Network Time Protocol server (NTP). o IEEE 1588 Time Server. • Implement a single client that will act as a monitor. • Visualize results of the experiment using MRTG software.

NTP Server: Week Long Time Offset Data

IEEE 1588: Most Recent Day Offset Data

IEEE 1588: Week Long Time Offset Data

• The time server was cost effective. As compared to competitors with similar accuracy. Raspberry Pi: ~$50 ~$70 Adafruit GPS: Total: ~$120 Entry Level NTP: ~$300-$400 • We observed comparable results between IEEE 1588 and NTP. Two observations were made. o NTP’s time accuracy in general remained more steady, while IEEE’s had a higher variability. o On average, IEEE 1588 was more precise with an average time offset of +-2 microseconds over a weeks time. • Future Work o Collect more data to further compare NTP and IEEE 1588 o Investigating security of IEEE 1588 o Time sensitive application using time servers

Winning Project

2017 INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCE SCIENCEAND ANDENGINEERING ENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM SYMPOSIUM

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

NTP Server: Most Recent Day Offset Data

• Adafruit Ultimate GPS x2 –Global Time Source • GPS Antenna x2 • Raspberry Pi 3 Model B x1 (Client/Monitor) • Raspberry Pi 2 Model B x2 (Servers) • 8-port Gigabit Network Switch x1


Public Data Breaches for the Fortune 1000 between 2005-2016 AUTHORS: Kristen Anderson Andrew Ciesielski INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Stephen Patton, Liberty Mutual Insurance

In an effort to better catalog data Public Data Breaches for the Fortune 1000 between 2005-2017 breaches to improve the understanding of data loss in the United States, a publicly available cyber breach list must be defined in order to effectively combat cyber-attacks. Referencing the list will show trends in specific fields of industry that are subject to attacks. This list has the specific focus of covering cyber breaches occurring between 2005 and 2016 within the fortune 1000 companies found between 2013-16 and is implemented using various publicly available lists of said breaches as well as web browser searches. The research we are working on includes many aspects of important information most publicly available lists do not have (i.e. specific timeline/actor/ level of impact details). Research was conducted under a strict search methodology. The information is then recorded in the VERIS framework (a set of metrics designed to provide a common language for describing security incidents in a structured and repeatable manner). An incident that is recorded must include specific fields to be filled out in order to be considered complete. By the end of this project we will have completed research for ~200 breaches of the fortune 1000 companies. Andrew Ciesielski & Kristen Anderson CEPS, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Introduction

Data Breach: an incident where sensitive, protected, or confidential data has been viewed, stolen or used by an unauthorized individual; this concept is the core of our research into the Fortune 1000 (or F1000) companies. With technology being such an integral part of our society thanks to its usefulness in storing information and allowing communication worldwide, companies prioritize protection of their systems and the information they store; this is not always achieved though, since security is bypassed in multiple ways. No unrestricted raw dataset is currently available for download on security incidents that is able to support community research and decision-making. Reasons for focusing on the F1000 as the subject of our research: • Reasonably accurate representation of all other companies as a sample - the companies within represent various fields at varying degrees of overall income. • Helps to determine patterns found in industries susceptible to leaks in order to better combat data breaches .

Public Data Breach Fortune 1000 Database Plan

Database Language Used

Methodology

Future Data Analysis

Conclusions

Charts

Before performing research, steps had to be taken in order to ensure research was being performed in an efficient manner; these steps are as follows: Defining a search procedure, Select a framework to notate our research. I. Veris selected due to ease of use and consistent organization of data. II. Designed to support decision making. 3. Select a format to place research into

The fortune 1000 data breach database will give Liberty Mutual a better understanding of the security they are trying to provide their members with, as well as a better form of trust and understanding of the forms of data breaches members should be aware of. Once the fortune 1000 data breach database provides the knowledge of breaches that are taking place in certain industries, these industries can take measures of protecting themselves from these data breaches. This database is different from others because it has a more specific focus on the top 1000 companies instead of including smaller inequivalent company’s breaches, giving a better snapshot of what the most common breaches are.

Search Procedure Flowchart

1. 2.

We simply asked ourselves what we wanted VERIS for, and prioritized the elements it has pre-defined. Here are some uses we had with VERIS:

1.

An analysis of fields was included, displaying fields most often used by other organizations to decide what fields we would use.

2.

Defining the Action (what was done to cause/contribute to the incident) of an event

3.

Defining the Actor (who caused the incident), Asset (assets compromised), Attribute(security attributes compromised), source id, timeline, summary, and notes of an event.

Acknowledgements

sTAMDFigures Simulations

● Sponsor: Stephen Patton - Information Security at Liberty Mutual

JSON format

Search Procedure

Results

Due to the vast amount of breaches that occur every year it would be impossible to complete all data entries this semester. This semester there will be around 400 entries in the database completed, all from the top 50 companies on the fortune 1000 list from 2016. Once the semester is over, Liberty Mutual will take over the process and procedures created by the project to fill in the entire database with relevant data breaches and ultimately develop knowledge of the different industries these businesses work in and the types of breaches these companies are susceptible to.

● VCDB Format

Formatting the research was performed using JSON, or "Javascript Object Notation“. Aspects of JSON include: Compact notation that is easy for people to read and write.

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Easy for machines to parse and generate.

Less cumbersome than the column and row design of excel sheets.

The amount of research required for this project was deemed to be 10 breaches per team member on a weekly basis, with the overall goal of fully coding ~200 breaches by the end of the academic year.

An example of a coded breach

Example of coded breach continued

References

VCDB database ITRC Databreaches.net Privacy Rights Clearinghouse The ID Theft Center Breach Level Index HHS Office of Civil Rights iv

An Assessment of the Relative Performances of Real-Time Search Algorithms: Local Search Space Learning A* (LSS-LRTA*) and Real-Time Adaptive A* (RTAA*) AUTHOR: Shane Kochvi

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

ADVISOR: Wheeler Ruml

While there are many graph search algorithms, such as Dijkstra’s algorithm and A*, which can yield optimal trajectories through a search domain given unlimited time constraints, real-life scenarios often require that an agent begin traversing a search domain before a complete path to a goal can be found. Real-time search algorithms attempt to balance requirements for fast planning, fast execution, and minimal trajectory costs. LSS-LRTA* (Local Search Space - Learning Real-Time A*) is one of the most popular in a class of real-time search algorithms based on A* which interleave action executions along a search path with planning and updates to the heuristic values within the local search space around an agent. RTAA* (Real-Time Adaptive A*) is a real-time search algorithm proposed as an alternative to LSS-LRTA* that uses a faster but less granular protocol for updating heuristic values within the local search space. Here we compare the performance of RTAA* and LSS-LRTA* using our own implementations across domains previously described in the literature as well as others. We discuss the properties of each with regard to their performance in each domain.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Assistive Robotics AUTHORS: Christopher Oelerich Olva Timorry ADVISOR: Momotaz Begum

Complex disorders of brain development, Assistive Robotics like autism, create difficulties for children to develop their social skills. Techniques such as Applied Behavior Analysis Testing / Results have proven to help overcome these Background difficulties, but must be administered by specialists. Previous research performed by Momotaz et al. on using a humanoid robot to deliver ABA for individuals with autism, has demonstrated the feasibility Objectives of such approach, but still relied on a human operator in what is known as a “Wizard of Oz” experiment. Our project takes the initial steps towards automating this interaction. Utilizing biometric measurements including galvanic skin response and facial thermal imaging we are developing a software module, using the Robot Operating System platform, to model a conversation participants level of interest and respond appropriately. By tracking head focus and body position we are able to mirror the participants posturing. The results from the interaction between the humanoid robot and the patient will be used to assist a certified specialist in delivering early intervention programs for individuals with autism. Behavioral Intervention with Autonomous Robots Investigators: Olva Timorry, 
 Chris Oelerich

Advisor: Momotaz Begum
 Manager: Collette Powers

● Complex disorders of brain development, like autism, create difficulties for children in developing social skills. ● Artificially intelligent embodied robots are increasingly proving their potential to help in behavioral intervention of children with developmental delays. ● This work presents our preliminary work to design a set of techniques to assist in robot-mediated behavioral intervention.

Assist in the automation of delivering behavior intervention plans to individuals with autism, delivered by a NAO robot.

Figure 5: Points plotted along the contour of a face using open source libraries such as OpenCV and Dlib C++. The orientation and position of the head is marked by the colored lines from the center of the face.

Figure 1: Measures a patient’s heart rate over a period of time. A Normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60-100 bpm. Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function.

● Model the participant’s level of interest.

The position and orientation data of the head is used by the NAO robot to update its head position to mimic the participant’s gaze. Derived from the Github open source project Attention Tracker.

Figure 2: Measures a patient’s electrodermal activity over a period of time. The surface of the skin receives EDA signals from the brain. Electrical conductance increases through cognitive stimulation or physical exertion.

Figure 3: Measures a patient’s body temperature over a period of time. Changes in the patient’s body temperature can be an indication that the patient is experiencing emotional or physical stress.

● Utilize biometric measurements including galvanic skin response. ● Track head focus and body position to mirror participants posturing.

The head pose estimation is done using dlib c++ libraries for face detection and OpenCV’s solvePnP function, which uses adult male anthropometric data to match a real 3D head to the projected image.

Figure 4: Measures a patient’s blood volume changes over a period of time. BVP measurement is obtained by the use of a photoplethysmography sensor. Several measures can be derived from BVP, such as changes in heart rate and peripheral blood flow.

Figure 6: Shows the interaction between the participant and the NAO robot. Using the head pose tracking algorithm, the NAO robot is able to follow the participant's gaze.

Future Works

● Integrate full body skeletal tracking using a Kinect sensor. ● Integrate all measurements into a combined patient model interpreted via reinforcement learning.

CHILI Lab, Attention Tracker, (2015), GitHub repository, https://github.com/chili-epfl/attention-tracker | Empatica, EmpaLink, (2015), GitHub repository, https://github.com/empatica/empalink-sample-project-android | Davis E. King. Dlib-ml: A Machine Learning Toolkit. Journal of Machine Learning Research 10, pp. 1755-1758, 2009 | Itseez, Open source computer vision library, https://github.com/itseez/opencv, 2015.

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Cody Lanpher, Casey McGrath, Anne Lightbody

Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824

Figure 1: Pasture Site

Figure 2: Native Forest Site

Event flow (%)

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Figure 6: Example of hydrograph method for March used for estimating event flow and baseflow

• Baseflow and event flow are higher in the winter suggesting the ground is saturated • Total precipitation is higher in the winter for Fielding and Coromandel • Coromandel storm frequency is highest in winter. • The number of winter storms is increasing over time at Feilding (data not shown)

250.00

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Figure 5: The average monthly air temperature for Fielding and Coromandel stations, along with average monthly baseflow and event flow for the Fielding station. 2.50

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SQMCI

Study Objectives • Assess the biodiversity and hydrology of the Aroaro Stream in the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand • Compare the water quality and biodiversity between pasture and forested land to understand the impact of land use changes

Biodiversity Assessment • We sampled macroinvertebrates, freshwater mussels (kākahi), and freshwater fish through populations counts and species identification • The population of pollutant sensitive macroinvertebrate species was calculated using the Semi Quantitative Macroinvertebrate Community Index (SQMCI) and the %EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera orders) Biodiversity Findings • SQMCI was higher on average in native forest than in pasture • %EPT was higher in native forest than in pasture • Freshwater mussels were found in the most downstream site (Site 1) • Fish biodiversity was higher in the native forest sites than the pasture • Faunal biodiversity is poorer farther downstream in the pasture land than in the upper reaches under forested land, shown by an abundance of pollutant tolerant species in the pasture land. 8

New Zealand Seasonal Trends

mm/day

The Importance of Freshwater • Since European settlement, New Zealand freshwater ecosystems have been declining rapidly in health, due to many threats including dairy expansion, invasive species, and climate change. • Macroinvertebrate, freshwater mussel, and fish communities are some of the first indicators of poor water quality • Increased levels of suspended sediment produced during storm events can impair aquatic ecosystems, by increasing water temperature, physical abrasion, and fine sediment deposition within the stream.

Total Precipitation (mm)

ADVISOR: Anne Lightbody

Since European settlement, the health The Biodiversity and Hydrology of the Aroaro Stream Catchment, of New Zealand freshwater systems Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand has been declining and is now under many threats including dairy expansion, Study Background Trends in New Zealand Storm Events Characterizing Bioindicators sedimentation, and climate change. The objective of this study was to assess the biodiversity and hydrology of the Aroaro Stream in the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. We assessed the water quality and biodiversity of 6 Site Description stream reaches within the catchment. We found that the turbidity was higher, Conclusion freshwater fish biodiversity was lower, and macroinvertebrate species were more pollutant tolerant in downstream References reaches of agricultural pasture land than in the upper reaches of the native forested land. Examining historical records, we found that the annual average precipitation and frequency of storms is increasing over time, which could enhance bank erosion and increase suspended sediment in the stream, especially in winter when runoff is high. To protect the fish, macroinvertebrate, and freshwater mussel communities within farmland streams, we suggest vegetated buffers, consistent monitoring, and community education to improve the water quality over time. Temperature (°C)

AUTHORS: Cody Lanpher Casey McGrath

Coromandel Station

2

Pasture

Native Forest

Less Sensitive

More Sensitive

Banded Kokopu

Koura

Mosquito Fish

• Examining historical records for 1989-2016, we found that the annual average precipitation and frequency of storms has increased significantly over time. • Annual average temperature at the Fielding site has also increased over time. 35

• Land use change, specifically pasture expansion, is threatening aquatic ecosystems in the Coromandel • Storm frequency has increased, possibly enhancing bank erosion and increasing turbidity, making the stream less suitable for certain species, including the endangered kākahi. • Wintertime storms are especially problematic because the same amount of precipitation produces more event flow, thus an increased risk of high levels of suspended sediment • To protect farmland streams and the sensitive species that inhabit them, we suggest vegetated buffers, more consistent monitoring, and community education to improve the water quality over time.

3000

Coromandel Station Feilding Station

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2500

y=0.08x

y=0.17x

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20

1500

15

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Total Precipitation (mm)

# of 25 mm Storms

Hydrology Assessment • We used daily precipitation data from 1989-2016 for Coromandel and Feilding stations. • We used daily discharge data for 2016 for the Feilding station. Discharge data were not available at the Coromandel station. • Fielding and Coromandel stations had similar climate and topography.

y=5.95x

y=9.48x

25

Figure 4: Precipitation and discharge gauges

4

Figure 10: The average SQMCI score at pasture sites was 4.3 ± 1.39 and native forest sites was 6.9 ± 0.05. Vertical bars show 2 standard error among replicate sites

Change in Storms Over Time

Fielding Station

Figure 3: We assessed biodiversity in pasture (Sites 1-2) and native forest (Sites 3-6) of the Aroaro Stream catchment on the Coromandel Peninsula.

6

0

Figure 9: Conducting mussel survey at pasture Site 1

Figure 7: Monthly average number of 25 mm storms and monthly total precipitation for Coromandel and Fielding stations for 19892016.

500

5 0

Albaster , J. S., & Lloyd , R. (1982). Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish. London: Buttersworth Joy, M. K., & Death, R. G. (2013). Freshwater biodiversity. In J.R. Dymond (Ed.),(pp.448459) Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Word Press Stark, J. D., & Maxted, J. R. (2007). A User Guide fro the Macroinvertebrate Community Index. Ministry for the Environment Cawthron Report No. 1166.

0

Figure 8: Yearly average number of 25 mm storms (bars) and yearly precipitation (points) compared for the Coromandel and Fielding, NZ from 1989-2016. Trendlines show that the number of 25 mm storms is increasing over time for both statistics in both the Coromandel and Fielding.

Examining Impacts of Runoff into CT Lakes on Surface Chlorophyll-a Concentrations John Ciaburri, Environmental Science: Hydrology (jvk29@wildcats.unh.edu) Advisor: Anne Lightbody, Department of Earth Sciences

Lake Export

Loading

Net phosphorus sink

Lake Watershed Phosphorus Cycling at Steady State

Subbasin Export

Epilimnion

Thermocline

Diffusion

Hypolimnion

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R² = 0.5322

R² = 0.6849

Figure 5: Nested control volumes for evaluating the phosphorus budget of study lakes including algae (green dots).

Surface Deep

20 0

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100

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400

Figure 1: Maximum surface summertime chlorophyll-a concentrations compared to mean surface (>3 m) and deep (<3 m) phosphorus concentrations for 12 CT lakes 2012-2015.

Land Cover Type

Urban Rural/Agricultural Forest Atmospheric deposition

Figure 2: Lower Bolton Lake after an algal bloom in 2012.

Figure 3: Map of study watersheds

Temporal and Spatial Variability

Columbia Lake

Crystal Lake

Stillwater Lake

Quinebaug Pond

Lake Terramuggus

Hatch Pond

• Subbasin discharge and phosphorus export were also estimated using the EPA’s Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) implemented as part of the Hydrologic Water Quality System (HAWQS) at the USGS HUC 12 watershed scale on a daily basis between 2004 and 2010 using default inputs. • For comparison with lake watershed discharges, subbasin watershed discharge estimates were scaled by the ratio of the watershed areas. • At the subbasin scale, export increased during large storm events.

Lower Bolton Lake

Lake Waramaug

Mashapaug Pond

10

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

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0.1

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Mount Tom Pond

Figure 4: Land cover within lake watersheds.

0

• Annual average lake outlet discharge and export estimates cannot capture seasonal and storm-related variability. • Scaled annual average discharge from the subbasin watershed had similar magnitude to and correlated very well with the lake outlet discharge. • Estimated subbasin phosphorus concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than the measured lake concentrations and were not correlated. • Scaled annual average exports were correlated, but were not of the same magnitude, due to the large differences in concentration and elevated export during storm events.

3 km

North

0.01 2004

0.001

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2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

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Oligotrophic

30 20 10 0

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Figure 8: Net phosphorus sink and maximum summertime chlorophyll-a for each lake.

Figure 9: Vollenweider plot shows expected loading threshold for eutrophication as a function of lake hydraulic loading (Chapra 1997) with superimposed observations from study lakes showing both loading and net sink.

Conclusions

R² = 0.9627

1:1

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Phosphorus Loading

Non-eutrophic lakes

40

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2

• Algae impact nutrient budgets by sequestering phosphorus in Connecticut lakes. • If phosphorus loading is reduced, algal blooms may still occur due to legacy phosphorus stored in the hypolimnion. • Future studies should explore how these lakes react to reductions in phosphorus loading and which management practices will remove phosphorus from the hypolimnion most efficiently.

1:1

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Phosphorus export (g/s)

Bashan Lake

Discharge (m3/s)

Alexander Lake

Export

350

60

• Phosphorus loading is the major input in 8 of 12 lakes. • Export balances some but not all of the loading and diffusion, suggesting a net sink in 9 of 12 lakes. • The net phosphorus sink is positively correlated with maximum summertime chlorophyll-a concentrations. • Observed eutrophication history compares well to known loading thresholds, especially when the full phosphorus budget is considered when calculating residual availability.

Figure 6: Small lake watershed (red, 7.5 km2) and larger subbasin watershed (brown, 206 km2) for Columbia Lake. See Figure 4 for land cover types.

Diffusion

700

-350

70

Table 1: Phosphorus runoff export coefficients used to determine phosphorus loading for different land cover types (Reckhow and Simpson 1980).

Study Lakes

The study focused on 12 lakes distributed throughout Connecticut. Each lake is at least 4 m deep and stratifies seasonally. The lakes were chosen to include a range of watershed development intensities. Lake watersheds were delineated using USGS StreamStats. Measured grab sample summertime (JuneSeptember) surface chlorophyll-a and phosphorus concentrations for 2012-2015 were provided by CT DEEP.

Loading

1050

Figure 7: Phosphorus loading, diffusion, export and net sink for each lake.

Phosphorus Loading (kg/ha/yr) 0.5 0.1 0.02 0.2

Subbasin discharge (m3/s)

60 40

• Loading was estimated by multiplying the area of each land cover type by a phosphorus runoff coefficient. • Vertical diffusion up from the hypolimnion was estimated using Fick’s Law with a typical thermocline diffusion constant (8.29×10-7 m2/s, Chapra 1997), measured lake surface area, the difference between the average deep and surface phosphorus concentrations, and an estimated thermocline thickness of 3 m. • Lake export was estimated using the average summertime surface phosphorus concentration and annual average USGS StreamStats discharge for the lake outlet. • Net phosphorus sink was calculated as the phosphorus budget residual divided by the volume of the epilimnion with an estimated thickness of 2 m.

Phosphorus (kg/year)

Phosphorus Budget

A phosphorus budget was constructed for the watershed and subbasin of each lake.

Chlorophyll-a (ppb)

Phosphorus in Connecticut Lakes

Phosphorus is typically the limiting nutrient in freshwater systems (Chapra 1997). In lakes, high concentrations of phosphorus lead to eutrophication and algal blooms, measured by an increase in chlorophyll-a. In Connecticut, where lakefront property is extremely valuable, algal blooms can be devastating to the local economy by killing off fish populations and making the lake unsuitable for swimming. During summer 2016, I worked with the CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (CT DEEP) to collect water samples from lakes around the state. Measurements from previous years (2012-2015) suggest that as phosphorus concentrations increase, chlorophyll-a concentrations also increase. This study uses phosphorus budgets for Connecticut lakes to explore controls on elevated phosphorus concentrations.

Subbasin concentration (g/m3)

ADVISOR: Anne Lightbody

Phosphorus acts as the limiting nutrient Examining impacts of runoff into CT lakes in freshwater systems such as lakes. on surface chlorophyll-a concentrations When phosphorus concentrations are high, eutrophication and algal blooms can occur, which are measured by an increase in chlorophyll-a. Phosphorus loading was estimated for 12 Connecticut lakes based on watershed land cover. Diffusion of phosphorus from the hypolimnion was estimated using measured deep phosphorus concentrations and a typical diffusion coefficient. Export of phosphorus out of the lakes was estimated using measured surface phosphorus concentrations and average discharge out of the lake from USGS StreamStats, and compared to estimated daily watershed export provided by the EPA Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. A weak correlation (r2=0.56, n=12) was found between the residual phosphorus available for algal uptake and maximum summertime chlorophyll-a concentrations. The SWAT model estimated that slightly more phosphorus export takes place during the winter and fall, suggesting the importance of seasonal dynamics on phosphorus cycling. This study confirms that phosphorus loading from the watershed drives chlorophyll-a levels, and that lakes surrounded by agricultural and urban development tend to be more susceptible to eutrophication in the absence of preventative measures. 2010

Figure 10: Daily subbasin and annual lake outlet discharge and export estimates for the Columbia Lake watershed.

Lake outlet discharge Subbasin discharge Lake outlet export Subbasin export

Subbasin export (g/s)

AUTHOR: John Ciaburri

Chlorophyll-a (ppb)

EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

The Biodiversity and Hydrology of the Aroaro Stream Catchment, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

R² = 0.7118

1:1

0

0.01 0.02 Lake outlet export (g/s)

0.03

Figure 11: Comparison between (a) annual average scaled subbasin discharge and lake outlet discharge, (b) annual average subbasin phosphorus concentration and measured lake concentration, and (c) scaled annual average subbasin export and lake outlet export.

Figure 12: Lake Waramaug in the fall.

References

Chapra, Steven C. Surface Water Quality Modeling. Boston, Mass.: WCB McGraw Hill, 1997. Print. Reckhow, K. H., and J. T. Simpson. "A Procedure Using Modeling and Error Analysis for the Prediction of Lake Phosphorus Concentration from Land Use Information." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37.9 (1980): 1439-448. Web. Schindler, D. W. "Eutrophication and Recovery in Experimental Lakes: Implications for Lake Management." Science 184.4139 (1974): 897-99. Web. Yan, E. "Modeling Climate/Crop Impacts on Hydrology." Swift. National Science Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.


AUTHOR: Katherine Rocci

Methane (CH4) emission in areas of Methane Flux and Isotopic Composition along a Thaw Gradient over a discontinuous permafrost may increase Growing Season at Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden Katie Rocci¹, Sophie Burke¹, Paige Clariza¹, Carmody McCalley², and Ruth Varner¹ with warming temperatures resulting Overview and Significance Results in a positive feedback to climate change. Part of understanding changes in CH4 emissions is characterizing the production mechanisms of CH4 CH Flux CH Data Collection which can be observed by measuring isotopic changes. We studied CH4 flux and isotopic composition in a subarctic peatland in Abisko, Sweden to understand controls on these factors Environmental Variables Methods over a thaw gradient during the growing season. Methane chamber flux measurements and porewater samples Conclusions Acknowledgments were collected every week from June 6 - August 1, 2016 and were analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector and Quantum Cascade Laser, respectively. Increased emission rates and changing isotopic signatures were observed across the thaw gradient. The most significant controlling factor for both flux and isotopic signature was vegetative group. Vegetative group tends to align with thaw stage so both emissions and 13C are likely to increase in a warmer world. 1Department

of Earth Sciences and Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH ²School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY

Photo by Scott Saleska

ADVISOR: Ruth Varner

• Enhanced arctic warming promotes permafrost thaw, leading to methane (CH4) emission 1, 2

Increasing Thaw

• CH4 is a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2 ³ • Stordalen mire is an area of discontinuous permafrost that is experiencing thaw • CH4 production moves from hydrogenotrophic towards acetoclastic methanogenesis as thaw progresses⁴ Our Question How does CH4 flux and isotopic composition vary along a thaw gradient over the growing season?

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Figure 6: Depth-averaged methane isotopic composition throughout the growing season. Higher (less negative) values suggest acetoclastic methanogenesis and lower (more negative values suggest hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Error bars represent standard error.

(b)

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CH3COOH → CH4 + CO2

Figure 7: (a) Modelled vs. measured depth-averaged δ¹³CH4. (b) Modelled vs. measured CH4 flux. (c) Depiction of chemical exchanges for Carex spp. Oxygen goes down to the roots, roots exude acetate, acetate creates methane, methane is transported through aerenchymatous tissue in Carex spp. stems to the atmosphere.

Figure 5: Air temperature (Ta), temperature at 10cm depth (Td), and water table depth at the sphagnum site and precipitation in Abisko throughout the growing season.

Figure 3: Katie Rocci running the GC-FID

[1] Schuur et al. 2015. Climate change and the permafrost feedback. Nature, 520, 171-179. [2] NOAA. 2014. Arctic Report

Card: Update for 2014. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, accessed 2015 Oct 12. [3] EPA. 2013. Methane Emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, accessed 2015 Oct 12. [4] McCalley et al. 2014. Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw. Nature, 514, 478-481.

Winning Project

Carex

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Figure 2: Chambers used for methane flux measurements on collars

(a) Laboratory • Samples were analyzed for CH4 using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization (b) detector (GC-FID) • δ¹³C measured using a Quantum Cascade Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometer Data Analysis • Fluxes were calculated using a linear regression of change in concentration over time • JMP was used to analyze significance and fit

References:

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(a)

Figure 4: Methane flux throughout the growing season. Darker colors represent collars that are further along in the thawing process. Error bars represent standard error.

Figure 1: Katie Rocci sampling porewater along Transect B.

Isotopes

-40

Averaged del13CH4

120

Methane Flux Chambers

CH4 Flux (mg/m2/day)

Transect Porewater Sampling

Hydrogenotrophic Acetoclastic

Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden June 5th-August 3rd, 2016

4

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Eriophorum

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Thank you to Dr. Avni Malhotra for allowing me to use her chambers and transects for the methane fluxes. Thank you to the members Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for all of their support in this endeavor, especially to Georgeann Murphy and Peter Ackerman. Thank you to Mr. Dana Hamel and Mr. and Mrs. Frank Noonan for their financial support of this project.

• Thawing indicated by warmer and wetter environments • Thawed sites tend to emit more CH4 and have lighter isotopic ratios • Vegetation type controlling factor for flux and isotopic signature • Stordalen expected to get warmer and wetter – promoting more thaw, greater emission, and heavier isotopic ratios

2017

Prioritizing Sustainability Initiatives for Small Businesses AUTHOR: Matthew L’Heureux ADVISOR: Vanessa Levesque

In the US there are 6 million small businesses, which account for 48% Prioritizing Sustainability Initiatives for Small Businesses Department of Natural Resources and the Environment and Sustainability Dual Major, UNH of total US employment and 46% of Matthew A. L’Heureux,Introduction Results private sector output. Despite small businesses’ aggregate contribution to the economy, individual small businesses have less capital and fewer resources than large companies. This makes it more difficult for the small business sector to Objectives implement Environmental, Social, and Governance practices that would benefit Methods Conclusions the environment, social well-being, and businesses’ bottom line. The purpose of this research is to identify areas of ESG practice that are most feasible Key Resources to implement and most beneficial to small businesses. Analysis of secondary research shows that a business’s bottom line benefits from ESG in two primary ways: risk reduction and a reduction in operating cost. Therefore, in my project, I interviewed owners of small businesses to identify the environmental, social and governance practices that contribute to sustainability, computing an ESG score for each company. I then explored relationships between ESG scores and company size and industry type. Based on this research, I confirm that small businesses are most successful with first implementing resource saving practices and employee engagement practices. • This study explores sustainability efforts of small businesses • In the US, there are 6 million small businesses, which account for 48% of total US employment and 46% of private sector output. • A small business does not exceed either 500 employees or $7.5 million in average annual receipts, and approximately 90% of all small businesses have between 1 and 20 employees • Having fewer personnel and less financial capital make it more difficult for small businesses to implement sustainability initiatives. • Businesses benefit from sustainability through reduced risk, lower operating cost, or increased profitability. • A common method of measuring business sustainability is Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) criteria. ESG looks at how a business is a steward to the environment, improves the social well-being of all stakeholders, and manages operations in a safe and ethical way. • Currently many small businesses are unaware of the benefits of sustainability practices. This research helps to outline the benefits and identify the areas where sustainability can provide the greatest benefit to small businesses.

1. Determine which ESG practices are most feasible for small businesses to implement 2. Determine which ESG practices are most beneficial to small businesses

Our internship class interviewed 23 small businesses using a script of 28 target areas based on ESG criteria. Each target area had one or more multiple choice follow-up questions which allowed data to be quantified. The responses were summarized for each small business and then analyzed for common themes. The open-ended questions allowed me to understand the business operations and assess which ESG practices were conducted most often and were most beneficial to the business. I reviewed a collection of case studies and aggregated analyses of business indexes that identified the business benefits of implementing ESG practices to identify. I specifically looked for data that quantified business benefits such as cost savings, an increase in business value, and employee retention. This information was used to evaluate the business benefits of different ESG practices.

Objective 1: ESG-based interview results:

Objective 2: Benefits of ESG practices

Environmental Top Value-adding Areas • Monitor and reduce business energy usage. • Conserve and reduce business water use. • Reduce, reuse, and recycle.

Each ESG category primarily provides one of the three business benefits: reduced risk, lower operating cost, or increased profitability. In the environmental category, this primarily means lowering operating cost through more efficient resource and materials usage. Within the social category, profitability increases through better employee retention and increased productivity. The governance category adds value primarily by reducing risk through separation of decision making authority and separation of financial duties.

Social Top Value-adding Areas • Benefits offered to employees. • Evaluation and providing feedback to employees. • Incorporation of employee creativity, innovation, and collaboration. Governance Top Value-adding Areas • Considering financial metrics in decision making processes (i.e. Return on Investment, Net present value) • Reviewing of major business decisions by governing bodies • Separation of financial duties

Environmental Benefit: - Cost reduction

Social Benefit: - Increased Profitability

Governance Benefit: - Risk reduction

Based on feedback from detailed interviews with 23 small businesses indicates that: • Environmental practices provide short-term benefits and require mostly financial capital. • Social practices provide long-term benefits and require a mix of financial and human capital • Governance practice provide short to long-term benefits and require human capital.

The results show that there is no one size fits all solution for improving sustainability in small businesses. Needs and current practices must be assessed to determine where best to allocate human and financial capital.

Gaskin, Russ, Lauren Frederic, and Tammy Halevy. The Big Green Opportunity for Small Businesses in the U.S. Rep. N.p., 2013. Web. Profits with Purpose: How Organizing for Sustainability Can Benefit the Bottom Line. Rep. Mckinsey, July 2014. Web. Rochlin, Steve, Richard Bliss, Stephan Jordan, and Cheryl Yaffe Kiser. Project ROI. Rep. Verizon, 2015. Web.

Whelan, Tensie, and Carly Fink. "The Comprehensive Business Case for Sustainability."Harvard Business Review (2016): n. pag. Harvard Business Review. 21 Oct. 2016. Web.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

Methane Flux and Isotopic Composition along a Thaw Gradient over a Growing Season at Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden


EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

Metamorphism and Deformation of Pelitic Rocks Along the Flint Hill Fault Zone in Southern New Hampshire AUTHOR: William Orfei ADVISOR: Jo Laird

Honorable Mention Project

The bedrock of the northeastern United States is characterized by metamorphism and deformation from multiple orogenic events. The bedrock of Flint Hill Fault Zone (FHFZ), southern New Hampshire consists of aluminous sedimentary rocks (pelites), and calc-silicates. The history of these pelites is less understood than that of the calc-silicates. Through the uses of mineralogical and structural evidence the history of the pelites is compared to that of the known calc-silicates. The mineralogical assemblage of the FHFZ is composed of biotite, garnet, sillimanite, staurolite, feldspar, and quartz. To constrain the pressure and temperature of these metamorphic events and to determine the number of deformation events, petrographic thin sections have been taken across the flint hill fault. Chemical analysis from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the samples to the west of fault are sillimanite zone while the samples to the east are staurolite zone metamorphism. Petrographic observations are congruent with the history of the calc-silicates showing two past deformation events. From this, it is concluded that the pelites have undergone two metamorphic events that are limited by staurolite.

2017

Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation Summer Internship AUTHOR: Brandon VanDeWalle ADVISOR: Dianna Schulte

Blue Ocean Society for Marine Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation Summer Internship Conservation is dedicated to protecting marine life in the Gulf of Maine through research, education and inspiring action. The summer internship program involves hands-on experience in whale research including data collection, data input, educational practices and the chance to learn about the inner workings of a nonprofit organization. Additionally, one-onone work with researchers and educators aboard commercial whale watch boats as well as at outreach programs rounded out the internship to bring the science to the public. Data collected contributed to long-term studies involving cetacean populations, habitat use, demographics, and threats, including marine debris near whales. Study sites included Jeffreys Ledge and Stellwagen Bank, which are productive areas within 15-20 miles of the NH and MA coast. Additional duties pertaining to public education involved demonstrating baleen and the local habitat, attending guest lectures to gain insight into the expansive field of marine biology, assisting with beach cleanups and school programs, as well as educating diverse guests at the Blue Ocean Discovery Center at Hampton Beach. Brandon Van De Walle Advisor: Dianna Schulte Department of Earth Sciences/Environmental Science

Introduction

Blue Oceans Mission statement is to protect marine life in the Gulf of Marine through research, education, and inspiring action. • Researching the behavior and populations of fin, humpback and minke whales in the Gulf of Maine. • Educating people about marine life and human impacts through hands-on experiences, including beach cleanups, whale watches, school programs and the Discovery Center in Hampton Beach. • Inspiring and taking action through marine debris cleanups, pollution prevention campaigns and introducing simple behavior changes anyone can take to benefit Gulf of Maine marine life.

On the Water

Atlantic WhiteSided Dolphins breaching

Basking Shark grazing the water surface for food

Humpback Whale showing baleen during feeding

Looking Forward

• Current Research Projects: Identifying and cataloging local fin and humpback whale populations. Studying the distribution of whales, basking sharks and ocean sunfish. Investigating long-term trends of social groups. • Further research in micro plastic and marine pollution. • Continued work with UNH Cooperative Extension and Sea Grant to further study micro plastics on New Hampshire beaches.

Objectives

• Record all marine life sightings on a data sheet. • Collect as much data as possible during beach clean ups and micro plastic sand sampling. Sieving through sand and sorting plastics into various categories. Foams make up the largest percentage of micro plastics. Collect/record macro plastics during beach clean ups. With the help of volunteers, Blue Ocean has removed over 170,000 pounds of litter from local Rye and Hampton beaches. • Educate and inform the public about out local marine life and tide pool species.

Data Collection

• Whale Research  Behavior  Reoccurrence of individuals • Micro plastics Research  Through beach clean ups • Other marine species sightings • Marine debris • Environmental data: Weather and sea conditions Ocean temperature • Maintain a catalog of local fin and humpback whale  Digital image of whales natural markings  Used for identification and tracking of individuals  Looking for scars, calves, and fluke patterns

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

All pictures were provided and taken by Blue Ocean Society affiliates! They can be found on their Facebook page at Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation!

Conclusions

• Whales are important species in the Gulf of Maine, and their health can serve as indicators of the health of the Gulf of Maine overall. The data collected is unique and can provide valuable information that can help resource managers develop policies that ensure the health of whales and the Gulf of Maine as a whole. • Whales in the Gulf of Marine are a good indicator species for future environmental conditions, such as climate change. • With the help of volunteers and organized beach clean ups, pollution on beaches can be mitigated and used as data for longterm studies on marine pollution. • Micro plastic research on beaches also provides data for long-term studies.


Numerical models are used to study Flooding and Inundation Modeling in the Great Bay Estuary complex hydrodynamic systems, simulate waves, tides, wind-driven currents, water levels, and predict flooding and inundation scenarios. Understanding the effect of flooding and inundation in the Great Bay estuary is of particular interest in New Hampshire because of high density land use practices and the proximity of people living near its borders that are at risk from future sea level rise and increased storm intensity induced by a changing climate. FVCOM, a finite-volume coastal ocean model, was selected because it utilizes an unstructured grid to discretize the model domain. Unstructured grids provide the ability to have fine scale resolution near the boundary or coastline and decreased resolution away from the boundary where the flow field is less complicated. FVCOM was implemented on a grid with finest resolution equaling 30m, and then tested to run with offshore forcing determined by a 1.5m amplitude M2 tide for 10 days, including fresh water river fluxes from 6 rivers equivalent to 5 times the average daily discharge. The numerically stable model indicates that now the grid can be used to model more realistic tidal forcing in the Great Bay, and used to predict future flooding scenarios based on forecasted storm events and sea level rise. Anna Simpson, Tom Lippmann University of New Hampshire, Department of Earth Sciences â&#x20AC;˘

Introduction

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Numerical models are used to study complex hydrodynamic systems too difficult or time-consuming to observe with field observations. They are used to simulate waves, tides, wind driven currents, water levels and predict flooding and inundation scenarios associated with storm events and sea level rise. High density land use practices and proximity of people living near its borders make the Great Bay estuary at risk from future sea level rise and increased storm intensity induced by climate change. In this work we use FVCOM, a community finite-volume coastal ocean model that uses an unstructured grid to discretize the model domain. FVCOM solves the Equations for momentum, continuity:

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Figure 6. Close up portion of the grid, showing fine scale resolution near boundary.

Figure 11. Close up of flood currents in Little Bay of Great Bay estuary.

Figure 12. Close up of ebb currents in Little Bay of Great Bay estuary.

Model Setup

Parameters

Ă&#x2DC; Time step (â&#x2C6;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą) = 0.25 Ă&#x2DC; Mesh (â&#x2C6;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ) = grid (30m â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2km) Ă&#x2DC; Turbulence coefficients: Ah = 1.0 m2/s Az=0.04 m2/s Ă&#x2DC; Bottom roughness (zo)=0.06 m

Ă&#x2DC; Boundary conditions: Closed bottom, Free surface Ă&#x2DC; Forcing â&#x20AC;˘ Offshore â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tides & subtidal â&#x20AC;˘ Rivers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5 times avg. daily discharge Ă&#x2DC; Spin-up : 2 days

Figure 13. Estimated Relative Sea Level Figure 14. Map of area with modeled Change Projections From 1992 To 2100 inundation. blue: mean sea level, light blue: Gauge: 8418150, Portland, ME (1.82 spring high tide, yellow: spring high tide + 100 mm/yr). Different forecast models with the yr storm surge, red: spring high tide + 100 yr low and high estimations are shown. storm surge + sea level rise

Forcing

Figure 1. Schematic showing unstructured grid for finite-volume model and where variables are defined. 1

Figure 10. Current magnitude for the maximum spring ebb tide with storm forcing.

Figure 9. Current magnitude for the maximum spring ebb tide.

Depth (m)

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Figure 4. Bathymetric map of Great Bay estuary. Black contour designates mean sea level.

Model Results

An unstructured grid allows for the ability to have fine scale resolution near boundary with decreased resolution away from the boundary Distmesh grid generator uses the Delaunay triangulation algorithm to adjust edges of triangles and move nodes Used hyperbolic tangent formula to obtain appropriate cell sizes as a function of distance from the boundary

Depth (m)

ADVISOR: Thomas Lippmann

Ă&#x2DC; Develop a stable hydrodynamic numerical model using an unstructured grid Ă&#x2DC; Run realistic tidal forcing scenarios in the Great Bay Estuary Ă&#x2DC; Run forecasted storm events to predict flooding scenarios under projected sea level rise scenarios

Current Magnitude (m/s

Grid Generation

Objectives

Current Magnitude (m/s

AUTHOR: Anna Simpson

River Discharge (m3/s) Squamscott 3.1 Lamprey 8.0 Oyster 0.6 Cocheco 4.7 Salamon Falls 5.4 Bellamy 1.0

Figure 2. Schematic showing sigma coordinate system2.

Study Area

Summary

Table 1. River discharges used in model for forcing3.

Figure 3. Image of the New Hampshire taken from Google Earth. The Great Bay estuary is located off the Gulf of Maine and is fed by 7 major rivers. (Note that the Upper Piscataqua river includes Cocheco and Salmon Falls rivers.)

Ă&#x2DC; FVCOM was implemented in Great Bay estuary on a grid with finest resolution equaling 30 m Ă&#x2DC; Tested to run with offshore forcing determined by a 2.0 m amplitude M2 tide for 10 days, including freshwater fluxes from 6 rivers with 5 times average daily discharge Ă&#x2DC; 100 year storm surge scenario tested without rivers Ă&#x2DC; Run future flooding scenario with projected sea level rise of 1.92 m

Figure 7. Tidal forcing time series. Figure 7. Tidal forcing time series

Acknowledgements and References

Figure 8. Storm forcing time series for predicted 100 year storm.

1. Chen, C., Liu, H., Beardsley, R.C., 2003, An Unstructured Grid, Finite-Volume, Three-Dimensional, Primitive Equations Ocean Model: Application to Coastal Ocean and Estuaries. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20: 159â&#x20AC;&#x201C;186. 2. Chen, et al., 2013, FVCOM User Manual Fourth Ed. 3. Ward, L., Bub, F., 2005, Temporal variability in salinity, temperature, and suspended sediments in the Gulf of Maine estuary (Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire), High Resolution Morphodynamics and Sedimentary Evolution of Estuaries. Ch 7. 151-142 Thanks to Tom Lippmann, Salme Cook, and others for their support and guidance through this work.

Figure 9. Forcing time series with storm added (tidal + subtidal).

Effects of Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard) Invasion and Additional Abiotic Stressors on Fine Root Biomass of Native Tree Species AUTHOR: Amber Kittle

Global change effects carbon (C) cycling, Effects of Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard) Invasion and Additional Abiotic Stressors on Fine Root Biomass of Native Tree Species but interactions between abiotic and Amber R. Kittle*, Mark A. Anthony, Serita D. Frey biotic stressors may determine sizes of Background Results soil C pools. The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) can reduce soil C contents and suppress plant growth. Abiotic stressors might interact with this biotic invasion to diminish Hypotheses specific soil C pools, such as fine roots, a sizeable reservoir of C. We implemented Methods Discussion a full factorial experimental A. petiolata invasion into a decadal soil warming x nitrogen addition experiment at the Abiotic Treatment Control N H HN Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Soils were collected References from replicate plots in June 2016, and fine roots were picked from both organic Contact and mineral soil horizons. I hypothesized that plots invaded by A. petiolata would have lower fine root biomass and the effect would enhance across all abiotic treatments. In support for my hypothesis, I found that A. petiolata invasion did reduce fine root biomass and interacted with simulated N-deposition to further diminish fine root biomass. In contrast, I did not observe this in plots that were warmed or where warming and N additions interacted. Biotic invasion interacts with abiotic stressors with more complexity than formerly believed and will impact fine roots differently in a warmer, fertilized environment. *Presenting author

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§ When averaged across treatments, invasion reduced fine root biomass and interacted with simulated nitrogen (N)-deposition to further diminish fine root biomass. § This might explain why A. petiolata invasion has been previously associated with reduced soil C contents [1]. § In contrast, I did not observe this in plots that were warmed or where warming and N additions interacted. § Fine root biomass increased in the N uninvaded plots, which suggests they may not be decomposing. § It has been found that N deposition can increase soil C stocks [4] and this may be partially due to the accumulation of fine roots. § Abiotic stressors and biotic invasion interact with more complexity than once believed and will impact fine roots differently in a warmer, fertilized environment.

1. Anthony, M. A., Frey, S.D., Stinson, K.S. (2017) Biotic invasion homogenizes fungal community. In review. ISME Journal. 2. Rogers, V. L., Wolfe, B. E., Werden, L. K., Finzi, A. C. (2008) The invasive species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) increases soil nutrient availability in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Oecologia 157, 459-471. 3. Contosta, A. R., Frey, S. D., Cooper, A. B. (2011) Seasonal dynamics of soil respiration and N mineralization in chronically warmed and fertilized soils. Ecosphere 2 (3), 1-21. 4. Frey, S. D., Ollinger, S., Nadelhoffer, K., Bowden, R., Brzostek, E., Burton, A., Caldwell, B. A., Crow, S., Goodale, C. L., Grandy, A. S., Finzi, A., Kramer, M. G., Lajtha, K., Lemoine, J., Martin, M., McDowell, W. H., Minocha, R., Sadowsky, J. J., Templer, P. H., Wickings, K. (2014) Chronic nitrogen additions suppress decomposition and sequester soil carbon in temperate forests. Biogeochemistry 121, 305-316.

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Figure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fine root biomass (Âľg dry root g-1 dry soil) averaged across all abiotic treatments in uninvaded and invaded plots. P-value = 0.006.

§ Soils were collected from SWaN (soil warming ´ nitrogen addition experiment), 10 years running at Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) in Petersham, MA § Oak dominated stand § Full factorial experiment (Table 1) § A. petiolata introduced in 2013 and sustained for 2 years

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§ Plots invaded by A. petiolata will have lower fine root biomass and the effect will be enhanced across all abiotic treatments. § Uninvaded plots will have increased fine root biomass across all treatments.

Biotic Invasion Invaded Uninvaded

ADVISOR: Serita Frey

§ Fine roots constitute a large portion of the soil carbon (C) pool. § The loss of fine roots through environmental stressors can cause concentrations of atmospheric C to continue to increase and if C in root biomass is mineralized there could be a large efflux of C to the atmosphere. § Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), a nonmycorrhizal associating plant, can reduce soil C contents [1] and suppress plant growth through the production of secondary compounds [2]. § Globally, abiotic stressors can alter C cycling [3], but abiotic stressors may interact with biotic invasion to effect components of the C cycle in ways that are not yet understood.

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Table 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Full factorial experiment including abiotic treatments from the SWaN experiment and biotic invasion of A. petiolata

Photo credit: Mark Anthony

Amber R. Kittle* - akittle@wildcat.unh.edu

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

Flooding and Inundation Modeling in the Great Bay Estuary


EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

Tracking Organic Carbon Transport from the Stordalen Mire to Lake Tornetrask, Sweden AUTHOR: Bargaret Beck ADVISORS: Joel Johnson Ruth Varner Carmody McCalley Michael Palace Wallace Bothner

In subarctic regions, organic carbon from thawing permafrost and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation are sources of carbon to lake sediments. Methane is produced in sediments from the decomposition of organic carbon at rates affected by vegetation presence and type as well as sediment temperature. Research in the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has suggested that organic carbon sources in young, shallow lake sediments yield the highest in situ methane concentrations. In this project we sampled stream, glacial and post-glacial lake sediments along a drainage transect through the Mire into the large glacial Lake Tornetrask. The highest methane and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were observed in lake and stream sediments in the upper 25 centimeters, consistent with previous studies. C/N ratios range from 8 to 32, and suggest that a mix of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation sources dominate the sedimentary record. Although water transport occurs throughout the mire, we conclude that the major depositional centers for sediments and organic carbon occur within the lakes and prohibit young, labile TOC from entering the larger glacial Lake Tornetrask.

Calculating Snow Water Equivalence with an Automated Snow Scale in Southeastern New Hampshire AUTHOR: Sarah Patry ADVISOR: Elizabeth Burakowski

Climate change affects seasonal trends in Calculating Snow Water Equivalence with an Automated temperature and precipitation. Changes Snow Scale in Southeastern New Hampshire in accumulation, density, and snow water equivalence fluctuate based on storm Background Results frequency, hydrometeor type, diurnal temperature range, and surface energy inputs. Projected decreases in future snowfall and snow cover could have important implications for winter and Methods spring surface energy budgets and soil Conclusions & Future Work moisture conditions. Currently, there are few automated means of measuring snow properties in the eastern United States. Here, we compare the fully automated 2KR SnowScale SSC3000, measuring Snow Water Equivalence (SWE) by References relating pressure to SWE, to daily manual snow core samples. Samples were taken every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday over February to April 2017 in between the two SnowScales on the roof of Morse Hall at UNH in Durham, NH. The sampleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mass was divided by the volume of the core tube to find snow density. Density was then multiplied by depth to calculate SWE in mm and compared with corresponding scale values. Comparing the SWE values allows us to test the accuracy of automated snow measurements. The results showed that on days with a lower SWE, the accuracy of the scale matched our calculated values most times. For larger SWE values, the scale measured a lower SWE than the calculations. Sarah K. Patry, B.S. Earth Sciences, College of Engineering & Physical Sciences; sky52@wildcats.unh.edu Advisor: Dr. Elizabeth Burakowski, Assistant Professor, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space Department of Earth Sciences University of New Hampshire- Undergraduate Research Conference-Interdisciplinary Science April 19,2017

â&#x20AC;˘ Climate change affects accumulation, snow density, snow water equivalent (SWE), storm frequency, hydrometeor type, diurnal temperature range, and surface energy inputs. â&#x20AC;˘ Projected decreases in future snowfall and snow cover could have important implications for winter and spring surface energy budgets and soil moisture conditions. â&#x20AC;˘ Few automated SWE systems in the eastern United States. â&#x20AC;˘ 2KR, a locally owned and operated business in Barrington, NH developed new technology, the SSC3000 SnowScale, to automatically measure SWE. â&#x20AC;˘ Comparison of automated SWE values to manual snow cores assesses accuracy of automated snow measurements.

96 Scale- Time EB Scale- Time Series Series

Figure 2. This plot shows the time series of Scale EB. The points on this match this scaleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values better. This scale also melts out sooner, so the SWE values decline before scale 96.

Manual Samples- The manual snow core samples were taken on the roof of Morse Hall, three times a week over the course of February 14th- April 5th 2017. The depth (h) and mass (m) were recorded. Snow density:

SWE:

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Figure 4- The comparison of the sample SWEs and the scale values. It shows that the blue line has a steeper slope, meaning it is more correlated to the calculated SWEs.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

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Figure 1. SSC3000 SnowScale units installed on the roof of Morse Hall in Durham, NH.

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3/28/2017

3/29/2017

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Automated SnowScale- The 2KR SnowScale SSC3000 relates SWE to pressure (P) on three load cells (LC), multiplied by a slope of 0.192, which was calibrated in a lab. đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192; = đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

3/28/2017

Figure 5- This is a time lapse of Morseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roof from 3/153/31 with segments of the Scale graphâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s for comparison

3/31/2017

The SSC3000 SnowScale performed well during February, but underestimated SWE in March. Due to its location on the roof, Station EB ices out faster. This is shown in a slight lag in Station 96â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plot. The presence of ice layers improves the accuracy in the values given from the scale. Samples taken on days with ice layers present have values closer to the calculations. In the future, the SSC3000 pressure-SWE slope calibration could potentially incorporate local environmental factors to improve late season SWE estimates. Over a longer period of study, we can compare annual SWE curves and determine fluctuations in snow density, snow storm frequency, and SWE values. A better mean to compare the core samples to either scale would be to take samples as close the each scale as possible (2 cores) to possibly attain results closer to the calculated points.

1Sturm,

Matthew, Brian Taras, Glen E. Liston, Chris Derksen, Tobias Jonas, and Jon Lea. 2010. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11(6): 1380-1394. doi: 10.1175/2010JHM1202.1


AUTHOR: Kyle Hacker ADVISOR: Wilfred Wollheim

Reservoirs can act as net sources of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere and are thus important to consider in global scale carbon cycling. Emissions of greenhouse gases from small reservoirs are not well studied. Small reservoirs often have abundant macrophytes, particularly in shallower waters and have been found to affect gas concentrations throughout the water column. This study examined how different macrophyte species can affect gas concentrations in two reservoir systems, the South Middleton Reservoir and the Cart Creek Beaver Pond, located in the Ipswich and Parker River watersheds, MA. CO2 was higher at depth, consistent with production in sediments. CH4, however, was found in higher concentrations at the surface, suggesting consumption at depth or production within the water column. N2O concentrations were relatively constant at the surface and at depth suggesting that N2O was produced upstream and dispersed through the water column. CH4 and N2O were both found in much greater concentrations in the beaver pond than in the reservoir, possibly because of greater organic matter content. Macrophyte biomass did not affect vertical oxygen, CO2, and CH4 concentration profiles.

Testing for Volcanics Ash Deposits within the Bar Harbor Sedimentary Sequence AUTHOR: Mikhail Jackson ADVISOR: Jo Laird

The Bar Harbor sedimentary sequence is a well-bedded siltstone and sandstone. It was deposited in the Silurian period during the ocean basin spreading of Laurentia and Baltica. The sequence is defined by the USGS as a greenschist facies protolith and a feldspathic sandstone with a minor conglomerate unit, that are likely to be ball and pillow structures. Siltstone thin sections of the mid and top segments within the sequence revealed foliated biotite around garnets in an aligned orientation. The presence of garnet is diagnostic of the pressure and temperature conditions after the deposition of the Bar Harbor Sequence. The proposed layers of volcanic ash within the thin section were very fine grained with few isotropic minerals that would have lead to conclusive evidence of volcanic deposition. The ash layers would have diffused in the high-energy ocean marine environment they were deposited in. The presence of biotite and garnet within the sequence now indicate that the formation is more accurately described as a metasedimentary sequence.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Two Reservoir Systems


EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

The Crystalization and Assimilation Processes of the Mt. Pawtuckaway Ring Dyke Complex AUTHOR: Kyle Loughlin ADVISOR: Jo Laird

The Pawtuckaway Mountain ring dike complex intrudes the Massabesic Gneiss complex in Raymond, NH. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s subdivided into units of gabbro, pyroxenite, diorite, and monzonite. A sample of pyroxenite and a sample of monzonite were collected and made into thin sections. They show olivine phasing out to pyroxenes in the pyroxenite sample and pyroxenes transitioning to amphiboles, amphiboles turning to biotites, and biotites transitioning to other micas in the monzonite sample. These petrological observations are the targeted zones that are run through elemental analyses through the combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). This readily provides the mineralsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; chemical composition. Plagioclase grains in the pyroxenite slide exhibit weak chemical zoning from the center grain to the rim, the composition of the pyroxenes in the pyroxenite thin section are iron rich orthopyroxenes, and olivine phases out to these orthopyroxenes in the same slide. Geobarometers and geothermometers of olivineclinopyroxene and albite-anorthite are derived from the chemical formulas of the minerals and are used as a proxy to determine the conditions of pressure and temperature of lithification of the bulk-composition magma.

Analysis of Dissolved Methane in the Old Durham Reservoir AUTHOR: David Bertolami ADVISOR: Ruth Varner

Methane is a strong greenhouse gas that has a high global warming potential. Methane emissions come from anaerobic environments such as wetlands and lake sediments. Methane emissions are largely understudied during winter periods. The goal of this study is to measure methane accumulation in the water column during ice covered periods in a reservoir. Water samples were collected from the reservoir on a weekly basis at 3 sites. At each site, water samples were collected from the surface to the sediment in 10 cm intervals. Water samples were brought to the Morse Hall Hydrology lab, and were analyzed using a Shimadzu GC-8A Gas Chromatograph (GC). The results from analysis show that methane concentrations within the reservoir increase during periods of ice cover and decrease during times more-thawed/completely thawed periods. Although methane concentrations in ice covered lakes/reservoirs are understudied, it is important for scientists and anyone dealing with these water bodies to understand the chemistry that is taking place.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Taylor Conte ADVISOR: Elizabeth Burakowski

Winter carbon dioxide (CO2) flux in a forest canopy is critical to determining ecosystem respiration and evapotranspiration. Understanding the impact of snow cover on CO2 flux provides better modeling potential of dynamic ecosystem health. In situ measurements of canopy CO2 flux was regularly taken at 30-minute intervals using an eddy covariance system mounted above a mixed forest canopy during the 2014-15 and 2015-16 winter seasons at Thompson Farm in Durham, NH. CO2 flux data was analyzed with other environmental and meteorological data. The CO2 flux and environmental data were also evaluated with daily snow depth, density, and snow water equivalent measurements collected through the Community Collaborative Rain, Albedo, Hail, and Snow network. Using a bivariate fit, a strong relationship between snow density and soil moisture was found but CO2 flux did not have a significant relationship with the other measured variables, contrary to the results of known studies, which have shown that CO2 flux can be influenced at the snow-soil surface. Showing that the variants do not have a significant influence on a forested canopy CO2 flux provides that other factors besides those considered may be at work and must be further researched for better modeling potential.

Examining the connection between the dynamics of western boundary shelves and the deep sea using satellite altimetry data Nicholas Trefonides and James Pringle, Ph.D.

• The exchange of water between the western boundary shelves and the deep sea is an important transport pathway between land and sea for carbon and other chemical constituents that have significant impacts on marine life and global climate.

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• Figure 2 (above) is the sea-surface height anomaly for two shelf locations (red and green) and one deep sea location (grey). Note that the two shelf locations are correlated but the deep sea location is not correlated to the shelf locations.

• Figures 3 and 4 are plots of correlations lagged in time and space for one location on the shelf (top) and one location in the deep sea (bottom). In the top plot, note that the shelf location is spatially correlated across the entire shelf. In the bottom plot, note that the deep sea location is spatially correlated for about 200 kilometers, but it is not correlated to the slope or the shelf.

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• Figure 1 (above) is a map showing the tracks along which the satellite measures sea-surface height.

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• Satellite altimetry is an indirect technique for measuring sea-surface height by measuring the time taken by a radar pulse to travel from the satellite antenna to the sea surface and back to the satellite receiver.

Sea-Surface Height Anomaly (meters)

ADVISOR: James Pringle

The exchange of water between the the connection between the dynamics of western boundary continental shelves and the deep sea Examining shelves and the deep sea using satellite altimetry data governs exchanges of nutrients and Background Results carbon between the shallow ocean and shelf. The currents at the edge of the continental shelf and the exchange of water from the shelf to the deep ocean is governed by the sea-surface height difference between the shelf and the deep ocean. Satellite altimetry measures Objective sea-surface height by measuring the time taken by a radar pulse to travel from the satellite antenna to the sea-surface and back to the satellite receiver. We Methods Conclusions examine the correlation between seasurface height from the continental shelf to height in the adjacent deep ocean. Sea-surface height anomaly at locations across the shelf are spatially correlated, but the correlation does not extend across the slope or into the deep sea. Sea-surface height anomaly at locations across the deep sea are correlated over a distance of about 200 kilometers. Since we find that the sea-surface elevation on the shelf is uncorrelated to that in the deep ocean, we find that the difference between the two are governed by different processes. Thus to understand the exchange between shelf and deep ocean, we must understand two independent actors – the shelf and the deep ocean – separately. Satellite track used for the following plots

AUTHOR: Nicholas Trefonides

• Produce an animation of sea-surface height anomaly correlations lagged in time and space for all locations along all cross-shelf tracks of interest.

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• Sea-surface height anomaly at locations across the shelf are spatially correlated, but the correlation does not extend down the full length of the slope or into the deep sea.

• Sea-surface height anomaly at locations across the deep sea are correlated over a distance of about 200 kilometers.

• Since sea-surface height on the shelf is uncorrelated to that in the deep sea, the difference between the two are governed by different processes. To understand the exchange between shelf and deep sea, we must understand two independent actors – the shelf and the deep sea – separately.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

EARTHSCIENCES/ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCE

The Influence of Snow Density on CO2 Flux Measured with Eddy Covariance over a Forested Canopy


Sleep Right AUTHORS: Glenn Ballard Robert Meade

When each ear hears two different frequency sine waves with a difference Sleep Right of less than 100Hz, the existence of the difference shows in background EEG readings and is well documented in the literature. This phenomenon is known as binaural beats and will be utilized in this project. Using a Particle Photon, which is a microcontroller with Wi-Fi capability and DDS synthesizers, we built a device that can (generate) two different audio tones, for each ear. The aim is to create an offset frequency that mimics the natural frequency of the brain in a normal sleep cycle in hopes that it will get a person to the desired sleep state faster, making their sleep more recuperative. Using an EEG bioamplifier that was built based on a design from ECE 784, an ADC, and LabVIEW, the audio device was tested in conjunction with bipolar EEG recordings from electrode sites F3-C3 and F4-C4. The data was then analyzed using MATLAB. The key areas we will be looking for are how fast the brain is transitioning from each stage of sleep and the duration and consistency of the brain’s frequency. System Overview

Binaural Beats

Testing Setup

Natural phenomena in which the human brain frequency will match the difference in two pure sin waves played in each ear

ADVISOR: Wayne Smith

Team Members: Robert Meade, Glenn Ballard Faculty Advisor: Dr. Wayne Smith

Audio Stimulus Sleep Training

An electrode cap was used to acquire EEG signals from the patient. These signals were passed through a bio amplifier, which amplified these signals by 20,000 and filtered out signals less than .5Hz and greater than 35 Hz. Electrodes were placed on C3-F3 and C4-F4 with references on O1 and O2 Data was then passed to a USB-6009 ADC which used LabVIEW to store the incoming EEG signals in a CSV file on a laptop. The data was sampled at 200 Hz.

Gamma Waves – 30 to 50Hz offset, stimulate memories and consciousness. Beta Waves – 14 to 30Hz offset, waking consciousness. Alpha Waves – 8 to 14Hz offset, relaxation Theta Waves – 4 to 8Hz offset, REM sleep Delta Waves - 0.1 to 4 Hz offset, Deep Sleep

Particle Photon – This was the microcontroller that was used for the basis of the design. It has a built in Wi-Fi chip and is responsible for the control of the system. AD9850 – Digital Synthesizer that was used to produce the sin waves for the binaural beats Digital Potentiometer – Used for volume control of the beats. Controlled through SPI interface. Non volatile memory to retain user settings after shutdown.

BioAmplifier Design.

Testing Results

Results were only taken on myself and only for a short amount of time. These were analyzed in MATLAB and show slight improvement. Analysis was based on voltage and FFT analysis of 30.

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According to the US Centers for Disease Control, 35% of Americans do not get enough sleep.

Rest/REM

Sleep is an important part of the body’s recuperative process and could have an important impact on healthy aging.

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Lack of sleep can also increase risk factors to a number of diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and mood disorders. Lack of sleep has also been attributed to a decrease in life expectancy

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ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

RESTful Service HTTP Posts

Design Objectives

•Design a device that uses binaural beats to help a person fall asleep more quickly •Regulate sleep stages throughout the night to have a more recuperative sleep •User interaction with device through a phone app •Volume control to keep sounds from being too distracting

Calls functions in the Photon code

Does not use Photon’s own API Limited by Photon capabilities

The Living Bridge AUTHORS: Daniel Cusolito Joshua Eisfeller Ayokunle Olorunfemi ADVISORS: Michael Carter Ian Gagnon Markin Wosnik

In conjunction with the Living Bridge project at Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth NH, a need was identified for navigational hazard lighting for an anchored barge that will host a tidal current turbine generator adjacent to the bridge pier. There is a desire to power the navigational hazard lighting using photo-voltaic panels, which in turn charge a small battery bank. The location of the barge under the bridge deck as well as the shading profile of the city buildings to the south of the platform make the PV/battery system design more challenging than an open environment design would pose.

The Living Bridge

Daniel Cusolito, Jay Olorunfemi & Joshua Eisfeller – Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Advised by: Dr. Michael J. Carter, Dr. Martin Wosnik & Ian Gagnon Abstract In conjunction with the Living Bridge project at Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth NH, a need was identified for navigational hazard lighting for an anchored barge that will host a tidal current turbine generator adjacent to the bridge pier. There is a desire to power the navigational hazard lighting using photovoltaic panels, which in turn charge a small battery bank. The location of the barge under the bridge deck as well as the shading profile of the city buildings to the south of the platform make the PV/battery system design more challenging than an open environment design would pose. A site shading analysis was performed to estimate the daily solar energy the PV modules would receive across the span of a year. To validate the estimate, a PV output power monitoring system was devised. The information recorded from the PV system is stored in a database, which is web-accessible via a simple browser interface. A mock-up model of the bridge and tidal turbine support barge was constructed to demonstrate the site shading challenge present. Our goal is to provide enough information for the Living Bridge project managers to decide with confidence whether to proceed with the installation of the solar lights on the barge or if another type of lighting power source might be required.

Barge & Turbine

Figure 2: Location of the barge under the Portsmouth side of the bridge

Overview of bridge project • Objective: To create a self-reporting “smart” bridge powered by renewable energy • Create a “living laboratory” for STEM education. • Optimize design with a perspective focused on safety, long-term durability, and cost savings realized both in the short-term and long-term. • Maximize the use of recycled materials (with an emphasis on steel) and minimize materials with a significant carbon footprint. • Anchor a barge onto the Memorial Bridge to provide space for researchers and house renewable energy power sources. • Install a tidal turbine and PV array to provide power to various sensors, navigational lighting & more.

The Living Bridge project, located on the Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth, NH, consists of sensors to monitor the bridge powered by a tidal turbine system. Figure 1: Layout of the Living Bridge

Interactive Web Page

• Easy-to-use interface that receives a user input of a day in the year, and returns the amount of sunlight a PV module on the barge will see for that day. • Built through HTML, PHP and CSS languages • Uses shading analysis and insolation data to determine the total power generated by the PV module

Shading analysis To measure the energy our PV arrays will be producing for the navigational lights on the barge, the motion of the sun along the sky in Portsmouth must be taken into account. Since the PV arrays are located under the bridge, they must be angled accordingly to accommodate for the rise and fall of the sun

Figure 6: Sun path diagram for the city of Portsmouth, NH

Solar Insulation: Direct Beam Radiation • A function of the angle of incidence of a beam relative to the beam radiation of the suns rays hitting the face of the collector (our PV module) Figure 3: Size of barge & the location of the turbine and turbine lift mechanism

A barge is anchored to the Portsmouth side of the Memorial Bridge that will house PV arrays and a tidal turbine used to power electronic devices on the bridge, such as sensors to measure vibrations or structural health. Depending on depth and current, the turbine can reach speeds as fast as 2 m/s. During peak current times, just prior to mid-day, the turbine will produce as much as 10kW. Considering the large amount of power generated relative to the small amount of power required (about 1kW), excess power will be deposited straight into the grid.

Figure 4: Velocity (m/s) of the turbine relative to it’s depth and ensemble number

Diffuse Radiation • Some radiation can be scattered in clouds, moisture, and reflected from the ground, and back again to the surface of the collector. The diffuse radiation on the collector is assumed to be proportional to the part of the sky that the collector sees. Reflected Radiation • Insolation that hits the collector from radiation reflected by surfaces in front of the panel. The amount of radiation received is dependent on the slope of the PV panel. This can add a considerable amount of insolation depending on its source, where snow will reflect a large amount of radiation, while the roof of a house reflects a small amount.

Figure 7: Direct Beam Radiation

Figure 8: Diffuse Radiation

Figure 9: Reflected Radiation

Conclusion and Future Plans

Figure 5: Tidal turbine energy produced throughout a day

Going forth, the PV system designed will be implemented onto the barge and angled accordingly to power navigational lights. The tidal turbine will be implemented to power sensors and other electrical components on the bridge. Once power is available at the bridge, the Living Bridge will be an open laboratory available to STEM researchers and educators among UNH.

A site shading analysis was performed to estimate the daily solar energy the PV modules would receive across the span of a year. To validate the estimate, a PV output power monitoring system was devised. The information recorded from the PV system is stored in a database, which is webaccessible via a simple browser interface. A mock-up model of the bridge and tidal turbine support barge was constructed to demonstrate the site shading challenge present. Our goal is to provide enough information for the Living Bridge project managers to decide with confidence whether to proceed with the installation of the solar lights on the barge or if another type of lighting power source might be required.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Directional Electromagnetic Pulse Generator AUTHORS: William Clark II Reed Vandergraaf Connor Wynn

This project is to create a directional electromagnetic pulse that will be Directional Electromagnetic Pulse Generator resonating at 2.4GHz. The directionality Experimental Results of the device will allow for safer and Introduction more reliable results when it is being used to test a device’s response to an electromagnetic pulse. In order to create this pulse, a magnetron from a microwave oven will be used as the Proposed Design resonator. Our overall objective is to excite this magnetron in the same way that it is when it is in the microwave but with a much higher instantaneous peak Conclusions and further research power. This power will be delivered from an array of super capacitors that are configured to have a voltage ranging between 2.5V dc and 10V dc. This voltage will then be stepped up using a combination of transformers so that the magnetron will be seeing an appropriate excitation voltage. A microcontroller will be used as a function generator at a range of frequencies depending on desired power efficiency. This function generator will be fed into a gate driver circuit for an IGBT transistor that will be switching the power from the capacitor array on and off through the primary of the first transformer. This initial capacitor voltage will be stepped up by a significant amount so that the magnetron will produce an EMP resonating at 2.4GHz. Connor Wynn, William Clark, Reed Vandergraaf Faculty Advisor: Kent A. Chamberlin

Supercapacitor Bank

An electromagnetic pulse is a short, high-energy discharge of electromagnetic energy. They can interrupt the operation of or damage electronic equipment, depending on the strength and duration of the pulse. The goal of this project was to build a directional EMP that operates at 2.4GHz with a tunable power output. esign goal for the project was to have a long-term impact on the operation of an electronic device

ADVISOR: Kent Chamberlin

The supercapacitor bank is the source of the energy for the EMP. Supercapacitors were chosen because they can store a large amount of power and discharge it quickly • Four, 100 Farad, 2.5V capacitors in series • Earlier tests had discharges in .1s- 12,500W!

Arduino Driven IGBT Switch

The switch was used to take the DC input from the supercapacitors and convert it into a AC waveform that could be stepped up by the transformer • IGBT chosen due to its high current capacity • Square wave the most straightforward to create

Figure 2: Transformer output through a 12:1 voltage divider

This is the output of the transformer that would be put into the magnetron with a 10V input

Step-Up Transformer

The transformer takes the input voltage and steps it up by a large factor • Filters the input square wave into a sinusoid • Variable output magnitude depending on switching frequency • Gain varies from <1 to 64 V/V depending on frequency

Determined that a 2.4GHz resonant circuit with a high power not possible to build • Determined that simple wire loops to produce electromagnetic waves work but do not allow tuning to high frequencies (GHz range) • Learned that obtaining high voltages by cascading transformers does not work as expected and produces a decrease in voltage • Managed

Voltage Doubling Circuit

The voltage doubling circuit charges a capacitor to the peak value of the input waveform and uses that as a DC offset for the waveform • Doubles the peak magnitude of the input waveform • Can be full-wave or half-wave • Requires high voltage capacitors to work optimally (microwaves: 2kV+)

Magnetron Radiator

Supercapacitor Energy Bank Arduino Driven IGBT Switch Step-up Transformer Voltage Doubling Circuit Magnetron Radiator

A high capacity capacitor bank will store a large amount of energy, which is then discharged through multiple . When this energy is discharged through the radiator, it will have a significantly higher peak power output than that of a microwave oven.

Magnetrons make use of resonant cavities to emit a 2.4GHz electromagnetic wave at high power levels • Microwaves use these to cook food • One of the only ways to produce a high-power 2.4GHz wave affordably • Many technologies operate at 2.4GHz

• • • •

High voltage output obtained, but the voltage was not high enough to fully excite the magnetron • Gain increase or input voltage increase • More current sourcing capacity from capacitors The switching of current through the transformer resulted in large transient voltages (capable of destroying components) during normal operation • This could possibly be used to drive the magnetron Methods of counteracting the loading effect of the magnetron on the transformer’s operation at high voltages Optimize switching to prevent power loss from filtering effect of transformer Verify operation of magnetron with AC input voltage in the kHz range

ISINGLASS Ground Instrumentation Xybion Control Box

ADVISOR: Michael Carter Marc Lessard

Winning Project

2017

The purpose of this project was to design, build and test a voltage-to-frequency converter for use in a new Control Box for a Xybion CCD video camera, which is used to obtain ground-based auroral data for the Ionospheric Structuring: In Situ and Ground-based Low Altitude StudieS (ISINGLASS). The original Control Box was built only to supply power to the camera and detect and record GPS coordinates of the camera’s location. The new system supports video recording of ISINGLASS sub-payloads, provides a built-in monitor and translates the Xybion camera’s automatic gain control voltage signal into a variable frequency audio signal, which is recorded as the audio track on the video recording of the aurora.

ISINGLASS Ground Instrumentation Xybion Control Box Maria Panacopoulos

Advisor: Dr. Marc R. Lessard, Dr. Michael J. Carter

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire PURPOSE

CONCLUSION

CONTROL BOX DESIGN

The purpose of this project was to design, build and test a voltage-tofrequency converter for use in a new Control Box for a Xybion CCD video camera, which is used to obtain ground-based auroral data for the Ionospheric Structuring: In Situ and Ground-based Low Altitude StudieS (ISINGLASS) rocket developed by Dr. Kristina Lynch of Dartmouth College, Dr. Marc Lessard of UNH, Dr. Robert Michell of UMD/GSFC and Steve Powell of Cornell University.

The control box was designed to house all of the updated hardware with its new power requirements. This box allows the user to monitor the system and record with external devices. The connection block diagram below indicates the internal wiring of the box and the external connections with the Xybion Camera and recording device.

On March 2nd the mission launched two rockets, 30 seconds apart, with a total flight time of 12 minutes. The following image was obtained from the Xybion CCD camera, which was able to record the blinking LEDs from approximately 20 miles away. This image shows the stars in the background and the diffused aurora in front of it.

BACKGROUND The goal of the rockets was to collect multipoint data to produce a localized map of plasma parameters and gradients. The first rocket included four very small sub-payloads which were equipped with blinking, super bright LED beacons to track separation. The ground cameras were set up to track the flight as well as the sub-payload beacons.

DESIGN OBJECTIVES Xybion Image

This system was designed for easy set up and operation, transportation durability and to record hours of aurora activity. Previous Design: • Supply power to camera • GPS time stamp

New Design • Supply power to camera • GPS time stamp • Built in monitor • Translates automatic gain control voltage signal into a variable frequency audio signal

TEST RESULTS The voltage-to-frequency converter on the AGC board requires a 0.05% linearity over the output frequency range. The following chart contains the results from post assembly testing of the AGC board.

AGC BOARD The availability of the camera’s automatic gain control (AGC) signal enables correction of variable luminance image data stored on the video record.The AGC board receives the 4-5 Volt signal from the Xybion CCD Camera and outputs a 1.7-2.1 kHz audio signal for recording.

The video obtained from the Xybion camera contained not only the main rocket payload itself, but also sub-payloads equipped with blinking, super bright LED beacons. The voltage-to-frequency converter performed to its specifications, and the data obtained during the two test launches will be used as validation for future auroral research proposals.

Control Box Connection Block Diagram

Linearity of the AGC Board 2.8 2.6

Output Frequency (kHz)

AUTHOR: Maria Panacopoulos

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ISINGLASS B Launches into the Alaskan sky (Photo Credit: NASA/Chris Perry)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS David Kenward, Graduate Student – MIRL Researcher Bruce A. Fritz, Graduate Student – MIRL Researcher Tyler Chapman, Undergraduate Student – Physics Engineering

AGC Board Schematic RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

www.PosterPresentations.com

The new Control Box was tested in early March 2017 at the Poker Flat Rocket Range in Alaska. The availability of the camera’s AGC signal enables correction of variable luminance image data stored on the video record, which contains images not only of the main rocket payload itself but also sub-payloads equipped with blinking, super bright LED beacons. The voltage-to-frequency converter performed to its specifications, and the data obtained during the two test launches will be used as validation for future auroral research proposals.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Figure 1: Proposed schematic

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Modifications and Refinement of the Intermittent Swim Stress Test System AUTHORS: David Albertini Cameron Davison Chunyang Li

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

ADVISORS: Richard Messner Robert Drugan Nathaniel Stafford

The Intermittent Swim Stress (ISS) apparatus is used to help model anxiety and depression in animal test subjects. ISS exposes subjects to a series of brief intermittent forced swims in cold-water with variably timed inter-swim-intervals. The focus of this project is to make the ISS as effective as possible by removing variability from the system and to improve its overall design. The number of physical cues (sound, light, and motion) will be reduced with this version of the ISS by designing a test chamber with minimal turbulence in the water and minimizing moving parts.Other changes to the design to improve modularity, ease of repair, and ease of reproduction have been proposed. With these changes implemented, the ISS has become a more effective apparatus.

Lucid - Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) AUTHOR: Timothy Waryas, Jr. ADVISOR: Wayne Smith

Lucid dreaming is the phenomenon of Lucid – Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) becoming self-aware during a dream, and thus gaining control over the proceedings without awaking. This can be a naturally rare occurrence, something that only 20% of the population reports having once or more per month. To increase frequency of lucidity induction, several techniques have been developed by psychologists and researchers who study dreams. The scope of this project is to create a device that induces lucid dreaming via tACS (transcranial alternating current stimulation). The main direction of this project is based on a research article published by Nature Neuroscience, conducted by Ursula Voss. It was discovered that producing an alternating current electronic signal of 25Hz or 40Hz. around 250uA to the frontal-temporal area of the brain had high efficacy in producing lucidity for the user. A solution for the tACS device was completed in Altium PCB Designer, and implemented with corresponding components on a manufactured board. Timothy Kendall Waryas Jr - Electrical Engineering UNH College of Engineering & Physical Sciences – Advisor: Wayne Smith, Ph.D.

Project Goals

 Problem Addressed • The Arduino ATMEGA328P chip was chosen for device controlling due to its simplified ability to be programmed with a 6-pin ISP • The PCF8563 Real Time Clock serves as the device wake signal to begin function in the required REM timing window • Using a 20k dial potentiometer in a dual LM358N Op-Amp Quadrature Oscillator configuration, 25Hz & 40Hz signal may be tuned accordingly • The MCP41010 digital potentiometer in conjunction with an LM358N comparator configuration was used to regulate current based on load to the electrodes

40Hz Signal - Project Output (Ch1) Function Generator (Ch2) Figure 2  Procedure • Skin is abraded in positions outlined in Figure 3 preceding attachment of Silver Chloride electrodes • The desired wake time (hh:mm), current (01500uA), and signal delivery time are input via the programmer batch routine • The wearer is to sleep, and optionally may wake via an external alarm ~5hr into sleep cycle, to return immediately to sleep (Wake-back to bed technique) • Device powers off oscillator after routine completion (signaled by controller LED) • Results are recorded and scored with the LuCiD Scale (Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams)

Electrode Scalp Positions Figure 3

Manufactured Printed Circuit Board Solution – Altium Designer Figure 1

 Functionality Conclusion • The output functionality of the device adequately meets the specifications outlined prior in the project proposal

Project Features

 • • • • • • •

Hardware ATMEGA328P: Microcontroller ICL7660CSA: Charge Pump Inverter -8V MCP41010: Digital Potentiometer PCF8563T: Real Time Clock (32.768KHz) LM358N: Operational Amplifier LM1117MPX: Linear Regulator (5V) CDSU101A: Diode Vf = 1V

Current Regulator Ramping Code Figure 5

Honorable Mention Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Relevant Research

Calculated Results

 Project Description • Using prior research completed by Ursula Voss in the Department of Psychology at the University of Frankfurt, a specific purpose function generator was designed and implemented to induce lucid dreaming • Designing based on required device function, and implementing first on protoboard and secondarily on PCB, desired output was gained • 25Hz/40Hz @ 250uA (RMS) signals were applied to the wearer during deep REM sleep to imitate Voss’ experiment

 Control to Output – Code/Configuration • Figure 5 shows the routine used to slowly rise output voltage until the desired current is supplied, this is done by incrementing the wiper output of the potentiometer • The quadrature oscillator is configured with resistors in a region to be tuned between 25Hz40Hz; the amplitude ranges are negated from current regulation (+9V/-9V range) • Local time from the programmer is imported into a register on the ATMEGA328P for reference • Using the PCF8563T, passing a certain number of clock cycles on its independent crystal, a wake signal is sent to the Quadrature Amplifier Configuration Vcc of the oscillator to enable device function Figure 6

 Parallel Projects • Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity – Ursula Voss, Ph.D. University of Frankfurt, Nature Neuroscience • Lucid Dreaming: Psychophysiological Studies of Consciousness during REM Sleep – Stephen LaBerge, Ph.D.

 State of the Art • Atmel ATMEGA328P • PCF8563 Real Time Clock • MCP41010 Digital Potentiometer

Brain Wave Frequency Ranges: Gamma Interest Figure 4  Other Considerations • The subject of this research was biased to the final results, having self administered and knowing the grading scale • Repeated trials in the same test conditions caused expectations for the subject and result ambiguity

Subjective Results

 Lucid Awareness Increase • A general upward trend was seen in LuCiD metrics from questionnaire • All values substantially below the maximum of 5 Date 4/1

4/6

Insight .491

.521

Dissociation

Control

1.06

1.12

.124

.146

4/11

.522

1.20

.154

4/14

.513

1.16

.213

LuCiD Scale Results N = 1 40Hz @ 250uA (RMS) Figure 7

Experiment Visualization Figure 8


Antenna Measurement and Mapping with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle AUTHORS: John Dokoupil Daniel Gray Michael Kazamias Alex Wright ADVISOR: Richard Messner

Modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can potentially be utilized to measure field strength and beam shape parameters of a transmitter. It was proposed to use a low cost, UAV and outfit it with proper hardware to allow for a proof of concept study that will indicate how to build such a system. Thus, the aim of this project was to miniaturize what is currently done by creating a small, lightweight, and targeted receiver capable of measuring a target antenna. This proof-of-concept illustrates the potential of this approach. Results indicate that, with a more sophisticated UAV capable of carrying a larger payload, this is a viable approach for field measurements of radio transmitters.

Determination of Sucrose Concentration in Solutions Using an Interdigital Capacitor Probe AUTHOR: Ronald Totten

In many industrial and biomedical Determination of Sucrose Concentration in Solutions applications it is desirable to know Using an Interdigital Capacitor Probe the concentration of a particular ÂŽ solute in an aqueous solution. If the compound in question is ionic, then the concentration may be determined readily by measurement of conductivity. The concentration of a non-ionic solute, however, cannot be determined in this way, and other techniques must be used. The focus of this project is on the determination of sucrose concentrations, particularly as it applies to the production of maple syrup. The dielectric properties of a material have been widely used for determination of various physical properties of agricultural products, including water content and solute concentration. This project builds upon prior art which utilizes changes in relative permittivity of a solution, as measured by an interdigital capacitor probe, to determine its concentration with high sensitivity and across a range of temperatures, as might be observed in the production of maple syrup. The developed sensor was able to achieve accurate measurement of sucrose concentration over a wide range with a resolution of 0.1%. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of New Hampshire Presented by Ronald Totten, Advised by Dr. Edward Song

ADVISOR: Edward Song

Background

Sucrose concentration is a key metric for many agricultural products. The production of maple syrup involves reducing maple sap by boiling to a target sucrose concentration of 65.5% by weight (65.5° Brix).

Design and Implementation

4V Peak-to-Peak Sinusoidal Source 20KHz - 1MHz

RC

Vi

Cp

Maple Evaporator

Crystallization (High Concentration)

Accuracy in determining sugar content is critical because syrup with a concentration below the target will spoil and is generally not legal for sale, while concentrations greater than the target require greater energy inputs to production, and reduce the overall volume of product.

IDEs

Spectrum Analyzer

Output

Vo

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Digital Thermometer

Microbial Growth (Low Concentration)

5 mm

Signal Generator

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Test Solution

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Input

Interdigital Electrode (IDE)

Theoretical Design

Results

Probe and Filter Apparatus

The data below show the response of the apparatus across concentration and temperature ranges. The temperature data is necessary to calibrate output to concentration across the typical temperature ranges for maple syrup production (~5°C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 110°C). Output values were numerically integrated across a frequency range to produce an index value correlating to concentration.

A capacitive probe was implemented as part of a firstorder, high-pass filter circuit. A range of frequencies (20KHz â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1MHz) from a signal generator was fed into the circuit while the probe was immersed in test solutions of known sucrose concentration and temperature. The output of the circuit was logged on a spectrum analyzer. The probe was fashioned from two interdigital electrodes wired in parallel, as this increased the overall sensitivity of the apparatus. Measurements were performed across various concentration and temperature ranges, as it was expected (and confirmed) that the relative permittivity of the solution, and therefore capacitance of the probe and, by extension, |H(f)| would depend upon both of these variables.

Concentration Sensitivity

The apparatus achieved concentration resolution of 0.1%, where ~0.5% is generally needed for maple syrup production.

Sucrose Measurement Approaches

Conventional methods to determine maple syrup concentration include: hydrometry, refractometry, and boiling point elevation. Each of these has certain advantages and disadvantages, summarized below.

Clockwise from upper Left: syrup refractometer, syrup thermometer, syrup hydrometer

More recently, the dielectric properties of a material have been widely used for determination of various physical properties of agricultural products with nonionic solutes. This project extends the approach to maple syrup production Method

Measurable Temp. Range

Concentration Sensitivity

Dynamic Range (Conc. %)

Boiling Point Elevation

Only at Boiling

~0.5%

Refractometry

Fixed, 20°C typ.

~1-2%

35%

20°C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 110°C

~0.2%

30%

No

5°C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 110°C

~0.1%

40%

Yes

Hydrometry

Capacitive Probe

75%

Continuous (Online Meas.) Yes No

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Conclusion

The apparatus was found to resolve concentration to 0.1% in the range of interest, and to have a wide dynamic range. It was established that the probe output is significantly affected by sample temperature, and that this variation can be quantified for calibration purposes. It was also found that adjustments to the circuit parameters (e.g., resistor values) can be used to change the sensitivity ranges for temperature and concentration, which may be useful in application of this technique in other settings. Overall, the approach was found to be be highly compatible with maple syrup production, and to combine desirable features of various traditional methods of concentration measurement.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Radio transmission is used in many industries from media communications to public safety. Antennae used in commercial and municipal applications can be varied and complex. In order to ensure the proper propagation of intended signals, these antennae need to be characterized to examine the beam shapes and strength at varying altitudes and distances from the antennae itself. These measurements typically require specialized equipment being mounted inside of full size planes or helicopters in order to take proper measurements. This requires a large investment by a customer, and is a tedious process.


Mitigating Control Flow Attacks in Embedded Systems with a Hardware-Based Approach AUTHOR: Sean Kramer ADVISOR: Qiaoyan Yu

Embedded systems are prone to security Mitigating Control Flow Attacks in Embedded Systems with a Hardware‐Based Approach Sean D. Kramer attacks due to limited resources available COUNTERMEASURE INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS for self-protection and unsafe language used for application programming. This research studies the security attacks on the control flow of an embedded system, and develops a hardware-level, effective, CONTROL FLOW ATTACKS and low overhead countermeasure to mitigate these attacks. For the attack, a C program is compromised by taking advantage of vulnerable functions native to the language, giving an adversary control of the system. These are implemented by modifying a program to CONCLUSION cause a stack buffer overflow, or through corruption of function or data pointers. A proposed countermeasure, known as a Built-in Secure Register Bank (BSRB), is introduced to the processor micro-architecture to store the return addresses of subroutines. An inconsistency on the return address will direct the processor to select a clean copy from the BSRB to maintain the normal control flow, thus mitigating the attack. This countermeasure is inaccessible to the programmer, requires no additional compiler support, and achieves greater flexibility than existing security options. Experimental results show that the BSRB increases the area and power by 3.8% and 4.4% respectively over the baseline OpenRISC 1000 processor. Advisor: Qiaoyan Yu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire

• Embedded systems are prone to security attacks due • Built-in Secure Register Bank (BSRB) • Collection of shadow registers used to store to a limited amount of available resources and unsafe return address of subroutines a LIFO stack programming languages • With the increase of embedded systems in everyday devices, being able to offer security is a must

• Control deviates from program’s normal execution and to the attacker • Execution of exploit results in opening a bash shell

• FPGA ran a Linux operating system unique to the OpenRISC 1000 microarchitecture

• Exploits were run on the device with the countermeasure in place • Original program retained normal control flow, successfully mitigating the attacks

• This research consists of into two parts: 1. Investigate software exploits which target the control flow of an embedded system 2. Develop a potential countermeasure to defend a device against these types of attacks

• Vulnerable functions native to the C language were used to cause a stack buffer overflow or corrupt data/function pointers • Copying data beyond the bounds of a buffer • Overwriting stack contents with memory address of malicious function

• Hardware modifications implemented on an Altera DE0-Nano FPGA using Verilog HDL

Figure 2: Flow chart of BSRB countermeasure

• Jump-and-link (l.jal) instruction decoded, return address is stored in temporary register. • Following three instructions are verified by prologue checker to see if program has entered subroutine • Return address is pushed onto BSRB

Figure 5a: Area trend of architecture as size of BSRB increases

• Jump-register call (l.jr) instruction decoded • Following five instructions are tested against epilogue • Top value of BSRB is compared with value stored in return register and popped off stack

Figure 5b: Increase of power to stages of pipeline with BSRB

• A depth of 128 was used to measure the increased overhead against the baseline • Area increased by 3.8% • Power increased by 4.4%

• This work prevents a method of implementing a control flow attack and presents a possible solution

• BSRB is an effective, low-overhead hardware based countermeasure to protect embedded systems

Figure 1: Pseudo-code example of stack buffer overflow attack

Winning Project

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

2017

Natural Gesture Detection AUTHORS: Erik Carlson Shawn Venti ADVISOR: Andrew Kun

We live in a world full of technology however the ways in which we interact with these technologies require additional steps and focus that draw our attention away from the physical world and others. The Natural Gesture Authentication Network envisions a world where interactions with technology are seamless and invisible to the user yet still provide the same level of enhanced functionality. We propose the first step of a solution to this problem. Using consumer wearables our system records natural movement of a user’s arm to detect gestures being performed. These detections can then be used as various controls of systems ultimately bridging the virtual and physical worlds even further.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Figure 3: Microarchitecture pipeline diagram

REFERENCES: • S. Kramer, J. Dofe, Z. Zhang, and Q. Yu, "Mitigating Control Flow Attacks in Embedded Systems with Novel Built-in Secure Register Bank" in 27th ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI , May 2017. •

“CSAW Embedded Security Challenge Exploits.” https://github.com/nekt/csaw_esc_2016.


DSP Synthesizer AUTHORS: Hayden Haynes Nicholas Laves ADVISOR: Michael Carter

The invention of the synthesizer paved the way for electronic music. The goal of this project was to create a synthesizer that can model a digital instrument. The idea was to program a microcontroller to compute a waveform to be used as an audio instrument. We took the key mechanism and frame from an old digital keyboard. We wired a microcontroller to the keys and wrote code to control the waveform of the output signal. To control the shape of the waveform, we have knobs to control different effects.

DSP Synthesizer

Project Advisor: Dr. Michael Carter Group: Nick Laves, Hayden Haynes Tremolo

Signal Flow

Abstract

The tremolo effect is achieved by using an oscillator to change the amplitude of the signal. This implementation of the circuit uses a 555 timer IC as an oscillator which drives an LED. There is a potentiometer to control the frequency of the oscillation. A photoresistor acts as a load, varying the resistance based on the LED.

The goal of this project is to create a synthesizer that can be used as a digital instrument using recycled parts and a low cost Arduino. The idea was to program a microcontroller to compute a waveform to be used as an audio signal, integrate it to different waves and then run it through some basic filtering and effects.

Asymmetric Clipping Keyboard

Design Process

The keyboard was taken from an early 1990s digital piano bought at a garage sale. Underneath the keys are Adafruit push buttons.

Configuring microcontroller output. Get key mechanism to work. Incorporate waveform-shaping effects. Build an enclosure.

Future Implementation More capable microcontroller. Key velocity sensor (holofex). Octave shifting. Digital Filtering/Voltage Controlled Filtering

Asymmetric clipping can be achieved using BJTs. This particular circuit clips Darlington MPSA13 transistors driving diodes of different voltage drops. The first potentiometer acts as a gain control by varying an input load. Since the response of BJT clipping is nonlinear, the input amplitude heavily effects magnitude of clipping. The second potentiometer acts as an output volume control also by varying a load. The third potentiometer is a mix control between the unaffected signal and the clipped signal.

Arduino Mega The Arduino Mega is used to receive the state of the key being pressed. This is done by enabling the internal pull up resistor. When a key is pressed, the button shorts the input to ground. The Arduino then outputs a square wave at the corresponding frequency.

Integrating Circuits

The method to choose between waveforms is an on-on-on switch. This lets the user choose between passing the square wave or integrating to a triangle or sine wave. Op amp integrator circuits are used to shape the signal.

Tone and Volume The tone circuit has both a low pass filter and a high pass filter in parallel. A potentiometer acts as a mix knob changing the ratio of signal from each filter. The volume control is a potentiometer that acts as a variable load.

AUTHOR: Jordan Smith ADVISOR: W. Thomas Miller

Honorable Mention Project

2017

Active acoustic noise reduction removes an unwanted sound by adding a second sound specifically designed and produced to cancel the first noisy sound. Noise reduction can be used for personal comfort and for hearing protection when exposed to particularly loud environments. The goal of this project was to design and implement an acoustic noise cancellation system with a signal processor and a set of closed-ear headphones, utilizing adaptive filtering techniques. The hardware selected includes an Analog Devices SHARC 21489 Processor, an AD1939 Audio Codec, and a custom designed microphone preamplifier circuit board.

Active Acoustic Noise Cancellation via Digital Signal Processing Techniques Jordan R. Smith Project Advisor: Professor W. Thomas Miller III

Synopsis Active acoustic noise reduction removes an unwanted sound by adding a second sound specifically designed and produced to cancel the first noisy sound. Noise reduction can be used for personal comfort and for hearing protection when exposed to particularly loud environments. The goal of this project was to design and implement an acoustic noise cancellation system with a signal processor and a set of closed-ear headphones, utilizing adaptive filtering techniques. The hardware selected includes an Analog Devices SHARC 21489 Processor, an AD1939 Audio Codec, and a microphone preamplifier Circuit Board.

Experimental Results • The microphone pre-amplifier provided the correct audio line input voltage range, utilizing custom CAT5 microphone wiring. • FIR filtering with the 21489 DSP provided the correct output with real-time audio data. • A functional prototype of the noise cancellation system, based on the LMS adaptation, was developed. • A switch-mode power supply failure regrettably damaged the PC board. • Future Improvements include selecting a higher quality microphone and providing more power protection circuitry. • This system architecture could be utilize to implement other noise cancellation algorithms, such as Filtered-X LMS or Recursive Least Squares, (RLS).

PCB Development CIRCUIT SPECIFICATION • Designed a microphone transimpedance amplifier with a +9V supply. • Interfaced the microphone and PC board with selected wiring. • Determined component values based on microphone specification and required gain.

EAGLECAD DESIGN • Used Autodesk’s EAGLE application for component placement and trace design. • Implemented four amplifier channels. • RCA connectors are used to connect with the 21489 DSP board. • Gerber Files are generated and sent to AdvancedCircuits for printing.

Microphone Preamplifier Output

System Overview

Objectives • Develop a microphone pre-amplifier PC Board for A/D Conversion through RCA Connectors. • Route audio signals within the AD1939 codec to and from the DSP. • Become familiar with SHARC Hardware Architecture and the VisualDSP++® IDE Software to develop rudimentary C files. • Program a pre-process FIR filter using MATLAB-generated coefficients. • Implement a feedforward adaptive filtering algorithm, utilizing MATLAB for performance simulation.

The Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filtering algorithm, implemented in Clanguage within the 21489 Processor, uses the microphone feedback to generate the noise cancellation signal, which is then driven to the headset. The dashed area in the figure to the right represents the LMS algorithm, with H(z) symbolizing the electronic delay and P(z) representing the surrounding acoustic noise.

SOLDERING & TESTING • Components were placed and vias were tested for correct voltage levels. • A +9V battery with a 2.1 mm DC power plug provided sufficient power for the board. • 3.5 mm stereo connectors were utilized to ground the microphone’s negative terminal and deliver the audio signal.

Acknowledgements • • • • •

SHARC 21489 EZ Board

Ric Carreras – Advanced Development Electrical Engineer Greg Fowler – Field Applications Engineer Brian Labonte – Acoustic Test Engineer Bill DeTore – Electrical Engineer Dr. Michael Carter – Associate Professor, Electrical & Computer Engineering

The adaptive filtering program is written within the VisualDSP++ software environment, utilizing MATLAB to simulate algorithm performance and generate coefficient values. The current processor architecture utilizes an LMS algorithm, with block-based sample delivery. This project is unique in that it can be used for testing different adaptive algorithms within an acoustic environment specific to closed-ear headphones. Future improvements includes microphone pre-amplifier redesign with more protection circuitry, in the case of a power supply failure. Different component values would also need to be considered if a different microphone or audio cable is utilized.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Active Acoustic Noise Cancellation via Digital Signal Processing Techniques


Autonomous Mapping Robot AUTHOR: Michael Crotty Maxwell McNally Ryan Moskos Nicholas Voisine ADVISOR: Se Young Yoon

The revenue generated by the industrial automation industry is expected to Autonomous Mapping Robot reach over 200 billion by the year 2050. Therefore, we have designed a robot that can autonomously navigate and Pathing Algorithm Casing Introduction map a two dimensional structure by taking advantage of readily available consumer-level sensor and robotics Communication Architecture technology. This robot is capable of Objectives wirelessly communicating with a remote machine that will process and display User Interface Results mapping data in a user interface. Our implementation of the robot uses three ultrasonic sensors to determine the Sensors position of the walls of the structure Looking Forward along with optical encoders on the wheels used to determine the position of the robot. Navigation of the structure is accomplished by using a path finding algorithm to determine the shortest path to another unmapped section of the maze. As robotics technology improves, more complex tasks will be able to be handled by robots. Our implementation could be extended to allow for the navigation and mapping of areas more complex and unpredictable, such as caves, roadways, and warehouses. Using a robot would both save time and possibly prevent harm to a person if the area to be mapped is dangerous. Nicholas Voisine | Michael Crotty | Maxwell McNally | Ryan Moskos Faculty Advisor: Se Young (Pablo) Yoon, PhD. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The Autonomous Mapping Robot (AMR) has been designed to navigate and map a 2-D maze by taking advantage of consumer level sensor and robotics technology. The robot is capable of wirelessly communicating with a remote machine that processes mapping data and displays the data in a user interface. Robot: • Capable of sensing walls ultrasonically and communicating with server for directions Server/User Interface: • Analyzes data points from robot and directs it • Displays walls and facilitates connection with the robot

In order to efficiently navigate and map the maze, a pathing algorithm has been used. It calculates the shortest path to the next unmapped section of the maze and directs the robot there.

The casing for the robot is comprised of two parts. It keeps the wires hidden while allowing the sensors a view of the walls.

• The robot and server communicate over XBee • The server, database, and UI are on the same machine

• Transmit mapping data via XBee to a PC • Autonomously navigate a 2-D maze • Display and allow user to interact with mapping data

 Robot is able to sense distances, report to server and receive a command  Server is able to calculate correct direction for the robot to go and send a command  Robot is able to navigate straight but turning exactly 90 degrees is difficult  Some distance measurements are erroneous

A user interface has been implemented to allow for easy interaction with the robot.

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

 Users can connect and disconnect from the robot.  Robot position, wall locations, and pathing algorithm are displayed in the map.  User can load and save mapping runs for later viewing.

The robot uses three ultrasonic sensors to measure distance to the walls and an encoder to measure distance traveled. The Romeo has a built in H-bridge for motor control and an XBee shield for communication.

Wheel Ultrasonic Range Finder Romeo V2 – All in one XBee 1mW Trace Turtle – 2WD Mobile Antenna Platform Controller Encoder Kit LV-MaxSonar-EZ3

 Add ability to navigate arbitrary wall section shapes and directions  Better motor control for more precise turning and straighter movement

Embedded Solution for Automotive GPS Tracking AUTHOR: Lars Bolduc ADVISOR: W. Thomas Miller

The goal of this project is to design and build an intelligent GPS tracker for cars. The function of the tracker will be to both report position of the car during driving, and act as a safety device by watching the position while the car is off. It must be able to relay the position of the car while on the road, withstand the harsh electrical environment of the car, and be able to intelligently manage power consumption as to not hinder practical use of the car. The tracker was built to use cellular data to relay information to the internet. It is able to minimize power consumption through turning important elements on and off based on external inputs and time triggered events. When the car is on, and power consumption is less critical, the tracker stays on and constantly reports position. When the car is off, the tracker sleeps and wakes at intervals to report position. The maximum current draw of the tracker is 310mA @ 12V. If left unchecked, this would kill a typical car battery in less than a week. With the power saving mode devised, the current draw is reduced to as little as 9.20mA @ 12V at device idle. This is a good result as the tracker will spend most of its time idling, and this makes the tracker practical even for vehicles that are not started up very often.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Autonomous Vehicle Design Using UNH Driving Simulator AUTHORS: Eric Duross Mackenzie Meyers Charles Rickarby ADVISOR: W. Thomas Miller

simulator. Through continuous Autonomous Vehicle Design Using UNH Driving Simulator development of a control platform for an Eric Duross, MacKenzie Meyers, Charles Rickarby Advisor: Thomas Miller autonomous car platform determination Problem Definition Results Control Design of the best control strategies, including feedback and feedforward designs, is possible. Qualitatively evaluating the result of different control efforts enabled the creation of a control platform that, under simulated situations, can Simulator navigate roads without input from any Conclusions third parties, and can follow the rules and regulations of the roads, while also providing a comfortable riding experience for anyone who may be in the car. The simulation and control platform was tested across a wide array of environments including different weather situations, different road types, and different roadway patterns, including intersections. The simulated vehicle handles all situations correctly and without any external input except for user decision of what direction to turn at intersections. Some limitations of the simulator used for testing were experienced, and those limitations were mitigated as far as possible in the final project. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

• Develop control strategies for an autonomous car platform • Determine the benefits of self-driving cars in the real world • Evaluate the performance of the control platform through simulation

(c)

• Utilizes the speed limit of the road • Takes into account the curvature of the road • Has a 3 MPH margin

• Data collected from a run on a looped track of the current platform • Fig. 1 shows the simulated desired and actual speeds vs. the speed limit • Fig. 2 shows the effect of the brake and gas on the speed • Fig. 3 shows the steering angle controller (blue) combating the lane offset (red) • Fig. 4 shows how even though the average lane position offset is very close to zero, the lane position fluctuates around curves etc.

• Based off the current and previous speed versus the desired speed • Multiplied by a feedback constant • Final value is taken as a percentage

• DriveSafety™ driving simulator • Consists of 3 graphical rendering computers and one host machine. • Controlled via a third computer that has the map development software as well as a server client controller. • Autonomous control program (Java Server) controls the simulator through the host via an Ethernet switch. • Host – Java Server communication happens at 30 Hz.

The simulator can accomplish the following tasks: • Maintain safe speed and lane position through a closed loop containing any of the following: • Randomly angled back road corners • Highway speeds • Inclined corners • Safely approach an intersection with a comfortable stopping speed and stop distance • Through user input designate a direction • Safely accelerate through the 90 degree corners as well as accelerate straight and return to highway speeds • The simulator moving forward • The current simulator does not take into account random other pedestrian and vehicular traffic • The design does not currently avoid real world obstacles such as an animal darting into the road • DriveSafety™ Simulator Drawbacks • Some tiles do not fit real world constraints • Some tiles do not fit perfectly with other tiles • Often road signs or lines appear on the wrong side of the road, causing unpredictable behavior

• Generated from the current lane offset/previous lane offset • Multiplied by a feedback constant • Added to the difference of the angles of the current position and next point • If that calculated angle has a difference of more than than 30 degrees between new steering angle and old use old steering angle otherwise multiply by feedforward value

(a)

(b)

Purpose

• To make transportation more efficient and safe • Tracking pedestrians vital piece of information to achieve this goal • Design better traffic patterns and traffic management • Pinpoint highly traveled areas to cleanup for quicker recovery from storms • Avoid densely packed areas for quicker commute

Experiment Statistics

Experiments

• Conducted in front of Thompson Hall at the intersection of Garrison Ave. and Main St • Two experiments of 50 samples each • Count devices every minute for 30 seconds • Keep unique addresses and return the count • Compare the devices to the actual amount of people

Devices per Person Experiment 1 Experiment 2 1.86 0.74 1.22 0.62 1.61 0.41

Mean Median Standard Deviation Correlation Coefficient

0.49

0.48

• Current solutions are power heavy and expensive • Detecting Bluetooth will solve both of these problems while creating another one • Not all Bluetooth devices on a person will be active and detectable • Conduct experiments to create a probability model • Correlate devices and actual population • Accurately predict devices per person with high confidence

Actual Population vs Devices Detected Experiment 2

• Detecting Bluetooth devices can be used to predict the amount of people in an outdoor space • A strong probability model can make predictions more accurate • Deployment around a city can now have extended battery life • Connecting this device to a low powered network would allow information to be collected for analysis of foot traffic in a city

Density of Devices per Person

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• Upgrade to a lower power module that supports Bluetooth • Use LoRaWAN to connect to a server • Use this probability distribution to give real time predictions of population to users • Widescale deployment across Durham

PDF Experiment 1

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• A lognormal probability distribution can be used to fit the data • Chi 2 Goodness of fit test proves a good fit to use • One device equals one person around 50% of the time • 1.5 devices as an upper bound can predict the amount of people around 80% of the time with 90% confidence level • More confident prediction than one for one relationship

Conclusions

Plotted Data per Experiment

Problem

Density

Choosing Bluetooth as a solution would save power and still have the capability to accurately predict the amount of people in a small area. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) also known as Bluetooth Smart can take the power profile even lower than standard Bluetooth.

Detecting and Modeling People Using Bluetooth

Cameron Devine – Computer Engineering Undergraduate Nicholas Kirsch – Faculty Advisor – Connectivity Research Center Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Devices Detected

ADVISOR: Nicholas Kirsch

Detecting the amount of people in a certain area can be very useful in making a smart city more efficient. Some users could access the information to avoid densely packed areas while others could target the highly populated areas when needed. Current solutions to do this today depend on processor heavy image processing or power draining cellular or WiFi monitoring.

Probability

AUTHOR: Cameron Devine

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• Doctor Nicholas Kirsch – Professor Advisor • Chris Dube – Connectivity Research Center • Broadband Center of Excellence

The number of detectable Bluetooth devices would not always equal the exact amount of people in an area. To account for this a probability model was formulated as the basis for this project. If the amount of devices per person could be predicted with high probability, this solution could accurately predict the amount of people in an area. Using a Raspberry Pi 3 and a custom Python script, multiple samples were taken which counted the Bluetooth devices in the area while the actual population was recorded. These numbers were used to get the number of people per device at that time. That data was used to give a number of devices per person with high confidence. INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Detecting and Modeling Traffic Using Bluetooth


Develop HoloLens Application by using concept of Holoportation AUTHOR: Paveen Virameteekul

Nowadays, many people cannot spend Develop HoloLens Application by using lots of their time with their family or concept of Holoportation Paveen Virameteekul friends because of studying abroad or having an awkward working hour. Some Research Question Abstract Results might not see their family more than a year. However, if we could augment the real world with the virtual world, this Materials problem might be resolved. The purpose of this project is to build an application that two people can play a checker game together. The application includes Method checker shown as hologram and a hologram of another player displayed as Acknowledgements an avatar. The procedures of this project is to build the checker game with the Contacts avatar of another player, and observe participants about their satisfaction. The environment of the experiment is done in two rooms with two players play in different room, and have a call together while they are playing the game. In conclusion, this project is built to keep people contacting with their family and friends who may not seeing for a long time. Andrew L. Kun, Faculty Advisor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire

ADVISOR: Andrew Kun

• Nowadays, many people cannot spend lots of their time with their family or friends because of studying abroad or having an awkward working hour. Some might not see their family more than a year. However, if we could augment the real world with the virtual world, this problem might be solved. The purpose of this project is to build an application that two people can play a checker game together. The application includes checker shown as hologram and a hologram of another player displayed as an avatar.

• Create checker game using Unity • Language C# • Build and deploy to HoloLens using Microsoft visual studio

Implementing Results: • Checker can be played via the Wi-Fi between two players • Avatar shows the gaze direction: • Rotate the player avatar in the same direction of player’s head. • Show the small animated avatar on the board as a gaze destination • Show movable location on the checker board for people have never played before Experimental Results: • Most participants prefer a cartoon avatar more than a avatar that look like real person • Most participants concentrate at the board because they don’t want to miss their turn • Most participants agree with hypothesis that this game can decrease the problem of having an awkward working hour or living long distance • HoloLens View

• Can this application reduce missing of people who have an awkward working hours or living apart? • The collected data show that participants believe that this application can solve this problem.

• HoloLens • Unity 5.5.0f3 • Microsoft Visual studio

• I would like to thanks Professor Andrew L. Kun who support this senior project.

• Outside HoloLens View

ELECTRICAL&COMPUTERENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

• Run experiment and Collecting data from participants • Playing checker between two people while having a skype call

DSP Parametric Audio Equalizer AUTHOR: Joshua Larsen ADVISOR: Michael Carter

A Digital Parametric Audio Equalizer was designed using Finite Impulse Response filters that are implemented on a stereo audio DSP evaluation board made by Analog Devices. The user can specify the gain and center frequency of a number of band-pass filters in order to boost or cut the bass, mid-range and treble frequencies of a given audio signal. Slide potentiometer inputs are sensed by the A/D converter of an Arduino R3 daughter board, which sends a serial data stream to the DSP board representative of the user’s chosen equalizer settings. The data representing slide potentiometer settings is used to appropriately modify the various band-pass filter coefficients in real time. The filtered audio signal is sent into a headphone amplifier before playback.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

.

For more information contact: Paveen Virameteekul Email: pv4@wildcats.unh.edu


UNH Aero AUTHORS: Adam Benincasa Brandon Clark Thomas Giarratano Jacob Morgan Travis Paola Kyle Poodiack ADVISOR: Alireza Ebadi

The UNH AeroCats will be competing in a mock SAE Aero East competition this year. The rules and scoring will be consistent with the actual competition being held in Florida. In 2017, the AeroCats elected to participate in the “Regular Class” which mimics a commercial airliner. The plane must carry passengers and cargo, represented by tennis balls and metal plates. These must be stored separately within the fuselage, and remain in place during flight. The plane must take off in the allotted time and distance, travel 400 feet and complete a 360 degree turn, then land safely in the landing zone.

1. SAE Aero Design East Overview

5. Test Flight and Adjustments

Plane Requirements: ▪ Carry passengers and cargo in separate sections ▪ Must have ½ - ¾ pounds of cargo per passenger ▪ Everything inside plane must remain in place during take off, flight, and landing Flight Requirements: ▪ Take off within 200 feet in under 180 seconds ▪ Travel 400 feet before engaging in aerial maneuvers ▪ Complete a 360 degree turn ▪ Land within prescribed landing zone of 400 feet in same direction as takeoff Deliverables: ▪ Design report • Technical report, 2D CAD drawings ▪ Technical presentation • Inspection of plane, loading/unloading demonstration

Conditions: April 3, 2017 Temperature

Adam Benincasa, Brandon Clark, Tom Giarratano, Jacob Morgan, Travis Paola, Kyle Poodiack

40° F

Wind

10 – 20 mph

Pressure

29.85 in Hg

Precipitation

Faculty Advisor: Alireza Ebadi

None

▪ The plane successfully completed the required tasks for takeoff, flight, and landing ▪ The landing gear and part of the fuselage attached to it were torn from the fuselage ▪ A new mount was developed to better withstand the torsional force

3. Design

Pre-flight inspection

Broken bottom of fuselage after test flight

Redesigned landing gear mount

SolidWorks assembly of the aircraft

Important design features: ▪ Balsa wood frame, foam airfoils and spruce spars in wings • Low weight design to increase competition score ▪ Circular fuselage for improved aerodynamics ▪ Used larger end of aspect ratios for aileron, rudder, and elevator sizing ▪ Removable wings for easier transport ▪ Seating arrangement to fit 12 passengers

2. Research Velocity (m/s)

Contour plot showing the velocity profile in the CFD around a considered airfoil

6. Competition Results

SolidWorks top view showing passenger arrangement (wings are hidden for clarity)

Comparison of wind tunnel data to CFD

▪ ANSYS Fluent Student CFD software used to analyze velocity and pressure distributions ▪ Acquired lift and drag coefficients from simulations at varying angles of attack ▪ The predicted lift to drag ratio matches the wind tunnel data with a 95% confidence interval

4. Manufacturing

Engine mount to main fuselage frame

▪ Minimal weight was the top priority ▪ Built to allow for quick crash recovery • No glue between wing ribs • Metal brackets used instead of glue to hold fuselage sections together • Manufactured duplicate components ▪ Wings mount at 4° angle for optimal cruising ▪ Engine mounted to body of plane • Increased strength and durability ▪ Shrink wrapped entire plane to reduce drag ▪ Large side door on fuselage for entry to passenger/cargo areas ▪ Removable nose cover for battery access

Plane in flight during first successful test

Competition Flight: ▪ Plane fully loaded with 12 passengers and 6.24 pounds of cargo ▪ Took off on second attempt ▪ Completed required competition maneuvers ▪ Qualified landing despite fractured landing gear ▪ Two passengers were slightly reoriented within seats ▪ Comparing score to last year’s results, the plane would have been top 10 in the Aero East Competition

Initial contact during landing for competition flight

Conditions: April 11, 2017 Temperature

75° F

Wind

5 - 10 mph

Pressure

30.29 in Hg

Precipitation

None

Plot of semi-empirical and experimental thrust values obtained. Propeller sizes are in inches (diameter x pitch)

▪ Semi-empirical thrust calculated using equation derived from Newton’s 2nd Law • Provides theoretical thrust with empirical corrections ▪ Experimental thrust measured using setup with S-type load cell ▪ Final motor and propeller: • E-Flite Power 90 Brushless Outrunner Motor, 325 Kv • 18 x 8 inch APC Electric Propeller

Final assembly of wing mounts

First look of the assembled plane

Structural ring and metal bracket used to hold plane sections together

From left to right: team pilot, team advisor, team members

The remote-controlled plane has a 96” wing span, and is 78” long. The team chose balsa wood as the primary material for the body, with foam used in the wings and tail. The plane was built in separate sections to aid in crash recovery. Special consideration was taken in the fuselage design to fit the passengers and cargo in an accessible manner. An electric motor is used, per the competition rules, generating over 16 pounds of thrust. The plane is expected to fly at a total weight of over 20 pounds when fully loaded. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, DAREN HUDSON, JOHN YASSEMEDIS, THE FREEMONT FLYERS AND THE AMA

Winning Project

2017

Deliverables for the project include a technical report, manufacturing report and a test flight report. These will aid next year’s team when designing for their competition.

UNH Baja AUTHORS: Jeffrey Bajor Samuel Carbonneau Matthew Ciocys Ryan Gancarz Aleksander Holm Conor Langille Joseph Lemenager Camden Medeiros

Honorable Mention Project

2017

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

ADVISOR: Barbaros Celikkol

Mini Baja is a one-seater, all-terrain vehicle built to compete against other teams in a Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) sponsored event. The SAE competition is composed of 5 dynamic tests, which involve acceleration, maneuverability, a rock crawl, a hill climb, and an endurance race. Setting a design goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by roughly 10% of the previous team’s car, the UNH Mini Baja team aims to finish within the top 25 places out of the 100 competing teams. A key area for decreasing the weight of the vehicle came from redesigning the frame to make the vehicle 10 inches shorter than the previous frame. The stock engine has minimal power; therefore decreasing the weight is the most effective way to increase the acceleration and top speed of the car. Greater performance was also achieved by creating a translational engine mount, allowing the engine clutch location to be tuned for optimal engine power output. With these main design goals and areas of improvement, other upgrades were made such as stronger axles and more responsive/durable steering that will stand up to the rugged terrain of the competition track. All of these improvements were aimed at achieving the best performing vehicle for each event in the competition.


UNH Precision Racing AUTHORS: Francesca Bolton Mathew Chadwick Robert Evans Ivan Galic Simon Hunter Seth Jerszyk Lance Lentini Drew Mills David Monasky John Parrillo Joel Russell Jose Salmeron Keegan Sullivan Keller Waldron

UNH Precision Racing is an engineering team dedicated to designing, building, testing, and competing an open-wheeled race car to Formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) specifications. The group provides invaluable hands-on experience in automotive design to any interested students, regardless of their major. The student organization status is to aid in fundraising, organization awareness on campus, and new-member recruitment. The purpose of this organization is to design, build, test, and compete an open-wheeled race car to Formula SAE specifications. Each year the team builds a new vehicle to enter into the annual competition at the Michigan International Speedway in Michigan with 120 other schools from around the world. The organization is run like a business and as such, provides important hands-on experience to students in a wide-variety of disciplines.

ADVISOR: Todd Gross

UNH Lunacats: Mars Mining Robot

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

AUTHORS: Connor Borne Daniel Conley Kyle Desrochers Justin Gardiner Clayton Garland Shane Murphy Brett Pike Michael Smith ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

With space travel becoming more realistic and the possibilities of Objectives Drivetrain colonizing other planets being pursued, it is important to advance current technology to prepare for life outside of Earth. The UNH LunaCats team consists Autonomy of interdisciplinary engineering majors comprised of mechanical, electrical, and Chassis computer science students. The team will Mining Apparatus participate in the annual Mars mining competition sponsored by NASA this Electrical Controls May. The objective of the competition is to design, manufacture, and operate a robot to mine as much simulated Martian soil as possible within a ten minute period. Some of the competition restrictions include robot size and weight, and the robot is expected to be able to transmit data dependably. The robot must also successfully operate under a simulated Martian environment which includes craters and boulders as obstacles. The mechanical engineering students focused on the chassis, drivetrain and simulant mining subsystem, where they designed a sturdy chassis for the base, improved on the previous year’s mining apparatus and designed a dependable drivetrain system. Electrical engineering and computer science students focused on the autonomy and control of the robotic system. The goal of this year’s team is to design a fully autonomous robot to reliably mine the simulant. Connor Borne, Dan Conley, Kyle Desrochers, Justin Gardiner, Clayton Garland, Shane Murphy, Brett Pike, Michael Smith Underclassmen: Zhangxi Feng, Jack Hamilton, Charlie Nitschelm, Alfred Odierno, Nathan Tetreault Advisor: Dr. May-Win Thein

•x2 2.5” CIM motors placed on both sides of chassis powered by a 12 V lead-acid battery •4-wheel tank-drive system allows for tight turning •Planetary gearbox ratio of 13.5:1 for increased torque and decreased speed •Larger keyways and driveshafts to reduce shearing •Airless rubber tires with tire studs for increased traction •Drives mining apparatus into regolith

The UNH LunaCats is an interdisciplinary team comprised of mechanical, electrical, and computer science engineering students. The team will compete against universities from across the nation during the annual Robotic Mining Competition (RMC) sponsored by NASA. The objective is to design, manufacture, and operate a robot to mine 10 kg of regolith in a simulated Martian environment. The goals of this year’s team is to implement full autonomy into a simplistic and reliable robotic design.

Autonomous navigation through the mining pit is achieved with image processing. The robot locates a target placed on the deposit bin and calculates its approximate distance and angle from it using images received from a mounted USB camera. The autonomous system is run by the image processor and the autonomous routine. • Receives image from USB camera • Locates the target • Compares image target size to actual known target size to determine distance and angle from target • Passes the information to the autonomous routine

The Raspberry Pi is responsible for both the image processing and the autonomous routine. The image processor handles all image inputs from the USB camera. The Arduino communicates motor controls based off commands received from the Pi.

Surface skimming device optimized for maximum efficiency using the simplest design possible. Design • Single component that can collect and carry 15 kg of Martian simulant • Minimize simulant transfer time between collection pan and hopper • Minimize overall weight while avoiding excessive stress and deformation

Construction • A custom mold was first constructed out of plywood • Apparatus consists of 10 layers of plain weave fiberglass fabric bonded by polyester resin • Outer 2 layers are 7.5 oz. fabric, inner 6 layers are 20 oz. tooling fabric • The surface was coated in a layer of black tooling gel coat with Duratec Hi-Gloss Additive

•Welded 1” 6061-T6 Aluminum square tubing •Reliable strength to weight ratio •Rear uprights angled back 11.5° to optimize regolith depositing efficiency •Wide base lowers overall center of mass •Designed to maximize volume for mining

•The Raspberry Pi 3 handles high level decisions such as autonomy, image processing, and user commands •The Arduino Uno manages low level functionality, specifically motor and actuator controller commands •Power runs from the fuse box through power converters to supply the correct voltages to the microcontrollers and other components

SolidWorks Simulation of Carrying Regolith

Mining Apparatus Broken into Subgroups

SolidWorks Simulation of Digging into Regolith

•Electrical setup designed for optimized heat management to increase CPU performance

We’d like to thank our advisor, Dr. May-Win Thein, and our sponsors; Iron Heart Canning, Northern Electrical Contractors LLC, New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium, UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Dr. May-Win Thein, and Colin Gagnon for their contributions to the creation of our robot and NASA for the opportunity to compete in the Robotic Mining Competition of 2017.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Extreme Chunkin Senior Design Team AUTHORS: Michael Casey Morgan Clendennin Jeromey Green Michael Joncas Sean McGuire ADVISORS: Barbaros Celikkol Steve Seigars

The objective of this project was to design a mechanism that would launch a pumpkin as far as possible within a set of regulations. The senior design team, mentored by Barbaros Celikkol and Steve Seigars, attended a Punkin Chunkinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; event in October of 2016 to research what type of machines were being used currently, and to interview the engineers within the pits to get advice and inspiration. After doing so, the team decided on building a trebuchet and modeled the system as a triple pendulum problem, developing a series of differential equations that could be used to find the position, velocity, and acceleration of key components of the device. After establishing the mathematical model, it was written in Matlab and was able to be used to develop a design that would fit within a reasonable budget, while still maintaining a large throwing distance. A small scale model of the trebuchet was then built, and compared to a SolidWorks model, as well as being tested with potentiometers and tachometers to see how accurate the differential model was. Finding that the results fell within a small percent error, the mathematical model and SolidWorks analysis were used to develop a large scale version, which stands 8 feet tall with a throwing arm 13 feet long, and 1200lb concrete counterweight.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


MECHANICALENGINEERING-INDUSTRIAL

UNH ET-NavSwarm AUTHORS: Joshua Amero Seth Andreasson Kenneth Arico Alexander Cook ADVISORS: Colette Powers Wayne Smith May-Win Thein

ET-NavSwarm is a multidisciplinary team inspired by NASA with an interest in Extraterrestrial Navigation with Particle Swarm Optimization exploring planets for natural resources. Sensors and Electronics The goal of our project is to test a Robot Specs particle swarm optimization algorithm, Bot Schematics which uses mathematical principles to find the most efficient means to achieve an objective using intra-team communication. The algorithm has been proven through computerbased simulations, but now it must be tested in practical applications. We will accomplish this by building our own Velocity Control Software and Controls “swarm” of rugged, autonomous robots to survey an area. Each robot requires mechanical engineering, software engineering, and electrical engineering through hardware, software, and circuit design with sensors. One of the simplest ways to prove the particle swarm concept is to survey a feature that is easy to measure, such as elevation. Thus, the algorithm will command our “swarm” to search for the highest elevation within a specified search area. To test the limits of the algorithm in a real-world environment, we will use UNH’s Boulder Field to see how well our swarm manages challenging elevation layouts. With the completion of this project, we hope to present what we have accomplished to aerospace engineers at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Team Members : Seth Andreasson, Kenneth Arico, Joshua Amero, Alexander Cook

IR Distance Sensors • Detect obstacles, provide 110 o field of view.

Barometric Pressure Sensor • Measures small changes in atmospheric pressure to calculate elevation.

Advisors: Professor May-Win Thein, Professor Wayne Smith, Professor Colette Powers, Michael Johnson, Sital Khatiwada, Alissa Dalpe, John McCormack

Mission: To design, manufacture, and test a swarm of rugged, autonomous robots to search an area for the highest/lowest elevation. Our robots will serve as a test platform for the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. This mathematical algorithm finds the best/most of an objective. Derived from the behavior of nature’s swarms (birds, bees, etc.), the algorithm does not have a centralized leader. Each robot communicates with the others and makes decisions based on shared information.

• • •

unh.edu/navswarm

• Top speed: 2.5 mph • Total weight: 11.4 lbs.

Aluminum welded chassis Water-resistant Dynamic suspension

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) • Combination accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. • Accurately determines roll, pitch and yaw of robot.

XBee Wireless Transceiver • 2.4 GHz transmitter/receiver used to wirelessly. communicate data throughout the swarm. Global Positioning System (GPS) • Tracks up to 22 satellites to determine the robot’s location in the coordinate system.

Arduino Mega Microcontroller • Analog and digital input/output pins read sensor data. • Sends sensor data to Raspberry Pi via serial communication for processing.

Length: 15 inches Width: 18.5 inches Height: 17 inches

Raspberry Pi Microcontroller • Main microcontroller for the Swarm. • Uses sensor data and the PSO algorithm to select search points and plan path to destination.

Bot Power, Motor Control, GPS, and Swarm System

Lithium Battery Transition Research A goal for this year was to look into the feasibility of converting the bots to use lithium batteries. We chose the Multistar High Cap. Has approximately the same voltage as old battery. Has higher amp and mAH than the old battery. The new batteries are lighter.

• • •

Pololu 18v17 Pi Motor Controller • Uses pulse width modulation from Arduino to power motors. • Each controller powers one side of the robot.

3D Printed IR Sensor Housing

3D Printed IMU Housing

Bot IR Sensors, Communication, IMU, Switch, and GPS Systems

Multistar High Cap Lithium Battery

Peaks Function in MATLAB Used for PSO

Theoretical comparison of controllers shows PID control has the least overshoot from the plot to the left.

State Machine Diagram Shows the Different Modes That Each Robot Will Go Through

• Raspberry Pi/ PSO Algorithm: Algorithm that accepts sensor data and determines the travel destination for each bot. • Arduino: Determines when to move and turn to assure arrival. Obstacle avoidance. • Serial Peripheral Interfaces (SPI): - Communication ports between Arduino and Pi. • State: - Data that changes over time and is meaningful to the system’s operation.

• Moving – Robot uses motor controllers to reach its destination and IR sensors for obstacle avoidance. • Calculating – PSO uses information from the swarm to calculate new position. • Synchronizing – Once the robot reaches its destination, it waits to receive information from the swarm. • Holding – User defined interaction to pause searching.

Experimental vs. Theoretical Control Using PID Controller

Experiment Theoretical Experimental

Simulink Diagram Used in Theoretical Model

Time Constant .0336 .165

Comparison of Time Constants

Comparison of Trajectory Before and After Control

2016-2017

Data-Center Cooling Analysis using CFD Modeling Techniques and Experimental Investigation of Perforated Tiles AUTHORS: Randy Colburn Sydney Kay Colin Spillane Spencer Triglione Emma Underwood ADVISORS: Paul Bemis Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Two data centers from The State of DATA CENTER COOLING ANALYSIS USING CFD MODELING TECHNIQUES New Hampshire were modeled using AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PERFORATED TILES computational fluid dynamic techniques OVERVIEW with the Computational Fluid Dynamics DATA CENTER 1 DATA CENTER 2 IMPROVED MODELS BASELINE MODELS (CFD) software Coolsim. An initial model of each data center was built to demonstrate current airflow patterns in the rooms. Proposed modifications were made to show improvement in the efficiency of the airflow. The goals were to find the maximum IT load the data centers can currently handle and determine ways to decrease cooling EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS costs. The modifications included adding blanking panels to the racks to direct airflow, adding ceiling tiles directed into ceiling plenums, adding baffling to contain hot air, and changing the direction of the servers in the racks. The energy savings and yearly cost of the data centers with modifications were compared to the initial models and show noticeable improvements. In addition, experimental work was performed to study the volumetric flow rate from perforated tiles, which are used to direct cold air to the servers. Balometer and anemometer measurements were compared to each other. The study is relevant to improvement of the simulation software. • Two data centers from the State of New Hampshire IT department were modeled and analyzed • A data center is a facility composed of networked computers that organize, store, and process large amounts of data • Baseline models of each room are simulated and validated

• Improvements are made to each room and analyzed to find the most efficient way of cooling

AIRFLOW PATHLINES FROM CRAC UNITS

Data Center 1

• Cooling capacity of 12,100 CFM with 2 CRAC Units • Only need to remove 2,901 CFM of heat resulting in N+1 design • One unit can sufficiently cool while the other remains as a backup • Current model is overcooled, indicated by blue inlet temperatures below the allowable range • By increasing the supply air temperature to 63℉, all of the rack inlet temperatures fall within the recommended range • Return Temperature Index (RTI) increases by a factor of 2.2 by adding blanking panels and raising supply air temperature

Data Center 2

Data Center 2 – Improved Model

Data Center 1 – Improved Model

• Cooling capacity of 22,000 CFM with 2 CRAC Units • Configuration of racks requires 16,000 CFM • Not “N+1” design • Original data center consumes 146 kW of power – costing $128,000 annually • Cooling capacity and requirements remain unchanged in improved model • Improved model, still not “N+1”, but enhanced airflow results in better cooling • The Figures above show overheating with a CRAC unit failure • Improved model consumes 131 kW of power – costing $114,000 annually • Annual savings of $14,000

Data Center 2

2'

Randy Colburn Sydney Kay Colin Spillane Spencer Triglione Emma Underwood Advisor: Ivaylo Nedyalkov Advisor: Paul Bemis

• Balometer calculates total flow rate slightly above the tiles • 3” anemometer was used on a systematic grid to calculate velocities and then integrated to find flow rate. • Figure (far right) shows flow rate profiles across a tile • Velocities are higher toward the center of tiles and percent open area of tiles affects flow rates • Tiles with complex geometry resulted in a decreased air flow rate through the tile • Anemometer calculations are more accurate • Future study is suggested with the use of a laser doppler velocimeter with an improved experimental set up

Experimental Set Up With Balometer

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

• In Data Center 1 improvements include: • Blanking panels and a supply air temperature increase from 59°F to 63°F • A ceiling plenum was added along with baffles to contain the hot air and maximize efficiency • The max IT load available increased from 20.82 kW to 38.2 kW • The RTI of the room increased from 22.68% to 99.91% • Data Center 2 improvements include: • Addition of blanking panels • Addition of chimneys to the rack row #2 • Rotation of the rack row #4 • Removal of floor tiles between rack row #3 and #4 • Power efficiency increase of 11.5% • Maximum rack inlet temperature decreased by 13°F

Data Center 1 – Baseline Model

• To increase efficiency, increase the supply air temperature

• Use of blanking panels improves airflow, making cooling more efficient

Data Center 1

Data Center 2 – Baseline Model

• Room dimensions and server loads were measured to build 3D models of each data center • Supply air temperatures from CRAC Units were measured • Main elements in the data centers include racks of servers, power supplies, and computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units • In both rooms, a raised floor mechanism is used where the CRAC units blow cold air through the subfloor plenum up through perforated floor tiles strategically positioned around the room • Data Center 1 is unique in that it is currently being overcooled with a potential for a ceiling plenum hot air return • Data Center 2 currently operates at almost max IT capacity with inefficient “classroom style” rack arrangements

2'

Anemometer Tile Testing

Anemometer Air Flow Results


SLiMS ™

SIG LiNEAR MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

o o

Sensor Speed Comparison

Acceleration Comparison High Speed Camera

SLiMS

SLiMS

Theoretical

o

High Speed Camera

Velocity

ADVISOR: Marko Knezevic

Sig Sauer Inc. requested the development of linear displacement measurement system to study the dynamic behavior of their rifle systems. The study of linear displacement of the “bolt carrier assembly” is of particular interest, as it is the main dynamic mechanism responsible for operating the rifle. By accurately measuring the linear displacement, with respect to time, much insight can be gained to the operational state of the rifle.

Displacement

AUTHORS: Joshua Dyer Luke Morenz

The project goals were to develop a linear displacement measurement • • • • • system for the purposes of calculating • velocity and acceleration of moving parts S in order to study and better understand the dynamic nature of the system. This information may be used to develop solutions to improve the functionality, durability, and reliability of the parts as well as the overall system. The proposed measurement system was to be minimally-intrusive to the system, require no special fixtures, have a setup time of less than five minutes, be adaptable to various dynamic systems, be a fully-contained unit, provide immediate feedback, and to be within ten percent accuracy of the current measurement system. Time [s]

Time [s]

®

when it counts

®

UNH Manufacturing Automation AUTHORS: Ellen Barth Henry Blount Christopher Chin Michael Locke Nathan Manning ADVISORS: Momotaz Begum Brad Kinsey Se Young Yoon INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Chris Bickford, Advanced Automation, LLC Jeremy Seiferth, Advance Automation, LLC

The biggest challenge that faces manufacturing at the University of New Hampshire is that many students don’t know what the manufacturing industry entails. The main goal for UNH Manufacturing Automation is to create an educational set-up that will educate students on the many facets of manufacturing. Specifically, the team was tasked to outfit a robotic arm with peripheral equipment, such as quick change tooling, a vision system, pneumatic compressors and end-effectors for use in an automated manufacturing process. The total process will pick fuses from a vibratory part feeder and place them into a printed circuit board. This robotic arm and its corresponding manufacturing system will be one of the inaugural manufacturing processes to be installed in the University of New Hampshire’s first Manufacturing Center, named the John Olson Advanced Manufacturing Center. At the Olson Center, students will have the opportunity to gain first-hand experience with operating and designing components for manufacturing processes, and faculty will be able to use the facility to conduct research in their respective fields and engage with industry.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

MECHANICALENGINEERING-INDUSTRIAL

Sig Linear Measurement System


MECHANICALENGINEERING-INDUSTRIAL

Determining Intrinsic Residual Stress in 3-D Woven Composites Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry AUTHOR: Nicholas Chagnon ADVISOR: Todd Gross

One problem with 2-D and 3-D woven composites is that the fibers and epoxy resin expand and contract different amounts for the same change in temperature. This results in residual stresses when the composite cools from the curing temperature to room temperature. This internal residual stress can cause microcracking and degrade the mechanical performance of the composite. The goal of this project was to create the tools to measure residual stress in 3D woven composites.

Determining Intrinsic Residual Stress in 3-D Woven Composites Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Nicholas Chagnon

Background of the Project ➢ In 2015, 600,000,000 passengers flew in the United States alone. The Boeing 737 Dreamliner is the most common aircraft used in U.S. ➢ The traditional CFM International CFM56 engines are being replaced with modernized CFM International LEAP engines. ➢ One way that the engine is more efficient, is because selected components are made using composite materials that are just as stiff and strong as metals but significantly lighter. The most common aerospace composite materials use carbon fibers and an epoxy matrix.

➢ The composite turbine blades of the LEAP engines are made using a Jacquard loom(shown below) to create a 3D preform structure from the carbon fibers (shown in the bottom left figure). Then a resin is injected into the mold and the part is cured at an elevated temperature.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, UNH

Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

45˚

➢ The test specimen is illuminated by two symmetrically positioned light sources. ➢ The light reaching a pixel in the camera is the result of interference between the two beams. ➢ The phase of the light is recorded at every point on the object using phase shifting techniques. ➢ When we deform the object (by drilling a hole), it increases the path that the light travels to the camera element from one of the light sources and decreases the path of the other source. ➢ The resultant change in phase of the light captured by the camera is proportional to the deformation.

LabView Virtual Instrument ➢ One problem with this approach is that the fibers and the epoxy resin expand and contract different amounts for the same change in temperature, such as when the composite cools from the curing temperature to room temperature.

➢ Communicates with the frame grabber to capture images at 30 fps. ➢ Signals a DAQ to produce a voltage which gets amplified by a 1000V amplifier to drive the piezoelectric translator. (Adjusts the path length)

MATLAB Phase Difference Calculation

2017

Noise Immune Unwrapping Algorithm

➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢

Phase difference is modular 2π. Where there is a +- 2π discontinuity, you assign a fringe order. Multiply the phase difference data by the fringe order. Errors cause streaking. Locally check for high curvature while unwrapping. Unwrap around the areas of high curvature. Calculate the fringe order for the local areas based on the least squares fit.

Proof of Concept

When you drill a hole in a part that has residual stress, it releases the stress around the hole causing displacements that can be measured and converted to residual stress. I used Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) to measure the displacements around a drilled hole. ESPI is an optical technique that uses laser light with video detection to visualize surface deformation of the composite material. ESPI with the helium-neon laser, used in this setup, is able to measure displacements of 10-15nm, which is 1000 times smaller than the thickness of human hair. The test specimen is setup on a dual-axis kinematic mount so that displacement can be measured in two directions with only one hole. We are currently developing the algorithms to convert the measured phase shift to displacement. ➢ This results in intrinsic residual stress that can cause microcracking and degrade the mechanical performance of the composite.

Honorable Mention Project

Hole Drilling and the Dual Axis Kinematic Mount ➢ If you drill a hole in a part that has residual stress, it releases the stress around the hole. ➢ The specimen is mounted on a kinematic mount in order to be removed from the table for hole drilling. The mount is designed so that it can be rotated 90 degrees (shown below). This allows for the phase to be calculated for two directions.

➢ The phase before and after deformation is calculated in MATLAB from the 4 phase shifted images. ➢ The difference between the two phase calculations is proportional to the deformation in the horizontal direction based on the optical configuration.

➢ Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been proven as a method to measure displacement in isotropic materials. ➢ Diaz and Schajer used ESPI to measure the relaxation of stress around a hole for isotropic specimens under load. ➢ Quinn used ESPI to measure in-plane deformation when studying the failure of 3D woven composites. ➢ Hole drilling techniques have been used to measure residual stress since 1934.

Method of Non-contact Machining by means of Electrochemical Turning AUTHORS: Carlos Graniello Simon Popecki ADVISORS: John Bundza Ioannis Korkolis Tim Noronha

High strength materials designed to operate in extreme conditions are difficult to cut for the same reasons that make them excellent for demanding applications. These materials are called “superalloys”, and are commonly found in aerospace applications. Conventional cutting methods such as milling and turning can expend thousands of dollars’ worth of tools on a single part. Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is a noncontact method of machining that uses controlled anodic dissolution to remove material from a conductive workpiece without mechanical or thermal stress. Material is removed from the workpiece under high pressure aqueous electrolyte (4-10 atmospheres). ECM operations experience no tool wear and material hardness has no effect on the ECM process, making ECM an ideal method for machining exotic materials. Common ECM operations require in-depth design, tailoring a unique tool (cathode) to each part. As many as 20 iterations can be required to create a working cathode. This project serves as a test bed for developing new ECM methods such as the use of non-unique tooling, and for experimentation with different electrolytes.

Winning Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


INDUSTRY ADVISOR: John Weismantel

Mingchen Mao â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mechanical Engineering â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;17 Faculty Advisor: Barry Fussell

Industrial Advisor: John Weismantel

Introduction

How it works

Backgrounds The printing machine is operated by a high resolution rotary encoder which controls the motion of two rollers at each end. A porous mesh polyester belt, used as the carriage of media, is tightly attached and surrounded by the rolls. When media is put on top of the belt, a vacuum table under the belt will hold the media in place. Then the media will move accordingly to the input to the encoder, with printing jets inside the machine casting inks and printing.

â&#x20AC;˘ The light-emitting diode shines a visible or infrared light onto the surface. â&#x20AC;˘ Electrons or other free carriers will be emitted when the light is show and causes the photoelectric effect. â&#x20AC;˘ These photoelectrons will bounce back into a lo-res camera adjacent to the LED.

Results

2

1

Constant Velocity Test đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş 1đ??şđ??ş đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  1đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  19đ??şđ??ş đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; 

đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż (đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; ) đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??żđ??żđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; (đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;) đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??ş16đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş6148đ??şđ??ş8đ??şđ??ş 16.đ??şđ??ş đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş98 đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??ş16đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş1đ??şđ??ş489đ??şđ??ş3đ??şđ??ş1 83.3 đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş96 đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??ş16đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş84đ??şđ??ş31377 1đ??şđ??ş7 đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??ş1đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??ş16đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş1973đ??şđ??ş1đ??şđ??ş96đ??şđ??ş 3đ??şđ??ş3 đ??şđ??ş.đ??şđ??şđ??şđ??ş9đ??şđ??ş

The resolution (with respect to constant-velocity motion) of Logitech G502 is approximately 10 microns. Closer Look at Changes along Axis Constant-Velocity = 10 mm/s

20

Within Accepatble Range

19

Those outlier points indicate the unstable nature of the setup. Approximately a maximum 0.03 mm displacement happened during this operation, most of the displacement could be attributed to the vibration of the laser guide channel.

Outliers

18

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3 1. LED that generates laser beam 2. Plastic laser guide channel 3. DSP board (with lo-res camera inside)

Problems and challenges â&#x20AC;˘ Motion of the media is not directly controlled by the encoder, any error in the motion transmission could cause inaccuracy of the real motion of the media. â&#x20AC;˘ Due to manufacturing limits, there are inevitable run-outs in the rollers and the stepped shaft. Objectives Research potential technologies and design a corresponding mechanism that can accurately measure and feedback the real position of the belt within Âą5 đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;.

Technology Selection

Other technologies such as attaching tags to the media and track its position using small RFID chips. Technology selected: laser sensor

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â&#x20AC;˘ The lo-res camera will divide the area in view into a grid of pixels. â&#x20AC;˘ Each pixel has its own charge-to-voltage converter that can process the photoelectrons into electric signals. â&#x20AC;˘ These electric signals will be saved as binary numbers which will form a digital image. â&#x20AC;˘ The digital signal processing will pick up information in each pixel in one frame. â&#x20AC;˘ The same process goes on for next frame. â&#x20AC;˘ The DSP will compare difference between two consecutive frames and then infer the corresponding movement in x and y direction.

Real-situation Prototype Test Measured Velocity Profile vs. True Velocity Profile 18

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Using sensors with sharp image pattern detection and analysis capability to measure the position of the media. Advantages â&#x20AC;˘ Some of those gaming mice in market are equipped with optical (laser) sensors with very high resolution, which may meet the requirement. â&#x20AC;˘ The digital signal processing (DSP) system is well built-in the mouse board. â&#x20AC;˘ Once proved workable, should be fairly straight-forward to integrate into product. Disadvantages â&#x20AC;˘ The measuring system or image detecting ability is pre-defined, difficult to make improvement based on that. Attach soft laser marking system to the printing zone, jet markers on the media and predict the position of the media by reading the realtime position of markers. Advantages â&#x20AC;˘ The real-time position of the markers is exactly in the printing zone, which is the part that we care about most. Disadvantages â&#x20AC;˘ Markers can be visible sometime, which will ruin the quality of the printed picture.

16

Number of Changes

ADVISOR: Barry Fussell

Non-Contact Motion Sensor for a Large Dot Matrix Printer

Number of Changes

AUTHOR: Mingchen Mao

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â&#x20AC;˘ As the figure shown, the sensor is able to recover the real motion of the belt within Âą 1đ??şđ??ş đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021; resolution if a few points are eliminated of by excluding-standard-deviation filters. â&#x20AC;˘ In order to achieve 5-micron resolution, a great amount of data must be eliminated, which will leave the velocity profile unresolved. â&#x20AC;˘ The sensor has a worse performance when the belt is accelerating or decelerating.

Conclusion and Future Work

5 4

â&#x20AC;˘ The set-up has to be very rigid to achieve consistent results. â&#x20AC;˘ The laser guide channel is extremely important in terms of keeping the system stable and producing more accurate results.

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A possible set-up to add rigidity to the system

3 6

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Plate. Everything is mounted upon so that vibration is minimized. Linear stage. Has a 50-nm resolution, used as the benchmark equipment. Stand. Slider. Slots are created so that different sensor boards can fit. Long bolt.To hold the sensor in place. Cap. Make sure that the belt is flat. Porous mesh polyester belt.

â&#x20AC;˘ The sensor tends to have a better performance when its camera is put closer to the surface. If can get rid of the effects of friction and make the sensor and belt in contact, perhaps a better result will be achieved. â&#x20AC;˘ Although sampling faster cannot improve the resolution in this case, increasing the polling rate of the mouse could yield more samples, which may be helpful to interpolate the real motion.

References https://www.edmundoptics.com/resources/application-notes/imaging/understandingcamera-sensors-for-machine-vision-applications/ https://www.photonics.com/EDU/Handbook.aspx?AID=25133 http://xahlee.info/kbd/mouse_dpi.html

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

MECHANICALENGINEERING-INDUSTRIAL

Non-Contact Motion Sensor for a Large Dot Matrix Printer


Continuous Tension-Compression Testing Machine for Sheet Metal Specimens AUTHORS: Jacques Jalbert Jacqueline McNally

As the demand for lighter vehicles Continuous Tension and Compression Testing Machine for Sheet Metal Specimens increases, so does the demand for using lighter materials. Most of the Problem Statement Design Details components that need to be lightened stem from the overall body of the vehicle which is typically formed out Overall Solution of steel. Steel sheet typically has a low springback which makes it perfect for forming the car body whereas other sheet metals range in the amount of springback they have. The springback in advanced high-strength steels and other alloys (Aluminum, Magnesium) has not been studied as much as low-carbon steel since the need for its properties haven’t been required up until now. To be able to characterize this springback, the machine designed is able to perform both tension and compression in one setup by the use of comb-shaped dies. A strain gauge will be applied to the specimen in the induced force direction and a load cell, able to record up to 50 kN, is connected in-line with the hydraulic cylinder to record stress versus strain data for cyclic loading. Jacqueline K. McNally and Jacques F. Jalbert Advisor: Yannis P. Korkolis, Ph.D.

Abstract:

Motivation From Industry: • •

ADVISOR: Ioannis Korkolis

Parts formed from sheet metal. Need material properties to simulate material response and design the forming dies. Experience large amounts of stress and strain: • In production • In the use of the parts (crash)

As the demand for better gas mileage increases, so does the demand for using lighter materials. The springback in advanced high-strength steels and other alloys (Aluminum, Magnesium) has not been studied as much as low-carbon steel since the need for its properties haven’t been required up until now. The problem with using most lighter materials is that the springback is not well characterized for forming purposes. To be able to characterize this springback, the machine designed is able to perform both tension and compression in one setup by the use of comb-shaped dies.

http://automobiles.honda.com/images/2009/civic-sedan/safety/safety-header.jpg

Background and Inspiration:

• The increased need for fuel efficiency has led to the development of light weight automotive frames and the implementation of non-traditional materials (Advanced High-Strength Steels, Aluminum, Magnesium).

50 kN tension/compression force, 25 kN anti-buckling force.

Strain range of +15% (tension) to -15% (compression).

Linear guide for ease of movement of the carriage.

Load Cell to measure tension/compression force.

Pins between top and lower comb dies allow for ease of assembly and precise locating.

• It is important to gain an in depth understanding of these materials and how they will react when subjected to loading, including compression. • Design proposed by Toshihiko Kuwabara in the figure below:

Design Challenges:

• Suppress buckling while the specimen is in compression.

• Minimize friction forces between specimen and comb dies.

• Allow for the installation of strain gauges on the specimen, while

minimizing the potential for buckling in that unsupported location.

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

• Safety of operation.

The figure below shows stress and strain data produced by Kuwabara using this design:

• Practical assembly and disassembly.

Design Solutions:

• Comb die housing assembly allows for linear motion while impeding vertical forces.

• High tolerances and ground surfaces for locations in contact with specimen or in correlation to its motion.

• Teflon sheets used to create low friction interfaces.

Without the comb dies, specimen would have buckled much earlier.

References:

(1) Kuwabara, T. (2014). Biaxial stress testing methods for sheet metals. In: Comprehensive Materials Processing; Van Tyne, CJ, Ed.; Elsevier Ltd, 1, 95-111. (2) Norton, Robert L. Machine Design 5th Edition Prentice Hall, Apr. 2016.

• Slots cut to allow safe location for strain gauge wiring.

NSF Grant Number: 1301081

• Components designed for easy disassembly.

Cyclist Aerodynamic Analysis in Cross Wind AUTHORS: Alec Cunningham Adam Lovell ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov

When riding directly behind another cyclist (drafting), a rider can use up to 30% Cyclist Aerodynamic Analysis in Cross Wind less energy. This technique is used often during competition, yet drafting with a cross wind becomes more complex and has not been investigated extensively. To study this, 1:11 scale models of two different cyclists were rapid-prototyped and tested in a wind tunnel. The drag and side forces were measured in groups of up to 4 models. The results suggest that there is a significant decrease in both drag and side force when a cyclist is riding in another cyclist’s wake. Positioning with no off-stream-wise offset result in the largest reduction of forces. Interestingly, at lower angles of the apparent wind, where less of the side area is exposed, differences in drafting positions are not as pronounced as those at higher angles. When riding in a group of four cyclists, the second and third cyclist experience the largest force reduction while the last cyclist experiences larger forces. The size of the leading cyclist affects the reduction of forces, particularly when the leading cyclist is smaller. The results are dependent on the Reynolds number, for Re&lt;1.7e5, but appear to be independent at higher Reynolds numbers. Identical full scale tests are currently set up at the UNH Flow Physics Facility. Alec Cunningham and Adam Lovell Advisor: Ivaylo Nedyalkov Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire

Introduction

Cyclist Models

• Studies suggest 90% of a rider’s energy is used to overcome drag [1], but drafting reduces drag forces by 30% when riding directly behind another cyclist [2] • Drafting formation in cross wind is called an echelon • Not much data available for drafting in a cross wind [3] • Riding in a cross wind changes the positioning necessary for optimal drafting [3] • Riding in an echelon decreases side force [3] which is the cause of 5% of the single-cyclist accidents [4]

Offset

Rider Size Dependence

Group Position

In an echelon, the 1st cyclist experiences the most drag and the last rider experiences the next highest drag Except for the 1st rider the side force is significantly lower for all cyclists in the formation

• •

Results depend on Reynolds number for Re < 2e5 Side force is affected more than drag Higher Re numbers will be investigated in small and large scale testing

References

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Chase Klewicki, John Turner, John Abare and the rest of the UNH technical staff. Also, a final thank you to the senior project team that created the force balance used to conduct some of our experiments.

Photo courtesy of Jeremy Gasowski, Communications and Public Affairs UNH

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

• • •

[1] Barry, N., et al., 2012, "Effect of Crosswinds and Wheel Selection on the Aerodynamic Behavior of a Cyclist." Procedia Engineering, 34, pp. 20-25. [2] Noerstrud, H., 2010, Sport Aerodynamics, Wien: Springer, Print. [3] Nedyalkov I., Lovell A., Cunningham A., 2017, “Experimental Investigation of a Drafting Cyclist in Cross-Wind.” In Proceedings of American Society of Mechanical Engineers 2017 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. Paper number FEDSM2017-69398 [accepted] [4] Fintelman, D.M., at al., 2015 "CFD Simulations of the Flow around a Cyclist Subjected to Crosswinds," Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 144, pp. 31-41.

• Using previously built drag balance, drag was measured to validate the small scale testing • Preliminary tests show: • there is very little difference in drag force between pedaling and not pedaling • riding as close as possible to the front rider results in the smallest drag in the stream-wise direction • Tests will be continued to verify the group positioning, as well as size and Reynolds Number dependence

2017

Reynolds Number Dependence

Little to no difference for drag force between Katie and Alec when riding alone The size of the leading cyclist matters only if the drafting cyclists is larger than the leader

Flow Physics Facility Tests

Winning Project

1. Test Subject 2. Aerolab Pyramidal Force Balance 3. Student Wind Tunnel Test Section

Models in the Student Wind Tunnel

Human versus 3-D printed model

• Drafting significantly decreases both drag and side force • Riding in-line with one another results in the greatest force reduction [3] • Riding as close to one another results in larger force reduction • At lower yaw angles, positioning is not as important compared to larger yaw angles.

Student Wind Tunnel Tests

• 2 cyclists with 2, 4, 6 inch stream-wise displacements and yaw angles of 10°, 20°, 30° • Offset of 2 inches both to the right and left in the off-stream-wise direction • Varied speeds to determine the dependence on Reynolds Number • Using the models of Alec and Katie, determined how the cyclist’s size affects drag reduction • Using results from 2 cyclist platform, each bike was separated 1.5 inches for a 4-cyclist setup

• Models of UNH cyclists Alec and Katie • Alec is 15% taller than Katie • Models were scaled 1:11


Tensegrity Modeling of Biological Systems Tensegrity Modeling of Biological Systems Joe Beckwith Advised by Professor Yaning Li

Background and Motivation

3D Printed Model Design

Experimental Analysis

• Tensegrity = Tension + Integrity • Structures composed of discontinuous compressive elements (rods, struts, or bars) in a continuous network of tensile elements (bands or wires). • Driving force behind mechanical behavior of tensegrity systems is level of pretension in elements. • Tensegrity principles can be observed in plants, animals, and even humans. • Tensegrity systems can exist in a nearly infinite number of shapes and sizes, from microscopic cellular networks to river-spanning bridges.

• Expandable bars designed in Solidworks to introduce pretension without having to disassemble structure for each test. • Utilized Objet260 multimaterial 3D printer. • Compressive bars used VeroWhite. • Tensile network used Tango+. • Initial design used elastic bands, however 3D printing ensured accuracy and repeatability of critical dimensions.

• Each specimen tested in a Zwick/Roell Z5.0 material testing machine with a 100N load cell. • Prisms assembled with appropriate bar extension lengths (0%, 10%, 15%, or 20%), and subjected to uniaxial compression to a maximum vertical strain of ε=0.10.

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Figure 1: Thoracic vertebrae (A) and its SolidWorks tensegrity model representation (B), cellular membrane tensegrity models (C), human shoulder (D) and one example of a tensegrity shoulder representation (E), Kurilpa tensegrity-based bridge (F).

Project Scope

• Finite element simulations were conducted using Abaqus FE software to analyze the behavior of the tensegrity prism under uniaxial compression. • To determine the effect of geometry on the loading and deformation characteristics of the structure, the initial height of the prism was reduced by 50% (H vs. H/2) while leaving other geometry unmodified.

Initial Height H

20

Figure 4: Undeformed (left), pretensioned (middle), and deformed (right) Abaqus tensegrity prism models for prisms with initial height H and H/2. Variation in color indicates different levels of stress in elements.

16 14

8 6 4

15% Bar Extension - Experimental 20% Bar Extension - Experimental 15% Bar Extension - Simulation 20% Bar Extension - Simulation

5 4 3 2 1

2 0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Vertical Strain

0.08

0.1

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Vertical Strain

0.08

0.1

Figure 9: Effective force in tensegrity prism under uniaxial compression: experimental and simulated results.

50

Future Work

45 40 35 30

Figure 5: Relative rotation from undeformed (left) to deformed (right) configuration.

10

H: 10% Bar Extension H: 20% Bar Extension H/2: 10% Bar Extension H/2: 20% Bar Extension

55

Initial Height H/2

6

10% Bar Extension - Experimental 20% Bar Extension - Experimental 10% Bar Extension - Simulation 20% Bar Extension - Simulation

18

12

• To pretension these structures to specified level, a simulated thermal stress was applied to the compressive rods according to • This thermal stress caused the rods to elongate, creating an initial tension in the top, bottom, and side wires equal to that created by the spacers in the 3D printed model. 60

Engineering Applications

• As a result of their high strength-to-weight ratios, tensegrity structures are perfectly suited for a number of potential applications including deployable bridges, satellite booms, and transportable platforms.

Figure 8: 3D printed tensegrity prism in Zwick/Roell Z5.0 material testing machine. Initial, undeformed prism (left) and deformed prism under 10% vertical strain (right).

• Load capacity characteristics generally consistent between experimental and simulation results. • Load capacity decreases with decreasing height-to-width ratio. • Negligible rotation in experimental results vs. significant rotation in simulation. • Differences attributable to friction, as well as compressive forces exerted by wires in Abaqus FE simulation.

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Vertical Strain

0.08

0.1

• Improve tensile element design to reduce tearout. • Conduct FE simulations with hyperelastic material properties in tensile elements. • Quantify effect of friction on load capacity and deformation characteristics of tensegrity prism. • Conduct analytical and experimental analysis of alternative tensegrity designs including icosahedron and spine model.

This project aimed to evaluate and References characterize the behavior of the most fundamental tensegrity structure: the tensegrity prism. A novel method of introducing pretension to tensile elements using simulated thermal expansion was developed, and the deformation mechanism of the tensegrity prism was then analyzed under uniaxial compression. Parametric studies in FE simulations and experimental testing using 3D printed expandable rods were conducted to evaluate the influences of pretension and material property variation on the deformation and load-bearing capacity of the structure. The results of these simulations and experiments aim to provide useful information for the practical application of tensegrity systems in lightweight, deployable structures and devices. Figure 2: Tensegrity-inspired extendable satellite boom (left) and design for tensegrity reflector antenna (right).

Fraction Strain Energy

1

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

H: Side Wires H: Top & Bottom Wires H/2: Side Wires H/2: Top & Bottom Wires

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

Vertical Strain

0.08

0.1

Figure 7: Abaqus strain energy simulation results for H and H/2 prisms.

Figure 6: Abaqus relative rotation simulation results for H and H/2 prisms.

• Relative rotation increases with increasing prism height, decreases with increased pretension. • Initially majority of strain energy stored in side wires (none in rods). • During compression, energy transfers to top and bottom wires. • Total strain energy stored in prism increases nonlinearly.

Figure 10: Solidworks model of tensegrity icosahedron.

[1] "Kenneth Snelson." Kenneth Snelson Frequently Asked Questions. Kenneth Snelson, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2016. [2] hua Zheng, C., Doll, J., Gu, E., Hager-Barnard, E., Huang, Z., Kia, A., ... & Jacobs, C. (2008, June). Exploring Cellular Tensegrity: Physical Modeling and Computational Simulation. In ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference (pp. 283-284). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. [3] Baltaxe-Admony, et al. "Simulating the Human Shoulder Through Active Tensegrity Structures." Volume 6: 12th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (2016) [4] https://thrive4strength.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/tensegrity-bridge.jpg [5] Tibert, Gunnar. "Deployable Tensegrity Structures for Space Applications." Royal Institute of Technology (2002).

Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Granular Mixtures AUTHORS: Anthony Allen Nicholas Dubicki Jack Myhaver

An experimental apparatus is constructed in order to determine thermal conductivity of granular material at high temperatures. There is a class of granular materials, the metal hydride, which require analysis because of its applications to thermal storage in solar power plants. Can performance be improved by mixing them with a highly conductive grain of comparable size?

ADVISOR: Todd Gross

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

• Evaluate and characterize behavior of tensegrity “t-prism” structure under uniaxial compressive loading. • Develop new method of simulating and implementing pretension in tensile members. • Conduct parametric study to quantify the effect of pretension, as well as geometric and material property variations on the deformation mechanics and load-bearing capacity of t-prism structure.

Figure 3: Expandable bars and tensile network as modeled in Solidworks.

Finite Element Simulations

RF VERTICAL (N)

A

RF VERTICAL (N)

ADVISOR: Yaning Li

The term tensegrity, coined by Buckminster Fuller from a combination of tension and integrity, describes structures in which discontinuous compressive members are contained within a continuous network of tensile elements. From microscopic cellular membrane models to river-spanning bridges, tensegrity systems exist in an abundance of shapes and sizes. With the help of tensegrity modeling, biological systems can be understood from a mechanical perspective.

Relative Rotation (º)

AUTHOR: Joseph Beckwith


Determination of Coupling Coefficients in Magnetic Pulse Systems AUTHOR: Cassandra MacKinnon

Magnetic pulsed welding (MPW) creates Determination of Coupling Coefficients in Magnetic Pulse System a solid state weld that allows dissimilar materials to be joined effectively. Key process parameters in the MPW process are the velocity and pressure the workpiece experiences during forming. Past research has shown that accurate models of these parameters can be created, although none have yet been produced for axisymmetric forming at UNH. Important factors for modeling efforts are the coupling coefficients between the primary current flowing through the main coil and the secondary currents induced in the field shaper and workpiece. In this project, coupling coefficients were physically measured to provide insights into the losses within the system. With these values, accurate models can be produced to optimize the MPW process. Principal Investigator Cassandra MacKinnon

ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey

Project Advisor

Prof. Brad Kinsey

Background and Motivation

A pulsed magnetic field can be utilized to create a high velocity metal forming process termed magnetic pulse welding (MPW). In MPW, a flyer impacts a stationary workpiece creating a solid state weld that allows dissimilar materials to be joined effectively. The process is highly repeatable, with the joint often being stronger than the base materials. a.) a.)

c.)

b.)

M1

M2

Objective

To determine the coupling coefficients for a magnetic pulse welding process between the primary current flowing through the main coil and the secondary currents induced in the field shaper and workpiece. Coupling coefficients allow for the production of accurate models to predict the velocity and pressure the workpiece experiences during the forming process.

Sample assemblies joined by MPW from PST Products: a) crimping of lid for sterile packaging, b) dissimilar material drive shafts, and c) Complicated geometry of drive shaft formed using MPW. (2013).

Funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation (CMMI0928319 and CMMI1537471) is gratefully acknowledged.

Cross-section of system with coil (1), field shaper (2), and workpiece (3) (left), along with alternating induced currents (right)

Equivalent system circuit with coupling coefficients M1:Coil & Field Shaper and M2: Field Shaper & Workpiece

Approach/Methodologies

• Through the use of a Rogowski coil, a trace of the current flowing through the system as a function of time is produced. This was performed for various energy levels of the magnetic pulse system. The wave forms produced were analyzed to determine their characteristics and compared to determine the coupling coefficients. Three traces were performed at 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of the capacitor bank’s full power, and average values were determined. • Peaks of current traces were determined using a peak detection algorithm in MATLAB.

Configurations 1.)

1.) Poynting Coil Current Traces

2.)

3.)

Acknowledgements

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

During the process, a capacitor bank (subscript m) is charged with thousands of joules of energy and discharged quickly through a main coil (c). An alternating current flows through the coil, producing a magnetic field, and inducing a current in the field shaper (s) it surrounds. The field shaper further induces a current in the workpiece (w). The opposing currents produce opposing magnetic fields, causing deformation.

Current (kA) Time (msec)

Rogowski Coil through workpiece

1st Peak 312.72 0.037

2nd Peak 215.09 0.190

3rd Peak 147.23 0.343

3.) Workpiece Current Traces

2.) Field Shaper Current Traces

Assistance in testing from graduate student Shunyi Zhang is appreciated.

References

Campbell, C., and Kinsey, B., internal report, 2015

Nassiri, A., Campbell, C., Chini,G., and Kinsey, B., (2015) JSME, 814-827

Thibaudeau, E., MS Thesis, 2011

Current (kA) Time (msec)

1st Peak 398.73 0.027

2nd Peak 209.22 0.139

3rd Peak 98.74 0.254

Current (kA) Time (msec)

Results – Average Coupling Coefficients Coupling Coefficient Between

30%

40%

50%

60%

Average

Coil & Field Shaper

0.777

0.769

0.784

0.786

0.779

Field Shaper & Workpiece

1.216

1.221

1.219

1.247

1.226

1st Peak 327.22 0.022

2nd Peak 130.40 0.123

3rd Peak 43.39 0.228

Future Work

• Update Photon Doppler Velocimetry fixture to measure workpiece velocity. • Develop search coil to measure magnetic field. • Analyze circuit parameters with newly obtained data.

Honorable Mention Project

2017

Design of a 1m Scale Research Wind Turbine Rotor AUTHOR: Gavin Hess ADVISOR: Martin Wosnik

A research wind turbine with a one meter rotor diameter was designed and fabricated for use in the UNH Flow Physics Facility (FPF) to provide benchmark data for turbine wake numerical model validation. The FPF is excellent for turbine research due to its very large test section (6x2.7x72m), which allows for precise wake measurements far downstream. The turbine scaling is based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5MW offshore reference turbine, with some modifications to the blade geometry to increase Reynolds number and achieve acceptable power coefficients. To avoid the complexities of aero-elastic deformation at model scale, the blade was made sufficiently stiff. New airfoils were selected for better performance at the model Reynolds numbers. The CFD code XFOIL was used to generate and compare airfoil performance. NREL S801 airfoil was chosen and used across the entire span to simplify the design. Blade chord and twist angle distribution were calculated using optimum rotor theory for a design tip speed ratio of 7. The rotor performance was quantified using Blade Element Momentum theory. A power coefficient of ≈0.47 is expected at the design tip speed ratio. The blades will be machined out of aluminum to achieve sufficient precision and stiffness at a reasonable cost.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Analyzing Mechanical Properties of Auxetic Honeycomb Cellular Structure AUTHOR: Shengguang Jin ADVISORS: Yannis Korkolis Yaning Li

Analyzing Mechanical Properties of Auxetic Honeycomb Cellular Structure Mechanical Engineering Senior Student: Shengguang Jin Mechanical Engineering Faculty Advisors: Yaning Li, Yannis Korkolis Theory and Methods

Background & Motivation

Picture Frame Apparatus

Design and 3D Printing

Auxetic Material

2 1

F

upper and lower grip that can be fixed onto the testing machine.

Finite Element Analysis

• Commercial software: ABAQUS. • Mesh: 10 elements in thickness direction, plane stress element. • Boundary Conditions: bottom end: (u1=u2=0); upper end: (u2=20mm). • Friction coefficient is 0.1 in general including self contact.

Experiment Picture Frame Apparatus

Cellular Solids Specimens Specimen#1

four pieces of fixtures with channels on the surface

total of 8 steel pins

(1) 3 non-auxetic cellular specimens were designed. (2) 21 diamond shaped unit cells in total in each specimen. (3) The main material used was DM60.

Specimen#2

Specimen#3

the

(4) Different materials were built onto boundary to compare the result.

• Utilize Ziwick Testing machine shown to the right.

• “Bryan[1] showed that at the critical region (which is along the edge) the stress state was essentially uniform pure shear and thus he recommended that this should be an accurate method for determining the in-plane shear strength.”[2] • The mechanism is produced upon the principles of a shear web construction. • Four connected by revolute joints bars that act as loading elements surround a thin sheet. • The longitudinal stiffness of the bars is greatly higher than the thin sheet. • Four linked bars would transfer the axial load within the frame work to the thin sheet along planes at 45 ° to the diagonal. • The generated pure shear is also named isochoric deformation[3].

Specimen#1

Unrdeformed

FEA Result of Auxetic Cellular Solids

FEA and Experimental Results of Non-auxetic Cellular Solids Specimen#2

Unrdeformed

Specimen#3

Unrdeformed

Deformed

• •

*2D plane stress element. *Without buttons and channels at the boundary.

• •

*Auxeticity-induced detachment at the boundary. *Button-channel features are needed for auxetic samples.

References

3D Printing

• 3D printing is a manufacturing process in which consecutive layers of material are formed to create the real 3D object based upon a Computer Aided Design (CAD) file. • Multiple material 3D printer OBJET Connex 260 was used and the materials are Verowhite, DM60.

Unrdeformed

[1] Bryan, E.L. "Photoelastic evaluation of the panel shear test for plywood' ASTM STP289 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1961) pp 90-94 [2] Diel, S., Huber, O., Steinmann, P., & Winter, W. (2013). Design and validation of a new fixture for the shear testing of cellular solids.Archive of Applied Mechanics,84(3), 309-321. [3] Lee, S., & Munro, M. (1986). Evaluation of in-plane shear test methods for advanced composite materials by the decision analysis technique.Composites,17(1), 13-22.

There are four steps for the project: (1) design the picture frame apparatus, (2) design the cellular solids specimens, (3) perform finite element (FE) simulations to evaluate the design, (4) fabricate the designed apparatus and the specimen for mechanical experiments. In the process, those four steps were iterated to finalize the design. Theoretically, the method to convert the load-displacement relation to the shear stress and strain relation was built up. The method was evaluated via FE simulation. Procedure to use this apparatus to test the shear resistance of a specimen was also developed. The apparatus and the methodology developed was proved to be able to evaluate the shearing resistance of cellular solids. Conclusion and Future Work

• Specimen#1: the FEA and experimental results are consistent. The parametric result on the right shows loaddisplacement curve is not sensitive to friction coefficient. • Specimen#2: compared to specimen#1, there is small difference in small deformation. • Specimen#3: although there is difference between FEA and experimental results, the ratio between energy absorbed by the button and the total energy is very small in small deformation according to the last figure. This validates the approach of adding buttons to capture the pure shear. • Future work is to perform shearing experiments on auxetic specimens for a more comprehensive analysis.

Acknowledgement

• SURF through UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research and NSF • Sheldon Parent & Scott Campbell. • Original design of the shearing apparatus from Mohamad Jahedi.

Remote Powering Electronics: The Static Inducer AUTHOR: Kevin Shea ADVISOR: Michael Harrison

Up until now, powering an electric device without using batteries or cables has only been attempted using strong electromagnets, which damages other nearby electronics, uses up far too much energy, and can cause fires. The following is an alternative approach.

Remote Powering Electronics: The Static Inducer Kevin Shea and Michael Harrison

1) Introduction

3) Figures and Data

It has already been discovered that it's possible to power electronics from a distance. However, remotely powering electronics has only been attempted using strong electromagnets, which use too much power, damage other nearby electronics, and can cause fires. The Static Inducer is a theorized alternative approach.

Coulomb's Law, applied to return induced voltage at a given radius:

V=

Qe Qe − 2 2 4 π ϵ0 ( r+Δ r) 4 π ϵ0 r

Where: Q = Static charge (in coulombs) e = Charge of an electron (“elementary charge”) r = Distance, in meters, from the static charge

4) Not Free Energy At first glance, this seems like a proposition of free energy. As unfortunate as it is, however, that's not the case. Consider the following: Gravity is a force that constantly acts on everything in the world. An object that's up high off the ground can be useful in generating energy, because the simple fact that there's the force of gravity acting on an object that is available to fall means that that object has "potential to do work" (the physics definition for energy). However, the object can only generate as much energy as it took to put it there and, as a consequence, could never "generate" more energy than it costs. Now consider the battery being recharged by a static charge. Those electrons are being forced by the constant force of the static charge – just like the object high off the ground. However, those electrons were not always there; they had to be brought into that position by a person physically transporting the battery from far away – fighting the additional static force the entire trip. In fact, there is actually a considerable loss in useful energy from this conversion.

In electrostatics, a standing charge exerts a force on another nearby charge. From this, it is conceivable to imagine that a standing charge “if strong enough” could induce a voltage in a system from a considerable distance away, so long as that system was designed to take advantage of this very concept. The charge would effectively be pushing electrons through the circuit. The aim of this research is to develop such a charge and circuit to take advantage of this. This design concept would be energy-free after construction, since the standing charge would only need to be charged once, and the resulting force would do the rest. 2) Concepts/Theory

In physics, a standing electric charge is known to exert a force on any other charges near it. This means that a static charge will exert a force on an electron. If utilized properly, a charge could conceivably "push" electrons through a circuit to power that object. This unfortunately can't be just any normal circuit, though, because a complete circuit would demand the electrons "fight" that same force during the electrons' return trips in order to complete that circuit – a situation that can't happen on its own. A battery, however, would work. In a battery, all the charge is stored on one side, ready to move through a circuit and end up on the other side; once all the electrons have moved, the battery is done until it can be recharged – which is simply a matter of moving the electrons back. With two different start and end points, the electrons can be moved back by connecting the battery in a simple circuit, but under the influence of a strong static charge. After being allowed time to charge, the battery could then be removed and used again.

A graph plotting the relationship between the distance away from the static charge, and the resulting voltage at that distance. A separate line was plotted for different values of static charge. The point on the plots at 3V is circled, denoting the ideal voltage for charging a 1.5V battery.

The necessary 3V results, now plotted as static charge versus required distance away.

5) The Future

Although the only real promise so far seems to be in the “theory” of it (it's unrealistic to actually build, considering the overwhelming demand for static charge), the groundwork paves the way for a device that could recharge batteries using a new style of clean energy. Even if the technology goes no further than that, recognize one thing: after construction, this device would require no electricity to operate. Even if this device is used for no more than simply recharging batteries, development would yield a charger that could operate even during situations such as a power outage, a camping trip, or even just to lower the electric bill.

Acknowledgments

A special thanks goes out to the CC2CEPS program at UNH.

If taken to its full potential, a line of devices such as this could be used to operate electrical equipment and/ or recharge devices (such as batteries, which show particular promise) during a power outage, brownout, camping trip, etc. This is intended for small applications only, but could easily be scaled up if necessary.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Auxetic cellular solids become wider when stretched and narrower when compressed. Due to the superior mechanical properties, auxetic cellular solids have increased shear resistance, energy absorption capability and crack resistance. Therefore, they have broad engineering applications including protective foams, sensors, actuators and smart composite materials. The goal of this project is to design, fabricate and evaluate a picture-frame apparatus for quantifying the shear resistance of both non-auxetic and auxetic materials.


Optimization of Marathon Runner Performance AUTHORS: Liam Grenier Charles Klewicki ADVISORS: Joseph Klewicki Christopher White

Research and experimentation was conducted with the goal of achieving peak performance from our clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elite marathon runners. This involved modeling and testing different strategies to reduce drag forces on the runners, and constructing algorithms for long-term weather forecasting.

Optimization of Marathon Runner Performance Charles Klewicki | Liam Grenier University of New Hampshire â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Department of Mechanical Engineering The figure above shows elite runners training for a 2 hour marathon.

Introduction

1. Climate Research

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

The figure above and below show airspeed plots of two of the tested strategies. The top figure includes a lead vehicle and runner, both for the purpose of reducing the drag forces on the subject runner in the rear. The bottom figure features five lead runners and three subject runners in the rear.

Optimal Running Conditions â&#x20AC;˘ Temperature: 11°C â&#x20AC;˘ Time of Day: early morning or evening. â&#x20AC;˘ Humidity: 65% â&#x20AC;˘ Minimal wind â&#x20AC;˘ Minimal elevation change

2 3

SolidWorks Flow Simulation was used to model different drag reduction strategies. Variations of two strategies were modeled--one using a car as a drafting device, and the other using a formation of humans surrounding the target runner.

3. Simulation Modeling

The objective of the research and experimentation was to improve the performance of our clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elite marathon runners. This involved climate research, simulation, and physical testing. Marathon runners are heavily affected by the environment in which they perform. Climate research was conducted to determine the optimal locations for a marathon. Predictive modeling using past data was then performed to project information such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed at the selected locations around the globe. This modeling helped establish the most advantageous time of year for a marathon to take place. SolidWorks Flow Simulation was then used to model the effects of different drag reduction techniques ranging from strategic vehicle placement to runner formations. Physical testing was conducted to aid the strategy selection process. It was important to collect physical data to confirm the accuracy of the employed strategies.

1

Vehicle and Clock Position â&#x20AC;˘ Runners remain 3 meters behind vehicle. â&#x20AC;˘ Mounted clock position optimized. â&#x20AC;˘ Lead runner position optimized. Lead Runner Formation â&#x20AC;˘ Runners remain at least 1 meter apart. â&#x20AC;˘ Front formation optimized. â&#x20AC;˘ Rear (subject) formation optimized.

Ideal Running Locations â&#x20AC;˘ NASCAR tracks â&#x20AC;˘ Formula 1 tracks Location Selected â&#x20AC;˘ Monza, Italy modified F1 course

The figure above shows a temperature map of possible marathon locations in North America and Europe.

Goal â&#x20AC;˘ Airspeed and pressure around subject runners minimized.

4. Physical Testing

2. Hyperlocal Weather Forecasting

The figure to the left shows the three strategy arrangements. The measurement device was a human subject standing on a force balance. The right figure shows the results of the three arrangements on one test subject.

Forecasting Stations â&#x20AC;˘ Three Monza weather stations through Forecast.io â&#x20AC;˘ One onsite weather station at Monza Formula 1 Course Weather Validation Studies â&#x20AC;˘ Forecast vs Weather Station: R2 =0.9194 95 % Confidence: Âą 3.4° C â&#x20AC;˘ Forecast vs. Aftcast: R2 =0.8386 95 % Confidence: Âą 4.1° C Testing Information â&#x20AC;˘ UNH Flow Physics Facility. â&#x20AC;˘ 50 lb S-Type load cell mounted to a force balance. â&#x20AC;˘ 10 test subjects. â&#x20AC;˘ 5 wind speeds ranging from 0 to 30 kph. â&#x20AC;˘ Randomized no shielding, human formation, and engineered shield tests.

The figures to the left show the Monza F1 Course (top) and a wind profile of the course for the date of the marathon (bottom).

Testing Results â&#x20AC;˘ Drag reductions from the human formation ranged from 22% to 70%. â&#x20AC;˘ Average reduction was 40.7%. â&#x20AC;˘ Reductions from engineered shield ranged from 30% to 78%. â&#x20AC;˘ Average reduction was 69.3%.

Physical testing of a selected human formation and engineered shield was then conducted in the UNH Flow Physics Facility. The average drag reduction on the target runner with the human formation was 40.7%, while the engineered shield provided a 69.3% reduction. Research was conducted to find the optimal marathon site for the runners. Monzaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Formula 1 track chosen due to its moderate temperatures and low humidity. A hyper-local study was conducted with an onsite weather station to calculate the accuracy of temperature predictions of the race track. An r value of 0.9349 was calculated based on forecast data being compared to real time data.

Additive Manufacturing of Bio-Inspired Mechanical Interlocking AUTHOR: Richard Nash ADVISOR: Yaning Li

Compared with mechanical joints, adhesive joints have advantages in reducing undesirable stress concentrations, light weight without compromised material properties and condition. However, the bonding of dissimilar substrates through adhesion alone is difficult due to their mismatch in moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion etc. In order to improve the adhesion strength and reduce mismatch between materials, the mechanical behavior of bio-inspired wavy adhesive joints, suture joints, were investigated in this project.

Printing:

Additive Manufacturing of Bio-Inspired Mechanical Interlocking

Richard Nash Advisor: Yaning Li, PhD University of New Hampshire, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Background & Motivation ď&#x201A;§ Mechanical interlocking can be found in nature in the form of sutures ď&#x201A;§ The red-bellied woodpeckerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beak sutures (left) [1] ď&#x201A;§ The Aulacoseira lirata, a marine micro organism (middle), has a sinusoidal like suture geometry [2] & [3]

ď&#x201A;§ Cranial sutures on a deer (right)

Objectives & Tasks Objectives: ď&#x201A;§ Devise a way to test the influence of bio inspired mechanical interlocking on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds Tasks: ď&#x201A;§ Design and fabricate a single lap shear specimen to ď&#x201A;§ Optimize a mechanical interlocking surface structure to aid in the adhesion of dissimilar substrates.

ď&#x201A;§ Adhesion can be a preferred method of bonding dissimilar materials for some Aerospace applications such as bonding polymers and ceramics

ď&#x201A;§ The bonding of dissimilar materials through adhesion alone is difficult

due to their mismatch in moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion, especially in high temperature applications such as engines

Polymer Adhesive Ceramic

Methodology Geometry Design the wavelength of the arc and the arc angle Îť

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; < 180°

ď&#x201A;§ The wavy geometries

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; = 180°

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; < 180°

ď&#x201A;§ Single lap shear specimen with wavy and flat

ď&#x201A;§ The Objet Connex 260 multi material printer was

ď&#x201A;§ The lap shear specimen tests are then

adhesive interfaces are designed in order to understand how the wavy geometries influence the mechanical properties of the bond

used in the adhesive layers have arc angle of 120 and 180 degrees, both with the same wavelength

3D Printing and Mechanical Experiments

Finite Element Analysis

Mechanical Interlocking Design

ď&#x201A;§ Periodic arcs are designed that are dependent on

utilized to print the lap shear piece with Vero White, and the adhesive layer with Tango Plus.

modeled in Abaqus, a finite element (FE) tool, in order to understand the effects of bond line rotation, identify regions of high stress, and to eventually predict the mechanical behavior of new specimen

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; = 0°

ď&#x201A;§ Once printed, the Zwick

material testing machine was used to test the samples in shear.

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; = 120°

ď&#x201A;§ The specimen are tested at a

quasi-static rate of .025mm/s, and dynamic rates of .25mm/s and .5mm/s.

đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; = 180°

Results Theoretical Correction and Finite Element Simulations

Mechanical Experiments

ď&#x201A;§ The specimen will rotate during deformation, influencing the accuracy of the measurement ď&#x201A;§ More constraints will reduce the rotation, for example adding metal plates at the boundaries ď&#x201A;§ A theoretical method was developed to reduce the rotation effects

Quasi-Static Load Displacement Data (.025

Ideal Model

Unaltered Model

1

2

3

Shear Strain Distribution Along the Bond Line The shear strain is:

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) min

Added Plate Model

ď&#x201A;§ Higher in the flat

interface than in both of the wavy interfaces

5mm

ď&#x201A;§ Differs along the Un-deformed layer

A β

1

B

β

β

Îł

1

đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź =

t

2

D C

Deformed layer

A B

C

t

β

2

D

δത

δelongation

đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

bond line of the wavy interfaces more than the flat interface

đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ

δത = δđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2019; δđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ??šđ??šŕ´¤ = đ??šđ??š cos đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź

ď&#x201A;§ As the waviness

increases so does the maximum force the bond can withstand

δ഼ Îł = đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 ( ) đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą

ŕ´¤ and effective displacement (തδ), shows that the ď&#x201A;§ Calculating the rotation of the bond line (đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź), effective force (đ??šđ??š), rotation can be accounted for and that plates will not be necessary. Unaltered Ideal

Aluminum plate Steel Plate

Load Displacement Curves

Rotation of the Bond Line

Effective Load Displacement Curves

ď&#x201A;§ Images were captured of the specimen under test at uniform time intervals. The location of the dots are then tracked in order to determine the shearing strain at different locations along the interface.

ď&#x201A;§ High stress

concentrations can be seen at the corners of the adhesive layers

Von Mises Stress Contour in the Adhesive Layer

.5

ď&#x201A;§ Lower stresses

0.511MPa

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

.25

can be found throughout the wavy adhesive layers

1.010MPa

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

.025

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

.5

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

.25

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

.025

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; min

ď&#x201A;§ Rotation of the bond line increases with the waviness

0.011MPa

ď&#x201A;§ Energy of the adhesive layer is not ď&#x201A;§

directly related to its volume This indicates the stress state changes with the waviness

ď&#x201A;§ The load displacement curves for all three interfaces are strain rate ď&#x201A;§

dependent and increase with the strain rate. The 180 degree wave is not shown because the Vero White lap piece broke at higher strain rates instead of the adhesive layer.

In order to quantify the mechanical behavior and understand how the waviness influences the shearing stiffness and strength of the bonding, single lap shear specimens with wavy and flat adhesive layers were designed. The design was then fabricated via multi-material 3D printing. Both finite element simulations and mechanical experiments were performed on the designs. It was found that when the waviness increases, both the shear modulus and adhesion strength increases, while the stress-concentration decreases. In summary, the wavy adhesive bonding was proven to be a promising method to join materials to resist shear and mismatch of dissimilar materials. Acknowledgements

Future Work

ď&#x201A;§ Preform micro indentation across the interface of 3D-printed specimens ď&#x201A;§ Design, simulate, print and test more specimens with varying arc angle ď&#x201A;§ Explore the influences of the adhesive layer thickness on its mechanical

FA9550-16-1-0011

properties

ď&#x201A;§ Summer Internship Opportunity at the Air Force Research Lab,

the corners of the adhesive layers

ď&#x201A;§ UNH Mechanical Engineering Department

ď&#x201A;§ Implement a new edge design to eliminate high stress concentrations in

ď&#x201A;§ Explore the influences of printing direction on the mechanical properties

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

ď&#x201A;§ National Science Foundation (NSF)/REU under grant 1362893 ď&#x201A;§ US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under grant Wright Patterson AFB, RXCC

References

[1] Nayeon Lee, M. F. Horstemeyer, Hongjoo Rhee, Ben Nabors, Jun Liao, Lakiesha N. Williams J. R. Soc. Interface 2014 11 20140274; DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2014.0274. Published 8 May 2014 [2] Y. Li, C. Ortiz, and M. C. Boyce, â&#x20AC;&#x153;A generalized mechanical model for suture interfaces of arbitrary geometry,â&#x20AC;? Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1144â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1167, 2013. [3] English, J., and Potapova, M. (2011). Aulacoseira lirata. In Diatoms of the United States. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu/taxa/species/aulacoseira_lirata [4] Y. Li, C. Ortiz, and M. C. Boyce, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Stiffness and strength of suture joints in nature,â&#x20AC;? Physical Review E, vol. 84, no. 6, Article ID 062904, 2011.


Investigating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Bi-Directional Hydrofoils AUTHOR: Kevin Cole

The objective of this study was to simulate flow around the NACA 0015 and NACA 0021 foils with and without surface roughness, and to analyze how rough foil performance differs from smooth foil performance. This work is relevant to machinery that utilizes foils, such as turbines and propellers.

ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov

OpenFOAM, an open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package was utilized to run flow simulations. Turbulence was modelled using the k-omega SST model. To automate the simulation process, a numerical test bed called iFOIL was utilized, which generates all necessary files for OpenFOAM simulations. An upgraded version of iFOIL was developed and a roughness model for simulations was successfully implemented using the nutkRoughWallFunction which fits the needs of this study. Lift, drag, and cavitation characteristics were compared for angles of attack between 0 degrees and 30 degrees.

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

Electro-Chemical Etching of Microscale Features in Copper AUTHORS: Joseph Durant Robert Lozowski-Aliberti ADVISOR: James Krzanowski

This project summarizes the results of using electrolysis to etch micro-channels in copper components of computer cooling systems. Copperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thermal conductivity makes it a common choice for temperature regulated systems. For computer chips, cooling systems can be very small and require precise micro-features. Often, manufacturers will outsource the process of etching micro-channels for their cooling systems. Developing an in-house method for etching these channels can be cost effective and help with keeping the system in a controlled environment from beginning to end of production. Electrolysis is the process of running an electrical current from an anode to a cathode through an electrolyte solution. This process can be used to accurately etch channels less than 100 microns in depth. During electrolysis mass is removed from the anode, using copper for both the anode and cathode makes it so that the removed material can easily be recycled. Using a copper sulfate electrolyte solution results in an easily disposable sulfuric acid solution. Surface treatment of the copper prevents any corrosion from the acid. Taking these measures makes this a practical in-house method for etching microchannels into copper components.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Evaluation of Compact Heat Exchangers AUTHOR: James Skinner ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Heat Exchangers are devices used to Evaluation of Compact Heat Exchangers transfer heat from one fluid to another. They are used in many applications, such as Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, power plants, and transportation. In some of these applications, smaller-sized heat exchangers are needed due to space or weight restrictions. One way to analyze compact heat exchangers is to perform physical experiments, but with the advances of computing, heat exchangers are also analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The flows of gases and liquids and their interactions with solids are simulated by using appropriate discretized governing equations and prescribing appropriate boundary conditions. The study shows the ability of the CFD software OpenFOAM to simulate the flow and heat exchange in complex systems and its potential use for evaluating compact heat exchangers. James Skinner Advisor: Ivaylo Nedyalkov Department of Mechanical Engineering

Numerical Analysis

Background

â&#x20AC;˘

Heat exchangers are analyzed using both physical

Numerical Analysis (continued)

Governing Equations

experimental data and using Computational Fluid

Below equations are the fundamental basis of most CFD solutions, specifically for air-flow inside a heat exchanger.

Dynamics (CFD).

Continuity Equation -

đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;(đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; ) =0 đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;

(1)

Ensures the simulation obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass so no mass can be created or disappear in the flow medium.

Conservation of Momentum â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

chtMultiRegionSimpleFoam

Both arrows represent the flow of fluid through the heat exchanger (4)

â&#x20AC;˘

đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;(đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; ) đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192; = đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;

Steady state, Compressible solver for conjugate heat transfer

Energy Equation -

Supports multiple fluid and solid

đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;(đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;) đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022; đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014; = đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x153;&#x2022;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;&#x2014;

regions.

OpenFOAM is an open source CFD solver used for

(2)

Viscous stresses are proportional to the element strain rates and viscous coefficient for Newtonian fluids.

problems.

â&#x20AC;˘

gases with solids.

â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

CFD is used to simulate interactions of liquid and

numerical analysis.

(3)

Steady state, non-reactive (no source term), compressible (internal energy is only a function of Cp and Temperature), constant Cp.

Conclusion

â&#x20AC;˘

Users can create their own solvers and utilities.

â&#x20AC;˘

OpenFOAM comes with both pre-and post-processing

Results â&#x20AC;˘

MECHANICALENGINEERING-RESEARCH

environments.

systems.

Objective

â&#x20AC;˘

Simulate heat transfer in compact heat exchangers with OpenFOAM.

â&#x20AC;˘

Successful use of OpenFOAM to limited amount of

Compare numerical results with experimental data

chtMultiRegionFoam

Future Goals

â&#x20AC;˘

Transient, Compressible solver

â&#x20AC;˘

Analyze more intricate and complex systems.

for conjugate heat transfer

â&#x20AC;˘

Compare CFD data to industry experimental data.

problems.

â&#x20AC;˘

Supports multiple fluid and solid regions.

References and Resources

(1) Nedyalkov, Ivaylo. Introductory Tutorial for CFD using OpenFOAM (2014).

(2) "OpenFOAM User Guide: CFD Direct, Architects of OpenFOAM." CFD Direct.

and demonstrate capabilities of OpenFOAM.

(3) "CFD with OpenSource Software." PhD Course in CFD with OpenSource Software.

Simulation viewed in paraFoam for post-processing analysis

(4) G.F. Nellis and S.A. Klein, 2007. Basic Information. N.p., n.d.

Acknowledgments: The College of Engineering and Physical Sciences Mechanical Engineering Department

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


The Living Bridge Project: Environmental and Tidal Energy Resource Instrumentation at Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth AUTHORS: Kaelin Chancey Gunnar Ericsson Ryan Tingley Sarah Torgesen ADVISORS: Ian Gagnon Martin Wosnik

As a part of The Living Bridge Project, a suite of estuarine instrumentation will be used to monitor the interactions between the marine environment and a tidal turbine deployed at the Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River. The instruments will be mounted in similar configurations using a novel, universal system of pipes and structural pipe fittings. These instruments include underwater cameras, a wildlife deterrent system, a conductivity, temperature, and depth probe (CTD), and two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP). This universal mounting system allows for the addition and relocation of instruments on the turbine deployment platform, while being robust, low cost, and time efficient. The mounts were designed for easy deployment from the deck of the platform, and to survive loads induced by tidal currents and waves. To validate their design, the mounts were fitted with accelerometers and towed in the UNH Tow Tank. The results of this experiment were compared to analytical models of the system. It was determined that no resonance would occur as a result of vortex shedding. Once verified, the mounts were installed on the turbine deployment platform and a validation field test was performed with all of the instruments.

AUTHORS: Collin Gagnon Jeffrey Hensel Steven Hurley Xavier McNulty Robert Mitchell Alexander Roemer

This project was undertaken with the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) long-term goal of creating a fleet of fully functioning autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs), which are self-driving robotic boats. These vehicles will be capable of self-navigation, obstacle detection and avoidance, object tracking, and communication with other vehicles both above and below the ocean surface. These ASVs have been built using low-cost hardware components and implementing MOOS-IvP, an open source software platform, to meet the objective of developing a powerful yet economical self-driving marine vehicle. The main goals for the ASV project were to advance the autonomy of the ASV, modularize the components of the autonomous system and implement this modular design on other vehicles to demonstrate that a generic platform can be made autonomous. For proof of concept, two ASVs used in previous years were tested using identical autonomy software and hardware. The two were run simultaneously and interacted with one another through MOOS IvP Helm, the “brain” controlling each system. The team achieved autonomous navigation between the two vehicles, showing that the concept of modular automation can be accomplished. Captain: Collin Gagnon Team Members: Alexander Roemer, Steven Hurley, Robert Mitchell, Jeffrey Hensel, Xavier McNulty Advisor: Dr. May- W in Thein Graduate Advisor: Allisa Dalpe

Background

Modularity

Platforms

The Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV), is a selfdriving self- aw are boat, it requires integration of multiple fields of engineering (e.g., mechanical, electrical, and softw are). The team uses Mission Orientated Operating Suite- Interval Programming (MOOS- IvP) softw are platform (incorporating ROS) to integrate multiple vehicle sensors and actuators, along w ith user- defined command inputs. Advanced modeling and control techniques are also implemented to ensure high performance, and reliability for autonomous obstacle avoidance and path planning.

ASV 2:

• 58” length • Brushless electric motor for propulsion • Achieved First Stage Autonomy • Second Stage Autonomy in progress • Cross Platform Communication and multivehicle operations in progress

ASV 3:

• 7’ Bass fishing boat • Outboard Electric trolling motor • Achieved First and Second Stage Autonomy • Third Stage Autonomy in progress • Cross Platform Communication and multivehicle operations in progress

Sensors

Lidar, GPS, IMU Collect data

Processing

Decision Making

Raspberry Pi, MOOS Builds environment, decides on action

Execution

RC

Manual control

Process Control Arduino, H-bridge Takes decisions from code and sends signals to motors

Potential uses for ASVs include national defense, research like ocean floor mapping, commercial shipping, and fishing opportunities.

Project Goals

Information

Data Processing, Autonomy and Controls

Focus:

Sensor Suite & Functionality GPS:

MOOS- IvP

Low Cost, Modular, Robust Design allow ing any existing vehicle autonomous capabilities.

The autonomy of the ASV consists of three major systems. The first includes, GPS, IMU, and LIDAR, or the sensors. It must be able to accurately gather information about the ASV and the environment. The second includes the processor (Raspberry Pi) and the code that runs the autonomous protocols (MOOS- IvP). This system takes data from the sensors and makes decisions based on them. The last system required for autonomy is the process control, w hich includes an Arduino microcontroller and H- bridges. This system receives the decisions made by the autonomy code and converts them into signals for motor orientation and direction control. For any vehicle using our design, these three systems remain relatively unchanged aside from pow er and size constraints. Together they form the modular autonomous system w e intend to employ on multiple vehicles.

Adafruit Ultimate GPS Breakout used for vehicle position and speed.

Autonomy:

ADVISORS: May-Win Thein Allisa Dalpe

First Stage: Basic point to point navigation using GPS positioning w ith IMU for heading Second Stage: Second stage autonomy involves pairing point to point navigation w ith obstacle avoidance, thereby creating a self sufficient navigation algorithm to serve as a platform for more complex tasks. Third Stage: Target recognition, tracking, and trailing. This allow s for more advanced behaviors and aids in multi- platform coordination and sw arm optimization.

IMU:

Inertial Measurement Unit: Adafruit triple- axis accelerometer + magnet board LSM303 is used to provide heading information. (9 DOF)

IvP Helm:

Results

Modularity is defined as the degree to w hich a system’s components may be separated and recombined on other similar systems.

Raspberry Pi:

The “Brain”, stores Sensor Drivers and MOOS- IVP

Long Term:

Implement multivehicle operations w here multiple Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASVs) Unmanned Underw ater Vehicles (UUVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) all share information and w ork together as one autonomous netw ork to accomplish tasks.

Light detection and ranging system. Used Scanse Sw eep LiDAR for object detection and avoidance system. (Range: 40 m)

The IvP helm is able to take information Stores information related to its from MOOS and make control decisions operating mission and coordinates for the ASV. Complex autonomous communication betw een sensors and scenarios can be developed from pre- other processes. MOOS applications can interface w ith the MOOS database. made or custom behaviors.

Modularity:

The main goal of this year’s ASV is to create an entirely modular design so that any component, necessary for autonomy, may be taken off an existing vessel and placed on a similar one w ith minimal adjustments.

LiDAR:

MOOSDB:

ArduinoMega2560: Setup:

Stores both manual The MOOS- IvP framew ork is capable of building highly (RC) and automated capable autonomous systems. It allow s the all the sensors motor and rudder and components onboard the ASV to w ork together to control. achieve autonomy.

The first stage of autonomy has been completed and has been implemented on to the ASV3 platform. This allow s the ASV3 platform to self- navigate to preprogramed points, using the GPS and IMU sensor inputs along w ith MOOS to accomplish this. The obstacle avoidance and target recognition (stages 2 and 3 respectively) have successfully w orked in computer simulations. Further implementation of the second and third stages of autonomy on the ASV3 platform w ill begin w hen the LiDAR sensors are delivered to the team from the manufacturer. The ASV team has also successfully created a modular design for automation, w hich w ill soon be implemented on multiple platforms. This w ill allow the team to achieve the end goal of having the ASV2 and ASV3 platforms fully autonomous and interacting . The ASV team is confident that the end goal is achievable by the end of the semester.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

OCEAN ENGINEERING

Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV)


Analysis of Wingtip Devices for Marine Applications AUTHORS: Jamison Couture Alexander Larson Cole Matthews ADVISORS: Ivaylo Nedyalkov Martin Wosnik

Wingtip devices, such as aircraft winglets, are designed to enhance the overall wing and blade performance by diminishing the tip vortices. In underwater marine applications, wingtip devices can also mitigate cavitation. Cavitation is the formation of vapor in a liquid due to low pressure ââ&#x201A;Źâ&#x20AC;&#x153; rather than high temperature. Cavitation may cause significant problems for underwater turbines or propellers because it can greatly reduce their performance and lifespan.

Theoretical Analysis

Objectives

Introduction to Cavitation

â&#x20AC;˘ Develop experimental procedure for cavitation investigation â&#x20AC;˘ Standardize data collection and analysis for lift & drag performance analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Identify inception and dessinence flow conditions for different wingtips â&#x20AC;˘ Improve theory for wingtip vortex cavitation â&#x20AC;˘ Determine effects of tip geometry on cavitation characteristics

Numerical Analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Comparison of various wingtip devices via open source software for computational fluid dynamics, OpenFOAM

â&#x20AC;˘ Formation of vapor in a liquid in regions of low pressure â&#x20AC;˘ Detrimental to the performance of devices â&#x20AC;˘ May cause damage and destruction

2011, Centrifugal Pump Help; John Anspach Consulting.

đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;Ł đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152; đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = 1 2 đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021; đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; 2

đ??śđ??śđ??żđ??ż =

đ??šđ??šđ??żđ??ż đ??šđ??šđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ??śđ??śđ??ˇđ??ˇ = 1 1 đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ 2 đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ 2 2 2

đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cavitation number is a pressure ratio describing when a fluid flow will cavitate đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Reynolds Number is a force ratio describing when a fluid flow will become turbulent đ??śđ??śđ??żđ??ż â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Coefficient of Lift is a re-scaled nondimensional force describing the lift force versus dynamic pressure on lifting area đ??śđ??śđ??ˇđ??ˇ â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Coefficient of Drag is a re-scaled nondimensional force describing the drag force versus dynamic pressure on lifting area

Results

The End Cap

Photograph by Erik Axdahl, 2006.

Experimental Setup Test Section

â&#x20AC;˘ Displayed data is 7 m/s and 9 m/s flows, as higher Rec flows experience more consistent cavitation â&#x20AC;˘ General Tip increases wing performance compared to End Cap â&#x20AC;˘ For most cases tested, the General Tipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wingspan cavitated before its wingtip, i.e. attached cavitation â&#x20AC;˘ Future studies should define cavitation less subjectively

The General Tip

Riser Tank Contraction

đ?&#x153;&#x17D;đ?&#x153;&#x17D; =

Diffuser

36 in (0.9 m)

Flow Direction

Motor

This project aims at defining when cavitation occurs in terms of its flow Contributors: Advisors: Funding: parameters: cavitation number and Reynoldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s number. Experiments were done using the High Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT) in the Jere A. Chase Ocean Engineering building at the University of New Hampshire. Numerical analysis was done using an open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, OpenFOAM. Both methods investigated a plain wingtip and a wingtip device at multiple angles of attacks to understand and quantify how wingtip devices affect the behavior of cavitation. 245 in (6.2m)

â&#x20AC;˘ Devices tested in the High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT) at Jere A. Chase Ocean Engineering building â&#x20AC;˘ LabVIEW used for calibration and controlling experiments â&#x20AC;˘ Wingtip devices were tested for cavitation inception and dessinence â&#x20AC;˘ Experimental Bounds:

OCEAN ENGINEERING

Parameter Test Section Static Pressure (đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; ) Flow Velocity (đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;â&#x2C6;&#x17E; )

Minimum 25 kPa 3 m/s

â&#x20AC;˘ General Tip decreases vorticity around the foil and pressure drop across the tip; therefore decreasing the probability of cavitation

Maximum 180 kPa 9 m/s

Timothy Barrett, Aleksandra Wojtowicz, Gavin Hess, Michael Cook

New Hampshire Sea Grant Mechanical Engineering Dept.

Martin Wosnik Ivaylo Nedyalkov

The Poseidon Project AUTHORS: Peter Abdu Naomie Clark Alexander Clemons Paul Gesel Graham Pirie Mary Sareault Langdon Tarbell

Ocean exploration with SONAR remains THE POSEIDON PROJECT an area of interest as only a small percentage of the seafloor is currently mapped at high resolution. The objective of the Poseidon Project is to design and manufacture a low-cost portable device capable of mapping ocean bathymetry in real time at depths up to 2000 meters. Unique performance parameters require the device to operate in deep regions with high resolution with a relatively small array. Performance specifications were met with a split aperture, four quadrant, side scan sonar design. Application of the SONAR equation in the likely operating environment yielded crucial system design parameters. A 16 kHz system frequency was selected to achieve the depth requirement while maximizing bathymetric resolution. At the operating frequency, 13 transducers in each quadrant satisfied the minimum output signal intensity. Beam pattern analysis and portability considerations determined the transducer array geometry. The transducers were manufactured and assembled. Experimental data collected in the Chase Ocean Engineering tank determined the transmit voltage response, receive sensitivity, and beam pattern, allowing for calibration. The device was tested on the R/V Gulf Surveyor and successfully created a map of the Piscataqua riverbed. LANGDON TARBELL, MARY BETH SAREAULT, ALEC CLEMONS, NAOMIE CLARK, PETER ABDU, PAUL GESEL, and GRAHAM PIRIE PROJECT ADVISOR: THOMAS WEBER, PhD

DEPARTMENT of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DEPARTMENT of OCEAN ENGINEERING, and CENTER for COASTAL and OCEAN MAPPING

INTRODUCTION

Ocean mapping and exploration is critical to understanding the world, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources, and how they change over time. However, only a small percentage of the seafloor is mapped at high resolution. The objective of the Poseidon Project is to design and manufacture a lowcost portable device capable of mapping ocean bathymetry in real time at depths up to 2000 meters. Unique performance parameters require the device to operate in deep water regions with high resolution with a relatively small array. Performance specifications were met with a split aperture, four quadrant, sidescan sonar design. Application of the SONAR equation in the likely operating environment yielded crucial system design parameters. A 16 kHz system frequency was selected to achieve the depth requirement while maximizing bathymetric resolution. At the operating frequency, 13 transducers in each quadrant satisfied the minimum output signal intensity. Beam pattern analysis and portability considerations determined the transducer array geometry. The transducers were manufactured and assembled. Experimental data collected in the Chase Ocean Engineering tank determined the transmit voltage response, receive sensitivity, and beam pattern, allowing for calibration. The device was tested on the R/V Gulf Surveyor to create a map of the Piscataqua riverbed.

THEORY

Î&#x201D;Ď&#x2022;AB =

2đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039; a sin(Îł) đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;

đ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;ž = arcsin

đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020;đ?&#x153;&#x2020; Î&#x201D;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ 2đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;

â&#x20AC;˘ Stave manufactured out of 6061 aluminum â&#x20AC;˘ Dimensions: 52â&#x20AC;? x 5â&#x20AC;? x 2â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;˘ Mounted to boat and test tank using a machined stainless steel plate and angled brackets â&#x20AC;˘ Angled at 60° below sea surface

(1)

RESULTS

System parameters determined by the SONAR equation: SNR dB = SL â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2TL + TS â&#x2C6;&#x2019; (NL â&#x2C6;&#x2019; AG)

SNR = signal-to-noise ratio TS = target strength

TL = transmission loss AG = array gain

Defined system parameters at 15 kHz:

ADVISOR: Thomas Weber

STAVE AND MOUNTING

â&#x20AC;˘ Sidescan sonar systems measure the amplitude of backscattered echoes to obtain information about the seafloor â&#x20AC;˘ Bathymetry is obtained by measuring phase angle, Î&#x201D;ÎŚđ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´

Inner swath limit: Source level:

Design

8373 m 209 dB

SL = source level NL = noise level

Resolution at 2000 m depth: Mapping depth capability:

Lab Testing

â&#x20AC;˘ Individual transducer testing completed in the Chase Ocean Engineering Tank â&#x20AC;˘ Fully characterized transducer properties

(1)

Receive Sensitivity

Transmit Voltage Response

m2

269 2000 m

TRANSDUCER DEVELOPMENT

(3)

â&#x20AC;˘ Electro-acoustic transducer modeled as a second order spring-mass-damper system â&#x20AC;˘ Utilized model to design head mass for 15 kHz transducer â&#x20AC;˘ Tail mass 4 times more massive than head mass, acting as an anchor

ELECTRONIC SETUP

Materials

1 ½ in diameter aluminum head mass

Transmitting Beam Pattern

1 ½ in diameter steel tail mass

Four 190-kHz piezo ceramic rings Five copper mesh rings

(2)

Stainless steel cap screw

16 kHz 200W Power Amplifier

Six Âź inch spring washers

Assembly

â&#x20AC;˘ Transducers individually tuned to 15 kHz using cap screw â&#x20AC;˘ Ceramic ring stack protected from water by casting in polyurethane elastomer o Urethane casting process changed system parameters o Operating frequency changed to 16 kHz and inner swath limit decrease to 8285 m

(2)

Receive Circuit with the LT1125 Quad Op Amp

REFERENCES

1)

Clay, Clarence S., and Herman Medwin. Acoustical oceanography: principles and applications. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1977. Print.

2)

Horowitz, Paul, and Winfield Hill. The Art of electronics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: U Pr., 1989. Print.

3)

NOAA. "Portsmouth Harbor: Cape Neddick Harbor to Isles of Shoals." NOAA Office of Coast Survey. Washington D.C.: n.p., 1983. N. pag. Print.

Field Testing

â&#x20AC;˘ Completed field testing of the device aboard the R/V Gulf Surveyor â&#x20AC;˘ Mapped the Piscataqua riverbed along the border of Maine and New Hampshire â&#x20AC;˘ Testing confirms that device successfully operates as a side-scan sonar system

Thank you to the following for supporting this project: Alexandra Padilla, Paul Lavoie, Wendy Monroe, Scott Campbell, Carlo Lanzoni, Matt Rowell, Daniel Tauriello, and Ronny Eichler

Winning Project

2017

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Wave Energy Conversion Buoy (WECB) AUTHORS: Chelsea Kimball Aaron Russell ADVISORS: Kenneth Baldwin M. Robinson Swift

The Wave Energy Conversion Buoy Wave Energy Conversion Buoy (WECB) (WECB) is a renewable energy device, Chelsea Kimball and Aaron Russell which uses the motion of ocean waves Introduction Buoy Dynamics Objective to create electrical energy. The WECB Increase efficiency and durability of the wave energy conversion system through project is in its fifth year at UNH. This development of a linear motion generator Why the changes? year, the team conducted the first ever long term ocean test of the buoy, but Overview Generator could not collect electrical performance Before After data due to storm damage. The team did Version1 collect valuable environmental site data 0.5V, ~0W from the field location using a pressure transducer. This data was used to verify Version2 15V, ~2W Future Work Structural Improvements the environmental conditions driving Ocean Deployment â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Fall 2016 the design. The result of the ocean test ď&#x192; provided the opportunity to redesign the Acknowledgements power system. Thus the incorporation of a linear motion generator into the WECB power system was pursued. Linear motion generators reduce the effects of friction in gearing mechanisms and decrease the complexity of the device at sea. Ultimately the goal of these improvements is to make the buoy more efficient and durable during ocean deployment. The linear generator was prototyped, and is in the process of being tested for efficiency. It will be mounted within the spar of the buoy in an optimal location to lower the center of gravity and enhance the buoy dynamics. The team is looking forward to an ocean test of the new linear generator design and other buoy components, which will be completed in May 2017. Ocean waves are an abundant renewable energy resource. The Electric Power Resource Institute estimates that one third of the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total electricity used is recoverable from waves along the United Statesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; outer continental shelf. Harvesting this resource to produce electricity is the overall goal of the WECB. The UNH WECB project is focused on designing, building, and testing a point absorber system. Each year improvements are 1. Improved buoy dynamics ď&#x192;  weight at low end of spar made to increase the WECB efficiency and durability. This year 2. Durability ď&#x192;  fewer moving parts the team focused on designing and testing a linear generator to 3. Increased efficiency ď&#x192;  reduces amount of friction in system replace the previous rotating generator. 4. Safer deployment ď&#x192;  reduced amount needed for additional ballast, shorter overall length A point absorber device uses relative motion between a follower buoy and spar to power a generator

Connecting Rod

Follower buoy

1. Spar houses generator system and connects to extension pipe and heave plate

Spar

2. Heave plate reduces the sparâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vertical motion

Linear Generator (inside spar)

3. Follower buoy rides on surface of water to maximize vertical motion

Heave Plate

Wave Height (m)

3

5. Relative vertical motion drives the linear generator inside spar

Preparation: Repair gearing system, other hardware, & create mooring plan

Significant Wave Height Recorded by RBRduet

2.5

1

0.5

0

2. Simple Harmonic Motion RAOs RAOfloat = 1.03 (ideally â&#x2030;Ľ 1) RAOspar = 0.16 (ideally = 0)

Goal: Determine additional ballast needed to keep buoy upright, and the float resting between the wave height stops in calm water

Equations:

Buoyancy Force

Newtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2nd Law of Motion

Center of Gravity

Center of Buoyancy

đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;

đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152; =

ÎŁđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą

ÎŁđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š = đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; = 0

ÎŁđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą Result: 20lbs in lead weights added to spar, tank test verification to follow đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;&#x201D;đ?&#x2018;&#x201D;đ?&#x2018;&#x201D;đ?&#x2018;&#x201D; =

Voltage & Magnetic Flux Relation:

đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x153;&#x2018;đ?&#x153;&#x2018;đ?&#x153;&#x2018;đ?&#x153;&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;

â&#x20AC;˘ Bench test the completed generator design to determine average power, develop magnetic flux concentrators â&#x20AC;˘ Heave plate extension pipe flange â&#x20AC;˘ Aluminum guide brackets â&#x20AC;˘ Redeploy the new buoy system to test its durability and replaced fiber glass rebuilt to prevent stress failures analyze for efficiency

Goal: Collect energy and environmental data to determine system efficiency â&#x20AC;˘ PVC waterproofing plug Result: Buoy successfully and mounting plates for generated energy for 4 new generator days, storm damage resulted in loss of buoyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy data

2

1.5

Result: 1. Scaled Up Relative Velocity Vrel = ~0.8 m/s

Hydrostatic Analysis

4. Frame on follower buoy connects to generator

Extension Pipe

Relative Motion

Experiment: â&#x20AC;˘ Scaled down model of buoy system â&#x20AC;˘ Excludes resistance from a power generator â&#x20AC;˘ Wave tank imitated test site conditions â&#x20AC;˘ Measured relative motion of float and spar

â&#x20AC;˘ Offer design suggestions to future teams for increasing generator efficiency

â&#x20AC;˘ Integrate into the Shoals Marine Laboratory electrical grid

â&#x20AC;˘ Springs and riser clamps work with wave height stops A special thanks to Rob Swift and Ken Baldwin (project advisors), Corey

Sullivan (graduate advisor), John Ahern and Matt Rowell (technical experts), UNH R/V Gulf Challenger captain and crew, Bryan Soares and Debra Brewitt, Professor Barry Fussell, Shoals Marine Laboratory and Ross Hansen, David Shay (captain of the Galen J.), Liberty Machine LLC, and SeaLite. This project is sponsored in part by the New Hampshire Sea Grant College Program through NOAA grant # NA10OAR4170082, and the UNH Marine Program.

1. New understanding of buoyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s required durability 2. Opportunity to redesign power generation Appledore Island, ME

AUTHORS: Nathan Bredow Chris Chin Daniel Cohen Aaron Cordova Brian Ellis Kara Graney Kim Radzelovage Alex Sarasin Brandon Wong

UNH ROV is an interdisciplinary Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) engineering team dedicated towards the design and fabrication of an underwater remotely operated vehicle. This year, ROV 006, known as Njord, was designed for the use and implementation of graduate and doctoral research. Computer-aided modeling software, SolidWorks, was the platform for the design model of this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ROV. The use of both acrylic sides and 80/20 aluminum connectors in the chassis were inspired from both ROV 003 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Viperâ&#x20AC;? and ROV 005 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Siren.â&#x20AC;? Innovations to improve Njord from previous yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s designs include a vertical electronics tube, two electronics tiers for more compact wiring, multiple cameras, improved user-friendly computer coding and an expandable wiring platform for the possible addition to the sensor array on board. Current ongoing tasks include implementing a stabilizing control code and communication with the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV). With new and innovative ideas, various engineering programs, and a unique and expandable design, Njord establishes its role as an advanced underwater ROV platform for many aspects of research, industrial application, and the marketable world. Team members: Nate Bredow, Aaron Cordova, Brandon Wong, Daniel Cohen, Kara Graney, Brian Ellis, Chris Chin, Kim Radzelovage, Alex Sarasin Project Advisors: Dr. May-Win Thein, Sital Khatiwada, John McCormack, Allisa Dalpe

Abstract

UNH Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is an interdisciplinary engineering team dedicated towards the design and fabrication of an underwater ROV. This year, ROV 006, known as Njord, was designed for the use and implementation of graduate and doctoral research. Computer-aided modeling software, SolidWorks, was the platform for the design model of this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ROV. The use of both acrylic sides and 80/20 aluminum connectors in the chassis were inspired from both ROV 003 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Viperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and ROV 005 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sirenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Innovations to improve Njord from previous yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s designs include a vertical electronics tube, two electronics tiers for more compact wiring, multiple cameras, improved user-friendly computer coding, and an expandable wiring platform for the possible addition to the sensor array on board. Current ongoing tasks include implementing a stabilizing control code and communication with the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV). With new and innovative ideas, various engineering programs, and a unique and expandable design, Njord establishes its role as an advanced underwater ROV platform for many aspects of research, industrial application, and the marketable world.

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Lightweight, compact underwater unit with high computational capabilities Optimal thrust and precision maneuverability without large power requirements Feedback control system capable of controlling depth and orientation with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) Slight positive buoyancy for recovery during system failure Vertical electronics tube for avoiding tether interference Two stacked electronics trays for quick and easy accessibility Overall design compatible with current and future graduate research Implement communication with the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV)

ď&#x201A;ˇ ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

(Courtesy of: http://acomms.whoi.edu/)

Future researchers will be able to coordinate movement and share data between ROV and ASV systems

(Courtesy of: http://acomms.whoi.edu/)

Improvements from Past ROVs

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Vertical tube prevents the tether from generating an adverse moment on the back of the ROV

Thruster placement prevents rolling, allows for yaw motion, and maintains a symmetric design Combination 80/20 and acrylic chassis design allow for a larger overall available mounting surface area centered on the ROV Stabilizing control code for ease of maneuverability

Electrical System and Sensors

Two tier cylindrical design to reduce wiring

6061 aluminum plates chosen for thermal properties Plates connected with removable stainless steel rods

(Courtesy of: http://bluerobotics.com)

Handle added for easy removal from tube

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

BlueRobotics T100 thrusters tested for given parameter accuracy

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Blue Robotics Bar30 Sensor allows for pressure, temperature, and depth measurement with high accuracy

Depth measurement is used for depth feedback control

Simulink Model of Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Controller for 6 D.O.F:

Experimentation proved accurate thrust for input pulse width modulation (PWM)

(Courtesy of: https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/)

Single thruster maximum thrust analyzed at 1600 Îźs PWM

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Traditional vs. Angled thruster orientation further tested from previous year Angled orientation found to provide x thrust

Two 1080p USB cameras are used for wide viewing range and expandability for a potential vision system

(Courtesy of: https://www.schoolsavers.com/images/Vernier_Salinity.jpg)

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Honorable Mention Project

Acoustic signals travel well through water

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Stability Feedback Controller

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Can Transmit 500bps

ď&#x201A;ˇ

(Courtesy of: https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/)

Propulsion Analysis and Design

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Allows communication between multiple platforms Transmits at 20-40 kHz

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Electronics Tray Design

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Xbox 360 Controller serves as main user input device Buttons mapped to specific functions of ROV

Cast Acrylic Plastic and 80/20 T-slotted Aluminum Frame Lightweight design for easy transportation Slide fastener system allows for easy attachment of components 8 Thrusters with a maximum thrust of 5.2 lbf each Vertically-oriented watertight electronics enclosure Two (2â&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;&#x2122; dia.) watertight tube enclosures for sensors/ cameras

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) micro-modem system will allow ROV-ASV communication

ď&#x201A;ˇ

User Interface

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ď&#x201A;ˇ

ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Chassis Design

ď&#x201A;ˇ ď&#x201A;ˇ

ROVâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;ASV Communication

Design Considerations

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Stability Feedback Controller will utilize a Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller in order to stabilize the ROV for 6 D.O.F Controller will utilize data outputs from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) accelerometer and gyroscope Optimized Controller will be able to continuous correct for displacements in desired position caused by wave tank

The ROV can be placed in different bodies of water to measure salt content with the Vernier Salinity Sensor

Special Thanks to: Dr. Martin Renken (Keyport NUWC), Tara Hicks Johnson, Scott Campbell, Joseph Gabriel

2017 INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

OCEAN ENGINEERING

Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)


Project OASIS: Optimizing Aquaponic Systems to Improve Sustainability Project OASIS is an interdisciplinary Project OASIS: Optimizing Aquaponic Systems to Improve Sustainability capstone project that aims to optimize aquaponic systems to improve sustainability. Aquaponic systems combine aquaculture and hydroponic systems to cultivate fish and plants, respectively, in one recirculating waterreuse loop. A small-scale aquaponic system was set up in the UNH Macfarlane greenhouse. This academic year, the research considered multiple sustainability and design factors applicable to small-scale aquaponics. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to determine if aquaponic systems are a sustainable alternative to conventional agriculture by quantifying the environmental impacts of an aquaponic system throughout its life cycle. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of recycling wastewater from the system to maximize nutrient yield and minimize water consumption. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the fish tank was created to improve the water flow behavior and to provide a tool for designing future fish tank setups. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to validate the CFD model by experimentally measuring the flow in the working system. Research results to date will be presented at the time of the conference. Ethan Pirie1, Justin Stickney1, Melanie Nute4, Anna DeVitto3, Sylvia Romero1, Drue Seksinsky1 Advisers: Ivaylo Nedyalkov1 and Todd Guerdat2 1Mechanical

PROJECT GOALS

â&#x20AC;˘ Use an interdisciplinary approach to explore and improve an alternative to conventional farming â&#x20AC;˘ Design a sustainable & affordable integrated aquaponic system for use in developing nations

Comparing CFD & Experimental Results of Fish Tank Flow Mild turbulence, incompressible steady state flow RANS turbulence models utilized: k-Ć? and k-Ď&#x2030; SST Mean difference of 5% between identical ADV tests CFD and experimental results: mean difference of 60%

Radial Settler

â&#x20AC;˘ Combination of aquaculture + hydroponic systems â&#x20AC;˘ Recycles water in a closed, recirculating loop

Sump Pump

MBBR

.

Fish food

1

Plants take up nutrients

Fish excrete Ammonia (NH3)

The Aquaponics Cycle

Waste solids

2

Nitrite to Nitrate (NO3-)

Ammonia to Nitrite (NO2-)

Oxygen

Compared to traditional agriculture: â&#x20AC;˘ Produces 10 times higher plant yields[1] â&#x20AC;˘ Consumes 10+ times less water[2] â&#x20AC;˘ Requires no use of artificial fertilizers

1.00

[1] PELUM Uganda, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Growing Crops on Stones; the Future of Urban Agriculture!,â&#x20AC;? Participatory Ecological Land Use Management, 15 August 2013. [2] Somerville, C. et al., "Small-scale Aquaponic Food Production: Integrated Fish and Plant Farming," Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014.

SERVICE

â&#x20AC;˘ Developed a community outreach project at a childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s afterschool program in Costa Rica

BEFORE

Plant-Required Nutrient Ratios as an Alternative to NPK Fertilizer Ratios

N/P N/K P/K

0.80 0.60

AFTER

0.40 0.20 0.00

Anaerobic

RESEARCH GOALS

â&#x20AC;˘ Create a model to optimize flow behavior â&#x20AC;˘ Provide a tool for designing future fish tank setups â&#x20AC;˘ Maximize nutritional yield and waste use â&#x20AC;˘ Minimize water consumption â&#x20AC;˘ Quantify the environmental impacts of an aquaponic system

OpenFOAM model

Experimental Setup

Analyzing Recycled Wastewater Through Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration â&#x20AC;˘ Evaluated wastewater recycling feasibility â&#x20AC;˘ Maximized resource utilization efficiency â&#x20AC;˘ Developed naturally-derived nutrient solutions via traditional wastewater treatment processes â&#x20AC;˘ Evaluated potential for decoupled aquaponics

JR Peters Commercial Fertilizer

Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment

Quantifying the Environmental Impacts of Aquaponics â&#x20AC;˘ Requires 0.5 ft2 of land per kg of lettuce grown and 7 ft2 of land per kg of fish â&#x20AC;˘ Requires 13 gallons of water per kg of lettuce grown and 153 gallons per kg of fish Although aquaponics consumes 60 gal/day for operation, when compared to traditional aquaculture, aquaponics conserves nearly 2000 gallons of water per kg of lettuce.

CONCLUSIONS

â&#x20AC;˘ ADV tests are repeatable â&#x20AC;˘ Traditional wastewater treatment processes may be utilized to develop hydroponic nutrient solutions â&#x20AC;˘ Aquaponic systems use 13 times less water and 2 times less agricultural land than conventional farming

Water Depletion of Lettuce and Fish in Aquaponic Systems vs Conventional Farming

Water Depletion (gal/kg)

4

REFERENCES

2,008

1700 700

66

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

87

-300

-2300

Sea Grant UNH Emeriti Council Rosenberg Foundation NH 2015 Social Venture Innovation Challenge UNH Departments of Mechanical Engineering UNH Department of Biological Sciences

Aquaponics

-1300

Conventional Farming

-1,995

Lettuce

OCEAN ENGINEERING

DESIGN

RESEARCH

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

WHAT IS AQUAPONICS?

3

ADVISORS: Todd Guerdat Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Engineering, 2Biological Sciences, 3Sustainable Agriculture, 4Environmental Engineering

Grams per Liter (g/L)

AUTHORS: Anna Devitto Melanie Nute Ethan Pirie Sylvia Romero Drue Seksinsky Justin Stickney

Fish

The community in Uvita, Costa Rica Andrew Ogden, Nick Reynolds, Kara Koetje (Ocean Engineering), Alex Sitek (Agriculture Sciences)

Project S.O.A.K.: Submersible Oceanic Aquaculture of Kelp AUTHORS: Jamie Barton Hannah Root Angela Sarni Megan Savoie ADVISORS: Michael Chambers M. Robinson Swift

Sugar Kelp (Saccharina latissima) is Project S.O.A.K. - Submersible Oceanic Aquaculture of Kelp Angela Sarni, Megan Savoie, Jamie Barton, Hannah Root a sustainable crop that requires zero Advisors: Michael Chambers & Rob Swift fresh water, arable land, pesticides or Introduction Fabrication Biology & Engineering fertilizers. Kelp contains more calcium Why Kelp? than milk, more iron than spinach and more fiber than brown rice. It has the Deployment Biology Project Design 3/24 - Snowstorm potential to make biofuels, locally reduce Design Considerations Materials: ocean acidification, and improve water 3/28 - Cloudy Site Conditions quality by photosynthesizing excess nutrients. Kelp aquaculture in the US is in its infancy and new ways are being 3/30 - Sunny developed to grow it offshore. As a result, Methods we designed a submersible frame made out of HDPE pipe for kelp grow out. In Conclusion the marine lab nursery, juvenile kelp was spawned on spools, made of twine wrapped around sections of PVC pipe. The seeded twine was transferred to the frame system by unraveling the spool onto the horizontal and vertical frame lines. Design considerations include the capability to withstand drag forces during coastal storms, convenience when submerging & raising to seed/harvest, and efficiency for growing large amounts of kelp in a reduced area. Held in place by two anchors, the frame is located offshore NH near Portsmouth Lighthouse. Buoys suspend the square frame horizontally about 3m from the surface so the growth remains below the wave motion. This frame design can be implemented for large-scale use or in smaller coastal communities. Cut & transport pipes to site Fused pipes into frame Drilled holes in pipes Assembled mooring system

â&#x20AC;˘ Health Benefits â&#x20AC;˘ Environmental Benefits â&#x20AC;˘ Sustainable aquaculture

1. Withstand forces during coastal storms 2. Convenience when submerging & raising 3. Efficiency growing kelp in a reduced area

đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0.6 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0.15 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 5 đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1.6 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;

Flood tide velocity Ebb tide velocity (back eddy) January 2016 Storm â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Jonasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; January 2016 Storm â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Jonasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ = đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘2

đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; =

đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; cosh(đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC; â&#x201E;&#x17D; + đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§ ) 2đ??żđ??żđ??żđ??ż cosh(đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;â&#x201E;&#x17D;)

đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0.60 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0.43 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; = 1.03 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;/đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇđ??ˇ = 6300đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; = 6577đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ??ľđ??ľđ??ľđ??ľ = 1890đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ SOAK is an interdisciplinary project â&#x20AC;˘ Goal: grow Sugar Kelp on frame system

Max velocity - river current Max particle velocity - waves Total velocity Resulting drag force Tension in mooring lines Buoyancy

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

2 Nursery Tanks PVC Pipe Twine LED lighting system PES nutrients

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Collect mature sorus tissue Spawn & transfer to PVC 12 hour light cycle Weekly nutrients, 4 weeks Continue growth in ocean Transfer from spools to frame

â&#x20AC;˘ Seeded lines â&#x20AC;˘ Deployed mooring system

â&#x20AC;˘ Attached weights & buoys on beach â&#x20AC;˘ Towed frame off beach â&#x20AC;˘ Tied frame to raft in bay temporarily

â&#x20AC;˘ Towed frame to site â&#x20AC;˘ Attached pre-seeded lines â&#x20AC;˘ Attached frame to mooring â&#x20AC;˘ Seeded remaining lines

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Cohesive interdisciplinary team End goal accomplished Nature can dictate timeline Kelp growth monitored Future work prospects

Acknowledgements: This work is the result of research sponsored in part by the New Hampshire Sea Grant College Program through NOAA grant #NA10OAR4170082,and the UNH Marine Program.


Underrepresented College Students’ Experiences with Mathematics and Their Effect on STEM Pathways AUTHOR: Hannah Bush

The purpose of this research is to Underrepresented College Students’ Experiences with Mathematics contribute to the dialogue surrounding & Their Effect on STEM Pathways equity in mathematics education by investigating the obstacles that still face Introduction Methodology Results Summary minority students pursuing STEM fields. Past studies have found that women and people of color continue to be underrepresented in STEM due to lack of visible role models and the perpetuation of negative stereotypes, as well as other factors relating to socioeconomic status, Implications gender, and race. The project involves socioeconomic surveys and personal interviews of eight minority students at References the University of New Hampshire, four of whom are pursuing STEM majors and four of whom are pursuing nonSTEM majors. The interview questions spotlight students’ attitudes toward mathematics as well as their experiences with the subject in middle school, high school, and beyond. This research complements past statistical analyses by highlighting individual stories and perspectives while also examining ideas for additional resources and support to help retain more underrepresented students in STEM. Hannah Bush

ADVISOR: Orly Buchbinder

UNH Department of Mathematics and Statistics

Eight undergraduate students at the University of New Hampshire: ) Socioeconomic /Background Survey ) Personal interview - audio recorded with researcher notes - qualitative analysis

Since its very founding, the United States has profited from diverse contributions and perspectives. It has always been in the best interest of the U.S. education system to work toward equity by providing opportunities for students from all backgrounds to share their ideas and intellectual strengths. We cannot truly progress as a society until all of us are able to move forward together.

There has been substantial research conducted on the achievement gap and minority retention rate in math education, indicating that minority students are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM-related majors in college for a variety of reasons: ) Negative stereotypes regarding women and people of color  decreased likelihood of being encouraged to pursue STEM in higher education (Robinson, Lubienski, & Copur, 2010) ) Low self-efficacy  low entrance and retention rates (Wang, 2013)

) Lack of resources in high-needs districts less access to innovative mathematics instruction (Battey & Franke, 2015)

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the dialogue on equity in mathematics education by investigating underrepresented students’ experiences and overall attitudes toward mathematics as well as the obstacles that they still face in math-dominated fields. Although there’s already substantial survey research, this project specifically aims to highlight the individual voices and perspectives of students at the University of New Hampshire by presenting the power of their personal narratives.

Demographics:

STEM

Overall:

Black Woman

Black Woman

Asian Man

Asian Man

Black Man

Asian Woman

White Woman

LatinX Woman

Sample Questions from Socioeconomic Survey: (out of 15 total)

1) Do you qualify for work study at UNH?

Yes____ No____

2) Did either of your parents or guardians graduate from a fouryear institution? (Check one)

The results suggest that there are a variety of influences affecting underrepresented students’ decision to pursue STEM in college. The main ones identified in this research were:

Personal Aspirations

Socioeconomic Factors

Choosing/Avoiding STEM

Non-STEM

Self-Efficacy/ Confidence

Attitudes/ Views Toward Math

Sociocultural Factors -Gender -Race

Encouragement

Highlights:

“I knew a background in math would open up more doors for me and would look good on a resume.” -AMS

Personal Aspirations

“STEM is the place for people who want to ask questions.” - WFS

) What influences marginalized students’ decision to pursue STEM in college? How does students’ experience with mathematics in middle and high school affect their decisions to continue studying STEM in higher education? ) How does encouragement by peers, parents, and teachers influence students’ confidence in their mathematical ability?

) What are underrepresented college students’ overall attitudes toward mathematics?

) Level of encouragement: students’ sense of selfefficacy was influenced by encouragement of their peers, mentors, and parents. The students who were told that they were capable of doing mathematics were also the ones that viewed math as a useful subject and were interested in learning more about it.

) Career/personal aspirations: students’ decision to study mathematics in college was influenced by their desired career paths, specifically how relevant math would be to their professions and whether they believed math would be a marketable skill on their resumes.

) Race, gender, ethnicity  cultural norms: students’ overall beliefs and attitudes toward mathematics were influenced by many elements of their identity. Some of the students described feeling tokenized or isolated, since they weren’t as encouraged to pursue mathematics as their peers because of their marginalized identities Some discussed lack of visible role models dissuading them from continuing their STEM studies. Others described how mathematics was especially valued in their family units and cultures, resulting in positive associations with the subject.

One____ Both____ None____ Don’t Know ____

3) How many people live in your household (including yourself)?

Choosing/Avoiding STEM

Attitudes/ Views Toward Math

Sample Questions from Personal Interview: (out of 12 total)

Research Questions:

Orly Buchbinder

1) Do you enjoy mathematics? Do you think it’s useful? If so, in what ways?

2) How were your experiences with math teachers in middle and high school? Were they encouraging?

Self-Efficacy/ Confidence

“I’d rather not try and not fail than actually try and fail.” -AFNS

3) Do you think you’re good at math? Why or why not? What does it take to be good at math? 4) Women and people of color are still underrepresented in STEM. Why do you think that is?

5) Do you think there are enough resources to succeed in your current major? Which ones do you access? Which ones are the most valuable?

Encouragement

KEY

AMS – Asian Male: STEM AFNS – Asian Female: Non-STEM WFS – White Female: STEM

Sociocultural Factors -Gender -Race

“Just because you have an accent people think you’re dumb and can’t understand.” - AFNS

Personal narratives should be highlighted in dialogues about mathematical equity to better understand individual experiences within the scope of broader sociocultural trends. Universities should be aware of factors influencing students’ decision to pursue STEM studies and provide more math interventions to ensure higher retention rates in those majors. Middle and high school educators should understand issues regarding educational inequity and implicit bias to better encourage underrepresented students to pursue mathematics.

1. Battey, D., & Franke, M. (2015). Integrating Professional Development on Mathematics and Equity. Education and Urban Society, 47(4), 433-462.

2. Robinson, Joseph P., Sarah T. Lubienski, and Yasemin Copur. “The Effects of Teachers’ Gender-Stereotypical Expectations on the Development of the Math Gender Gap.” Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 3. Wang, X. (2013). Why Students Choose STEM Majors: Motivation, High School Learning, and Postsecondary Context of Support. American Educational Research Journal, 50(5), 1081-1121.

The Effects of Surface Adsorbates on Graphene and Two-Dimensional MoS2 AUTHOR: Cameron Flynn ADVISOR: Shawna Hollen

Two-dimensional materials are among the most widely researched areas of condensed matter physics, as many of these single-atomic layer films have unique electrical and physical properties. However, if they are to be used for anything beyond research, they will likely come into contact with some material adsorbed on their surface. It is necessary to know how the electronic properties change with exposure to these adsorbates so that in practice, these changes can be planned for. I am testing how the electrical transport properties of the two-dimensional materials graphene and MoS2 change after adsorbing O2, N2, and H2 by landing a 30 micron probe on atomically thin samples and measuring the current response to an applied voltage, both before and after adsorbing these gases.

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Analyzing Sea Level Rise Due to Melting of Antarctic Ice and Dispersion of Sea Water from Mass Redistribution AUTHOR: Tessa Gorte ADVISORS: David Mattingly Cameron Wake

Winning Project

2017

Aspects of climate dynamics like sea level rise (SLR) will have profound impacts on coastlines worldwide. While SLR as a direct result of melting ice has been studied extensively, it is also important to look at secondary factors, such as the change in gravitational field due to redistribution of mass. The geoid is a gravitational equipotential map of Earth that shows where the mean sea level of the planet would be solely due to its rotation and mass distribution. Per Newtonian physics, massive objects experience gravitational attraction. Therefore, liquid water, which is mobile, will adjust to changes in Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gravitational field. This leads to an uneven distribution of water around large masses.

Analyzing Sea Level Rise Due to Melting of Antarctic Ice and Dispersion of Sea Water from Mass Redistribution Tessa Gorte Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire Introduction

Methods

Results and Analysis

Conclusions

Aspects of climate dynamics like sea level rise (SLR) will have profound impacts on coastlines worldwide. While the primary effect of SLR due to ice melt has been studied extensively, it is also important to study secondary factors such as change in Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gravity field due to mass redistribution. Per Newtonian physics, massive objects experience gravitational attraction. Liquid water, which is mobile, will adjust to changes in the gravitational field caused by Antarctic ice melt. The Antarctic ice mass accumulates a large bulge of water that, when the ice melts, will redistribute according to the new geoid. Because the water was mostly accumulated south of the equator, the redistribution will most adversely affect the northern hemisphere.

The data from the GRACE satellite is most easily represented in spherical harmonics. The gravity field can be recreated from the spherical harmonics using

Using the negative mass geoid (Figure 2), I calculated the total volume of water that was bulging solely due to Antarctic ice â&#x20AC;&#x201C; about 2.225e15 m3. That water evenly distributed over the oceans amounts to approximately 8.71 m in SLR which is about 14.51% of the total estimated SLR from complete melting of the Antarctic ice cap1.

Under the assumption of a spherically symmetric, uniform density idealized Antarctica, the redistribution of water due to geoidal changes from Antarctic ice melt will cause latitudes south of 13 degrees south to see less than the predicted 60 m of SLR and latitudes north of 13 degrees south to see more.

Geoids Figure 1 The current geoid according to data collected by the GRACE satellite.

Figure 2 The geoid created solely by a large negative mass centered on the South Pole with an angular width of 40 degrees which roughly corresponds to the average latitude of the Antarctic coast.

đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;

đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;

đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;, đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122;đ?&#x153;&#x2122; = đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸đ??¸ ďż˝ ďż˝

đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;=0 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;=0

2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;0 2đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; + 1 đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; ! đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; cos đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; cos đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; + đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; sin đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; + đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; !

where rE is the radius of the Earth, đ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żđ?&#x203A;żmn is the Kronecker delta, Plm is the associated Legendre polynomials, and Clm and Slm are the spherical harmonic coefficients. I removed the l=2 harmonic as that overwhelms the higher harmonics of the geoid (l=2 is due to the earth being an oblate spheroid). As a first simplification, Antarctica is approximated as a spherical cap centered around the South Pole with an angular width of 40 degrees. I subtracted the Antarctic ice cap from the gravity field by calculating the potential caused by a negative mass at 1 degree increments in latitude along a single line of longitude, then added the resulting potential to the existing potential, which is possible in this case due to the axial symmetry. I then rotated that single line of longitude around 360 degrees to get the total gravity field for the Earth caused by the ice melt. Adding the two gravity fields together created a new gravity field that represented that of the entire planet sans the Antarctic ice cap, i.e. as though the ice cap had vanished entirely. By renormalizing the gravity fields to obtain the geoids, I was able to calculate the volume of water in the bulge around Antarctica. I then recalculated the potential gravity field to find the SLR relative to the average estimate of 60 m.

References Figure 4 The change in geoid height plotted versus the latitude along a single line of longitude (blue) shows the bulge of water created by the gravitational attraction to the ice mass. The red line indicates the average amount of SLR due to the redistribution of the water from the bulge.

1 Bamber J., and R. Riva. 2010. The sea level fingerprint of recent ice mass fluxes. The Cryosphere 4: 621-627.

Because the bulge around Antarctica will redistribute around the Earth, latitudes below 13 degrees south would see less than the estimated 60 m SLR while latitudes north of 13 degrees south will see more.

Future Future additions and changes to the project would include making a more realistic Antarctica. This entails creating a code that more accurately matches Antarcticaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coastlines as well as creating a map that better corresponds to the locations of the Antarctic ice sheets for non-uniform melting. Additionally, future simulations should allow for more realistic levels of melting in different sections of Antarctica.

Figure 3 The resultant geoid after subtracting the mass of Antarctica.

Figure 5 The SLR caused by Antarctic ice melt and the redistribution of the water in the bulge cause by gravitational attraction to Antarctic ice most adversely affects latitudes north of 13 degrees south. Latitudes south of 68 degrees south would see an overall drop in sea level.

It is also important to note, however, that latitudes south of 68 degrees south will see an overall drop in sea level. As this only accounts for 2 degrees in latitude because of the assumption of a spherically symmetric Antarctica, this drop in sea level is negligible.

Acknowledgements My thesis advisor, David Mattingly, and co-advisor, Cameron Wake, helped me to create a tractable problem with real-world impacts as well as assisted in writing the code and thesis. If you have any questions, please contact Tessa Gorte at tmi65@wildcats.unh.edu.

RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN Š 2015

www.PosterPresentations.com

While land masses are fixed in location, Antarctica has an accumulation of ice that is susceptible to climate change. Antarctic ice melt will not only increase the mean sea level but also change the geoid. Using the gravity field data collected by the GRACE satellite from the University of Colorado-Boulder, I re-created the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current geoid. I then removed various percentages of the Antarctic ice cap and recalculated the geoid.Ă&#x201A; From this I calculated how the changing gravitational field will adjust SLR.

Studying Cosmic-Ray Neutrons AUTHOR: Emma Clarke ADVISOR: James Ryan

We report measurements of 10 to 100 MeV atmospheric albedo neutrons made Studying Cosmic-Ray Neutrons in low earth orbit. These neutrons are believed to be the primary source for Background Results Methods the proton population of Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inner radiation belt. The data were obtained with the University of New Hampshireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s COMPTEL instrument on NASAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory COMPTEL Discussion (CGRO). The data were collected over 26 days between April 1992 and February 1998 for a total acquisition time of approximately 24 hours. For this study Acknowledgements we have selected only the nadir-looking measurements, for which the instrument References axis was within 15 degrees of the nadir. The observations cover a range of 1.75 to 12.91 GV in geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, an equivalent range of Âą 39 degrees in geomagnetic latitude. The instrument efficiency values used to evaluate the neutron intensities were obtained from numerical simulations. With some exceptions, the resulting energy spectrum and angle distribution agree with the results of Ait-Ouamer et al. (1988) obtained from a balloon payload. Emma Clarke, James Ryan (advisor), Mark McConnell, Morgan Daly University of New Hampshire

Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND)

Collisions in Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere between galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and particles such as nitrogen and oxygen produce a variety of particles, including very energetic (10-250 MeV) neutrons. These free neutrons are unstable and decay quickly to produce energetic protons, which can be trapped in the magnetic cavity of Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inner radiation belt. These neutrons are believed to be the primary source for the proton population of Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inner radiation belt.

CRAND theory is supported by theoretical modeling of atmospheric neutron production and by measurements from balloon payload experiments. While balloon payload experiments are rare and limited to single points in space and time, COMPTEL allowed systematic measurements to be made covering a wider range of geomagnetic coordinates and solar activity.

(COMPTEL) was one of four experiments on NASAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), which operated from April 1991 to June 2000.

Figure 5. COMPTEL Neutron Observations.

The effective area values interpolated from numerical simulation data are shown in Table II.

ray telescope, but also had a capability for measuring fast neutrons.

Figure 2. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Image Credit: NASA/MSFC

â&#x20AC;˘ The Ă&#x17E;rst detecting plane (D1) contains 7 detectors Ă&#x17E;lled

Energy Spectrum. Measured intensities are shown as a function of incident neutron energy. Measurements from this experiment are compared with data obtained from the University of California, Riverside, double scatter telescope. The Riverside experiment was limited to a single measurement made on November 10, 1981 from Alice Springs, Australia at a cutoff rigidity of 8.5 GV [Ait-Ouamer et al. 1988].

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS

Figure 3. COMPTEL Schematic

Honorable Mention Project

2017 2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

When a neutron Ă&#x17E;rst scatters, the energy of the recoil proton is measured from the scintillation light in the D1 detector. The energy of the scattered neutron is calculated from the time of Ă&#x;ight (TOF) from D1 to D2. The kinetic energy and scatter angle of the neutron are calculated with the recoil proton energy and scattered neutron energy.

direction was parallel to the instrument axis to simplify the analysis.

â&#x20AC;˘ 6800 neutron events remain for analysis. â&#x20AC;˘ Geomagnetic rigidities range from 1.75 to 12.91 GV. â&#x20AC;˘ Magnetic latitudes range Âą 39Ăť. â&#x20AC;˘ Geographic latitudes range Âą 28Ăť. â&#x20AC;˘ Instrument altitude ranges from 334 to 505 km. â&#x20AC;˘ Instrument efficiency values obtained from numerical

â&#x20AC;˘ We have accumulated unique Earth albedo

neutron data that can be used to assemble a decade-long spectrum.

â&#x20AC;˘ Our energy spectrum agrees in shape with the Riverside results. â&#x20AC;˘ Outstanding problems exist relating to the evaluation of the instrument efĂ&#x17E;ciency. â&#x20AC;˘ Future work entails ascertaining the discrepancy between the computed effective-area numbers and laboratory data, then recomputing.

â&#x20AC;˘ Relaxing our data cuts will allow Ă&#x17E;ner time-

with liquid organic scintillator (NE213A). The second detecting plane (D2) is comprised of 14 detectors containing an inorganic scintillator, NaI(Tl). Each detecting plane is also surrounded by an anti-coincidence shield used to reject charged particles [Schonfelder et al. 1993].

Neutrons were measured and identiĂ&#x17E;ed by COMPTEL through a double scattering process. Ideally, a neutron would elastically scatter off of a hydrogen nucleus in D1 and subsequently interact in D2. Scattered neutrons were identiĂ&#x17E;ed from the time of Ă&#x;ight (TOF) from D1 to D2, as well as by pulse shape discrimination techniques and the lack of a veto signal from the charged particle shields.

â&#x20AC;˘ We selected data for which the telescope axis was within 15Ăť of the nadir. â&#x20AC;˘ Total acquisition time for which instrument was sufĂ&#x17E;ciently close to nadir amounts to approximately 24 hours. â&#x20AC;˘ We further selected data for which scattered neutron

simulations.

Figure 6. Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s radiation belts. High doses of radiation in the inner belt effect astronauts and satellites.

â&#x20AC;˘ COMPTEL was primarily intended as a Îłplanes, each composed of cylindrical detector modules surrounded by photomultiplier tubes (shown in Fig. 3).

â&#x20AC;˘ Data from April 1992 to February 1998, while the instrument was looking at the Earth. â&#x20AC;˘ A total of 1,019,787 neutron events were recorded,

corresponding to 245 hours of observation time in this mode.

Albedo Neutron Intensity. Intensity values were evaluated with the equation

Figure 1. Cosmic Ray Particles Image Credit: http://www.phy6.org/Education/winbelt.html

â&#x20AC;˘ The COMPton Imaging TELescope

â&#x20AC;˘ COMPTEL was comprised of two detecting

Neutron Events. The total number of neutron events for the selected data are shown as a function of angle and energy in Table I.

resolved spectra throughout the COMPTEL mission.

EfĂ&#x17E;ciency or effective-area Ă&#x17E;gures, A(E,θ), are typically computed via numerical simulations. Shown in Table 2 are a Ă&#x17E;rst attempt to compute these numbers that go into the above intensity calculation. For reasons yet to be determined, these calculations differ in signiĂ&#x17E;cant ways from laboratory data. However, we use these effective-area numbers and plot the results in the Ă&#x17E;gure on the left, including the results of the Riverside balloon campaign. The agreement should not be taken literally.

This work was supported through NASA grant NNX16AG77G.

Ait-Ouamer, F., et al., 1988, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 2499. Atmospheric Neutrons at 8.5 GV Cutoff in the Southern Hemisphere. SchÜnfelder, V., et al., 1993, Ap. J. Supp., 86, 657.  Instrument Description and Performance of the Imaging Gamma-Ray Telescope COMPTEL Aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.


How Students Use Analogous Methods to Solve Mathematics Problems AUTHOR: Patrick Blanchette

As a math tutor for seven years I regularly How Students Use Analogous Methods To Solve Mathematic Problems employed the use of analogies and storytelling methods to help students understand topics they found difficult. Studies have shown that more professors are using analogous methods in the classroom and this study aims to explore if students think analogously about a balancing equation problem. To research how students solve a problem a survey was created which asked students to solve a basic balancing equation problem, explain their process, explain their answer, and explain how they would teach someone else how to solve the problem at hand. Approximately 100 students will be surveyed and their GPA and class grades will be obtained; their survey answers will be coded for emerging themes and patterns. Although data is still being collected I will be looking for the percent of students who use analogous methods, what types of analogies are used, and if there is a correlation between analogous thinking and GPA or class grade. I hope to continue this research while here at UNH and intend to repeat this procedure with multiple types of mathematics problems. Patrick Blanchette; pmz32@wildcats.unh.edu; Department of Mathematics, University of New Hampshire

Survey Layout and Expected Results

Introduction

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

As a math tutor for seven years I regularly employed the use of analogies and storytelling methods to help students understand topics they found difficult. Studies have shown that more professors are using analogous methods in the classroom and this study aims to explore if students think analogously about a balancing equation problem.3 To research how students solve a problem a survey was created which asked students to solve a basic balancing equation problem, explain their process, explain their answer, and explain how they would teach someone else how to solve the problem at hand. Approximately 100 students will be surveyed and their GPA and class grades will be obtained; their survey answers will be coded for emerging themes and patterns. Although data is still being collected I will be looking for the percent of students who use analogous methods, what types of analogies are used, and if there is a correlation between analogous thinking and GPA or class grade. I hope to continue this research while here at UNH and intend to repeat this procedure with multiple types of mathematic problems.

Research Questions

IRB Review

1. How do students solve a balancing equation problem?

2. Are analogous or logical methods used to arrive at a solution?

3. Do students use analogies to explain how to solve the problem?

The survey proposed in this project was submitted to the Institutional Review Board on Friday April 7th 2017 and is still under review. Data collection will begin upon approval.

4. Is the solution comprehended fully?

Prior Studies and Background

Research on analogous methods for solving math shows that analogies are used in math all over the world and may be correlated to improving test scores.4 Studies have suggested that analogies are used regularly in U.S. math classrooms.3 This study is intended to expand on previous research to qualitatively evaluate the extent of use of certain analogies and methods for solving a typical balancing equation problem. This study will also consider the student’s grade level and GPA which has been shown to be correlated to math proficiency in other levels of education.2

Where other studies have focused on how teachers present analogies to students in the classroom this study aims to see how students think of a problem based on their existing knowledge.3 Like the study done by Laura R. Novick and Keith J. Holyoak, which asked students to solve a question they did not know how to solve, being given only hints in various forms1, this study will present a basic question that the student should know how to solve and one that is usually described analogously.

The Novick and Holyoak study concluded that the better the analogy the better students could use the analogy to solve other problems. They also found that mathematic expertise was a reliable predictor of analogical transfer, using a given analogy to solve a different analogic problem. This study aims to expand on this research and examine if a certain type of analogic thinking results in more correct answers. This study also aims to confirm that GPA and class grade, i.e. mathematical expertise, are correlated to analogic thinking.1

1) The first question is used to explore how familiar a student is with this type of problem and to see if they think of this type of problem in an analogous way as soon as they see it.

3) The third question asks students to interpret their solution and verify if it is correct. The solution is the value of x in the balancing equation problem and when the correct value for x is plugged back into the equation it balances it and creates a true equality.

2) The second question gives the student space to solve the problem and space to explain their steps. They may explain their steps in a logical way by listing the mathematical properties used or they may use an analogous method and explain the thinking behind their steps.

4) This problem requires students to write a way to teach the method to solve this problem to someone who does not know how to solve this type of problem. Various methods can be used to solve this problem so answers to this question will be varied.

Conclusion and Future Work

Once the data is collected and analyzed I hope to be able to use this data to better understand how students learn and think about this type of math problem. Knowing if students use analogies over other methods can help professors better cater their lectures and teach with more confidence. Moving forward I plan to repeat this process with different types of math problems. Doing this may reveal an overarching theme if the form of the analogy is similar across multiple problems. A balancing equation problem is commonly taught analogously so comparing the results of this project to one using another problem may be very informative. I will be continuing with this research in my senior year here at UNH, Fall 2017 & Spring 2018, and hope to be able to combine the results from all surveys into my senior thesis.

Acknowledgements and References

Data

The original data will contain handwritten survey answers. These answers will be transcribed, scanned, and coded for emerging themes. This data will then be analyzed qualitatively. I will specifically be looking to see the percentage of students who use an analogy to solve the problem, how many students get the correct answer and interpret it correctly, and how students go about explaining their process to someone who does not know how to solve the problem. Using the students class grade and GPA I will also be looking for a correlation between those factors and analogous thinking.

This work was supported in part by the CC2CEPS Scholarship with thanks to Dr. Pazicni and Dr. Greenslade. Thanks to Rene Buell for IRB assistance and Qualitative Research Materials. Thanks to the IRB for their consideration and time.

1. Novick, R. L., Holyoak, K. J. (1991) Mathematical Problem Solving by Analogy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol 17, 394-415. 2. Benbow, C. P., Arjmand, O (September 1990). Predictors of High Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science by Mathematically Talented Students: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 82(3), 430-441. 3. Richland, L. E., Holyoak, K. J., & Stigler, J. W. (2004). Analogy Use in Eighth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms. Cognition and Instruction, 22(1), 37-60. 4. Richland, L. E., Zur, O., & Holyoak, K. J. (25 May 2007). Cognitive Supports for Analogies in the Mathematics Classroom. SCIENCE, 316, 1128-1129.

Strange patterns in the continued fractions of the error terms of some classical series AUTHOR: Gunnar Nichols

To a convergent series, one may associate Strange patterns in the continued fractions of the error terms of some classical series a sequence of errors which then converges to 0. Professor Feldman has observed unexplained patterns in the convergents of the continued fractions of these errors in the case of certain classical series, such as the Leibniz formula for pi. (One obtains the convergents of the continued fraction of a real number by iteratively: recording the integer part; passing to the reciprocal of the remainder.) Patterns appear as integer sequences that eventually show an intermix of periodic behavior and slowly growing terms. Concerning the classical series, research goals include predicting, for each n, the period, the exceptional terms and the time to stabilization for the nth convergent of the mth error, as m grows. A further goal comprises exposing the generality of the whole phenomena by computation and analysis with a wide variety of series associated with Dirichlet L-functions and zeta functions. The defining formula for the Euler-Mascheroni constant holds particular interest since mathematicians understand so little about its arithmetic. Gunnar Nichols: David Feldman, Department of Mathematics, University of New Hampshire

1

ADVISOR: David Feldman

3

Introduction

To a convergent series one may associate a sequence of errors which then converges to 0. Professor Feldman has observed unexplained patterns in the convergents of the continued fractions of these errors in the case of certain classical series, such as the Leibniz formula for pi. (One obtains the convergents of the continued fraction of a real number by iteratively: recording the integer part; passing to the reciprocal of the remainder.) Patterns appear as integer sequences that eventually show an intermix of periodic behavior and slowly growing terms. Concerning the classical series, research goals include predicting, for each n, the period, the exceptional terms and the time to stabilization for the nth convergent of the mth error, as m grows. A further goal comprises exposing the generality of the whole phenomena by computation and analysis with a wide variety of series associated with Dirichlet L-functions and zeta functions. The defining formula for the Euler-Mascheroni constant holds particular interest since mathematicians understand so little about its arithmetic.

2

Understanding Continued Fractions

A continued fraction is an alternative representation of a real number with respect to it’s partial quotients. It can be expressed in two different, but equivalent, ways. The first, shown in figure a) is the fractional representation, which clearly demonstrates where the name continued fraction comes from. While the second, seen in figure b) simply displays the successive denominators in a sequence. 1 Continued fractions are known for explifying the natural beauty of mathematics. One great example of this is the continued fraction form for e which follows the simple pattern seen below and continues forever.2

4

b)

Again we see a pattern in the a8 column converge in the 2915th row which also follows the aforementioned period of 18. This pattern is peculiar in that as early as the 265th row we see this entire pattern is nearly the same, with the single exception of the row directly proceeding the row highlighted in green, which denotes the a7 column incrementing. The columns converging almost entirely to a sequence of 18 numbers which appears to repeat, but actually slowly changes is common as m becomes very large.

m 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Decimal a0 a1 a2 a3 0.001620 0 617 2 1 0.001545 0 647 2 1 0.001476 0 677 3 67 0.001414 0 707 3 6 0.001356 0 737 3 3 0.001303 0 767 3 2 0.001254 0 797 3 1 0.001209 0 827 3 1 0.001167 0 857 3 1 0.001127 0 887 3 1 0.001090 0 917 4 12 0.001056 0 947 4 4 0.001023 0 977 4 2 0.000993 0 1007 4 2 0.000964 0 1037 4 1 0.000937 0 1067 4 1 0.000911 0 1097 4 1 0.000887 0 1127 5 80 0.000864 0 1157 5 6 0.000842 0 1187 5 3

Future Goals

In fact, as we to continue to investigate when subsequent columns begin to converge, it turns out one must go very far, as by the 50,000th term only one more column converges, while by the 500,000th term only two more columns have converged.

While patterns in sequences of continued fractions are a topic in mathematics that hasn’t been deeply investigated, Its reach is much deeper than just this one equation! The nature of these results has been seen in many other generating equations.

m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ⋮ 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 ⋮ 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 ⋮ 2913 2914 2915 2916 2917 2918 2919 2920 2921 2922 2923 2924 2925 2926 2927 2928 2929 2930 2931 2932 2933

Decimal a0 0.422784335 0 0.229637155 0 0.157505380 0 0.119823307 0 0.096679756 0 0.081024866 0 0.069731329 0 0.061199936 0 0.054528012 0 0.049167496 0 ⋮ ⋮ 0.016574084 0 0.016042326 0 0.015543628 0 0.015074999 0 0.014633801 0 0.014217693 0 0.013824593 0 0.013452646 0 0.013100189 0 0.012765728 0 0.012447920 0 0.012145551 0 0.011857523 0 0.011582840 0 0.011320595 0 0.011069961 0 0.010830185 0 0.010600575 0 0.010380499 0 0.010169375 0 0.009966668 0 0.009771884 0 0.009584567 0 0.009404297 0 0.009230682 0 0.009063362 0 ⋮ ⋮ 0.001885606 0 0.001878521 0 0.001871490 0 0.001864511 0 0.001857584 0 0.001850709 0 0.001843884 0 0.001837109 0 0.001830384 0 0.001823708 0 0.001817080 0 0.001810500 0 0.001803968 0 0.001797483 0 0.001791044 0 0.001784651 0 0.001778304 0 0.001772002 0 0.001765744 0 0.001759530 0 0.001753360 0 ⋮ ⋮ 0.000171635 0 0.000171576 0 0.000171517 0 0.000171458 0 0.000171399 0 0.000171340 0 0.000171282 0 0.000171223 0 0.000171164 0 0.000171106 0 0.000171047 0 0.000170989 0 0.000170930 0 0.000170872 0 0.000170814 0 0.000170755 0 0.000170697 0 0.000170639 0 0.000170581 0 0.000170522 0 0.000170464 0

a1 a2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 2 10 2 12 2 14 2 16 2 18 2 20 2 ⋮ ⋮ 60 2 62 2 64 2 66 2 68 2 70 2 72 2 74 2 76 2 78 2 80 2 82 2 84 2 86 2 88 2 90 2 92 2 94 2 96 2 98 2 100 2 102 2 104 2 106 2 108 2 110 2 ⋮ ⋮ 530 2 532 2 534 2 536 2 538 2 540 2 542 2 544 2 546 2 548 2 550 2 552 2 554 2 556 2 558 2 560 2 562 2 564 2 566 2 568 2 570 2 ⋮ ⋮ 5826 2 5828 2 5830 2 5832 2 5834 2 5836 2 5838 2 5840 2 5842 2 5844 2 5846 2 5848 2 5850 2 5852 2 5854 2 5856 2 5858 2 5860 2 5862 2 5864 2 5866 2

a3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⋮ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⋮ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⋮ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 a13 a14 a15 a16 a17 a18 a19 2 1 4 3 13 5 1 1 8 1 2 4 1 1 40 1 4 1 1 6 1 2 1 9 233 3 1 1 6 5 5 1 6 2 3 11 1 1 4 12 1 196 7 2 1 1 6 1 8 2 1 1 1 57 4 8 6 1 2 2 1 1 5 1 10 2 1 13 4 15 4 2 1 4 1 1 2 1 3 2 12 3 7 14 1 5 2 1 1 5 1 3 1 7 1 67 14 3 3 5 2 73 2 10 2 1 3 3 6 2 1 24 16 3 2 5 2 3 3 3 17 1 1 1 2 7 1 1 18 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 25 1 33 1 22 20 1 1 20 3 1 2 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ 60 4 2 6 1 1 1 2 9 2 1 2 1 4 3 1 62 4 2 12 4 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 6 1 65 1 64 4 2 48 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 47 3 4 66 4 1 1 28 5 2 11 8 1 1 1 8 10 1 18 68 4 1 1 10 1 73 1 3 1 2 5 1 33 1 9 70 4 1 1 6 1 4 1 1 1 12 8 1 4 3 1 72 4 1 1 4 1 18 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 5 6 74 4 1 1 3 1 7 2 3 2 1 14 1 1 4 2 76 4 1 1 3 5 5 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 13 78 4 1 1 2 1 2 2 8 1 10 1 3 2 1 4 80 4 1 1 2 2 1 4 52 1 7 2 3 2 4 3 82 4 1 1 2 11 1 7 5 1 2 1 3 42 1 1 84 4 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 2 1 12 15 3 16 1 86 4 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 103 1 4 1 12 1 4 88 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 2 2 6 2 1 90 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 2 1 4 1 1 2 16 92 4 1 1 1 3 8 17 1 1 8 1 2 2 3 2 94 4 1 1 1 4 2 1 6 5 1 3 1 15 2 6 96 4 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 2 1 21 1 1 3 98 4 1 1 1 12 5 2 1 1 1 12 4 17 2 1 100 4 1 1 1 48 3 1 1 5 1 30 13 3 3 1 102 4 1 2 28 2 1 2 1 27 6 1 1 2 27 2 104 4 1 2 11 78 4 1 3 1 2 1 6 1 1 1 106 4 1 2 6 1 4 1 59 2 1 1 2 1 2 11 108 4 1 2 4 1 20 3 1 6 4 1 4 5 3 1 110 4 1 2 3 1 7 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 6 1 ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ 530 4 1 13 1 12 8 15 6 1 1 12 1 10 1 1 532 4 1 13 1 47 2 4 4 1 6 35 1 2 1 24 534 4 1 14 28 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 1 2 536 4 1 14 11 18 1 2 2 1 3 1 1 9 7 2 538 4 1 14 6 1 5 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 7 74 540 4 1 14 4 1 24 1 1 12 1 2 3 1 4 1 542 4 1 14 3 1 8 105 6 2 1 9 7 6 1 4 544 4 1 14 3 5 20 3 131 1 3 5 3 3 2 5 546 4 1 14 2 1 2 1 1 15 4 1 2 1 1 1 548 4 1 14 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 8 2 550 4 1 14 2 11 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 12 1 47 552 4 1 14 1 1 6 1 1 1 18 1 6 1 2 11 554 4 1 14 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 8 1 3 4 4 556 4 1 14 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 17 1 3 5 558 4 1 14 1 2 2 1 5 1 1 1 3 1 1 8 560 4 1 14 1 3 8 1 1 19 4 1 1 2 1 12 562 4 1 14 1 4 2 1 20 8 1 8 1 3 1 2 564 4 1 14 1 6 1 1 2 3 2 70 1 1 3 28 566 4 1 14 1 12 8 8 204 1 1 1 8 4 1 3 568 4 1 14 1 47 2 3 3 26 2 3 1 2 2 2 570 4 1 15 28 1 1 1 4 1 2 3 11 1 22 2 ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ 5826 4 1 161 28 1 2 2 1 3 38 1 4 1 4 1 5828 4 1 161 11 16 1587 1 1 5 1 1 2 28 2 8 5830 4 1 161 6 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 49 1 2 1 5832 4 1 161 4 1 25 1 2 1 236 4 1 1 1 5 5834 4 1 161 3 1 8 10 643 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 5836 4 1 161 3 5 32 1 359 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 5838 4 1 161 2 1 2 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 121 3 5840 4 1 161 2 2 1 3 1 1 60978 1 2 2 1 1 5842 4 1 161 2 11 1 1 3 6 411 1 24 3 9 3 5844 4 1 161 1 1 6 1 2 11 1 8726 9 2 1 1 5846 4 1 161 1 1 2 3 1 3 4 2693 2 2 3 1 5848 4 1 161 1 1 1 4 1 2 3 2 1 642 5 1 5850 4 1 161 1 2 2 1 5 1 15 109 1 4 2 2 5852 4 1 161 1 3 8 1 1 1 1 3004 1 11 1 3 5854 4 1 161 1 4 2 1 32 1 1 66 1 4 1 1 5856 4 1 161 1 6 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 225 13 1 5858 4 1 161 1 12 9 3932 1 1 55 1 8 1 2 1 5860 4 1 161 1 47 3 1 2 170 10 2 19 3 13 1 5862 4 1 162 28 1 2 2 1 2 1 37 4 12 1 1 5864 4 1 162 11 15 1 1232 153 7 2 2 1 1 1 7 5866 4 1 162 6 1 5 1 2 1 5 31 63 1 1 4

This data was produced and analyzed using Mathematica.

References and Acknowledgements

While this pattern phenomena has been observed, a lot of work still remains towards the complete elucidation of its underlying cause. Professor Feldman believes that there is a strong link between these patterns and the Euler-Maclaurin formula, so a deeper analysis of the pattern’s source series with respect to this formula is the next direct goal for this project. Additionally a more thorough investigation of specifically when further observed sequences begin to appear (beyond the 50,000th term) could have large implications on the fundamental cause for these patterns. The end goal is a formalized theory of why these patterns arise in the very regular way that they do.

This work was supported in part by the CC2CEPS Scholarship with special thanks to Dr. Pazicni and Dr. Greenslade.

1. Van Tuyl, A. (1998, June). Continued Fractions. March, 2017, http://archives.math.utk.edu/articles/atuyl/confrac/index.html 2. Olds, C. D.(1963). Continued Fractions. New York, NY: Random House, Inc. 3. Khinchin, A. Y. (1997). Continued Fractions. Dover Publications. 4. Graham, R. L., Knuth, D. E., & Patashnik, O. (1994). Concrete Mathematics (2nd ed.). MA: Addison-Wesley.

INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS

m Decimal a0 a1 a2 a3 1 0.04280 0 23 2 1 2 0.01970 0 50 1 3 3 0.01256 0 79 1 1 4 0.00918 0 108 1 29 5 0.00722 0 138 1 1 6 0.00594 0 168 3 4 7 0.00505 0 198 8 1 8 0.00439 0 227 1 38 9 0.00388 0 257 1 6 10 0.00347 0 287 1 3 11 0.00315 0 317 1 2 12 0.00288 0 347 1 1 13 0.00265 0 377 1 1 14 0.00245 0 407 1 1 15 0.00229 0 437 1 1 16 0.00214 0 467 2 11 17 0.00201 0 497 2 4 18 0.00190 0 527 2 2 19 0.00179 0 557 2 2 20 0.00170 0 587 2 1

Using the above formula, while successively incrementing m, we can generate the decimals seen in the adjacent table, which correspond to the continued fraction in the same row. Immediately upon inspection of the a1 and a4 columns it is clear that these values follow a deterministic pattern in which the value increments by 2 each row. Curiously as we continue further down more patterns begin to occur in further columns.

Beginning in the 33rd row we can see the a7 column begins to follow a peculiar pattern where the value 1 repeats 18 times, before the next integer, 2, then repeats 18 times, which continues indefinitely. This pattern induces a period of 18 in all subsequent patterns. The first of which converges immediately after in the 35th row, in which the same sequence of 18 numbers is simply repeated: 6,4,1,1,2,…

Patterns from Other Source Series

For any sequence of continued fractions in this form, the a1 column converges to a sequence which grows by 2d each iteration at the integer just above half of d. At precisely this row the adjacent Emergent patterns have also column, a2, also converges to an increasing sequence which repeats an been observed from source integer, starting at 1, the larger half of d series of this form, where successive m’s truncate the times, followed by the next integer, the alternating series of fractions smaller half of d times and so on. a3 appears to exhibits a mixed growing who’s denominators are a periodic pattern which has yet be common distance d apart. completely figured out.

5

a)

Mysterious Patterns

Error Between γ and its Source series


Coronal Mass Ejections: The Relation of Speeds to Shocks During Solar Cycles

ADVISOR: Noe Lugaz

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) play Coronal Mass Ejections: The Relation of Speeds to a major role in the space weather Shocks During Solar Cycles surrounding Earth and the solar system. Thomas Manion, NoĂŠ Lugaz CMEs able to drive shock waves within About Results the ejecta are highly energetic and CME With Shock potentially vary as the Sun passes through periods of maximum and minimum activity. Understanding the CME Shocks: CME Without Shock Qualifying Parameters nature of this class of CME can provide Discussion insight into solar activity during these periods. Shocks are created when the velocity of the CME exceeds the velocity Spacecraft, Solar Activity Data Analysis & Data Range of the magnetosonic speed of the ejecta, Further Work the solar wind speed. Utilizing data from four NASA satellites from the years 1997 Acknowledgements & References to present, we seek to determine whether CMEs drive shocks more frequently at lower velocities during periods of relaxed solar wind. Initial indications show there is not a statistically significant increase in the frequency of CME shocks, in the low velocity regime, during periods of reduced solar wind speeds. It is unknown at this time whether this is normative behavior for expanding CMEs, or as a result of other interactions between the ejecta and the solar wind. Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) play a major role in the space environment surrounding Earth and in the solar system. Some CMEs are able to drive shock waves, which are highly energetic. Their ability to drive shock waves potentially varies as the Sun passes through periods of maximum and minimum activity. Understanding the nature of shock-driving CMEs can provide insight into solar activity during these periods. Shocks are created when the velocity of the CME, in the solar wind frame, exceeds the local magnetosonic speed. Utilizing data from four NASA satellites over the years 1997 to present, we seek to determine whether CMEs drive shocks more frequently at lower velocities during the unusually quiet period of the current solar cycle. Initial indications show no statistically significant increase in the frequency of CME-driven shocks in the low velocity regime during periods of reduced solar wind speeds.

% Events with Shock

Percent

AUTHOR: Thomas Manion

June 27-28, 2013

2

đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ś â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; > đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;

A CME can be identified in spacecraft data as a period of decreased temperature and proton density and an increase in magnetic field. A shock is a sharp increase in all quantities (magnetic field, velocity, density, temperature) simultaneously. These variables plotted over time are clear indicators a CME shock has occurred.

April 11-12, 2014 2

Data in solar cycle 23 was collected by the NASA satellites Wind & ACE. These two satellites are similar in objective and capability, and data from these were used in conjunction during data analysis.

Solar cycle 24 data was acquired from the Wind, ACE and STEREO A & B satellites. We use all four satellites partly because the cycle is incomplete but also because it is weak, and we want to compare similar quantities of CMEs.

97-07 Wind & Ace 08 - Present Wind, Ace, Stereo A & B

Velocity Max (km/s)

CME-driving shocks occur when the difference between CME velocity and upstream solar wind velocity is greater than the local magnetosonic speed (đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC; ), as given by Equation 1:

The Sun oscillates between periods of maximum and minimum activity, following an 11 year cycle. Data for this analysis is taken from the years 19962015. These dates encapsulate two solar cycles, one strong and one weak. The strong solar cycle, solar cycle 23, took place during 1996-2007. Solar cycle 24 is currently a weak solar cycle and passed its solar maximum around 2012.1 Solar minimums, maximums and strengths are determined by sunspot quantity. Strong cycles, including solar maximums, typically consist of more frequent CMEs and solar flares.

80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

96-07: Wind & ACE Events with Shock 163 Total CMEs 313 % Events with Shock 52.1 Velocity Max (km/s) 250-360 361-390 391-430 431-470 471-510 511-560 561-610 611-700 >700

08-Present: Wind, ACE, STEREO A & B Events with Shock 178 Total CMEs 322 % Events with Shock 55.3

% Events w/ Shock 40.0 23.1 20.9 40.8 46.7 60.7 61.5 71.1 71.7

% Events w/ Shock 10.2 22.9 35.6 44.9 45.9 54.2 56.8 67.9 62.5

Velocity Max (km/s) 250-360 361-390 391-430 431-470 471-510 511-560 561-610 611-700 >700

Analysis shows more CMEs driving shocks in the low velocity regime during periods of increased solar wind speeds, contrary to the initial hypothesis. The rate of shocks increases with higher velocity CMEs, as expected.

Initial assumptions supposed CMEs would drive shocks more frequently in low velocity regimes during periods of slow solar wind speeds. However, analysis reveals the opposite. Equation 1 applied to data from solar cycle 23 (1996-07) requires the difference (đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ś - đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; ) be greater than 60 km/s. Current solar cycle 24 requires a difference greater than 40 km/s. Because the magnetosonic speed and the solar wind speed are lower in solar cycle 23 than in cycle 24, the difference given in Equation 1 should be surpassed more frequently due to a lower threshold. Solar cycle 24 is, in general, less active than previous solar maximums, perhaps causing this discrepancy. Another possible source of discrepancy is CME expansion during different cycles. Particles in the front of the CME may have a greater tendency or ability to expand the CME at a rate which surpasses the threshold required to drive a shock.

More study is needed to understand whether these findings are isolated to solar cycles 23 and 24, or a broader trend. A larger quantity of data, or perhaps reassessing the data and imposing greater restrictions on shock qualifications, may yield more informative results.

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ 1. 2.

This project uses data from the Heliospheric Shock Database, generated and maintained at the University of Helsinki. (http://ipshocks.fi/database) This project uses data from the Richardson and Cane Database for Near-Earth Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections generated and maintained at the California Institute of Technology. (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/DATA/level3/icmetable2.htm) CC2CEPS Scholarship Funded by the NSF D. D. H. Hathaway, "Solar Cycle Prediction," NASA, 17 03 2017. [Online]. Available: https://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/predict.shtml. [Accessed 01 04 2017]. D. N. Papitashvili, "OMNIWeb Plus," NASA, 1 02 2017. [Online]. Available: https://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/. [Accessed 01 03 2017].

Sensor Characterization and Signal Fusion for InstantEye AUTHOR: Wyman Smith ADVISOR: Marc Lessard

InstantEye is a high-performance, Sensor Characterization and Signal Fusion for InstantEye low-cost drone developed by Physical Sciences Inc. (Andover, MA) for military and commercial applications. To augment InstantEyeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to navigate in close-quarters around large objects, the viability of a distance sensor payload is investigated by this project. Specifically, the TerraRanger Duo sensor by TerraBee (Saint-Genis-Pouilly, France) houses both an infrared Time-of-Flight rangefinder and a sonar module operating in parallel. The performance of each sensor was independently characterized in terms of valid range, precision, accuracy, and field of view before fusing the signals with a Kalman filter into a consolidated and robust output. The Kalman filter itself statistically averages the two sensor readings with the previously characterized error attributes and the internal state of the system. This introduces some damping of the sensor responsiveness to a dynamic environment; however, it greatly improves the stability and accuracy of the output. Additionally, the relative depth velocity of a target can be approximated by the time rate of change of the distance measurement, and can be accounted for to compensate for this effect in single-target applications. Wyman Smith, Engineering Physics and Electrical Engineering Faculty Advisor: Marc Lessard University of New Hampshire, Durham NH

Introduction

Sensor Characterization - Noise

Gaussian Noise: â&#x20AC;˘ The sensor noise is approximately Gaussian due to the central limit theorem (see Figure 1). Thus, đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; ~ đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; (đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;, đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;) where đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021; is the mean vector and đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; is the covariance matrix of the two sensor measurements.

InstantEye is a high-performance, low-cost drone developed by Physical Sciences Inc. for military and commercial applications. To augment InstantEyeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to navigate in close-quarters around large objects, the viability of a distance sensor payload is investigated by this project. Specifically, the TerraRanger Duo sensor by TerraBee houses both an infrared Time-of-Flight rangefinder and a sonar module operating in parallel. The objectives of this project are as follows:

Calculating Covariance Matrix [*]:

đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;(đ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2018;ż, đ?&#x2019;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2019;&#x20AC;) =

1. Sensor Characterization: Characterize the TerraRanger Duo sensor performance with metrics such as valid range, precision, accuracy, and field of view. 2. Kalman Filter Design: Fuse sensor signals and estimate target velocity. 3. Signal Fusion Tuning: Expand on the filter to minimize sources of error by incorporating observed sensor characteristics.

đ?&#x2019;?đ?&#x2019;?

đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? ŕ´Ľ)(đ?&#x2019;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2019;&#x20AC;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x161;đ?&#x2019;&#x161; ŕ´Ľ) ŕˇ?(đ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2018;żđ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; đ?&#x2019;?đ?&#x2019;? â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

State Equations: State: Measurement:

State: Error Covariance:

Distance Resolution: â&#x20AC;˘ Sensor outputs a serial stream of distance data in binary format.

(mm) Min

Infrared 5

Sonar 10

Polling Frequency: â&#x20AC;˘ Updates are received asynchronously through serial communication; the spread is likely a function of data buffering.

(Hz) Min Max

Infrared 19 1000

Sonar 0.70 1.05

Field of View: â&#x20AC;˘ IR detects in narrow conical beam. â&#x20AC;˘ Sonar detect small objects in wide area.

(deg) Mean

Infrared 5

Sonar 30

The previous vanilla Kalman filter offers a simple and computationally efficient solution to the sensor fusion problem. The weighting of each sensor input is set in part by the previously determined measurement covariance, however adding conditional and time-varying corrections to this weighting solves some issues.

Kalman Filter Design

Sensor System Model: State: đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2019;&#x2026;đ?&#x2019;&#x2026;đ?&#x2019;&#x2026;đ?&#x2019;&#x2026; đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨ = , đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; = đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + đ?&#x2018;Šđ?&#x2018;Šđ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; + đ?&#x2019;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2019;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; = đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; + đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;

Time Update Equations:

Sensor Characterization

Signal Fusion Tuning

đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;=đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

Measurement Update Equations: Gain: State: Error Covariance:

ŕˇ?đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;

ࡥ đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇ

đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Ż =

ŕˇ?đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; = đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨ŕˇ? đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + đ?&#x2018;Šđ?&#x2018;Šđ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; = đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;¨đ?&#x2018;ťđ?&#x2018;ť + đ?&#x2018;¸đ?&#x2018;¸

đ??&#x160;đ??&#x160; đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; = đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;ťđ?&#x2018;ť đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;ťđ?&#x2018;ť + đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š ŕˇ?đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; = đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; ŕˇ?â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; + đ?&#x2018;˛đ?&#x2018;˛đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; (đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Żŕˇ? đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; ) đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; = đ?&#x2018;°đ?&#x2018;° â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;˛đ?&#x2018;˛đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; đ?&#x2018;Żđ?&#x2018;Ż đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x2013;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;

đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; (đ?&#x2018;¸đ?&#x2018;¸)

ŕˇ?â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;

đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; , đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;

Error: đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018; đ?&#x2019;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2019;&#x2DC; ~ đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľ đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;, đ?&#x2018;¸đ?&#x2018;¸ , đ?&#x2019;&#x2018;đ?&#x2019;&#x2018; đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014; ~ đ?&#x2018;ľđ?&#x2018;ľ đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;, đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š ,

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?

đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;

Initialization: đ?&#x2019;&#x203A;đ?&#x2019;&#x203A; (đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;?) đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; = đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; , đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; (đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š)

ࡥ đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇ

ࡥ đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇ

đ?&#x2018;Šđ?&#x2018;Š = đ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D;,

đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122; =

đ?&#x2019;&#x2026;đ?&#x2019;&#x2026;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160;đ?&#x2019;&#x160; . đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;đ?&#x2019;&#x2014;

đ?&#x2018;¸đ?&#x2018;¸ = đ?&#x2019;&#x201E;đ?&#x2019;&#x201E; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;°đ?&#x2018;°. đ?&#x2018;šđ?&#x2018;š = đ?&#x2019;&#x201D;đ?&#x2019;&#x201D;đ?&#x2019;&#x201D;đ?&#x2019;&#x201D;đ?&#x2019;&#x201D;đ?&#x2019;&#x201D; [â&#x2C6;&#x2014;] .

đ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x2018;ˇđ?&#x;&#x17D;đ?&#x;&#x17D; = đ?&#x2018;°đ?&#x2018;°.

Conditional Measurement Covariance: â&#x20AC;˘ Compile a database of covariance matrices from experimental data and apply the one appropriate for the given a priori state. (đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; â&#x2020;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; |đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľŕˇ&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ) Disable Measurements Outside Valid Range: â&#x20AC;˘ The sonar range caps at 7.65 meters, and the IR range wraps if it goes past 14 meters. Block sensor measurements when reading outside their valid range.

Decrease Sonar Weight Until Next Update: â&#x20AC;˘ The sonar has a much slower poling frequency than the IR sensor. Reduce the weight of its hold-sample, inversely proportional to the a priori velocity.

ŕˇ?đ?&#x2019;&#x152;đ?&#x2019;&#x152; đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;đ?&#x2019;&#x2122;

Figure 2: Kalman Filter Block Diagram

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS

Material: â&#x20AC;˘ Highly reflective or transparent surfaces cause the infrared sensor to yield invalid measurements. The sonar has difficulty with anechoic geometries. Target Velocity: â&#x20AC;˘ The velocity of the target has no discernable effect on accuracy. Range: â&#x20AC;˘ Beyond the valid range for the sonar, the output locks at 7.65 m. â&#x20AC;˘ Beyond the valid range for the IR, the distances wrap back to zero. This is an aliasing artifact cause by the Time-ofFlight pulse rate. â&#x20AC;˘ IR slightly overshoots, Sonar slightly undershoots distance. (m) Min Max

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE

Infrared 0.20 14.0

Sonar 0.20 7.65

Figure 4: Tuned Kalman Filter Arbitrary Distance and Velocity State Comparison with Sensor Inputs Kalman | Sonar | Infrared

Figure 3: Basic Kalman Filter Arbitrary Distance and Velocity State Comparison with Sensor Inputs Kalman | Sonar | Infrared

Figure 1: Sensor Measurement Samples at 2 Meters As Roughly Gaussian Probability Distributions Sonar | Infrared | Exact

Distance (top): â&#x20AC;˘ Kalman filter directly follows the distance measurement. â&#x20AC;˘ Estimate quickly converges to average distance when not moving. â&#x20AC;˘ Low polling rate of sonar affects accuracy or filter output.

Velocity (bottom): â&#x20AC;˘ Velocity is defined positive increasing away from sensor. â&#x20AC;˘ IR sensor has a lot of high frequency noise. â&#x20AC;˘ Filter still manages to extract meaningful velocity information, although not very precise.

Verdict: The new filtered signal uses the frequent updates of the IR sensor to give a more realistic interpretation of the distance at any point in time, and realigns itself with the sonar when an update is available. The velocity signal also has greater detail and is not bounded to the low-resolution sonar signal as it was before.

References

[1] Welch, G., & Bishop, G. (1995). An introduction to the Kalman filter. [2] Kalman, R. E. (1960). A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems. Journal of basic Engineering, 82(1), 35-45. [3] Faragher, Ramsey (2012). Understanding the basis of the kalman filter via a simple and intuitive derivation [lecture notes]. IEEE Signal processing magazine, 29, 128-132. [4] Einicke, G. A. (2012). Smoothing, filtering and prediction: estimating the past, present and future. InTech. [5] Labbe, R. R. (2015). Kalman and bayesian filters in python. [6] Terejanu, G. (2008). Crib sheet: Linear Kalman smoothing.


Modification and Application of a 3-D Printer for a Nuclear Physics Lab AUTHOR: Nicholas Lajoie ADVISORS: Elena Long Karl Slifer

The process through which ideas are transformed into tangible objects has been revolutionized by the creation of the 3D Printer. The incentive of using a 3D printer in a Nuclear Physics Lab allows for the creation of tools which can withstand extreme environments such as high irradiation and cryogenic temperatures. Although the printer began as a Prusa i3 Assembly kit, due to the open-source nature of 3D printing, modifications and upgrades such as a second extruder, cooling units, and an automatic bed level were added to vastly expand the assembly kit’s printing limitations. The printer successfully printed non-magnetic tools, to-scale prototypes and printer parts out of PETG, PLA, and conducting graphene infused PLA. In the future the printer will be used to create a polarizable target stick cup chamber out of Teflon-like fluoroplastic.

Data Analysis of IBEX-Lo Energy Steps 1, 2, 3 and 4 for Neutral Interstellar He AUTHOR: Eric Bower ADVISOR: Eberhard Moebius

We determined the position of the bulk flow of interstellar neutral Helium at Earth’s orbit using observations of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), We used the count integrated count rates observed in energy steps 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the IBEX-Lo sensor during the years 2009 - 2016. The ecliptic longitude of the maximum of these rates determines a fixed relation between the interstellar flow speed and direction through the trajectory of neutral Helium in the Sun’s gravitational field. The temperature and speed of the neutral Helium can be deduced from this position and angular spread of the bulk flow of Interstellar neutrals. By using all four energy steps a more accurate knowledge of the bulk flow position is achieved and thus a decrease in the uncertainty of the interstellar parameters, such as the bulk flow vector and as temperature. This also improves our understanding of the Heliosphere.

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Eddy Flux Data Analysis of Four Durham Area Ecosystems AUTHOR: Patrick Hampson

Local and global climate is impacted by land management practices and Eddy Flux Data Analysis of Four Durham-Area Ecosystems Methods periodic changes in cover because of Background consequential deviations in CO2, water vapor and energy exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. The most common technique for administering Results these ecosystems is with eddy flux towers Theory which collect measurements within the boundary layer above land surfaces of interest. These towers are run under the procedures of the eddy covariance method which calculates fluxes by measuring wind velocity, air temperature Conclusion and molecular concentrations. A primary limitation is that when insufficient eddies form during conditions of laminar flow, a negligible amount of fluxes are measured. The current standard solution to this issue is to filter out these data with a friction velocity parameter or ustar threshold. An implementation of a change-point detection method for determining threshold values is shown here on a three-year collection by a cluster of local towers which broadly represents New Hampshire landscapes forest, cornfield, hayfield and impervious surface. This projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal was to assess the use of ustar filtering on these data, with a broader objective of investigating climate impacts due to New Englandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current land management practices. Patrick M Hampson

Department of Physics University of New Hampshire

New Hampshire Landscapes

Understanding the dynamics of molecular exchange between variable land cover types and the atmosphere.

ADVISORS: David Mattingly Andrew Ouimette

UNH Earth Systems Research Center â&#x20AC;˘ Eddy Flux Network (January 2014-) Land Management â&#x20AC;˘ Atmospheric measurement system â&#x20AC;˘ Climate impacts/response Instrumentation â&#x20AC;˘ Wind velocity, air temperature & molecular concentrations (10Hz) Limitations â&#x20AC;˘ Low turbulent periods â&#x20AC;˘ Land cover and weather determination â&#x20AC;˘ Losses via advection Solution Implementation â&#x20AC;˘ Ustar (friction velocity) Filtering

Kingman Hayfield, Madbury, NH

Thompson Forest (mixed), Durham, NH

West Edge Parking (impervious), Durham, NH

If eddy covariance requires turbulence to accurately measure fluxes within the boundary layer, then how can data collected over all time periods be filtered appropriately?

Moore Cornfield, Durham, NH

Preliminary Filters

Eddy Covariance: widely-used atmospheric technique for measuring and calculating vertical turbulent fluxes '()* '+

(I)

(III)

Change-Point

(IV)

(I): time rate of change of quantity đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; (II): atmospheric transport (III): molecular diffusion (IV): Source/sink contributions to the system

Special Cases

) đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; = 1 Ă + đ?&#x203A;ťđ?&#x203A;ť đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018; = 0 '+ [dry air mass continuity] 1. Fully diffused, no source/sink

2.

đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; = đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘i (wind velocity component) Ă [momentum conservation] 1. w & u& : eddy covariance term

3. 4.

[đ?&#x153;&#x2021;đ?&#x153;&#x2021;moles/m2s]

Kingman

Moore

Thompson

West Edge

Growing

Day

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.07

Night

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.12

NonGrowing

Day

0.03

0.00

0.01

0.00

Night

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.01

Impact of Filtering on Average Carbon Flux Values (Percent Difference)

'(

1.

Error Plot (Kingman Hayfield)

Absolute Carbon Flux Value Change

Ustar Threshold Values

+ đ?&#x203A;ťđ?&#x203A;ť đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; + đ??žđ??žđ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; Î&#x201D;(đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x2018;&#x2018;đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; ) = Sđ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; (II)

Objective â&#x20AC;˘ Change-Point Detection â&#x20AC;˘ Piece-wise â&#x20AC;˘ Critical xc (Ustar threshold) Mathematica Loop â&#x20AC;˘ Global solver â&#x20AC;˘ Minimum error: ideal threshold

â&#x20AC;˘

Kingman Hayfield: 0.14 m/s Moore Cornfield: 0.14 m/s Thompson Forest: 0.3 m/s West Edge Parking Lot: 0.14 m/s

within atmospheric boundary layers (Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), heat, latent heat) â&#x20AC;˘ Must decompose as: đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; = đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; Ě&#x2026; + đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; & Ă Conservation equation:

Preliminary â&#x20AC;˘ Collected data (2014, 2015, 2016) â&#x20AC;˘ Filtering â&#x20AC;˘ Quality value â&#x20AC;˘ Day/night â&#x20AC;˘ Growing/non-growing season â&#x20AC;˘ Temperature

'7 8 9& = ':

0

Turbulent transport

LICOR

8 8

'( 7 A B đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; = đ?&#x153;&#x2019;đ?&#x153;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  (molar mixing ratio) Ă  ) = đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;Dđ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ': 1. Active/passive tracer source term 2. Active (ozone,VOCs, NOx): non-zero source 3. Passive (water vapor, CO2): zero source

đ?&#x153; đ?&#x153; = đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? pđ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192; (air enthalpy) Ă 1.

Aubinet et al., 2012

'7&H& ':

I 'L (JK ':

= D

Radiative flux divergence â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0 if no fog, rain or smoke

Collective Assumptions/Requirements 1. Boundary layer above land of interest (few tens of meters) 2. Turbulent flux: net vertical transfer via eddies 3. Horizontal/uniform terrain

Practical Formula đ??šđ??š â&#x2030;&#x2C6; đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;Dđ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤

Growing Season

Ideal Landscape

Smoke

Non-Growing Season

LICOR

Complex Situations for Traditional Methods

Fog/rain

Active tracer production

1. Ustar filtering has the potential to drastically impact results

2. Errors are due to non-ideal conditions

â&#x20AC;˘ Improvement via more robust filtering â&#x20AC;˘ Improvement via controls

3. Improved filtering techniques can enhance current mapping of ecosystem flux and climate predictions

My most sincere thanks to my advisors David Mattingly and Andrew Ouimette for their countless hours of patience, advice and unconditional support.

Thermometry in a DNP system AUTHOR: Tristan Anderson

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS

ADVISORS: Elena Long Karl Slifer

This research focuses on calibrating thermometers in a low temperature environment by relying on temperature dependent Allen Bradley resistors that follow a known temperatureto-resistance curve. The current thermometry used in the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) system are mounted to a super-conducting solenoid. Each thermometer mounted on the solenoid is a low wattage Allen Bradley 120-ohm resistor that outperforms the former high wattage, high resistance thermometers that took inaccurate measurements below liquid nitrogen temperatures. Accuracy in temperature is important to this system as readings are used in real-time to determine if the solenoid is in a superconducting state. Thermometry calibration runs at room (290K), liquid nitrogen (77K), and liquid helium (4K) temperatures were conducted in December 2016 using LabVIEW to record the data. Data was analyzed using a program written in Python, which found hour-long ranges of stable data for each resistor at known temperatures then determined their average and standard deviation. These values were used to obtain the general form lnR+C/lnR = A + B/T. The calibration for each sensor was created from this analysis and will be presented.

2017UNDERGRADUATERESEARCHCONFERENCE


Possible correlations between electromagnetic signals and seismic activity during 2008 Svalbard earthquake and aftershock sequence

ADVISOR: Marc Lessard

On 21 February, 2008, 02:46 UTC, a 6.0+ magnitude earthquake occurred with an epicenter off the south-east coast of Svalbard, Norway. Here possible correlations are explored between electromagnetic signals and seismic activity (SA) that appear during the pre, co, and post-seismic stages of that earthquake sequence. Anomalous UltraLow Frequency (ULF) magnetic signals observed from Longyearbyen station are compared to seismic data from regional observation stations to determine temporal correlation between events. A database of ULF events was generated and a ULF signal possibly correlated with SA was characterized; the signal was observed prominently in the extensive aftershock sequence of 2008 as well as similar ULF signals during the preparation phase of the Svalbard earthquake. These results are preliminary but suggest a lithospheric origin for the ULF signals which may be a potential precursory indicator of earthquakes. Possible correlations between electromagnetic signals and seismic activity during 2008 Svalbard earthquake and aftershock sequence Poster by: Tyler Chapman

Abstract

Advisor: Dr. Marc Lessard

ULF Signature of Earthquake

On 21 February, 2008, 02:46 UTC, a 6.0+ magnitude earthquake occurred with an epicenter off the south-east coast of Svalbard, Norway. Here possible correlations are explored between electromagnetic signals and seismic activity (SA) that appear during the pre, co, and post-seismic stages of that earthquake sequence. Anomalous Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) magnetic signals observed from Longyearbyen station are compared to seismic data from regional observation stations to determine temporal correlation between events. A database of ULF events was generated and a ULF signal possibly correlated with SA was characterized; the signal was observed prominently in the extensive aftershock sequence of 2008 as well as similar ULF signals during the preparation phase of the Svalbard earthquake. These results are preliminary but suggest a lithospheric origin for the ULF signals which may be a potential precursory indicator of earthquakes.

ULF Event Characteristics X-axis

Day of earthquake

 Characterized from a database of 158 observed ULF events  Mean amplitude: 0.019 nT/sec (range from 0.01 to 0.04 nT/sec)  Mean duration: 64.3 min (range from 6 to 412 min)

Y-axis

 Low frequency, high power centered at 0.02 Hz (second band at 0.07 Hz)  Prominent activity in x-axis with relatively higher frequency dB/dt  Occasional rising/falling characteristic from 0.01 Hz to 0.09 Hz band

UFL Aftershock Events

2/25

2/26

4/27

5/8

February 21, 2008 Earthquake

Earthquake magnitude 6.0+

Epicenter ~120 km from ULF station at Longyearbyen (LYR)

The physical phenomenon capable of producing coseismic magnetic fields are:

60 km

SPITS (SPI) Seismic Station

Non-physical anomaly

Earthquake Epicenter

I. Motional induction II. Electrokinetic effects III. Pieziomagnetic effects 

Observed by search-coil magnetometers (right) at LYR

Only observe magnetometer response to the earthquake in x-axis in LYR

Strong North-South trend in the local fault lines

Earthquake seen by many regional ULF stations 

January 18, 2007

Y-axis

X-axis

N

Svalbard

S

LAFZ fault responsible for main earthquake and the majority of the aftershock sequence

Maria Blinova, Jan Inge Faleide, Roy H. Gabrielsen, and Rolf Mjelde1 (2015), Analysis of structural trends of subsea-floor strata in the Isfjorden area of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt based on multichannel seismic data, Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 170, 2013, pp. 657–668. doi: 10.1144/jgs2012-109

Seismic Activity Around Earthquake

Trend of ULF Events

Conclusions

 We observed a ULF signature in the co-seismic period at multiple ULF stations on Svalbard

Histogram of Aftershock Sequence versus ULF Events

80

2/19

2/20

2/21

70

2/22

60

Number of Events

AUTHOR: Tyler Chapman

ULF Data gap

End of ULF Dataset (Seismic events continue)

40

 ULF events were found preceding as well as following aftershocks

 ULF events were observed in only the x-axis in LYR and were fairly uniform in characteristics

30

 Seismic events appear in much larger number than ULF events

20

10

0

Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), www.norsardata.no

ULF Events

50

Above: Waveform plots form SPI station (2-8 Hz filter). These are absolute magnitude plots. Below: Helicorder plots from SPI station (capturing 0.1-0.033 Hz motion). These record relative magnitude and aid in event identification.

Aftershocks

Days After Earthquake

 ~20 ULF events, similar to those in post-seismic period, were observed in pre-seismic period two months prior to earthquake

Future Work

 Expand range of ULF dataset

 Compare to other seismic stations and ULF stations in the region  Generate code to automatically identify events form larger ULF database  Investigate precursor ULF events as potential predictor of seismic activity

Acknowledgement: Thank you to my advisor, Dr. Marc Lessard, and the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Research Laboratory (MIRL) for facilitating this research. We also wish to thank Dr. Myrto Pirli of NORSAR for providing us with a database of the 2008 Svalbard aftershock event sequence.

PHYSICS/MATHEMATICS INTERDISCIPLINARYSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGSYMPOSIUM


Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium

unh.edu/urc/ise

Profile for UNH URC ISE

2017 URC ISE Abstracts  

Abstracts and posters from the 2017 University of New Hampshire Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering...

2017 URC ISE Abstracts  

Abstracts and posters from the 2017 University of New Hampshire Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering...

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