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Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium

Spring 2018

Undergraduate Research Conference

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS


Undergraduate Research Conference Interdisciplinary Science & Engineering Symposium Acknowledgements Event Sponsors BAE Systems College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space The Joan and James Leitzel Center for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education

Award Sponsors American Rail Engineers College of Engineering & Physical Sciences College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Advisory Board College of Engineering & Physical Sciences Alumni Society College of Life Sciences & Agriculture Department of Chemical Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of Computer Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium The Joan and James Leitzel Center for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education UNH Information Technology UNH Interoperability Laboratory

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Planning Committee Co-Chairs: Carole Berry (Office of the Dean, CEPS) and Tara Hicks Johnson (CCOM) Committee Members: Orly Buchbinder (Mathematics & Statistics), Eshan Dave (Civil & Environmental Engineering), Majid Ghayoomi (Civil & Environmental Engineering), Stephan Hale (Leitzel Center), Ningyu Liu (Physics), Rich Messner (Electrical & Computer Engineering), Ivo Nedyalkov (Mechanical Engineering), Riannon Nute (CEPS CaPS), Roy Planalp (Chemistry), Collette Powers (Computer Science), Anthony Puntin (Civil & Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering), Adam St. Jean (Chemical Engineering), Rachel Stansfield (CEPS Development), Ruth Varner (Earth Sciences), Stephanie Whitney (CEPS CaPS), Wil Wollheim (COLSA)


Undergraduate Research Conference 2018

Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Symposium ABSTRACTS

Table of Contents

Judging Group

Pages

Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Chemical Engineering/Bioengineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-29 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Innovation & Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-34 Civil & Environmental Engineering-Investigation & Assessment . . . . . . . . 35-39 Computer Science-Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-44 Computer Science-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-49 Computer Science-Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-53 Earth Sciences/Environmental Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-59 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Hardware Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-64 Electrical & Computer Engineering-Software/System Design . . . . . . . . . . 65-71 Mechanical Engineering-Competition Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-76 Mechanical Engineering-Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-80 Mechanical Engineering-Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-84 Ocean Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-88 Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89-94

unh.edu/urc/ise


Mary Sherman – Honors Thesis, Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems, Joanne Burke - Ph.D. , RD, LD Clinical Associate Professor

The “Healthy Me, Healthy Earth� program was an eight week after-school program for first through fourth graders at the Woodman Park Elementary School in Dover, NH conducted during the Fall of 2017. The program used a cost-effective, food system-based curriculum to promote health and environmental literacy to students who participated. An interdisciplinary approach was used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral changes of the students. There was a noted improvement in comprehension of food system concepts.

Food System Education

Change in attitude

New perspectives formed

Shift in behavior

Healthier, more sustainable world

Figure 2: The Education Objectives represent the changes in knowledge, attitude, and behavior that were monitored in order to evaluate the effectiveness this program. The ultimate goal of food system education is to improve and sustain both the health of the population and the health of the earth 3.

â–Ş Identified need for elementary-level food

A comparison of student response from start to end of program (n=20)

â–Ş Designed curriculum informed by

Graph 1: Food & Nutrition Outcomes

Students develop leadership skills

Sharing of knowledge

Students contribute to cooperative learning1, 2

30%

% Change

17%

Image 3: Students raced against each other in the activity “Recycle Relay.� Teams attempted to correctly organize trash into recycling, trash, and compost bins.

28%

20%

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% Change

â–Ş

Graph 2: Sustainability Outcomes

22%

10%

â–Ş

17%

The “Healthy Me, Healthy Earth� program was effective in reaching its goals. This curriculum has the potential to further develop food system education in the following ways:

â–Ş Allow students to gain hands-on,

practical knowledge of nutrition and the food system

â–Ş Provide an environment for student

Facilitator-student co-learning

0%

â–Ş â–Ş

cooperative learning model 1 Developed corresponding evaluation tactics Received approval from the following: â–Ş UNH Institutional Research Board (#6765) â–Ş Dover Board of Education Acquired guardian/parental consent, followed by student assent Collected and evaluated data through qualitative and quantitative content analyses

30%

system education

10%

ADVISOR: Joanne Burke

The “Healthy Me, Healthy Earth� program Elementary School Students’ Reaction to a was an eight week after-school program Food System-Based After-School Program located in Dover, NH that ran from Education Objectives Abstract September 2017 to November 2017. The program utilized a food-systems based curriculum to evaluate the knowledge and health literacy of the students grades Methods Measurable Outcomes one through four who attended this Implications after-school program. The curriculum design is cost-effective and can be easily replicated in various educational Content-Process Model settings. Objectives relating to nutrition, environment, agriculture, sustainability, and student behavior were measured throughout the duration of this program using the knowledge-attitude-behavior model. The data was studied through a mix of qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The project faced various challenges relating to student behavior, program management, school closures, and program duration. There were noted improvements in student willingness to try new foods and ability to explain the nutritional quality of their favorite foods. There was also a greater desire to learn about environmentalism and sustainability from the students after the completion of the program. The “Healthy Me, Healthy Earth� program was effective in reaching its overarching goals and can be used as a tool for educators to use in their own lesson plans. Students build capacity for sharing

0%

AUTHOR: Mary Sherman

Improvement in Response Consumes fruit and vegetables daily

Improvement in Response Positive response to growing plants Identifies importance of recycling

Willing to try new foods

Discovery of aptitudes

Students gain knowledge

cooperation and leadership

â–Ş Produce an inexpensive and effective program that can be easily replicated

â–Ş Help to create a community that is both environmentally aware and health-conscious

â–Ş Inspire more children to pursue the

Critical thinking

concept of sustainability

References

Image 2: Students tend to and take ownership of Sprout and Grow Window™ Kits.

Image 1: Students classified different foods as “healthy�, “sometimes� , or “in-between�.

Food & Nutrition

Figure 1: The Content-Process Model illustrates how the facilitator propagates the different focus areas for students to cultivate a shared learning experience.

Sustainability

There was an increase in student willingness to try new foods and a higher reported daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The students were also able to properly categorize foods based on nutritional quality.

Students were more able to state why recycling is important. A greater interest in growing plants was expressed by the group. The Sprout and Grow Window™ Kits acted as a learning tool to promote leadership and independence.

1. Garrett T. Student-centered and teacher-centered classroom management: A case study of three elementary teachers. The Journal of Classroom Interaction. 2008;43(1):34-47. 2: Piaget J. The language and thought of the child: Volume 5. New York, Humanities Press. 1959. 3.Bettinghaus EP. Health promotion and the knowledge-attitude-behavior continuum. Preventive Medicine. 1986;15(5):475-491.

Acknowledgements

The "Healthy Me, Healthy Earth" program was funded in part by a grant from the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation’s Charles and Caroline B. Greenfield Fund. The research was not funded by an external source. Overall project encouragement and support from Stacy Kearns and staff from the Osman Community Center and The Woodman Park Elementary School

Metabolic Engineering of Polyamines in Rice: Their Role in Drought and Salt Tolerance Anna C. Haber,1 đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’đ??’ đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€đ??€,đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? and Subhash C. Minocha2 of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences and 2Department of Biological Sciences University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Background

� Polyamines (PAs) - putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) - are nitrogenous molecules which play major physiological roles in abiotic stress [1]. � The PA biosynthetic pathway is regulated by several enzymes (Fig. 1). The effects of increasing Spd concentration in rice have not been previously studied. � Polyamines often increase in plants under drought stress conditions, suggesting that the ability to increase cellular PA content is an indicator of stress tolerance [2]. � It has been demonstrated that increasing cellular PA concentrations by genetic engineering or exogenous application has the potential to increase abiotic stress tolerance in several plant species including rice and its relatives – wheat, barley and corn [3].

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Fig. 1 Abbreviated pathway for the biosynthesis of polyamines. Enzymes are: ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; ADC, arginine decarboxylase; SAMDC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; SPDS, spermidine synthase; SPMS, spermine synthase.

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Fig. 3 Spermidine contents of control, drought, and salt treated plants (recovery periods started on day 5 for drought and day 9 for salt). Control Spd was significantly higher on day 0; drought on day 10; 200 mM salt on day 12; and 300 mM salt on days 9 and 14 than other days.

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Fig. 6 Total protein contents under abiotic stress and recovery (started day 5 for drought and day 9 for salt) as quantified by the Bradford assay [8]. * indicates significant difference from the control.

Spermidine Within Rice Leaves

Putrescine Within Rice Leaves

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Results and Discussion â?– Drought plants were significantly stressed after 5 days of treatment, but recovered well during 5 days of watering (Fig. 10). Plant height was significantly lower for the drought plants than the control on day 5, the zero day for recovery (Fig. 5). Total protein content was significantly higher for drought than control plants on day 3 (Fig. 6). â?– Salt-treated plants did not appear stressed during the treatment period; furthermore, plant height (Fig. 5) was not significantly affected by salt treatment. For 300 mM salt, total protein content was significantly higher than the control on day 9; for 200 mM salt, there were no significant differences from the control (Fig. 6). â?– Generally, PAs were at their highest concentrations during the period of recovery, from both drought and salt. For both salt treatments, concentrations of all PAs increased sharply at the beginning of the recovery period, then decreased as time progressed. â?– Spermine has previously been found [7] to be involved in long-term recovery from drought (20 days). These results suggest that all three PAs may be involved in short-term recovery as well. Alternately, the restoration of nonstress conditions may spur a sudden increase in overall cellular biosynthesis. â?– There were no significant differences in PA contents between the stress treatments and the control at any time during the treatments, which is different from previous work [2,3,7] showing increased PAs under stress as compared to non-stressed controls. â?– This may be due to the short period of water- and salt-stress treatment used in the present study. â?– In the three young leaves of 3-week-old non-stressed plants, PA contents varied among the leaf tip, mid-blade, base of blade, and sheath portion (Figs. 7-9). â?– The youngest two leaves were mostly homogeneous, with no differences among leaf parts in Put (Fig. 7), Spd (Fig. 8), and Spm (Fig. 9). â?– In the third-youngest leaf, the tip always had significantly higher PAs than the sheath. The mid-blade and tip had higher Put and Spd than the sheath, lower Put/Spd than the tip, or both (Figs. 7-8), while Spm was more homogeneous (Fig. 9). â?– In general, the rice leaf is heterogeneous with respect to PA contents. Mixing leaf sections in stress experiment sampling may have skewed the results.

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Fig. 5 Height of control, drought, and salt treated plants, as measured from the soil surface to the tip of the longest leaf (recovery periods started on day 5 for drought and day 9 for salt). * indicates significant difference from the control.

nmol/g FW

Recovery

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Total Protein

12

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nmol/g FW

Sowing

â?– Rice plants (VNS, Hancock Seed Company) were germinated in 8.5-cm pots and grown for 19 days to at least four-leaf stage in Turface MVPÂŽ (Turface Athletics). â?– Drought treatment: Water was withheld. Shoot samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3. Recovery was initiated on day 5, and samples taken on days 5, 8, and 10. â?– Salt treatment: Pots were saturated with 200 mM or 300 mM sodium chloride solution. Samples were taken on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. Recovery was initiated on day 9, and samples taken on days 9, 12, and 14. â?– Control: Pots were saturated with tap water. Samples were taken as for salt, but without the recovery phase. â?– Because the rice leaf is long and morphologically heterogeneous, four parts of the leaf (tip, mid-blade, base, and sheath) were tested for differing PA contents in plants at various developmental phases, and leaves of various ages. Data presented are from 3-week-old plants. â?– Samples were collected in 5% perchloric acid for PAs and phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) for proteins. â?– All samples were analyzed by HPLC for Put, Spd, and Spm contents [6] and by the Bradford method [8] for total protein. Plant height was measured from the soil surface to tip of the longest leaf. â?– The PA, protein, and plant height data were analyzed in JMP via the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test and paired student t-tests, depending on the distribution of each dataset. Various time points were compared to each other within each treatment, and on each time point, each treatment was compared to the control group.

Day 5

Drought

Fig. 4 Spermine contents of control, drought, and salt treated plants (recovery periods started on day 5 for drought and day 9 for salt). Control Spm was significantly higher on days 0-3; drought on day 10; 200 mM salt on day 12; and 300 mM salt on days 9 and 1.

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Spermine under Abiotic Stress

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Plant Height under Abiotic Stress

ď ľ To quantify the total shoot PA contents of drought-stressed, salt-stressed, and untreated rice seedlings to get a basic understanding of PA metabolism in rice during stress, and provide a baseline for future studies. ď ľ To manipulate cellular spermidine contents via genetic engineering using cloned spermidine synthase (SPDS) and other PA biosynthetic genes.

Day 5

Drought

Fig. 2 Putrescine contents of control, drought, and salt treated plants (recovery periods started on day 5 for drought and day 9 for salt). Control Put was significantly higher on days 0, 5, and 7; drought on day 10; 200 mM salt on days 12, 1, and 5; and 300 mM salt on days 1, 9, and 12 than other days.

Spermidine under Abiotic Stress

Objectives

Stress Testing

Putrescine under Abiotic Stress

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nmol/g FW

Abstract Abiotic stresses are important constraints on crop productivity. Paddy-grown rice is particularly susceptible to drought and salt stress, which have negative effects on carbon and nitrogen intake thus limiting plant growth and grain yield. Polyamines (PAs), mainly putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are important molecules in plant metabolism and have been implicated in abiotic stress responses, both as protectors of plants from stress and preparing the plant for tolerance of stress. This has led to genetic manipulation of PA metabolism aimed at improving drought and salt tolerance in rice and several other crops. Prior to genetic manipulation of the PA biosynthetic genes in order to produce a multi-stress-tolerant plant, we profiled the response of a commercial rice variety to drought and salt stress in terms of changes in growth and PA content. We found that PAs may be involved in recovery from stress, but leaf contents of PAs during stress appear to fluctuate widely. To minimize sampling errors, we also studied differences in PA contents among different parts of the long, morphologically heterogeneous rice leaf. The PA contents were significantly higher in the leaf blade than the sheath, which may have affected our abiotic stress results. The results will help us plan future strategies of transgenic rice plants with modified PA metabolism, which will ultimately increase scientific understanding of abiotic stress tolerance for plant improvement.

nmol/g FW

1Department

mg/g FW

ADVISOR: Subhash Minocha

Metabolic Engineering of Polyamines in Rice: Their Role in Drought and Salt Tolerance Abiotic stresses are major constraints on crop yield. Rice is especially sensitive to drought and salt, which decrease carbon and nitrogen intake thus limiting plant growth. Polyamines (PAs), mainly putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are important molecules in plants and are involved in abiotic stress response, both in protecting plants from stress and preparing plants for stress tolerance. This has led to genetic manipulation of PA levels aimed at improving stress tolerance in rice and other crops. Prior to overexpressing PA biosynthetic genes in order to produce a multiplestress-tolerant plant, we have profiled the response of rice to drought and salt stress in terms of changes in growth and PA content. We found that PAs may be involved in recovery from stress, but levels during stress appear to fluctuate. To minimize sampling errors, we also studied differences in PA contents among different parts of the long, heterogeneous rice leaf. The PA levels were significantly higher in the leaf blade than the sheath, which may have affected our stress results. Together, the results will help us plan future strategies of transgenic rice plants with modified PA metabolism, which will increase scientific understanding of abiotic stress tolerance for crop improvement. nmol/g FW

AUTHOR: Anna Haber

Base

Sheath

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Leaf 1

Leaf 3

Fig. 7 Putrescine contents in different parts of the leaves of 3-week-old non-stressed rice plants. Leaf 1 is the youngest; leaf 2, second-youngest; leaf 3, third-youngest. * indicates significant difference from the tip; # indicates significant difference from the sheath.

Leaf 2

Base

Sheath

*

Leaf 3

Fig. 8 Spermidine contents in different parts of the leaves of 3-week-old non-stressed rice plants. Leaf 1 is the youngest; leaf 2, second-youngest; leaf 3, third-youngest. * indicates significant difference from the tip; # indicates significant difference from the sheath.

â?– Rice variety VNS is apparently highly sensitive to drought and will be a good candidate for metabolic engineering. However, a longer-term stress treatment period needs to be studied to better establish the responses. â?– Concentrations of salt used in the present study were perhaps not high enough to induce significant stress for this variety. â?– The leaf portions sampled may have had an effect on the abiotic stress experiment results.

Spermine Within Rice Leaves

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Future Work

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BIOLOGY

Elementary School Students' Reaction to a Food System-Based After-School Program

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Fig. 9 Spermine contents in different parts of the leaves of 3-week-old non-stressed rice plants. Leaf 1 is the youngest; leaf 2, second-youngest; leaf 3, third-youngest. * indicates significant difference from the tip; # indicates significant difference from the sheath.

Fig. 10 Plants under drought stress and recovery. Left to right: day 3, day 5, day 8, day 10.

â?– Future studies will involve transgenic plants and callus cell cultures overexpressing various combinations of SPDS, ODC, and SAMDC to determine the effect of increased spermidine biosynthesis on drought and salt tolerance in VNS rice. â?– In future abiotic stress experiments, the leaf blade and sheath will be collected and analyzed separately to minimize sampling effects.

References

1. Minocha R, Majumdar R, Minocha SC. Polyamines and abiotic stress in plants: a complex relationship. Frontiers in Plant Sci. 2014;5:1-17. 2. Yang J, Zhang J, Liu K, Wang Z, Liu L. Involvement of polyamines in the drought resistance of rice. J. Exp. Bot. 2007;58(6):1545-1555.

3. Capell T, Bassie L, Christou P. Modulation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway in transgenic rice confers tolerance to drought stress. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 2004;101(26):9909-9914. 4. Majumdar R, Shao L, Minocha R, Long S, Minocha SC. Ornithine: the overlooked molecule in polyamine metabolism. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54(6):990-1004.

5. Yamaguchi K, Takahashi Y, Berberich T, Imai A, Takahashi T, Michael AJ, Kusano T. A protective role for the polyamine spermine against drought stress in Arabidopsis. Biochem. & Biophys. Res. Comm. 2007;352:486-490.

6. Minocha R, Long S. Simultaneous separation and quantitation of amino acids and polyamines of forest tree tissues and cell cultures within a single high-performance liquid chromatography run using dansyl derivation. J. Chrom. A. 2004;1035:63-73. 7. Peremarti A, Bassie L, Christou P, Capell T. Spermine facilitates recovery from drought but does not confer drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants expressing Datura stramonium S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Plant Mol. Biol. 2009;70:253-264. 8. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analyt. Biochem. 1976;72:248-254.

1 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Acknowledgments: Thanks to many past and present Minocha Lab members, and to Stephanie Long of the US Forest Service, for their help in the lab; to Sarah Dodgin for assistance with statistics; and to David Goudreault and Luke Hydock for their help in the greenhouse.


AUTHOR: Jessica Ohrenberger

Lingually hinged teeth are useful for ambush predators, such as the goosefish (Lophius americanus). They bend inward to allow prey to be easily pulled into the mouth, but their limited forward bending prevents prey from escaping. In this study, we use illustrations, photographs, and tooth measurements to document the hinging mechanism. The hinged teeth are not fused to the jaw, and the base of the tooth sits on a semicircular tooth pedestal protruding from the jaw bone. Points of occlusion between the tooth and the pedestal act as the fulcrum of the tooth lever system, although the position of the fulcrum is different in backward and forward bending. In lingual bending, the tooth can be pushed back on the fulcrum with little effort. In labial bending, the pedestal and tooth have interlocking grooves for stability at the labial fulcrum point, and an inelastic ligament prevents labial bending past this occlusal surface. Additionally, some Lophius teeth are ankylosed to the jaw, allowing for comparisons of both hinged and unhinged tooth types within the same individual. We found that ankylosed teeth are smaller in size compared to the hinged teeth. We are also applying micro-CT, mechanical testing, and histological sectioning techniques to add to our understanding of these teeth. To bend, or not to bend? Hinged teeth in the goosefish (Lophius americanus) have multiple functions and two distinct lever systems Ohrenberger1, JA; Gidmark 2, NJ; Farina3, SC

1U. of New Hampshire, Durham NH; 2Knox College, Galesburg IL; 3Harvard University, Boston MA; Shoals Marine Laboratory, Appledore Island, ME

ADVISORS: Jessica Bolker Stacy Farina

8A

Abstract

8B

Force

Lingually hinged teeth are useful for sit-and-wait ambush predators, such as the goosefish (Lophius americanus). They bend inward to allow prey to be easily pulled into the mouth, but their limited forward bending prevents prey from escaping. In this study, we use illustrations, photographs, and tooth measurements to document the hinging mechanism in Lophius americanus. The hinged teeth of Lophius are not ankylosed to the jaw, and the base of the tooth sits on a semicircular tooth pedestal protruding from the jaw bone. Points of occlusion between the tooth and this pedestal act as the fulcrum of the tooth lever system, although the position of the fulcrum is different in backward and forward bending. In lingual bending, the tooth can be pushed back on the lingual fulcrum with very little effort. In labial bending, the pedestal and tooth have interlocking grooves for stability at the labial fulcrum point, and an inelastic ligament prevents labial bending past this occlusal surface. These morphological features form a “locking” mechanism, which requires substantial force (greater than 27.3 N) to overcome. Additionally, some Lophius teeth are ankylosed to the jaw, allowing for comparisons of both hinged and unhinged tooth types within the same individuals. We found that ankylosed teeth are smaller and less variable in size compared to the hinged teeth, although they overlap in size. We are also applying techniques such as micro-CT, mechanical testing, and histological sectioning to add to our understanding of the anatomy and function of these teeth.

Fulcrum

Figure 2. Illustration of the lower jaw. This illustration shows the outside of the jaw (labial side). Ankylosed teeth are indicated, and the remaining teeth are hinged. Ankylosed teeth tend to occur on the labial side of the jaw, while hinged teeth occur on the inside (lingual side).

Ankylosed Teeth

3A

Figure 8. One tooth, two distinct lever systems. The fulcrum is the point on the tooth around which it will pivot. When the tooth pushed lingually (A), the fulcrum is towards the lingual edge of the tooth where the ligament meets the dentary. When the tooth is pushed labially (B), the fulcrum is on the labial side of the tooth where the edge of the tooth occludes with the bone pedestal. This occlusion and the ligament lock the tooth in place. In our test of tooth function, it took less than 0.2 Newtons to bend the tooth lingually. However, we could not produce labial bending even with a force of over 25 Newtons. This changing lever system allows the fish to use the same tooth to perform two different functions (allowing prey into the mouth and preventing it from getting out).

3B

Figure 3. Hinged teeth are attached to the dentary by a large ligament. We illustrated the tooth ligaments (A) from the lingual side of the jaw of a freshly dissected L. americanus. We also dried a jaw and stained it with alizarin (B) to show how the ligaments attach to the base of the teeth and the dentary. These ligaments prevent the teeth from bending too far forward.

Introduction

The goosefish, Lophius americanus, has both hinged and ankylosed teeth, which aid this ambush predator in catching and retaining prey. Hinged teeth are found in other goosefishes, stomiiforms, and other specialized acanthomorphs (Field, 1966; Fink, 1981) and are only attached to the jaw by a ligament on the lingual side of the tooth. There is no connection between the tooth and the bone until this ligament develops from collagen fibers with low elasticity (Fink, 1981; Kerebel, et al., 1979a; Kerebel, et al., 1979b). The bases of hinged teeth sit on semicircular tooth pedestals that protrude slightly from the dentary (Kerebel, et al., 1979a). The tops of the pedestals and the bottom of the teeth also have corresponding ridges that aid in stability. In this study, we describe the anatomical and functional details of the hinged tooth system in Lophius americanus.

Discussion

The goosefish uses its teeth to aid in catching large prey, such as whole fishes. The teeth fold lingually to allow a larger prey item into the buccal cavity. However, if the prey attempts to escape, the tooth is prevented from moving outwards by the tautness of the ligament and by occlusion with the dentary. This gives the teeth two distinct functions in the jaw, with two distinct lever systems maintained within an anatomical system that is relatively simple. Also, as teeth become ankylosed within the jaw later in development, their function of bending backwards is lost, but their function of preventing prey escape is maintained. Therefore, this system is an excellent example of a single structure that changes function within a single feeding event and across its developmental history.

4B

4A

Figure 4. Cross sections through hinged tooth and jaw. We used microCT to image a hinged tooth in cross section (A). We also illustrated a cross section of a hinged tooth (B) from a freshly dissected L. americanus. In both images, the lingual side of the jaw is on the left.

Hinged Tooth Pulp Cavity

Ligament Hinge Tooth Pedestal Dentary

Future Directions

5A

We plan to use histology to demonstrate the tissuelevel components of the ligament, including the proportion of elastin within the ligament tissue. We will also conduct further mechanical testing to quantify actual breaking stress of the ligament when the tooth is bent labially and to measure the force required for lingual bending. These experiments will also be filmed using high-speed video to test our kinematic hypotheses of fulcrum mechanics. Finally, we will use a rotating torque sensor to quantify the stabilizing support provided by the scalloped pedestal-tooth surface interaction.

Figure 5. Tooth pedestals aid in the stability of the tooth. We photographed an alizarin dyed hinged tooth (A) that we pulled lingually to reveal the pedestal, the bottom of the tooth, and the corresponding ridges between the two, indicated with arrows. This cross section from a micro-CT scan (B) shows how these surfaces occlude when a hinged tooth is bent forward.

5B

Figure 1. Photo of the goosefish (Lophius americanus). The goosefish is an ambush predator with a large mouth that sits and waits for its prey. Their hinged teeth fold inward to allow prey to enter the mouth and lock to prevent prey from escaping. Photo © Conor Hamilton.

Literature Cited

Field, J.G. (1966), The Feeding Mechanism of the Angler-Fish Lophius piscatorius Linneaus. Zoologica Africana, 2: 4567. Fink, W. L. (1981), Ontogeny and phylogeny of tooth attachment modes in actinopterygian fishes. J. Morphol., 167: 167– 184. Kerebel, L.-M., M.-T. Le Cabellec, and P. Geistdoerfer (1979a) Structure and Ultrastructure of Dentine in the Teleost Fish, Lophius. Archs oral Biol. 24: 745-751. Kerebel, L.-M., M.-T. Le Cabellec, and P. Geistdoerfer (1979b) The attachment of teeth in Lophius. Can. J. Zool. 57: 711- 718. Vogel, Steven. Comparative Biomechanics: Life’s Physical World. Princeton University Press, 2003. Pages 463-467. Print.

Methods

Figure 6. Size difference between ankylosed and hinged teeth. We measured the distribution of tooth length (mm) in the dentary of one specimen. Orange bars represent ankylosed teeth while the purple bars represent hinged teeth. While there is an overlap in the size distributions, ankylosed teeth tended to be smaller.

0

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Frequency

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Specimens of Lophius americanus were obtained through the Northeast Fisheries Science Center’s annual spring survey conducted out of Woods Hole, MA. We removed the dentary from 3 individuals. We used graphite pencil to illustrate teeth within the dentary from lingual and labial perspectives. For one jaw, we made a cross section through a hinged tooth and dentary and illustrated the halves using a dissecting scope and graphite pencils. We then dried the halves, dyed them with alizarin, and photographed them using a dissecting microscope. We used micro-CT to image one dentary using a SkyScan 1173 for scanning and Horos software for imaging. We also measured the length of the teeth within one dentary using calipers. We tested tooth function by attaching a force transducer to one tooth in a fresh specimen and attempted to pull the tooth from the dentary.

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Fulcrum

Figure 7. Tooth development. In this microCT scan, we can see three different stages of tooth development. The teeth develop in the tissue of the oral valve on the lingual side of the tooth (left). They then rotate labially and become hinged. Eventually, they shift labially in the jaw and become ankylosed to the jaw.

Ankylosed Tooth

Developing Teeth

Hinged Tooth

Acknowledgements

We thank Shoals Marine Lab for use of their facilities and Harvard University for the use of their CT-Scanner. We also thank Jim Dixon (Dixon's fisheries) and NMFS for providing specimens. Lastly, we thank the Ellen Browning Scripps foundation for supporting the Knox College Maker Space.

Population Structure and Dispersal of Prairie Warblers in Southern Maine and New Hampshire AUTHOR: Stephanie Copeland

The areas of Southern Maine and New Population Structure and Dispersal of Prairie Warblers Hampshire consist mainly of mature in Southern Maine and New Hampshire Stephanie Copeland , Katie Shink , Matthew Tarr , Adrienne Kovach forest habitat. Southern Maine and New Hampshire used to have much more variety in their habitat, of successional shrublands, new growth forest, and mature forests. There has been a large decline in shrubland habitat throughout Southern Maine and New Hampshire, affecting the populations of species that rely specifically on this habitat. The Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor, PRAW) is a habitat specialist meaning they rely on large plots of shrubland growth (>2ha.) as their primary habitat. The decreasing amount of the prairie warbler habitat may affect their ability to move between the patches of shrubland habitat. Genetic analysis was performed on 307 sampled prairie warblers captured at 26 study sites in Southern Maine and New Hampshire to provide insight on their population structure and their dispersal through the area. Studying their dispersal abilities should aid in the conservation of the species and provide some information to aid in the conservation management of shrubland habitat. 1

1University

1

1

•  Understanding the connectivity of shrubland habitats from the perspective of the birds’ dispersal patterns is needed to inform the potential impacts of restoration efforts. Specifically, determining the spatial scale of dispersal and population structure of the birds that use these habitats will provide insight into the appropriate geographic scale of management actions.

Axis 2 (17%)

•  Habitat restoration efforts in southern Maine and New Hampshire aim to increase shrubland habitat to benefit shrubland-dependent birds. The effects these efforts have on the birds is poorly understood.

Methods

•  Mist netting was used to capture and sample Prairie Warblers in southern Maine and southeast New Hampshire. •  A total of 307 Prairie Warbler blood samples were collected from 26 separate shrubland sites (Figure 4). •  Genetic analyses were performed using microsatellite genotyping.

•  Because no microsatellite loci have been developed for Prairie Warblers, we screened 15 microsatellite loci that had successful cross-species amplification within the genus Setophaga.

Global Fst = 0.0042

Figure 6. Map of study sites where blood samples from Prairie Warblers were taken in the years 2014 and 2017.

Blue = Group 1 Purple = Group 2 Green = Group 3 Orange = Group 4 Red = Group 5

Axis 1 (28%)

Figure 1: A Principle Coordinate Analysis visualizing genetic variation among groups. Individuals from Figure 2. Heat map of pairwise values of genetic differentiation as sampled sites were grouped into five clusters based on measured by FST among pairs of sampling sites. Light blue to dark site proximity (see Fig. 6). Plot indicates little spatial blue shading indicates lower to higher FST values. . pattern to the genetic variation. Percentage variation explained by each axis is shown. Testing for Isolation by Distance R2 = 0.00017 P = 0.410

Fst Value

0.060 0.050 0.040

Figures 8 & 9. Prairie Warbler Field Sampling

0.030 0.020 0.010 0.000

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Figure 3: Mantel test comparing pairwise FST to geographic distance among sites. <1% of the genetic variation found in the samples was due to geographic distance, suggesting that gene flow is not influenced by geographic distance at the spatial scale of this study. 1.500 1.000 0.500 0.000 -0.500 -1.000 -1.500 -2.000 -2.500

Spatial Structure Analysis

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Figure 4: Spatial autocorrelation analysis, showing the genetic correlation of individuals (r) across 4 kilometer distance classes to a maximum distance of 76 kilometers. Red dotted lines show upper and lower confidence limits on the null hypothesis of no correlation. No significant spatial genetic structure was observed at any distance class.

•  PCR products of 11 amplified microsatellite loci were electrophoresed on a 3730 DNA Analyzer and alleles were scored with Peak Scanner.

Figure 1: Eletropherogram of 4 microsatellite loci analyzed using Peak Scanner. The colored peaks (blue, green, black) represent alleles within a locus.

•  Population genetic analyses were performed to determine the level of gene flow among sampled sites. To test for an isolation by distance pattern, we compared pairwise measures of genetic differentiation (FST) with pair-wise geographic distance.

Figure 7. A power line right-of-way is a man-made example of the Prairie Warbler’s preferred shrubland habitat.

0.070

Objective and Hypotheses

Objective •  Conduct genetic analyses to investigate the population structure of Prairie Warblers to inform conservation management. Hypotheses •  Ho: Prairie Warblers within our study area are connected as a single panmictic population. This lack of population genetic structure would indicate high dispersal and gene flow . •  HA: Gene flow among Prairie Warblers is a function of geographic distance, following an isolation by distance pattern

Fieldwork

Results

Principle Coordinate Analysis

Genetic Correlation (r)

ADVISORS: Adrienne Kovach Matthew Tarr

2

of New Hampshire, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment; 2University of New Hampshire, Cooperative Extension

Introduction

•  The Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor) is a shrubland habitat specialist that requires suitable areas of at least 2 ha. or larger (Schlossberg and King 2007). Along with other shrublanddependent songbirds, it is on decline in the northeastern US.

Conclusions

•  The Prairie Warblers sampled in this study have low population structure indicating high dispersal and gene flow. There was no evidence for isolation by distance.

•  Some population pairs were genetically differentiated (Figs. 2 & 5), while most were highly connected. This differentiation could be indicative of populations in sink habitats or populations receiving immigrants from outside of the spatial extent of the study area. •  Future studies should incorporate a larger spatial extent to determine the geographic scale of dispersal and connectivity.

References and Acknowledgments

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Figure 5. STRUCTURE barplot generated from microsatellite data of prairie warbles, for a model of 3 population clusters. Each vertical line on the figure represents an individual bird’s genotype. The three colors represent three genetically distinct clusters; the colored bars show the genetic composition of each individual. The brown and green genetic signatures are fairly mixed across all sites. The yellow indicates a genetic signature present at five sites; primarily gravel pits.

Applied Biosystems (2006) Peak ScannerTM Software Version 1.0 Software. Earl, D. A. and vonHoldt, B. M. (2012) Conservation Genetics Resources 4: 359-361 Jakobsson, M. & Rosenberg, N. A. (2007) Bioinformatics 23: 1801-1806 Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W., and Schwartz, T. (2010). In Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 Nov. 2010, New Orleans, LA pp 1 – 8. Rosenburg N. A. (2004). Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 137-13. Peakall, R. and Smouse P.E (2012) Bioinformatics 28: 2537-2539 Schlossberg, K. and King, D. I. (2007) USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Resource Inventory and Assessment Division, 1-118. Raymond M. & Rousset F (1995) J. Heredity 86: 248-249 Rousset, F., (2008) Mol. Ecol. Resources 8: 103-106 We thank Kris Wojtusik for providing all the GIS components of this study and Erica Holm and the summer 2017 Bird Banding Team for all their efforts involving the capturing and sampling of the prairie warblers. Thank you to the Hamel Center of Undergraduate Research for awarding an Undergraduate Research Award that supported SC and to Mr. Dana Hamel for his generosity to UNH undergraduate research. Additional funding was provided by the National Fish & Wildlife Foundations Forest & River Funds and the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 2

BIOLOGY

To Bend, or Not to Bend? Hinged Teeth in the Goosefish (Lophius americanus) Have Multiple Functions and Two Distinct Lever Systems


Humans and dogs (Canis lupus Can Dogs Distinguish Between Identical Twins Using Olfaction or Vision? Samantha Bogdahn familiaris) coevolved for millenia to have a mutualistic relationship. Dogs that rely on humans benefit by receiving food and shelter. People vary in their willingness to provide these benefits, implying selection on dogs to distinguish between individuals. Previous findings suggest that dogs identify people using visual and olfactory cues, but can dogs differentiate between identical twins, who share DNA but have minute differences in pheromones and facial features? Police dogs can distinguish between the scents of identical twins, but this ability is untested in non-working dogs, and it is unknown if dogs can make similar distinctions using visual cues. To test olfactory discrimination, a dog will be positively reinforced for one twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent, then given a choice between both twinsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; scents. If the dog can detect differences, it should prefer the familiar scent. In visual discrimination trials, each dog will be presented with similar photos of both twins and positively reinforced for one twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s photo. A novel set of photos of the twins will then be presented, and if the dog recognizes the familiar twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s face, it should prefer that image. This study will contribute to research on the mechanisms that allow dogs to have such complex sensory abilities. smb2009@wildcats.unh.edu

Dr. Leslie Curren

Scent Task

Introduction

ď&#x201A;§ Twelve non-working dogs were tested with olfactory cues from one set of identical human twins

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs who can differentiate individual humans receive the benefits they give such as food, shelter, water, and even medical care.

ď&#x201A;§ Twins placed steel screws underneath their armpits for five minutes9 ď&#x201A;§ Screws were then placed into separate, identical mason jars

ď&#x201A;§ It has also been found that there is an underlying genetic basis which drives interspecies communication between dogs and humans1.

ď&#x201A;§ Positive Reinforcement Training Period

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs were positively reinforced to one twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent

ď&#x201A;§ This suggests further suggesting selection on dogs who can correctly identify individual humans1.

ď&#x201A;§ Placed the jar with the positively reinforced twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent on the ground one foot from an unscented (control) jar

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs have been shown to identify individuals using visual and olfactory cues2,3.

ď&#x201A;§ Treats were given for each cue of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;correctâ&#x20AC;? (scented) jar until dog consistently cued for that jar

ď&#x201A;§ Human identical twins share the same DNA, but have minute differences in facial features and pheromones due to environmental factors4,5.

ď&#x201A;§ â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cueâ&#x20AC;? was defined as a sniff or nose touch

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Reinforced Twin

Novel Twin

Scent Chosen

Figure 2. Performance on scent tasks.

ď&#x201A;§ Positioning of jars were randomized during all trials to avoid positional bias

ď&#x201A;§ Scent-trained police dogs can distinguish scents of identical twins6,7. ď&#x201A;§ Dogsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to discriminate facial features of identical twins has never been tested before.

Scent Trials

12

Number of Dogs

ADVISOR: Leslie Curren

Methods

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs and humans have coevolved for a millennia to have a mutualistic relationship.

ď&#x201A;§ Used chi-square goodness of fit to compare observed and expected frequencies ď&#x201A;§ Dogs chose reinforced twin significantly more than expected (đ??&#x152;đ??&#x152;2=5.33, df=1, p=0.021, Figure 2).

ď&#x201A;§ Which twin was used for the positive reinforcement training was randomly chosen for each dog

ď&#x201A;§ Testing Period

ď&#x201A;§ The positively reinforced twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent jar and other twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent jar were placed one foot from each other (Figure 1)

ď&#x201A;§ Question: Can dogs discriminate between human identical twins using exclusively olfactory or visual cues?

ď&#x201A;§ Dog needed to cue for the reinforced twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent two out of three times for the trial to be considered successful

Conclusions

Figure 1. Daisy (left) and Chloe (right) performing the scent task

ď&#x201A;§ Positioning of jars was randomized during all trials to avoid positional bias

ď&#x201A;§ These results suggest dogs are able to discriminate between human identical twins using olfactory cues, but not visual cues.

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs were taken out of sight of the jars before each trial began and given a one-minute break between trials

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs have 300 million olfactory receptors and a large piriform complex, which is the part of the brain responsible for analyzing odors8, suggesting that olfaction is their most dominant sense. ď&#x201A;§ Human pheromones and scent could be more environmentally driven than genetically driven, making it easier for dogs to pick up on individual scents. ď&#x201A;§ Dogs may need more extensive training in order to understand the visual trials more accurately. ď&#x201A;§ Photo sets used may have not projected the visual cues dogs use in identifying individuals, such as movement or more three dimensional modalities.

Visual Task

Methods

ď&#x201A;§ Twelve non-working dogs were tested with visual cues from one set of identical human twins ď&#x201A;§ Two sets of photos were taken of the twins in similar positions (Figure 4) ď&#x201A;§ Positive Reinforcement Training Period

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs were positively reinforced to one twin from one set of photos

ď&#x201A;§ Understanding how dogs interpret sensory information can be helpful in designing more efficient training methods for working dogs, such as bomb and drug sniffing dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs, and cadaver dogs.

ď&#x201A;§ That set of photos was held or placed on the ground, with the two pictures one foot away from each other10 (Figure 5)

ď&#x201A;§ Treats were given for each cue of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;correctâ&#x20AC;? (reinforced twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s) photo until dog consistently cued for that photo

ď&#x201A;§ Important to understand the limitations of dogs senses to know their sensory limitations while performing these jobs.

8 6 4 2 0

ď&#x201A;§ â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cueâ&#x20AC;? was defined as a sniff or nose touch

ď&#x201A;§ Novel photos of the twins (from the second set) were held or placed on the ground, with the two pictures one foot away from each other (Figure 5)

ď&#x201A;§ Dog needed to cue for the reinforced twinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scent two out of three times for the trial to be considered successful

ď&#x201A;§ Used chi-square goodness of fit to compare observed and expected frequencies ď&#x201A;§ Dogs chose reinforced twin significantly more than expected (đ??&#x152;đ??&#x152;2=5.33, df=1, p=0.021). Set 1

Set 2

ď&#x201A;§ Positioning of photos was randomized during all trials to avoid positional bias

ď&#x201A;§ Dogs were taken out of sight of the photos before each trial began and given a one-minute break before each trial began

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the twins, Elise and Abby McDonough, for helping me throughout the project and by being so accommodating and helpful! You guys are awesome! I would like to give a special shout-out to all of our research dogs and their owners for being so good and patient! Thank you Abby, Lily, Chloe, Charlie, Daisy, Moose, Meekah, Tom, Shammi, Walter, Hunter, and Tucker!

Novel Twin

Figure 3. Performance on visual tasks.

ď&#x201A;§ Testing Period

ď&#x201A;§ Genetic underpinning of pheromonal differences in identical twins ď&#x201A;§ Limits of dogsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to visually discriminate very slight differences in their environment, conspecifics, and humans ď&#x201A;§ Underlying sensory mechanisms which drive olfaction and vision in all mammals â&#x20AC;&#x201C; can other animals differentiate human identical twins?

Reinforced Twin

Photo Chosen

ď&#x201A;§ Which twin was used for the positive reinforcement training was randomly chosen for each dog

ď&#x201A;§ Future research could investigate the underlying genetic and sensory mechanisms into canine olfaction and vision, propelling studies in:

Visual Trials

10

Number of Dogs

AUTHOR: Samantha Bogdahn

Twin 1

Twin 1

Twin 2

Figure 4. Photo sets of the twins

Twin 2

Figure 5. Moose performing the visual task.

References: 1: Persson, Mia E. 2016. Scientific Reports. 6(1). 2: Brisbin, I. Lehr. 1991. Animal Behaviour. 42(1). 3: Huber, Ludwig. 2013. Learning and Motivation. 44(4). 4: Wallace, Patricia. 1977. Physiology and Behavior. 19(4). 5: Klare, Brendan et al. 2011. Biometrics (IJCB). 6: Pinc, Bartos L. et al. 2011. PLoS ONE. 6(1). 7: Kalmus, H. 1955. British Journal of Animal Behaviour. 3(1). 8: Tyson, Peter. 2012. PBS, NOVA. 9: Schoon, G. A. A. 1996. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 49(3). 10: Somppi, Sanni. 2012. Animal Cognition. 15(2).

How do Female-Biased Sex Ratios Influence Male Resource Defense Behavior in Hissing Cockroaches? 1

â&#x20AC;˘ Sexual selection theory predicts that males will compete over access to females.(1)

â&#x20AC;˘ However, the theory of economic defendability suggests that extreme levels of resources are less valuable than moderate levels.(2)

â&#x20AC;˘ Low levels of resources may not be worth the effort to exclude other individuals.(2) â&#x20AC;˘ High levels of resources may not be worth protecting because not all resources can be utilized.(2)

Female (left) and male (right) Madagascar hissing cockroaches

â&#x20AC;˘ Male Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) engage in intrasexual competition in the presence of females.(3)

â&#x20AC;˘ Because Madagascar hissing cockroaches are nocturnal, this aggression occurs at night.(4)

â&#x20AC;˘ It is unknown if this behavior follows the pattern of economic defendability.(3)

Question: Does male cockroach aggression follow the theory of economic defendability when faced with varying degrees of a female-biased sex ratio? Hypothesis: Male cockroaches adhere to the principle of economic defendability.

Prediction: Intrasexual male aggression will be longer and more frequent when facing intermediate levels of a femalebiased sex ratio.

References: 1. Darwin, C. R. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. 2. Brown, J. L. (1969). The Buffer Effect and Productivity in Tit Populations. The American Naturalist,103(932), 347-354. 3. Guerra, P. A., & Mason, A. C. (2005). Information on Resource Quality Mediates Aggression between Male Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae). Ethology,111(6), 626-637. 4. Wagler, R., & Wagler, A. (2011). Arthropods: Attitude and incorporation in preservice elementary teachers. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 6(3), 229-250.

3 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

1

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Dept. of Natural Resources and the Environment1 and Dept. Biological Sciences2 , University of New Hampshire

500

Frequency of aggressive acts

ADVISORS: Leslie Curren Daniel Howard

Sexual selection theory predicts that How do female-biased sex ratios influence male resource defense in hissing cockroaches? Kayla Lent , Laura Nussbaum Faculty Advisors: Dr. Leslie Curren , Dr. Daniel Howard competition occurs between males for access to females. However, the idea of Introduction Results Methods economic defendability suggests that extreme low and high levels of resources are less valuable than moderate levels. Gains received by low levels of resources may not be worth the effort to exclude other individuals, and high levels of resources may not be worth protecting because not all resources can be utilized. Conclusions Male Madagascar hissing cockroaches (G. portentosa) are known to engage in intrasexual competition in the presence of females, but it is unknown if they follow the pattern of economic defendability. We will observe how male aggressive behavior is altered when the sex ratio is biased towards females. We will expose individual resident males to each of three male-female sex ratios: low (1:1), intermediate (1:3), and high (1:6). We will then introduce a male intruder and quantify the aggression the resident male directs toward the intruder. We hypothesize that male cockroaches adhere to the principle of economic defendability, and will therefore display the most aggression in the intermediate treatment. Our study will bring further understanding of how the values of resources influence defensive behaviors based on the theory of economic defendability. â&#x20AC;˘ 10 male cockroaches were size matched and paired. â&#x20AC;˘ 5 residents (focal males) â&#x20AC;˘ 5 intruder (introduced males)

400 300

â&#x20AC;˘ All males were isolated for 2 months.

â&#x20AC;˘ Resident males were exposed to one of the following treatments for 24 hours:

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1 Female

3 Females Treatment type

Treatment 1

Treatment 2

1 Female

3 Females

Treatment 3

6 Females

Figure 1: Mean frequency of aggressive acts (+/- SD) based on number of females. None of the treatments were significantly different (F2 = 1.712, p = 0.223).

Duration of aggression (s)

AUTHORS: Kayla Lent Laura Nussbaum

250 200

â&#x20AC;˘ We then introduced intruder males and recorded the frequency and duration of aggressive acts (Table 1) exhibited by the resident toward the intruder for 90 minutes. â&#x20AC;˘ All trials were conducted at 8pm under a red light, which cockroaches cannot detect.

150 100

6 Females

Table 1: Ethogram of Aggressive Acts(3)

Bite opponent Chase opponent Flip opponent Butt opponent Lunge at opponent Abdomen flick Abdomen push Abdomen extension Agonistic hiss

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3 Females Treatment type

6 Females

Figure 2: Mean duration of aggressive states (+/- SD) based on number of females. None of the treatments were significantly different (F2 = 0.243, p = 0.788). 500

Frequency of aggressive acts

BIOLOGY

Can Dogs Distinguish Between Identical Twins Using Olfaction or Vision?

â&#x20AC;˘ These results do not support the theory of economic defendability.

â&#x20AC;˘ Some males seem to adhere to the theory, but individual variation in aggression was high.

400

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;&#x153;Highâ&#x20AC;? female-biased sex ratio (6:1) may not have been high enough to demonstrate this pattern.

300

â&#x20AC;˘ Alternatively, it is possible that aggression is based on individual personality.

200 100 0

â&#x20AC;˘ Number of females did not affect how aggressive a resident male was toward an intruder male.

1 Female

3 Females Treatment type

6 Females

Figure 3: Frequency of aggressive acts based on number of females exhibited by each individual male. Each line represents a different individual male.

â&#x20AC;˘ Future studies should focus on more extreme sex ratios, individual performance, and personality.

Acknowledgments: Thanks to everyone in the Howard Research Lab for allowing us access to the cockroaches and their equipment. We would also like to thank Kathleen Wadiak for assisting in data collection.


AUTHOR: Jessica Hodgkins ADVISOR: Krisztina Varga

The isolation, purification, and analysis of Nature’s Cryoprotectants: Antifreeze Proteins the fusion antifreeze protein ApAFP752 Jessica Hodgkins, Korth Wade Elliot, Jon Sreter, Krisztina Varga† † Email: Krisztina.Varga@unh.edu from BL21-competent Escherichia coli, (E. coli), was preformed over a period of four INTRODUCTION weeks, with a yield of three samples of the protein. BL21-competent E. coli cells were transformed with a plasmid encoding for ApAFP752. The transformed cells were then mass grown in Luria-Bertani broth, lysed for extraction of ApAFP752, and then purified via nickel affinity chromatography in a AKTAFast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) unit. Protein concentration was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, purity by gel electrophoresis, and functionality by osmometric analysis. Of the three assessed samples, sample 3 showed the most reliable thermal hysteresis and ice-shaping activity. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a class of proteins which are characterized by their thermal hysteresis, ice recrystallization inhibition, and ice-shaping capabilities1. Thermal hysteresis is the depression of the freezing point (Tf) of a substance from its melting point (Tm). AFPs commonly have a highly repetitive sequence which adsorbs to the surface of ice, resulting in ice-shaping and thermal hysteresis capabilities2. One such protein was isolated from the desert beetle Anatolica polita. The beetle has evolved to survive the sub-zero temperatures that the Gurbantunggut Desert drops to at night. It is believed that ApAFP752 is responsible for this trait and thus exhibits thermal hysteresis activity1. ApAFP752 has a β-helical structure of 12-amino acid loops. The highly conserved amino acid sequence of Threonine-X-Threonine, (“X” being an arbitrary amino acid) is theorized to constitute the ice binding surface of ApAFP7522.

ECYC QCTGVDCFSCMA ECTNCGNCRNAR TCTDSQYCNNAM TCTRSTDCFNAI TCIDSTNCYKAT TCINSTGCPKHK VVKK

Fusion protein model4

c axis

Hexagonal bipyramidal ice crystal shaping by AFPs

Xinjiang province; A. polita’s native habitat3

Static ice crystal

24 kDa fusion ApAFP752

Antifreeze proteins can be found in different domains; they evolve separately from one another

ApAFP752 amino acid sequence

Potential applications include: food industry, cell cryopreservation, and organ preservation. Berries: https://fortvancouverlions.org/frozen-berries/ Human organs: http://ehealthsource.biz/cardiology-medical-billing-and-coding/

REFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1. Varga, Krisztina. Antifreeze Proteins; Nature’s Cryoprotectants. University of New Hampshire. 2017. 2. Dolev, M. B.; Braslavasky, I. & Davies, P. L. Ice Binding Proteins and Their Function. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 85:515–42, doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014546 (2016) 3.Maoa, X.; Liua, Z.; Ma, J.; Pang, H.; Zhang F. Characterization of a novel β-helix antifreeze protein from the desert beetle Anatolica polita. Cryobiology 98, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2011.01.001 (2011)

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE1740399) and the UNH Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP)

Expression, purification, and analysis of ApAFP752

Mapping Sediment Microbial Community Structure in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary to Facilitate Functional Genomic Studies AUTHOR: Lina Heinrichs

The increase in antibiotic-resistant Mapping sediment microbial community structure in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary to facilitate functional genomic studies pathogens coupled with multi-resistant bacterial strains has necessitated a RESULTS OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION search for bioactive compounds within ADVISORS: the marine habitat. The objective of this study was to characterize the Semra Aytur sediment microbial community within METHODS John Bucci the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary by quantifying the relative abundance and diversity of bacteria. An CONCLUSIONS DISCUSSION important goal includes identifying sites with the highest potential for harboring bacteria that may contain novel biosynthetic gene clusters for natural drug discovery (e.g. Streptomyces). Sediment was collected from 3 ocean sites in summer and fall, 2017. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing was employed to comprehensively delineate all bacteria present in each sample. A series of bioinformatics platforms was then used for multiple read assembly and taxonomic identification. Secondary metabolite biosynthetic Honorable Mention gene clusters were characterized in some Streptomyces species identified in samples. This study combines genomics, bioinformatics, environmental science, and public health to search for novel bacterial strains. By Project characterizing the marine sediment microbial community structure, these findings provide a baseline for ecosystem health, and could lead to new drug development for addressing antibiotic resistance. Planctomycetes Bacteroidetes Actinobacteria Firmicutes Proteobacteria Sum all other phyla

1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000

Actinobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Bacilli Sum all other classes

1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000

Figure 1. Map of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary showing sampling site locations. Sites #1-3, open to commercial fishing. Sites #4-6, closed to commercial fishing since the 1990s.

Summer17

0

Fall17

800000

1600000

Bacterial Community Structure (Species)

Syntrophomonas wolfei Bordetella bronchiseptica Alkalispirochaeta odontotermitis Staphylococcus epidermidis Enterococcus faecalis Neisseria meningitidis Enterococcus faecium Sum all other species

1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000

400000

Summer17

Fall17

Summer17

Fall17

Summer17

Site Summer

Fall

1 2

5.63 4.99

5.12 4.99

3

4.41

4.41

Table 1. Shannon biodiversity index at genus level by season, where Site 1 is the most biodiverse site in both seasons.

DNA Extraction

DNA Sequencing

1200000 1000000

600000

200000

Fall17

-Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary -Surficial sediment (10 cm) using a 2L Van Veen grab

-5 mg sediment sample -PureLink™ genomic DNA extraction kit

Syntrophomonas Mycobacterium Streptomyces Pseudomonas Neisseria Enterococcus sum all other genera

1400000

Figure 2. Sediment composition breakdown by taxonomic level and season. Water temperatures at 50m for the fall and the summer seasons were 54.3℉ and 51.1℉ (2016), respectively; warmer temperatures in fall compared to summer.

Sample Collection

NERACOOS Buoy A

Bacterial Community Structure (Genus)

1600000

400000

400000 200000

0

1600000

Frequency

Bacterial Community Structure (Class)

Bacterial Community Structure (Phylum)

1600000

Frequency

1. Characterize the sediment microbial community of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary by quantifying the relative abundance and biodiversity by site and season using metagenomics 2. Identify sites with the highest potential for harboring bacterial strains (e.g. Streptomyces) that may contain novel biosynthetic gene clusters 3. Identify Streptomyces secondary metabolite clusters found in samples 4. Demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach to drug discovery and environmental science

Frequency

The increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has necessitated a search for bioactive compounds within the marine habitat. This study combines genomics, bioinformatics, ecology, and public health to search for novel bacterial strains in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS). By characterizing the marine sediment microbial community structure, findings provide a baseline for ecosystem health, and could lead to new drug development for addressing antibiotic resistance.

Lina Heinrichs1, Semra Aytur2, PhD, MPH and John Bucci3, PhD

Molecular and Cellular Biology UNH, 2Department of Health Management and Policy UNH, 3School of Marine Science and Ocean Engineering UNH

Frequency

1Biochemistry,

Figure 4. A PCA biplot showed that a greater

abundance of Streptomyces correlated with Site 3, sampled in the summer season. Higher Streptomyces abundance correlated with water column depth.

Figure 3. Out of 20 biosynthetic gene clusters found in the top Streptomyces scabrisporus strain, 4 were confirmed by BLAST hits (location indicated by red arrow).

-2017 samples  Illumina HiSeq™ whole genome

Assembly

Motivation

• Inform our limited knowledge of microbial ecosystems within marine sanctuaries for conservation and sustainability • Novel drug discovery • Develop a transferrable bioinformatics workflow for future bioprospecting projects • World Health Organization’s Sustainable Development Goal #14: To promote ocean and human health

Background

• Ocean sediment microbial communities are largely unexplored and have potential for discovering novel bacterial strains1 • Up to 99% of bacteria have not been cultured in laboratories2 • Streptomyces produce secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy, immunosuppressant, enzyme inhibitor and hypercholesterolemic drugs2

-metaSPAdes3 -8 different K-mer lengths, from K21-K91

Assembly Quality Assessment

-ABySS4 -Selected K-mer length to maximize the most N50 lengths (K81)

BLASTn

-NCBI refSeq bacterial genomic database -Megablast parameters; low-complexity filter5

Taxonomic Classification

-JGI Taxonomy Server using accession numbers

-SAS©

Statistical Analysis

-Phylum, Class, Genus, Species levels -Chi-square test

• Streptomyces were: • 1.53% prevalent in summer, 1.19% prevalent in fall (seasonal difference chi square = 471.7; p < 0.0001) • Site 3 had highest summer Streptomyces abundance (1.71%) • Site 1 and Site 3 had highest fall Streptomyces abundance (1.2%) • Streptomyces scabrisporus was most abundant among Streptomyces in both seasons • Actinobacteria, which produce many of the drugs currently available, were the 3rd most abundant phylum • Interestingly, water temperature was opposite seasonal expectations, and may have affected bacterial abundance

Functional Gene Exploration

-antiSMASH (secondary metabolite gene clusters) -Most abundant Streptomyces strains per season -Principle component analysis (PCA)6

Biodiversity Evaluation

• Future surveys within SBNMS intending to culture Streptomyces for biosynthetic gene cluster research may target Site 3 in the summer months • Expansion of marine bioprospecting can support further ecological studies and address public health concerns • For publication, 2016 data, as well as data from sites closed to commercial fishing (Fig. 1) will be integrated into a larger ongoing project7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Dr. David Wiley, NOAA SBNMS, Research Coordinator and Kent Hubbard for help with sample collection, Dr. Matt MacManes, UNH Genetics, for his help with program troubleshooting, and Dr. Kelley Thomas and the UNH Hubbard Genome Center for feedback on metagenomics methods.

REFERENCES 1Bhatia,

P.,&Chugh, A. (2015). USE: Role of marine bioprospecting contracts in developing access and benefit sharing mechanism for marine traditional knowledge holders in the pharmaceutical industry. Global Ecology and Conservation, 3(2015), 176–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.11.015 DS, Williams DE, Wang XL, Centko R, Chen J, Andersen RJ (2013). Marine Sediment-Derived Streptomyces Bacteria from British Columbia, Canada Are a Promising Microbiota Resource for the Discovery of Antimicrobial Natural Products. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77078. P., Venkatesan, J., Sivakumar, K.,&Kim, S. K. (2013). Marine actinobacterial metabolites: Current status and future perspectives. Microbiological Research, 168(6), 311– 332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.02.002

1Dalisay

2Manivasagan,

3http://cab.spbu.ru/software/spades/

4http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/abyss

-Shannon diversity index by site and by season

5https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IEB/ToolBox/CPP_DOC/lxr/source/src/app/dustmasker/ 6Syms,

C. (2008). Principal components analysis. In: Jorgensen, Sven Erik, and Fath, Brian D., (eds.) Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 2940-294. JP, Gasser M, Heinrichs L, Aytur, SA, Thomas K. (In prep). Mapping the biodiversity of the sediment microbial community in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Appl Environ Microbiol.

7Bucci

2018

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 4

BIOLOGY

Nature’s Cryoprotectants: Antifreeze Proteins


AUTHOR: Amanda LeBel

Motion Induced Blindness (MIB) is a Using Contrast Modulation of Motion-Induced Blindness to Determine Asymmetries of ON- and OFF-Cell Pathways visual phenomenon where salient Printing: target dots will seem to disappear in This poster is 48” w It’s designed to be p INTRODUCTION METHODS RESULTS – EXPERIMENT 2 the presence of a moving background large (Bonneh et al., 2001). MIB is often Customizing th compared to other visual phenomena The placeholders in formatted for you. that cause disappearance (e.g., Troxler placeholders to add an icon to add a tab fading; Bonneh et al 2014). Yet, the SmartArt graphic, p multimedia file. unique aspect of MIB that separates it T CONCLUSIONS from text, just click from such phenomena is that the higher button on the Hom the target luminance contrast the more If you need more pl RESULTS – EXPERIMENT 1 titles, quickly the target disappears (Bonneh make a copy of wha drag it into place. P OBJECTIVES et al, 2001). ON- and OFF-cell pathways Smart Guides will h with everything else project back from the retina to the Lateral WORKS CITED Want to use your ow instead of ours? No Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) and then to right V1. Evidence suggests that the OFF-cell Change Picture. Ma proportion of pictur pathway has a stronger input from the by dragging a corne LGN to V1 (Westheimer, 2007). To further understand the asymmetries in these two pathways after they leave V1, a Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB) stimulus was presented to subjects where increments and decrements of the target and mask stimuli were manipulated in order to stimulate ON- and OFF-cell pathways. Many studies suggest the locus of MIB is beyond striate cortex, past V1 processing. Our results show a graded response to varying contrasts of the MIB stimulus that provides evidence for contrast asymmetries in the ON- and OFF-cell pathways as far back as V5 and a demonstrated effect of retinal processing on motion processing through V5. Amanda I. LeBel, Catherine Peraro, Stephen Zhang, Sophie Topouzoglou, Courtney Bond, Andrew Kitt & Wm Wren Stine University of New Hampshire

Subjects were placed in a dark room 0.91 m away from a MacBook Pro with their chin resting on a chin rest. An MIB stimulus was presented using Mathematica with one of eight different dot-luminance two-frame motion masks and stationary targets (15.0, 61.3, 84.3, 95.9, 119., 131., 154., or 200. cd/m2), and one of five different mask durations (3.1, 4.6, 7.0, 11., or 16. s). Background luminance was 100. cd/m2. Subjects indicated whether or not at least one of the stationary target dots disappeared on each trial. Each subject ran 15 sessions with 160 trials per session. Each probability of disappearance for the psychometric functions was estimated by 30 trials.

• The efficacy of MIB is influenced by a number of factors: target eccentricity, target size, mask velocity, target and mask contrast, and target protection zone size. • ON- and OFF-Cells are ganglion cells responsive to light increments and decrements, respectively.

• The ON- and OFF-Cell pathways synapse in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) before continuing on to primary visual cortex (V1)

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Bonneh et al. (2001). Motion induced blindness in normal observers. Nature. 411, 798801. Hsu et al. (2004). Linking motion-induced blindness to perceptual filling-in. Vision Research, 44, 2857-2866. Stine et al. (2017). Motion induced blindness using increments and decrements of luminance. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences, 71, 372–379. Westheimer (2007). The on-off dichotomy in visual processing: From receptors to perception. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 26, 636-648.

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Masking Effect of Anthropogenic Noise in Predatory Detection AUTHOR: Matthew Morris

As human society continues to expand Masking Effect of Anthropogenic Noise in Predatory Detection into wildlife habitats, anthropogenic Matthew Morris noise has an increasing effect on animals. Anthropogenic noise affects Methods Discussion Background a variety of behaviors, including antipredatory behavior. Several studies have demonstrated that anthropogenic noise can hinder an animal’s antipredator abilities, but few of these observed terrestrial mammals. Here, I asked Results if traffic noise negatively affects elk (Cervus canadensis). I hypothesized that Objectives if human noise masks other sounds, it could reduce the auditory detection of, and vigilance for, predators. To test this, I observed vigilance in semi-domesticated elks under various noise conditions. These conditions were combinations of the presence or absence of road noise and predatory cues. As predicted, the elks were less vigilant in response to predatory cues when played with traffic noise than when the traffic noise was absent. These results supported the masking effect hypothesis: the traffic noise may have inhibited the elks’ ability to hear and react to potential predatory threats. This study highlighted the possible consequences of anthropogenic noise on prey’s ability to effectively avoid predation. In addition to direct disturbances from habitat fragmentation, human expansion may be disturbing predator-prey interactions. Dr. Leslie Curren, Faculty Advisor

Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire

ADVISOR: Leslie Curren

• The expansion of human presence into natural environments has significant consequences for wildlife.

• I observed a semi-domesticated herd under various noise conditions at an elk ranch located next to a lightly-trafficked road. • One male, nine females, and five calves

• One concerning factor is anthropogenic noise (AN).1

• Sampling occurred in fall 2017 and winter 2018.

• AN affects a variety of behaviors, including species recognition, courtship, and predator-prey interactions.2

• The four noise conditions were combinations of the presence or absence of traffic noise (AN) and crunching leaves (predatory cue):

• Mipro MA-101a speakers played four noise conditions at 80 dB each.

• Road noise, one form of AN, may inhibit a prey species’ ability to detect predators because prey rely on auditory cues.3

• The masking effect hypothesis suggests that AN obscures cues, and prey are therefore less capable of detecting predators.3 Background • Most studies involving AN have ignored terrestrial wildlife and the effects of additional auditory stimuli.

• Elk are a prey species with distinctive antipredatory behavior.

• A common response for predatory detection is vigilance, which is a heightened sense of awareness.

Control

Only Predatory Cue

Conclusions

• The elks exhibited less vigilance in response to the predatory cues when traffic noise was also present. • The effects of traffic noise were harmful in predatory detection. • These results support the masking effect hypothesis. •

The elks were also less vigilant in the solitary road noise condition than when there was no noise at all. • However, the effect on vigilance was very small, so there may not be biological significance for this difference.

This study furthers our understanding of how road noise affects terrestrial prey.

AN can indirectly affect wildlife even in protected areas.4

AN and Predatory Cue

Only AN

• Each noise condition lasted ten minutes, and the herd’s vigilance was recorded every minute by counting the number of elk with their head up and the number with their head down. • Only visible elks were counted. If fewer than 5 were visible, the observation was excluded. • Each sampling date began with the control condition.

• I used a generalized linear model to ask if treatment and season predicted the number of elks that would be vigilant during a given scan, with a random effect for date.

Probability of Vigilance in Each Noise Condition

1.0

Captive elk at study site

0.8

Pr(Vigilance)

BIOLOGY

Using Contrast Modulation of Motion-Induced Blindness to Determine Asymmetries of the ON- and OFF- Cell Pathways

Question •

How does anthropogenic noise affect vigilance in a herd of elk (Cervus canadensis) in response to auditory predator cues?

Hypothesis •

AN masks other sounds and could reduce auditory detection of, and consequent vigilance for, predators.

Prediction •

In response to auditory cues, elk will be less vigilant in the presence of AN than its absence.

References

a

2018

5 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

a,b

b

The elks belonged to a ranch, and may have already been habituated to road noise.

The length of noise may be responsible for the results. • Traffic was long and steady, whereas cues were short and sudden.

Other auditory stimuli, such as wind and bird calls were present.

Pseudoreplication may have been involved because individual elk could not be identified and were thus not accounted for.

0.4

0.2

0.0

None

AN

Cue

AN + Cue

Treatment

Figure 1: Mean estimates of the probability an elk was vigilant during a scan of each treatment condition. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Estimates that share the same letter signify there is no significant difference between them at α=0.05. There were 290 observations over 12 dates. The variance for the random effect of date was 0.42, and there was no significant effect of season (p=0.122).

[1] Shannon, G., M. McKenna, L. Angeloni, K. Crooks, K. Fristrup, E. Brown, K. Warner, M. Nelson, C. White, J. Briggs, S. McFarland, and G. Wittemyer. 2015. A synthesis of two decades of research documenting the effects of noise on wildlife. Biological Reviews 91: 982-1005. [2] Codarin, A., L. Wysocki, F. Ladich, and M. Picciulin. 2009. Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1880-1887. [3] Barber, J., K. Crooks, and K. Fristrup. 2010. The costs of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 180-189. [4] Buxton, R., M. McKenna, D. Mennit, K. Fristrup, K. Crooks, L. Angeloni, G. Wittemyer. 2017. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas. Science 356: 531-533.

Winning Project

Other Factors

c

0.6

Acknowledgements

Future Research

• Observe other forms of noise rather than just traffic noise and crunching leaves. • Observe effects of varying volumes of AN.

This study could not have been done without the generous permission of Jim Griswold, owner of Velvet Pastures Elk Ranch, who allowed me to work with his animals. Further gratitude is extended to Kendra Krueger and Molly Ruprecht who helped collect data during the fall sampling period. I would like to thank the UNH Audiovisual Services and the UNH Parker Media Lab for the use of their equipment. The audio used in this study came from pachd.com and Ken Horkavy. Lastly, I thank the elk for our bonding time and the Dimond Library for not closing until 2 a.m.


This project examines binge drinking Relationship Between Binge Drinking Frequency and Diet Among College Students habits among college students and Julia E. Boisselle and Jesse Stabile Morrell, PhD their relationship to diet quality. It is hypothesized that greater binge drinking frequency relates to lower diet score. Students (n=6,353), participated in an ongoing, health survey from 2005-15. Binge drinking, defined as consuming ≥ 4 or 5 drinks on occasion for women or men respectively, from the past month, was self-reported via online questionnaire. 2/3 3-day food records and online software (DietAnalysis Plus) allowed for nutrient 1/2 analysis. Quantity of saturated fat, fiber, potassium, and calcium defined diet quality, were divided into quintiles and scored 1-5 with increasing intake; saturated fat was inversely scored. Higher diet scores represented better diet quality. For men, a significantly lower score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting less than weekly or no binge drinking within the past month (11.7±.1 vs. 12.1±.1, 12.2±.1, p&lt;.05). For women, a lower diet score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting no binge drinking (11.8±.1 vs.12.1±.1, p&lt;.05). The current hypothesis is supported demonstrating a relationship between higher binge drinking frequency and lower diet quality among students. Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems University of New Hampshire Durham, NH, USA

Abstract

Introduction

Binge drinking (BD) is defined as consuming ≥ 4 drinks on occasion for women and ≥ 5 drinks on occasion for men. BD holds numerous detrimental health effects for individuals surrounding dietary habit and nutrient processing consequences.1 According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 38% of college students report BD.1 Lifestyle habits developed in college can be long lasting posing long-term health risks such as weight gain and cardiovascular disease. Research shows BDs are more apt to partake in drug use, struggle in school, face more frequent psychological problems, and participate in sexual high-risk behaviors than those who do not BD.2 Several studies demonstrate those who binge drink consume lower quality foods before, during, and after incidents of binge drinking. According to studies at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), BDs are less likely to eat fruits and have a higher overall calorie intake from not only alcohol, but added sugars and saturated fats too .1

13

Diet Score According to Binge Drinking Frequency in Male and Female Students *

*

*

Male (n=1,732) Female (n=4,621)

12

Diet Score

ADVISOR: Jesse Morrell

Objectives: The purpose of this project is to examine binge drinking habits among college students and its relationship to diet quality. It is hypothesized that greater binge drinking frequency is related to a lower diet score. Methods: Data were collected between 2005-15; students (n=6,353), ages 18-24, were recruited from a midsize, northeastern university to participate in an ongoing, health survey. Binge drinking frequency, defined as consuming ≥ 4 or 5 drinks on occasion for women or men respectively, from the past month, was self-reported via online questionnaire. Three-day food records were used to evaluate nutrient intake and analyzed via online software (DietAnalysis Plus). Diet quality was quantified by scoring intakes of saturated fat, fiber, potassium, and calcium. Intakes were divided into quintiles and scored 1-5 with increasing intake; saturated fat was inversely scored. Higher diet scores (range 4-20) represented better diet quality. Mean differences in diet scores (±SE) were evaluated via ANCOVA for men and women; year of data collection, academic major, measured BMI, average daily kcalories, and age served as covariates. Results: Among men (n=1,732), 33.6% reported no binge drinking in the past month, 32.7% reported weekly binge drinking, and 33.7% reported binge drinking more than once/week. Among women (n=4,621), 49.4% reported no binge drinking, 33.8% reported binge drinking weekly, and 16.8% reported binge drinking more than once/week. Among men, a small but significantly lower diet score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting less than weekly or no binge drinking within the past month (11.7±.1 vs. 12.1±.1, 12.2±.1, p<.05). Among women, a lower diet score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting no binge drinking within past month (11.8±.1 vs.12.1±.1, p<.05). Conclusions: Findings support the current hypothesis and demonstrate a relationship between higher binge drinking frequency and lower diet quality among students at a northeastern university. As increased alcohol consumption and poor dietary quality are linked to weight gain and cardiovascular disease risk, findings hold importance to campus health professionals..

Key Findings

•Prevalence of BD at UNH was significantly higher among both men and women compared to national rates •Men were more likely than females to report BD more than weekly, females were more likely to abstain from BD than males •Among men (n=1,732), small but significantly lower diet score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting less than weekly or no binge drinking (11.7±.1 vs. 12.1±.1, 12.2±.1, p<.05). •Among women (n=4,621), lower diet score was observed in those reporting binge drinking more than weekly as compared to those reporting no binge drinking(11.8±.1 vs.12.1±.1, p<.05).

Implications

•Results support current hypothesis demonstrating a relationship between higher BD frequency and lower diet quality among students at a northeastern university. • As increased alcohol consumption and poor dietary quality are linked to weight gain and cardiovascular disease risk, findings hold importance to campus health professionals. •As UNH ‘s students report higher BD levels than the national average (40%), further research into the causes and deterrents will improve our understanding and contribute to improving health and safety on campus.

11

10

60

9

No BD

Weekly BD

Binge Drinking Frequency

More than weekly BD

50

*p<.05 vs. BD more than weekly, within gender

Prevalence of Binge Drinking Among UNH Students

Purpose

To examine binge drinking habits among college students and its relationship to diet quality. It is hypothesized that greater binge drinking frequency is related to a lower diet score.

Students (%)

AUTHOR: Julia Boisselle

Frequency of Binge Drinking Among Male and Female Students

Male (n=1,732) Female (n=4,621)

40

*

*

30

20

10

0

No BD

Methods

•Students ages 18-24 (n=6,353) from an introductory nutrition course were recruited between 2005-2015 to participate in an ongoing, cross sectional health survey known as the College Health and Nutrition Assessment Survey (CHANAS ).5 • Demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity, overall health and wellness and sleep were self-reported via online questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data •Diet Score Calculation •Three-day food records were used to evaluate nutrient intake and analyzed via online software (DietAnalysis Plus). •Average Intakes of potassium (mg), calcium (mg), fiber (g), and saturated fat (g) for each subject were determined •Diet quality was quantified by scoring intakes of saturated fat, fiber, potassium, and calcium. Intakes of these micronutrients were divided into quintiles and scored 1-5 with increasing intake; saturated fat was inversely scored. •Values for each subject were summed to get a total score between 4-20. Higher diet scores represented better diet quality. •Mean differences in diet scores (±SE) were evaluated via ANCOVA for men and women; year of data collection, academic major, measured BMI, average daily kcalories, and age served as covariates. Data management and analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 24.

Weekly BD

More than Weekly BD

Binge Drinking Frequency

*p<.05 vs females

Men: 33% report BD once a week, 34% report BD more than once a week Women: 34% report BD once a week, 17% report BD more than once a week

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station and the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Hatch Project 1010738. The authors also thank Pam Wildes and the College of Life Sciences of Agriculture for their continued support of undergraduate research.

Table 1: Subjects

Males (n=1,732)

Females (n=4,621)

Age (years) BMI (kg/m2) Calcium Intake (mg/d)

19.3±0.03 24.8±0.09 1295.7±14

18.8±0.02 23.2±0.05 900.4±6

Potassium Intake (mg/d)

2334.5±34

3350.7±15

Fiber Intake (g/d)

22.4±0.2

19.6±0.1

Saturated Fat Intake (g/d)

31.0±0.3

20.2±0.1

References 1. College Drinking Fact Sheet. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/ collegefactsheet/Collegefactsheet.pdf. Published Dec 2015. Accessed March 2018. 2. Pascarella ET, Goodman KM, Seifert TA, Tagliapietra-Nicoli G, Whitt EJ. College Student Binge Drinking and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Replication and Extension. Journal of College Student Development. muse.jhu.edu/article/224485/pdf. Published December 3, 2007. Accessed April 5, 2018. 3. Choose MyPlate. Choose MyPlate. https://www.choosemyplate.gov/. Accessed March 27, 2018. 4. Liu K,et al. Healthy Lifestyle Through Young Adulthood and the Presence of Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study. Circulation. 2012;125(8):996-1004. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.111.060681. 5. Burke JD, Reilly RA, Morrell JS, Lofgren IE. The University of New Hampshire's Young Adult Health Risk Screening Initiative. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782175. Published October 2009. Accessed April 16, 2018.

Phylogenetic Diversity of Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Bacteria in the Gut of Lumbricus Earthworms AUTHORS: Katherine Loiselle Lindsay March Colin Mcgonagle ADVISOR: Cheryl Andam

New antibiotics are critically needed as resistance to our existing arsenal of drugs is growing. An important source Goal: To determine the phylogenetic diversity of Discussion Introduction Streptomyces within and between earthworm species of drugs or drug precursors with broad (Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris) pharmaceutical application are natural Methods products produced by environmental microbes. Streptomyces (phylum Actinobacteria) have long been known as prolific producers of antibiotics and Future Research other clinically useful compounds, such as antiviral, antitumor, antihelminths, Results immunosuppressants. However, rate of antibiotic discovery has greatly Acknowledgements decreased despite the high threat of rapid emergence and spread of References antibiotic resistance. There is therefore an urgent need to explore Streptomyces diversity from previously unrecognized ecological niches. In this project, we aim to determine the genetic diversity of Streptomyces in the gut of the earthworms Lumbricus terrestris and Lumbricus rubellus. Our approach involves culturing and enrichment of Streptomyces isolates in agar and broth media, DNA extraction and rpoB sequencing. We obtained ~120 phylogenetically diverse isolates. This project demonstrates the potential of earthworms and other invertebrates as important sources of Streptomyces. Future work will focus on testing the ability of different Streptomyces isolates to inhibit the growth of other bacteria, including pathogens. Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences

• With more than 650 recognized species, the bacterial genus Streptomyces (phylum Actinobacteria) constitutes one of the largest and most diverse genera in the bacterial domain. • Streptomyces are ubiquitous in soil and decaying vegetation, where they play an important role in organic matter degradation, as well as in symbiotic association with diverse eukaryotes. • Streptomyces are widely known for being the major producers of antibiotics as well as numerous antivirals, antifungals, antihelmiths, antitumor compounds used in clinical and agricultural settings. • The goal of this project is to characterize the phylogenetic diversity of Streptomyces associated with earthworm hosts.

Fig. 1. DNA sequence alignment of partial rpoB gene. Total length is 542 bp.

Sanger sequencing

Fig. 3. Phylogenetic relationship of Streptomyces bacteria from L. terrestris and L. rubellus (n = 369 isolates)

• We obtained 50-80 Streptomyces isolates per earthworm. • Lumbricus worms harbor phylogenetically diverse Streptomyces bacteria in their gut. • We did not observe host specificity of Streptomyces lineages, indicating that these bacteria are shared between the two earthworm species. • Many Streptomyces isolates do not have close similarity to named species, and likely represent novel species.

• To investigate the genome evolution and pan-genome composition of Streptomyces • To test the ability of different Streptomyces isolates to inhibit the growth of other bacteria, including pathogens • To compare phylogenetic diversity of Streptomyces associated with multiple host species

Members of the Andam Lab Funding from the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 2. Phylogenetic relationship of Streptomyces bacteria from an individual worm of L. rubellus

• Oskay M. 2009. Comparison of Streptomyces diversity between agricultural and non-agricultural soils by using various culture media. Scientific Research and Essays 4.10: 997-1005. • Xue Y. Zhao L. Liu H. Sherman D. 1998. A gene cluster for macrolide antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: Architecture of metabolic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95.21: 12111-12116.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 6

BIOLOGY

Relationship Between Binge Drinking Frequency and Diet Among College Students


BIOLOGY

Diversity and Antibiotic Activity of Streptomyces Bacteria: Searching for Super-Killer Bacterial Strains AUTHORS: Nicholas Ritzo Taylor Schwartz ADVISOR: Cheryl Andam

The surge of antibiotic resistance and Diversity and antibiotic activity of Streptomyces bacteria: Department of Molecular, Cellular and searching for super-killer strains global spread of microbial infections, Biomedical Sciences Nicholas Ritzo, Taylor Schwartz, Cheryl Andam PhD exacerbated by lagging drug discovery Abstract Results Conclusions efforts, demands new approaches to this health threat. Environmental microbes have been shown as a source of bioactive compounds with novel antibiotic properties, such as how Materials and Methods Future Research the bacterial genus Streptomyces has long been known as a major source of clinically relevant antibiotics. This project is aimed to characterize the inhibitory Acknowledgements characteristics of different Streptomyces strains collected from vertebrate hosts. Our central hypothesis is that the gut References of vertebrate animals harbor a diverse population of Streptomyces bacteria with variable ability to inhibit growth of other bacteria. A total of 72 Streptomyces isolates were collected and tested for ability to inhibit growth of other Streptomyces strains as well as Escherichia coli. Results indicate isolation of multiple Streptomyces capable of differential inhibition dependent on target bacteria. A subset of this bacterial population was identified as super-killers, designated by the ability to create a zone-of-inhibition of at least 50mm. Future work will focus on determining the phylogenetic diversity of isolates and inhibition against other bacterial pathogens, with focus on targeted approach to drug discovery. • We collected a total of 36 Streptomyces isolates and tested their ability to inhibit the growth of other Streptomyces bacterial strains to identify super-killers • Super-killers were screened using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assays with Escherichia coli as a model pathogen. Results indicate that the diverse population of Streptomyces varied in their ability to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. • Five super-killers were identified HRSb 48, CHKa 14, CHKa 77, CHKa 120, CHKa 124. HRSb 48 showed the most significant inhibition against BRECA strains. • This work has important implications on using a targeted approach to drug discovery.

Within the same host species

Between different host species

Within the same host species

Between different host species

Chicken and Horse fecal samples collected

• Test identified Streptomyces super-killer strains against other common pathogens responsible for the majority of clinically diagnosed infections such as Klebsiella pneunomiae and Staphylococcus aureus • Whole genome sequencing of super-killers to to understand genome heterogeneity and identify Biosynthetic Gene Clusters (BGCs), which encode for secondary metabolites used for antibiotics as well as numerous antivirals, antifungals, antihelmiths, and antitumor compounds

Samples streaked on to “Pink Plates” AIA with antifungals

Samples with sporulation on pink plates streaked for isolation on AIA

Isolated samples streaked for enrichment on AIA

• Members of the Andam Lab • Funding from the New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station • The Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for our Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) and Undergraduate Research Awards (URA)

Isolates grow in YM broth liquid culture

Glycerol Stock and Purified DNA Stored in -80˚ C

Pairwise inhibition assay of Streptomyces isolate with five isolates in competition

• We identified 5 Streptomyces super-killers as isolates with the ability to inhibit at least 3 other isolates with an average zone of inhibition ≥15 mm (within the same host species and between different host species) pairwise inhibition assay, HRSb 48, CHKa 14, CHKa 77, CHKa 120, and CHKa 124. • The results indicated that Streptomyces collected from horse and chicken, displayed variable ability to inhibit the growth of competing bacteria that can be utilized to select superkillers. • The data also displayed a weak correlation of inhibitory strength in relation to the host from which it was isolated. • When plated against BRECA strains, only HRSb 48 showed significant inhibition supporting our central hypothesis that Streptomyces strains vary in the ability to inhibit growth of pathogens and other bacteria.

1. Waksman, Selman A. "Streptomycin: background, isolation, properties, and utilization." Science 118.3062 (1953): 259-266 2. Gebreyohannes, G., Moges, F., Sahile, S., & Raja, N. (2013). Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(6), 426–435. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60092-1

Disc diffusion assay with isolates of greatest inhibitory capability on lawn of Escherichia coli

Metabarcoding Investigation of Extensive Dune Grass Die-Off in the Northeast AUTHOR: Marissa Anderson ADVISORS: Gregg Moore William Thomas

Dune dieback, a rapidly spreading blight impacting coastal dunes, is becoming increasingly more common along the seacoasts of MA and NH. Believed to be caused by pathogenic nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), dieback results in death of American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata), providing the primary, natural mechanism to stabilize dunes and protect coasts from erosional effects. Despite evidence of Meloidogyne spp. in dieback events reported by others, it has not been found in dieback events in MA and NH. We hypothesize that dieback may be the result of multiple factors, including nematodes and other organisms that may exploit the tissue damage such organisms can cause. To resolve the organisms involved, we are conducting a metagenomic analyses on the entire community of organisms in the rhizosphere of suspected dieback events and comparing them to reference sites nearby. This approach extracts DNA from all of the organisms on the root zone, allowing us to sequence that DNA and match results to a database of all the known sequences in the world, including putative parasites and diseases and their vectors. Our analysis looks at commonalities among the communities determining the most likely causes of dieback, including bacteria, fungi and other microbes linked to these events. Abstract

Occurrences of dune dieback, a rapidly spreading blight impacting coastal dunes, are becoming increasingly more common along the seacoasts of MA and NH. Believed to be caused by pathogenic nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), dieback results in death of American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata), which provides the primary, natural mechanism to stabilize dunes and protect coasts from the erosional effects of storm winds and surges. Despite evidence of Meloidogyne spp. in dieback events reported by others, it has not been found in dieback events in MA and NH. We hypothesize that dieback may be the result of multiple factors, including nematodes and other organisms that may exploit the tissue damage such organisms can cause. To resolve the organisms involved in dieback in our region, we are conducting metagenomic analyses on the entire community of organisms in the rhizosphere of suspected dieback events and comparing them to reference sites nearby. This approach extracts DNA from all of the organisms on the root zone, allowing us to sequence that DNA and match results to a database of all the known sequences in the world, including putative parasites and diseases, and their vectors. Our analysis will look at the commonalities among the communities determining the most likely causes of dieback, including bacteria, fungi and other microbes linked to these events. The results will aid resource managers develop effective strategies to limit the spread of dieback in the future.

Dune Grass Die-Off Site – Hampton Beach State Park

Methodology - Metabarcoding

Results

Figure 15. Unweighted UniFrac plot for 18S (eukaryotic DNA) data

Observations

• The eukaryotic diversity appears to cluster by sample types, suggesting that eukaryotic communities are distinct

Figure 16. Unweighted UniFrac plot for 16S (prokaryotic DNA) data

Figures 5-11. Experimental set up for DNA extraction, amplification, and sequence prep. We collected samples from control areas, dead areas, gardens, and vendor plants.

DEAD CONTROL GARDEN REGROWTH VENDOR

HAMPTON BEACH STATE PARK

6

6

SEABROOK

6 -

PLANT STOCK VENDOR

6

-

6

-

2

-

-

-

-

6

Figure 12. Counts of sample type from our three sample locations

-

Observations

• The prokaryotic diversity does not appear to have obvious clustering, suggesting that the prokaryotic communities are not distinct

Figure 17. 18S taxa bar plot for Nematoda

Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Araeolaimida Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Tylenchida Nematoda;D_7__Enoplea;D_8__Dorylaimia Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Rhabditida Nematoda;D_7__Enoplea;D_8__Enoplia Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Monhysterida Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Haliplectidae Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Desmodorida Nematoda;D_7__Chromadorea;D_8__Chromadorida

Figure 1. Arial view of Hampton Beach State Park sampling areas

Figure 2. Healthy dune grass

Figure 13. Workflow of metabarcoding process from collection to species identification and analysis Source: https://www.naturemetrics.co.uk/

Figure 14. QIIME, a next-generation microbiome bioinformatics platform used to analyze and visualize data

Conclusions

Figure 3. Dead dune grass caused by a die-off event

Figure 4. Current growing season die-off area

What is Causing This?

• Literature suggests that parasitic nematodes could be potential causal agents of die-off (Handoo et al. 1993)

Our Objectives

• We seek to better understand the cause of the die-off in order to prevent future outbreaks of die-off

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that dieback may be the result of multiple factors, including nematodes and other organisms that may exploit the tissue damage such organisms can cause.

7 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

• We conducted the first metagenomic analyses of eukaryotic and prokaryotic communities of dune die-off events • Nematodes do not appear to be the causal agent • An abundance of plant parasitic taxa were observed. These taxa could be: • Contributing to the die-off; • Damaging the roots; and/or • Vectoring other agents such as fungi • An analysis of the fungi phyla suggest a large proportion occur within the affected samples, i.e., dies-off samples References

• QIIME • Earth Mircobiome Project • Handoo Z., et al. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), parasitizing beachgrasses. Journal of Nematology, 25(4): 628641. 1993.

Acknowledgements

• Hubbard Center for Genome Studies • Jackson Estuarine Laboratory

Observations

• No identified Nematode taxa are unique to the affected samples • Large amount of Tylenchida and Dorylimida among the nematodes – these taxa include many plant parasitic species • No evidence of the suspected causal agent (Meloidogyne spp.) which is within the Tylenchida taxa • Several nematode taxa present are typical in marine environments

Figure 18. 18S taxa bar plot for Fungi

Fungi;D_4__Dikarya;D_5__Ascomycota Fungi;D_4__Dikarya;D_5__Basidiomycota Fungi;D_4__Incertae Sedis;D_5__Mucoromycotina Fungi;D_4__Entomophthoromycota;D_5__Entomophthoromycotina Fungi;D_4__Chytridiomycota;D_5__Incertae Sedis Fungi;D_4__Cryptomycota;D_5__LKM11 Fungi;D_4__Glomeromycota;D_5__Incertae Sedis Fungi;D_4__Incertae Sedis;D_5__Kickxellomycotina Fungi;D_4__Dikarya;Ambiguous_taxa Fungi;D_4__LKM15;D_5__uncultured eukaryote Fungi;D_4__Blastocladiomycota;D_5__Incertae Sedis Fungi;D_4__Cryptomycota;D_5__Incertae Sedis Fungi;D_4__uncultured;D_5__Cercomonadida environmental sample

Observations

• Large amount of Ascomycota and Chytriomycota among affected samples – may reflect plant pathogenic fungi or fungi exploiting dead plant material • No definitive causal agent can be identified from plot


Quantifying the Reproductive Success of a Declining Songbird, the Prairie Warbler, Breeding in an Active Gravel Pit in Southeastern New Hampshire QUANTIFYING THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF A DECLINING SONGBIRD, THE PRAIRIE WARBLER, Shrubland habitats have been declining BREEDING IN AN ACTIVE GRAVEL PIT IN SOUTHEASTERN NEW HAMPSHIRE Beau Garcia and Matthew D. Tarr in New England since the mid-1950’s and in response, many other shrubland obligate species such as prairie warblers have also been in decline. These species now rely on habitats with specific anthropogenic disturbances such as gravel pits, which were found to have the largest abundance of adult prairie warblers in southeastern New Hampshire. However, it is unclear if shrubland habitats in gravel pits can support viable breeding populations of these birds. To evaluate the habitat quality of my site, I quantified the abundance, age structure, territories of each breeding pair, reproductive success of each breeding pair and calculated the annual rate of increase (λ) for the population of prairie warblers breeding at my study site. The finite rate of increase (λ) for this habitat showed that mortality exceeded birth rates for this season. However, the large number of older birds breeding suggests this gravel pit has been a high-quality breeding ground in past years. The results of this study provide valuable information on understanding where these birds reproduce successfully which is critical to guiding management, conservation efforts and identifying where habitats exist. 1

1University

ADVISOR: Matthew Tarr

2

of New Hampshire Zoology Program, 2UNH Cooperative Extension/Natural Resources and the Environment

Introduction

Shrublands are habitats dominated by low-growing trees and shrubs, with little or no overstory tree cover. These habitats have been declining in New England since the mid 1950’s and in response, many shrubland obligate species such as prairie warblers (PRAW) have also been declining. These species now rely on anthropogenic habitats such as gravel pits, which support large numbers of breeding PRAW in southeastern New Hampshire. However, bird abundance does not necessarily indicate that a habitat is high-quality; gravel pits might function as unviable “sink habitats” that are occupied primarily by young birds that suffer poor reproductive success. This was the first study to investigate annual reproductive success of PRAW nesting in an active gravel pit. Our goal was to determine if this population of PRAW was a viable “source population” producing a surplus of young to more than offset expected adult mortality.

Objectives

1) Map the territory boundaries of all male PRAW breeding in the 62 ha Severino gravel pit in Dover, NH (below).

• We marked each bird with a unique combination of three colored leg bands and a aluminum (silver) numbered band (Left Image: BkS_WY). • We located each bird daily and marked its location with GPS to map the boundaries of its breeding territory. • We found the nest in each territory, monitored whether the nest was predated, and counted the total number of young (fledglings) produced from all nests within each territory.

• There were 11% of nests abandoned, 39% successful and 50% were predated. About 33% of territories had their first nest predated and attempted a second nest. • A total of 19 ASY and 3 SY PRAW were confirmed sited during the entire breeding season. • The finite rate of increase for PRAW at this site for the 2016 breeding season was λ = PA + PJ βI =0.88

Predated

Abandoned Fledged

Figure 2. Initial Nest Predation, Fledging Success and Abandonment Percentages of PRAW in Severino Gravel Pit, Dover NH in 2016.

• We calculated finite rate of increase of this PRAW population as: (λ = PA + PJ βI) values >1 mean reproduction exceeds expected rate of adult deaths (population increasing) and values <1 (population decreasing). • I estimated annual adult PRAW survival (PA) as 0.65 and juvenile PRAW survival (PJ ) as 0.39. I divided the total number of young produced per female by 2 to estimate the number of juvenile females per adult female (βI.).

Results

• A total of 18 males maintained territories at this site through the peak of the nesting season. All 18 males were confirmed paired with a female and all females made at least one nesting attempt.

The finite rate of increase at 0.88 suggests that mortality exceeds reproduction and this site is acting as a sink population this year. This was likely due to high nest predation associated with an abundant chipmunk population during the year of this study. However, we did find a high abundance of older (ASY) birds which is associated with habitats of good quality (source). It is also possible that we were not able to locate all of the re-nests which would skew our results. Thus, this study should be repeated at this site over multiple years to determine if our results are consistent during years when chipmunk populations are less abundant. This type of work is extremely important to help identify which habitats resources should be spent on to conserve declining shrubland-obligate species like the prairie warbler.

Methods

• In May-June 2016, we captured all male PRAW using mist nets and identified birds as either 1 yr old “second year” (SY) birds or after second year (ASY) birds. • We expected more older (ASY) PRAW to occupy this site since they are more experienced in finding which habitats are “source habitats” that can produce a surplus of young to offset annual mortality.

Figure 3. Age Distribution of PRAW Sited in the Severino Gravel Pit, Dover NH in 2016.

Conclusions

2) Determine the age-structure of all breeding and non-breeding adult male PRAW at my study site. 3) Quantify the number fledglings produced by each breeding pair of PRAW and calculate the finite rate of increase for the population.

Acknowledgements

Figure 1. PRAW Territories Designated by Color Band Combinations from Severino Gravel Pit, Dover NH in 2016.

• Many thanks to my mentor Matt Tarr and co-worker Amir Kirata • Thank you to NH Fish and Game Department for their resources • Thank you to the McNair program and its staff • Much appreciation goes out to all of the wildlife we encountered at the site

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 8

BIOLOGY

AUTHOR: Beau Garcia


EcoCat Vehicle Selection Calculator AUTHOR: Joseph Verro ADVISOR: Stephen Pesci

This project is aimed at wise fiscal ECOCat Vehicle Selection Calculator and environmental decision-making Joseph Verro, Stephen Pesci, and Dr. Clayton Mitchell Departments of Chemical Engineering and Campus Planning, University of New Hampshire, Durham regarding campus mobility needs. Background Conclusions Fleet vehicles are frequently used for 10+ years. Over this period small differences in efficiency can result in large fiscal, fuel, and emission impacts. As a leader in sustainability and energy “Enter Your Data Sheet” Future Work the University of New Hampshire has Introduction moved towards highly efficient and alternative fuel vehicles. The calculator is a downloadable Excel based tool that permits life cycle cost evaluation Data of new vehicles. The calculator looks at vehicle capital cost, mpg, annual miles of travel, and fuel type to project a lifecycle cost and emission profile of vehicle choices. Users can adjust parameters in the spreadsheet to meet their actual use characteristics or simply use pre-programmed defaults. •  The UNH mobile Bleet consists of over 325 vehicles •  In FY 2017 the Bleet traveled over 2.2 million miles and used over 225,000 gallon equivalents of fuel. •  Fuel costs were over $490,000 and emissions of 2,600 tons of CO2 •  ECOCat vehicles used over 49,000 gallon equivalents of CNG and over 69,000 gallons of B20 replacing 50,000 gals of petroleum fuel and saving UNH an estimated $100,000 while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 650 tons •  EcoCat is the logo for UNH-Durham Bleet that run on alternative fuel (AF) such as compressed natural gas (CNG), biodiesel (B20) and electricity.

The UNH Mobile Fleet

Figure 1: UNH screening process for new Bleet vehicles

Figure 2: The UNH Bleet currently contains Bive Nissan Leafs

•  UNH has incrementally introduced AFV’s to help push towards WildCAP Goals •  Through the Clean Fleet Program UNH promotes low emission, high efBiciency vehicles to replace the existing Bleet •  The University has developed a tool to facilitate

wise fiscal and environmental decision making regarding campus mobility needs. •  The tool incorporates vehicle price, MPG, and CO2 emissions to calculate full lifecycle costs and emissions. •  The calculator promotes sustainability while focusing on sizing based on need

Customize Values in Yellow which carry over to ALL tabs

INPUT ESTIMATED ANNUAL MILEAGE FOR VEHICLE BEING CONSIDERED:

5000

INPUT ESTIMATED DAILY MILEAGE FOR VEHICLE BEING CONSIDERED:

14

Input your fuel cost CNG (gge) Regular Unleaded Gasoline (gal)

(UNH Default Prices) Enter EsHmated EscalaHon $ 1.65 -2.00% 2.00% $ 2.28

B20 (gal) kWh rate (NighHme)

$ 2.13 $ 0.05

kWh rate (DayKme)

$ 0.16

EsKmated nighKme charging

90%

2.00% 0.00% 2.00%

Add your own vehicle : www. fueleconomy.gov/

Car

Fuel type

Vehicle Name For plug-in hybrid/electric vehicle

Category

Your Own Electric Hybrid Plug-in Hybid ConvenKonal ICE Biodiesel CNG SUV Hybrid Truck Van 1/2 Ton Van 3/4 Ton Van 1 Ton Police Police Hybrid

gasoline

Ba]ery Size (kWh)

MPG

MSRP

Range (MI)

Vehicle name

MSRP-Federal Rebate

MPGe (Elec)

Emission Score*

MPG (Gas)

Vehicle Charge Rate (kW)

Are you eligble for EV tax rebate?

Yes $ 7,500

Charge Time (hrs at 220V)

Comparison to Popular Vehicles Number of Years in Life Cycle ProjecKon

Model Fuel Cost Annual Fuel Cost (Per Gallon)

Fuel Cost

Capital and Fuel Cost

Annual Ave Cap and Fuel Cost

#DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! Vehicle Name $ - $ 2.50 #DIV/0! 2017 Nissan Leaf $ 27,500 $ 2.11 $ 84 $ 836 $ 28,336 $ 2,834 2018 Toyota Prius Eco $ 25,165 $ 2.50 $ 215 $ 2,152 $ 27,317 $ 2,732 $ 79 $ 792 $ 20,392 $ 2,039 2017 Toyota Prius Prime $ 19,600 See EV 2018 Chevrolet Sonic $ 16,870 $ 2.50 $ 499 $ 4,993 $ 21,863 $ 2,186 2018 Chevrolet Cruze $ 16,975 $ 2.33 $ 376 $ 3,762 $ 20,737 $ 2,074 2015 Honda Civic $ 24,150 $ 1.51 $ 446 $ 4,458 $ 28,608 $ 2,861 2018 Toyota Rav4 $ 27,135 $ 2.50 $ 367 $ 3,671 $ 30,806 $ 3,081 2018 Colorado 2.5L $ 20,000 $ 2.50 $ 624 $ 6,241 $ 27,343 $ 2,734 2018 Chevrolet City Express $ 22,405 $ 2.50 $ 520 $ 5,201 $ 27,606 $ 2,761 2017 Chevrolet 2500 4.8L $ 31,940 $ 2.50 $ 693 $ 6,935 $ 38,875 $ 3,887 2017 Chevrolet 3500 6.0L $ 33,140 $ 2.50 $ 1,248 $ 12,483 $ 45,623 $ 4,562 2018 Ford UHlity 3.5L Ecoboost $ 832 $ 8,322 $ 40,527 $ 4,053 (AWD) $ 32,205 $ 2.50 2019 Ford Hybrid Responder 2.0L $ 30,035 $ 2.50 $ 312 $ 3,121 $ 33,156 $ 3,316

10

Es0mated Total CO2 Emissions (tons) (4) #DIV/0! 0 10 6 23 15 21 17 29 24 32 58 38 14

* From USDOE/EPA website 10 is best in class tailpipe emissions h?p://www.fueleconomy.gov/

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /BIOENGINEERING

•  The Selection Calculator is a spreadsheet tool preloaded with vehicles screened by the UNH Bleet manager •  Evaluated categories include passenger cars, vans and pickups, and special purpose vehicles •  The calculator also provides details on available electric vehicles to educate subjects on the emerging technologies •  The ‘Data’ sheet is set up for conditions on the UNH campus, but can be customized for personal use

Electricity Graphs

•  Fleet vehicles are frequently kept for 10+ years and small differences in MPG can result in large Biscal and emissions impacts •  The cheapest vehicle up front can have a much greater life-cycle cost (fuel and emissions) than a higher efBiciency vehicle •  Alternative Fuel Vehicles will help the university become carbon neutral by 2100 •  The calculator supports the EV Infrastructure Policy •  Plug-In Hybrids and fully Electric Vehicles will become a greater part of the UNH Bleet •  The time of day charging is critical to the price of fueling an EV and the upstream emissions •  Evaluate the long-term maintenance costs of ICE’s vs EV’s •  Present tool to Bleet managers and AF companies at GSCCC “Green Your Fleet Workshop” •  Educate the Durham community and Public on life-cycle costs of AFV’s vs. conventional vehicles •  Continue to show positive effects of Bleet electriBication “Perfection is a moving target”

Acknowledgements

•  Thank you to Stephen Pesci, Ray Myatt, Matt O’Keefe, Dr. Clayton Mitchell for their project collaboration •  Thank you to the UNH ETF and SI for their support •  Thank you to the GSCCC DES for helping spread the leading work UNH is doing with its Bleet •  Thank you to Dr. Kang Wu, Dr. Russell Carr, and Dr. Paul Tsang for allowing this project to have academic afBiliation

References

"Find and Compare Cars - FuelEconomy.gov". [Online]. Available: h?ps:// fueleconomy.gov/feg/findacar.shtml. [Accessed: 2018]. "AlternaHve Fuels Data Center: Tools". [Online]. Available: h?ps:// www.afdc.energy.gov/tools. [Accessed: 2018]. "WildCAP - UNH's Climate AcHon Plan | Sustainability InsHtute". [Online]. Available: h?ps://sustainableunh.unh.edu/wildcap. [Accessed: 2018]. "EcoCat Vehicle SelecHon Calculator | University of New ...". [Online]. Available: h?ps://www.unh.edu/faciliHes/ecocat-vehicle-selecHon-calculator. [Accessed: 2018].

Figure 3: Fuel mix for electricity generation for the New England Region

Figure 4: Electricity Demand Curve on a normal load day

The calculator is set up to evaluate passenger cars, pickups and vans of various categories – all vehicles that are screened by the UNH fleet manager. Users can also add other vehicles for custom analysis. The calculator also provides additional details on all-electric vehicle battery and charging specifications. EV’s are becoming standard option for fleet replacement and this tool will help UNH fleet mangers to actively screen EV’s as best fit in the evolving fleet.

Characterization and Dynamics of Imidazole-Based Channels in Membranes AUTHOR: Altai Perry ADVISOR: Harish Vashisth

Imidazole-based molecules with 8-carbon-long alkyl chains were investigated through molecular dynamics simulations in synthetic polymer membranes and POPC. These molecules are known to form salt-excluding channels in membranes. Simulations of the variants: HC8, SC8, and RC8 where SC8 and RC8 are chiral enantiomers of HC8. Layer thickness, ensemble translational movement, and diameter of formed channel were taken into consideration while qualitatively assessing stability (which, when quantitative, is normally measured in terms of root mean square distance). Supporting the results obtained by Dr. Shen at Pennsylvania State University, RC8 and SC8 had larger water flux. It is thought to be a product of channel torsion that anchors the macrostructure. Salt-exclusion requires pore sizes no larger than 3 angstroms. At this size, it was found that the water is pushed through the membrane in a water wire. It is also found that the existence of the water wire is imperative to the stability of the membrane.

9 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells into Neurons

420-430 nm which corresponds to ~2.8eV

METHODS & MATERIALS

• Addition of TiO2 results a peak in the visible light range (420~430nm). • The addition of dopamine moves the peak slightly more into the visible light region.

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

Conduction Band

TiO2

TiO2

Substrate

Ammonium Hexafluorotitinate Boric Acid

0

TiO2

PDA+TiO2 1hr

PDA+TiO2 24hr

H2O2

Proliferation Assay

30000

Fluorescence

TiO2

Substrate

Dopamine Hydrochloride 10mM Tris Base

1

• The TiO2 24 hour substrates show a greater luminescence compared to the TiO2 1 hour surface.

Valance Band

Valance Band

TiO2

Substrate

2

Oxygen

Carbon

Conduction Band

Neural Engineering • Neural Tissue Engineering: aim to create methods that replace or repair damaged tissues using natural, synthetic, or semisynthetic means. • Neural Stem Cells: differentiate into either neurons or glial cells and glial cells include oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. • Neurons typically spontaneously differentiate into glial cells and not neurons. • Directed differentiation of neural stem cells can be an approach in aiding neurological conditions such as spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, etc.

TiO2

Substrate

Dopamine Hydrochloride MES Buffer

20000

10000

Cells

e-

TiO2

TiO2

TiO2

e-

TiO2

Substrate

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM )

TiO2 Deposition - 1hr

TiO2 Deposition - 4hr

TiO2 Deposition - 24hr

• As the reaction time increased the particle density of TiO2 also increased. • Crystalline structures begin to form after 24 hours .

Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)

TiO2 Deposited - 1hr

TiO2 Deposited - 4hr

TiO2 Deposited - 24hr

• Ti peak increases as the reaction time increases. • As the reaction time increases the silicon, oxygen and aluminum peaks decrease.

• As reaction time increased, the carbon was masked by a titanium peak. • Carbon1 peaks can be broken into: • C-C (284.5eV), C-O (~286eV), and C=O (~288eV). • As TiO2 is deposited on the surface, carbon peaks lose some of its characteristic peaks. • This is caused by the titanium using the C-O as a binding site. • The oxygen peak changes significantly as the surface is coated with titanium. • The bottom peak is representative of what the oxygen peak looks like for polydopamine, while the 24 hour sample peak matches the peak for TiO2. Titanium

0

1hr

24hr

1

1hr+Dopa

24hr+Dopa

PDA

CONCLUSION

• SEM, EDS, and XPS analyses confirms the growth of TiO2 on polydopamine coating and the binding of dopamine on TiO2. • TiO2 deposition on polydopamine results in a distinct peak in visible range in UV/VIS spectra. • Absorbance confirms glass coverslips can be used as a substrate for the addition of PDA, TiO2, and polydopamine layers. • ROS assays can be used to detect the formation of free electrons from TiO2. • TiO2 modified with dopamine enhances the attachment and proliferation of PC12 cells.

FUTURE WORK

• The titanium peak increases with reaction time showing more titanium oxide has been deposited on the surface. • The peak also shifts to a lower binding energy in the addition of dopamine. Overall

• Irradiate PC12 cells with UV and visible light to test for directed differentiation on the PDA, TiO2, Dopamine coated surfaces. • Cell studies using human neural stem cells. • Analyze results.

ACKOWLEDGMENTS

0.6

Increase reaction time: • Carbon- Decrease • Oxygen- Steady • Titanium- Increase

0.4

Carbon Oxygen Titanium

0.2

Dr. Shiwha Park, UNH Chemical Engineering Shujie Hou, UNH Chemical Engineering Professor Xuanmao Chen, UNH MCBS

0

RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

www.PosterPresentations.com

Detection of Beta Carotene and Lutein Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Beta Carotene and Lutein

Carotenoids in the Presence of each other

Beta Carotene

Beta Carotene in Presence of Lutein

20nM

700

60nM

500

80nM

400

120nM

100nM 140nM

300

160nM

200

180nM

100 0

200nM

500

1000

1500

100nM

300

140nM

500

100

150

500 300

200

Lutein

20nM

700

40nM

600

60nM 80nM

500

100nM

400

120nM

300

140nM

200

160nM 180nM

100 0

• RCT is found by fitting impedance data to Randles Circuit

0

500

1000

1500

Zreal (ohm)

• Cyclodextrin forms inclusion complexes

60nM

120nM

100nM 140nM

200

160nM 180nM

100

800

Rct (ohm)

700

y = 321.4ln(x) - 747.43 R² = 0.9918

600 500

200nM

0

500

1000

1500

Zreal (ohm)

500 400

y = 215.86ln(x) - 501.59 R² = 0.9862

200

0

50

100

150

200

Conclusion

100

3000

0

50

100

150

200

50

Modified

Unmodified

150

200

Lutein

0nM

20nM

2000

60nM

40nM 80nM

1500

100nM 120nM

1000

140nM 160nM 180nM 200nM

0

1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Zreal (ohm)

6000

7000

y = 228.12ln(x) - 162.44 R² = 0.9983

y = 321.4ln(x) - 747.43 R² = 0.9918

Unmodified Modified

0

50

Concentration (nM)

Future Work

100

Concentration (nM)

2500

2000

600

300

300

2500

500

700

800

Concentration (nM)

100

150

Concentration (nM)

200

Acknowledgements

Hernandez et al. 2014, Covalent modification of carbon surfaces with cyclodextrins by mediated oxidation of beta-cyclodextrin monoanions

5.E-05

• Beta carotene and Lutein successfully detected using EIS

Cycle

4.E-05

• No significant difference between bare and unmodified electrode

3.E-05 2.E-05 1.E-05

https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC 2739844_1752-153X-3-9-1&req=4

40nM 80nM

1000

200

20nM

300

900

2000

Zreal (ohm)

y = 152.68ln(x) - 262.41 R² = 0.9939

0

3000

0nM

500

2000

1500

400

100

200

400

1100

400

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2016/cc/c6cc01106c

Attachment of Beta Cyclodextrin

150

600

900

• Hypothesis: Increases sensitivity of hydrophobic analytes

100

700

0

1000

y = 269.99ln(x) - 616.73 R² = 0.9914

Concentration (nM)

200nM

500

300

50

Lutein in Presence of Beta Carotene

0nM

0

600 500

200

0

-Zimag (ohm)

-Zimag (ohm)

• 20 mM Fe3-/4-(CN)6 in PBS with tween at pH 7.4

0

800 700

400

100

50

800

• Fe3-/4-(CN)6 reaction is used to create electron transfer

200

2000

200

0

900

• Opposition to the flow of electrons with alternating current

1500

900

Concentration (nM)

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

1000

Zreal (ohm)

600

y = 270.03ln(x) - 616.82 R² = 0.9914

300

http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/ac-inductance.html

200nM

500

400

y = 282.28ln(x) - 643.44 R² = 0.9818

700

Rct (ohm)

Rct (ohm)

700

100

180nM

0

900 800

900

Methods

160nM

800 600

1000

1100

B-Carotene

120nM

100

2000

Zreal (ohm)

80nM

200

0nM 10nM 20nM 30nM 40nM 50nM 60nM 70nM 80nM 90nM 100nM

1000

60nM

400

0

0

OH

40nM

600 500

Rct (ohm)

Carotenoids

HO

Beta Carotene

1200

20nM

-Zimag (ohm)

• Carotenoids are hydrophobic antioxidants

40nM

600

Cyclodextrin Modified

0nM

700

Rct (ohm)

-Zimag (ohm)

• Humans cannot synthesize

• Antioxidants correlate to various diseases

Lutein

800

0nM

800

-Zimag (ohm)

900

• Antioxidants are beneficial to humans

-Zimag (ohm)

Introduction

• Antioxidants are found in vegetables and fruits

Rct (ohm)

ADVISOR: Jeffrey Halpern

Carotenoids are biological pigment Detection of Beta Carotene and Lutein Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy molecules that are often found in fruits, Sabrina Marnoto and Jeffrey M. Halpern Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire vegetables, and human tissue. Humans cannot synthesize carotenoids, but they can be accumulated through diet. Carotenoids have been found to lower oxidative stress which can lead to a lower risk of disease and infections . Lower carotenoid levels have also been found in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and multiple types of cancer. Although there is a reverse correlation between the concentration of carotenoids and risk of disease, there are still a lot of qualities of carotenoids that are unknown to scientists. Because of this, an effective point-of-care, cheap, and sensitive carotenoid sensor is needed. Electrochemical methods were found to be the most cost effective while maintaining sensitivity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a method that measures the impedance and frequency when an alternating current is applied to a system, was used for the detection of carotenoids. A transfer of electrons was created by using the ferricyanide and ferrocyanide reaction. β-carotene and lutein, were successfully detected using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy by measuring the interaction of the carotenoid to the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Current (A)

AUTHOR: Sabrina Marnoto

0.E+00

0.0

0.2

0.4 Voltage (V)

0.6

0.8

• Carotenoids in presence of each other showed greater error

• Publish current data

• Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research

• Obtain triplicate data for modified experiments

• College of Engineering and Physical Sciences

• Test carotenoids in the presence of each other using a modified electrode

• CIBBR NIH P20 GM113131

• NSF CBET EAGER 163896 • SEEDS Laboratory

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 10

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /BIOENGINEERING

e-

Percent Composition

e-

RESULTS

TiO2 and Dopamine • Band Gap: the energy difference between the valance and conduction band, the energy need to excite an electron to participate in conduction. • Titanium Oxide (TiO2 ): is a free electron source when excited by electrical stimulation. • TiO2 is excited within the UV light region and can not be excited by visible light. • TiO2 + Dopamine: lowers the band of TiO2 to the visible light region.

3

380nm (which corresponds to 3.2eV)

Scaffolds • Coverslips containing PDA, TiO2, Dopamine layers • Substrate: glass • Polydopamine (PDA): allows TiO2 molecules to adhear • Titanium Oxide (TiO2): free electron source • Dopamine: lowers band gap of TiO2

BACKGROUND

Electrical Stimulation • Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to direct differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons. • Electrical fields can be too strong, such as UV, and are cytotoxic to cells. • UV stimulation can cause chromosomal damages to cells as well as have low tissue penetration distance. • The use of visible light is a preferred electrical stimulant. • Visible light is known not to be harmful to cells and is known to penetrate further into tissue compared when compared to UV stimulation.

Reactive Oxygen Species Assay (ROS)

Absorbance

OBJECTIVES

• Create scaffolds coated with PDA, TiO2 , and Dopamine • Characterize the scaffolds created • Detect if free electrons from the scaffolds are created • Test proliferation of cells on surfaces

Luminescence

ABSTRACT

Neuronal differentiation of stem cells is an essential aspect of neural tissue engineering to regenerate irreversibly damaged neural tissues. Among many physical and biochemical stimuli, electrical stimulation has shown a great promise to induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. In this research, we explore the possibility of using visible light irradiation to achieve electrical stimulation of neural stem cells. For this, dopamine-modified titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared and used as substrates for stem cell culture. The successful formation of dopamine-modified TiO2 and its optical properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The light-induced generation of free electrons was confirmed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. Based on these results, the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells on this substrate, in the presence and absence of light irradiation, will be monitored.

UV Light

ADVISOR: Kyung Jae Jeong

Neuronal differentiation of stem cells Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells into Neurons Caroline Houston, Chante Jones, Alison Deyett, Kyung Jae Jeong is an essential aspect of neural tissue Department Chemical Engineering , University of New Hampshire, Durham NH, USA engineering to regenerate irreversibly damaged neural tissues Among many physical and biochemical stimuli, electrical stimulation has shown a great promise to induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. In this research, we explore the possibility of using visible light irradiation to achieve electrical stimulation of neural stem cells. For this, dopamine-modified titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared and used as substrates for stem cell culture. The successful formation of dopamine-modified TiO2 and its optical properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The light-induced generation of free electrons was confirmed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. Based on these results, the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells on this substrate, in the presence and absence of light irradiation, will be monitored. Visible Light

AUTHOR: Caroline Houston


Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Study of Peptide-Templated Eumelanin Pigments AUTHORS: Daniel Courter Olivia Rossi

Melanins are organic polymers made * up of 5,6-dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid (DHICA) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Biochemical systems synthesize melanins through a complex reaction pathway. Previous research exhibited that naturally-occurring melanins (NatMel) and their synthetic analogues (SynMel) can potentially serve as electrode materials for aqueous charge storage devices. Small surface area creates technical challenges for these melanins as charge storage materials. This research herein demonstrates that the structure of melanins can affect the charge storage capacities of monovalent sodium cations and divalent magnesium cations. 2-D sheet-like peptide melanins (PepMel) were synthesized into tripeptides consisting of aspartic acid (D), phenylalanine (F), and tyrosine (Y) through a heating and cooling process. Tyrosinase was used to oxidize the Y residues and initiate polymerization of the tripeptides into molecules with 2-D planar morphologies. Structural analysis of NatMel, SynMel, and PepMel was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Melanins were electrochemically examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry followed by chemical analysis using Raman spectroscopy. University of New Hampshire, College of Engineering and Physical Science (CEPS) Department of Chemical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH USA * [youngjo.kim@unh.edu]

Electrochemical characterization

How to control topography of melanins?

Edible electronics biomedical devices

Synthesis using peptide template

Collaboration with Prof. Ulijn at City Univ of New York

ADVISOR: Young Jo Kim

Monitoring patient compliance

Non-invasive diagnostics

Smart controlled release

Lampel et al. Science 2017

PillCam

Battery + Packaging (~90% device mass)

“Helius” (Proteus Biomedical)

“PillCam” (Given Imaging)

“Intellicap” (Philips)

Types of melanin samples

BET Isotherm

Biodegradable energy storage using melanin pigments Synthesis

Structure

Chronoamperometry by constant V

Structural conformation via Raman spectroscopic analysis

Chemistry

Raman spectra of melanins

5,6-dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid (DHICA)

Catechol

Quinone

Messersmith et al. PNAS 2006

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /BIOENGINEERING

Technical challenges of eumelanin pigments

Naturally-occurring eumelanin pigments can be used as charge storage materials when paired with Na+ and Mg2+ in aqueous environment. • Limited charge storage capacity due to the nature of the structure • Extremely difficult to control topography of melanins during synthesis

Development of Oral Universal Influenza Vaccine AUTHOR: Brady Camplin ADVISOR: Kang Wu

An estimated 291,000 to 646,000 Utilizing Spores of Bacillus subtilis for a Universal Flu Vaccine people die from seasonal influenzarelated respiratory illness every year. ABSTRACT METHODS RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Current influenza vaccines are fragile to temperature and other conditions, making them costly to store and administer in addition to being less than BACKGROUND ideally effective. We aimed to counter this problem by providing a spore delivery mechanism of the hemagglutinin 2 (HA2) universal influenza A antigen. HA2 is the base portion of the influenza A surface CONCLUSIONS protein previously demonstrating lower rates of mutation, giving potential for universal immunity. HA2 will be OBJECTIVES CITATIONS displayed on the surface of Bacillus subtilis by recombination alongside several different surface coat proteins such as CotB, CotC, and CotG, as well as adsorption onto the spore surface. The complex can be proven preliminary effective through ELISA testing and could provide a cheap, durable, and universally effective vaccine in the future. Honors Thesis by Brady Camplin, Senior, Bioengineering

An estimated 291,000 to 646,000 people die from seasonal influenza-related respiratory illness every year. Current flu vaccines are expensive and ineffective. We aimed to counter this problem by providing a spore delivery mechanism for antigen hemagglutinin 2 (HA2), previously demonstrated to have potential for much wider immunity. We aimed to display HA2 recombinantly on the surface of Bacillus subtilis in 21 different assemblies varied based on coat protein and linker sequence. Four of the original 21 assemblies have potential thus far, with the rest unable to be correctly assembled. Another option being explored is the direct adsorption of HA2 onto the spore surface.. Future research will continue with the four recombinant methods and explore the effectiveness of direct adsorption.

• 291,000 to 646,000 people die from seasonal influenza-related respiratory illness every year with a vast majority of these deaths coming form developing nations

• Current flu vaccines are sensitive to temperature and pH making them expensive to store and difficult to deliver to developing nations

• Hemagglutinin is one of the main surface proteins on the common flu, influenza A. It is responsible for cellular binding and contains two subunits, a globular head known as HA1, and a membrane stalk known as HA2 • Traditional vaccines utilize destroyed versions of entire viruses which leave HA2 unavailable to the immune system due to HA1 blocking it • HA2 however is much more conserved throughout influenza strains, making it an ideal candidate to provide a broader, or universal, immunity • However, HA2 is unstable without the HA1 head domain • Bacterial spores are formed as a defense mechanism for bacteria to protect DNA in harsh environments, and naturally can provide protection unstable proteins

Figure 1

21 different Assemblies were theorized based on variation of three parameters: 2. Linker Sequence

3. The Position of HA2

The type of surface protein, the linker sequence, and the position of the HA2 sequence were all varied according to Table 2. Specific coat proteins and linker sequences that worked for other proteins were investigated.

Utilizing recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores

Utilizing adsorption onto the spore surface

Characterize universal immunity

11 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Gel Electrophoresis of PCR15, HA2. Two bands present, one slightly less than 1000 bp and another around 200 bp.

Table 1

PCR Name PCR1 PCR2 PCR3 PCR4 PCR5 PCR6 PCR7 PCR8 PCR9 PCR10 PCR11 PCR12 PCR13 PCR14 PCR15 PCR16 PCR17 PCR18 PCR19 PCR20 PCR21 PCR22 PCR23 PCR24 CPR25 PCR26 PCR27 PCR28 PCR29

Template pDG1662 bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA HA2_4900 bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA bs gDNA

Product Size (bp) integration vector backbone 6800 PcotC-cotC (GGGGS) 640 (GGGGS) HA2 860 PcotC-cotC (EAAAK) 640 (EAAAK) HA2 860 PcotC-cotC (GGGEAAAKGGG) 640 (GGGEAAAKGGG) HA2 860 PcotB-cotB (GGGGS) 1340 PcotB-cotB (EAAAK) 1340 PcotB-cotB (GGGEAAAKGGG) 1340 PcotG-cotG (GGGGS) 1100 PcotG-cotG (EAAAK) 1100 PcotG-cotG (GGGEAAAKGGG) 1100 PcotC 400 HA2 860 PcotB 500 PcotG 500 HA2 (GGGGS) 860 (GGGGS) cotC 240 HA2 (EAAAK) 860 (EAAAK) cotC 240 HA2 (GGGEAAAKGGG) 860 (GGGEAAAKGGG) cotC 240 (GGGGS) cotB 840 (EAAAK) cotB 840 (GGGEAAAKGGG) cotB 840 (GGGGS) cotG 600 (EAAAK) cotG 600 (GGGEAAAKGGG) cotG 600

Table 2

Assemblies Name Description Size (bp) A1 PCR1+PCR2+PCR3 1500 A2 PCR1+PCR4+PCR5 1500 A3 PCR1+PCR6+PCR7 1500 A4 PCR1+PCR8+PCR3 2200 A5 PCR1+PCR9+PCR5 2200 A6 PCR1+PCR10+PCR7 2200 A7 PCR1+PCR11+PCR3 1960 A8 PCR1+PCR12+PCR5 1960 A9 PCR1+PCR13+PCR7 1960 A10 PCR1+PCR14+PCR15 1260 A11 PCR1+PCR16+PCR15 1360 A12 PCR1+PCR17+PCR15 1360 A13 PCR1+PCR14+PCR18+PCR19 1500 A14 PCR1+PCR14+PCR20+PCR21 1500 A15 PCR1+PCR14+PCR22+PCR23 1500 A16 PCR1+PCR16+PCR18+PCR24 2200 A17 PCR1+PCR16+PCR20+PCR25 2200 A18 PCR1+PCR16+PCR22+PCR26 2200 A19 PCR1+PCR17+PCR18+PCR27 1960 A20 PCR1+PCR17+PCR20+PCR28 1960 A21 PCR1+PCR17+PCR22+PCR29 1960

Table 1 displays the various component sequences that were dealt with in this project and their size. Table 2 displays the unique arrangement of these PCR sequences in 21 unique Assemblies to be transformed in Bacillus subtilis, each containing a spore coat protein component, a linker sequence, and the sequence for HA2.

• To utilizing Bacillus subtilis spores to successfully deliver HA2 and provide immunity

• Characterize immunity with ELISA antibody tests

Figure 2

1. Surface Protein

Assemblies were tested to be successfully constructed utilizing Colony PCR and forward and reverse primers of the respective PCR fragments

Gel Electrophoresis of colony PCRs. All assemblies produced a band around 200 bp, while assemblies A1, A10, A11, and A16 also displayed regions around 1500 bp

From Figure 1, all assemblies produced bands around 200 bp while assemblies A1, A10, A11, and A16 produced bands around 1500. The 200 bp could be due to a complimentary sequence present on the vector. The assemblies should all display bands corresponding to their respective size in the righthand column of Table 2. This indicates that assemblies 1, 10, 11, and 16 are likely correctly assembled. Figure 2 depicts gel electrophoresis of PCR15, HA2, corresponding to the first step in a new potentially effective approach of direct adsorption onto the spore surface. The Figure shows two bands, one present at 200 bp like all the rest, and one present at 860 bp. This band is likely HA2, as it represents its correct size drawn from Table 1

• Four of the 21 Assemblies for recombinant Bacillus subtilis-HA2 have proven successful so far and they will continue to be experimented with •

Remaining procedures involve transformation into Bacillus subtilis followed by sporulation and testing

• Also, due to the relative ineffectiveness to assemble the desired DNA sequences, direct adsorption can be investigated, involving the purification of PCR15 and further characterization with Bacillus subtilis spores

1. Arévalo, Maria T., et al. "A dual purpose universal influenza vaccine candidate confers protective immunity against anthrax." Immunology 150.3 (2017): 276-289. 2. Henriques, Adriano O., and Charles P. Moran, Jr. "Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers." Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 61 (2007): 555-588. 3. Lu, Yuan, John P. Welsh, and James R. Swartz. "Production and stabilization of the trimeric influenza hemagglutinin stem domain for potentially broadly protective influenza vaccines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.1 (2014): 125-130. 4. Impagliazzo, Antonietta, et al. "A stable trimeric influenza hemagglutinin stem as a broadly protective immunogen." Science349.6254 (2015): 1301-1306. 5. Isticato R, Ricca E. Spore Surface Display. Microbiol Spectr. 2014;2(5) 6. Duc LH, Hong HA, Fairweather N, Ricca E, Cutting SM. Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Vehicles . Infection and Immunity. 2003;71(5):28102818. doi:10.1128/IAI.71.5.2810-2818.2003. 7. Zoon, Kathryn C. "Vaccines, pharmaceutical products, and bioterrorism: challenges for the US Food and Drug Administration." Emerging infectious diseases 5.4 (1999): 534.


Structural-Property Relationship of Biomaterials Using Intercalation of Group 1 Metallic Cations AUTHORS: Brandon Blaesing Dean Yost ADVISOR: Young Jo Kim

Biomaterial-based energy storages are being used to address the challenges * of currently available energy storage devices such as lithium-ion batteries. Result & Discussion Background Experimental Eumelanin pigments Structure & electrochemical analysis Energy storage devices these daysâ&#x20AC;Ś More sustainable, safer, and more environmentally-friendly energy storage would be ideal for grid-scale energy storages. Melanin pigments are promising biomaterials that can be used as electrode materials in Raman spectroscopic analysis Aqueous energy storage devices aqueous environments by exhibiting redox capabilities with metallic cations. Melanin mainly consists of two chemical moieties, dihydroxyindole (DHI), and dihydroxyindole carboxylic 0 0 acid (DHICA). Previous studies suggest that melanin is composed of oligomers covalently bonded with DHI and DHICA. Although the molecular composition and macroscopic topologies are well understood, little is known about their amorphous and heterogeneous macromolecular structure in meso-scale. We focus on the indirect examination of this structure using electrochemical intercalation of group 1 metal cations. Cationintercalated melanin can be examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. These techniques fingerprint the presence of ordered macromolecular structure in melanin. Research of melanin as an electrode material would be beneficial to understand the interaction with metallic cations within an aqueous environment. University of New Hampshire, College of Engineering and Physical Science (CEPS) Department of Chemical Engineering, Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH USA * [youngjo.kim@unh.edu]

Annual global electric vehicle sales are forecast to hit 24.4 million by 2030.

ď&#x201A;§ Biopolymers found in many living organisms. ď&#x201A;§ Homogeneous nanoparticle structure ď&#x201A;§ Stable in aqueous media

September 2017

How eumelanin pigments can be formedâ&#x20AC;Ś

(Top)

Challenges on LIB (Lithium Ion Batteries) Rapidly increasing price Costly to the environment Potentially toxic & hazardous materials

Tetramer

Subunit

(Side)

Ď&#x20AC;-stacking

HR-TEM of NatMel

Galvanostatic charge-discharge profile (I= 0.5Ag-1)

Macromolecule model of NatMel

SignumBox Estimates

Top

5nm

Watt et al. Soft Mater. 2009

Molecular model of natural melanin protomolecule

Side

Jan 16th 2016

Strategy

A snapshot from a molecular dynamics simulation shows the geometric order and disorder characteristics of eumelanin aggregate structures. The different variations of the eumelanin molecules are shown in different colors for clarity.

+ Function in aqueous electrolyte

+ Metallic cation as the primary charge carrier

http://news.mit.edu/2014/why-eumelanin-such-good-absorber-light-0522

+ Renewable & Sustainable

Materials

Lignin

AQDS

A

Eumelanin pigment from cuttlefish

O

O

SO3H

5,6-dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid (DHICA)

Huskinson et al. Nature 2014

Milczarek et al. Science 2012

Melanins

O

O

N

O

O

Macromolecule structure + Spectroscopic of NatMel

Natural melanin (NatMel) vs Synthetic melanin (SynMel) Electrochemical incorporation of Group I metal ions (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on NatMel and SynMel would provide more experimental insights about the macromolecular structure of NatMel in meso-scale.

Sepia Officinalis (Cuttlefish)

Rhubarb

HO3S

Chen et al. Nat. Commun. 2014

Natural melanins exhibit the ordered supramolecular structure as compared to the synthetic analogues.

Aqueous Na2SO4 electrolyte

Group I metallic ion

Kim et al. PNAS 2013

Kim et al. PNAS 2013

Electrochemical Evaluation of NG-Hydroxy-L-Arginine NG-Hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) is a Electrochemical Evaluation of NG-Hydroxy-L-arginine Mariah L. Arral, Christian A. Tooley, Jeffrey M. Halpern suspected biomarker in breast cancer Diffusion Cyclic Voltammetry Electrons Transferred Introduction due to its involvement in the L-arginine metabolism. Previous research in human breast cancer cells has shown that NOHA, Objectives a potent arginase inhibitor, has an antiproliferative and apoptotic actions on the arginase-expressing cells. NOHA Experimental is a stable intermediate product in the Differential Pulse Voltammetry production of NO from the consumption Fouling of Electrode of L-arginine. L-ornithine and L-citrulline are also involved in the metabolism of L-arginine through the urea cycle; the urea Acknowledgments cycle has been known to be disrupted in cancer patients. Early detection of References Conclusion Conclusion cancer is important for rapid treatment Conclusion options to be available. Electrochemical Contact detection is an established, cost-effective method that has potential to detect the onset of cancer because of its ability to successfully detect low levels of analyte concentrations. Before a robust biosensor sensor can be made the characterization of the electrochemical detection of NOHA needs to be done. Electrochemical activity of NOHA was investigated. In addition to our multiple data points to discuss sensitivity and reproducibility in the detection of NOHA, we will report kinetic information including the number of electrons transferred and diffusivity. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Methods

30

100

0

10

-400

Slope of excitation signal at a scan rate 50 mV/s

20

30

-100 -400

Time / s

Current obtained during voltage sweep

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8 uM 2 uM

â&#x20AC;˘ Calculate diffusivity of NOHA

4 uM

â&#x20AC;˘ Understand effect of electrode fouling

8 uM

10 uM 80 uM

400

0

Static Cell

0E+0

0.0

0.2

0.4

-200

142 uM 148 uM

-400

0.6

Reduction Peak 188 mV

25

Reduction Calibration Curve y = -1.94E-08ln(x) - 7.67E-08 R² = 0.91

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

0.5 uM 1 uM 2 uM

0

25

4 uM

0

Forward Voltage

Reverse Voltage

Time / ms

Not drawn to scale

800

80 uM

600 500

0.25 Voltage / v

0.35

Results

NOHA Serial Dilution in 7.3 pH PBS

0.5 uM

4 uM 8 uM

10 uM 80 uM

100 uM 142 uM 148 uM

575

1E-6

375 275 175 75

0E+0

0.0

0.2 0.4 Voltage vs Ag/AgCl

0.6

0

50 100 Concentration / uM

0.6

60

80

80 uM

100 uM 142 uM

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

850

40 uM

Oxidation of Alanine and Hydroxyguanidine

550 250

-50

-0.2

E = 355 mV

150

Hydroxyguanidine

-350

â&#x20AC;˘ Hydroxyguanidine oxidation peak correlates with NOHAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

â&#x20AC;˘ CV has less error and higher sensitivity than differential pulse voltammetry

â&#x20AC;˘ Oxidation of NOHA is a two electron concerted process

0.2

0.4

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

0.6

y = 4.64E-09x + 5.59E-08 R² = 0.97

6E-7

Oxidation peak at 360 mV

4E-7 2E-7

0E+0

â&#x20AC;˘ Oxidation peak at 355 mV and reduction peak at 188 mV when using CV

0

0 uM 0.5 uM 0.8 uM 1 uM 2 uM 4 uM 8 uM 10 uM 40 uM 80 uM 100 uM 142 uM 148 uM

Calibration Curve

8E-7

E = 355 mV

1. Cells, M.-; Singh, R.; Pervin, S.; Karimi, A.; Cederbaum, S.; Chaudhuri, G. 2000, 3305â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3312. 2. Pervin, S.; Singh, R.; Chaudhuri, G. 2008, 19, 103â&#x20AC;&#x201C;106.

3. Bard, A. J.; Faulkner, L. R. Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications; Wiley, 2000.

40 Ď&#x2030; 1/2

NOHA Serial Dilution in 7.3 pH LOCA PBS

10 uM

0.4

Alanine

4E-7

20

4 uM

0.2

y = 4.90E-09x + 6.20E-08 R² = 0.99

8E-7

0

3/2

n=2 F = 96,485.33 As A = 0.00785 cm2 C* = 160 uM v = 0.01 cm 2 s

8 uM

-400

Oxidation Calibration Curve

475

Current / A

1 uM 2 uM

1 uM

0

-200

675

0.8 uM

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200

0

4900 rpm

Assumption: The kinematic viscosity of NOHA is approximately the same as water because of low concentrations

0.8 uM

400

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600

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6E-5 4E-5

0 uM

800

-0.2

Oxidation peak at 288 mV

775

0 uM

142 uM

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

8E-5

1000

Pulse Time: 70 ms Cycle Time: 570 ms Pulse Potential: 50 mV Change In Current: â&#x2C6;&#x2020;i = if -ii

700

400 0.15

8 uM

100 uM

Current / nA

ii

2 mV

Change in Current / nA

70 ms

50 mV

500 ms

0.6

Hydroxyguanidine Serial Dilution in 7.3 pH PBS

Voltammogram

if

Step Voltage

0.4

40 uM

-200

Excitation Signal

0.2

-100

50 75 100 125 150 Concentration / uM

Methods

Auxiliary Electrode (Platinum)

The SEEDS Laboratory Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research UNH Honors Program College of Engineering and Physical Sciences NIH P20 GM113131

0

10 uM

Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl)

Rotating Disk Electrode

0.8 uM

100

-0.2

-2E-7

2500 rpm 3600 rpm

1

Calculation for Diffusivity

0 uM

50 75 100 125 150 Concentration / uM

-1E-7

-3E-7

0.5 Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

200

0

200

-0.2

100 uM

900 rpm

1600 rpm

Ď&#x2030;

-5 0

Alanine Serial Dilution in 7.3 pH PBS

4E-7

0E+0

100 rpm 400 rpm

35 15

Results

y = 5.39E-09x + 6.08E-08 R² = 0.99

Current / nA

Current / A

1 uM

55

Hydroxyguanidine

Oxidation Calibration Curve

8E-7

Current / A

â&#x20AC;˘ Establish number of electrons transferred

Current / nA

0.5 uM

E = 355 mV

E = 355 mV

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

75

Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

1E-6

0 uM

â&#x20AC;˘ Identify oxidation and reduction peaks

Working Electrode (Glassy Carbon)

Oxidation Peak 355 mV

600

Varying Rotation Ď&#x2030; of 160 uM NOHA in 7.3 pH PBS

Alanine

0

Results

NOHA Serial Dilution in 7.3 pH PBS

â&#x20AC;˘ Determine if NOHA is electrochemically active

Results

Possible Electron Transfer Paths

500 200

-0.2

Current / uA

20 Time / s

Limiting Current / A

10

Current / nA

-0.2 0

Current / nA

0

Hypothesis

Cyclic Voltammogram

Current VS. Time

600

0.4 0.2

Current / A

Excitation Signal

0.6

Voltage vs. Ag/AgCl

â&#x20AC;˘ Interested in the electrochemical behavior of NOHA

Voltage / mv

ADVISOR: Jeffrey Halpern

â&#x20AC;˘ Stable intermediate in L-Arginine metabolism

Current / nA

â&#x20AC;˘ NOHA is present in various biochemical processes

Current / nA

AUTHOR: Mariah Arral

0

50 100 Concentration / uM

150

4. Baur, J. E. Handbook of Electrochemistry; Zoski, C. G., Ed.; Elsevier Science, 2006.

M.L. Arral Mariahlynnarral@gmail.com (207) 459 -8367

J.M. Halpern P.h.D jeffrey.halpern@unh.edu

â&#x20AC;˘ Ready for publication

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 12

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /BIOENGINEERING

+ Cost-effective & Safe


Chiral Properties of Carbon Dots Synthesized from Aspartic Acid

ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Carbon dots (CDs) are nanoparticles with Chiral Properties of Carbon Dots Synthesized from Aspartic Acid Hannah Coco, Christine Caputo a range of applications in bio-imaging, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 biochemical sensing, drug delivery as Introduction Conclusion Results and Discussion photosensitizers for photocatalysis. CD are easy to synthesize from cost effective and readily available starting materials. They have been found to be non-toxic, Future Work making them attractive nanomaterials Experimental Work for biological applications. CD have been synthesized by thermolysis of aspartic Acknowledgements acid. Aspartic acid was chosen over other amino acids due to the availability of both References L- and D- enantiomers. Pure L- and Denantiomers as well as a racemic mixture of the two, LD-, were used to synthesize CDs. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to analyze if there was chiral transfer from starting material to CD. Based on the spectroscopic analysis, there was no difference in chirality between the CD made using D- or L- enantiomers. An alternative strategy is to create CD then attach amino acids via surface functionalization. The synthesis of L-, D- and DL-Asp surface functionalized CDs is being conducted with the achiral CDs to determine if chiral CD can be formed. These would have wide ranging applications in chiral sensing, chiral purification materials and potentially as chiral catalysts. Carbon dots (CDs) are nanoparticles with a range of applications in bio-imaging, biochemical sensing, drug delivery and as photosensitizers for photocatalysis. CDs are easy to synthesize from cost-effective and readily-available starting materials. They have been found to be non-toxic, making them attractive nanomaterials for biological applications. Chiral CDs are of particular interest due to their potential applications in chiral sensing, chiral purification materials, and potentially as chiral catalysts. Chiroptical activity has previously been induced in quantum dots with chiral capping ligands containing thiol groups.1 Chirality has also been induced from achiral CdSe quantum dots and a chiral ligand.2 For this reason, aspartic acid was chosen for synthesis of CDs due to the availability of both L- and Denantiomers. The work toward formation of chiral CDs from aspartic acid will be presented.

Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of D- and L- Aspartic Acid Carbon Dots

4 2 0

CD/mdeg

AUTHOR: Hannah Coco

200

250

300

350

400

OH

Wavelength (nm)

O

NH3

O

HO

320º C

O

NH3

O

O

100 h

Special thanks to the Caputo Group, including Dr. Caputo, Zane Relethford, Charlie Ayotte, and Ian Smith for their support throughout this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Varga and Ben Haynie for their expertise in CD Spectroscopy.

NH3

O

O

NH2

O

O

O

OH

O

HO

O

NH3

O

DL-Asp

O

Scheme 1: Synthesis of carbon dots from L- and Denantiomers and the racemic mixture O

NH3

O

O

O

O

HO

NH3

O

SOCl2

NH3

NH2

L- Asp

O

THF

O

O

O

O

796

O

O

OH

O

HN

HN

O

O

(3) Martindale, B. C. M.; Hutton, G. A. M.; Caputo, C. A.; Prantl, S.; Godin, R.; Durrant, J. R.; Reisner, E. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2017, 56, 6459–6463.

O

O

HO

2921

NH3

HN

O

1724

O O

O

(2) Choi, J. K.; Haynie, B. E.; Tohgha, U.; Pap, L.; Elliott, K. W.; Leonard, B. M.; Dzyuba, S. V.; Varga, K.; Kubelka, J.; Balaz, M. ACS Nano 2016, 10, 3809–3815.

NH3

Cl

O

2961

O

HO

(1) Haynie, B. Chiral Biomolecule-Induced Chiroptical Activity in Quantum Dots. Masters Thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 2017.

1364

Cl

Cl

Reflux, 80°C, 1 h

O

HO

Further characterization of the amino acid surface functionalized carbon dots is necessary to determine if acyl chloride capped carbon dots have fully reacted with L-aspartic acid. CD-Spectroscopy will be used to determine the chirality of the resulting carbon dots.

DL-Asp

O

O

320º C 100 h

O

L-Asp

HO

L-D Subtraction

OH

D-Asp

OH

L-Asp

Figure 1: Circular dichroism spectroscopy of L-, D-, and DL- carbon dots.

O

O

NH2

700

-8

NH3

O

HO

650

O

100 h

NH2

600

O

H 3N

320º C

550

-6

-10

O

HO

500

-4

D-Asp

O

450

-2

Synthesis of carbon dots from the chiral enantiomers or aspartic acid yields an achiral CD. There is no difference in chirality between the CDs synthesized from L- and Denantiomers and the DL- mixture. The synthesis of surface functionalized carbon dots with amino acids is still underway. Based on initial IR images there are changes in the surface of the CD from the achiral CD to the acyl-chloride capped CDs. IR spectra of aspartic acid surface functionalized carbon dots indicate some changes in the surface of the CD. However, the lack of an amide carbonyl stretch (1680-1630 cm−1) indicates that aspartic acid may not be bonded to the surface of the carbon dot.

3450

2950

O

Scheme 2: Synthesis of surface functionalized carbon dots with L- Asp.

2450 1950 Wavelength / cm−1

1450

950

450

(4) Hutton, G. A. M.; Reuillard, B.; Martindale, B. C. M.; Caputo, C. A.; Lockwood, C. W. J.; Butt, J. N.; Reisner, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 16722–16730.

Figure 2: IR spectra of L-Asp, CD-COOH, CD-COCl, and CD-Asp.

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis of a Redox-Active Hydrogel for the Protection of Black Phosphorous AUTHOR: Erin Braker

In order to utilize the full potential Synthesis of a Redox-Active Hydrogel for the Protection of Black Phosphorous of black phosphorous dots, progress towards the synthesis of a redox active hydrogel will be presented. This material should act as both a physical support and offer chemical protection from oxygen. Upon synthetic completion, the ability of the hydrogel to reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and ultimately to water, while also acting as a physical support for the dots, will be investigated. A synthetic step to form the protective viologen moiety with a cross-linker in a polyethylene imine network is currently being pursued. Upon completion, the 3-isothiocyanopropyl substituent on the moiety will be used as a site for polymerization. When the polymer synthesis is complete, the hydrogel will be used as a physical support for light-absorbing nanoparticle black phosphorous dots in a hybrid photocatalytic system to reduce hydrogen using a molecular nickel catalyst in solution for solar driven production of molecular hydrogen. Erin E. Braker, Charles A. Ayotte, Christine A. Caputo

University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry eb2018@wildcats.unh.edu

Problem:

ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Redox-Active Hydrogel:

Over 20 million cubic feet of natural gas was processed in 2017 in the U.S.1 At this rate, these resources are hypothesized to be depleted in the next 60-160 years.2 These statistics show that there’s a desperate need for change. One glaringly obvious solution is to use the sun. The sun is a promising source of energy as in 2013 the earth used 5.67 㽢 1020 J and the sun has been measured to provide 4.3x1020 J in a single day.2 Harnessing the sun’s energy could lead to a brighter future. Pieces of the Puzzle:

Proton Reduction & Hybrid Photocatalysis

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy:

Figure 4 Structure of the redox-active hydrogel

BP degrades with exposure to H2O, light, and O2. Studies have suggested that if O2 isn’t present this degradation cannot occur.7 The introduction of a previously synthesized, redox-active hydrogel (Figure 4) could make this material functional. This hydrogel was designed to protect hydrogenase from O2. The study showed the hydrogenase had increased stability when incorporated in the gel’s matrix.8

Figure 6 1H-NMR, CDCL3, 400 MHz of (1)

Figure 7 1H-NMR, CDCL3, 400 MHz of (2)

Figure 5 Redox chemistry of O2 and the viologen moiety

This hydrogel is hypothesized to reduce molecular oxygen to H2O2 and ultimately to H2O through the viologen moiety (Figure 5). It is hypothesized that this gel would allow BP to be stable under ambient conditions where it could be used in PC.

Figure 1 Hybrid photocatalytic system scheme

Solar driven production of hydrogen is an option for renewable energy. Photocatalysis (PC) is one method for redox, where two most studied kinds of PC are molecular catalysts (MCs) and semiconductors (SCs).3 Scientists have not been able to maximize SCs or MCs efficiency due to their imperfections. Hybrid PC systems combine the benefits of both of these methods.4

Black Phosphorous (BP)

Synthetic Routes: Synthesis of Cross-linker (1)

Scheme 1 The synthesis of 1-iodo-3-thioacetylpropane

Synthesis of the Site of Polymer Attachment (2)

Scheme 2 The synthesis of 1-bromo-3-isothiocyanopropyl

Attachment of Cross-Linker and Site of Polymer Attachment to Viologen Moiety (4)

Scheme 3 The synthesis of 1-(3-acetylthiopropyl)-1’-(3-isothiocyanopropyl)-4,4’-bipyridine iodide bromide

Figure 2, 3 Black Phosphorous (left) and graphene (right)4,5

BP is a material similar to graphene, but it is puckered sheets of phosphorous atoms as opposed to planar sheets of carbon. BP has shown promise in PC processes as a light absorber due to its tunable band gap (0.3-2.0 eV).6 This gap sits in between those of other SCs in a “sweet spot”. However, BP degrades in ambient conditions.

13 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Polymerization of the Hydrogel (5)

Scheme 4 Addition of polyethyleneimine to (4)

Figure 8 1H-NMR, CDCL3, 400 MHz of (3)

Conclusion:

Synthetic strategies of forming the cross-linker and the site of polymer attachment were successful. The attachment of the cross-linker to the viologen moiety was also successful. Future work with this hydrogel would include swelling it with BP and testing its ability to do electron transfer by irradiating the mixture with solar light. If the mixture does allow electron transfer, this could lead to BP being a contender in the scheme of solar energy.

References:

[1] Natural Gas Data. U.S. Energy Information Administration: Independent Statistics and Analysis. 2018, https://www.eia.gov/ (accessed: Apr 12, 2018) [2] Lewis, N.S.; Nocera, D.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2006, 103. 15729-15735. [3] Cook, T.R.; Dogutan, D.K.; Reece, S.Y.; Surendranath, Y.; Teets, T.S.; Nocera, D.G.Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 6474-6502. [4] Hu, J.; Guo, Z.; McWilliams, P.E.; Darges, J.E.; Druffel, D.L.; Moran, A.M.; Warren, S.C. Nano. Lett. 2016,16, 74-79. [5] Graphene Oxide. Reade International Corp. 2018, https://www.reade.com/products/ (accessed: Apr 12, 2018) [6] Ling, X.; Wang, H.; Huang, S; Xia, F.; Dresselhaus, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2015, 112, 4523-4530. [7] Bagheri, S.; Mansouri, N.; Aghaie, E. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy. 2016, 41, 4085-4095. [8] Plumere, N.; Rudiger, O.; Oughli, A.A.; Williams, R.; Vivekananthan, J.; Poller, S.; Schuhmann, W.; Lubitz, W. Nat. Chem. 2014, 6, 822–827.

Acknowledgements: - Dr. Caputo & the Caputo Group - United States Department of Energy - University of New Hampshire’s Department of Chemistry - Undergraduate Research Conference – ISE Symposium


Synthesis of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes For Use as Fluorescent Probes AUTHOR: Joseph Mancinelli

We explored the reversible redox Synthesis of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes for Use as Fluorescent Probes potential of functionalized BODIPY dyes. The precursor dye, BODIPY-FL, was functionalized with redox active pendant groups via Knoevenagel condensation. In their reduced state these molecules fluoresce under UV light, and upon oxidation of the pendant groups, the fluorescence of the dye is turned off. After subsequent reduction of the pendant group, the BODIPY regains its fluorescence. In this way, a light switchlight bulb relationship was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Synthesis of these BODIPY molecules was studied using 1H NMR, and the fluorescence data was collected using a UV-Vis spectrometer. Successful isolation of BODIPY-FL was achieved; however, synthesis of the redox-active derivatives requires further experimentation.

Joseph Mancinelli, Justin Cole, Ruiwen Chen, and Erik B. Berda. Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire. April 18th, 2018.

Introduction

ADVISOR: Erik Berda

Reactions of atoms and molecules occur at scales substantially too small to visualize. Scanning electron microscopy and other high resolution visualization techniques have allowed the study of structures on the nanometer scale.1 However, these techniques are unrealistic for biological and solution-based applications due to the conditions to which the samples are exposed. This research focuses on the synthesis of fluorescent dyes with a redoxactive pendant groups that modulate fluorescence. These dyes can be used to visualize chemical processes on the single molecule scale.2,3,4 The dyes chosen were BODIPY dyes which are known for their high UV extinctions, sharp fluorescence peaks, and ease of synthesis.5,6 The structure of these dyes (Figure 1) allows for easy tunability at any of the numbered sites on the BODIPY core. The BODIPY targeted in this project was BODIPY-FL, a well-known dye containing desired functionalities (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Target BODIPY-FL

Figure 1. Classic BODIPY core

Methods and Results

Figure 4. Real-world visualization of target dyes.

Scheme 2. Proposed redox chemistry to alter fluorescence.

Figure 12: BODIPY-Q2.

Figure 11: BODIPY-S2.

Upon isolation of BODIPY-S2 and BODIPY-Q2, continued UV-Vis and fluorimetry studies will be used to study the effect on fluorescence of the oxidation and reduction of the pendant groups.

Figure 5: 1H NMR of product formed after Wittig reaction.

Summary and Conclusions

Figure 6: 1H NMR of product formed after hydrogenation.

Successful synthesis of each product in the BODIPY-FL scheme was proven using 1H NMR, and each product was isolated in considerable yield. One of the target redox-active dyes, BODIPY-P2 was also isolated. The yield for this was low due to the scale of the reaction being 100 milligrams. BODIPY-P2 dye exhibited sharp fluorescence peaks, and upon oxidation of the pendant group, the fluorescence was turned off. However, subsequent reduction of the dye yielded an insoluble material, and it could not be determined if fluorescence was re-established.

The goal of this project was to isolate and modify BODIPY-FL with redox-active functionalities (Figure 3) and study the variation of fluorescence. After proof of concept, the BODIPY dye will be attached to a polymer for further use as a probe.

Synthetic Route 84%

Future Work

The future of this project will consist of continued synthesis of the precursor dye, BODIPY-FL. After further isolation of BODIPY-FL, Knoevenagel condensation will continue to be used to synthesize the remaining redox active dyes BODIPY-S2 (Figure 11) and BODIPY-Q2 (Figure 12).

Quantitative

Figure 8: 1H NMR of isolated BODIPY-P2.

Figure 7: 1H NMR of isolated BODIPY-FL.

Acknowledgements

37%

The author would like to thank the Army Research Office for support through award W911NF-14-10177, and NIST for support through award 70NANB15H060 as well as Dr. Erik Berda, Dr. Justin Cole, and Ruiwen Chen for their help and support on the project, the UNH Chemistry Department, and the Instrumentation Center.

Scheme 1. Proposed synthesis to functionalized BODIPY.

Figure 3. Targeted BODIPY dyes: S2, P2, and Q2 (left to right).

Figure 9: UV-Vis study of isolated BODIPY-P2.

Figure 10: Fluorimetry study of BODIPY-P2.

References

1. Iwata, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Mutombo, P.; Hapala, P.; Ondráček, M.; Jelínek, P.; Sugimoto, Y. Nature Communications, 2015, 6, 7766. 2. Oleynik, P.; Ishihara, Y.; Cosa, G. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 1842-1843. 3. Belzile, M.-N.; Godin, R.; Durantini, A. M.; Cosa, G. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 1638816397. 4. Gidi, Y.; Götte, M.; Cosa, G. J. Phys. Chem B, 2017, 121, 2039-2048 5. Loudet, A.; Burgess, K. Chemical Reviews, 2007, 107, 4891-4932. 6. Ulrich, G.; Ziessel, R.; Harriman, A. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2008, 47, 1184-1201.

Honorable Mention Project

2018

AUTHOR: Claudia Willis

The production of well-defined singlechain nanoparticles (SCNPs) has proven !"#$%&'(')*+)'(#,-&./%0(#)#0#*102$(/-&')!"#)0$*3.$20#'+&2)204(/0-)/*51-(#,) ) challenging with respect to finding synthetic routes that are scalable and do not require harsh reaction conditions. In order to combat these challenges, a route that utilizes atom-transfer radical coupling (ATRC) to collapse linear polymer chains through pendant functional groups has been tested. ATRC offers a method of SCNP formation using mild conditions with minimal synthetic steps. First, an ATRC active monomer, dimethyl bromoethyl methacrylate (Me2Brema), was synthesized from commercially available reagents in a one step synthesis. Me2Brema was then polymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) at 10%, 20% and 50% incorporations through reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) to produce linear polymer chains with low molecular weight dispersity. Polymers were then collapsed into SCNPs via ATRC. Parent polymers and SCNPs were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and a shift to a longer retention time was observed in SCNPs, indicating successful collapse of the parent polymer. Carbon and proton NMR were also used to track the successful synthesis of these species. Claudia S. Willis, Ashley Hanlon, Elizabeth Bright, Courtney Leo and Erik B. Berda. Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire.

Introduction

ADVISOR: Erik Berda

Discussion

Characterization

The production of well-defined single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) has proven challenging with respect to finding synthetic routes that are scalable and do not require harsh reaction conditions. In order to combat these challenges, a route that utilizes atom-transfer radical coupling (ATRC) to collapse linear polymer chains through pendant functional groups has been tested.1 Our process uses a minimal number of synthetic steps, beginning with a one-step synthesis of an ATRC functionalized monomer, which is then polymerized in 10, 20, and 50% incorporations with methyl methacrylate (MMA) through reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT).2 An irreversible cross-link is then accomplished by ATRC to collapse the parent polymers into SCNPs. Successful collapse of parent polymers can be seen by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) where SCNPs display a shift to longer retention times.

Figure 3. 13C NMR of Me2Brema.

Figure 2. 1H NMR of Me2Brema.

Carbon and proton NMR were used to track the successful synthesis of the Me2Brema monomer (Figures 2-3), which obtained a yield of 84%. In Figure 3, integration of peaks A or B and C were used to calculate the percent incorporation of MMA and Me2Brema in the copolymer sequence. The disappearance of peak C and growth of peaks A and B from P1 to P3 show the successful increase in Me2Brema in the backbone of the parent polymers. The copper-mediated ATRC coupling of pendant Me2Brema can be seen in Figure 5. A shift in retention time on the GPC MALS trace shows formation of SCNPs. Unfortunately, some peaks show broadening after collapse due to disproportionation events. O

O

O

O

H

O

O

O

H

O

O

O

O

O

O

+

O

O

O

Figure 6. Disproportionation, where a hydrogen abstraction occurs instead of coupling of pendant groups.

Disproportionation has a high probability of occurrence on the pendant Me2Brema because it has six available hydrogen atoms that could participate in an abstraction.

Figure 1. General collapse of parent polymer to SCNP3.

Experimental Design

O

Br

Figure 4. Stacked 1H NMR spectra of P1, P2 and P3.

O

TEA O O Br Br + HO O DCM O O Scheme 1. Synthesis of dimethylbromoethyl methacrylate (Me2Brema). O

Br

O

O

O

+

O

O

CTA:

S

C12H25S

CTA, AIBN

CN

S

a\b

Toluene, 80 oC

O

CO2H

O

OO

O

Table 1. Percent incorporation calculated by 1H NMR, molecular weight and poly-dispersity index data found by GPC for polymers P1, P2 and P3. Polymer

Target Incorp.

Actual Incorp.

Mn

Mw

PDI

P1

10

13.4

1.39x104

1.47x104

1.08

P2

20

20.2

1.36x104

1.51x104

1.11

65.8

2.59x104

3.25x104

P3

50

CuBr, PMDETA

a\b\c

Br

a\b

Scheme 2. Synthesis of poly(Me2Brema-co-MMA) parent polymers.

O

PMDETA, CuBr

a\b

O

O

O

OO

O

Cu(0), Toluene, 80

O

OO

O

OO

O

O

O

a\b

O

O

OO

O

O

Br

a\b

oC

1.26

O

Conclusions and Future Work

Monomer and parent polymer synthesis was successful. SCNPs were formed, however the broadening of the GPC trace (Figure 5) from parent polymer to SCNP was not ideal. Broadening of the GPC trace was likely due to disproportionation. Optimization of the ATRC process will be important for future SCNP formation.

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

50/50 MeCN/THF 55oC

O

a\b\c

O

O

O

O

O

O O

O

O

Br

Scheme 4. Collapse of terpolymer into SCNP by optimized ATRC conditions.

O

Acknowledgements

Br

Br

Scheme 3. Synthesis of SCNPs by ATRC collapse through pendant functionality.

The ATRC active Me2Brema monomer was synthesized in one step from commercially available starting materials (Scheme 1). Parent polymers were synthesized by RAFT to obtain linear polymer chains with low molecular weight dispersity (Scheme 2). SCNP were achieved through the cross-linking of the ATRC active sites on the pendant monomers (Scheme 3).

(#%

The author would like to thank the Army Research Office, the University of New Hampshire, as well as Dr. Erik Berda and all other Berda group members.

)(#% (!%

)(!%

References

!!"#$%

!#"#$%

!&"#$%

!'"#$%

!"#"$#%&$'(%)"'*)%$+'

Figure 5. GPC MALS trace of P1-P2 and NP1-NP2.

1. Hanlon, A. M.; Lyon, C. K.; Berda, E. B.: What is next in single-chain nanoparticles? Macromolecules 2016, 49, 2-14. 2. Moad, G.; Chong, Y. K.; Postma, A.; Rizzardo, E.; Thang, S. H.: Advances in RAFT polymeriztion: the synthesis of polymers with defined end- groups. Polymer 2005, 46, 8458-8468. 3. Hanlon, A. M.; Chen, R.; Rodriguez, K. J.; Willis, C.; Dickinson, J. G.; Cashman, M.; Berda, E. B. Scalable synthesis of single-chain nanoparticles under mild conditions. Macromolecules, 2017, 50(7), 2996-3003.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 14

CHEMISTRY

Synthesis of Single-Chain Nanoparticles via Atom-Transfer Radical Coupling


Synthesis of Analogues of Nosokophic Acid AUTHOR: Timothy Tetrault ADVISOR: Marc Boudreau

As infectious pathogens become more Synthesis of Analogues of Nosokophic Acid and more resistant to modern antibiotics, the need for the emergence of new Lipid Chain Variation Analogue Synthesis Introduction therapeutic antibacterials increases every day. β-lactam antibiotics are no longer of practical use in combatting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), causing the medicinal field to rely on last resort drugs such as vancomycin and linezolid to fight MRSA. Nosokophic acid, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphoglycolipid natural products, does not show any antibacterial activity, but it does exhibit References Future Work the ability to potentiate the activity of imipenem against MRSA. The restoring Acknowledgements ability of nosokophic acid reduces the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem against MRSA by 512-fold, making it a promising novel compound. Analogues of nosokophic acid are being synthesized to develop a robust structure-activity relationship (SAR) for the compound. Substantial work in synthesis regarding modifications at the lipid chain has been accomplished and further work is continuously being conducted. Once a substantial amount of analogues are isolated, they will be tested for their ability to potentiate imipenem against MRSA, as well as for their toxicity. Timothy J. Tetrault, Deisy Peña-Romero, Marc A. Boudreau

University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 tjt2002@wildcats.unh.edu

As infectious pathogens become more and more resistant to modern antibiotics, the need for new antibacterial agents increases every day. β-lactam antibiotics are no longer of practical use in combatting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)1, causing the medicinal field to rely on last resort drugs such as vancomycin and linezolid to fight MRSA.2

OH

HO

HO

CONH2 O

O O P O OH

OH

1) TBDPSCl 2) SeO2

OH

Nerol

BuLi, DMTP L1

OH

HO

R1 O

R1

OTBDPS

2,4,6-collidine

=

OR3

CO2H CH2OH CH2OMe CH2NHR

R2

=

CONHR CH2OH CH2OMe H

hexyl

OH

2) LiEt3BH, PdCl2

L5

O

OTMSE

OTMSE

S2

O O

2. NaH, BnBr

HO

PMBO

40%

BnO CO H 2 O OTMSE BnO

O

PMBO

1) PBr3 2) NaH, I 3) AcOH

o

OR OH OH

OH OH OR

21%

1) ClP(OC2H4CN)Ni-Pr2 2) S7, tetrazole

3) t-BuO2H

1) TBDMSCl 2) NaIO4

3) NaH NaClO2, H 2PO4 2O, 2-methyl-2-butene

P2

RO

CO2H OTBS

AcO AcO

CONH2 O

LiOH

CONH2 O

HO

HO

OH

O O P O OH

CO2H O

P7

TMSCHN2

RO

CO2Me OTBS

TBAF

RO

CO2Me OH

P4

OH

CO2Me O O P OR O Ni-Pr2

AcO

S7

OH

P3

26.2%

AcO

AcO

S6

The project changed to synthesize an analog of nosokophic acid with a lipid chain shorter than farnesyl, in which a prenyl chain (R) was chosen. Since prenol is commercially available, the total synthesis could be started immediately.9 R-OH

AcO CONH 2 O

3 steps

BnO

Total Synthesis

4

OTMSE

BnO

S4

BnO CONH 2 O OTMSE

NH3

EDC

S5

13%

O

2

HO

HO

P6

CONH2 O

O O P O OH

CO2H

P5

R=

OR

P7

Once the synthesis is completed, more analogues with a change at the lipid moiety will be synthesized, focusing on analogues with a shorter lipid chain than the farnesyl chain of nosokophic acid.

Guignard, B.; Entenza, J. M.; Moreillon, P. Beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Curr. Opin. Pharmocol. 2005, 5(5), 479-489.

2.

I would like to thank Dr. Marc A. Boudreau, Deisy Peña-Romero, the Boudreau Group, Pat Wilkinson, the University of New Hampshire Department of Chemistry, and my father.

O

HO

Ph

1. PhCH(OMe) 2 TsOH

OH

HO

PMBO

PMBO

2. Jones' reagent

The starting material (I) needed to be synthesized prior to the total synthesis SO p-methoxybenzaldehyde, triethyl orthoformateH O O OH OH OH OH of the analogues. The reaction conditions needed to be changed a 1. 60 C, 2h OH O O OH OH OH 2. RT, 26 mbar, 2h few times in order to isolate the 25.9% desired product. The first conditions O were to heat to 60 oC and continue with the work up. The next conditions I D-mannitol tried were heating to reflux with a Dean-Stark apparatus, which resulted in decomposition of the substrate. Since the challenge was the equilibrium of water present, conditions were employed to drive the reaction by water removal. Triethyl orthoformate and lowering the pressure were employed to remove water and facilitate product formation.6-7

1.

geranyl

neryl

cis,cis-farnesyl

HO

quant.

S3

1. BH Bu 3-THF 2BOTf

1) TBAF

OTBDPS

=

prenyl

OH

HO

NaOMe

OTMSE

22%

L3

52.5%

PhO2S

Synthesis of Starting Material

R2

O O P O OH

O

AcO

20%

1. Bu2SnO

L4

O

AcO

I2, DDQ

2. PMBCl, Bu4NBr

At the time of the isolation of L4, the synthesis of longer lipid chain analogues was aborted. This was decided upon due to similar compounds tending to increase in toxicity as lipid chains are increased. Therefore, the project was readjusted to synthesize analogues of nosokophic acid with a lipid chain shorter than farnesyl.

There are three moieties of nosokophic acid that can be varied to develop a robust structure-activity relationship (SAR). Modifications can be done at the amide position of the galactosamide (R1), the glycerate group (R2), and the lipid chain (R3). The variation at the lipid chain can be done to probe the effects of changing double bond geometry, the length of the chain, and the degree of unsaturation on activity. HO

OTBDPS

L2

21.7%

OAc

AcO

Me3SiCH2CH2OH

O

S1

Cl

MsCl, LiCl

3) NaBH4

OAc

AcO Br

L1

44.5%

HO

38.7%

Potential Analogues

R3

AcO

AcO

SO2Ph

2) PhSO2Na

Geraniol

CO2H

The galactosamide fragment (S7) of nosokophic acid can be synthesized in 12 steps, of which eight steps have been completed.8

1) PBr3

Discovery of Nosokophic Acid

Nosokophic acid, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphoglycolipid natural products, does not exhibit antibacterial activity,3 but is able to potentiate the activity of imipenem against MRSA, reducing its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by 512-fold. Also, nosokophic acid does not potentiate the activity of antibiotics such as vancomycin or tetracycline, suggesting its mechanism of action may be specific to βlactams.4 Thus, this natural product is an important new agent that restores the efficacy of β-lactams against MRSA.

Synthesis of Galactosamide Moiety

The project was initiated by synthesizing analogues of nosokophic acid with modifications at the lipid moiety. The first target analogue to be synthesized incorporated a hexdecatetraene chain, rather than the farnesyl chain of nosokophic acid. This longer chain lipid needed to be obtained as its alcohol (L5) to be incorporated into the overall synthesis of the phosphoglycolipid.5

O’Daniel, P. I.; Peng, Z.; Pi, H.; Testero, S. A.; Ding, D.; Spink, E.; Leemans, E.; Boudreau, M. A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Schroeder, V. A. et. al. Discovery of a new class of non-β-lactam inhibitors of penicillin-binding proteins with gram-positive antibacterial activity. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 3664-3672.

3.

Ostash, B.; Doud, E. H.; Lin, C.; Ostash, I.; Perlstein, D. L.; Fuse, S.; Wolpert, M.; Kahne, D.; Walker, S. Complete characterization of the seventeen step moenomycin biosynthetic pathway. Biochemistry 2009, 48, 8830-8841.

4.

Koyama, N.; Tokura, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Tomoda, H. Discovery of nosokophic acid, a predicted intermediate of moenomycins from nosokomycin-producing Streptomyces sp. K04-0144. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013, 23, 860-863

5.

Liu, F.; Vijayakrishnan, B.; Faridmoayer, A.; Taylor, T. A.; Parsons, T. B.; Bernardes, G. J. L.; Kowarik, M.; Davis, B. G. Rationally designed short polyisoprenol-linked PgIB substrates for engineered polypeptide and protein N-glycosylation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 566-569.

6.

Al-Majid, A. M. A.; Barakat, A.; Mabkhot, Y. N. Facile and new convenient route for synthesis of some C2-symmetric bidentate phosphine ligands derived from ᴅ-mannitol. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 2014, 18, 626-631.

7.

Once a sufficient amount of analogues are isolated with variation at the lipid moiety, their ability to potentiate imipenem against MRSA will be investigated via MIC studies, as well as their toxicities. This will be repeated by conducting variations at the glycerate moiety and the galactosamide moiety. At the conclusion of this, a robust SAR will be gathered, allowing for mix and matching of promising substituent modifications. If there are promising compounds, they will be evaluated biologically to determine their mechanism of action at a cellular level, as well as pharmokinetic studies.

Rampy, M. A.; Pinchuk, A. N.; Weichert, J. P.; Skinner, R. W. S.; Fisher, S. J.; Wahl, R. L.; Gross, M. D.; Counsell, R. E. Synthesis and biological evaluation of radioiodinated phospholipid ether stereoisomers. J. Med. Chem. 1995, 38, 3156-3162.

8.

Taylor, J. G.; Li, X.; Oberthür, M.; Zhu, W.; Kahne, D. E. The total synthesis of moenomycin A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 15084-15085.

9.

Fuse, S.; Tsukamoto, H.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, T. A.; Zhang, Y.; Bolla, M.; Walker, S.; Sliz, P.; Kahne, D. Functional and structural analysis of a key region of the cell wall inhibitor moenomycin. ACS Chem. Bio. 2010, 5(7), 701-711.

CHEMISTRY

Controlled Synthesis of Single-Chain Nanoparticles Under Various Atom Transfer Radical Coupling Conditions AUTHOR: Courtney Leo ADVISOR: Erik Berda

Single-chain nanoparticles (SCNP) are a Controlled Synthesis of Single-chain Nanoparticles Under Various Atom Transfer Radical Coupling Conditions class of functional nanomaterial formed by the intermolecular cross-linking of polymer chains. Atom-transfer radical coupling (ATRC) is a promising synthetic route to SCNP and other specialized macromolecules; however, limitations in our current understanding of the key design parameters and ideal reaction conditions remain a barrier to the widespread implementation of this technique. To address these concerns, we have systematically examined the formation of SCNP by ATRC, varying the chemistry of the cross-linkable unit, length of the parent polymer, and ligand for the copper catalyst. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the use of ATRC chemistry in the design of both SCNP and a broad range of controlled nanoarchitectures. Courtney M. Leo, Ashley Hanlon, Elizabeth Bright, Claudia S. Willis, and Erik B. Berda. Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire.

Introduction

Characterization of SCNP

Discussion

Atom-transfer radical coupling (ATRC) is a promising synthetic route to single-chain nanoparticles (SCNP) and other specialized macromolecules; however, limitations in our current understanding of the key design parameters and ideal reaction conditions remain a barrier to the widespread implementation of this technique. To address these concerns, we have systematically examined the formation of SCNP by ATRC, varying the chemistry of the cross-linkable unit, length of the parent polymer, and ligand for the copper catalyst.

An increase in retention time is expected for a nanoparticle because smaller objects take a more torturous path through the GPC chamber. Therefore, the shift in longer retention times of the two desired SCNP, compared to the parent polymer, confirms that the collapses were successful. The nanoparticle collapsed using a TPMA ligand has a small shoulder peak, which is most likely the nanoparticle trace, while the taller, more prominent peak is remaining ligand.

Both of the copolymers, MeBrema and PhBrema, were synthesized successfully and tracked by H1 NMR. The integration of peaks D and C were used to calculate the percent incorporation of MMA to MeBrema and PhBrema. H1 NMR also shows the two significant peak shifts in protons A and E. During the ATRC process, radicals are formed at the bromine-terminated site in order for crosslinking to occur. This change in environment will then affect where those two proton peaks are observed. When comparing the parent copolymer spectrum to the SCNP spectrum, it is clear that these two peaks, now labeled A’ and E’ have shifted up-field. The GPC trace also confirms the polymer collapse as both SCNP traces have longer retention times indicating they took a more torturous path through the column. The left shoulder on the TPMA peak is the target compound while the large peak is likely due to excess ligand.

Polymer

---Nanoparticle ----

Summary and Future Work

Figure 1. Illustration of SCNP formation using ATRC through pendant monomer units. Illustration

Figure 2: Effect on retention time of collapsing a MeBrema polymer with two different ligands via ATRC.

Experimental Design

The characteristic peaks for the parent copolymer, MeBrema, is observed in the H1 NMR spectrum. As the polymer is collapsed into a nanoparticle, two shift changes occur as the bromine is removed to open a crosslinking site. The ATRC reaction changes the environment of protons, A and E, causing them to shift up-field where you can see the new A’ and E’ peaks grow in the SCNP spectra.

Scheme 1. Copolymerization of MeBrema or PhBrema with Methyl Methacrylate followed by ATRC nanoparticle formation.

b’ c’

Table 1&2. Mebrema & Phbrema copolymer target characteristics during synthesis.

Mebrema Polymer

Molecular Weight

Monomer Incorporation

MMA Incorporation

Phbrema Polymer

Molecular Weight

Monomer Incorporation

MMA Incorporation

1

10,000

25%

75%

1

10,000

25%

75%

2

20,000

25%

75%

2

20,000

25%

75%

3

30,000

25%

25%

75%

75%

3

30,000

25%

40,000

Molecular Weight

Monomer Incorporation

MMA Incorporation

Phbrema Polymer

Molecular Weight

Monomer Incorporation

MMA Incorporation

1

9,744

27%

73%

1

7.009

30%

70%

2

10,410

46%

54%

2

9,624

33.8%

66.2%

3

30,460

38.8%

61.3%

3

11,470

25.8%

74.2%

4

31,470

26.5%

73.5%

4

26,960

27%

73%

4

40,000

25%

e’

a’

e’

d’

c’

d

Acknowledgements

b’

e’

Other combinations of ligand, solvent, polymer length, and copolymer percent incorporation could be used to further identify the key design parameters and reaction conditions for the ATRC synthetic route to SCNP.

a’

The author would like to thank the University of New Hampshire, as well as Dr. Erik Berda and all of the other Berda group members.

e

75%

Table 3&4. Experimental copolymer target characteristics during synthesis.

15 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

a’

d’

75%

4

Mebrema Polymer

d’

b’c’

The MeBrema and PhBrema target monomers, polymers, and Single-chain nanoparticles, were all synthesized successfully. The proton NMR and GPC data confirm the polymer formation and collapse into SCNP. A few of the remaining single-chain nanoparticles in the series have been synthesized but corresponding data must still be collected and analyzed.

a

bc

Figure 3: H NMR of MeBrema parent polymer, and two SCNP collapsed by a different ligand via ATRC.

d

c

References

b

e

a

1. Hanlon, A. M.; Lyon, C. K.; Berda, E. B.: What is next in single-chain nanoparticles? Macromolecules 2016, 49, 2-14. 2. Hanlon, A. M.; Chen, R.; Rodriguez, K. J.; Willis, C.; Dickinson, J. G.; Cashman, M.; Berda, E. B. Scalable synthesis of single-chain nanoparticles under mild conditions. Macromolecules, 2017, 50(7), 2996-3003.


Synthesis and Functionalization of Novel Multidentate Ligands for Catalysis with Carbon Dioxide and Ethylene AUTHOR: Matthew Reuter

Nickel catalyzed carboxylation reactions SYNTHESIS and FUNCTIONALIZATION of NOVEL MULTIDENTATE SYNTHESIS and FUNCTIONALIZATION of NOVEL MULTIDENTATE LIGANDS LIGANDS for CATALYSIS ETHYLENE for CATALYSIS withwith CO CO andand Ethylene with ethylene to afford acrylates are a promising synthetic pathway. CO2 is an abundant carbon feedstock and greenhouse gas, while almost 150 million tons of ethylene are produced annually, and acrylates are important components in hygiene products. However, an important mechanism in this reaction known as the β–hydride elimination, necessary for the ultimate release of acrylates, does not occur due to conformational constraints. This experiment utilized pincer ligands to overcome this obstacle, which have the potential to partake in intramolecular interactions between the characteristic pincer atom of the pincer ligand and nickel. Density functional theory (DFT) computations were conducted on a sulfur–based pincer ligand known as PSP and it was found to have the shortest pincer atom–nickel distance of 2.375 Å. Difficulties in isolating a precursor to PSP – divinyl sulfide (DVS) – have been overcome by utilizing a NaOH/KOH mixture (1:3) during the elimination of the starting material, thiodiglycol. Nitrogen–based pincer ligands with various substituents were also synthesized, characterized with 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR, and chelated to sources of nickel such as bis(1,5–cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) and bis(triphenylphosphine)dicarbonylnickel(0). INTRODUCTION

ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

2

2

Matthew Reuter, Luke Fulton, Dr. Roy Planalp* mbr2003@wildcats.unh.edu; Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire

CONCLUSION

SPARTAN COMPUTATIONS OF PINCER LIGANDS

Nickel catalyzed carboxylation reactions are a promising pathway to afford acrylic acid from CO2 and ethylene. However, the idealized “one-pot” does not work since the nickelalactone does not undergo a β-hydride elimination.1

ONE-POT

The pathways to produce PNP and PcyNbzPcy were successful, with 31P NMR that corresponds favorably to literature sources. Initially, the elimination of DVS failed to produce either high-yielding or pure product, with subsequent experimental variations also failing. However, the isolation of DVS was ultimately successful with a NaOH/KOH mixture (1:3), with 1H and 13C NMR comparing well to literature sources.

Initially we conducted Spartan computations on Group 16 based pincers, specifically oxygen and sulfur. We wanted to observe a pincer atomnickel distance of 2.5 to 3.0 Å, which is indicative of an intramolecular interaction.

ISOLATING DIVINYL SULFIDE AND PSP SYNTHESIS

FUTURE WORK

The ultimate end goal of this research is to release acrylates from a nickelalactone complex chelated to a pincer ligand. Acrylates are easily acidified to acrylic acid and are easily characterized via 1H and 13C NMR. The short-term goal of this project is to chelate PNP, PcyNbzPcy, and PSP to the nickelalactone for publication.

Figure 5. 13C NMR of DVS, showing significant isolation of product and minimization of starting material and by-product.

Figure 4. 13C NMR of DVS, showing a mixture of product, byproduct, and starting material.

Figure 3. Synthetic Pathway to afford DVS and PSP.2

NITROGEN PINCER LIGANDS

Figure 1. The idealized one-pot of CO2 and ethylene to afford acrylic acid. The introduction of CO2 leads to the formation of the nickelalactone (Blue) in an oxidative coupling (A). The nickelalactone is supposedly to undergo a β-hydride elimination (B), followed by a reductive elimination (C), and finally a ligand exchange (D) that ultimately liberates acrylic acid (Red).

NICKELALACTONE

Figure 10. Nickelalactone chelated to PNP, PcyNbzPcy, and PSP, respectively.

The ultimate goal of these syntheses is to produce a pincer ligand that has the potential to interact with nickel during this catalysis. However we wish produce the nickelalactone via other synthetic means to confirm that these ligands actually chelate to nickel.

Other goals within our spectrum are to substitute these three ligands with electron-donating or electronwithdrawing groups that may further promote push-pull catalysis between the pincer ligand and nickel.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

REALITY

I would like to thank Dr. Planalp for his insight and direction in this project. I would like to thank Annie and Scott Reuter as well as my fiancé Madison Murphy for their endless support throughout the years. I would like to acknowledge Luke Fulton for his guidance and knowledge on this project, as well as Brady Barron, Aaron Chung, and Evangelos Rossis. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Berda and Dr. Greenslade for their professional counsel through the years.

Figure 8. Synthesis to produce the nickelalactone chelated to TMEDA.

Figure 6. Synthetic pathway and 31P NMR characterization of PNP.3

REFERENCES

Figure 2. One-pot synthesis showing the use of a base (violet).

GOAL

We chose to pursue pincer ligands, which retain central pincer atoms that have the potential to interact with the nickelalactone center and promote “push-pull” catalysis.

1. Huguet, N.; Jevtovikj, I.; Gordillo, A.; Lejkowski, M. L.; Lindner, R.; Bru, M.; Khalimon, A. Y.; Rominger, F.; Schunk, S. A.; Hofmann, P.; Limbach, M. Nickel-Catalyzed Direct Carboxylation of Olefins with CO2: OnePot Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Salts. Chem. Eur. J. 2014, 20, 16858 – 16862. 2. Persson, R.; Stchedroff, M. J.; Gobetto, R.; Carrano, C.J.; Richmond, M. G.; Monari, M.; Nordlander, E. Synthesis, Characterization, and Dynamic Behavior of Triosmium Clusters Containing the Tridentate Ligand {Ph2PCH2CH2}2S (PSP). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 2447 – 2459 .

3. Ezzaher, S.; Capon, J. F.; Gloaguen, F.; Petillon, F. Y.; Schollhammer, P.; Talarmin, J. Influence of a Pendant Amine in the Second Coordination Sphere on Proton Transfer at a Dissymmetrically Disubstituted Diiron System Related to the [2Fe]H Subsite of [FeFe]H2ase. Inorg. Chem., 2009, 48, 2 – 4.

4. Weiss, C. J.; Groves, A. N.; Mock, M. T.; Dougherty, W. G.; Kassel, W. S.; Helm, M. L.; DuBois, D. L.; Bullock, R. M. Synthesis and reactivity of molybdenum and tungsten bis(dinitrogen) complexes supported by diphosphine chelates containing pendant amines. Dalton Trans., 2012, 41, 4517 – 4529.

Figure 9. Synthetic routes to produce the nickelalactone chelated to the desired nitrogen-based ligands.

Figure 7. Synthetic pathway and 31P NMR characterization of PcyNbzPcy.4

AUTHOR: Sarah Benware

Single-chain nanoparticles (SCNP) Fabrication of Polymer Nanoparticles via Intrachain Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerizations (ROMP) present a synthetic route to featurerich macromolecules. These threedimensional nanomaterials are prepared by the intramolecular cross-linking of polymers decorated with active pendants. This collapse process results in the reduction of the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer. In this work, a dually-functional norbornene imide monomer was prepared. The design features two orthogonal polymerizable units, the first of which can undergo reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization to produce a primary polymer structure, and the second of which can undergo ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) producing a secondary structure through cross-linking. The monomer was then incorporated in varying percentages to a methacrylate backbone using RAFT; examples with 15, 30, and 50 percent functional incorporation were prepared and collapsed using Grubb’s 3rd generation catalyst. An increase in retention time was observed by GPC, suggesting a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius, which is consistent with the formation of SCNP. The effect of incorporation on collapse efficiency was examined. Sarah J. Benware, Isabelle M. Crawford-Eng, Ruiwen Chen, Erik B. Berda. Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire.

Synthesis of SCNP

Introduction

ADVISOR: Erik Berda

The function of biomolecules is heavily dependent on structure and specific placement of functional groups. The formation of these precise structures is often the result of perfectly controlled polymerizations. Many polymer chemists study fundamentals of these complex natural processes and attempt to synthesize similarly complex and feature-rich macromolecules. To this end, research in the Berda group involves the synthesis of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions using controlled radical polymerizations. These polymers are designed to incorporate cross-linkable functionalities which may be reacted to form threedimensional nano-objects. Intramolecular cross-linking induces a collapse observed by the reduction of the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer, producing single chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) (Fig. 1)1.

Fig. 1 Linear polymer chains are decorated with functional groups that will promote intra-chain interactions when triggered in dilute solution.

MALS Grubb's 3rd

Parent Polymer

SCNP SB-17

11

13

9

15

11

13

15

Retention Time (min)

Retention Time (min)

Fig. 5 GPC of parent polymer and SCNP detected by multi-angle light scattering and Refractive Index. Increase in retention time from parent polymer to SCNP. MALS Grubb's 2nd

Refractive Index Grubbs 2nd

Parent Polymer

Parent Polymer SCNP SB-22

SCNP SB-22

7

9

11

13

Retention Time (min)

The norbornene imide ethanol was synthesized through the reaction of the cyclic anhydride with 2-aminoethanol and triethyl amine. A dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling converted the product to NBI- methacrylate, through the use of dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP) and methacrylic acid (Scheme 1). The random copolymer was synthesized with a target of 20% incorporation of NBImethacrylate in methyl methacrylate. The resulting copolymer was found to contain 15.9% incorporation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The polymer was cross linked into single chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) in dilute solution via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) through the use of Grubb’s 3rd and 2nd generation catalysts (Scheme 2). O

hi

O

N

j

O

O

N

f

g

OH

O

Fig. 2 Cross sectional view of porous particle2

A dually-functional norbornene imide (NBI) monomer was synthesized. The design features two orthogonal polymerizable units, the first of which can undergo reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization to produce a primary polymer structure with a flexible backbone, and the second of which can undergo ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) to produce a secondary structure through cross-linking. The monomer was then polymerized with methyl methacrylate in varying incorporations to observe the effect of incorporation on the efficiency of the collapse of the parent polymer to SCNP.

Refractive Index Grubb's 3rd

Parent Polymer

9

O

The characterization of SCNPs is greatly facilitated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This process separates molecules by their effective size in solution, by injecting the prepared sample into a continually flowing mobile phase through a column packed with rigid, porous beads (Fig. 2)2.

Characterization of SCNPs

O

de

O

a

b

c

O

x/y

O

N

O

O

Ha

H a

N

2

O O O O

H b

H

12

Retention Time (min)

14

16

Summary and Conclusions

The results of gel permeation chromatography support the conclusion of the synthesis of SCNPs through the collapse of the functional polymer with Grubb’s 3rd generation catalyst. The reaction caused an increase in retention time, suggesting decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of the particles. A shift towards lower retention time after reaction of the parent polymer with Grubb’s 2nd generation catalyst in tandem with a high molecular weight aggregation suggests the presence of intermolecular crosslinking, which is unfavorable for this study. This collapse experiment with Grubb’s 2nd generation catalyst will be repeated to determine if these results persist, and if so, the reaction will be carried out in a more dilute solution to decrease the probability of intermolecular crosslinking. Once efficient reaction conditions and catalyst species are identified, random copolymers will be synthesized to contain varying percentages of the di-functional monomer, 15, 30, and 50 percent, to observe the collapse efficiency and effect on retention time as seen by characterization through GPC.

b

n

The authors would like to graciously thank both the Army Research Office and the Army Educational Outreach Program for the support, as well as the program for its funding which allowed research to be conducted and presented. We would also like to thank Dr. Erik Berda, for sharing his time and expertise.

References

1

b

b

Fig. 4 Evolution from Polymer to SCNP shown through nuclear magnetic resonance

10

Acknowledgements

a

x/y

O

8

Fig. 6 GPC of parent polymer and SCNP detected by multi-angle light scattering and refractive index. No increase in retention time of SCNP, coupled with a broad, higher molecular weight distribution.

Fig. 3 Stepwise nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

O O O O

15

1.

7.0

6.5

6.0 5.5 f1 (ppm)

5.0

4.5

2.

Lyon, C. K., Prasher, A., Hanlon, A. M., Tuten, B. T., Tooley, C. A., Frank, P. G., & Berda, E. B. (2015). A brief user's guide to single-chain nanoparticles. Polymer Chemistry, 6(2), 181-197. Waters Corporation

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 16

CHEMISTRY

Fabrication of Polymer Nanoparticles via Intrachain Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerizations (ROMP)


Design, Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Octadentate Aminophosphonate Ligand for 89Zr-Immuno-PET Imaging AUTHOR: Brady Barron ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

Positron Emission Tomography has DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL OCTADENTATE AMINOPHOSPHONATE LIGAND FOR Zr-IMMUNO-PET IMAGING recently emerged as a noninvasive, antibody-based imaging method Results/Conclusions Relevant Data/NMR Spectra Introduction clinically used to diagnose and assist in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Of the currently used positronemitting radionuclides, 89Zr is ideal for labeling proteins because its long halflife matches the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulins. The current chelator, desferrioxamine (DFO), effectively binds Attempted Reactions to six of the eight coordination sites of Zr(IV) but leaves two sites open for other weakly chelating ligands to fill. In order to limit patients’ exposure to boneseeking radiation, DFO must be extended with an oxygen-rich bidentate ligand that will strongly bind to the remaining two coordination sites of the oxophilic Zr(IV) cation. The design, synthesis and characterization of a novel octadentate derivative of DFO is explored to maximize the stability of the complexed 89Zr radionuclide. If successfully synthesized, the novel octadentate chelators have advantages and the potential to replace the currently employed hexadentate DFO chelator. DFO has been extended via a phosphonate moiety and is currently 7-coordinate. Future work will involve the addition of a functional hydroxyl group so that the novel ligand may eventually bind to all eight of Zr(IV)’s coordination sites. 89

Brady Barron, Dr. Mahmoud Abdalrahman, Dr. Roy Planalp Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has recently emerged as a noninvasive, antibody-based imaging method clinically used to diagnose and assist in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Of the currently used positron-emitting radionuclides, 89Zr is ideal for labeling proteins because its long half-life matches the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulins. The current chelator used in the clinic, desferrioxamine (DFO), effectively binds to six of the eight coordination sites of Zr(IV) but leaves two sites open for other weakly chelating biological ligands to fill (ex. H2O). In order to limit patients’ exposure to bone-seeking radiation, DFO must be extended with an oxygen-rich bidentate ligand that will strongly bind to the remaining two coordination sites of the oxophilic Zr(IV) cation. The design, synthesis and characterization of a novel octadentate derivative of DFO is explored to maximize the stability of the complexed 89Zr radionuclide. If successfully synthesized, the novel octadentate chelators have advantages and the potential to replace the currently employed hexadentate DFO chelator.

Figure 2. 1H NMR of the starting material, desferrioxamine mesylate.

DFO has been extended via a phosphonate moiety, and the resulting ligand is currently 7-coordinate. The 31P NMR spectrum of the crude phosphonate ester product has a strong peak at 24.45 ppm which corresponds to a similar, known phosphonate compound found in the literature.2 Similarly, the 31P NMR spectrum of the hydrolyzed phosphonate ester product (Figure 5) shows a strong peak at 20.52 ppm which also corresponds to a similar, known phosphonate compound found in the literature.3 Because DFO is a large molecule with no symmetry, characterization of the novel derivatives has been challenging. Therefore, 31P NMR has been the primary method utilized for characterization. Because 31P NMR is not sufficient, we are currently employing COSY and HSQC NMR to aid the characterization of these complex molecules.

Figure 3. 1H NMR of the crude phosphonate ester.

Future Work

Future work will involve the addition of a functional hydroxyl group at the secondary amine closest to the phosphonate moeity so that the novel ligand may eventually bind to all eight of Zr(IV)’s coordination sites. Once complexed to Zr, stability constants for this complex will be measured to prove that stability increases when the hexadentate ligand is extended to be octadentate.

Figure 1. The figure depicts the mechanism of PET and illustrates the annihilation of beta particles upon collision with electrons.1

Scheme 4. Addition of a functional hydroxyl group at the secondary amine closest to the phosphonate moeity.

Figure 5. 31P NMR of the hydrolyzed phosphonate ester.3

Figure 4. 1H NMR of the hydrolyzed phosphonate ester..

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge my research advisor, Dr. Roy Planalp, and Dr. Mahmoud Abdalrahman for without them this project would not be possible. I would also like to acknowledge the rest of the Planalp Group including Aaron Chung, Matthew Reuter, Evangelos Rossis, and Luke Fulton.

Scheme 1. HATU coupling of aminomalonic acid to DFO to form DFO-8.

References

Scheme 2. Synthesis of the α-aminophosphonate ester via a Kabachnic-Fields (phospha-Mannich) reaction.

1. T. J. Wadas, E. H. Wong, G. R. Weisman, C. J. Anderson. Coordinating radiometals of copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and zirconium for PET and SPECT imaging of diseases. Chem. Rev. 2010. 110, (5). 2. G. Courtois, L. Migniac. A facile synthesis Nalkylaminomethylphosphonates. Synth. Comm. 1991. 21, 2, 201-209. 3. A.A. Prishchenko, M.V. Livantsov, O.P. Novikova, L.I. Livantsova, V.S. Petrosyan. Synthesis of new organophosphorus-substituted mono- and bis(trimethylsilyl)amines with PCH2N fragments and their derivatives. Hetero. Chem. 2010. 21, 2, 71-77.

Scheme 3. Hydrolysis of the α-aminophosphonate ester.

Figure 6. 13C NMR of the starting material, desferrioxamine mesylate.

Figure 7. 13C NMR of the hydrolyzed phosphonate ester.

CHEMISTRY

Towards the Synthesis of a Co(II) Diketo-Pyrphyrin Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Water AUTHOR: Katherine Dombroski ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

Sustainable energy sources are key in helping to improve the environment. By harvesting the power that the sun provides to the earth’s surface, that power can then be turned into chemical energy and further used as a sustainable energy resource. However, there is a need to develop cost-effective and sustainable ways to store the energy harvested. One approach is through the use of photocatalytic reactions, where energy can be stored by splitting water to produce hydrogen.

Towards the Synthesis of a Co(II) Diketo-Pyrphyrin Catalyst for Hydrogen Production from Water Katherine Dombroski, Dejun Dong, Hannah Coco Dr. Christine Caputo, Faculty Advisor Department of Chemistry

Introduction Hydrogen production from water through hybrid photocatalytic systems requires several components. This research focuses on the synthesis of two separate components: a photocatalyst and a photosensitizer. Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2-TFA has been proven to act as an efficient photocatalyst for production of hydrogen from water in a hybrid photocatalytic system.1 (Scheme 1) shows the proposed synthetic route to Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2-TFA.

Experimental Design The primary step in the synthetic route to Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2TFA is to synthesize 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine from 2,6dibromopyridine (Scheme 3). 2,6-dibromopyridine is initially converted into 6-bromopyridyl-2-lithium with n-BuLi, followed by oxidative coupling with POCl3 to yield the target molecule 6,6’dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine. The product was purified by column chromatography.

Results and Discussion C

B

BA A

C

A

HDO

Figure 1. 1H NMR of 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine Scheme 3. Synthesis of 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine from 2,6’dibromopyridine

Scheme 1. Proposed synthesis of Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin from 6,6’dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine1

One property of carbon dots (CDs) is that they absorb light. The electrons absorbed by the CDs can be harvested, allowing them to act as efficient photosensitizers. Another property of CDs is that they have a surface that makes them easy to functionalize. Scheme 2 illustrates the proposed synthetic route to polyethyleneimine (PEI) capped carbon dots from carbon dots that were previously made from aspartic acid. PEI CDs are specifically of interest due to their excellent ability for electron transfer.

Scheme 2. Synthetic route to PEI capped carbon dots

Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2-TFA and CD-PEI are both costeffective, stable and water-soluble, which makes them highly desirable components for hybrid photocatalytic systems. 1,2

The carbon dots used in this experiment were previously made from aspartic acid. Thionyl chloride mixed with CD-COOH was heated to reflux to yield acyl chloride-capped carbon dots (Scheme 4). Figure 2. 6,6”-Dibromo2,2’:6’2’’-terpyridine

Figure 1 confirms that 6,6’-dibromo2,2’-bipyridine was formed, as well as some impurity. A possible impurity is (Figure 2) 6,6”-dibromo2,2’:6’2’’-terpyridine.

Both the formation of 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-biypridine and acyl chloridecapped CDs were successful. Although impure, the formation of 6.6’dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine was synthesized with an 8% yield. Column chromatography was unsuccessful in separating 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’bipyridine from the suspected byproduct, 6,6”-dibromo-2,2’:6’2’’terpyridine, due to their similar structures.

The formation of carboxylic acid capped CDs was successful and is illustrated (Figure 2) by the formation of peaks in the 1000-800 cm-1 range, indicating formation of a halogen. The broadness of the peak at 3187.95 cm–1, indicative of a carboxylic acid –OH stretch, lessens in the CD-COCl spectrum.

The next step towards synthesizing 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine is to determine an efficient way to purify the target molecule and increase yield. The next step towards synthesizing a suitable photosensitizer is to synthesize CD-PEI from CD-COCl.

1. Joliat-Wick, E.; Weder, N.; Klose, D.; Bachmann, C.; Springler, B.; Probst, B.; Alberto, R. Inorg. Chem. 2018 57, 1651-1655. 2. Hutton, G.A.; Reuillard, B.; Martindale, B.CM.; Caputo, C.A.; Lockwood, C.W.J.; Butt, J.N.; Reisner, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016 138, 16722-16730.

Scheme 4. Acyl chloride functionalization of CDs from previously made carboxylic acid CDs

Conclusion

CD-COCl

2962.34

CD-COOH 3187.95

2913.56

(cm–1)

Figure 2. Infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CD-COOH and CD-COCl.

I have been working towards the synthesis Future Work References: of a catalyst as well as a photosensitizer: two components of hybrid photocatalytic systems. Specifically, I have been working towards synthesizing a cobalt(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2-TFA complex that can carry out the reduction of protons to hydrogen. I have also been synthesizing polyethyleneimine functionalized carbon dots to act as a photosensitizer in the system. The first step in the synthetic route to Co(II) diketo-pyrphyrin 2-TFA is to synthesize 6,6’-dibromo-2,2’-bipyridine, which was achieved and verified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Dr. Christine Caputo, Dejun Dong, Hannah Coco, the UNH Chemistry Department, and the UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research

The synthetic route to PEI capped carbon dots first requires that carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the carbon dots be converted to acyl chloride functional groups, which I have achieved and verified through IR spectroscopy.

17 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Development of New Fluorescent Materials: Putting Carbon Dots to Work AUTHOR: Ian Smith ADVISOR: Christine Caputo

(Poly)dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid materials are composed of polydimethyl siloxane and carbon dots, either covalently or non-covalently bound. Carbon dots (CD), pseudo-spherical carbon based nanoparticles that are surface functionalized with carboxylate groups and are water soluble fluorescent materials. They, can be used as photosensitizers for redox catalysis in hybrid photocatalytic systems.

Development of New Fluorescent Materials: Putting Carbon Dots to Work Ian Smith, Miriam Velasquez Hernandez, Anthony Lemieux, Christine Caputo imw8@wildcats.unh.edu, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 4/18/2018

Since the accidental discovery in 2004 by Xu and coworkers carbon dots (CD) have been a hot topic in the chemistry community. Due to CDs straightforward synthesis and relative low toxicity, they have replaced many conventional semiconductor nanoparticles in multiple scientific fields such as medicine, biology, and chemistry.3,5 This has led them into many labs focused on green energy research, and advanced material research. This projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal is to synthesize CD and embed them within polysilioxane (PS) creating a hybrid material with viscoelastic and fluorescent properties useable as a photosensitizer in catalytic redox chemistry. Surface functionalization of CDs consist of carboxylic acids and alcohol groups, which allow for bonding interactions with PDMS. A hybrid material has multiple applications in photosensitive redox chemistry. Viscoelastic properties of this hybrid compound allow for additional flexibility in possible working conditions, and spreading on surfaces. Progress towards this novel compound is presented here. The synthesis of carbon quantum dots is performed by thermolysis of citric acid. The citric acid is placed into a furnace/oven and left for up to 40 hrs at 180°C. This allows for the creation of acidic CDs at pH 3-4.4 O

O HO

OH

O

O

180°C, 40Hrs

Synthesis of the CD-PS hybrid material adds CD into Scheme 2. Combining CD with PDMS at a 1:30 ratio, with the 5% w/w of B(OH)3, the reaction vial runs at ~160°C for 1hr. Samples show ~7570% yield of sample material yield by weight. Under a UV handheld 325nm, the hybrid polymers show fluorescence of a similar wavelength to the CD solutions. The intensity is lowered though due light blocking from the polymer chains, which was expected. A)

Si

O

Si

O

OH

OH

(1)

O OH HO

OH

OH

OH

Figure 1. Fluorescence of CD-PS Hybrid material under UV light irradiation.

(2)

(2)

Si

O

OH

100-160°C, 1Hr

n

Si

O

OH

(3)

n

Analysis of the CD-PS hybrid material is done through IR, rheology, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy.1 Solubility tests were also conducted to determine the covalence or noncovalence of the CD in the polymer. Fluorescence microscopy under 405nm light shows higher intensity of fluorescence by the compound. (Figures 2-3) Spectroscopy results show CD with an absorbance of 0.1 at ~400nm, which would mean that any fluorescence from CD would be limited. The next step in characterization of the hybrid polymer would be infrared identification of the surface functionalization of the CD and the suggested covalent bonding of the PS in the polymer. The final step would be to use the CD-PS hybrid material as a photosensitizer for redox catalysis in hybrid photochemical systems.

O O

Figure 2-3. Fluorescent Microscopy Images of CD-PS hybrid polymer.

HO

(5)

Synthetic routes have been developed to embed carbon dots into a PDMS polymer, both covalently and non-covalently. Solubility studies of the combined hybrid CD-PDMS material will be analyzed to determine if CD are covalently or non-covalently bound within the polymer framework. Analysis of the hybrid materials using rheology, fluorescence microscopy, and fluorimetry, will allow us to assess physical and photo-physical properties of the materials. The results obtained thus far will be presented. Scheme 1. Synthesis of CDs (2) from Citric Acid (1)

The synthesis and characterization of the CD has been carried out by Anthony Lemieux in a previous experiment.

PDMS (3) used in a similar method with boric acid (B(OH)3) (4) can create a silicon polymer, which will be used as a control. B(OH)3 acts as a cross-linker to strands of PDMS in a reaction setting of 5% w/w of to 750mg respectively, then manually stirred while heating at ~180°C for 1hr. Dehydrogenation occurs between the reactants to allow the cross-linking to occur.2 R

HO

Si

O

Si

Si

O

n

OH HO

B

OH

100-160°C, 1Hr O

OH

B

O

O

B)

O

Si

O

O

B

O

R n

(3) (4) Scheme 2. Synthesis of PS polymers controls.

HO

O

Si

Si

O

Si

OH HO

OH

B

n

OH

OH

(3)

OH

(4)

(2)

O

H

O

O

B

O

Si

O

O n

H

H

O

OR

OH

m

R

100-180°C, 1Hr

B

O

O

Si

O

O n

(1) Barman, M. K.; Jana, B.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Patra, A. J. Phys. Chem. C. 2014, 118, 20034â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20041.

O

O

HO

R

A large thanks to Prof. Christine Caputo, Miriam Velasquez Hernandez, Anthony Lemieux, and the rest of my research group. I would also like to thank the UNH chemistry Department.

H

m

(2) Boland, C. S.; Khan, U.; Ryan, G.; Barwich, S.; Charifou, R.; Harvey, A.; Backes, C.; Li, Z.; Ferreira, M. S.; Mobius, M. E.; Young, R. J.; Coleman, J. N. Science 2016, 354, 1257â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1260.

(6) Scheme 2A) Method for synthesizing covalent CD-PS hybrid material, without the need for B(OH)3.

(3) Ma, Y.; Li, Y.; Ma, S.; Zhong, X. J. Mater. Chem. B 2014, 2, 5043.

Scheme 2B) Method for synthesizing covalent CD-PS hybrid material, with B(OH)3. (6) is a possibility of different structures, not resonance structures.

(5) Xu, X.; Ray, R.; Gu, Y.; Ploehn, H. J.; Gearheart, L.; Raker, K.; Scrivens, W. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 12736â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 12737

(4) Martindale, B. C. M.; Hutton, G. A. M.; Caputo, C. A.; Reisner, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6018â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6025.

AUTHOR: Kassie Picard ADVISOR: Arthur Greenberg

Silatranes are five-membered tricyclic Exploration of the Synthesis of 1-Methyl-4-Silatranone and the Contest molecules with a dative bond between for Nitrogenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lone Pair nitrogen and silicon, which can be easily synthesized and studied. This weak bond Future Work between nitrogen and silicon is formed by delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair. These molecules exhibit biological activities in wound healing and hair growth, and DNA imaging with atomic Conclusions force microscopy. This project aimed to explore the synthesis of 1-methyl-4silatranone and whether the silatranone Acknowledgements Results and Discussion will behave like a traditional silatrane References with the N-Si dative bond, or if it will behave more like a lactam. 1-Methyl-4silatranone would be the first example of a medium-sized, bridgehead bicyclic lactam anticipated to have considerable resonance stabilization. Synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone is in progress. Attempts to produce the precursor â&#x20AC;&#x153;pseudosilatraneâ&#x20AC;? via reaction of diethanolamine and methyltrimethoxysilane were unsuccessful using multiple reaction conditions. Future work would include continuing efforts to pursue the synthesis of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pseudosilatraneâ&#x20AC;? by changing reaction conditions with the expectation of producing the final target molecule, 1-methyl-4-silatranone. Kassie Picard, Arthur Greenberg Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH klp2000@wildcats.unh.edu

Silatranes are tricyclic molecules with a dative bond between nitrogen and silicon. This weak bond is formed by delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair. The typical Nâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Si bond is experimentally determined to be 2.45 â&#x201E;Ť, (gas phase) in 1-methylsilatrane (1).1 These molecules have important biological functions in wound healing and hair growth and are used in DNA imaging with atomic force microscopy.2 Much of silatrane research involves the length of the dative bond when different groups are bound to silicon. This project aimed to explore the Nâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Si bond length when there is a carbonyl group adjacent to nitrogen, creating an amide linkage, competing with silicon for the lone pair. The distance between nitrogen and silicon in 1-methyl-4-silatranone (gas phase) is calculated to be 2.902 â&#x201E;Ť (MP2/6-311+G*).3 The goal of this project is the synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone (2), via a four-step reaction via a â&#x20AC;&#x153;pseudosilatraneâ&#x20AC;? intermediate. The final step in the proposed synthesis is closing the third bridging ring making the amide linkage (Scheme 2).

Scheme 2. Proposed route for the synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone via a pseudosilatrane intermediate.

Another synthetic route to 1-methyl-4-silatranone involves amide formation before closing up the tricyclic ring system. Attempts to synthesize N-glycolyl diethanolamine (4) have appeared successful, but purification is in process.

4

1

2

Figure 1. Dative bond between nitrogen and silicon in a silatrane and amide planarity in the proposed silatranone.

Currently, the synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone is moving forward in two directions. First, the synthesis of an eight-membered pseudosilatrane (3) precursor using diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane is in progress (Scheme 1).4 Numerous reaction conditions have been used to drive the reaction, but 1H NMR data suggests that there is no reaction occurring, or the starting materials are polymerizing.

Scheme 3. Proposed route for the synthesis of 1-methyl-4-silatranone via Nglycolyl diethanolamine.

The synthesis of the pseudosilatrane is still in progress, as spectral data indicates polymerization is occurring or starting material is left unreacted (Fig. 2). N-glycolyl diethanolamine has been successfully synthesized, but needs further purification. B

A

B

B

A

3

Scheme 1. Reaction of diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane to form the pseudosilatrane precursor.

Winning Project

2018

Unknown

A

Figure 2. 1H-NMR for the reaction of diethanolamine and methyltriethoxysilane neat at 50-600C (in CDCl3).

The original goal for this project was to synthesize a pseudosilatrane, 3, which could then be closed into the final product, 1-methyl-4-silatranone, 2, which contained a carbonyl group adjacent to the nitrogen creating an amide (Scheme 2). However, literature and recent findings have directed our synthetic plan towards a reaction of a silane and N-glycolyl diethanolamine. THF đ?&#x161;Ťđ?&#x161;Ťđ?&#x161;Ťđ?&#x161;Ť

Scheme 4. Proposed route for the synthesis of 1-propyl-4-silatranone via a reaction of N-glycolyl diethanolamine and dichlorosilacyclobutane.5

The synthesis of the pseudosilatrane, 3, is in progress. Neat and dilute reaction conditions were not enough to drive the production of the pseudosilatrane. The effects of adding a protecting group to diethanolamine are still being explored.

N-glycolyl diethanolamine was successfully synthesized using reaction conditions described in scheme three. Once purified, the product will be reacted with dichlorosilacyclobutane as suggested in scheme four.

Thank you to the UNH Department of Chemistry for their efforts and support during this research project.

1.Lyssenko, KA.; Korlyukov, AA.; Antipin, MY.; Knyazev, SP.; Kirin, VN.; Alexeev, NV.; Chernyshev, EA. Mendeleev Commun. 2000. 10(3), 88-90. 2.Shlyakhtenko, L. S.; Gall, A. A.; Filonov, A.; Cerovac, Z.; Lushnikov, A.; Lyubchenko, Y. L. Ultramicroscopy. 2003. 97, 279-287.

3.Morgan, J.; Weaver-Guevara, H. M.; Fitzgerald, R. W.; DunlapSmith, A.; Greenberg, A. Struct. Chem. 2017. 28, 327-331. 4.Piekos, R., Sujecki, R., Sankowski, M. Z. anog. Allg. Chem. 1979. 454, 187-191. 5.Pestunovich, V. A.; Lazareva, N. F.; Albanov, A. I.; Buravtseva, E. N.; Guselâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;nikok, L. E. Russian Journal of Chemistry. 2006. 76 (6), 931-935.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 18

CHEMISTRY

Exploration of the Synthesis of 1-Methyl-4-Silatranone and the Contest for Nitrogenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lone Pair


Synthesis of DFO Bifunctional Octadentate Ligand for the Chelation with 89Zr and Conjugation with Antibodies for 89Zr-immuno-PET-Imaging AUTHOR: Evangelos Rossis

Zirconium-89 metal displays near Synthesis of DFO Bifunctional Octadentate Ligand for the ideal physical and chemical Chelation with 89Zr and conjugation with antibodies for 89Zrimmuno-PET-imaging. properties for developing a new radioimmunoconjugate for positron emission tomography (PET). PET is an important and actively-researched method of diagnostic imaging. The half-life of zirconium is long enough to allow the antibody targeting group to get attached with the tumor cells, which requires over 24 hours in vivo. Deferoxamine (DFO), consisting of three hydroxamates with a total donation of six oxygen, can offer great stability due to its hard-base oxygens. The purpose of this research is the design and synthesis of an octadentate DFO derivative ligand that has a high affinity for Zr4+, which would prevent it from binding with the phosphate in bones. Our latest and most successful synthetic route uses an active ester intermediate. This synthetic route is efficient, high-yielding and selective for the amine group of DFO. The formation of the active ester was performed using 4-nitro-2-acetoxy-benzoic acid as the bifunctional component and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The active ester intermediate was successfully synthesized with 62% yield and characterized with proton-1 NMR and carbon-13 NMR. Evangelos Rossis, Dr. Roy Planalp

University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry er1@wildcats.unh.edu

ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

Formation of 4-nitro-2-acetoxy benzoic acid

Introduction

Conclusion

Initially we started with 2-hydroxy-4-nitro benzoic acid, which would later undergo a protection with acetyl chloride for the formation of the 4-nitro-2acetoxy benzoic acid in order to avoid a side reaction between the activation reagent (DCC) and the hydroxy group in the aromatic ring.

Zirconium-89 metal displays near ideal physical and chemical properties for developing a new radioimmunoconjugate for positron emission tomography (PET).1 PET is an important, actively researched method of diagnostic imaging.2 The half-life of zirconium is long enough for the antibody targeting group to attach with the tumor cells, which requires over 24 hours in vivo.3

The first step of the synthesis of DFO derivative, which is to form the activated Nhydroxysuccinimide derivative was successful with high-yielding and the product was characterized with 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

Future Work

The ultimate goal of this project is the synthesis of the DFO octadentate derivative, which could later form the Zirconium complex. The complex would then be tested for its stability in cellular environments. The collected data will then be compared with the already existing zirconium complexes. Some of the already existing complexes with zirconium are EDTA and DTPA.3

D

73%

Figure 1. Description of the fundamental principle of positron emission tomography (PET). As the targeting group interacts with the cell’s surface receptor.4

B

A

Figure 2. 1H NMR of 4-nitro-2acetoxy benzoic acid

C

Acylation of the amino group

The formation of an amide bond between a carboxylic acid moiety and an amino group is the core reaction of this synthesis. The activated ester is attacked by the nucleophile amino group of the deferoxamine (DFO) under basic conditions to form the bifunctional deferoxamine derivative which will serve as a chelator for the metal and the connector for the antibody.

9

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2

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6

Figure 3. 13C NMR of 4-nitro-2acetoxy benzoic acid

Figure 6. Zirconium complex with octadentate bifunctional ligand.

Formation of the active ester

Activation of the carboxyl moiety

The synthesis of the octadentate ligand was expected to be completed through the following pathway.

We have recently demonstrated that through activation of the carboxylic acid synthetic route, 4-nitro-2-acetoxy benzoic acid can be efficiently transformed into N-hydroxysuccinimide ester .

Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) has been used as a condensation reagent for coupling since 1955 and is still much in use today. DCC was applied in solution of 4nitro-2-acetoxy benzoic acid in combination with Nhydroxysuccinimide (HOSu) additive, to yield the activated ester. Upon proton exchange of the carboxyl with the DCC for the formation of O-acyl isourea intermediate, which was followed by coupling with HOSu for the formation of the active ester.

68%

Hc

Hc

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Acknowledgements

Figure 4. 1H NMR spectrum of N-hydroxysuccinimide Figure 5. 13C NMR spectrum of Nester. hydroxysuccinimide ester.

I would like to thank Dr. Planalp for his directions and suggestions in this project. I would like to acknowledge Luke Fulton for his guidance and suggestions, as well as Aaron Chung, Brady Barron, and Matthew Reuter. I would like to thank Barbara and Dhimiter Rossis for their support for all these years.

References

1.

Holland J.P., Divilov V., Bander N.H., Smith-Jones P.M., Larson S.M., Lewis J.S. 89Zr-DFO-J591 for immunoPET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in vivo. J Nucl Med. 2010; 51(8): 1293-1300. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.110.076174

Figure 7. Pathway for the synthesis of octadentate DFO derivative.

2. Wadas T.J, Wong E.H., Weisman G.R., Anderson C.J. Coordinating radiometals of copper, gallium, indium, yttrium, and zirconium for PET and SPECT imaging of disease. Chem Rev. 2010; 110:2858-902. 3. Deri A.M., Zeglis B.M., Francesconi L.C., Lewis J.S. PET Imaging with Zr: From Radiochemistry to the clinic. Nucl Med Bio, 2013; 40(1):3-14.

Aaron Chung, Dr. Mahmoud Abdalrahman, Dr. Roy Planalp ac2017@wildcats.unh.edu, Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire, 03824 3/18/18

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a versatile clinical imaging technique that is used to detect various pathologies, including cancers. This technique measures physiological function by looking at blood flow, metabolism, neurotransmitters and radio-labeled drugs.1 The combination of whole-body physiological data and high-resolution imaging allows physicians to make a more accurate diagnosis, monitor treatment efficacy, and predict onset changes. The currently-employed ligand used for PET is desferrioxamine (DFO), which is a hexadentate bifunctional chelator. The preferred radioisotope for PET is 89Zr4+ due to its half-life of 78.4 hours, which matches the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulins (3-4) days and a relatively low positron energy of 395.5 keV.2 However, Zr4+ possesses a coordination number of eight, while DFO is hexadentate. Two binding sites on the metal will ultimately be exposed to solvent (H2O), which will promote demetallation, as a result of instability. The consequence of this instability results in unwanted toxicity accumulating in bone marrow as Zr is considered a “bone seeker”.3 To combat the osteophilic nature of Zr, a better ligand can be designed and synthesized, such that it fulfills all eight binding sites of 89Zr4+ while retaining its bifunctionality.

OH

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Figure 2. 13C NMR of DFO Mesylate

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H

I would like to thank the UNH Chemistry Department, Dr. Mahmoud Abdalrahman, Luke Fulton, Brady Barron, Matthew Reuter, Evangelos Rossis, and Dr. Roy Planalp.

O

+

H N

NH

NH

N

O

OH

Now that a promising DFO coupling has been found, we plan to improve the work-up in order to better the purity of the product, making the ligand bifunctional, and finally coordinating a zirconium complex with the newly designed and synthesized ligand.

N

N

O

HO

The success of the HATU coupling of DFO and AMA is inconclusive. The proton NMR exhibits shouldered peaks, which makes characterization difficult to explore. Solvent choice resulted in proton exchange, making desired peaks absent from interpretation. An appropriate signal to noise ratio on the carbon NMR has not yet been obtained. MALDI TOF, alone, is insufficient to make claims on a successful synthesis. Aspirin anhydride was successfully synthesized, however, was too challenging to purify/isolate. Product appeared as a slight yellow glass and could not be isolated through various methods, such as filtration, recrystallization and column chromatography. Since the anhydride could not be isolated, the synthesis of a DFO derivative from the anhydride was not attempted. The EDC coupling was successful in producing the desired product, however, starting material still resides within the product and impurities are clearly present.

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OH

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6 f1 (ppm)

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O

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H 2N

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Figure 1. 13C NMR of DFO coupled to Salicylic Acid

Scheme 1. HATU coupling of aminomalonic acid to desferrioxamine forming DFO-8

H2N

OH

OH

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OH

O

HATU DIPEA DMF, RT, 48hrs

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NH2

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OH

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Multiple syntheses were performed in an attempt to yield an octadentate bifunctional ligand.

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ADVISOR: Roy Planalp

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a The Design and Synthesis of DFO Derivatives for PET-Imaging versatile clinical imaging technique that is used to detect various pathologies, Conclusion including cancers. There is growing Introduction interest in Zr-89 as a PET-imaging isotope due to its desirable half-life matching that of the pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies, and the potential for strong complexation. A Future Work number of studies utilize desferrioxamine Experimental (DFO) as the Zr(IV) chelator, however, stability concerns are an issue because Acknowledgements DFO provides only six coordination sites while Zr(IV) possesses a coordination References number of eight. The consequence of this instability will promote unwanted toxicity accumulating in bone marrow as zirconium is osteophilic. We are, therefore, pursuing DFO derivatives that are eight coordinates to increase Zr(IV) formation constant and decrease the possibilities of demetallation. In this research, we present the synthesis and Zr(IV) complexation of a bifunctional octadentate DFO derivative. 4.30 0.07 0.17 0.05 0.28

AUTHOR: Aaron Chung

2

1

0

-1

Figure 3. 1H NMR of DFO coupled to Salicylic Acid

Scheme 2. EDC coupling of aspirin and desferrioxamine. O

O

O

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O

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Acetic Anhydride

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Reflux

Scheme 3. Preparation of aspirin anhydride for coupling to DFO. O

N

OH N

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(5M)KOH MeOH NH3(g)

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, CHCl3

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Scheme 4. Preparation of aspirin DFO derivative from corresponding anhydride.

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6 f1 (ppm)

Figure 4. 1H NMR of DFO Mesylate

19 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

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3

2

7.92 3.91 5.53

O

O

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OH

2.00 2.14

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2.70

CHEMISTRY

The Design and Synthesis of DFO Derivatives for PET-Imaging

1

0

-1

1. Leonard Fass; Imaging and cancer: A review. Molecular Oncology 2. 2008, 115-152. 2. Melissa A. Deri, Brian M. Zeglis, Lynn C. Francesconi, Jason S. Lewis; PET Imaging with 89Zr: From Radiochemistry to the Clinic. Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 2013. 3-14. 3. Francois Guerard, Yong-Sok Lee, Martin W. Brechbiel; Rational Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Tetrahydroxamic Acid Chelators for Stable Complexation of Zirconium(IV). Chemistry a European Journal. 2014, 20, 5584-5591.


Exploring Routes to the Synthesis of Dibenzopentalenes AUTHOR: Thomas Williams

Dibenzopentalene is a little studied Exploring Routes to the Synthesis of Dibenzopentalenes chemical motif with a multitude of Thomas J. Williams, Dr. Richard P. Johnson tjw2001@wildcats.unh.edu University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry, Durham, NH interesting theorized characteristics. April 18 , 2018 Notably, it is a highly strained molecular Proposed Syntheses Introduction & History Initial Experimentation structure and has been predicted to possess a triplet ground state as a diradical. This work explores simple and practical routes towards the syntheses of Current Chemistry molecules with this skeleton. A variety of Moving Forward routes are investigated. The initial route Calculations involves the reduction, esterification, and dicyclization of diphenic acid through Acknowledgements a number of controlled steps which proved to be theoretically implausible References by density functional (DFT) calculations with a B3LYP/6-31G* basis set. Novel thallium(III) trinitrate trihydrate ringcontraction reactions are examined. Current calculations suggest that the most energetically favorable synthetic routes involve the synthesis of carbenes of a fluorene derived structure. Each synthetic step is tested and analyzed for plausibility via computational modeling and practically evaluated using 400MHz H1 NMR spectroscopy. th

ADVISOR: Richard Johnson

Dibenzo[cd,gh]pentalene is a little-studied chemical motif with an interesting electronic structure which conceptually merges the known compounds biphenyl with pentalene. According to our Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, dibenzopentalene is predicted to possess a triplet ground state diradical. Previous research on this these compounds was performed in the early to mid 1970s by Barry Trost and Philip Kinson at the University of Wisconsin. Their lengthy synthesis produced milligram-scale quantities of the dihydrodibenzopentalene non-aromatic analog. X-ray crystallography of the structure they synthesized suggested planarity, which is consistent with our calculations. This work explores simple and practical routes towards the syntheses of molecules with this skeleton to examine their fundamental chemical and electronic properties.

We used quantum mechanical calculations to analyze the energies and plausibility of key molecules and reactions we wish to perform. We calculated the energy of the electronic states of our desired products, both as closed and open shelled configurations. Further, we carried out isodesmic strain estimates of the second cyclization step. Finally, we compared the energy barriers in the formation of fluorene and dihydrodibenzopentalene. These computations predict substantial strain. One likely synthetic route passes through the cyclization of a carbene

A variety of routes have been proposed for the continuation of this project. Our first was a concerted dicyclization of the diol of diphenic acid, synthesized via esterification, then reduction. This attempt was rather naïve, however because it was performed prior to calculations. Post-calculations, thallium ring contractions were explored using phenanthrene, however these were, again, unsuccessful - likely because breaking any kind of aromaticity is a highly unfavorable process.

One of the most plausible routes to the dicyclized final product involves the synthesis of a carbene. This method requires the production of 2fluorenylmethanol, which has been successfully completed. This was made possible through the single cyclization of diphenic acid into the ketone with sulfuric acid, reduction of that ketone with sodium hydroxide and hydrazine, esterification of the carboxylic acid using thionyl chloride then methanol and triethylamine, and finally reducing the carboxylic acid with lithium borohydride. The following steps of this synthesis involve the oxidation of the alcohol to an aldehyde, then the aforementioned carbene synthesis and the final ring closure.

Two specific methods are being followed to complete the synthesis of dihydrodibenzopentalene. The first route passes through a carbene. This will be completed by oxidization to an aldehyde, then using tosylhydrazine chemistry to prepare a diazo precursor to the carbene. A method based on CH insertion will also be explored. This process substitutes the alcohol with a trifluoroacetate group, followed by a palladium catalyzed cyclization to afford the product. This is a known high-yield method for the production of fluorene.

We are looking to expand the pentalene homolog across larger, more conjugated systems. Specifically, we are interested in applications to dibenzochrysene and 6-circulene.

• Dr. Johnson and the Johnson Research Group. • The Chemistry Department at the University of New Hampshire. • My fellow Senior Chemistry Majors. • The National Science Foundation (CHE – 1362419).

Predicted Energies: Closed Shell (Singlet): 6.09 kcal/mol Open Shell Diradical (Singlet): 3.06 kcal/mol Diradical (Triplet): 0.00 kcal/mol

1. Gallagher, Nolan M., Olankitwanit, Arnon, Rajca, Andrzej. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 80,1291-1298.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Hirano, Masafumi; Kawazu, Sosuke; Komine, Nobuyuki. Organometallics. 2014. 33, 1921 – 1924. Kashulin, Igor A.; Nifant’ev, Ilya E. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69 (16), 5476 -5479. Kinson, Philip L.; Trost, Barry M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92(8), 2591-2593. Kinson, Philip L.; Trost, Barry M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97(9), 2438-2449. Pavelyev, Vlad G.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S. J. Phys. Chem. 2014, 118 (51), 30291 – 30301. Shi, Zhuangzhi; Glorius, Frank. Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 829 – 833. Silva, Luiz F. Synlett. 2014, 25, 0466-0476. Taylor, Rupert G. D.; McKeown, Neil B. Chem. Eur. J. 2016. 22 (7), 2466 – 2472. Ye, Long; Zhou, Huchen. Elsevier. 2009, 42, 8738 – 8744.

Sarah Lachapelle, Br ian Patenaude, Samuel Pazicni skl1010@wildcats.unh.edu, Depar tment of Chemistr y, Univer sity of New Hampshir e, Dur ham, NH 4/18/2018

Hem e protei ns have a wide range of bioc hemical func tio ns. Th ese func tio ns incl ud e electron trans fer, catalysis, and th e transpor tation of oxygen molecul es thro ughou t th e blood, such as i n the wel l-studi ed m olecul e h emoglo bin, p ic tur ed in figure 1.1 Metal cofac tors in protein s incl ude two coordina tion sph er es. The firs t of whi ch, r eferri ng th e molecul es dir ec tly attach ed to th e metal center, i s pri maril y responsible for the function of the protein. While the second sph ere, r eferring to th e mol ec ules adjacent to the pr imar y sph ere, has th e abili ty to in flu en ce th e protein’s r eac ti vity.2 This proj ec t aims to mod el the s eco ndar y coordina tion sp her e i nterac tion s throug h th e inves tigatio n of macro molecular por ph yrin- cored Figure 1. Three dimensional representation of hemoglobin. 1 nanoparticles.

Th e col lapse of Por( MMA-co-A MMA) 4 was mon itor ed via UV-Vis sp ec trosco py (f igure 3) . Th e reduc tio n of th e anthrac en e signal i ndi cated th e colla pse was suc cessful. Th e DOS Y c haracteriza tion s how ed a shi ft in th e diffus ion coeffi cient, representa ti ve of a change in th e Stok es radius upon collapse (figures 4 & 5).

A multi step s yn th esis was p erfo rm ed to pro duc e Por(MMA- co-A MMA) 4 w ith var ying amo un ts of th e pol ym er chain sub sti tu en ts m eth yl m ethacr ylate (MMA) and anthrac en yl m eth yl m ethacr ylate (AMMA) (sche me 1). Th ese star pol ym ers w ere charac teriz ed b y DO SY prior to and follo wing the collaps e in to nano parti cl es via a photodimerization of the anthracene units (figures 2 & 3).

Figure 3. UV-Vis spectrum of Por(MMA-co-AMMA)4 collapse in THF with a close upof the change in absorbance from approximately 300 to 400 nm.

3. 5

To fur th er con str uc t th e calibra tion c urve n eeded to characteri ze the por ph yrin co red na noparticl es, pol ym eth yl methacr yla te s tan dards are to b e in dep endently charac ter iz ed with gel perm eatio n c hroma tograph y (G PC) to co mpl em en t th e DOS Y analysis. Porp h yrin-co red s tar polymer s with chains con sis ting o f anthrac en yl meth yl methacr yla te a nd pen tafl uoroph en yl metha cryla te ar e to b e s yn th esiz ed, as s een in scheme 2.

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Figure 4. DOSY characterization of Por(MMA-co-AMMA)4 prior to the collapse in d6-DMF.

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Scheme 2. Synthetic Route to Por(PFPMA-co-AMMA)4 by reacting PFPMA andAMMA witha porphyrin cored chain transferagent.

This sys tem will u sed as a templa te for subs eq uent pr imar y amin e r eplac em ent o f th e p en tafl uoroph en yl m ethacr ylate with iso prop yl, hex ylami ne, and eth yl en eglycol a min e grou ps afford ami de grou ps that s er ve as h ydrog en bo nd dono rs. Stud ies will be p er form ed bi ndi ng imidazo le and carbo n monoxid e group s to th e iron center to i nterrogate the effect o f th e various h ydrog en bon ding envi ron ments pro vi ded b y th e amide substituents, monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy.

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Scheme 1. Synthetic Route to Por(MMA-co-AMMA)4 by reacting MMA and AMMA with a porphyrin cored chain transfer agent. hv

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Figure 2. The collapse of the porphyrin-cored star polymer into a porphyrin-corednanoparticle via photo dimerization.

Figure 3. The 4πs-4πs crosslinking photo dimerization of the anthracene units present on the porphyrin-cored starpolymer. 3

1E-06

f1 (Diffusion units)

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

Porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles Probing the macromolecular environment of porphyrin-cored (PCPNs) were synthesized to investigate nanoparticles using exogenous ligands their utility as heme protein models. Porphyrin-cored star polymers with chains consisting of anthracenylmethyl methacrylate and pentafluorophenyl methacrylate were synthesized. This system was used as a template for subsequent primary amine replacement of the pentafluorophenyl methacrylate with isopropyl, hexylamine, and ethylene glycol bis(amine) groups afford amide groups that serve as hydrogen bond donors. These polymer nanoparticles are characterized using diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY). This technique requires the use of a calibration curve to accurately interpret DOSY signals. To construct this calibration curve, polymethyl methacrylate standards were independently characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) prior to DOSY analysis. This calibration curve will be used to characterize the porphyrin cored nanoparticles containing hydrogen bonding. Abs or bance

AUTHOR: Sarah Lachapelle

Figure 5. Plot of the change in diffusion coefficient peak of Por(MMA-co-AMMA)4 over the increments of the collapse in d6-DMF.

A succ essful collaps e of the porp hyrin-cor ed s tar polym ers was obs erved u sing two i nd ep end en t m ethod s; UV-Vis spectros cop y and d iffusio n NMR (D OSY). Th e D OS Y data w ill form th e basi s of th e cal ibratio n c urve used to charac teriz e future pol ymers w hic h will allow for th e in ves tigation of seco nd coor dina tion s ph ere i nterac tion s wi th ligand b ind ing to the iron(III) center.

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I would like to thank Brain Patenaude, Drew Verrier, Matthew Currier, and the University of New Hampshire Department of Chemistry.

1. Fanelli, A. R.; Antonini, E.;Caputo, A. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 1964, 73–222. 2. Rodriguez, K. J., Hanlon, A. M., Lyon, C. K., Cole, J. P., Tuten, B. T., Tooley, C. A., Pazicni, S. (2016). Porphyrin-Cored Polymer Nanoparticles: Macromolecular Models for Heme Iron Coordination. Inorganic Chemistry, 55(19), 9493–9496. 3. Rodriguez, K. J. Modeling Secondary Coordination Sphere Interactions in Heme Proteins: From Small Molecule Ligands to Macromolecular Porphyrin-Cored Polymer Nanoparticles, University of New Hampshire, 2017.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 20

CHEMISTRY

Probing the Macromolecular Environment of Porphyrin-Cored Nanoparticles using Exogenous Ligands


Synthesis and Characterization of Porphyrin-Cored Polymer Nanoparticles that Incorporate Hydrogen Bonding to Model Hemes AUTHOR: Drew Verrier

Porphyrin-cored star polymers (PCSPs) Synthesis and characterization of porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles that incorporate hydrogen bonding to model hemes were synthesized and studied as models of heme protein cofactors. This type of polymer consists of a central porphyrin with polymer chains emanating from it. Polymer chains consisting of anthracenylmethyl methacrylate (AMMA) and pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFPMA) were synthesized and copolymerized. The PFPMA units were the substituted with primary amines to afford amide groups that act as hydrogen bond donors. After insertion of iron(III) into the porphyrin core, the photodimerizable anthracene groups were crosslinked using ultraviolet light to form a porphyrin cored polymer nanoparticle (PCNP) that was used as a model for heme protein cofactors under different hydrogen bonding environments. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor nanoparticle formation given the near-UV and easily-identifiable signatures of the anthracene units. Drew Verrier, Brian Patenaude, Sam Pazicni University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry drv2000@wildcats.unh.edu

Introduction

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

PCSP Synthesis and Modification

Heme proteins are a crucial part of biology that have a multitude of functions including electron transfer, small molecule sensing, and molecular oxygen transport, like in hemoglobin. Some important characteristics of the heme protein hemoglobin include the porphyrin-based iron heme cofactor which includes the primary coordination sphere of the heme iron, and the folded protein surrounding it which includes the secondary coordination sphere. The primary coordination sphere denotes the moieties directly bound to the heme iron, and the secondary coordination sphere denotes moieties adjacent to those directly bound. It is this secondary sphere that this research is concerned with, since it is believed that this is what primarily tunes the reactivity of the iron while the primary sphere mainly dictates function and is not easily changed.1

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Scheme 1: polymerization of monomer units and subsequent post-polymerization modification using isopropyl amine.

Figure 2: Heme groups in hemoglobin (obtained from Wikipedia)

Figure 1: Structure of porphyrin-cored star polymer (PCSP)

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• •

2 Hours 24 Hours

Monomer Synthesis

O

O

H

NaBH4 THF

H

3hr

HO

NaBH4 THF 3hr

O

HO

HO

DIC, DMAP, MeCN 24hr

B, C

O

O

O

HO

DIC, DMAP, MeCN

24hr Porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles (PCPNs) offer a unique approach to replicate the secondary coordination sphere of heme iron to give a more representative model.2 Using reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) techniques, a copolymer of anthracenylmethyl methacrylate and pentafluorophenyl methacrylate was synthesized.

F F

F

F

Cl

TEA, diethyl ether, 0oC->RT, 24hr

F

F

O

D

F

E F

F F

O

F

O F

G H

Figure 5: DOSY of por(amma-co-IPAMA) in d6-DMSO

Iron will be inserted into the porphyrin core via an Fe(II)Br2 reaction. Following this, the porphyrin-cored star polymer (PCSP) will be collapsed via a photodimerization of the anthracene monomer units using 350nm light into a porphyrin-cored nanoparticle. After this step, hydrogen bonding studies will be conducted to observe how different hydrogen bonding environments affect the heme iron reactivity. This will be done through the axially bound ligands on the iron. Continuing studies would including different incorporations of amine replacement to measure how the concentration of amine dictates hydrogen bonding efficacy. Along with this, different primary amines will be tested, such as hexylamine and ethylene glycol amine. These different amines offer various hydrogen bonding environments for the heme so that reactivites under different conditions can be observed.

Figure 3: 1HNMR of AMMA in CDCl3

F

OH

F

O

Cl

F

O

F

TEA, diethyl ether, 0oC->RT, 24hr

F

F

F

O F F

F

Figure 4: 1HNMR of PFPMA in CDCl3

Figure 6: 19FNMR showing replacement of PFPMA with isopropyl amine in d6-DMSO.

Future Work

F

O

F

G

B, C

A

OH

O

A

H

These were chosen as functionalizable monomers susceptible to crosslinking and post-polymerization using primary amines, respectively. The goal of this research is to use this synthetic heme model to observe how different hydrogen bonding environments affect the heme 3 iron reactivity.

• • • • •

Figure 7: Collapse of PCSP into a nanoparticle

Acknowledgements

References

Kyle Rodriguez The Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) UNH Chemistry Department UNH Instrumentation Center Graham Beaton, Mathew Currier, Sarah Lachapelle

(1) Rodriguez, K. J. Dissertation. University of New Hampshire, 2017. (2) Cole, J. P.; Hanlon, A. M.; Rodriguez, K. J.; Berda, E. B. Protein-like Structure and Activity in Synthetic Polymers. J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 2017, 55 (2), 191–206. (3) Rodriguez, K. J.; Hanlon, A. M.; Lyon, C. K.; Cole, J. P.; Tuten, B. T.; Tooley, C. A.; Berda, E. B.; Pazicni, S. Porphyrin-Cored Polymer Nanoparticles: Macromolecular Models for Heme Iron Coordination. Inorg. Chem. 2016, 55 (19), 9493–9496.

Experimental Design

250:1 ratio comonomer to RAFT reagent polyNIPMA polymer was synthesized using reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Freeze, pump, thaw cycle process was applied before polymerization to exclude dissolved gases from the reaction mixture. Then, the reaction mixture was placed in temperature controlled oil bath to induce polymerization. Same procedures were used for synthesize of poly-acrylamide with the same comonomer/ RAFT reagent ratio. 500:1 ratio comonomer to RAFT reagent polymer was available from previous synthesis. Three sets of samples were prepared. First, 250:1 ratio polyNIPAM samples with different mass concentrations (10mg, 1mg, 0.1mg) and different THF/water solvent concentration (20%, 47%), THF aqueous solution) were made. Phosphate buffer was used to control pH value of solutions to around neutral. The second set of samples were made in the same way but stored under elevated temperature (48oC). The third set of samples were poly acrylamide aqueous solutions and buffer was added to control pH.

21 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Normalized intensity was defined by ratio of fluorescence intensity over fluorescence intensity of day one measurement. This is a measure of the rate of fluorescence increase. As polymer untangles, fluorescence increases. Hence, this ratio was used to describe the untangling rate of the polymer. Fluorescence of samples were measured under standard condition. Fluorescence data for the first set of sample is shown in Figure 1, 2. The trends suggested shorter chain length and low polymer concentration would increases untangling rate of polymer. This is because the overall hydrophobic interactions of nisopropyl group increases as concentration and chain length increase. Additionally, the figures indicated the increased tetrahydrofuran (THF) concentration would also increase the overall untangling rate because hydrophobic interactions between polymers were disrupted by THF. The second set of samples fluorescence data, which only added temperature based on the first set, (Figure 3, 4) indicated elevated temperature would increase untangling rate. This is the result of increased molecule movement due to increased thermal energy. In addition, due to pNIPAM has interesting thermal property that it become less soluble at temperature higher than 32 degree, more complicated factors could be involved. Polyacrylamide (Figure 5) fluorescence data was compared with Figure 1. Results suggested the absence of nisopropyl group greatly increase the untangling of polymer. 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

20 18 16

Norm . Intensity

14 12 10 8 6 4 2

0

10

20

30

40

Time(days)

50

60

70

0

80

10mg/l 250:1 NIPAM in 20% THF

1mg/l 250:1 NIPAM in 20% THF

10mg/l 250:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

1mg/l 250:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

0

20

30

40

50

Time (Days)

60

70

80

1mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 20% THF 1mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

Figure 2. Normalized intensity vs. Time for 500:1 PolyNIPAM Untangling. Fluorescence decreased caused by decomposition of fluorescein

40

40

35

35

30

30

25 20 15 10 5 0

10

10mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 20% THF 10mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

Figure 1. Normalized intensity vs. Time for 250:1 PolyNIPAM untangling. Fluorescence decreased caused by decomposition of fluorescein

Norm. Intensity

In the modern years, from foods to building materials, everything is heavily relied on polymers. Studies on polymer is essential to modern society.1 Research in Dr. Seitz group has found that is possible to make rapid binding templated polymer based on polyNIPAM which has wide potential applications with very low costs. However, it takes very long time for the polymer to untangle when it is dissolved in water. In this project, in order to find ways that make polymers untangle more rapidly, polymer untangling rates as a function of added organic solvent, temperature, polymer’s chain length and polymer composition were investigated. A copolymer was synthesized with Nisopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) as main comonomer and 1mole % of fluorescein acrylate as the minor comonomer using reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The rate of untangling was monitored by increasing on fluorescence of polymer. As chain untangles, the average distance between fluorescein comonomers increases, which results in less fluorescence quenching. 2 A polymer composed of acrylamide and NIPAM comonomers in 70:30 molar ratio and fluorescein as minor comonomer was made and a faster untangling rate was observed for this new polymer. It was hypothesized that the polymers untangling rate was limited due to hydrophobic interaction between the n-isopropyl group on the polymer. A series of experiments were designed and increasing polymer untangling rates were observed in polymer samples with organic solvent added, samples stored under elevated temperature, samples with shorter chain length and samples with less NIPAM comonomer in the chain. Stable fluorescence response is expected if polymer untangled completely.2

0

20

40

60

Time (Days)

10mg/L 250:1 NIPAM in 20% THF 10mg/L 250:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

80

100

25

1mg/l 250 NIPAM in 20% THF 1mg/L 250:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

10 5

0

20

40

60

Time (Days)

10mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 20% THF 10mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

80

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

0

5

10

Time (Days)

10mg/l 250:1 Aca in 20% THF 10mg/l 250:1 Aca in 47% THF

100

120

1mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 20% THF 1mg/l 500:1 NIPAM in 47% THF

Figure 4. Normalized intensity vs. Time for 500:1 PolyNIPAM Untangling under elevated temperature in THF solution Fluorescence decreased further due to thermal decomposition of fluorescein3

20

0

15

Although polymers were made with a known ratio of monomer to RAFT agent, the chains may be longer or shorter than expected. It is necessary for us to accurately measure actual polymer chain length to make sure the overall accuracy of this experiment. In addition, some normalized intensities are still increasing which means the polymer is still untangling at a slower rate. Hence, new methods that could accelerate polymer untangling rate are needed as current untangling rate is still very time consuming. Determining the thermal effect on untangling rate changes also need to be determined as raising temperature could be a convenient and efficient way to untangle polymers.

Hydrophobic groups affect untangling of polyNIPAM was proven by fluorescence analysis. Polymers untangle faster with less hydrophobic group composed in the chain. It was also found that addition of organic solvent would increase untangling rate and the relatively most optimal organic solvent concentration is 47% (or somewhere near it) as this is most effective concentration on the disruption of hydrophobic effect. Furthermore, increasing chain length would increase amount of hydrophobic interaction, this result in longer polymers are more difficult to untangle. The effect of elevated temperature on untangling of polymer is still not clear due to the thermal properties of polymer. However, it can be said that increasing temperature could make untangling process easier. As untangling rates are still relatively large, it can be said that none of the polymers have completely untangled

Acknowledgements

20 15

0

120

Figure 3. Normalized intensity vs. Time for 250:1 PolyNIPAM Untangling under elevated temperature in THF solution. Fluorescence decreased further due to thermal decomposition of fluorescein3

Norm. Intensity

ADVISOR: W. Rudolf Seitz

A templated copolymer was prepared Effect of Hydrophobic Group on the Untangling rate of PolyNIPAM Zekun Li with Poly N-isopropylacrylamide Dr. W. Rudolf Seitz, Faculty Advisor Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (PNIPAM), a well-known polymer that Data and Results Introduction Future Works has interesting thermal property. The copolymer was synthesized with fluorescein using reverse additionConclusions fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. Since polymers are very long chains, polymer entanglement will occur. However, untangling polymers naturally is a very slow process. It was hypothesized that this phenomenon is caused the hydrophobic effect of n-isopropyl group on the polymer which made polymer untangling difficult. This project focuses on the investigation of the polymers untangling rate as a function of added organic solvent, temperature, polymer‘s chain length and polymer composition. In standard conditions, pNIPAM with the organic solvent added untangles at a faster rate compared to its aqueous solution. Polymers untangling at a faster rate under elevated temperature. For polymers with a shorter length, untangling rate also increases. With the absence of the hydrophobic group on the polymers, polymers untangling greatly increase. In addition, polymers processed through these methods still have increasing fluorescence readings which indicated none of the polymer samples was completely untangled. Norm. intensity

AUTHOR: Zekun Li

Norm. Intensity

CHEMISTRY

Effect of Hydrophobic Group on the Untangling Rate of PolyNIPAM

20

1mg/l 250:1 Aca in 20% THF 1mg/l 250:1 Aca in 47% THF

25

Figure 4. Normalized intensity vs. Time for 250:1 poly-acrylamide Untangling in THF solution. Fluorescence decreased caused by decomposition of fluorescein

I am grateful to my family for supporting me. The completion of this project is not possible without Dr. Seitz’s advices and assistance. Also, I would like to thank Rangfang Yang, who are always available to help me. Thank to all group members in Seitz group for their support. Finally, I would like to express my great appreciation to UNH department of Chemistry where I can meet so much wonderful people.

References

1. Jensen, W. B. Ask the Historian: The origin of the polymer concept. Journal of Chemical Education. 2008. 85: p624–625. 2. Du, J.; Yao, S.; Seitz, W. R.; Bencivenga, N. E.; Massing, J. O.; Planalp, R. P.; Jackson, R. K.; Kennedy, D. P.; Burdette, S. C. A ratiometric fluorescent metal ion indicator based on dansyl labeled poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) responds to a quenching metal ion. Analyst 2011, 136, 5006-11. 3. Hajime, S. Isao, M. Norio, Y. Takeshi, K. Analysis on Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Fluorescein using First-order Reaction Rate Equation. Shigen-to –Sozai. 2006. 122-3. p101-106


Synthesis of Indole-Functionalized Methacrylate Polymers for Investigating Nanoparticle Formation Dynamics Matthew Currier, Samuel Pazicni; University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemistry mc1151@wildcats.unh.edu

A popular protein characterization method utilizes tryptophan (trp) residues as a natural protein probe, specifically in hemeproteins. The high fluorescence yield of trp is used to examine the distance of the residues to the characteristic porphyrin-core via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). N Heme group Distal histidine

N

N

COOH

*See Figure 3 for NMR spectrum

1.98

4.46

X

1.29 Ethyl Acetate

0.95

3.17

5.58

4.15 Ethyl Acetate

6.15

7.36

8.17

8

7

6

5

2.99

2.10

2.07

0.96

K

G

4

f1 (ppm)

3

2

1

0

5.57

7.39

7.66

C 1.95

5.34

2.17

7.36

H

7.40

7.64

D

5.71

K

J

O

X=

Figure 6: Denaturating of various heme protein mutants versus fluorescence of trp residues, indicating unfolding of the protein from a collapsed moiety to a unfolded structure.4 A reverse result is expected from the collapse of IEMA containing PCSPs.

5.5

I

1.26 Hexanes

5.57

5.49

4.11 Ethyl Acetate

B

2.04 Ethyl Acetate

HA

9

8

7

3.00

1.00 0.99 1.01 2.04

6

5

f1 (ppm)

4

3

2.98

F

0.94 0.92 0.98 0.97

H

5.6

1.01

1.00

C

O

C

5.7

7.26 cdcl3

5.8 f1 (ppm)

5.71

H

5.9

8.43 8.41

E

6.0

7.66

N

H3 C

GH

6.1

0.91

C HI

H

C

O

0.99

0.99

C

CH

6.2

CH3

O

NC

O

7.30

7.57

D H2C

7.35

6.12

7.40

7.34

7.45

0.99

7.50 f1 (ppm)

7.41

0.98

7.55

O

O

O

S

SC12H25

S

O

2

O

O

y

m

n

O

O

O

S

O

SC12H25

S

NH

7.32

7.60

O

y

m

n

O

NH

7.42

7.65

0.97

0.92

0.94

7.70

NC

O

O

• Increased trp fluorescence is seen as hemeproteins are denatured (Fig. 6). By systematically manipulating the placement of IEMA throughout the PCSP prior to collapse, the goal of future work is to improve the understanding of the viability of nanoparticles as protein mimic.

A 5.49

B

6.12

L

O

N Br N Fe N N

X

7.57

O

N H

Figure 5: PSCP containing the comonomers MMA to creating a hydrophobic internal environment, AMMA for utilization of it’s dimerization via photocrosslikning as a folding mechanism, and IEMA to perform FRET studies and gather an better understanding of PSNP folding dynamics. X

7.16 7.04

7.67

F

F

1

0

Figure 4: 1H NMR of disubstituted IMMA product through reaction conditions D

Scheme 2: Proposed synthetic routes 2-(1HIndol-3-yl)ethyl Methacrylate (IEMA).3

O

C

B

F

9

Refer to Table 1 for reaction conditions

O

Cl

Cl

C

J

E

J HC

O

OH

• Incorporate indole-containing trp analogue monomer, IEMA, into the PCSP via RAFT polymerization (Fig. 5).

E

7.00

1.00

C H

J

Scheme 1: Proposed synthetic routes 2-(1HIndol-3-yl)methyl Methacrylate (IMMA).

O

B, D, E

7.05

Figure 3: 1H NMR IEMA product through reaction conditions C

N H

O

7.10

A

FeIII-PCPN

O

O

N H

CH

C H

G

NH

LH

A

7.15

O

X

K HC

HO

O

CH

CH

X

N Br N FeIII N N

Synthetic routes to a novel trp residue analog (Scheme 1) for incorporation into established PCSPs (Fig. 5) were investigated to be used in examining PCPNs collapse through FRET. Results may ultimately yield insight to the effectiveness of particular hemeprotein mimics for use in further studies in synthetic or natural moieties.

OH

CH3

E H 2C

I HC

X

N H

7.20 f1 (ppm)

B

H HC

FeIII-PCSP

7.16

7.22

7.25

1.00

0.99

7.30

• DCC coupling and substitution to form the IMMA monomer resulted in a unwanted polymerized product. Possibly due to IMMA being a high-energy compound, therefore polymerizing readily without a radical inhibitor present. • IEMA reaction conditions successfully synthesized the monomer. • IEMA reaction conditions were used to the synthesis IMMA • Desired product was likely formed and due a prolonged reaction time, the product became disubstituted. TLC suggests reducing the reaction time from 24 to 3 hours to yield IMMA.

A

7.14

7.21

7.38

7.26 cdcl3

7.35

DH2C

X

Figure 4 for NMR spectrum

D

0.94

7.40

O

Figure 2: Proposed PCSP collapse to form the PCPNs permanent secondary coordination sphere.2 This work attempts to confirm the hypothesis by evaluating dynamics of the heme-analog before and after collapse.

+See

7.18

H

7.05 7.04

K

Results Polymer Polymer Product* Disubstituted+ TBD

G

I

7.36

Proximal histidine

An intimate understanding of heme iron secondary coordination spheres has yet to be described, although overall reactivity is often attributed the surrounding environment (Fig. 1). Attempts in hemeprotein mimicry via porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles (PCPNs) as described by Rodriguez et. al. has laid a promising foundation into hemeprotein model synthesis (Fig. 2).2

7.22

N

Length 24 hrs. 12 hrs. 12 hrs. 24 hrs. 3 hrs.

7.26 cdcl3

Fe

N

0.99

N

0.94 0.99 1.00 0.95

N H

O

O

N

HOOC

Reaction Conditions CNCH3, DCC/DMAP, Room Temp. DCM, TEA, 0 °C DCM, TEA, hydroquinone, 0 °C DCM, TEA, hydroquinone, 0 °C DCM, TEA, hydroquinone, 0 °C

2.08 Ethyl Acetate

Label A B C D E

0.95

Figure 1: Hemoglobin (L) and it’s secondary coordination sphere (R), allows O2 to bind to heme group without metal oxidation via H-bonding with distal histidine.1

Table 1: The following reaction conditions were of the various reactions as labeled schemes 1 & 2 used in the synthesis of IEMA and IMMA monomers.

7.24

ADVISOR: Samuel Pazicni

The utilization of tryptophan residues Synthesis of indole-functionalized methacrylate polymers for investigating nanoparticle formation dynamics as a natural protein probe is a popular method in protein characterization. Specifically, in hemeproteins, the high fluorescence yield of tryptophan can be used to examine the relative distance of the residue to the characteristic porphyrin core of the hemeprotein via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). While an intimate understanding of the heme-iron center’s secondary coordination sphere has yet to be described, the overall reactivity is most often attributed to its surrounding environment. Attempts in hemeprotein mimicry via porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles (PCPNs) as described by Rodriguez et. al., has laid a promising foundation into the synthesis of a hemeprotein model. This work examines the mechanism of collapse of PCPNs. Through FRET, the energy exchange of the porphyrin-core with the indole-containing tryptophan analogue can be monitored, ultimately yielding insight to the effectiveness of particular hemeprotein mimics for use in further studies. 7.34

AUTHOR: Matthew Currier

I would like to thank the UNH Chemistry Department, the UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research, Brian Patenaude, Sarah Lachapelle, Drew Verrier, Christian Tooley and my fellow chemistry peers for their help and support.

1. 2. 3. 4.

OH

NH2

N H

tryptophan

Campbell, M., et al. Biochemistry, 9th ed.; Brooks Cole: Salt Lake City, 2017. Rodriguez, K.J., et al., Inorg. Chem., 2016, 55 (19), 9493-9496. Locock, K. E. S. ACS Macro Lett., 2014, 3 (4), 319–323 Lee, A. J., et al., Biochemistry., 2009, 48 (28), 6585-6597.

`

Department of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 04/18/2018

•! Seeded co-polymerization monomer feeding profiles 1. Fast Feed (30 min) 2. Slow Feed (120 min) 3. Batch Feed •! Particle size determination Dynamic light scattering (DLS) determines the mean particle size in a limited size range •! Swelling ratio determination The ratio of toluene-swollen gel to the dried gel polymer determines the swelling ratio.

Low Crosslinking Density

Or

High Crosslinking Density

•! Free-radical polymerization is one of the economical processes in polymer industry. !"#$

#$

#$

Swelling ratio

!"#$%

&'(#$%

$!"#$)&'(#$*+,-.!/012%

0

•! A reduced reactivity parameter, !c,x, that was used to adjust the pendent vinyl group reactivity for each monomer-crosslinker pair was broadly studied in bulk copolymerization1,2. •! The ! concept on predicting and targeting crosslinking density was applied and investigated during seeded emulsion polymerization. •! The kinetics of the reaction and molecular structure development during free-radical emulsion copolymerizations of n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were studied. •! Reaction temperature @ 70 °C •! Seed polymer particles, p(nBMA) (~105 nm) •! Type of monomer and crosslinker nBMA+ 1 wt% EGDMA

1

Slow feed with 1% EGDMA

0.8

Slow feed with only BMA

0.6

Fast Feed with pure BMA

0.4 0.2 0

0

20

40

60

80

Time (min)

100

120

140

Monomer+X’linker

12 10 8 6

•! The kinetics of the polymerization are strongly impacted by the monomer feed rate •! Slow monomer feed (“starve fed”) leads to the condition where there is the least free unreacted monomer at any time •! With lower free monomer concentration, crosslinking is enhanced and a tighter network density is achieved.

Batch Feed Slow Feed Fast Feed Theoretical Size

nBMA+1% EGDMA

127.0 nm

135.9 nm

132.3 nm

130 nm

nBMA (No X’linker)

124.3 nm

132.4 nm

133.9 nm

130 nm

•! A well-controlled system to obtain a desired particle size •! No clustering/coagulation, and no new particle formation

Batch Feed 30 mins Feed 120 mins Feed

14

Batch with pure BMA

Figure 1. Conversion vs Time in three processes compared to a controlled group (nBMA w/t X’linker)

Batch 13.7

Effect of Feed Rate @ 90% Fractional Conversion

16

Batch with 1% EGDMA

Fast feed with 1% EGDMA

Fast feed 13.6

•! Due to the challenge of catching the gel, a better route for the gel test will be investigated 18

!"#$%&$'"$%"%(')*+$$$$#$%&$'$+',%-'.$

Slow feed 13.4

•! Challenges in the technique to determine gel fraction and swelling ratio were experienced.

Swelling Ratio

ADVISOR: John Tsavalas

The kinetics of the reaction and molecular Targeting Crosslinking Density of Emulsion Polymerization structure development during freeYung-Chun Lin, Chang Liu, Amit Tripathi, John Tsavalas radical, emulsion co-polymerizations of n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA) with Introduction ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were studied. From our previous studies, Future Work a reduced reactivity parameter, Ψc,x, that Results & Discussion was used to adjust the reactivity for each HMA+EGDMA monomer-crosslinker pair was broadly studied in bulk copolymerization. In this work, the Ψ concept on predicting and targeting crosslinking density was applied and investigated during seeded emulsion polymerization. Three Acknowledgments processes, batch, fast feeding, and References Experimental Design slow feeding, were studied in emulsion co-polymerizations. A control system was demonstrated through emulsion polymerization with only nBMA (no crosslinker). Many polymer properties, such as gel point, crosslinking density, particle size, and swelling ratio were tested to have a better understanding of the network formation. This work showed that predicting and targeting crosslinking density could be more effective if we considered both the Ψ concept (different chemical compositions) and different processing conditions, simultaneously. Monomer Conversion

AUTHOR: Yung-Chun Lin

4

0

0.1

0.2 0.3 wt Fraction EGDMA

0.4

0.5

•! Different composition of monomer (MMA, EMA, HMA), with different divinyl crosslinkers, in different processes (batch, fast feed, slow feed), will be investigated in emulsion polymerization •! Predictively adjust monomer feed rate, crosslinker level, and ! accordingly to target desired network structure •! Dr. Tsavalas and the Tsavalas group •! UNH Chemistry Department

[1] Tripathi, A.K., Tsavalas, J.G., Sundberg, D.C., Macromolecules (2015) 48, 184"197 [2] Tripathi, A.K., Neenan, M.L., Sundberg, D.C., Tsavalas, J.G., Polymer (2016), 96, 130–145.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 22

CHEMISTRY

Targeting Crosslinking Density in Emulsion Polymerization


Marine Terminal Improvements for Waste Transport Barge Operations AUTHORS: Dominic Carpentiere Derek Gallagher Hunter Lawrence Haley Nix Katharena Racine FACULTY ADVISOR: Raymond Cook INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Cheryl Coviello, Collins Engineers, Inc.

Over the past few years, typical truckMARINE TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR WASTE centric solid waste (garbage) handling TRANSPORT BARGE OPERATIONS operations in New York City have D O M I N I C C A R P E N T I E R E , D E R E K G A L L AG H E R , H U N T E R L AW R E N C E , H A L E Y N I X , K AT R A C I N E experienced dramatic increases in transportation costs. A container shipping company that operates a facility out of a local port terminal devised an innovative system to improve the operations and reduce costs for exporting solid waste containers. The proposed operations allow garbage trucks to unload solid waste directly into shipping containers at feeder terminals located throughout the metropolitan area. The containers are then barged to a main terminal where they are offloaded and transferred to rail cars for shipment to a disposal facility. To evaluate the feasibility of the barge operations at the main terminal, a conceptual study was completed. The study included structural analysis of the wharf structure and marine fit-out components considering the barge vessel, shipping containers, equipment, trucks and crane. Key elements evaluated included the concrete deck, beams, and piles; fendering system; and mooring hardware. Where the analysis identified deficiencies, recommendations for repairs or modifications were developed. PROJECT OVERVIEW:

Global Container Terminals requested evaluation and analysis for rehabilitation and change of use for a waterfront structure

ď ś

ď ś

Staten Island, New York

ď ś

Terminal to be repurposed to serve new equipment and vessels. Servicing Large barges that transport compacted Municipal Solid Waste.

ď ś

By completing analysis of existing structures and equipment, and making recommendations for correction..

ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS:

LOADS ACTING ON THE WHARF

Live Loads:

Crane Load: 140 kips- water side, 142 kips â&#x20AC;&#x201C; land side HS25 Truck: 79 kips

Dead Loads: 115 kip present on controlling pile Snow Load: 5 kips per pile

LOADS ACTING ON THE BARGE

Live Loads:

Wind and Wave Load: 55 kips Berthing Load: 251 kips across 2 fenders

Dead Loads:

Self Weight of Barge fully laden with Containers: 3850 kips

Existing Cylindrical Fender (above left), Recommended Four Element M-V Fender (above right), Pile Condition Table (below).

ELEMENTS TO ANALYZE:

Piles: Substructural element of the wharf. Existing piles have been evaluated for condition and possible rehabilitation needs. Allows loads of the structure to transfer into the sea floor below. Fenders: Structure for protecting both the barge and wharf from damage during barge berthing.

Mooring Hardware: Structures on the top of the wharf decking that can have lines of chain or rope, tied to them to allow the barge to be tied to the wharf to allow for proper unloading. Decking: Superstructure of the wharf, allows transfer of load to beams and piles below. Acts as a wearing surface for the trucks and cranes that move the containers. Dredging: How much soil needs to be removed to allow passage for a fully laden barge through the channel.

TERMINOLOGY:

Barge: large vessel used for cargo transport Berthing: docking the vessel

Fender: bumper along wharf to dissipate impact load Wharf: dock, pier

DETERMINATIONS:

Piles: Satisfactory, recommended priority pair to be applied to all areas with cracks, spalls, section loss

Fenders: Corrective recommendation necessary. Existing system has catastrophic failures with new barge. Mooring Hardware: Satisfactory under new loadings. Existing hardware should only be replaced if time and budget allow.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

Our special thanks to Cheryl Coviello of Collins Engineers Inc, who has helped and supported us as we completed this project. We truly could not have done this without you.

Decking: Satisfactory overall under new loadings. However, small replacements should be made to areas wear damage is prevalent.

To Collins Engineers for sponsoring the project and providing the base material.

Dredging: Based on a previously conducted bathymetric survey a boxcut style dredge should be used to remove any sea floor that is between 0 and 35â&#x20AC;&#x2122; below the mean low water level.

Dr. Ray Cook of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department for motivating the group, providing wisdom, and much needed laughter. For all photographic references, see written final report for CEE 798.

Salmon Falls Bridge Project AUTHORS: Carl Berg Nicholas Bradley Paul Lovely Casey Wilson

The Salmon Falls Project is a restoration Salmon Falls Bridge Project project of a bridge between Berwick, ME Carl Berg, Nick Bradley, Paul Lovely, Casey Wilson and Somersworth, NH. The bridge spans Location and Engineering Needs Cost Analysis Phased Construction/Traffic Plan 110â&#x20AC;&#x2122; over the Salmon Falls River, with two lanes flowing north towards Maine, and one directed south towards New Hampshire. The bridge is jointly owned by Maine and New Hampshire, but the Design Solution project is to be directed by the Maine DOT. After considering alternatives, it was determined the best option was Alternatives Investigated to replace the old bridge with a new bridge with a concrete deck over precast concrete girders. Complications include, References: but are not limited to, an active railroad on the south side of the bridge, an Acknowledgements: intricate intersection on the north side of the bridge, and as it is a critical bridge, it needed to stay open during construction. Due to this, a phase construction plan was prepared, with corresponding traffic rerouting. The lane configuration of the new bridge is to remain the same as before, so curb-to-curb length will remain 53â&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The precast beams are to be New England Bulb Tee 1600s: 6 beams spaced 10â&#x20AC;&#x2122; apart. After a cost analysis, it has been determined that the new bridge will cost approximately $600,000. The plan is to get the bridge constructed as fast as possible in order to cause minimal disruption to the public, and is expected to take less than a season. â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ Cost analysis was performed in order to provide a rough estimate of final construction cost â&#x20AC;˘ Cost would be roughly $600,000 â&#x20AC;˘ Maine allocates $769,500,000 to highway and bridge projects yearly â&#x20AC;˘ New bridge would consume approximately 0.078% of that budget

Located between Berwick, ME and Somersworth NH Spans 110â&#x20AC;&#x2122; and is 53â&#x20AC;&#x2122; curb-curb 2 lanes go into ME, and one to NH Bridge is both structurally deficient and functionally obsolete Only one foot of free board, needs to be higher Jointly owned by ME and NH, project owned by MEDOT Bridge needs to remain open during construction Railroad on the NH side of the bridge, added surcharge loading Intersection on the ME side causes traffic backups on bridge

â&#x20AC;˘ Bridge will be implemented in phases â&#x20AC;˘ The right side of the bridge will be

utilized for traffic in both directions while the left side of the bridge is constructed

â&#x20AC;˘ After completion of the left side, the

newly constructed half of the bridge will be utilized while the right half is constructed

Cost Analysis Chart

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

FACULTY ADVISOR: Raymond Cook INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Julie Whitmore, P.E., VHB

construction to ensure safety of the public and the workers

â&#x20AC;˘ Traffic lights (and temporary lights) will

Cost Distribution Graph

be timed in order to keep traffic off the bride during red lights

â&#x20AC;˘ Potential police detail to control traffic â&#x20AC;˘ The traffic plan can be seen to the right

Northeast View of the Existing Structure

Location between Somersworth (smaller) and Berwick (larger)

Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Eye View of Bridge

Timber Bridge â&#x20AC;˘ Superior aesthetically to the other options that were investigated. Also would have required the least amount of maintenance â&#x20AC;˘ Would have been more difficult to construct and take longer, therefor costing more money â&#x20AC;˘ Due to slip conditions in the northeast with rain and snow, safety was a concern

Concrete Deck Over Steel Girders â&#x20AC;˘ Scored almost identically to the chosen option, concrete deck over concrete girders â&#x20AC;˘ Was determined that maintenance to steel girders would be slightly more demanding than concrete girders, and similarly the lifespan would have been shorter, therefor the option was foregone

â&#x20AC;˘ Chosen design ď&#x192; Concrete deck over precast concrete girders â&#x20AC;˘ Concrete deck, fâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;c = 5 ksi â&#x20AC;˘ Span will remain at 110 ft., and have a 53 ft. width for car traffic â&#x20AC;˘ Lane configuration will also remain constant with two lanes going into Maine, and one lane going towards New Hampshire â&#x20AC;˘ The deck will be 8 in. thick, and the haunches will be 4 in. thick â&#x20AC;˘ Loading â&#x20AC;˘ Weight of the deck ď&#x192;  6.25 klf â&#x20AC;˘ Weight of the haunches ď&#x192;  1.181 klf â&#x20AC;˘ Weight of each beam ď&#x192;  5.75 klf â&#x20AC;˘ Allow for 1 klf in design for utilities â&#x20AC;˘ Lane load for each beam expected to be 0.507 klf â&#x20AC;˘ Beams will be New England Bulb Tees 1600 (pictured to the right). Fâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;c = 6 ksi â&#x20AC;˘ 6 Beams spaced at 10 feet apart â&#x20AC;˘ 50 strands (36 straight, 14 deflected), 270 grade LR ASTM A416 â&#x20AC;˘ Cross sectional area of each beam is 914 đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2

Traffic Plan

Typical Beam Cross-Section

Phased construction plan

University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 2018, unh.edu/cpa/logos/. VHB Logo. VHB, Bedford, NH, 2018, www.vhb.com/Pages/offices.aspx. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Crash-Tested Bridge Railings for Timber Bridges.â&#x20AC;? National Center for Wood Transportation Structures, Iowa, www.woodcenter.org/toolkit/guardrails/ Typical Medium Span Composite Highway Bridge. www.steelconstruction.info/Bridges__initial_design. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Maine DOT Funding.â&#x20AC;? MaineDOT Funding, Aug. 2017, maine.gov/mdot/about/funding/.

Example of a timber bridge

Example of a concrete deck over steel girders

Bridge Cross-Section

23 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

â&#x20AC;˘ Traffic will need to be rerouted during

Julie Whitmore, P.E. - VHB Dr. Ray Cook - UNH


Francestown, NH Complete Streets AUTHORS: Yikun Bao Peter Garland Wenqian He Jonathan Watton ADVISOR: Kyle Kwiatkowski

Stakeholders This project involves finding an alternative solution for Francestown, Francestown, NH Complete Streets Jonathan Watton, Peter Garland, Yikun Bao, Wenqian He New Hampshire’s five-leg intersection. Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kyle Kwiatkowski Currently vehicle speed, confusing turning movements, non-vehicular accommodation and large grade changes are the main problems with the intersection’s existing conditions. This project analyzed a variety of traffic calming measures to ease the intersection’s problems from an established array of goals, measures and objectives. The Phase 2: Phase 1: Phase 3: goals were to maximize traffic efficiency, maintain historical features, bicyclist and pedestrian accommodation and increase overall safety. Conclusively, for financial feasibility a three-phase project implementation approach was taken, with it’s design processes mainly based from the NHDOT Highway Design Manual and AASHTO’s “Green Book”. Phase One focuses on additional signage, sharrows and lane width reduction. Phase Two proposes to add a speed table and crosswalk. Finally, Phase Three consists of a realignment and road closure. Additionally, to make these phases a reality, the project must be submitted into the states 10-year transportation plan, at the conceptual stage. Overall after the completion of each phase, vehicle speeds, turning movements and non-vehicular accommodation should improve throughout the intersection. :

• Southern New Hampshire Planning Commission • Town of Francestown, NH

• NH Department of Transportation

Alternative Elimination: Alternatives Analysis:

Introduction:

• Southern New Hampshire Planning Commission (SNHPC); Complete Streets Pilot Study • Francestown, New Hampshire, five-leg intersection

Three alternatives were considered post-eliminations in order of the cost and magnitude of construction: 1: Road Marking & Signage 2: Speed Table 3: Intersection Realignment

Existing Conditions:

Problems with current intersection: • Speed • Confusing Turning Movements • Bicycle and Pedestrian Accommodation • Large Grade Changes

Crosswalk: SNHPC Pilot Study

Road Marking & Signage: Sharrow

Intersection Entrance: NH136 (Greenfield); Scalehouse, Intersection Triangle

Town of Francestown: Intersection

Project: Goals 1. 2. 3. 4.

Funding

Preserve Historic aspects Increase safety to all users Accommodate alternate transportation options (bicycles and pedestrians) Increase efficiency of traffic

1. 2. 3. 4.

Historical aspect preservation Public Welfare Community Health Improve Traffic Flow

1. 2. 3. 4.

Preserve historic features Compliant with Regulations Sharrows, Crosswalk, etc. Traffic Engineering Measurements (ADT, AADT, etc.)

Recent Milestones:

Measures

Intersection Entrance: NH136 (New Boston)

• Road Markings: stop bars, centerline, shoulder markings and sharrow addition • Signage: additional speed limit sign

• •

Efficiency

Constructability

MAV

Speed Table

4

2

10

2

4

2

4

5.7

Realignment

10

8

2

10

0

4

2

5.1

Road Markings& Signage

6

6

10

6

8

6

6

7.7

Safety

• Ten-year transportation plan implemented by the state of New Hampshire • The project would then be eligible for 80% Federal and 20% Municipal funding

Objectives

Historic/ Property

Town Planning Board Concept Meeting (3/6) Three-Phase Implementation (3/26)

Peds/ Bikes

Cost

Maintenance

Alternatives Analysis Decision Matrix

• addition of a crosswalk in the center of the intersection • addition of a speed table on NH 136 (New Boston)

References:

• realignment of the intersection island • should include aspects of the first and second phases • removal of the leg leading from the center of the intersection to NH 47 (Main Street).

• AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets • Traffic and Highway Engineering: Edition 5 • U.S. Department of Transportation: Federal Highway Administration

Intersection Entrance:

Phase 1: Road Marking & Signage

NH136 (Greenfield): View of former town hall

Phase 2: Crosswalk

Phase 3: Intersection Island Realignment

Hampton Beach State Park Dune Walkover

Jonathan Brown, Graham Fay, Morgane Gaudissart, Jonathon Havey Sponsor: Alyson Eberhardt, NH Sea Grant | Advisor: Jennifer Jacobs, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Introduction

Sand dunes at Hampton Beach State Park protect human and natural systems from ocean winds, waves, and storms. They are home to endangered species of plants and animals. Heavy foot traffic and weather have caused the dunes to become unstable. As part of a long‐term rehabilitation plan, the team has designed the state’s first dune walkover.

A dune walkover is an elevated structure that brings pedestrians from inland to the shoreline. It allows for the free movement of sand and promotes vegetation growth, contributing to the resiliency of the coastal habitats. Salisbury, MA; Duck, NC; and other locations have constructed them to prevent erosion.

Adapted from http://www.seagrant.umaine.edu/coastal‐hazards‐guide/beaches‐and‐dunes/paths‐and‐walkovers

The dune system is located just north of the Hampton Harbor Inlet within the state park. The northeast segment of the system has experienced significant erosion. Development has eliminated the back dunes present in undisturbed systems.

The team acquired survey data of the area from State Parks. Using this information and recognizing paths already present due to foot traffic, the team sited a location for the walkover, consisting of three access points.

After discussion with stakeholders, the team decided to implement a hybrid structure; it will contain permanent and modular components. The superstructure will primarily be constructed of southern yellow pine lumber and fastened with galvanized steel components. The two paths will intersect at a viewing platform. The beach access of the walkover will be a set of aluminum stairs that are removed seasonally to prevent damage to the structure during winter storms.

Typical Sloped Section

Viewing Platform

Modular Stairs

The substructure will use helical piles. They have high resistance to uplift, protecting the structure from high winds and possible flooding. They will not require heavy equipment to install, balancing the need to reduce trampling of the dunes by humans while minimizing construction impacts on the site.

Conclusion

Sea Grant and State Parks are the primary stakeholders in this project. Project goals include recovery of the natural system while maintaining access of the beach to visitors. The dunes are home to two endangered species of birds, meaning New Hampshire Fish and Game will have to approve the design. The dynamic system requires the team to integrate with the environment rather than build over it.

The myriad of stressors on dunes at Hampton Beach State Park require that humans intervene to protect the system. A dune walkover is the best option for allowing visitors continued access to the beach while allow the ecosystem to continue its natural processes. Our low‐impact, aesthetically pleasing design aims to meet these goals.

https://www.vrbo.com/791226

Piping Plover

Least Tern

This project is funded, in part, by NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management under the Coastal Zone Management Act in conjunction with the NH Department of Environmental Services Coastal Program.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 24

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

ADVISORS: Alyson Eberhardt Jennifer Jacobs

Coastal dunes play a vital role in Hampton Beach State Park Dune Walkover Hampton, NH their ecosystem as well as in human Structure Design What is a Dune Walkover? developments. They are the first line of defense against ocean winds, waves, and storms, absorbing energy from these Site Location phenomena. The vegetation they host help stabilize them and maintain their integrity after extreme weather events. Data Collection At Hampton Beach State Park, dunes protects roads, homes, and infrastructure that have allowed the area to become a burgeoning tourist destination. Heavy Design Considerations foot traffic has caused significant erosion of the dunes. Trampling of sand dunes threatens the vegetation that anchors them as well as endangered species. As part of a long-term rehabilitation plan, New Hampshire seeks to build their first dune walkover. The walkover is an elevated structure for pedestrian use that allows for the free movement of sand, vegetation growth, and contributes to the resiliency of the seacoast. It is a primarily wooden structure with a viewing platform and modular stairs. The low-impact design affords pedestrians access to the dunes while allowing them to continue their natural processes. Our sponsor, New Hampshire Sea Grant, plans to work in conjunction with several state agencies to secure grant funds to make the walkover a reality. All aerial imagery from Google Maps

AUTHORS: Jonathan Brown Graham Fay Morgane Gaudissart Jonathon Havey


Ash Street Bridge Replacement - Londonderry NH AUTHORS: Jasper Jenkins Jacob Matys Ivette Pujols Michael Ramos Meghan Sweeney FACULTY ADVISOR: Erin Bell INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Tim Polson, WSP Adam Stockin, WSP

The Ash Street Bridge is a historic Ash Street Bridge Replacement – Londonderry NH bridge that spans across Interstate 93 Printing: in Londonderry, New Hampshire. This This poster is 48” w It’s designed to be p INTRODUCTION SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN COST & IMPLEMENTATION two-lane, steel rigid frame structure, large-format printer was built in 1962 by The New Hampshire Customizing th Department of Transportation. Based The placeholders in formatted for you. T on the recent bridge inspection report, placeholders to add an icon to add a tab the structure is reported to be in good SmartArt graphic, p multimedia file. condition; however, replacement of the To add or remove b from text, just click bridge is necessary to accommodate button on the Home EXISTING CONDITIONS the widening of Interstate 93 below. If you need more pl titles, content or bo The current bridge has a span of 146ft, make a copy of wha SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN drag it into place. Po while the purposed bridge will have a Smart Guides will h with everything else span of about 308ft. The project team Want to use your ow CONCLUSION instead of ours? No has been tasked with designing a new right-click a picture structure that will conform to applicable Change Picture. Ma proportion of pictur NHDOT permit requirements as well as by dragging a corne the widening of Interstate 93. The project consisted of a superstructure and substructure design as well as construction and traffic control plan. The cost of constructing the purposed solution was also evaluated. Jasper Jenkins, Jacob Matys, Ivette Pujols, Michael Ramos, Meghan Sweeney Faculty Advisor: Dr. Erin Bell

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

• The Ash Street Bridge is a historic bridge that spans across Interstate 93 in Londonderry, New Hampshire.

• As a solution, we propose a 308-foot, steel plate girder bridge with a 12-inch, cast in-place concrete deck.

• This two-lane, steel rigid frame structure, was built in 1962 by The New Hampshire Department of Transportation.

• This will be a two-span bridge with 6 girders, set offline of the existing bridge.

• Our project team has been tasked with designing a new superstructure and substructure that will conform to applicable NHDOT permit requirements as well as the widening of Interstate 93. In addition, we have provided a construction cost and phasing estimate.

• This bridge was designed using CSI Bridge ©, in accordance with the 2014, AASHTO Bridge Design Manual. The deflected shape of the bridge model as well as the cross-section can be seen in the figures below.

• After creating the model, the bridge was optimized until the moment demand vs capacity ratio was under 1.0.

• The negative moment demand vs capacity graph can be seen to the left.

• The construction of this bridge will consist of two phases. Both phases can be seen in the appropriate tables below.

• The total cost for the bridge is based on The New Hampshire Department of Transportation’s “Weighted Unit Prices” for materials and labor. • The cost for each item was calculated using the average contractor bid of each item. NHDOT Item Number 502

Removal of Existing Bridge Structure

Total Cost ($) 205,000

410.22 504.1 547 563.973 609.01 550.1 550.191 563.24 520.7002 608.26 619.253

Hot Bituminous Bridge Pavement (1” Base Course) Asphalt Emulsion for Tack Coat Common Bridge Excavation Shear Connectors Snow Screen Straight Granite Curb Structural Steel Temporary Girder Support System T4 Bridge Rail Cast in-Place Deck 6” Concrete Sidewalk Portable Changeable Message Sign

900 14,500 48,000 29,750 10,500 2,161,500 66,750 119,500 462,800 5,650 975

550.101 520.0102 520.0102

Steel H-Piles / Implementation Concrete for Abutments Concrete for Pier

403.911

• The current structure consists of a steel frame supported by two abutments and pier; where it accommodates one lane in each direction. The span is about 146 feet long with a deck width of 38 feet. This bridge carries Pillsbury Road/Ash Street traffic over NH Interstate 93.

• The proposed girder cross sections with dimensions can be seen in the figure to the right.

• Based on the recent bridge inspection report, the structure is reported to be in good condition; however, replacement of the bridge is necessary to accommodate the widening of Interstate 93 below.

• Interstate I-93 is proposed to expand from a four-lane to an 8-lane interstate to account for the increase of traffic. • Due to the historical significance, the existing structure will be carefully deconstructed and delivered to the NHDOT for storage.

• A diagram of one of the abutments including dimensions is shown here. We chose to design an integral abutment sitting on a foundation of six steel Hpiles (size HP 8x36) to carry the load from each of the six girders.

Description

43,400

217,000 98,000 71,000

Source: www.nh.gov/dot/org/projectdevelopment/highwaydesign/documents/WeightedAveragesImperial.pdf

• The piles are driven 8.3 feet down under the first abutment and 35.7 feet under the second abutment to bedrock.

• This newly proposed bridge conforms to all applicable NHDOT and AASHTO design manual specifications. • This bridge will be constructed to provide a span length adequate for the widening of Interstate 93 below. • This bridge will provide a seamless transition from the previous Ash Street Bridge to the newly proposed structure.

• Here is a diagram of the middle pier, set 154 feet from the end of the bridge span. The pier is also sitting on a foundation of six steel H-piles.

• The piles are driven 10.5 feet under the pier to bedrock.

We would like to thank our Faculty Advisor, Dr. Erin Bell From the University of New Hampshire. In addition, we would like to thank Tim Polson and Adam Stockin from WSP for giving us the opportunity to work on this project and helping us along the way.

Dascomb Road Site Redevelopment AUTHORS: Matthew Lortie Noah Parent Grant Rosario Russel Rucker Rachel Trocchi

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Rick Friberg, TEC Christopher Raymond, TEC

Winning Project

2018

The existing property at 146 Dascomb Dascomb Road Site Redevelopment Road currently houses an abandoned warehouse and showroom that are no longer economically feasible. The land owner has hired TEC to design the redevelopment of the site adjacent to I-93 just off exit 42 in Andover, MA. Members of the UNH project team have coordinated with TEC for the review and analysis of alternatives for future use of this lot. The goal for this redevelopment is to create a marketplace containing retail stores, restaurants, residential units, commercial space and a hotel. The site layout was mainly driven by zoning and parking regulations for the lot. The proposed design will include 5 mixeduse buildings with retail and restaurants on the ground floor and a mix of commercial and residential space on the 3 floors above. The hotel on site will be 4 floors with 82 rooms and will complement the retail, restaurant and commercial space nicely. Based on LRFD loading calculations a column layout has been produced for the hotel design. Lastly, a stormwater analysis was done for the site. A 100 year storm was analyzed in order to predict the amount of stormwater this lot would expect to endure. Stormwater basins have been specifically sized and located in order to withstand this type of storm.

25 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Rachel Trocchi, Grant Rosario, Noah Parent, Matthew Lortie, Russel Rucker Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire Project Advisors: Rick Friberg (TEC), Chris Raymond (TEC), Prof. Tony Puntin Existing Conditions

Vegetated Swale

Detention Pond

The 16.25 acre lot as shown to the right currently houses an abandoned warehouse and showroom. The site,146 Dascomb Rd is located just off exit 42 on I-93 in Andover, MA.

Column Elevation

Scope of Work

• Conceptual site plan designs for redevelopment of the existing site • Partial structural and architectural design for the proposed hotel • Loads developed, calculated and reduced per ASCE 7-10 • Partial stormwater management/LID design, including total runoff for the 2, 10, 25 and 100-year storms as well as a detention pond and vegetated swale. • Cost estimation for the proposed development

Column Cross Section

Program

Development Type Retail Residential Commercial Hotel Total (prov)

SF 45,000 85,200 49,800 66,800 246,800

Req. Parking 180 108 166 82 536 (583)

Dimensional Req. Required Provided Lot Frontage 50 ft 860 ft Front Yard Setback 50 ft 50 ft Side Yard Setback 40 ft 52 ft Rear Yard Setback 40 ft 56 ft Build Height 50 ft/ 4 stories 40ft/ 4 stories Max Lot Coverage 30% 10% Project Item Design Building Site/civil Project Total

Cost $10 million $55 million $5 million $70 million

60 ksi concrete 5 ksi steel


Western Ave. Bridge - Henniker, NH AUTHORS: Samuel Cheney Michael Pugsley Stephen Valeri

The Western Ave. Bridge was constructed Western Ave. Bridge – Henniker, NH in 1933 and spans the Contoocook Stephen Valeri Jr. | Michael Pugsley | Sam Cheney Advisors: Dr. Ricardo Medina | Josif Bicja, P.E. River in the Town of Henniker, NH. This Project Background Scope of Work Bridge Rendering bridge is part of a triangular roadway system which includes two bridges used to cross the Contoocook River. The Design Criteria Construction Schedule Western Ave. Bridge was closed to all FACULTY ADVISOR: vehicular and pedestrian traffic in 2009 Ricardo Medina due to the deteriorated condition of the Bridge Cross Section Superstructure Details trusses and floor system. The goal of this INDUSTRY ADVISOR: project is to consider rehabilitation or Proposed Design replacement options and investigate Josif Bicja, P.E., Hoyle, Cost Estimate alternatives to address the structural Tanner & Associates, Substructure Details deficiency of the Western Ave. Bridge Inc. and prepare a preliminary design for the Bridge Alternatives References recommended alternative. The bridge will be rehabilitated or replaced with a new structure which will carry two 11foot travel lanes, two 3-foot shoulders and two 5-foot sidewalks. The preliminary design includes design of the superstructure, substructure, roadway alignment, construction schedule, and a construction cost Honorable Mention estimate. The selected recommended alternative is a two-span, steel plate girder bridge spanning 300 feet. The project is sponsored by Hoyle, Tanner & Associates. • • • • •

Constructed in 1933, Rehabilitated in 1988 Closed in 2009 due to Structural Deficiencies found during 2008 NH DOT Bridge Inspection Part of Triangular Roadway System Crossing over the Contoocook River Carried Two Lanes of Traffic and One Cantilevered Side Walk AADT: 1243 with 4% Trucks (Predicted 2027)

• • • • • •

Locus Map

Site Layout

Existing Western Ave. Bridge

Gusset Plate Deterioration

• • • • • • •

West Approach

Investigate Bridge Alternatives including Rehabilitation or Complete Replacement Bridge Design including Reinforced Concrete Deck Design Geotechnical Design of Piers, Abutments, and Wingwalls Roadway Alignment Construction Cost Estimate Construction Schedule

Complete Bridge Replacement Selected as Preferred Alternative based on Cost, Constructability, Bridge Service Life, and Hydraulics 4-Span Steel Plate Girder Bridge with (3) three Foundation Piers Bridge Length: 304’-0” Deck Width: 38’-0” Two 12’-0” Travel Lanes, Two 3’-0” Shoulders, and Two 5’-0” Sidewalks 32° Skew Posted Speed: 35 MPH A92 Grade 50 Structural Steel

Typical End Diagonal/Floorbeam Connection Deterioration

Superstructure • Steel Plate Girder Bridge • Five (5) A92 Grade 50 Steel I-Beams Spaced at 9’-0” • 9” Reinforced Concrete Deck (5.0 ksi) • 3” Bituminous Overlay (Future Wearing Surface) • ¾” Shear Stud Connectors (3 per row) Substructure • Shallow Foundation System • Two (2) Reinforced Concrete Abutments with Supporting Wingwalls • Three (3) Pier Foundations Spaced at 76’-0” Roadway Alignment • Horizontal Alignment will Remain Along the Same Line as the Existing Bridge because of Close Proximity to Abutters • Bridge Deck: 2% Slope

• Alternative #1: Rehabilitate Existing Bridge • Alternative #2: Existing Bridge Removal & Bridge Replacement in Same Location • Alternative #3: Existing Bridge Removal & Bridge Replacement in Different Location Upstream

Typical Girder Cross Section

Concrete Deck Reinforcement Detail

• •

Abutment Footing Reinforcement Detail

Pier Reinforcement Detail

Abutment Reinforcement Detail

Estimated Construction Cost: $3,883,000 Cost Categories: • Superstructure: $1,872,000 • Substructure: $1,589,000 • Site Work: $68,000 • Mobilization: $353,000

Hoyle Tanner & Associates. Engineering Study Western Avenue Bridge over the Contoocook River. 2012 | Google Maps | 2012 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Manual | NH DOT Bridge Design Manual | NH DOT Bridge Inspection Report 05/09/2008

Project

2018

Santa’s Village Pedestrian Crossing

FACULTY ADVISOR: Jo Daniel INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Bill Lambert, NHDOT

Santa’s Village has been a main attraction Santa’s Village Pedestrian Crossing for New Hampshire since its opening in Project Sponsor: Bill Lambert (NHDOT) Parent | Thomas Sachs | Jessica Choiniere 1953. Located on Route 2 in Jefferson, Jordan University of New Hampshire - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering the Christmas-themed amusement park Evaluation of Alternatives Background Proposed Plan attracts tourists to local businesses and hotels in the area. When arriving at the park, the majority of families have to park on the opposite side of the street in overflow parking. Consequently, families who park in overflow must cross Route 2 in order to enter the park. Route 2 has a Discussion Overall Objective posted speed limit of 50 mph and doesn’t currently have sidewalks or crosswalks Selected Alternative for pedestrians to safely cross. There are Acknowledgements also motels and campgrounds located along Route 2 near the amusement Contact park. As a result, a large number of hotel guests have to cross the road to enter and leave the park. The NHDOT, Santa’s Village, and Jefferson Village have requested alternatives for the “Santa’s Village Crossing” with the main goal to improve pedestrian safety while taking into consideration the nearby businesses. After identifying alternatives, and conducting a feasibility analysis, Complete Streets has been determined as the best plan for the site. A “Complete Street” would include a painted median, sidewalks, and safe crossing with Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons. Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jo Sias Daniel

Santa’s Village is located in Jefferson, New Hampshire. It is a Christmas-themed amusement park popular for visitors in the White Mountain area. Since its opening in 1953, it has increased in size and popularity. Additional parking was created on a vacant lot across Route 2 from the park. During peak season, the majority of the visitors need to cross Route 2 to enter the park. Currently there are no sidewalks or crosswalks, and the speed limit in the area is 50 mph, posing a risk for pedestrians to cross Route 2 safely.

Goal: To design a pedestrian crossing that will allow pedestrians to cross Route 2 safely. Approach:

TM

Alternatives

Factor Safety Cost DOT Factor

Complete Traffic Traffic Weight Bridge Tunnel Streets Circle Signal 2.0 3 1 2 5 4 1.9 4 5 2 3 1 1.8 5 2 1 3 4

Customer Factor

1.7

3

1

4

5

2

Constructability Accessibility Durability Disruption of Traffic Flow

1.6 1.4 1.3

5 5 3

4 2 5

1 1 4

3 4 2

2 3 1

1.2

2

1

4

3

5

Maintenance Aesthetics Weighted Totals

1.1 1.0

5 5

4 3

1 2

2 1

3 4

61.1

41.1

30.9

44.0

42.6

To evaluate the alternatives in the table above, a list of the 10 most important factors was created. The factors are listed in the table by order of importance for this site, safety is first as it holds the highest weight and is the most important factor. The alternative with the lowest weighted total is the best fit for the site. Score = (Weight) x (Rank from 1 to 5)

Complete Streets is a more adaptable alternative in which different elements can be incorporated into the design to better suit the needs of the site and the stakeholders. Components Considered: ▪ Crosswalk ▪ Sidewalks ▪ Median ▪ Road widening

Sidewalk

Median

Crosswalk

Stakeholder feedback:

▪ A painted median, rather than a raised median: this addresses maintenance and snow removal issues ▪ Optical speed lines: Encourages drivers to slow down in the area ▪ Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (RRFB): will warn drivers of pedestrians crossing

We would like to thank Bill Lambert and the New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Santa’s Village, and the Town of Jefferson for their support and guidance in this project.

For more information, contact: Jordan Parent – jjp2004@wildcats.unh.edu Thomas Sachs – tjs2018@wildcats.unh.edu Jessica Choiniere – jni53@wildcats.unh.edu

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 26

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

AUTHORS: Jessica Choiniere Jordan Parent Thomas Sachs


Upgrading Water and Wastewater Systems in Selected AMC Huts AUTHORS: Andrew McDonald Christopher McGuinness Jayse Tyropolis Rafael Vieira Meghan White FACULTY ADVISOR: Robin Collins

The Appalachian Mountain Club Huts Upgrading Water and Wastewater Systems in Selected AMC Huts Meghan White, Andrew McDonald, Jayse Tyropolis, Rafael Vieira, Chris McGuiness are located in the White Mountains in Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 the state of New Hampshire and have 4. Estimated Design Flows 1. Background 7. Feasibility Comparison Study been servicing hikers for over 125 years. These huts provide shelter and drinking water as well as wastewater services to hikers. There is a concern about the odors encountered at a few of the huts. 2. Huts of Interest 5. Proposed Drinking Water Disinfection System 8. Conclusions To address the odor issue, this project team looked through NHDES documents to assess the condition and performance of the drinking and wastewater systems. 3. Objectives 6. Proposed Wastewater Disposal System This project team is responsible for proposing drinking water disinfection and wastewater treatment designs for Lonesome Lake and Zealand Falls Huts. A system consisting of a chlorine pump and static inline mixer is being proposed to improve upon the current manually chlorinated drinking water system at the huts. The proposed wastewater treatment system being considered is an aerobic treatment unit followed by an infiltration system into the subsurface. This system will be compared to the wastewater system being built at Lakes of the Clouds through a feasibility study. The system at Lakes of the Clouds will consist of a septic tank, textile filters, anthracite filters, and recirculation tanks. The results of this project will be presented to the Appalachian Mountain Club for potential consideration. Acknowledgements: Cindy Klevens from NHDES, James Wrigley from AMC, and Dr. M. Robin Collins, P.E., of the University of New Hampshire

The Appalachian Mountain Club Huts of interest in this study are located in the White Mountains in the state of New Hampshire and have been servicing hikers for over 125 years. These huts provide shelter and drinking water as well as wastewater services to hikers. There is a concern about the odors encountered at a few of the huts. The two huts focused on in this project are Zealand Falls and Lonesome Lake. http://www.outdoors.org/lodging-camping/huts/

Figure 1: Map of AMC Huts in White Mountains

Table 1 illustrates the estimated design flow for Zealand Falls in gallons per day. The standards were taken from the EPA’s Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual and the approximated number of people was provided by James Wrigley, the AMC Hut Manger.

Figure 4: Schematic of Drinking Water Disinfection System

https://sectionhiker.com/zealand-falls-hut/

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Cindy Klevens, NHDES James Wrigley, AMC

Table 1: Estimated Design Flows for Zealand Falls

Figure 2: Zealand Falls Hut. Bethlehem, NH

Figure 4 illustrates a general schematic for the proposed drinking water disinfection system for Zealand Falls and Lonesome Lake.

https://www.outdoors.org/lodging-camping/huts/lonesome

Figure 3: Lonesome Lake Hut. Franconia, NH

The main objectives of this project include: • Analyze the current drinking water disinfection systems to assess their reliability and propose a more consistent disinfection system. • Address the odor concern by proposing a new wastewater treatment and disposal system for the huts. • Conduct a feasibility comparison study between the wastewater system being built at the Lakes of the Clouds Hut and the proposed wastewater treatment system to help determine how to update other hut's wastewater treatment systems in the future.

Table 2: Estimated Design Flows for Lonesome Lake

Table 2 illustrates the estimated design flow for Lonesome Lake in gallons per day. The standards were taken from the EPA’s Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual and the approximated number of people was provided by James Wrigley, the AMC Hut Manger.

Table 5 illustrates the feasibility comparison study between the proposed alternative system and the system being built at Lakes of the Clouds.

• We propose a drinking water disinfection system consisting of a peristaltic chlorine pump, a static inline mixer, and a chlorine storage unit. • We recommended an alternative wastewater treatment system consisting of a grease trap, aerobic treatment unit, and a trench infiltration system. • Based on the feasibility comparison study, the proposed alternative system is the more appropriate wastewater system to install at other huts in the future.

Table 3: Drinking Water Disinfection System Components for Each Hut

Table 3 illustrates the wastewater system components for the proposed drinking water disinfection system for Zealand Falls and Lonesome Lake.

sTAMD Simulations

Figure 5: Site Layout of Proposed Wastewater Treatment System

Table 5: Feasibility Comparison Study

Table 4: Wastewater Treatment System Components for Each Hut

1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 5 illustrates a general site layout for the proposed alternative wastewater system for Zealand Falls and Lonesome Lake.

Table 4 illustrates the wastewater system components for the proposed alternative system for Zealand Falls and Lonesome Lake.

5. 6. 7.

Selected References

Appalachian Mountain Club. (2018). White Mountain Huts of New Hampshire | AMC. [online] Available at: https://www.outdoors.org/lodging-camping/huts [Accessed 3 Dec. 2017]. AquaKlear. (October 1, 2005). AquaKlear Wastewater Treatment Systems Installation, Operation & Maintenance & Trouble Shooting & Repair Manual Class 1 “Design and Installation Manual for Quick4 Chambers in New Hampshire.” The Infiltrator Water, Infiltrator Systems Inc, June 2014, www.infiltratorwater.com/images/pdf/ManualsGuides/ C18.pdf “NH Administrative Rules Env-Wq 1000.” NH DES, State of NH, www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/legal/rul es/documents/env-wq1000.pdf. NH Department of Environmental Services, NHDES. (2017). OneStop Data and Information. www.des.nh.gov/onestop/. NH Department of Environmental Services, NHDES. (2001). Public Water Source Assessment US EPA. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. (2002). US EPA.

Hunt Park Redevelopment, Manchester, NH AUTHORS: Samuel Colombo Thomas Labrecque Colin McNabb Will Rasid Kyle Sawicki

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Don Pinard, Manchester DPW Chris Sullivan, Manchester DPW

The Hunt Park Redevelopment Project, Hunt Park Redevelopment, Manchester, NH located in Manchester, NH, will make University of New Hampshire numerous improvements to the park Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Tom Labrecque, Kyle Sawicki, Will Rasid, Sam Colombo, Colin McNabb to increase the number of visitors and PROPOSED DESIGN INTRODUCTION FINALIZED SITE LAYOUT overall usability of the park. The current facilities are old, outdated, and in need of complete redesign. The goals of this project are to improve sight lines at the MULTIPURPOSE FIELDS park to address safety concerns, upgrade the facilities, and increase usability. PLAYGROUND SKATEPARK RECREATION CENTER Currently, the park is home to a pool, skatepark, recreation center, and multiple PARKING LOT POOL & SPLASH PAD baseball fields. Our project team has created a design for the park that will relocate these main facilities throughout the current property to create a safer and more versatile environment. Along with a new site layout for the park, our team has developed a preliminary cost estimate of the new facilities. The new facilities will include a redesigned recreation center with an indoor basketball court, a larger skatepark that will be able to accommodate competitions, and a parking lot to increase access to the park. The pool area will be redesigned to include a splash pad and a walk-in style pool that will allow ease of use for all visitors. Ultimately, our team hopes to create a safe, modernized, and enjoyable park that all people will be able to appreciate for years to come.

27 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

In Collaboration with the Manchester Department of Public Works; Chris Sullivan & Don Pinard Faculty Advisor: Anthony Puntin Advising Committee: Dr. Erin Bell & Dr. Tom Ballestero

Our proposed design reworks the sight lines in the park to enhance visibility. The park will include new and renovated features, along with a parking lot to allow for easier access to park facilities. This redevelopment project aims to increase the amount of visitors to the park, in addition to deterring undesirable crowds.

Hunt Park, located in Manchester, NH, is home to several amenities including a pool, skate park, and recreation center. These features are outdated and in need of rehabilitation. The park also has very limited parking. Our team was challenged with creating a new site layout for the park to update the main amenities, introduce new features, and improve sight lines. The goal for this redevelopment is to create a safe and enjoyable park for all ages, and increase the number of visitors using the park for its intended purpose.

This area of the park will feature an artificial turf field that will accommodate a variety of sports including soccer, croquet, cornhole, & Frisbee. This field is intended to increase the range of visitors that the park will offer activities for.

The pool currently does not have a splash pad feature. Due to its rectangular shape and lack of a walk-in area, it can be difficult for people who have disabilities to get in and out of the pool. Our proposed design will feature a large splash pad with a shallow walk-in pool attached. This will allow for people of all ages to enjoy the pool. A new bathhouse will also be built that will include lockers, changing rooms, and bathrooms for those that are using the facility.

A new playground will aim to draw the attention of younger children. Having a playground will encourage families to spend time at the park.

Limited parking is an issue for visitors. Currently the park has only one small lot onsite. It is located in the northeast corner of the site and is usually occupied by construction and maintenance vehicles. This forces visitors to park across the street at the frequently busy hockey arena. Our proposed layout implements a large 50 spot (including handicap) parking lot located onsite for the convenience of park visitors.

The proposed skatepark will feature a plaza-style layout, large enough for contests to be held. The skatepark will be one of the key features in the park, and proper design along with high quality construction will attract many people to the park during the summer months. Manchester's central location in the State of New Hampshire makes it an ideal location for a park of this quality.

The new recreation center will include an indoor full basketball court, classrooms, and office spaces. The indoor basketball court will allow the center to be used all four seasons, rain or shine, making it great for after school activities. The center is strategically positioned centrally in the park, allowing for access from all sides. This central location improves sight lines, which is currently a problem with the recreation center.


Dascomb Road Redevelopment AUTHORS: Brandon Dreyfuss Kevin Gibbons Kyaw Zaw Hein Samuel Kauhl Joseph Labrecque FACULTY ADVISORS: Erin Bell Anthony Puntin INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Rick Friberg, TEC Christopher Raymond, TEC

Dascomb Road Redevelopment project, Dascomb Road Redevelopment located in Andover, MA, includes the site layout, intersection design layout Parking Introduction Site Layout and structural analysis of a column of an office building. Designing a site layout Stormwater Design was a major part of this project. The site consists of residential, retail, and office space. When completed, the site is approximately 50% residential, 25% office, and 25% retail by square footage. Intersection Design Accommodating parking is provided for Structural Design all buildings on the site. Throughout the design, zoning regulations set forth by Proposed Site the town of Andover had to be diligently adhered to. For structural aspect, a column, located in the middle section of Acknowledgements an office building plan, is selected and design strength of the chosen column is calculated using gravity design approach (dead load, live load, snow load). Design manuals, such as ASCE 7-10 and AISC manual code were used in the calculation process to ensure the column has enough capacity. In addition to the site layout and structural portions of our project, our team has created an intersection design for an entrance to the site. This was laid out in AutoCAD, after looking at traffic patterns in the area and getting additional intersection design information from TEC. The rough estimate for the cost of the project is also calculated. Kyaw Zaw Hein, Brandon Dreyfuss, Kevin Gibbons, Sam Kauhl, Joe Labrecque Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire

Total Required Parking: 877 (20 Handicap) Actual Parking: 944 (20 Handicap) Top Office • Required: 132 • Actual: 133 Bottom Office • Required: 134 • Actual: 164 Retail • Required: 271 • Actual: 307 Residential • Required: 340 • Actual: 340 (150 in underground parking garage)

• Parking for each building on site was designed to minimize distance walked between parking spot and destination as well as improve flow of traffic through site

• • • • • •

700,000 square feet total 152,700 square feet of residential 67,700 square feet of retail space 79,600 square feet of office space Lot coverage from buildings: 12% Average apartment size: 900 square feet (2 bed), 169 units

• The intersection of Dascomb Road and Smith Drive was redesigned to meet the higher traffic demands in that area • Used ITE to calculate how much more traffic would be expected due to the site redevelopment • Decided on a "T" intersection based on traffic flow • Calculated storage and taper lengths using the MASS DOT intersection design manuals

• • • •

A mixed-use land development project located in Andover, MA Located conveniently right off of the I-93 highway Consists of residential, retail, and office space Zoning district: ID2

• Looked at the site in order to mitigate the amount runoff that would build up using TR-55 Existing Runoff

Proposed Runoff

• Found low-impact development techniques to improve stormwater management • Green roofs, tree planters, swales, curb cuts, catch basins, and porous pavement have been taken into consideration

• • • • •

Column at Grid B-4 is designed by gravity design Loadings are calculated using ASCE 7-10, MA Building Code Flexural buckling, local buckling checked Flexural capacity of column is adequate Steel bearing plate thickness of 1.25 inches

Office 26%

Residential 51%

I93

Exit 42

Special thanks to TEC, Inc. including Chris Raymond and Rick Friberg, P.E. Professors: Tony Puntin, P.E., Dr. Erin Bell, P.E

Retail 23%

Town of New Durham, NH - Zechariah Boodey Farmstead

FACULTY ADVISOR: Anthony Puntin INDUSTRY PARTNERS: Zechariash Boodey, Farmstead Committee Cathy Orlowicz, Farmstead Committee Town of New Durham

Built in 1769, the Zechariah Boodey Town of New Durham, NH House in New Durham, NH is one of Zechariah Boodey Farmstead the oldest houses in the town and is considered the birth place of the Free Will Baptist Church. However, after 250 years, this establishment began to fall apart. The Zechariah Boodey Farmstead Committee was constituted in 2007 to preserve this important piece of history. The committee felt it was best to dismantle and preserve the original building, and then reconstruct it as a multi-purpose venue. With the Boodey House, an 18th century style bar from Alton, NH will be dismantled, and reconstructed as part of the project along with two smaller buildings being new construction. This project will provide a venue for the region that will not only be for educational purposes, but can serve for much larger events such as weddings and town meetings. The committee provided the UNH project team with a schematic of how they envisioned the establishment to look along with important project constraints. The team was tasked with development of the site plan that included a building layout, parking recommendations, and conceptual location of a septic system. The team also created a 3D model and floor plan using Revit that will be utilized by the committee for presentation of the project to town officials. Andrew Blizzard, Jacob Barbieri, Daniel Neubauer, Michael Perkins

Historical Background

Built in 1769, the Zechariah Boodey House in New Durham, New Hampshire is one of the oldest houses in the town and is locally considered toBackground: be the birth place of the Free Will Baptist Church. This historic building has since fallen into disrepair, but local Historical historians are interested in restoring it for use as a regional function center. The goal of this project is to save the historic building while simultaneously creating a large function area for the region to use. Mrs. Cathy Orlowicz, chair of the Zechariah Boodey Farmstead Committee, began this journey over a decade ago and presented the team with this project to help her bring her vision to fruition. The New Durham Board of Selectmen approved the plan for building relocation to the corner of Stockbridge and Berry Road.

Intended Usage

The restoration of this historic complex will house a flexible facility serving multiple needs. The New Durham area lacks a large venue capable of hosting big community and/or civic events. This facility will provide both the town of New Durham and the surrounding communities with a meeting space for events serving up to 134 people. The Boodey house proper will serve as a space Usage/wn for smaller meetings, lectures, living history space, and a Intended museum. The original cabin used by the Boodey family as living space prior Usage: to construction of the house will act as offices for staff. Plans are for the facility to be rented out to host weddings, civic meetings, and private functions; it will also house the museum.

Facility Plans The nearly 4,000 sf facility is designed to function in multiple ways; it can serve as one continuous single structure of nearly 2,500 sf, or as two individual separate function spaces encompassing 750 sf and 1,680 sf, sharing the connecting restrooms. The plan allows for small meetings, lectures, and demonstrations to be conducted in the house. The barn will host the larger functions. The original cabin will serve as office space for facility staff. The full basements under the house and addition will provide adequate storage, while slab-on-grade foundations for the barn and cabin areas will minimize costs. Due to the commercial usage, the restroom facilities are being developed in accordance with local, state and ADA codes. In addition, a small kitchen, custodial closet, and drinking fountain will be located in this section. The facility plan needs to incorporate the historical structures already procured by the town, with new construction melding with the original aesthetics of the historic structures.

Site Layout

• Parking Lot: The sizing of the parking was determined by the 134 person occupancy of the building.

New Durham requires one spot for every four people; therefore, the parking lot requires 34 spots, with two spots designated as handicap accessible. The largest constraining factor for the parking facilities was the narrow width of the property. New Durham requires a 75 foot setback from the cemetery, which limited the configuration options for the parking area. A one-way loop using 60 degree angled parking spaces is therefore the most efficient layout to avoid the need for variances and maintaining serviceability within MUTCD parameters.

• Facility Orientation and Phasing: The facility will be constructed in two phases. The first phase

(shown in peach) will encompass the reconstruction of the barn and construction of the new addition. The second phase (in blue) will encompass reconstruction of the house and building.

Acknowledgements

• Mrs. Cathy Orlowicz & Zechariah Boodey

Farmstead Committee

• Town of New Durham

• Professor Anthony Puntin

• Walking Path: A cross-walk providing access from the overflow lot to the main parking lot will lead

into a designated walking path along the edge of the parking lot. The pathways to the facility branch off the parking lot walkway will provide access to all five entrances.

• Well and Septic Separation: The 75-foot diameter shown around the well depicts the state-required

separation between the well and the onsite waste treatment system.

Considerations • Setbacks • Parking

• Overflow • Septic • Well

parking

System

Location

• Pathways • Signage

• Occupancy

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 28

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -DESIGN

AUTHORS: Jacob Barbieri Andrew Blizzard Daniel Neubauer Michael Perkins


Natural Disaster Volunteer Housing - Cargo Container

ADVISOR: Robert Henry

A significant amount of people are either Natural Disaster Volunteer Housing – Cargo Container temporarily or permanently displaced Civil/Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 from their dwellings every year due to Introduction Red Cross Volunteer Efforts Event Response Implementation natural disasters. Consequently, the Red Cross and FEMA both organize volunteers to rebuild the affected communities. A regular issue for these volunteers is housing while they are in the area. The Cost Breakdown Volunteer Housing Site Layout Red Cross frequently pays around $70 per night per person to house volunteers in hotels. This cost to house volunteers Conclusions over a two-week volunteer ‘cycle’ can add up significantly. By housing volunteers in shipping containers, natural disaster Acknowledgements and References relief agencies could save a considerable amount of money over time. The goal of this project is to provide an emergency response plan that can be implemented quickly for a group of 40 volunteers. This plan will include rough container interior layout, community layout, implementation, and rough cost estimations and analysis. The community plan will be designed so that it can be easily scaled up from the 40 volunteer design community. The goal of providing active volunteer shelter in less than 72 hours of the natural disaster could seriously impact the recovery stage for the areas affected. The team will develop a plan to provide cost effective natural disaster relief housing for volunteers while considering environmental impact. John Lemire, Scott McWhirter, Daniel Parisi (PM), Nate Philbrick, Ryan Welch

This project addresses the need for cost efficient volunteer housing. • Approximately 400 natural disasters impact 200 million people annually. • The American Red Cross frequently houses natural disaster volunteers in hotels for approximately $75/person/night. • There is a surplus of out‐of‐service cargo containers worldwide. • Cargo containers will be used for living, bathroom, and kitchen units. • One subdivision will accommodate 40 volunteers. • The Southern United States will be the target location for this model, but can also be applied to other locations. • Volunteers commissioned for two week cycles. • Units will serve multiple cycles until volunteer efforts diminish.

Capital Cost Breakdown

20

15

10

5

0

Disaster Housing Cost  Comparison Subsequent Disasters

300

300

250

250

Cost ($ Thousands)

Cost ($ Thousands)

Disaster Housing Cost  Comparison First Disaster

200 150 100

50 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Number of Weeks of Volunteer Housing

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-DESIGN

Pre‐fabricated units complete with plumbing, electrical wiring, walls, and appliances will be stored at a centralized hub location. • Transportation via truck from centralized storage location to disaster site • Response Tasks: • Site Preparation • Transporting Container • Foundation Installation • Containers Secured to Foundation • On‐Site Electrical Installation • On‐Site Plumbing Installation • Final Site Preparation

25

• Operational and maintenance cost = $6,500/2 week cycle • Transportation costs = $2.60/mile/truck • On‐site labor = $1,400/event • Inactive storage of cargo containers = $1,000/month

29 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Disaster Relief Operation (DRO) • Establish DRO headquarters in an area centralized in the disaster region to regulate programs for the particular disaster. • DRO meets four main categories: • Preparedness • Readiness • Response • Recovery • Optimal response time is 72 hour window after disaster. • Resources and volunteers mobilized in 48 hours. • 2 week volunteer cycle • 12 days of work, 2 days of travel

Total capital cost = $140,000 % of Capital Cost

AUTHORS: John Lemire Scott McWhirter Daniel Parisi Nathaniel Philbrick Ryan Welch

200

The team would like to thank our advisor Dr. Robert Henry for assisting the team throughout the project.

150 100

50 0

Based on the current American Red Cross housing allocations: • First disaster: cost effective after ten weeks • Subsequent disasters: cost effective after two weeks • This model can be economically viable for a variety of disasters across the United States. • This model is designed for 40 volunteers but can be scaled accordingly to accommodate additional personal.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Number of Weeks of Volunteer Housing

Volunteer Subdivision

Volunteer Subdivision

Volunteers Staying in Hotels

Volunteers Staying in Hotels

The team would like to thank the following for helping the team compile research: • American Red Cross ‐ David Muse (Disaster Program Manager) • New Hampshire LED • Temp Power • Bulk Water Delivery


Katie Haslett (keh11@wildcats.unh.edu), Shane Majenski (smm2001@wildcats.unh.edu) Advisors: Dr. Eshan V. Dave and Dr. Weiwei Mo Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

LCA Results

Real Time Traffic Data (RTTD)

Introduction

Traditionally, pavement design is based on performance and economic factors. Incorporating a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach into pavement design, rehabilitation and maintenance strategies will help to improve the pavement management of highway infrastructure systems.

Monthly Global Warming Potential Vs. IRI

Global Warming Potential (Gg CO2 eq)

36 36

y = 0.003x + 35.479

36 36 36

Project Site Location: I-495 MA

36 36

0

50

100 150 IRI (in/mi)

200

250

Source: Google Maps

Source: Pinterest

This project evaluated pavement performance using an LCA approach with the inclusion of realistic traffic conditions, four different rehabilitation and maintenance strategies and pavement material characteristics.

Objectives

1. To perform a LCA on an interstate highway with the implementation of real time traffic data (RTTD) and maintenance strategy decisions to optimize performance over design life.

2. Evaluate pavement performance with realistic traffic conditions and maintenance strategies in terms of life cycle cost, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Energy Consumption (TEC). 3. Quantify the increase in fuel consumption and resulting emissions due to decrease ride quality (IRI) caused by accumulated distresses and pavement degradation over the design life.

Methodology

1. Inventory

5. Scenario Evaluation

Material properties, traffic volumes, climatic information, pavement structures

-Quantify GWP, TEC and life cycle cost associated with each scenario

Baseline Conditions 60 mph constant speed

RTTD accounts for changes in speed and acceleration and deceleration Fuel consumption was determined using conversion factors MJ/gallon kg CO2 eq/gallon Gasoline 132 8.9 Diesel 137.7 10.2

Maintenance Alternative Baseline Crack Sealant Microsurfacing (IRI=140) Microsurfacing (IRI=160) Cold-In-Place Mill and Overlay

Source: FHWA, 2012

Maintenance Alternatives

58-28 58-28

5.36 3.01

7.8 7.6

19.4 18

T-1

64-28

3.5

5.4

15.57 77.64

76-28

6.21

5.4

15.57 77.64

SHM-1

70-34 (PMA)

4.00

5.5

14.9

80.5

B-1

64-28

5.18

4.8

15

68.6

BB-1

64-28

4.38

4.8

14.8

69

ARGG -1 ARGG -2

5" AC Binder Course

77.8 80

THS-1

Cross Section

2" Surface Course

Asphalt Mixture Characteristics

ARGG-1 ARGG-2

T-1

8" AC Base Course

4. Pavement ME Design

SHM-1 6 5 4 3 9

T-1 5 5 3 4 6 6

THS-1 6 5 4 3 9

Maintenance Alternative

Baseline

Crack Sealant MS (IRI =140) MS (IRI =160)

$231,618,958 $219,152,098

CIR

Mill & Fill

$187,105,111 $190,671,362 $158,051,156 $156,954,499

$230,873,072 $219,152,047 $186,925,693 $190,632,806 $157,966,037 $156,950,403 $231,618,958 $223,500,437

$187,105,111 $190,634,818 $158,039,813 $156,950,403

THS - 1

$266,628,116 $251,815,947 $218,765,220 $198,617,699 $159,240,577

SHM - 1

$298,528,698 $277,218,842 $253,118,168 $214,731,747 $160,287,057

Conclusions

24" Granular Base

Incorporating realistic traffic conditions and evaluating maintenance strategy decisions using LCA can help to optimize pavement management over design life.

Existing Subgrade

Source: MnDOT, 2007

-Simulation of 5 cross sections with varying material characteristics -Pavement distresses, International Roughness Index (IRI)

Cross Section

ARGG-2 5 5 3 4 6 6

Total Net Present Value (NPV)

Utilized AASHTOWare Pavement ME design software to determine pavement distress and IRI Mix Name PG Grade Air Void (%) AC (%) VMA VFA

ARGG-1 5 5 3 4 7 6

Note: Green cell represents controlling maintenance alternative to complete 3 full cycles

5 different cross section evaluated with varying material characteristics

Surface Courses

ADVISORS: Eshan Dave Weiwei Mo

Traditionally, pavement design is Real Time Traffic Data Informed Life Cycle Assessment: Interstate 495 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Case Study based on performance (ride quality) and economic factors. The majority of cost analyses are concentrated on agency costs while neglecting the environmental impacts and indirect costs incurred by users. Incorporating a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach into the pavement design process will help to improve the operation and management of highway infrastructure systems. It will also help to identify explicit and implicit costs incurred by agencies and users. The objective of this project is to evaluate a 16 mile section of I-495 in MA, over a minimum design life of 90 years using a LCA approach with the inclusion of real time traffic data (RTTD), four different maintenance strategy alternatives and varying pavement material characteristics. The predicted ride quality (IRI) was simulated using the AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design software. The increase in fuel consumption and resulting emissions due to IRI decrease were simulated based upon data obtained from the EPA’s MOVES software. Results from the LCA are reported in terms of life cycle cost, Total Energy Consumption (TEC), and Global Warming Potential (GWP). It was found that the difference between baseline conditions and the implementation of RTTD was 4.4% in terms of GWP and 4.7% for TEC. Base Binder Course Course

AUTHORS: Katie Haslett Shane Majenski

• Timing and type of maintenance alternative has an impact on IRI which translates to changes in GWP, TEC and life cycle costs.

IRI curves generated for 6 scenarios

2. Establish Baseline Conditions

• Baseline

• Observed a 4.4% and 4.7% difference in TEC and GWP with the inclusion of RTTD compared to baseline conditions.

• Crack Sealant (CS)

Length: 16 miles Location: I-495, MA Baseline: Assume constant speed with no maintenance treatment

• Microsurfacing (MS) at 140 in/mi

• In terms of NPV, the mill and fill maintenance strategy had the lowest life cycle cost. The average percent differences in terms of LCA cost were; CIR (0.7%), MS at IRI=160 in/mi (19.4%), MS at IRI=140 in/mi (17.5%), CS (33.7%) and baseline (38.3%).

• Microsurfacing (MS) at 160 in/mi • Cold-In-Place (CIR) Recycling

3. Implement RTTD

• Mill & Overlay

-Data mining from Google Maps for trip delay times -Run EPA MOVES software to get emissions data and fuel consumption -Varying acceleration and deceleration scenarios inferred from traffic delay (green, orange, red, dark red)

 Initial IRI = 63 in/mi

Future Work Incorporate idle time and construction delay time into the operations and maintenance phase of LCA. In addition, perform LCA using realistic timing of maintenance strategy combinations over design life.

 Terminal IRI = 172 in/mi  Minimum of 3 cycles

3D Printed Concrete

FACULTY ADVISOR: Eshan Dave INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Dan Bernard

D-Shape LLC has created an innovative 3D Printed Concrete 3-D printing process to construct with a concrete like material. Using this 3D printing technology, structures can be made in hours and intricate details can be produced. The first objective of the project is to test various characteristics (compressive strength, flexural strength, curing times, weathering effects, structural element design, and cost analysis) of the 3D printed concrete, using D-Shape’s printing technology and compare them to Portland cement concrete. Compression tests and 3-point flexural tests are the two main experiments that were conducted at various curing times. The second objective is to improve the strength and ductility 3D printed concrete in attempt to lower costs and eliminating need of steel reinforcement in flexural and tensile members. To these effects, addition of fibers and substitution of propriety material with Portland cement is being evaluated. Currently, all testing from the first part of the scope and testing the combination of 3D printed concrete and Portland Cement Concrete is done. Testing the addition of fibers in the 3D printed concrete is underway. The goal is to see an improvement in the strength characteristics. Project Manager: Nicholas DiBartholomeo (nd2001@wildcats.unh.edu) Team: Andrew Burch, Benjamin Enos, Patrick Hackett, Christian Harris, Shayan Hasan Advisors: Eshan Dave (UNH), Dan Bernard (D-Shape) Introduction and Motivation

• This project was created to assist DShape in characterizing the properties of their proprietary material and finding ways to improve the materials strength, toughness, and lower cost

Objectives

• Conduct laboratory testing of 3DC and Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) to obtain baseline results and properties

Current Results

Curing Time

PCC Wet Curing 3DC Wet Curing 3DC Dry Curing Strength (psi) Strength (psi) Strength (psi)

2-Day

3080

1077

3040

7-Day

4027

10325

9014

14-Day

5379

179

8371

5243

302

1404

28-Day

3DC and Portland Cement Mix Compressive Strength

17500 15000 12500 10000

7500 5000 2500

Curing Time

Compressive Strength (psi)

Ratio (3DC/Portland Cement)

2-Day

4440

60/40

5-Day

3990

60/40

PCC Wet Curing Specimen 1

PCC Wet Curing Specimen 2

14-Day

85

50/50

3DC Wet Curing Specimen 1

3DC Dry Curing Specimen 1

0

Percent Toughness of Fiber Reinforced 3DC Compared to Baseline 3DC

Fiber/Baseline Type

Fiber Length (mm)

Wirand FS7

35

116

143

Wirand FF3

50

-

85

Wirand Umix 4700

60

128

29

• Conduct a freeze-thaw durability analysis for 3DC

Owen Corning

19

126

69

Baseline 3DC

-

100

100

• Conduct a cost analysis for the production of 3DC objects and compare to that of PCC

Baseline PCC

-

-

78

• Attempt to improve the strength and toughness properties of the material by using additive materials like Portland cement and fiber reinforcement

Conclusions

• 3DC was found to have a compressive strength of 8,370 psi, compared to that of our baseline PCC which had a compressive strength of 5,380 psi at a 14-day curing time

Compressive Strength of Baseline 3DC and PCC vs. Time

Base Line PCC and 3DC Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength (psi)

• D-Shape is an innovative company that has developed a method of 3D printing a concrete like material (3DC)

80

0

5

10

15 Time (days)

20

25

30

Flexural Toughness of Additive Fibers

70

3-Day Cure (%) 7-Day Cure (%)

Flexural Toughness (psi)

AUTHORS: Andrew Burch Nicholas DiBartholomeo Benjamin Enos Patrick Hackett Christian Harris Shayan Hasan

• A wet curing environment was found to have negative impacts on the performance of 3DC, giving a compressive strength of only 179 psi at a 14-day curing time • A 50/50 combination of Portland Cement and 3DC materials was found to deteriorate the sample resulting in relatively low compressive strength values, however the 60/40 showed promising results

60

Wirand FS7 Wirand FF3 Wirand Umix 4700 Owen Corning Baseline 3DC Baseline PCC

50 40 30 20

• Fiber reinforcement with Wirand FS7 steel fibers has 140% the flexural toughness of unreinforced 3DC

Next Steps

10

0

7-Day Curing Specimens

• Retest outliers

• Perform cost analysis

• Test performance of machine printed 3DC with the addition of reinforcing fibers

Testing Methods

Owen Corning AntiCrak ® HD Fibers

Wirand Umix 4700 Fibers

Wirand FF3 Metal Fibers

Wirand FS7 Metal Fibers

• Recommendation for future: test 3DC performance in prestressed application

Acknowledgments

Cylinder Compression Test

Beam 3-Point Flexural Test

Small Scale 3D Printer “Ms. XYZ”

• D-Shape Team: Adam Kushner, Dan Bernard, Stan Zabecki, and Steve Bernard • Project Advisor: Eshan Dave

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 30

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

Real Time Traffic Data Informed Life Cycle Assessment: Interstate 495 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Case Study


S. Jakositz, C. Wallitsch, D. Feng, Z. Xun

Advisors: Dr. W. Mo and Mr. S. Greenwood Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Geospatial Copper Concentration

Project Goals

Lead was not detected in any samples and all copper levels were below the EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s action level West End Extent of Campus

Main Campus and Downtown Durham

121 Technology Drive

DRINKING WATER PREFERENCE

Gables Apartments

Other

Cottages

Personally filtered water

Hydration station/water fountain

Woodman Rd.

Evaluate lead and copper drinking water concentrations in Durham, NH

Boiled Tap Water

Tap Water

Bottled Water

Whittemore Center

Mast Road Apartments

Rivers Edge

0%

Background

Lead and copper can enter drinking water via distribution pipes and household premise plumbing materials LCR requires drinking water treatment plants to add corrosive controls to water Some individuals, such as those with wells, can get overlooked by LCR policies

Madbury Rd.

Number of Participants Surveyed

86

Number of Sampling Vials Distributed

107

Number of Samples Returned

69

Number of Samples Tested

42

Number of Tested Samples from Water Fountains Number of Tested Samples from Faucets

10

Goal Max. Action Level Contaminant Level 15 Îźg/L

0 Îźg/L

1300 Îźg/L

1300 Îźg/L

32

Graduate Student Staff/Faculty 13%

22%

14%

1%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

PERCEIVED PERSONAL DRINKING WATER SAFETY

1

2

3 4 5 6 7 8 Safety Scale (1 = Very Unsafe, 10 = Very Safe)

9

10

Most participants perceived their drinking water source as safe or very safe.

Conclusions

â&#x20AC;˘ Corrosion control methods in place are sufficient for protection of drinking water in Durham

Most participants learned about the study through word-of-mouth and very few were motivated by the advertised contest.

RESPONSE TO POOR WATER QUALITY RESULT

Tabled in Memorial Union Building (MUB) and Kingsbury Hall for four weeks

35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

73%

5%

A majority of participants were undergraduates in the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences (CEPS) and the College of Health and Human Services (CHHS).

Distributed flyers advertising tabling schedule and prizes

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

PARTICIPANT MOTIVATION

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

20%

Percentage of Responses

58%

14%

Methods

HOW PARTICIPANT LEARNED ABOUT STUDY

Undergraduate Student

COLA PAUL

10%

Most participants drink the water from the Durham Drinking Water Treatment plant and most are aware of lead and other common drinking water contaminants.

GIS Data Courtesy of UNH Facilities Campus Planning

UNIVERSITY AFFILIATION

COLLEGE ENROLLMENT

CEPS COLSA CHHS

Lead

0%

Mill Road Plaza

Survey Results

Lead and Copper Rule: A Quick Reference Guide

Copper

Bayview Rd.

Gregg Hall

40%

Other Never heard any of these None Pathogens PCBs/PFOs Chlorine Copper Lead

Not Sampled

Hamilton Smith

DWTP

10% 20% 30% Percentage of Responses

CONTAMINANTS OF MOST CONCERN

Drinking Water Treatment Plant

Lodges

Lead exposure can cause damage to brain, red blood cells, and kidneys Copper exposure can cause stomach and intestinal distress and liver or kidney damage EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) aims to protect public health by minimizing lead and copper in drinking water

Percentage of Response

Develop a crowdsourcing method to engage consumers in water quality monitoring

Percentage of Responses

ADVISORS: Weiwei Mo Scott Greenwood

Though drinking water treatment Crowdsourced Water Quality Testing at the plants are responsible for producing University of New Hampshire quality drinking water, contaminants that could occur in water delivery and personal plumbing systems are less well understood and controlled. The goal of this project is to establish a protocol to engage the public in water quality monitoring activities at the consumer tap on and around the campus of the University of New Hampshire. Social media and word-of-mouth were used to recruit participants to collect drinking water samples from the sources they drink most. The participants were surveyed for their motivation to participate, opinions about water safety, and potential response to a water hazard. The samples were analyzed for lead and copper using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Over a period of four weeks, a total of 86 residents participated in the survey and a total of 69 samples were returned. The ICP-AES analysis revealed lead levels below reporting limit and copper levels below the EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s action level of 1.3 mg/L for every location tested. Survey results showed that 93 percent of participants would take some sort of action to improve their water quality should a poor result be found, and a majority of participants trust the quality of tap water. Percentage of Response

AUTHORS: Danyi Feng Sarah Jakositz Cassidy Wallitsch Zekun Xun

2%

Take personal action

PERSONAL ACTION RESPONSE TO POOR WATER QUALITY RESULT

4% 15% 2%

Leave it to a professional

Inform others via social media

Purchase a purification device Drink only bottled water

0% 5% 10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%50%

Other

77%

Percentage of Responses

â&#x20AC;˘

Participants are more motivated to participate by perceived knowledge gain than prize incentives

â&#x20AC;˘

Almost all participants would take some sort of action to improve their water quality

Suggestions for Future Research

Contact water utility or university

I wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care

Distributed and collected sample vials and survey responses

â&#x20AC;˘

Engage with participants - The most successful recruitment came from direct interaction

â&#x20AC;˘

Consider stressing knowledge gain as an incentive - Almost all participants were more motivated by knowledge than by prizes

â&#x20AC;˘

Create some sort of attention-grabbing material - Attempt to improve the visual attractiveness of the distribution/collection area

Most participants would take some sort of action should they receive a poor water quality result. Of the participants who would take personal action, most would purchase a water purification device.

References available upon request.

Evaluation of Cracking Indices for Asphalt Concrete Fracture Behavior AUTHOR: Katie Haslett

Evaluation of Cracking Indices for Asphalt Concrete Fracture Behavior In recent years, there has been a shift Katie Haslett (keh11@wildcats.unh.edu) towards implementing performance based pavement specifications (PBPS) to characterize asphalt concrete mixtures. ADVISORS: Several of the performance indices used in PBPS are based on the asphalt mixture Jo Daniel fracture tests. There is an increasing need Eshan Dave for a better understanding the effects of temperature and loading rate on fracture properties of asphalt mixtures. The goal of this study is to build upon previous work conducted during a Summer Undergraduate Research Program project entitled, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Exploration of Temperature and Loading Rate Interdependency for Fracture Properties of Asphalt Mixtures.â&#x20AC;? There are many proposed fracture indices including Fracture Energy (Gf ), Illinois Flexibility Index (FI), Toughness Index (TI), Nflex, and Fracture Strain Tolerance (FST). The objective of this study is to evaluate different fracture indices and their variations with changes in test temperature and Honorable Mention loading rates. Results from Semi-Circular Bend fracture tests on five asphalt mixtures were evaluated with varying amounts of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Conclusions will be drawn on the effectiveness of each Project fracture index to distinguish and appropriately rank mixtures as well as on the variations of these indices with changes in test temperature and loading rate. Dept: Civil & Environmental Engineering

Advisors: Dr. Eshan V. Dave, Dr. Jo Sias Daniel

Introduction

Fracture performance testing and cracking related index parameters to evaluate low and intermediate temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures are gaining increased attention.

đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; = đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š =

4.5

ď&#x192;ź Evaluation of various cracking indices using the semicircular bend (SCB) fracture test conducted over a range of testing temperatures and loading rates. ď&#x192;ź Comparison of the use of line-load displacement versus crack mouth opening (CMOD) displacement

0

2.5

2

1

PG

RAP

0

3

2.5

Measurements

2 1

0.5 0

0

2

4 Displacement (mm)

Line-Load Displacement

2018

31 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

6

CMOD Displacement

8

2 Î&#x201D;mdp

3

4 5 Displacement (mm)

6

7

8

Results Line-Load Versus CMOD Displacement 1

â&#x20AC;˘ Load â&#x20AC;˘ Line-load Displacement (LLD) â&#x20AC;˘ Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD)

2

3

4

Index

VA 0% RAP

Gf

2621.8

FI

8.18

1975.6 5.39

4.20

Nflex

4.80

473.5

FST

521.6

CRI

982.7

491.5

410.4

886.8

802.6

Index

VA 0% RAP

1109.4 1

VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP 2887.7 16.41 1.93

410.6

799.5

2384.4 6.62 1.08

253.4

468.7

1692.3 34.60

1419.2 54.43

8.70

713.7

1287.8

9.10

473.5

802.6

Index

VA 0% RAP

1012.5

2071.6

2050.1

Gf

2272.2

1397.2

1112.8

2963.7

2609.7

1

8.77

3.45

FI

1.78

1.79

1.18

26.48

8.62

VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP

1

29.40

17.70

3.80

221.7

547.2

1661.0

3854.8

FI

1419.2

16.57

0.52

281.0

668.8

FI

VA 0% RAP

Gf

1165.3

2.24

1.13

355.0

CRI

Gf

Index

2080.4

1.97

FST

VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP

Nflex

0.05

0.04

1.85

1.09

Nflex

0.13

0.26

0.07

3.45

1.55

FST

120.9

95.5

94.1

359.1

284.7

FST

165.2

120.8

102.8

513.4

362.5

CRI

235.6

176.8

184.1

663.5

522.9

CRI

321.9

223.5

201.7

949.9

665.9

0.07

1 2 3 4 5

FI

Nflex

FST

CRI

25°C & 50mm/min

VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

34.6 54.4 29.4 16.4 6.6

8.70 9.10 4.80 1.93 1.08

713.7 473.5 521.6 410.6 253.4

1287.8 802.6 982.7 799.5 468.7

13°C & 50mm/min

VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

2963.7 2609.7 2272.2 1397.2 1112.8

26.5 8.6 1.8 1.8 1.2

3.45 1.55 0.13 0.26 0.07

513.4 362.5 165.2 120.8 102.8

949.9 665.9 321.9 223.5 201.7

1°C & 50mm/min

VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP

1589.8 1138.2

2.38 1.29

0.18 0.07

155.8 115.5

279.0 206.9

FI

Nflex

FST

CRI

8.77 3.45 1.78 1.79 1.18

1.85 1.09 0.13 0.26 0.07

359.1 284.7 165.2 120.8 102.8

663.5 522.9 321.9 223.5 201.7

2

Gf

Testing Condition

Mix

13°C & 50mm/min

VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

J/m2 2071.6 2050.1 2272.2 1397.2 1112.8

13°C & 10 mm/min

VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

3256.0 2000.9 1210.8

7.50 4.58 1

1.80 0.52 0.05

315.8 212.6 105.9

605.8 404.5 210.1

13°C & 1.86mm/min

VA 0% RAP VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP

2370.4 1642.9 2194.1

15.22 7.35 5.42

2.43 1.18 0.51

382.4 270.8 233.4

726.2 488.5 445.0

Conclusions

CMOD Displacement

VA 20% RAP VA 40% RAP VT 20% RAP VT 40% RAP

Nflex

Gf

J/m 1692.3 1419.2 3854.8 2887.7 2384.4

There are many proposed cracking indices to evaluate fracture performance of asphalt mixtures.

5

Line-Load Displacement

13°C & 50mm/min

Comparison of LLD vs CMOD

3.5

1.5

Î&#x201D;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ 1

Ranking (Highest To Lowest)

â&#x20AC;˘ Selection of testing temperature and loading rate combinations were informed through time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). 4

a

t = thickness

0.5

SCB Testing (AASTHO TP 105)

Mix

= Inflection point

.

(0.5 đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ)

Vermont

25°C & 50 mm/min 13°C & 50 mm/min 1°C & 50 mm/min 1°C & 2 mm/min 52-34 20% 52-34 40%

P

đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; = area under curve

đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;)

1.5

25°C & 50mm/min

Virgina

25°C & 50 mm/min 13°C & 50 mm/min 13°C & 1.86 mm/min 13°C & 10 mm/min 76-22 0% 70-22 20% 64-22 40%

Testing Condition

Effect of Loading Rate

đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;nf = area under curve till inflection point

Materials and Testing Conditions

Mixture

đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;

đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; = (đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;,đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? ) â&#x2C6;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; (10â&#x2C6;&#x2019;3 )

Highest to Lowest

Effect of Test Temperature

đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;, đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC;đ?&#x2018;&#x2DC; = area under curve after đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ

3

0

2đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; (2đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤+đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;) đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?(đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;)2

â&#x20AC;˘ Toughness Index (TI), (Perez-Jimenez et al. 2013)

3.5

ď&#x192;ź Investigate the effect of test temperature and loading rate on fracture performance and ranking of mixtures.

Testing Condition

Where; đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; =

đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ś =

2017)

đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; |đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;|

đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ 4 Load (kN)

Objectives

2018)

đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; 0.01 |đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;|

đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; =

đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š = đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;

â&#x20AC;˘ Cracking Resistance Index (CRI), (F. Kaseer et al.

â&#x20AC;˘ Flexibility Index (FI), (Ozer et al. 2016)

Ranking

Results

Cracking Indices

â&#x20AC;˘ Fracture Energy (đ??şđ??şđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; ), (AASHTO TP 105) â&#x20AC;˘ Fracture Strain Tolerance (FST), (Zhu et al. 2017)

â&#x20AC;˘ Nflex Factor, (Yin et al.

Load (kN)

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

Crowdsourced Water Quality Testing at the University of New Hampshire

â&#x20AC;˘ Current standard uses line-load displacement measurement at 25 oC & 50 mm/min testing condition.

â&#x20AC;˘ Greater distinction in terms of magnitude between indices values when using CMOD displacement.

â&#x20AC;˘ FI unable to distinguish VA mixtures at 13 oC & 50 mm/min due to steep post peak slope.

â&#x20AC;˘ Similar ranking of mixtures using line-load versus CMOD displacement is observed, however magnitude and distinction between mixtures varies greatly with temperature.

â&#x20AC;˘ Post peak slope behaviour has a significant impact on ranking of mixtures. â&#x20AC;˘ Consideration to climatic region should be incorporated into selection of appropriate test temperature and loading rate combination for testing.

Future Work

Expand mixture database and incorporate finite element analysis to gain greater understanding of the effect of temperature on fracture performance.

Acknowledgements

â&#x20AC;˘ UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research â&#x20AC;˘ Asphalt Research Group, University of New Hampshire â&#x20AC;˘ Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) 5(230)


AUTHORS: Ethan Beals Adrian D'Orlando Kai Kleyensteuber Abigail McEachern Evan Poworoznek Dylan Robbs Sarah Viola ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner

The United States imports over 400 SNARE PERFORMANCE FOR SUBMERGED OIL DETECTION & MONITORING million gallons of petroleum every day. Consequently, oil spills are a daily OIL IN WATER COLUMN ADSORPTION/DESORPTION RESEARCH NEEDS CHAIN DRAGGING threat. When an oil spill occurs, the first Goal: Develop relationship between Goal: Investigate snare Goal: Quantify the interaction between oil adsorption to snare and snare configuration and location in interaction with oil in desorption from snare as a function the water column water step in a response is locating the spilled of temperature, salinity, and tow • Single chain, 3 speed oil so environmental impacts can be knots mitigated. Polypropylene sorbents • Single chain, added weight, 3 or “snares” are one of the key tools knots • 4 chains braided used to detect, monitor and clean up together, 3 knots submerged oil spills. Multiple snares Applicability KEY TERMS • Existing configurations: can be attached to chains and towed • Difficult to locate in the water column by vessels of opportunity through the • Added weight has limited impact on chain shape water. The snares are then pulled from Future Research • Create and optimize protocol for the water and examined for evidence of Applicability hydrofoil use • Snare is more effective tool for oiling. Currently, there is no quantitative HYDROFOIL USE dilbit detection in colder waters • Provides downward force that ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS increases with velocity Future Research method that relates the amount of oil • Investigate more oil types • Investigate effects of tow duration collected on the snare to the amount and salinity on desorption of oil that is encountered in the water column. There is also no developed method for responders to intentionally tow snare at a desired depth in the water. These knowledge gaps limit the ability of snare to be used as a dependable response tool. This research focused on addressing the: (1) impact of temperature, salinity, oil type and velocity on the adsorption and desorption of oil to the snare, (2) movement or position of the snare setup in the water column as a function of tow velocity, and (3) physical interaction of oil and snare in the water column. Ethan Beals, Adrian D’Orlando, Kai Kleyensteuber, Abigail McEachern, Evan Poworoznek, Dylan Robbs, Sarah Viola Faculty Adviser: Dr. Nancy Kinner

Adsorption Experiment Setup

Marine Traffic Density Map 2017 (marineTraffic.com)

• Spilled oil can submerge when density of oil > density of water • Submerged oil is difficult to locate • Limited options for submerged oil detection and recovery

DBL 152 crude oil spill (NOAA)

Fuel oil number 6 mixed with sediment becomes neutrally buoyant

An arsenal of snare that is towed for submerged oil detection

Snare: sorbent made of poly-

propylene material, deployed for detection/recovery of submerged oil • Commonly used, inexpensive • Towed by local vessels

Frond: a single strand of snare Bitumen: highly viscous heavy oil,

Simulation of snare being pulled through submerged oil

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

formed as a residue from petroleum distillation

• • • • • • •

No. 6 Fuel Oil: heavy fuel oil, formed from refining crude oil

Diluted Bitumen (Dilbit): bitumen diluted with lighter petroleum

Example of how a hydrofoil works

Steve Lehmann, NOAA Melissa Gloekler, CRRC Jesse Ross, CRRC John Ahern, UNH CEE M. Robinson Swift, UNH OE Eshan Dave, UNH CEE Captain Claudia Gelzer, USCG

Physical Modeling of Pavement Performance with Seasonal Moisture Variations AUTHORS: Joseph Anatone Kimberly Perkins James Rochefort Erik Rolser

The structural capacity of pavements is Physical<Modeling<of<Pavement<Performance< greatly affected by the moisture content With<Seasonal<Moisture<Variations of the soil in the subgrade layers. This Results is evident in the spring when roads Physical.Model Abstract become saturated as a result of the freeze-thaw process or after a flooding event. An increase in internal pore water pressure when a load is applied Representative.Soil to saturated or nearly saturated soil is theorized to be the reason high moisture content in subgrade is detrimental Future.Plans to the pavement’s capacity. To study Initial.Conditions this, a scaled model of the pavement subgrade system was built and the system’s reaction to an impulse load was observed. A dimensional analysis on the stress distribution due to a load on a multi-layered system was performed to calculate the minimum allowable model size. Pore water pressure sensors and volumetric moisture sensors were calibrated and placed at varying depths in the soil. It was observed that higher soil moisture content led to an increase in the magnitude of the corresponding spike in pore water pressure, resulting in a weaker pavement as the load hits. With this information and continued investigation, there will be a more accurate framework for transportation agencies to predict a road’s load limit at different times of the year in response to changes in the underlying water table. Erik<Rolser,<Kim<Perkins,<James<Rochefort,<Joseph<Anatone<UNH<Civil<Engineering<‘18 Faculty<Advisors:<Dr.<Majid<Ghayoomi<and<Dr.<Eshan<Dave

Objective:*Explain&why&moisture&content&of&subgrade& soil&affects&structural&capacity&of&pavements&

Hypothesis: An&increase&in&internal&pore&water& pressure&when&a&load&is&applied&to&saturated&or&nearly& saturated&soil&causes&the&subgrade&to&weaken

Falling&weight& dropped&20&inches& imparts&70Rlb& impact&load&on&soil

subgrade&is&built&and&the&system’s&reaction&to&an&impulse& load&is&observed using&pore&water&pressure&sensors

USCS&Soils&of&New& England

CL

SP

ML

SPRSM

5&Volumetric&Soil& Moisture&Sensors&

12”&“subgrade”& compacted&in&6& layers&at&optimum& moisture&content

USCS&Soil&Types

2”&gravel&layer

Sprinkler&system&designed& for&even&saturation

Grain&Size&Distribution&of&Three&Soils& Tested

Upgrade

120 100

Measured&SP&Soil&Moisture&Profile

80 60 40

0.0% 0

20

2

0 0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

Particle&Size&(mm)

Proctor&Compaction&Curves

120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70

Depth&(inches)

SM

GM

CLRML

SCRSM

2&LVDT&sensors&held&up& by&steel&frame&(not& shown)

24”

Soil Location/Description SP Barrington,&NH&Sand& and&Gravel Company ML Dredged&from& Pinewood&Lake&in& Trumbull, CT SM 50/50&mix&of&SP&and& ML

35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Percent&Passing&(%)

Percent&of&New&England&Area

highway&agencies&to&predict&a&road’s&load&limit&at&different& times&of&the&year.&

Dry&Unit&Weight&(pcf)

ADVISORS: Eshan Dave Majid Ghayoomi

Wood&veneer&covered&in& epoxy&for&waterproofing

Load&cell

HDPE&pipe&

Method*of*Research:*A&scaled&model&of&the&

Outcome:*Develop&a&more&accurate&framework&for&

36”

4&Pore&Water& Pressure&Sensors

20.0%

Degree&Saturation&(%) 40.0%

Instrumentation

60.0%

80.0%

100.0% 120.0%

4

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6 8

10 12

Sensor

SM ML SP

0

10

20

Moisture&Content&(%)

30

EPB2 EPB1 PPT3 EPB3

Initial Pressure Theoretical Measured Pressure 0.3&kPa 0.5&kPa 0.9&kPa 1&kPa 0.65&kPa 0.5&kPa 0.97&kPa 1&kPa

• S%&=&100%&at&w%&=&30%& • Assumed&fully&saturated&when& water&started&pooling&at&soil& surface

Benefit

Add&base&layer&and&asphalt& More&closely&mimic&a&realRlife& layer&on&top&of&subgrade&layer& pavement&structure& Design&loading&system&that& Produce&load&similar&to&a&car& creates&a&greater&impact&load& load&

Acknowledgements

Thank&you&to&Dr.&Dave&and&Dr.&Ghayoomi&for&mentoring&this&project.& Thank&you&to&John&Ahern&for&helping&with&the&test&setup.

Contact.Information Erik%Rolser ejr2004@wildcats.unh.edu Kim%Perkins kjp2000@wildcats.unh.edu

Joseph%Anatone jpa2003@wildcats.unh.edu James%Rochefort jlz288@wildcats.unh.edu

References

• Amiri,&Hassan. 2004&“Impact&of&Moisture&Variation&on&Stiffness& Response&of&Pavements&through&Small&Scale&Models.”&Ph.D.&thesis.&The& University&of&Texas&at&El&Paso.& • Freitag,&D.&R.&1965&.&“A&dimensional&analysis&of&the&performance&of& pneumatic&tires&on&soft&soils.”&Ph.D.&thesis,&Auburn&Univ.,&Auburn,&Ala.&

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 32

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

Snare Performance for Submerged Oil Detection and Monitoring


AUTHOR: Tessa Artruc ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

There are many possible impacts Predicting Sediment Transport in Dam Removal Scenarios Tessa C. Artruc and Dr. Kevin Gardner – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire and trade-offs associated with dam Dam Removal Decision-Making Methods removal, including release of sediment downstream. Questions regarding the impact of sediment can be studied through preand post-removal monitoring parameters that address the following concerns: (1) what is the Monitoring Plans degree and rate of reservoir sediment erosion; (2) what is the magnitude of channel incision upstream of reservoirs; (3) where does sediment aggradation occur downstream; and (4) what is the Conclusions magnitude of downstream turbidity. Two study sites were used to assess different Future Work Acknowledgements physiographic settings, and how their characteristics can be used to predict sediment transport: the Sawyer Mill Upper and Lower Dams on the Bellamy River and the South Middleton Dam on the Ipswich River. To answer the sediment questions of concern, monitoring parameters were applied to each site based on pre-removal information available and what physiographic demands are present. Physical characteristics are monitored by channel cross-sections, a longitudinal profile, and aerial photography, along with water quality monitored by turbidity. Although these two cases represent just a fraction of dam removal scenarios, it may be possible to generalize the information gathered and create universal understandings for sediment behavior. • Most removal projects lack comparative assessments, which are critical for understanding potential impacts from sediment release. • To evaluate pre- and post-monitoring plans, two sites were selected for physiographic differences.

Sawyer Mill Upper and Lower Dams

Cross-Sections

Longitudinal Profile Photo Stations

Turbidity

Monitoring Questions 1. Degree of rate of sediment erosion 2. Magnitude of channel incision

Sawyer Mill 3 impoundments 18 cross-sections

Middleton 1 impoundment 20 cross-sections

1 bridge, 2 dams 4300 ft long

3 bridges, 1 dam 8000 ft long

2 panoramas 2 3D models

2 panoramas 2 3D models

5 samples

3 samples

Erosion control Sediment Management Active removal

3. Location of sediment deposition 4. Magnitude of downstream turbidity

Monitoring Parameters

South Middleton Dam

Bank stabilization Channel reconfiguration Active removal

• • •

Pre-removal information from feasibility studies, design plans, presentations, technical reports, and sediment studies. Standards applied from Stream Barrier Removal Monitoring Guide (Collins et al., 2007) and can be adapted for the sitespecific requirements. New England typically has low-head dams with smaller impoundments, which makes pre- and post-removal assessments relatively simpler than larger dams that may been seen in the western U.S.

Thanks to Dr. Gardner for advising this work. Thanks also goes to Alexandra Evans for providing information on the Sawyer Mill sediment and aerial photography. Special thanks to Nick Nelson from Inter-Fluve for the additional information on the Middleton site. Thanks to Emily Poworoznek from the UNH Library for helping me kick-start the literature review.

• Review dam removal literature and compare the methods of similar studies to the two case sites. • Implement monitoring plans so that post-comparative data can be collected and used to test sediment predictions.

Engineered Equestrian Riding Surfaces

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Bill Hawe, Coyota Springs Farm

Steven Wuebbolt Civil Engineering Department Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jean Benoît Industry Advisor: Bill Hawe from Coyote Spring Farm, Lee NH

Behavior of Surface

1) Background

The behavior of horse riding surfaces can be explained by fitting a sine wave to the deflection vs time data. The combined frequency and amplitude of the wave describes the timeframe and magnitude of the impact and rebound phases, allowing for tests to be easily and accurately related.

Why use a an engineered horse riding surface?

Engineered horse riding surfaces have been utilized for several years to improve the quality of riding experiences. An engineered horse riding surface not only improves the riding experience but it also allows for competitors to compete at their highest level.

Deflection vs Time

10

8

Deflection (mm)

FACULTY ADVISOR: Jean Benoit

The horse riding industry is a multiEngineered Equestrian Riding Surfaces million dollar industry which is fueled by the satisfaction of casual riders and competitors, and that satisfaction depends on the quality of ride that they experience. When doing any kind of riding, the surface that is underfoot has a major effect on what the rider feels. Many successful pre-mixed engineered surfaces exist, and these surfaces have revolutionized competitive and casual riding. However, the ability for an arena owner to truly understand and alter their riding surface to fit their own needs has been lacking. The action of altering a riding surface has proven to be a process of trial and error which sometimes ends in rider dissatisfaction or harm to human or horse. This project was an investigation into the potential of a selected instrument to quantify properties of a riding surface and relate them to the quality that a rider would experience. Over the course of this project, light has been shed on the potential of this instrument in relation to testing riding surfaces as well as how the instrument functions when testing surfaces it was never designed to test. What goes into an engineered horse riding surface?

An engineered horse riding suface is typically made up of three layers. The base layer is typically compacted earth, compacted stone dust or pavement. The middle layer is made up of a rubber or plastic mat with many different designs available. The top layer is typically made up of a proprietary mix of manufactured materials.

2) Horse and Rider Interaction with Surface

6

Impact

4

0

0

0.02

0.03

3) Instrument Used

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time (s)

5) Results and Conclusions

Average Impact Force per Pulse

The light falling weight deflectometer (LWD) is an instrument developed to measure compaction levels of roadway subgrades. The instrument measures acceleration via an accelerometer, which is then stored and used to calculate deflection. Ultimately, the most important data obtained from the LWD is the deflection vs time data calculated by the instrument

40000 35000

Average Impact Force Roughly Equal

30000 25000 20000

Arena 1 Arena 2

15000

Difference in Rate of Stiffening

10000 5000 0

1

2

3

4

Implied Peak Impact Force Similar

Guide Rod

The hoof impact phases 1-4 affect a riding experience is several ways. Three metrics which can effectively describe the way a surface rides are, responsiveness, grip, and impact firmness.

Responsiveness

Plate with Accelerometer

Falling Weight

The shock experienced by horse and rider when the hoof contacts the surface. Impact firmness can be related to phase 1, as it is concerned with the maximum force which the horse will experience. This metric does not consider the behavior of the surface, rather just the magnitude of impact force experienced.

3

4

5

6

7

8

Pulse Number

Deflection vs Time (Pulse 1)

9

Less Rebound Means More Rapid Stiffening

4) Analysis Method

Stiffness of Surface

Impact Behavior Similar

8

The average impact force experienced by a surface during a given test can be calculated by dividing the potential energy of the weight by the measured peak deflection. While this calculated force is not the peak force experienced by the surface, it does indicate the stiffness of the surface.

Impact (A1) Rebound (A1) Rebound Behavior Impact (A2) Different Rebound (A2)

6

A1

4 2 0

0

0.01

-2

Calculation and Recording Unit

Grip

Impact Firmness

2

10

How active or springy a surface feels to the rider. This metric can be related to phases 1, 3, and 4. Responsiveness is driven by the behavior of surface compression, on impact, and surface rebound, on support and rollover.

How much the horses foot slides during touchdown, support, and rollover. Grip can be related to all phases where the surface is being sheared. However this metric could not be measured with the LWD.

1

12

Hoof Interaction and Riding Metrics Relationship

33 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

0.01

Light Falling Weight Deflectometer

Phases of Hoof Impact

Impact Data Impact Sine Fit Rebound Data Rebound Sine Fit

Rebound

2

-2

Impact Force (N)

AUTHOR: Steven Wuebbolt

Deflection (mm)

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

Predicting Sediment Transport in Dam Removal Scenarios

-4

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

A2

Time (s)

Impact Firmness

The peak impact force can be measured by combining average impact force and behavior of the impact phase. For the first impact the surfaces exhibited the same peak impact force. This peak impact force measures the shock experienced, and therefore the impact firmness of the surface. This means that initially the surfaces have the same impact firmness qualities. Since arena 2 had been determined to be of good quality, arena 1 will also have desirable impact firmness qualities.

Responsiveness

As seen in the above figure, the behavior of the surface differs in the rebound stage. The rebound phase affects the springy feeling of the surface significantly, as the more a surface rebounds on impact the more it aids the horse into the next stride. Since arena 2 is desirable, that means the responsiveness of arena 1 is less springy than would be desirable. Finally, this lack in rebound means that the surface will stiffen quicker, requiring it to be groomed more often.


AUTHOR: Morgane Gaudissart

This research analyzes the extent to which small-scale hydropower systems, Analyzing the Potential for Power Grid Resilience in Caribbean Nations Using called micro-hydro power, could be Micro Hydro Power implemented in the island nations of the Caribbean to supplement and strengthen their existing power grids. Centralized power grids have become the common means of energy distribution in the modern world, but their weaknesses are evident when damage in one area knocks out the entire grid. Storms are predicted to gain intensity in the future, and with thousands in the Caribbean still without power over 9 months after 2017 hurricane season, it is clear that these power distribution systems are lacking in resilience. A solution to the weaknesses of centralized power grids could come in the form of microgrids, which provide localized power generation through renewable energies. Although they mostly supplement existing power grids, these small-scale power systems are also capable of operating autonomously should the main grid be compromised. The that the mountainous landscapes, rich hydrology, and abundant rainfall that occur in Caribbean nations indicates that there is untapped potential for microhydro systems there, which was analyzed using topographic, remote sensing, and USGS streamflow data. Supporting information and evidence were also found in the literature. Morgane Gaudissart (mcg2002@wildcats.unh.edu) | Faculty Advisor: Kevin Gardner, Ph. D.

ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

Satellite images of Puerto Rico taken at night show the extent of the power loss on the island after its main power grid was knocked out by Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017

● Both grid connected and stand-alone capabilities ● Adds resilience to the main power grid ● Could operate solely on micro hydropower

Microgrid System Diagram

Hydro Power

Other Renewables

September 25, 2017

July 24, 2017

Total Head

Source: Vox

● Streamflow, elevation, and structures layers

Micro Hydro System Diagram ● Identified high-head streams near

● Localized, small-scale implementation

● Lower construction and operation costs ● Need to know total head, streamflow, and penstock length

Methodology

1. Identify Potential Site Using GIS 2. Collect Head and Distance Measurements in GIS

1 mile radius from emergency services structure USGS gauging station Waterways

emergency services structures

● No dam required → minimal environmental impact

Gross Head Head Loss

48 feet

Net Head

192 feet

Estimated Minimum Flow

0.89 cfs

● Map to the right is of a site in Guadiana Barrio, Puerto Rico

3: Conservative Flow Assumption

Daily mean streamflow values for the USGS gauging station nearest the emergency services (shown in the GIS example at right) in Guadiana Barrio, Puerto Rico over ten years. Another approach could be using a maximum flow value to increase turbine efficiency during storm events.

3. Identify Driest Year Using USGS Graph

GIS Map of Guadiana Barrio

240 feet

Penstock Length

1300 ft

Estimated Power Output

6,905

Estimated Energy Output

4,972

Watts

kWh per month

Consumer Demand

Storage

Generator

5: Guadiana, PR Summary Statistics

● Limited to streams monitored by the United States Geographic Survey (USGS)

6. Micro Hydro Energy and Savings Potential

Average Emergency Service Structure Area

1,000 sq. feet

Energy Use Intensity for Service Buildings

250 kWh/sq. m/ yr

Estimated Energy Usage for Emergency Service Buildings in Puerto Rico

52,083 kWh/month

RS Means

2003 CBECS Survey Data for USA

Percentage of Energy Usage Covered by Micro Hydro

10%

Average Eelectricity Tariffs for Public Authorities in Puerto Rico National Renewable Energy Laboratory

$0.25/kWh

Potential Savings from Micro Hydro Power

$14,000/yr

Conclusions

Assumptions

4. Estimate Streamflow Onsite From Lowest Flow in Driest Year (not shown)

Utility Grid

100 m contours

San Juan

Map Legend

Courtesy of energy.gov

1, 2: GIS Analysis Example

Control System

Source: Business Insider

● Structures data used in GIS analysis provides an accurate representation of population distribution in Puerto Rico

● USGS Streamflow data for major waterways can be manipulated to

5. Calculate Estimated Micro Hydro Power Output

represent the flows present in high-head feeder streams

6. Compare to Existing Energy Usage

conditions

● All penstock piping consists of PVC pipe

● Transmission losses are negligible over 1 mile of wire or less

● GIS measurements and estimations are accurate to real-world

● The current state of Puerto Rico’s utility grid, which was already experiencing frequent blackouts before Hurricane Maria, presents a good opportunity for an energy distribution overhaul

● Tentative analyses show a huge amount of potential for micro hydro power in Puerto Rico, particularly in the mountainous and isolated inland regions. This suggests that similar success could be had in other, geographically similar Caribbean islands

● Given the price of electricity on islands powered by fossil fuels, the significant return on investment demonstrated in this example indicates a solid incentive to further investigate the potential for micro hydro power in the Caribbean

Investigation of Coco pith in Bioretention for Treatment of Nutrients (Nitrogen) from Stormwater Runoff AUTHOR: Rezwan Ali ADVISOR: Thomas Ballestero

Investigation of Coco pith in Bioretention for treatment of nutrients (nitrogen) Nutrients are the key to plant growth From Storm water Runoff however excessive nutrients is bad Rezwan Ali, Mentor: Dr. Thomas P. Ballestero for the environment and can cause Eutrophication. Eutrophication causes excessive growth and decay of plants that directly affects the water quality and the marine habitat. One of the largest causes of excessive nutrients in the water is stormwater runoff, which washes away nutrients from human habitat to surface water sources. In order to remove nitrogen and other nutrients from water, low impact developments like Bioretention must be designed. Different soil media has been used in Bioretention to effectively remove nitrogen from runoff and it showed productive results. New media cocopith has been proposed to use in Bioretention to make it more efficient. Cocopith has a high level of nitrogen leaching, and a great water holding capacity. For this experiment, a vertical column study was conducted. Cocopith was added with different ratio of Bioretention soil in each column and influent with a known concentration of Nitrate was run through the column. Effluent was then collected and tested to see whether any nitrate was removed from the water by the media. From the data analysis it appeared that cocopith increased the efficiency of columns with mixed media to remove Nitrogen (nitrate) by an average of 20.3%. Department of Civil end Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH

Introduction:

Nutrients are the key to plant growth. However, excessive nutrients can be bad for the environment and can cause eutrophication in water bodies. Eutrophication is the excessive growth and decay of plants which in turn directly affects the water quality and aquatic habitat. One of the largest causes of excessive nutrients in receiving water is stormwater runoff, which washes away nutrients from human habitat to surface water sources. In order to remove nitrogen and other nutrients from water, green infrastructure, like bioretention systems, must be designed and implemented. To remove nitrogen, green infrastructure systems typically have pools of water in them with very low oxygen levels. This component may be challenging to include at many sites, and therefore an alternative would be helpful. Different soil media have been used in bioretention systems to effectively remove phosphorus from runoff, however none to date have been reported in peer-reviewed literature, that remove nitrogen. Recently at stormwater conferences, coco pith was proposed to be used in bioretention systems for nitrogen removal.

Cocopith :

Methods: A column study was conducted to study the nitrogen removal characteristics of coco pith mixed into bioretention soil media Preparing columns

• A vertical column study was conducted.

• Total 9 columns, each representing different amounts of coco pith and bioretention soil

Step 1: Shred the cocopith into small pieces

Step 2: Mix cocopith with the bioretention soil

Future Work:

Next step for this project will be testing for how long it can perform before getting exhausted and needing to be replaced. Then coco pith will be used in an actual bioretention systems which will be monitored to see how it performs throughout different seasons and whether vegetation can grow on it.

• 1L of inflow solutions of a known nitrate Step 3: Fill the columns concentration was run with the mixture through each of the columns with a retention time about 8-12 hours. • Effluent was collected from each column and sent to a water analysis laboratory for analysis

A typical bioretention system

% Cocopith in each columns

Data Analysis:

Vertical columns

Results:

Samples are analyzed for the following compounds: • Nitrate (NO3-), Method: Colorimetric EPA # 353.2

Cocopith is the outside layer that surrounds the shell of the coconut. It is mainly made of fibers. These fibers are commonly used to manufacture rope, carpets, doormats, upholstery stuffing, brushes, and erosion control products. Coco pith has a great water holding capacity. It also has a consistent uniform texture composed of millions of capillary micro-sponges that absorb and hold up to eight times their weight in water and nutrients

• Data results (influent and effluent concentrations) was converted to nitrogen removal: (Cin – Cout)/Cin. • Next the nitrogen removal of columns were determined. Any removal attributed to the controls were subtracted from the coco pith column removal in order to isolate the nitrogen removal. Regression was employed to determine if there is a relation between coco pith percent and nitrogen removal

Hypothesis:

Cocopith can increase nitrogen removal efficiency of a bioretention from stormwater runoff

% Cocopith vs % efficiency

Cross-sectional area of a bioretention system

References:

Column efficiency for all 9 columns

Based on the results from the data analysis it appears that Cocopith has the ability to remove nitrogen from the stormwater runoff. Adding 5 to 50 percent cocopith in the Bioretention system as a soil media can make the system about 20% (average) more efficient in removing nitrogen from the stormwater. There is a positive correlation between %cocopith and %efficiency of the Bioretention system

Erickson, A. J., Gulliver, J. S., & Weiss, P. T. (2007). Enhanced sand filtration for storm water phosphorus removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 133(5), 485-497. Morgan, J., Hozalski, R. M., & Gulliver, J. S. When Do We Need to Replace Bioretention Media? Water Environment Federation and the American Society of Civil Engineers (W.E.F. and A.S.C.E), 1998. University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC), (2009). Biennial Report - 2009. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH. University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC), (2012). Biennial Report - 2012. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH. Mitsch, W. J., and Gosselink, J. G. (2000). "The value of wetlands: importance of scale and landscape setting." Ecological Economics, 35(1), 25-33. Mitsch, W. J.,and Gosselink, J. G. (2000). Wetlands, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iulia Barbu,(2014) Investigation of Bioretention Soil Media and Amendments for Treatment of Nutrients from Stormwater Runoff, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH. "At the Forefront of Bioretention Media Specifications: An Interview with Curtis Hinman." Interview by Nathalie Shanstrom. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE. N.p., 26 Jan. 2015. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

www.PosterPresentations.com

Winning Project

2018

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 34

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INNOVATION & RESEARCH

Analyzing the Potential for Power Grid Resilience in Caribbean Nations Using Micro Hydro Power


West Palm Beach Tower Crane Collapse AUTHORS: Rachel Blandford Connor Brennan Samantha Doyle Christopher Wong

A tower crane collapsed in West Palm Beach, FL on October 24th, 2005. The crane collapsed under the 101 mph winds from Hurricane Wilma. A virtual site visit was conducted and key areas of failure were found. The critical points of the structure that were investigated include: the anchor bolts, the northwest column, and the diagonal braces. The challenge was to decipher the failures that caused the collapse and the failures that occurred upon impact.

The initial point of failure was determined by comparing the Ru/Rn values of each critical location. Failure occurred when the demand exceeded 100% of the capacity. Since the ratio for multiple members was greater than 1, the highest ratio would indicate the most likely initial failure.

NW Column

Upon investigation, it was found that the northwest column of the crane buckled. The buckling capacity of the column was calculated using the material and geometric properties of the steel column.

Demand (kips)

Capacity (kips)

Ru/Rn

Anchor Bolt

331

237

1.399

1466

1062

1.381

32.6

96.7

0.337

Diagonal Brace

Through further analysis using P-delta affects, the results show that the Ru/Rn for the bolts and the column are of almost equal magnitude. This shows that they may have failed simultaneously.

Anchor Bolts

The anchor bolts at the base of the columns failed in tension, specifically in cone-cup failure. The tension demand was compared to the tensile capacity of the grade M490 anchor bolts. The failure of each anchor bolt occurred at the area of smaller diameter.

Load Calculations

Research Tower Cranes

The forces used for analysis include: •wind on tower •wind on the turntable = 10.01 kips •wind on the cab = 2.05 kips •wind on the apex = 6.29 kips

Site Visit

Calculate Wind Load

Most likely failure sequence:

 Tension failure at the Southwest column bolts  Northwest Column buckling failure  Collapse of the entire structure  Impacted a building adjacent to the construction site.  Counterweights most likely detached from the jib as the crane fell and landed in the grassy area to the north of the crane foundation.

Model Crane in SAP2000 Calculated Capacity (Rn)

Diagonal Brace

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Zachary Chabot, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger

Failure Mode

Northwest Column

Calculated Demand (Ru)

The diagonal brace buckling was investigated as the initial failure, which would have reduced the capacity of the column. The buckling capacity of the round, hollow, brace was calculated using the material properties.

The tensile failure of the bolts increased the load on the northwest column. This would have caused the structure to move out of plumb and increase the compressive load within the column. The increased load would have resulted in the buckling of the NW column, which is compatible with the theory that the anchor bolts failed first.

Calculated Ru/Rn

SAP2000 Model

A model was created for this project as a second form of analysis of the demand on the members of the crane. The axial load in the braces was determined using the model. The demands on the anchor rods and the NW column were calculated by hand and checked using the model.

References

American Institute of Steel Construction, Steel Construction Manual, 14th Edition, Chicago, 2011 ASCE, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI 7-10, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2010 “Hurricane Wilma.” National Weather Service, US Department of Commerce, 30 Oct. 2005, www.weather.gov/mfl/wilma.

Acknowledgements Zachary Chabot, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Dr. Raymond Cook, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at UNH Dr. Ricardo Medina, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at UNH Shokoufeh Zargar, Doctoral Student, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at UNH

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!""#$%&'("')(*%+',"-.$/0',&+'.0'1(-%2/03'4#5#0%'4(0$-#%# Regions of South Africa produce a significant amount of fly and bottom ash from coal-burning power plants. ?",()6,("!"#$%&''()&*+,%&-.,/*0&'12,'*)'3*!1%(-.*4(#& Currently, the unprocessed coal ash is sitting in large piles at power plants all over South Africa. Over the past decade, South Africa has been looking into more beneficial uses of this abundant product. D(E&*!8;2&*9''&''#&-,*BD!9C*0&'12,' +;6--(-.*A2&;,%"-*?(;%"';"$8*B+A?C*0&'12,' To add to this research, the University of New Hampshire has partnered with the 5/8*('*728*9'/*G'&>*(-*!"-;%&,&: University of Johannesburg to explore the possibility of recycling South African !"-;21'("-' ?&,/">"2".8 fly ash into everyday construction A-&%.8*F('$&%'()&*+$&;,%"';"$8*BAF+C*0&'12,' practices. In the United States and South Africa, processed fly ash is used as a pozzolanic substitute for cement to 9;<-"=2&>.&#&-,' produce more cost-effective and stronger concrete structures. This research project evaluated a concrete mix with unprocessed South African fly ash in comparison to the common standard mix and processed fly ash concrete mixes. Project analyses included elemental evaluations, concrete mix design and proportioning, strength testing of multiple concrete specimens, design of structural elements, and finally life cycle assessments of each fly ash type. The unprocessed South African fly ash proved to be ineffective in the structural application that it was tested for, but other applications should be considered for an efficient use of this copious material. 45.051*%4#$$/16%273

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CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

FACULTY ADVISORS: Raymond Cook Ricardo Medina Shokoufeh Zargar

A forensic investigation was conducted West Palm Beach Tower Crane Collapse Rachel Blandford, Samantha Doyle, Connor Brennan, and Chris Wong Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire into the collapse of a tower crane in West Overview Forensic Process Results Palm Beach, Florida. The collapse occurred on October 24th, 2005, as category II Hurricane Wilma passed over Southern Florida with peak wind speeds of 101 mph. The objective was to determine the failure mode and the subsequent events that lead to the collapse of the structure. The team conducted a virtual site visit Conclusions to observe the collapsed tower crane. Hypotheses for the initial failure mode included: an increased coupling moment due to counterweight failure, tensile failure of the anchor rods, buckling of the Northwest column, and diagonal bracing failure. The critical points of failure were then investigated using structural analysis to evaluate the demand on each member with respect to its capacity. The demand-to-capacity ratio Ru/Rn for the anchor rods, the column, and the bracings were found to be 64%, 71% and 19%, respectively. If there was an additional moment induced by failure of the counterweights, the Ru/Rn was found to be 123% for the anchor rods and 120% for the column. The member with the highest Ru/Rn indicates the most likely initial point of failure.

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Quantitative Analysis of Gilman Pond Reservoir In 2016, 100 percent of New Hampshire Quantitative Analysis of Gilman Pond Reservoir University of New Hampshire experienced drought conditions and Location: Newport, NH left 19 percent of the state experiencing 3. Methods 2. Objectives extreme drought conditions from early 1. Background September to late October (NIDIS, 2018). During this time, small towns including 5. Solutions Newport NH, were having trouble with supplying adequate quantities of water to their citizens. For the last few years 4. Results 6. Summary Newport has had to periodically mandate a town-wide water ban due to their main water source, Gilman Pond, being unable to meet water demands during drought conditions. Although the water ban does not happen often, the town would like to avoid future bans. To help alleviate this problem the town reached out to the university for assistance in research efforts and requested our team to quantify the volume of water in the pond and to evaluate intake location alternatives. Last Fall, our team performed a bathymetric survey and found the pond contained more water than the town originally thought. We determined the pond volume to be approximately 430 million gallons and the existing intake location to be roughly only 6 feet below the surface. This leaves the town with access to only 13 percent of the total water in pond. The data collected allowed our team to propose possible solutions for the problem the town is currently facing. Group Members: Tyler Murray (project manager,) Michael Patrick, Josh Teixeira, Colter Krzcuik Advisor: Dr. Jim Malley Sponsor: Town of Newport, NH – Hunter Rieseberg, Town Manager Department of [Civil and Environmental Engineering,] University of New Hampshire

Newport, NH

Gilman Pond:

INDUSTRY SPONSOR: Hunter Rieseberg, Town of Newport, NH

Quantify volume of water and depths of Gilman Pond Determine the main source of the problem Propose different solutions that meet the towns needs Create a conservation plan for Gilman Pond

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ADVISOR: James Malley

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Civil and Environmental Engineering

• Gilman Pond is the main water supply for Newport, NH • Provides water to about 6,500 residents • Sufficient quantity of water has been a problem for the town which lead to mandated water bans • The town would like to avoid future bans

Materials Needed • 2 surveying rods, 2 GPS units, 4 kayaks & life jackets, safety boat, drone & GoPro, and scuba diver

Precautions Taken • EMT present, ambulance on site, life jackets worn, safety rescue boat

• Bathymetric data used to create an AutoCAD 3-D model • The 3-D model allowed us to find the volume of water in the pond (~430 million gallons) • Proposed 4 intake solutions to meet the towns demands • Created a preliminary conservation plan for Gilman Pond

Volume of pond is approximately 430 million gallons

Intake

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Acknowledgements

This poster is part of CEE 798 senior capstone project conducted by four students through the University of New Hampshire over the course of the 2017/2018 academic year. Special thanks to the town of Newport, Hunter Rieseberg, Larry Wiggins, Joe Attenhofer and Tony Puntin.

Winning Project

2018

Commercial Street Study: Arms Park Redevelopment AUTHORS: Torey Brooks Emily Casavant Scott Lister Steven Luchino ADVISOR: Ricardo Medina INDUSTRY SPONSOR: Liviu Sfintescu

The Manchester Connects Planning :455)-1%,#*;$-))$*;$"3BG*2-5(*6,-.*H)3)=)#4+5)/$ Initiative (MCPI) is in the process of !,/1@)($)-A*I)9*J,5+(@%-)* revitalizing the historic Amoskeag Mill Yard in Manchester, NH New Hampshire with the help of the City of Manchester (the City), SNHPCSouthern New Hampshire Planning Commission, local business leaders, and community members. Currently, many of the historic mill buildings along the Merrimack River have been refurbished into vibrant office spaces and are occupied by large and small businesses. The objective of this project is to design an inviting space that addresses the needs of the community within the area currently known as Arms Park and the adjacent surface parking lot. The three preliminary designs are proposed that address current parking issues while creating commercial, residential, and green space. The proposed plans solve current and future parking demand issues for the larger Mill Yard area, including reallocating parking spots on Commercial Street to allow for its future development into a Complete Street. Preliminary cost estimates for all three alternatives are explored and a breakdown of benefits and disadvantages for each alternative is presented. A general building phase plan for all three alternatives is explored to minimize disturbance to the community during construction. K4-)B*L-44.( E5%#B*:,(,=,/$ ;14$$*8%($);$)=)/*8"1@%/4

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INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 36

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

AUTHORS: Colter Krzcuik Tyler Murray Michael Patrick Joshua Teixeira


Appalachian Mountain Club Huts Sanitary Assessment AUTHORS: Ross Baker Austin Jennings Stacy Johnson Danielle Kalmbach Billy Kitchens

The Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) Appalachian Mountain Club Huts Sanitary Assessment huts located in the White Mountain National Forest require assessment due to potential sanitation and odor issues involving the existing water and wastewater disposal systems. Our team was tasked to evaluate the existing problems involving the drinking water and wastewater disposal systems for the Galehead and Greenleaf huts. In this assessment, our group focused on the organic solids and composting system, greywater pretreatment, and soil infiltration aspects at both huts while also considering alternatives for the current drinking water disinfection system. All of our proposed design alternatives will be compared with the Lakes of the Clouds design provided by the AMC. Since the huts are located in the mountains on restrictive sites, our designs be implemented given the terrain, groundwater characteristics, and capacity of the huts. The treatment alternatives will also be evaluated with a feasibility ranking system using input from the AMC team to ensure that the proposed systems are reliable, easy to operate and handle, reduce odor, and are cost effective for the AMC staff and management. Ross Baker, Danielle Kalmbach, Stacy Ann Johnson, Austin Jennings, and Billy Kitchens Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire

The Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) was founded in 1876 and oversees the maintenance and care of over 1800 miles of trails and 51 huts and lodges in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states. Their mission is the protection, enjoyment and understanding of the mountains, forests and trails. The AMC believes that the presence of their huts along the trails should have a net neutral impact. The huts are provided with running water and wastewater disposal. Guests are provided with a bunk for the night as well as a hot dinner and breakfast.

Galehead Hut

ADVISOR: Robin Collins

Project Objectives

Background

Greenleaf Hut

Problem Statement

AMC huts located in the White Mountain National Forest require assessment due to public complaints about sanitation and odor. This project will assess the current drinking water, greywater, and solid waste disposal systems at the Greenleaf and Galehead huts, and perform alternative designs for the current systems. A feasibility study will be performed and will include the system recommendations compared to the newly installed waste treatment system at the Lakes of the Clouds hut.

Current Systems

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

Current Greywater Process:

INDUSTRY SPONSORS: James Wrigley, AMC Manager Cynthia Klevens, NHDES

Current Compost System: • Clivus Multrum: large bin sloped chamber composting system. • Has internal ventilation fan to Current Drinking Water System: provide airflow • Manual chlorine disinfection • No cranking mechanism, all • Chlorine mixed in water storage tanks stirring of compost is done manually. • No leachate recycle capability, so all leachate must be stored or sent to septic. • No urine separation methods.

Current Wastewater Design Flows: • Galehead: 642 gal/day • Greenleaf: 757 gal/day

Clivus Compost System

Areas for Further Study

1. Explore better drinking water disinfection system, preferably automated dosing, that can be implemented in the huts. 2. Compare a designed composting system to the existing Lake of the Clouds design, and rank based on feasibility criteria. 3. Explore soil infiltration disposal methods of greywater including dry wells, leach fields, and evapotranspiration.

Proposed System Upgrades

Proposed Greywater Upgrades: • Sewage ejector pump to pump separated urine into the greywater system. • Add low profile grease traps to all kitchen sinks to increase grease removal and reduce maintenance of the 1000 gallon main grease trap. • Aeration of the second chamber of the main grease trap to reduce odors and increase the efficiency of the anthracite filters. • A siphon added before the anthracite filters to prevent the filters from remaining saturated and allow for settling time. Proposed Compost System: • Phoenix PF-201: two vertical chambers for both huts. • Low energy circulation fan (5-20 Watt/hr) that is vented through a chimney vent • Continuous air baffles along sides of the tank provide aeration. • Leachate can be pumped back to the top of the pile. • Has a mechanical crank to stir pile, and stirring can occur at different areas of the chamber. Bathroom upgrades: • For males, installing Sloan waterless urinals. • For females, the Separett Privy 501 seat separates the urine at the first stage.

Feasibility Study: Consider all possible wastewater disposal designs and compare those designs to the Lake of Clouds proposed design. Rank designs according to the feasibility criteria and the design will be chosen based on the rating system. A cost analysis will be performed for the selected treatment systems at both the Galehead and Greenleaf huts. Feasibility Ranking Criteria: Capital Cost 10% O+M Cost 10% Ease of Operation 18% Reliability 18% Expansion Potential 0% Residuals Handling 14% Odor Control 15% Seasonal Functionality 5% Ease of Construction 10%

Proposed Lakes of the Clouds Design: • Increasing septic tank capacity from 1,500 gal to 3,000 gal. • Installing new treatment system ahead of anthracite filters. • Two textile filters, recirculation tanks, and solar recirculation pump. • Removing half of the existing anthracite filter and keeping the other half as a polishing filter.

Typical Low Profile Grease Trap

Typical Siphon Installation

References

Phoenix Compost System

Proposed Drinking Water System: • Float-switch tank fill system • Automated chlorine dosing system • Komax CPS Static Inline Mixer for passive chlorine mixing

Regulations: United States. Environment Protection Agency. “Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual.” Epa.gov Office of Research and Development., February 2002. Web. 02 Oct. 2017. New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. “EnvWq 1000 Subdivisions; Individual Sewage Disposal Systems.” des.nh.gov New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules., 01 October 2016. Web. 02 Oct. 2017 Manuals: Proceptor GMC UPC Gravity Grease Interceptor. www.zurn.com. Accessed 15 October 2017. Online Sources “Commercial Composting Guide.” Environment and Sustainable Development. “Large Bin Composting Systems.” Cape Cod Eco-Toilet Center, 22 Mar. 2013, capecodecotoiletcenter.com/types-of-eco-toilets/composting-toilets/large-bin-compost-systems/. “Privy 501.” Separett, www.separett.eu/torrdass-501-eu. “Product Literature.” Phoenix Composting Toilets, www.compostingtoilet.com/?page_id=398.

Acknowledgements

Komax CPS Static Inline Mixer

Dr. Robin Collins, UNH Faculty; James Wrigley, AMC Manager; Cynthia Klevens, NHDES

Climate Ready Coastal Infrastructure AUTHORS: Hannah Bailey Jillian Fanelli Robert Paro Rebecca Rilling Shannon Stang Elise Thompson ADVISORS: Jennifer Jacobs INDUSTRY SPONSORS: Bri Benvenuti, Kate O'Brien, Susan Adamowicz, Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge Mike Livingston, Wells, ME Town Engineer

The increasing number of coastal storms, combined with rising sea levels is causing flooding throughout the seacoast. This flooding can be dangerous to residents, damage infrastructure, and impact natural ecosystems. Wells, ME is experiencing extreme flooding due to overwash during storms. The current seawall along Webhannet Dr. is insufficient in protecting the coast from waves and storm surge. The overwash runs down Eldridge Rd. and flows into trenches on either side. This, combined with the precipitation from storms, causes ponding on Eldridge Rd. Eldridge Rd. intersects a saltwater marsh and freshwater marsh. Initially, the freshwater marsh was made up of salt water until an increase in ponding resulted in the marsh’s transformation. To reduce the overwash, offshore wave-breaking technologies and alternative seawalls were designed. A stormwater system was proposed to drain the water from the roads and return it to the ocean. Finally, a new culvert design, a series of box culverts under Eldridge Rd., was proposed to improve water movement between the marshes in which would reduce the pooling alongside the road.

37 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Post-Closure of the Turnkey Landfill, TLR-II The purpose of this project is to Post-Closure of the Turnkey Landfill, TLR-II Team: Carolyn Lamb, Deanna Lambert, Maddison Ledoux, Matthew McGuire, Shannon Ruggieri (P.M.) establish a post closure design for the Project Project Advisor: Kevin Gardner second phase of the Turnkey Landfill in Rochester, NH. Waste Management owns and operates the Turnkey Landfill, accepting municipal solid waste but no hazardous waste since 1979. This project focuses on the closure of one part of the landfill that was capped. The client, Waste ADVISOR: Management, expressed a preference to Kevin Gardner utilize the space to develop a solar farm, and this project focuses on the design considerations to achieve this. A solar farm provides a way to offset costs or generate revenue for the 50-acre site. The suggested solar array design will cover 7.8-acres of the site, with hope of optimizing the total workable area to achieve a maximum power production of 1 megawatt. The design includes approximately 3,000 solar modules that are placed on the landfill using concrete ballasts that do not penetrate the soil or the cap. Honorable Mention Each of the ballasts exerts less than 5 pounds per square inch onto the soil, and in return, the soil is able to withstand greater than this value. This ensures negligible settling due to the increased weight. Recommended Site Layout

Project Background

Solar Design

Purpose To establish a beneficial post closure design for the second phase (TLR-II) of the Turnkey Landfill.

Goals â&#x20AC;˘ Generate power needed to power 6 leachate pumps, at a minimum. â&#x20AC;˘ Optimize site area to create up to 1 megawatt of power. â&#x20AC;˘ Remain grid-tied, powered by Eversource. â&#x20AC;˘ Implement net metering to offset the cost of energy up taken by the panels. Recommendations â&#x20AC;˘ Two 500 kw grid tie inverters: Solectria SGI-480VAC series. â&#x20AC;˘ Seraphim Solar 360 watt solar panel. â&#x20AC;˘ 3,030 panels placed with an AC/DC ratio of 1.09. â&#x20AC;˘ Panels angled at a 30 degrees facing south. Tools â&#x20AC;˘ Yaskawa Solectria Solarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s String Sizing Tool and AltE Store.

â&#x20AC;˘ Located in Rochester and accepts waste from all of the surrounding towns, including the University of New Hampshire. â&#x20AC;˘ TLR-II is 50 acres. â&#x20AC;˘ Owned by Waste Management of New Hampshire, which is working with Sanborn, Head & Associates.

Figure 1: Current Site

Inverter House

TLR-II

Scope of Work

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Panels

Figure 8: Site Layout

Research rules, regulations and permitting for post closure use. Perform an alternatives analysis to determine the proposed post closure plan. Develop a conceptual and preliminary solar design. Conduct geotechnical calculations. Propose a site layout. Develop total cost estimate of project and operation and maintenance costs.

Figure 2: Solar Panel Mounting Structure

Factors Public Safety Cost Revenue Green Space Stormwater Management Operation & Maintenance Life Span Sustainability Ease of Construction Aesthetics

7 9 11 1 5 8 3 4 10 6

Public Park

149

Dog Park

186

Solar Field

189

Golf Course

136

Solar Panel Installation

9%

Notes: â&#x20AC;˘ Factor of Safety for dead weight = 0.9. â&#x20AC;˘ Factor of Safety for volume of concrete = 1.2. â&#x20AC;˘ Used uplift pressure of 20 psf. â&#x20AC;˘ Determines volume of concrete and dimensions of footings.

Figure 5: Uplift on Solar Panel

Capital Costs Solar Panel $2,950,000.00 Installation Concrete Ballasts $143,000.00 Mounting Structures $329,000.00 Fencing $58,000.00 Total $3,480,000.00

2%

4%

đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?

Concrete Ballasts

Table 4: Annual Costs and Funding

Mounting Structures

Annual Costs and Funding

State & Federal Tax Credits

Fencing

85%

đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  = %đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  â&#x2C6;&#x2014; (đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; %đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; â&#x2C6;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122;đ?&#x2018;&#x2122; ) đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą = đ??żđ??ż â&#x2C6;&#x2014; cos 30° â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  + (đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? + đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ) đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą /đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  = đ??żđ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;

Notes: â&#x20AC;˘ Adjusted Snow Load for Rochester, NH. â&#x20AC;˘ 70 psf at an elevation of 500 ft. â&#x20AC;˘ Determines loading of footings.

Matthew McGuire, mdm2007@wildcats.unh.edu Shannon Ruggieri (P.M.), smr2001@wildcats.unh.edu

Figure 6: Snow Load on Solar Panel

References

Equations Used:

đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ = đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? + đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17E; + 0.5đ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;ž đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x203A;žđ?&#x203A;ž đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘đ?&#x2018;˘ đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17E;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; = đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š

Assumptions and Notes: â&#x20AC;˘ silty sand with gravel, Îł = 56 lbs/ft². â&#x20AC;˘ cohesion = 0 & surcharge = 0. â&#x20AC;˘ Factor of Safety = 3. â&#x20AC;˘ Shape Factor = 30°, determines N values. â&#x20AC;˘ s values are determined by shape of ballast.

Figure 7: Cover System

$10,000

Solar Panel Annual Revenue Operation & Maintenance

$19,000

($15,000)

Net Revenue

Equations Used:

Factor ranks were based on individual opinion in group. Alternative final score were based on entire group opinion.

ACI Committee 318. (2011). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary. Farmington Hills: American Concrete Institute. Alliance for Sustainable Energy,LLC. (2018, March 29). PVWatts Calculator. Retrieved from National Renewable Energy Laboratory: http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/pvwatts.php Alternative Energy Store Inc. (2018, March 29). Seraphim Solar USA Solar Panels. Retrieved from altE store: https://www.altestore.com/store/solar-panels/seraphim-solar-panelsp40805/#SEP360SRP3606MA Alternative Energy Store Inc. (2018, March 29). Solectria SGI 500-480VAC 500kW Grid Tie Inverter. Retrieved from altE store: https://www.altestore.com/store/inverters/grid-tie-inverters/8kwand-commercialgrid-tie-inverters/solectria-sgi-500-480vac-500kw-grid-tie-inverter-p9084/ American Society of Civil Engineers. (2002). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers. Benoit, J. (2018, March 27). Soil Bearing Calculations. (M. McGuire, & S. Ruggieri, Interviewers) Bowles, J. E. (2018). Foundation Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition. In J. E. Bowles, Foundation Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition (pp. 213-249). Peoria: McGraw-Hill International Book Company. CAI Technologies. (2018, April 5). Rochester, NH. Retrieved from AxisGIS: https://www.axisgis.com/rochesternh/ Cook, R. (2018, March 29). Concrete Ballast Design. (M. McGuire, & S. Ruggieri, Interviewers) Free Clean Solar. (2018, April 13). Schelleter Heavy Load Ballasted Ground Mounting Kit 6 Panels 159003-001. Retrieved from Free Clean Solar: http://www.freecleansolar.com/Schletter-Heavy-Load-Ballast-Ground-Mount-6Panel-p/159003-001.htm?gclid=Cj0KCQjwqsHWBRDsARIsALPWMENIE2VSjSLOWepZpVJmY7yGHFX9jjGAQU8y-oeAOtoktCydJJN2x3waAh9gEALw_wcB Fu, R., Feldman, D., Margolis, R., Woodhouse, M., & Ardani, K. (2017). U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Mitchell, C. (2018, March 27). (M. Ledoux, C. Lamb, & D. Lambert, Interviewers) Mitchell, C. (2018, April 2). Solar Panel Desgin and Site Layout. (M. Ledoux, C. Lamb, D. Lambert, M. McGuire, & S. Ruggieri, Interviewers) Seabury, C. (2018, April 2). How property taxes are calculated. Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/tax/09/calculate-property-tax.asp Solectria. (2018, March 28). PV System Builder Rev 3.12. Retrieved from Solectria String Sizing: http://stringsizing.solectria.com/PVBuilderProd/PVBuilder/PVBuilder3.php Stucker, K. (2018, April 2). Reassessment creates decrease in Rochester's tax rate. Retrieved from Fosters: http://www.fosters.com/news/20171130/reassessment-creates-decrease-in-rochesters-tax-rate Terzaghi, K., Peck, R. B., & Mesri, G. (1996). Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Third Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Tobiasson, W., Buska, J., Greatorex, A., Johnson, S., Fisher, J., & Tirey, J. (202). Ground Snow Loads for New Hampshire. Hanover: US Army Corps of Engineers: Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory. Waste Management. (2017, October 27). Company Profile. Retrieved from Waste Management Solutions: http://www.wm.com/about/company-profile/index.jsp Waste Management. (2017, October 15). Turnkey Landfill. Retrieved from Waste Management Solutions: https://www.wmsolutions.com/locations/details/id/9

Table 3: Capital Cost Values

Capital Costs

đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; = đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; 0.5 â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ??żđ??ż â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; cos 30° â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 0.9 â&#x2C6;&#x2014; (đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? + đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;  ) đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = â&#x2C6;&#x2014; 1.2 0.9 â&#x2C6;&#x2014; đ?&#x153;&#x152;đ?&#x153;&#x152;

Contact Information

Carolyn Lamb, cfl2000@wildcats.unh.edu Deanna Lambert, dl2008@wildcats.unh.edu Maddison Ledoux, mrl2006@wildcats.unh.edu

Cost & Funding

Equations Used:

Table 2: Alternatives with Final Scores Alternatives Final Score

Rank of Importance

Figure 4: Selected Solar Panel

Concrete Ballast Design & Geotechnical Analysis

Alternative Analysis

Table 1: Factors and Ranking of Importance

Figure 3: Selected Inverter

Figure 9: Capital Cost Percentage Breakdown

$14,000

Note: Red values are annual payout costs and black values are annual revenue from funding and energy generation.

Recommendations

Table 5: Ballast Design

â&#x20AC;˘ 3,030 panels at a 30° angle and 2 500 kW inverters, enclosed in fencing. Concrete Ballast Footing Design â&#x20AC;˘ Precast Portland cement (type I or II) Footing length 5.75 feet concrete ballasts. 1.25 feet â&#x20AC;˘ One layer of #11 rebar every 12 inches. Footing width Footing height 1.25 feet â&#x20AC;˘ 6% air by volume to prevent freeze thaw attack. Acknowledgements

Eddie Galvin, P.E. & Project Sponsor at Sanborn, Head, and Associates Lisa Damiano, P.E. & Project Sponsor at Sanborn, Head, and Associates Anne Reichert, P.E. at Waste Management of New Hampshire, NH Dr. Clay Mitchell, Lecturer for the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment Dr. Jean Benoit, Professor for the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dr. Raymond Cook, Associate Professor for the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Project

2018

West Falmouth, ME Neighborhood Plan AUTHORS: Carolyn Bates Scott Beattie Adam Cebulski Kyle Parks-Damon Kevin Poulin Brian Veazey

The objective of this project is to provide West Falmouth, ME Neighborhood Plan a mixed-use development plan for an 80-acre site, located in West Falmouth, Maine. Located in southwestern Maine, north of the City of Portland, this town is considered an important suburb and asset to the metropolitan area of Portland. The Town of Falmouth requested that development provides diverse, affordable housing while maintaining the rural character by conserving open space. To achieve this request, the chosen plan consisted of a low-density mixture of single and multifamily homes, commercial space, and mixed-use buildings. This plan utilized guidance from several town documents, such as the Falmouth Comprehensive Plan, Falmouth Four Step Design Process for Subdivisions, and several others. After the plan was developed, several analyses were conducted to determine the impact of this development on the town. These analyses investigated the effects of increased traffic volumes in the area, sewage treatment demands, stormwater best management practices, and demand on town resources. These analyses would be used to address any concerns that the townspeople may have regarding this development. As a result, a plan was developed for a sustainable, economical, and neighbor-oriented solution for the community. Carolyn Bates, Scott Beattie, Adam Cebulski, Kyle Parks-Damon, Kevin Poulin, Brian Veazey Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jean BenoĂŽt Project Sponsor: Mark Debowski Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Traffic Impact Analysis

Boundary Plan

Introduction

The Town of Falmouth is located in southwestern Maine, north of the City of Portland, while also bordering the Casco Bay. It is home to a population of over 11,000 people (at the 2010 census) and is considered an important suburb and asset to the Maine metropolitan area of Portland. West Falmouth is identified as the more rural part of Falmouth, with less commercial development and lower residential densities. However, despite this notion, this area of West Falmouth shows great potential for commercial, residential, and mixed-use expansion. Due to the close proximity to Portland and the business district of Falmouth, this area of development also shows great potential for social and economic growth.

Gray Road/Route 100 is a two lane urban minor arterial road that connects the town of Cumberland to the north and the Falmouth urban core to the south. It has an Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) of approximately 10,000 trips divided between north and south. The 9th Edition ITE Trip Generation Manual was used to determine the proposed volume of trips (T), as well as the percentage of entrance-to-exit traffic experienced at the AM & PM adjacent street traffic for the peak hours between 7-9 AM and 4-6 PM. Time Total Trips % Enter % Exit Enter Grey Road South Enter Grey Road Middle Enter Grey Road North

Existing Site & Location

Project Location

42.5 57.5 24 T 18 T 14 T

AM Peak Hour 132 T Total Enter Total Exit Exit Grey Road South Exit Grey Road Middle Exit Grey Road North

Time Total Trips % Enter % Exit Enter Grey Road South Enter Grey Road Middle Enter Grey 18 T Road North

PM Peak Hour 190 T Total Enter 121 T Total Exit 69 T Exit Grey 30 T Road South Exit Grey 22 T Road Middle Exit Grey 30 T 17 T Road North

56 T 76 T

63.7 36.3

33 T

52 T

25 T

39 T

Left-Turn Bay Determination: NHCRP 457 warrant satisfied for all, left turn treatment required.

Right-Turn Bay Determination: NHCRP 457 warrant not satisfied for all, no right turn treatment required.

Projected Sewer Layout & Sewer Capacity Analysis

Existing Site (Courtesy of Stantec)

The area under consideration is approximately 80 acres. It was considered that land owners who possessed more than 3 acres would be interested in development.

Build Construction Phasing

Objectives

PROJECT SPONSOR: Mark Debowski

Mill Road Leighton Road Projected Sewer Layout & Sewer Capacity 196 Analysis 196

Sewer Generation & Capacity Summary (gpm) Pump Station Capacity Current Sewer Flow Total Future Flow* Future Flow w/ Full Buildout Present Flows, Homestead Acres, and Concept 3B/3C Buildout

Site Soil, Drainage, & Rainfall Characteristics

Soil Characteristics of West Falmouth Neighborhood Site Map Unit Typical Depth to Map Unit Name Acres % of Site HSG Symbol Water Table BuB Lamoine silt loam, 3 to 8 % slopes 20.5 33.3% â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 6 to 17" C/D SuE2 Suffield silt loam, 25 to 45 % slopes, eroded 19.1 31.0% â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 18 to 30" C SuC2 Suffield silt loam, 8 to 15 % slopes, eroded 8.7 14.1% â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 18 to 30" C HnD Hinckley-Suffield complex, 15 to 25 % slopes 6.2 10.1% > 80"/â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 18 to 30" A/C HlC Hinckley loamy sand, 8 to 15 % slopes 3.9 6.3% > 80" A HfB Hartland very fine sandy loam, 3 to 8 % slopes 1.9 3.1% > 80" B BgB Belgrade very fine sandy loam, 0 to 8 % slopes 1.0 1.6% â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 18 to 30" B HlD Hinckley loamy sand, 15 to 25 % slopes 0.3 0.5% > 80" A Totals for Area of Interest 61.6 100.00%

Dwellings Possible Before Full Capacity is Reached *Not Including 3B/3C Buildout or Homestead Acres

Natural Drainage Class

Somewhat Poorly Drained Moderately Well Drained Moderately Well Drained Excessively Drained Excessively Drained Well Drained Moderately Well Drained Excessively Drained

24 Hour Rainfall Depths 10, 25, 50, & 100 Year Storms Return Period (years) 10 25 50 100 Rainfall Depth (inches) 5.01 6.12 6.98 7.83

Development Plan

% 19.4 6.2 4.5 3.3 47.9 18.8 100.0

Development Plan

$60,000,000 $50,000,000 $40,000,000

Projected Total Revenue Projected Total Cost

$30,000,000 $20,000,000 $10,000,000 $0

Composition of Land Use Types

19%

48%

Mixed Use

Commercial Open Space

Right of Way

2020 $40,414,169 $42,654,595 $2,240,427 2021 2021 $42,018,030 $45,487,619 $3,469,589 2022 2022 $43,509,337 $47,643,714 $4,134,377 2023 2023 $45,000,643 $49,509,214 $4,508,571 2024

Village Mixed-Use Zone Regulations

Multi-Family

6% 5% 3%

365

Projected School Enrollment Build Phase Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Student Increase 36 113 57 Cost per Student $14,140 $14,780 $15,420

School Year

Single Family

19%

24 200 233 57

287

Projected Falmouth Budget School Projected Projected Projected Year Total Revenue Total Costs Deficit 2019 $38,468,877 $38,696,857 $227,980 2020

Land Use Composition & Areas

Village Mixed Use Concept #3 Land Use Type # Lots Sq. Ft. Acres Avg. Lot Size (Acres) Single Family 42 521,176 11.96 0.28 Multi-Family 10 165,121 3.79 0.38 Mixed Use 3 120,394 2.76 0.92 Commercial 1 87,420 2.01 2.01 Open Space 0 1,283,519 29.47 Right of Way 0 503,872 11.57 Total 56 2,681,503 61.56

60 204 231 87

Town/School Impact Analysis

Falmouth, Maine Budget

Cost ($)

FACULTY ADVISOR: Jean Benoit

â&#x20AC;˘ The objective of this project is to provide a mixed-use development plan conforming to the Village Mixed-Use (VMU) zone standards of Falmouth. â&#x20AC;˘ Provide diverse and affordable housing while maintaining the rural character by conserving open space. â&#x20AC;˘ Utilize guidance from several town documents; such as the Falmouth Comprehensive Plan, Falmouth Four Step Design Process for Subdivisions, and several others. â&#x20AC;˘ Perform a Traffic Impact Analysis. â&#x20AC;˘ Perform a Sewer Capacity Analysis. â&#x20AC;˘ Perform a Storm water management BMP evaluation as well as site soil & drainage characteristics. â&#x20AC;˘ Perform a Town/School Impact Analysis.

Min. Lot Min. Lot Max. Lot Area (Sq. Ft) Width (Ft) Coverage (%) N/A

150

35

Min. Setbacks (Ft)

Min. net residential area

Front

Side

Rear

25

15

15

per dwelling unit (Sq.Ft) 10,000 Sq. Ft. w/ Sewer 20,000 Sq. Ft. w/o Sewer

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 38

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

AUTHORS: Carolyn Lamb Deanna Lambert Maddison Ledoux Matthew McGuire Shannon Ruggieri


Noanet Pond Dam Rehabilitation AUTHORS: Tessa Artruc Abraham DeMaio Alex Morrell Matthew Turner Jacob Valinski FACULTY ADVISOR: Kevin Gardner

Noanet Pond Dam Rehabilitation Noanet Pond Dam, a 55- year old dam  located in Westwood Massachusetts, has Recommendations Background Analyses been slowly deteriorating over time. This deterioration has lead to the dam being rated as in “Poor” condition and is now threatening operation of the recreational reservoir created by the dam. To address concerns, the owner of the dam, Hale Reservation, has hired Sanborn, Head and Associates, Incorporated to assess vegetation, Current Issues seepage, slope stability, structural, and operational issues associated with the primary spillway and low-level outlet  of the dam.  Members of the Conclusions project team worked with Sanborn, Head and Associates to analyze Acknowledgements: existing dam conditions and provide recommendations of repairs necessary to bring the dam into compliance with the Department of Conservation, Office of Dam Safety requirements to meet a “Good” rating.  Jacob Valinski, Tessa Artruc, Abraham DeMaio, Alex Morrell, Matthew Turner Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Hampshire

Seepage • Add a toe drain composed of rock fill • Install monitoring instrumentation Slope Stability • Add 1 foot thick fill shelf to increase overall factor of safety

The Noanet Pond Dam is an earthen dam that impounds Noanet Pond in Hydrologic Westwood, Massachusetts. The dam and pond are owned and maintained by the Hale Reservation. The reservation provides outdoor recreational opportunities for the Greater Boston area. Noanet Dam was designed by the United States Soil Conservation Service in 1962 and constructed in 1963. It measures approximately 700’ long, 18’ high, and 13’ wide at the crest. Noanet Pond is a 50-acre body of water fed by Powissett Brook and another small, unnamed brook. These brooks are part of the pond’s 0.82 square mile drainage area. The dam is classified as intermediate size by the MA Office of Dam Safety (ODS) due to its height impoundment volume (150 acre-ft) and height. The ODS also classifies the dam as Hydraulic a significant hazard based on potential loss of life and property in the event of dam failure.

Low Level Outlet • Riprap installation to prevent debris buildup in the inlet • Exercise current wedge gate at least twice a year to maintain proper operation

Seepage

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Luke Norton, Sanborn, Head & Associates

Safety rating from Massachusetts Department of Conservation is “Poor” Several locations of erosion on the embankment Seepage near the toe of the dam Severely corroded principal spillway outlet pipe Sediment buildup due to erosion of low-level outlet headwall Downstream Upstream

Principal Spillway • Maintain to avoid sediment and debris buildup • Reline outlet pipe through slip-lining or spiral wound liner Emergency Spillway • Add crushed stone to current ruts and prevent further rutting

• • •

Recommendations would bring the dam’s current condition rating from “poor” to “good”, complying with regulations stated in Phase 1 Formal Dam Inspection report provided by Massachusetts Office of Dam Safety. Based on the results of the hydraulic analysis, the dam could safely pass the spillway design flood. Slope stability and seepage remediation would provide an adequate factor of safety for multiple worst case scenarios.

Professor Kevin Gardner, Luke Norton, and Sanborn, Head & Associates

Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project AUTHORS: Ashleigh Gilchrist Rachel Hastings Alexandria Hidrovo Sean Horigan Christian Rodriguez Timothy Sommer FACULTY ADVISOR: Nancy Kinner INDUSTRY SPONSOR: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner

The purpose of the Georgetown, ME Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project Culvert Analysis Project is to continue adding measurements and flow Analysis Abstract Field Work / Methods capacity analyses to the town’s current culvert inventory. This research and analysis project was started in 2014 by a UNH Senior Project group and is continued now with Georgetown Road Background Commissioner Charlie Collins as primary client and UNH professor Dr. Nancy Kinner, faculty advisor. If functioning properly, culverts allow precipitation Challenges runoff to pass under roads, minimizing flooding or washout potential. The team References surveyed 60+ culverts on Robinhood, Preliminary Conclusions Project Purpose and Objectives Indian Point, and Five Islands Road. Tasks Acknowledgments included locating culverts, obtaining GPS coordinates of each culvert, and recording and measuring culvert characteristics. These characteristics include construction material, shape, end/edge type, geometry, inlet/outlet elevations, the downstream slope and tailwater cross-section profile. At culverts affected by the tide, the team obtained the mean high-high water for the area using water levels at the time of observation, rock staining, and NOAA data. Photographs were taken at each culvert for marking in the town’s inventory. After obtaining this data, the team used the Excel modeling tool Streamworks for analysis. Streamworks reports whether a culvert passes flow during storm events.

39 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Ashleigh Gilchrist, Rachel Hastings, Alexandria Hidrovo, Sean Horigan, Christian Rodriguez, Timothy Sommer Client: Charlie Collins, Georgetown Road Commissioner Advisor: Dr. Nancy Kinner Assisting Consultant: Joel Ballestero

The purpose of the Georgetown, ME Culvert Analysis Project is to continue adding measurements and flow capacity analyses to the town’s current culvert inventory. This research and analysis project was started in 2014 by a UNH Senior Project group and is continued now with Georgetown Road Commissioner Charlie Collins as primary client and UNH professor Dr. Nancy Kinner, faculty advisor. If functioning properly, culverts allow precipitation runoff to pass under roads, minimizing flooding or washout potential. The team surveyed 60+ culverts on Robinhood Road, Indian Point Road, and Five Islands Road. Tasks included locating culverts, obtaining GPS coordinates of each culvert, and measuring and/or recording culvert characteristics. These characteristics include material, shape, end/edge type, geometry, inlet/outlet elevations, the downstream slope and tailwater crosssection profile. At culverts affected by the tide, the team obtained the mean high-high water for the area using water levels at the time of observation, rock staining, and NOAA data. Photographs were taken at each culvert for the town’s inventory. After obtaining this data, the team used the Excel modeling tool Streamworks for analysis. Streamworks reports whether a culvert passes flow during storm events.

• Georgetown is a rural island in southern Maine • Year round population is about 1000, which triples in the summer due to the island’s coastal location • There are approximately 200+ culverts on the island • This project focused on the 60+ culverts on Robinhood Road, Five Islands Road and Indian Point Road

Data collected for each culvert: • Composition • Rise and span of culvert inlet and • Diameter outlet • GPS coordinates • Relative elevation measurements • Culvert length • Photos

Culvert GIS Model: • Data Requirements ▪ Digital Elevation Model (DEM) - 1m resolution ▪ Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database ▪ Maine Land Cover Assessment ▪ ME DOT road network ▪ 30-year normal- precipitation ▪ Rainfall data for interval storms: 2-10-25-50-100-year rainfall ▪ Wetlands, ponds, and lakes from National Wetlands Inventory • Software requirements ▪ ArcGIS (with Spatial Analyst) ▪ ArcHydro tools ▪ HEC-GeoHMS

100-year 50-year 25-year

Update and expand Georgetown’s existing culvert database Collect measurements on culvert characteristics Determine hydraulic capacities for the nth-year storm events Analyze culverts to minimize road flooding Develop GIS model specific to Georgetown, ME

Currently updating previous analyses using the GIS model Focus on the validation of the model Determine a more direct method to assess tidal culverts Prioritize road upgrades (resizing culverts) based on the model results Straightforward instructions for volunteers to document culvert performance during storms

Pass

2-year

Streamworks: • Enter data collected from each culvert • Enter data produced by GIS model

• • • • •

Transitional

10-year

FI-2

FI-3

FI-4

FI-6

FI-7

FI-8

FI-9 FI-10 FI-12 FI-15

Culvert

• • • • •

• • • • •

Fail

Storm Events

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -INVESTIGATION & ASSESSMENT

Slope Stability

• • • • •

Streamworks inefficiencies Developing Georgetown-specific GIS model Cold temperatures and harsh weather Accuracy in Streamworks for tidal culverts Validation of model

• Georgetown Conservation Commission. (2015). Climate Change Adaptation Report: Georgetown, Maine. Georgetown, ME: A special publication by the Georgetown Conservation Commission. • Ballestero, Joel; Ballestero, Tom (2017). Streamworks Culvert Assessment Model: Version 2 User’s Manual.

We would like to thank Dr. Nancy Kinner for being our advisor throughout this project, Joel Ballestero for helping with the culvert analysis, and David Justice for his help on the GIS model. We would also like to thank Charlie Collins for giving us the opportunity to work with him and for the Town of Georgetown.


Stock Portfolio Website AUTHORS: Brian Nippert Andrew Stencavage ADVISOR: A. Michael Gildersleeve

As a small investor, it can be difficult to Brian Nippert find a free stock portfolio web site that Andrew Stencavage Project Advisor: Mike Gildersleeve provides free real-time quotes with advanced alerting capabilities. Our Applica�on Abstract Stock Portfolio website seeks to provide a centralized platform for managing stock portfolios and SMS/Email alerts based on a variety of triggers such as price, volume, price to earnings ratio, Future Development and percent change in price. It will also Architecture provide investors with tools that are typically not available on other free sites, while maintaining an easy to use Technologies Used Future Development interface and a free subscription status. Some of these services are provided by trading platforms or paid services but are typically not available to our target customer base who will be seeking out free alternatives. Our portfolio website is built through Amazon Web Services, using DynamoDB, Lambdas, and API-Gateway creating a low cost, scalable, easy-to-use solution. Utilizing Google Authentication to access the website simplifies both the system and its usability while maintaining security. Our project creates a Proof of Concept for our stock portfolio website proving the viability of providing these tools at a low cost utilizing new cloud services. • Provide a centralized pla�orm for managing stock por�olios to have a be�er understanding of your por�olio.

• Send SMS/Email alerts based on a variety of triggers such as price, volume, P/E ra�o, and percent change in price. • Maintain real �me stock informa�on by using API service.

• Keep site low cost and easily scalable by using Amazon Web Services.

• Keep user accounts secure while maintaining accessibility using Google OAuth.

Amazon Lex – This will allow users to interact with our applica�on through a “virtual-agent” that we can either a�ach to an SMS-service such as Twilio, or various chat sites such as Facebook or Slack.

Complex Alerts – This will allow our user to construct alerts based on more than one trigger, allowing our users to make be�er decisions. use

Court Documents Mining Pipeline: Liberty Mutual Insurance AUTHORS: Heli Amin Huy Le

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Describe this step in your experiment

Describe this step in your experiment

Describe this step in your experiment

Describe this step in your experiment

Liberty Mutual Information Technology Court Documents Mining Pipeline Enterprise Technology Services (ETS) Liberty Mutual Insurance department seeks to better understand Overview Data Processing Backend and GraphQL API key components in judicial outcomes. The purpose of this project is to create software that can help Liberty Mutual’s FACULTY ADVISOR: Data Retrieval Matthew Magnusson Legal team to find the right attorney, or legal service and create a dataset for further R and D. The project streamlines INDUSTRY ADVISOR: the process of data collection in order Web Application Data Mining Jane Hillyard to assist the key decision makers. Using Data Munging publicly available court documents from Vermont Judiciary, a data processing pipeline is created. Natural Language Future Work Processing is used to structure this Technology data enabling data mining algorithms to determine trending relationships, such as the win/lose ratio of a judge to an attorney, and the probability of winning a similar case. This software will enable users to make more informed decisions around potential litigation case The project centralizes the data collected to use in the Honorable Mention decision making process and into forming the dashboard with a visual representation. Problem

Saving time Saving budget Finding solution and answer to these questions ○ “Are there a set of characteristics common to positive outcomes?” ○ “Can you see any sort of trending for certain judges, certain attorneys or combinations therein? ○ “Can you develop a win/loss ratio for each attorney?” ○ “Can you segment cases into different case types?”

Authors - Huy Le and Heli Amin | Advisors - Jane Hillyard and Professor Matthew Magnusson

GENSIM Word2Vec

This project is proposed and sponsored by the Liberty Mutual Information Technology Enterprise Technology Services (ETS). ETS is responsible for creating, designing, and supporting enterprise solutions for all of the Liberty Mutual. As part of that responsibility, ETS seeks to create a dataset for their Legal team to better understand key components in judicial outcomes. This project creates a software that aids Liberty Mutual’s Legal team in identifying the best attorney. The system mines data from publicly available websites, creating a source for further research and development to aid in this decision.

Entities Recognition

decision offense eviction convince argument

inquiry guilty

defendant petitioner esq defendants attorney lawyerlaw attorneys lawyers explained alleged judge provided blacked affirmed entered believed claimed occurred described stated accepted

civil court state

{

trial appeal plea

Result: Understanding the semantic meaning, output a plotted map of words with similar meaning

N-GRAM MODEL

Materials (detailed list)

Quantity (be specific)

Item

Amount

Item

• Automated collect published data of Court cases and attorney by web scraping • Classifying unstructured data and turn collected data into structured data Natural Language Processing and Data Munging techniques • Predicting outcomes from the structured data using Data Mining algorithm

Amount

Item

Amount

Item

Amount

Item

Amount

Item

Amount

Item

Amount

}

Goal: Prepare for Name Entity Recognition by locating the position of the keyword “attorney”

Tools

INPUT

Objectives (In-Scope)

query { viewer { attorneys { edges { node { firstName lastName avgWinRatio totalWinCases } } } } }

Goal: Explore our dataset with the Machine Learning Model

Python 3.6

TOKENIZE

BeautifulSoup

N=1 Right

N=1 Left

Sample Entities Recognition return

“ … John Zaikowski Attorney Petitioner Vermont ... “

Tools

[ “John”, “Zaikowski”, “Attorney”, “Petitioner” “Vermont” ]

N-GRAM

Urllib.request

"name": "John Zaikowski", "type": "PERSON", "metadata": { }, "salience": 0.12607326, "mentions": [ { "text": { "content": "Attorney", "beginOffset": 46 }, "type": "COMMON"

“Attorney”

“Petitioner”

“John”

“Zaikowski”

“Vermont” “Attorney”

SSL Module

Attorney, Petitioner, Vermont

Google Language API

N-gram

John, Zaikowski, Attorney

NOUN COMMON

NOUN PROPER

Backend MongoDB Mlab and GraphQL diagram

QUERY AND RETURN

How it works 1. MongoDB mlab stores structured data 2. GraphQL API queries and fetches data to client App 3. Types: Represents data model 4. Queries: Used to run against the schema 5. Mutations: Connect to the server to perform DB functions like INSERTS, UPDATES 6. Resolvers: Performing responses to a query or mutations 7. Schema: Connecting all the moving parts together

Result: 1. Handling multiple round trip calls 2. Handling over-fetching of data 3. One single query to render the entire web app 4. Implemented with React, Relay and Redux

}

"data": { "viewer": { "attorneys": { "edges": [ { "node": { "firstName": "John", "lastName": "Zaikowski", "avgWinRatio": 0.83, "totalWinCases": 49 } }, { "node": { "firstName": "Tony", "lastName": "Bucknam", "avgWinRatio": 0.75, "totalWinCases": 38 } }, { "node": { "firstName": "Mark", "lastName": "Shellrot", "avgWinRatio": 0.84, "totalWinCases": 25 } } ] } } }

Gensim

“Attorney”

“John Zaikowski”

Matplotlib

Result: Able to achieve better Name Entities Recognition outcome using Part of Speech

Fully unstructured data sourced from Court Case PDFs are collected automatically from publicly available sources such as Vermont Judiciary website.

{

Web Application is created using ReactJS, NodeJS, ExpressJS, and ChartJS. The app is a data visualization dashboard that displays different charts and tables showing relationships among different attorneys and judges. Users can search and perform comparisons.

BAYES THEOREM

Attorney

Viewer

NLTK.tokenize

Edges

Two top attorney’s niche among different divisions.

Pie Chart

Probability distribution of recommended attorney.

Table

Compare similar attorney to recommended attorney.

Attorney

Data mining outcome is stored in JSON for each attorney

PDFminer

Compute John Zaikowski win chance with Judge Thomas Durkin P(win | john zaikowski & thomas durkin) = P(john zaikowski | win) P(thomas durkin | win) P(win) = 3/19 * 4/19 * 12/19 = 0.1578 * 0.2105 * 0.6315 = 0.02097

Flashtext.keyword Regex

Independent variable

Top 10 attorney before selected judge.

Radar Chart

Attorney

Edges

NLTK.corpus

.TXT

Bar Graph

Edges

Tools

PDF PDF

To normalize Joe Zaikowski’s probability: P(lose | john zaikowski & thomas durkin) = P(john zaikowski | lose) P(thomas durkin | lose) P(lose) = 2/19 * 2/19 * 7/19 = 0.1052 * 0.1052 * 0.3684 = 0.00407

Fully unstructured data is processed to generate better unstructured data for the next step of data mining.

As the result, we generated win ratio for each attorney, predicted the probability to win against a particular Judge. The structured data is exported to JSON files.

Normalized rating for wins: 0.02097/(0.02097 + 0.00407) = 0.83

• The one variable you purposely change and test

Python

Scikit learn

Docker

MongoDB

AWS S3, Lambda

Google Cloud Language API

JavaScript

ReactJS

GraphQL and Relay

NodeJS

Webpack and Babel

HTML5 and SASS

● Scale the data size ○ Mining data from more states ○ Develop a method to fetch and update existing data ● Improve Data Processing Pipeline ○ Apply Deep Learning in Entities Recognition and Extraction ● Deliverable and Maintenance ○ Final product on GitHub

50+ Commits

Project

2018 INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 40

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Adver�sement – Seeing as we plan on being a free site, we need a way to cover AWS costs. We can add unobtrusive adver�sements on the screen to provide a sourceof income without lowering user-experience a great deal.


Inter-User Chat System for Pathlete’s Social Network AUTHORS: Duncan Fair Nathan Letourneau Jeremy Plsek

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

ADVISOR: Radim Bartos

The chat system available through Pathlete’s services is the crux of the communication process between coaches and athletes, and is an essential piece in the fulfillment of Pathlete’s vision. Creating a chat system for a social network is a difficult task; creating such a system was our task for this project. The purpose of the chat system is to connect coaches and players who have the interest in talking with each other, and The purpose of the chat system is to connect coaches and players interested in talking with provide them a means of conversation. each other. This system will allow for each party to ● Connecting coaches and players, and giving them a means of conversation. find and communicate with each other ● Allow for each party to find and communicate with each other easily and effectively. ● Unread messages ● Have group functionality, so a group of easily and effectively. The chat system ● Notifications athletes and related coaches can talk to each ● Naming chats other. ● Redis for publishing updates to has a group functionality, so a group of ● Extensible enough to use a variety of groups. technologies. athletes and related coaches can talk to each other. The system is extensible enough to use a variety of technologies. The current iteration implements communication through websockets due to support provided by web browsers and mobile technologies. The front end utilizes the existing Angular framework of the Pathlete website to dynamically update the view of the chat. The conversations between users are stored in a database on the back end. The database is designed to store conversations between groups of users reliably. Creating this chat system enables a medium, by which the users can find and recruit players with ease. A social media platform relies on user to user communication. Pathlete is one such platform, thusly needing a communication network. In order for coaches to recruit and for athletes to be recruited a chat system needs to exist. We would also need to design this in the context of the current Pathele system.

Some initial requirements of the system were: ● One on one and group chats ● Ability to add and remove users ● Work with popular technologies

● Angular for chat templating. ● Web sockets for communication. ● Created a generic socket interface for future socket usage unrelated to the chat system

● Persistent, group based design to allow for a uniform architecture between one on one. conversations and group conversations. ● Posgresql for storing data. ● Implement extra chat functionality, such as previews, unread messages, and adding users to the group. ● Generic classes for chat communication independent of transport. ● Created specific classes for socket connections to communicate with chat classes. ● User tokens are passed from the client to the server to verify authenticity and parse user information from requests.

Development of a More Functional Pathlete User Profile AUTHORS: Ryan Daley Andrew Lewis Conor Ochs ADVISOR: Radim Bartos

Our goal as Pathlete’s functionality team Development of a more Functional User Profile is to ensure the platform performs as Ryan Daley, Andrew Lewis, Conor Ochs; Radim Bartos(Advisor) intended and supports the best user Introduction Image Uploading experience possible. There were three major improvements we made to Pathlete, with most of our work done on the back end. We added a comment system, overhauled the about section Athlete’s About Page on a user’s profile, and implemented the server structure for image uploading. The Text Comments on Posts back end relies on our ExpressJS server to process requests from the UI (front end) and interact with our PostgreSQL database. The UI makes requests to load Future Work users’ comments on posts, populate an athlete’s information, including their academic and athletic stats, and upload a picture for their profile. For the comment system and the about page, we created new database tables and the corresponding server APIs, allowing users to better interact with each other and coaches to make more informed recruiting decisions. In our back end design for uploading images, we avoided having to pass the image through our server so that the server can have more time for other requests. These improvements made to Pathlete provides a quick response to all UI requests, supporting a positive user experience. Pathlete’s college athletic recruitment system needed additional profile functionality common to most social platforms. ▪ Relevant athlete statistics and information displayed on the user’s profile ▪ Creating text comments on posts on a user’s feed ▪ The back end functionality for image uploading

We implemented the functionality for image uploading. This enables users to change their profile pictures and add pictures to posts and comments. Implementation: Reduce burden on the server by uploading image directly from browser. ▪ Pictures stored on Amazon S3 ▪ Database holds onto URLs to the images ▪ NodeJS server uses AWS-SDK to generate a pre-signed URL with S3’s access & secret keys ▪ Browser uses pre-signed URL to directly upload image

We enhanced the profile page to offer a way for athletes to personalize their page and represent themselves to recruiters. This is crucial for an effective recruitment process. Implementing the about page: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Database tables to hold athlete information Server API to retrieve/add info to the database Server routes to process http requests and call API Four sections - “Basic Information”, “Education”, “Athletic Statistics”, and “Account Settings”

Picture of about page

41 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

We designed and implemented a comment system so now users have the ability to interact with each other on users’ posts. Implementing the comment system: ▪ PostgreSQL database tables for comments and comment likes ▪ Server API to query database add or retrieve comments ▪ ExpressJS server routes to process http requests ▪ Front end - Angular components

▪ Uploading images on a post or comment ▪ Basketball statistics (as well as other sports) ▪ About page for coaches


Application of Machine-Learned Ranking to Athletic Recruitment Through Pathlete's User Suggestion System

ADVISORS: Radim Bartos Ian Grant

Pathlete is a seed-stage startup company, !""#$%&'$()*(+*,&%-$)./0.&1).2*3&)4$)5*'(*!'-#.'$%*3.%16$'7.)'* 8-1(65-*9&'-#.'.:;*<;.1*=655.;'$()*=>;'.7* whose product provides athletes and ?1&)2()*=7$'-@*3&2$7*?&1'(;A!2B$;(1CD*E&)*F1&)'A!2B$;(1C* coaches a practical online service 91(G#.7* <;.1*=655.;'$()*=>;'.7* 0.&1)$)5*=>;'.7* that simplifies the process of athletic recruitment. One of Pathlete’s core value propositions is its ability to minimize both the time coaches spend looking for potential recruits, and the time athletes 91.2$%'$()*!%%61&%>* spend looking for college athletic programs. Pathlete does this primarily through its search and user suggestion =(#6'$()* system. Both of these systems utilize a ‘learning to rank’ system to provide users H6'61.*I(14* 0.&1)$)5*'(*3&)4* relevant search results and suggestions. This project focuses on the system that provides a ranking of the available athletes for each college coach. This system filters our database of athletes, and then develops a ranking model to order the relevance of each athlete. This ranking model adapts to the preferences of the coach, and learns which features of the athlete are most important through the coach’s behavior in using the site. This ranking model is tuned using a learning algorithm, which for this project was an LMS regression filter. The result for this project is a measure of the effectiveness of the regression filter and the features we chose to train on. The result will be used in the future to develop new learning strategies for Pathlete’s recruitment services. The current college athletic recruitment system is inefficient and cumbersome.

Coaches !! Often lack budget to recruit across the country. !! Lack the time needed to filter thousands of emails from potential recruits. !! Aren’t guaranteed to find the right athletes for their team. Athletes !! Unable to communicate with coaches, and often don’t know how to present themselves. !! Unable to pay for existing recruitment services. !! Have a difficult time finding college programs that accept their specific skillset.

!! Profile characteristics are generated using the statistics uploaded by athletes. !! Interests are determined by the behavior of a coach while using the site.

2018 Pathlete System Architecture

S3 Storage

Redis Cluster

Clients

Load Balancer

An online platform capable of dynamically learning the preferences and capabilities of coaches and athletes to minimize the time wasted throughout the recruitment process.

This project focused only on development of the ranking system of athletes for college coaches. Given a database of athlete profile characteristics and the interests of a specific coach, generate a ranking of athletes where the highest rank is the most relevant athlete.

PostgreSQL Cluster

EC2 Instances

!! A suggestion system that offers a ranking of relevant candidates for each user.

!! Connection filtering and a communication platform for athletes and coaches to interact. !! Personalized profile that allows athletes to showcase gameplay statistics, videos, and schedules.

!! An easy to use UI and social platform to keep users engaged and interested in the site.

!! Extract a feature vector from the profile characteristics and coaches’ interests. !! Develop a ranking model of the form: f(x) = !0 + !1x1 + !2x2 + ... + !kxk where {x1, …, xk} are parameters that weight individual features. !! Weights are tuned using a least mean squares regression filter.

!! Ranking is trained when the coach selects or spends time on the profile of an athlete through the search and suggestion UI. !! Training data was pulled from NBA athletic recruitment statistics to test the effectiveness of the method. !! The ratio of actually selected athletes to the number of athletes presented to the coach was used as an evaluation of the ranking model. !! Preliminary testing demonstrated an average precision of about 60%.

!! A dataset of professional athletics is not representative of the relationship between college coaches and student athletes. Method should be tested on live data. !! An LMS filter is a fairly basic method, so more complex learning algorithms could be used. !! Develop a method to dynamically determine which features should be extracted for a specific coach.

UNH Online Performance Dashboard AUTHORS: Kenneth Picard Mitchell Stack ADVISORS: Phani Kidambi Tracy Mullen Cosker Anne Surman

UNH Online is the online degree program UNH Online Performance Dashboard Kenny Picard, Mitchell Stack for UNH. Many more students are using UNH CEPS, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 online degree programs in order to D a sh b oa rd In trod u c tion Tec h n olog ies U sed get their degrees.There is also a large selection of individual online courses that one could take to help fulfill requirements F u tu re W ork for their major. With the growing number of students using this as an option, the S olu tion need to collect and analyze data from students is very important. UNH Online uses many different services in order to S ystem A rc h itec tu re A d visors collect and analyze student data, such as: Salesforce, Google Analytics, Banner, WebI, and Excel spreadsheets. All of these tools are great, but UNH Online is looking to have a “one stop location” where they can house all of this data to have ease of access to it. This is where the dashboard comes into play. All the data will be coming into Tableau from a server where it can be updated automatically. A centralized dashboard to visual UNH Online’s student data makes analyzing the data much easier. With the recent growth of UNH O n lin e, th e n eed to a n a lyze d a ta is h ig h er th a n ever. C u rren tly, U N H O n lin e is u sin g m u ltip le tools to a n a lyze th e d a ta th ey n eed . Th is is very tim e c on su m in g a n d h a vin g d a ta sp rea d ou t in m u ltip le p la c es m a k es a n a lyzin g th e d a ta m ore d iffic u lt.

A C en tra l d a sh b oa rd for visu a lizin g d a ta from m a n y d a ta -sou rc es. Th e d a ta w ill b e c om in g in from th e va riou s tools in to a server for th e d a ta to b e h eld on . A live c on n ec tion from th e server to Ta b lea u w ill b e c rea ted a llow in g for d a ta to b e p u lled a u tom a tic a lly on a set sc h ed u le. Ta b lea u th en visu a lizes th e d a ta in a n ea sily c u stom iza b le d a sh b oa rd .

● Ta b lea u ● B a n n er ● W eb i ● G oog le A n a lytic s

S ettin g u p a sc h ed u le for d a ta to b e p u lled a u tom a tic a lly via a live c on n ec tion from ta b lea u to th e server. In c orp ora tin g soc ia l m ed ia d a ta to th e d a sh b oa rd .

● Tra c ey C osk er ● A n n S u rm a n ● P h a n i K id a m b i

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 42

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

AUTHOR: Brandon Smith


Measuring Albedo (Reflectivity) with Smartphones: A Citizen Science App AUTHORS: Noah Aronson Camden Tatsapaugh Evelyn Thompson ADVISOR: Elizabeth Burakowski

Albedo, a measure of reflectivity, is the Measuring Albedo (Reflectivity) with Smartphones: A Citizen Science App ratio of reflected and incoming solar radiation. Albedo exerts an important Problem Statement control on climate by regulating the Our Solution â&#x2014;? The Community Collaborative Rain, â&#x2014;? Create an app that: amount of solar energy a surface absorbs Hail and Snow Albedo (CoCoRaHSâ&#x20AC;˘ collects data Albedo) Network currently collects and subsequently reradiates as heat. â&#x20AC;˘ calculates albedo albedo data, but participation is â&#x20AC;˘ effectively displays the limited by high cost of equipment. Bright surfaces, like snow, reflect a high gathered information to the user portion (75% to 90%) of incoming solar â&#x2014;? Pixel data from RAW images is used to calculate albedo radiation; darker surfaces, like forest â&#x2014;? We developed a proof-ofâ&#x2014;? Albedo is a measure of reflectivity and concept that models the canopies, reflect very little of the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s is a ratio of reflected and incoming albedo calculation using energy (between 10% and 35%). The solar radiation JPEG images Future Plans â&#x2014;? Transition from a JPEG proof-ofCommunity Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Reflected concept to actual RAW image capture â&#x2014;? Establish a connection to the â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P / â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P = Albedo Snow Albedo (CoCoRaHS-Albedo) citizen CoCoRaHS-Albedo database so data is â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P / â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P = Albedo pushed to the website automatically â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P / â&#x2C6;&#x2018;P = Albedo science network has collected albedo â&#x2014;? Integrate authentication between the CoCoRaHS-Albedo website and the data since 2011, however, participation app Albedo = m Albedo + is limited due to the high cost of m Albedo + m Albedo instrumentation to collect data. The goal Incoming of this project is to create an iOS app that accurately measures surface albedo. The app captures RAW images of both the sky and the ground, and the RGB data from these images are analyzed to perform the calculation of albedo. Utilizing a smartphone will make data collection more cost effective and scalable, allowing CoCoRaHS-Albedo to expand their research efforts. Sponsor: Prof. Elizabeth Burakowski Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space

Authors: Evelyn Thompson, Camden Tatsapaugh, Noah Aronson Department of Computer Science

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COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Trello

Swift

Xcode

iPhone 7

Maximizing Usability of the Pathlete Platform AUTHORS: Steven LeClerc Benjamin Pinault Francisco Santana ADVISOR: Radim Bartos

Out of the four Pathlete senior project components, the usability team researches, implements, and assesses methods to improve the user experience by developing a consistent visual design, an intuitive user interface, and an effective content delivery strategy. Our team has worked on many user experience aspects of the Pathlete platform. This includes the design of static pages like the contact page, improvements in the aesthetics of the user profile and the navigation bar, advancements in the usability of the search-bar, and development of a dedicated search page. This project utilizes Angular 2, Semantic UI and Bootstrap to accelerate prototyping while maintaining system responsiveness.

43 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Maximizing Usability of the Pathlete Platform

Steven LeClerc, Benjamin Pinault, Francisco Santana Advisor: Radim Bartos

Introduction The platform needed a strategy to improve aspects of the usability. â&#x20AC;˘ Content Strategy: Users were unable to search content on the site, including others users' profile. â&#x20AC;˘ User Experience: The platform didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t give users a way to contact the company to report bugs or other users. Users were unable to customize their profile pages with profile pictures and statistics. â&#x20AC;˘ Visual Design: The siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s navigation bar didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t match the overall site design and was in need of improvements for responsiveness.

Implementation â&#x20AC;˘ Designed and prototyped the platformâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s search UI which will be further developed to allow users to find each other with ease. â&#x20AC;˘ Developed contact forms to enable users to report platform bugs as well as inappropriate content and other users.

â&#x20AC;˘ Added UI components to enable users to customize their profile pages. â&#x20AC;˘ A navigation bar redesigned to match the platform's visual design and optimized responsiveness.

Improving Site Navigation

Designing Contact Pages

â&#x20AC;˘ Improved the overall design of the navigation bar by updating the icons, Pathlete logo, and color scheme. â&#x20AC;˘ Separated the navigation bar and search bar functionality so that they will work independently. â&#x20AC;˘ Fixed resizing bug with navigation bar.

Building the Search Feature This project focused on the design of the user search UI.

User story #1: As a coach, I want to perform a search by entering a sport and a set of desired statistics so that I can find the most relevant athlete to meet my university's academic and athletic requirements. User story #2: As an athlete, I want to perform a school search based on their sports divisions and coaches so that I can find the most relevant schools with good athletic leadership.

Enhancing User Profiles â&#x20AC;˘ Increase customization of user profiles by allowing users to upload their own profile images â&#x20AC;˘ Focused on the front-end structure of this feature â&#x20AC;˘ Can upload photos two ways, through clicking on their own profile picture on their profile, or by clicking a button on their edit-profile section

Future Work â&#x20AC;˘ Add similar functionality of profile uploading methods to banner images â&#x20AC;˘ Implement functionality to make the navigation bar mobile friendly. â&#x20AC;˘ Continue development of the platformâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s search UI and add filter functionalities. â&#x20AC;˘ Continued implementation of UI changes across the entire Pathlete platform â&#x20AC;˘ Complete application of the contact page and the various components into fully working entity


YouScheduler AUTHORS: Kristian Comer Francesco Mikulis-Borsoi ADVISOR: Radim Bartos

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2018

We are in line with UNH to pilot the program this upcoming FALL registration!

Augmented Reality Charts AUTHORS: Matthew Bowden Benjamin Fruth Tyler Kokoszka Harrison Pham ADVISORS: Thomas Butkiewicz Briana Sullivan

Nautical charts are an invaluable Augmented Reality Charts reference for mariners and oceanic researchers. Although charts are available digitally, some mariners, especially recreational boaters, still prefer physical paper charts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) releases weekly updates for every chart to address changes to navigational aids and new information. Updating paper charts using NOAA’s descriptions of changes can be difficult and tedious. Our project seeks to simplify the paper chart update process through the use of augmented reality (AR) technology. By creating a virtual overlay for the physical charts, holograms are generated and positioned on the physical chart to represent the different updates. Through this method, mariners and researchers can utilize our application to visually see where the updates are on their physical chart and mark them off. Authors: Tyler Kokoszka, Harrison Pham, Matthew Bowden, and Benjamin Fruth Sponsors: Briana Sullivan & Thomas Butkiewicz Design Decisions

Methods

Problem

Nautical charts are an invaluable reference for mariners and oceanic researchers. Although charts are available digitally, some mariners still prefer physical paper charts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) releases weekly updates for every chart to address changes to navigational aids and new information. Currently, updating paper charts using NOAA’s descriptions of changes can be difficult and tedious.

Nautical chart coordinates are in the 2-D form (lat, long) ● -90 ≤ lat ≤ 90 and -180 ≤ long ≤ 180 ● AR coordinates are Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) where x,y,z ∈ ℝ

Window-to-Viewport Transformation

Chart Ch Update Mashup

● The Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping’s (CCOM) web application for chart updates ● Overlays updates on digital chart ● Failed to mitigate all inconveniences during manual updates ● Did not reduce time to update

Project Goals

● Create an innovative application with use of augmented reality ● Use a virtual overlay of the chart to place updates accurately ● The ability to manipulate data with user interaction

Tools:

● Creates an AR mesh for the virtual chart with coordinates in the form of (x, y, z) ● Project the (lat, long) coordinates onto the virtual chart ● Scale the projection’s x and z coordinates with respect to mesh dimensions

Convert 2D TO 3D with Raycasting

Features

Chart ID Input

Virtual Map

State Machine: ● Allows for high level planning ● Understanding application’s flow and process Gestures to UI: ● Gestures were the main source for interacting ● Utilize 3D space ○ Virtual HUD ● Update models are small ○ Difficult to interact with gestures ○ Hololens would “jitter” ● Virtual HUD handles this problem Chart Representation: ● Initially, image entire recognize chart ● Get map bounds ○ Spatial mapping ● AR Tags ○ Recognize map corners

Limitations

● Vuforia Limitations ○ Long upload process ○ Dependant on size & quality ● Limitations of Hololens ○ Hologram inaccuracies ○ User’s limited field of view ○ Processing power ○ Slow online data retrieval ○ Remapping of area ○ Limited documentation

Live Feed

User View

Going Forward

Virtual HUD

Map Section Zoom

● The projected coordinates are placed at D(x’, y’, z’) ○ D = -Normal of the mesh with an arbitrary scale ○ {x’, z’} = projected(lat, long) respectively ○ {y’} = the highest corner’s Y coordinate. ● Raycast towards the mesh ○ The mesh-raycast intersection is the projected coordinate

● Last updated date ○ Updates may be irrelevant depending on chart version ● Extensive testing on dynamic environment ○ Most testing done in an open indoor area ○ Works well while docked (subtle swaying) ● Mobile device version ○ Hololens expensive ○ User most likely to have smart device ○ No known available SDK

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 44

COMPUTER SCIENCE-APPLICATIONS

Winning Project

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Evaluating Hack Evaluating Hack Nikki Sloan and Cameron Smith Advisor: Phil Hatcher

Hack reconciles the fast development cycle of a dynamically typed language with the discipline provided by static typing

Background

Project Goals

Hack is a language developed by Facebook  as an extension to PHP. The primary change introduced is the idea of gradual typing. Gradual typing lets the user to specify  types where they choose, then the Hack type checker uses those declarations to infer undeclared types.

Investigate Facebook’s claim that Hack successfully combines the benefits of both static and dynamic typing Compare both the performance and ease of use of Hack to similar languages such as PHP and Node.js

DB Access Time

Methods

Several programs were used to test the performance and ease of each language:  Database access • String and integer computation  Array initialization and access time  BST allocation and deallocation

DB Integer Calculation Time

8000

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7000

600

6000

DB String Calculation Time 3000

2500

Time (Microseconds)

500

5000 4000 3000

Time(Microseconds)

Initial Program

 Retrieve all the rows from the database filled with Pokémon data and store into a local data structure.  Iterate through all the rows and compute the average height of the Pokémon.  Iterate through all the names, and compute how many times a letter appears.

Time (Microseconds)

400

300

200

2000 1000

100

0

0

Node

Hack

PHP

PHP on Zend

Hack without JIT

Array Build Time

Hack Vectors

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Hack

PHP

PHP on Zend

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Hack without JIT

Hack Vectors

1000

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Node

Hack

PHP

PHP on Zend

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Hack Vectors

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1500

Qualitative Analysis

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Hack-HHVM PHP-Zend

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Completion Time (microsec)

ADVISOR: Phillip Hatcher

Hack is a programming language created by Facebook which is built on top of PHP. Facebook claims that Hack allows for the fast development you would get from a dynamically typed language while also giving you the confidence and readability of a statically typed language. This project puts these claims to the test through qualitative analysis while also comparing Hack’s performance to two of its contemporaries: JavaScript running on Node.js and standard PHP. We conducted runtime tests to compare the languages quantitatively and tracked all issues we ran into during the project and our overall impressions working with hack so we could evaluate the languages qualitatively as well.

Completion Time (microsec)

AUTHORS: Nicole Sloan Cameron Smith

Conclusions

140 120 100

Hack-HHVM PHP-Zend

80 60 40 20

0

7

14

21

 Hard to install, poor Windows support  Addition of type declarations does improve code readability  Addition of Vectors improves usability

0

7

Depth of Binary Search Tree

14

21

23

Depth of Binary Search Tree

24

25

 Gradual typing improves readability and ease of use, however no increase in performance was observed  Being built on PHP results in documentation which does not provide type information and creates issues when trying to add annotations

Honorable Mention Project

2018

Data Pipeline Support for NASA’s Parker Solar Probe AUTHOR: Myles Johnson

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

ADVISOR: Jonathan Niehof

Launching in July 2018, Parker Solar Data Pipeline Support for NASA’s Parker Solar Probe Myles Johnson, Adviser: Dr. Jonathan Niehof Probe will provide new data on solar Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire activity and make critical contributions HOW IT ALL WORKS BACKGROUND DBPROCESSING to our ability to forecast major spaceweather events that impact life on Earth. UNH’s responsibility for this mission is running the science operations center (or SOC) for one of the instrument teams. The SOC downloads data and uses codes to convert them into all the needed formats and datasets called products. These PROBLEMS products are what researchers will use to make observations and discoveries. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To help organize this chain of processing, dbprocessing is being modified and used. Dbprocessing is a program that handles the tracking of dependencies, versions, and provenance of data files and codes. As new data files arrive, dbprocessing calculates what data products it can create with what was received and runs the necessary codes to create them. To fit the requirements of Paker Solar Probe, new features are being added that will help the team write the new codes. Launching in July 2018, Parker Solar Probe will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. It will determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. It will make critical contributions to our ability to forecast major space-weather events that impact life on Earth. The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is running the science operations center (SOC) for the one the investigations on board, the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (IS☉IS) team. The SOC downloads data files and uses codes to convert them into many different needed formats and datasets called data products. These products are what researchers will use to make observations and discoveries.

1. The relationships between products is complex and unreasonable to manage manually. 2. The mission is happening live over the course of 7 years, requirements will be changing and the project needs to be nimble enough to handle that. 3. Datalink with the probe is not consistent causing data to come irregularly and out of order. Software needs to be written to determine what products can be processed with what data we have. 4. Some data products take a long time to process, repeated processing needs to be minimized as much as possible.

45 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Products are organized into levels where each level is more processed than the previous. This helps logically organize how data is put together, and future requirement changes can be handled by just expanding the tree structure.

Sometimes more raw data becomes available for products that have already been generated, so dbprocessing needs to make sure it is used. All files that would directly use that data are regenerated, and so are all files down the tree.

To help solve these problems dbprocessing is being used. Dbprocessing is a program written in python that handles the tracking of dependencies, versions, and provenance of data files and codes. As new raw data files arrive, dbprocessing determines what they are by inspecting them, and then makes what products it can make with it. These products are then fed back into the system to recursively build all possible products. Dbprocessing can: • Determine what operations can be done in parallel and run them at the same time. • Organize all data files into specified locations on the disk. • Tell you exactly how any data file was made with what inputs, what versions of the codes, and what parameters and arguments were used. Dbprocessing was originally developed for use on the Van Allen Probes mission, and was expanded to be able to fit the needs for this mission.

• This work was supported by NASA Contract NNN06AA01C6 • Thank you to the rest of the ISOIS SOC team • Thank you Brian Larsen at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the original work on dbprocessing.


Data Analysis of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems AUTHORS: Matin Masimli Aung Khant Nyar ADVISORS: Wheeler Ruml Matt Davis

Use of geothermal heat pump(GHP) systems is increasing as technology grows and impacts most of the industries. As an integral part of a GHP system, heat pumps require proactive monitoring that can analyze data, detect any problem and inform the end users. One element of the data analysis is to determine the mode of a heat pump operation based on observations of heat pump energy usage(watts) for different fluid temperatures.

Data Analysis for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire Advisor: Wheeler Ruml Sponsor: Matt Davis Aung Khant Nyar Matin Masimli

Introduction

Future Methods

Ø Central Heating and Cooling Systems

Why PCA algorithm is needed? Ø Transfers heat to and from the ground

Ø Reduce to 1-Dimension

Ø More efficient than other conventional heating systems, it does not require burning of fuel Ø Less operating costs compared to other systems

Ø Gaussian Mixture Models Ø GMM cross-validation Ø Find number of components

Inaccurate EM Result

Used Algorithms Ø Expectation Maximization (EM) Ø Cross-Validation Ø Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)

Conclusion

Results

The result of RANSAC algorithm

EM – Maximum likelihood estimation of a model

Why RANSAC algorithm can’t provide final results?

Ø EM algorithm cannot be taken for granted Ø Cross validation is dependent on the reliability of EM

There are variety of algorithms that can be used to evaluate data and in this research project two of those algorithms were tested. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is the first technique applied to the data in order to examine it thoroughly. The major purpose of EM algorithm is to find out the maximum-likelihood which can estimate the model parameter when the given data has missing data points. Maximum-likelihood estimation finds the “best-fit” model for a set of data. If there is any problem on data, maximum-likelihood estimation doesn’t produce “best-fit” model. . Ø Not determining required number of

components

Ø Number of components should be defined manually

The graphs above are raw data and result of EM model

Ø Datasets are different

Ø RANSAC cannot be automated

Ø PCA will decrease 2D data to 1D data and will be useful for GMM application

Ø By using GMM, cross validation technique can be applied to the normalized data

Cross-validation is another technique used to evaluate data in order to find out how well model behaves when the new unseen data set is presented. Based on the project, cross-validation should find specific number of components for every data set.

Evaluating Rust

ADVISORS: Phillip Hatcher Collette Powers

Rust is a new programming language being developed by Mozilla, released in 2015 aimed at system application developers. As a new systems language, it competes with deep-rooted languages such as C++, but it laims to be completely memory-safe, thread-safe, and to not lose any performance doing so.

Evaluating Rust

Ethan Larkham & Todd Gaunt Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

Abstract

The purpose of this project was to compare Rust with C++. Rust was tested to see if it held up to its claims of being nearly as performant as C++, and if the language made writing safe programs easy. These tests and analysis were carried out using three small programs written at least twice in each Rust and C++. Each implementation attempted to use as similar an algorithm as possible to solve the problem at hand, and were used to benchmark performance.

Methodology

●Write three programs, “Pi-digits”, “Jacobi”, and “Wordfind” in each language with similar algorithms ●Alternate which language each member writes in to allow each to gain experience with Rust ●Objectively analyze program performance during runtime on a machine with no extraneous processes running ●Subjectively remark and report on the ease-ofuse of each language ●Graph the performance of each program over an average of runs to reduce performance intermittent performance anomalies.

Objectives

● Compare the performance of rustc and clang++ to see if rustc can generate programs as performant as clang++ ● Highlight the different capabilities of the languages objectively. ● Analyze the data structures used by each compiler and compare the optimizations made when the performance difference between programs written in each language is not obvious. ● Describe the experience of writing in each language. Does Rust make it easier to write safe code? Is C++ difficult to troubleshoot or develop with in comparison?

Pi Comparison (8 runs)

Graphs

Wordfind Comparison (16 runs)

Results

● Rust tended to perform worse due to various limitations in the language ● Found inability to create a mutable global 2D array in Rust necessitating the use of vectors, causing Jacobi’s poor performance ● Pi digits performed comparably well in each language. ● Wordfind had a near constant overhead, Rust performance was improved when words were shared in batches ● For Jacobi, Rust parallel eventually was able to beat the Rust serial Jacobi, while C++ parallel performed worse than C++ serial ● Vectors could not compete with arrays

Conclusions

It appears from our results that Rust's "fearless concurrency" is at the cost of performance. At first glance Rust appeared to be an attractive more secure C++ alternative with better built in concurrency handling. Rust's "fearless concurrency" was attributed to its compiler's ability to detect threading errors without forcing the developer to test during runtime. Rust's compiler features, while guaranteeing safety in a program, reject many correct programs which requires the developer to write around the language for certain algorithms. In order for the compiler to guarantee its safety, strict rules must be followed by the developer throughout the program. Programming in Rust can be a fight against the compiler when writing even trivial concurrent programs. This is also all at the cost of performance since, even without runtime checks, the safety guarantees often have overhead. In most programs benchmarked Rust performed noticeably worse. For a fast system language, Rust may not be a suitable replacement for C++.

The purpose of this project was to compare Rust with C++. Rust was tested to see if it held up to its claims of being Benchmarks nearly as performant as C++, and if the language made writing safe programs easy. These tests and analysis were carried out using three small programs written at least twice in each Rust and C++. Each implementation attempted to use as similar an algorithm as possible to solve the problem at hand, and were used to benchmark performance. ● “Pi-digits” is a concurrent implementation of using Riemann sums to compute the value of pi. ● “Jacobi” runs the Jacobi temperature distribution algorithm concurrently by subdividing the array where the computation is being performed horizontally between threads. Implemented four times, in two different ways. ● “Wordfind” utilizes a concurrent hashtable to find the largest word over 6 ASCII characters long in a given set of text files, usually books. ● The serial 2D vector benchmarks were written to discover a potential reason for Jacobi’s poor performance in Rust.

Jacobi Comparison (8 runs)

Serial 2D Vector and Array Comparison (8 runs)

Acknowledgements

Professor Philip J. Hatcher Professor Collette Matthias Powers

The two compilers used for this comparison were clang++ and rustc. These two compilers were chosen because of their ability to both generate LLVM. IR, which we looked at to see how each compiler implemented language constructs used in each language.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 46

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

AUTHORS: Todd Gaunt Ethan Larkham


Intentional Concurrent Programming AUTHOR: Kyle Kroboth ADVISORS: Michel Charpentier Phillip Hatcher

In a multithreaded system, unintentional Intentional Concurrent Programming behavior can occur if programs are not Kyle Kroboth correctly synchronized and contain race conditions or data races. These nondeterministic executions are hard debug and reproduce which makes concurrent programming very difficult. Using Java, the Intentional Concurrent Programming library aims at making concurrent programming easier by providing the user an interface to express their intents on how objects are shared between threads. When those intents are violated, the system will raise exceptions. The library modifies bytecode with assertion checks on field accesses and method calls which are validated on the object’s current intent. This project involved developing intent-aware synchronizers, such as the CountDownLatch and Future and providing users with permissions that can be associated with synchronizers and other shared objects in order to ensure that sharing satisfies the intents of the synchronization. To test the library’s usefulness, a multithreaded HTTP server modeling a real-world application was created using ICP and its synchronizers. ICP provided useful feedback on incorrectly synchronized objects. Other bugs were not caught due to current limitations, to be studied in future work. Department of Computer Science University of New Hampshire

Advisors: Michel Charpentier and Philip Hatcher

Introduction

Provided Permissions

Multithreading improves the speedup, responsiveness, and throughput of an application, however accessing shared memory from multiple threads can result in race conditions making concurrent programming very difficult.

• • • • • • • •

Solution: • Give mechanism to express intents on shared objects between threads • Develop intent-aware synchronizers with permissions • ICP System raises exceptions when intents violated

Implementation In Java

Edit bytecode of classes loaded and insert checks on field accesses and method calls. Every object is associated with a permission field that holds its current intent. • Uses Javassist bytecode manipulation library • Extend java.util.concurrent standard synchronizers • Wrap collections with proxies containing the intent

Private (Initially) • ThreadSafe (Non-resettable) Frozen (Immutable) • Transfer (Give ownership) • SameAs (Inherit parent) • HoldsLock (Intrinsic lock) Join (Task joining) Latch (CountDownLatch)

IsOpen/IsClosed (OneTimeLatch) Locked (ReentrantLock) AwaitTermination (Executor) Compound (Multiple)

Synchronizers

Figure 3: Screenshot of “Travel Info” application

Intent-aware synchronizers extend Java’s concurrent package with permissions. • Export one or more permissions • Checks the correct use of a synchronizer • Registration allows synchronizer to behave differently for different Tasks

Figure 4: Intent code in application fetching API requests and building aggregated response

Results

The ICP runtime system provided useful feedback on incorrectly synchronized objects and performance was good at catching concurrent bugs early and ensuring thread safe code.

Figure 2: Correct vs incorrect synchronized code

Permissions

Figure 1: Bytecode manipulation

Provide users with a mechanism to create intents and to associate them with target objects in order to check method calls and field accesses. • • • • •

One permission per object Initial permission: private to task that creates the object Built-in and user defined permissions Synchronizers provide their own permissions Some permissions are non-resettable, i.e., ThreadSafe

Application

Develop a real-world server application using ICP and its synchronizers. Website displays travel information using multiple APIs including weather, restaurants, and events.

• Multithreaded HTTP 1.1 server that handles requests in parallel • Each request also uses parallel subtasks and aggregates APIs into one payload based on the users selected location • Utilized intent-aware CountDownLatch, Semaphore, Executor, and wrapped intent collections

• Explicit permissions in code gave insight on how objects were shared • Concurrency intents were fully expressed within ICP library • The permission interface was able to fulfill multiple synchronization strategies

Future

Advanced patterns of concurrent programming will be evaluated in a future iteration. Atomicity bugs such as nonlocking check-then-act, and subtle memory consistency errors are not handled in the current ICP system.

Network Security AI AUTHOR: Travis Nevins

Today cyber attacks have become a Network Security AI constant threat and attackers are always a step ahead. This project researches the plausibility of implementing an artificial intelligence network security system. The advantages that an AI security system would have over traditional systems is the ability to adapt and learn to stop different types of attacks. The system works by having AI nodes distributed across all devices connected to the network. The research project was coded using python and python libraries for machine learning, packet sniffing, and network applications. The AI nodes have the ability to view traffic, look at log files, and looks up/adds data to a database. For wireless attacks the AI utilizes live network packet capturing and analyzes the packets for different types of behavior. Log files will be checked to make sure programs running and those that are installed are valid. If an AI identifies a behavior it passes important information to the database for other AI’s to see. For testing, there was a small application made for the AI’s to pass actions taken to allow for referential learning and monitoring. Travis Nevins, Department of Computer Science Advisors: Kenneth Graf, Wheeler Ruml, Radim Bartos

Background

ADVISORS: Kenneth Graf Wheeler Ruml Radim Bartos

Results

• The algorithms explored were:

• Recurrent Neural Network LSTM (RNN) • Deep Q Learning

• Artificial Neural Network

• Determined RNN works best for time series data such as packet analyzing

Attack Vector – hackmageddon.com

• Cybercrime estimated to cost up to $6 trillion by 2021

• Internet expanding to grow past 40 billion devices and exceed 4 billion users

• Microsoft predicts data volume to be 50 times larger than today by 2021

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

Introduction

Today’s security systems are predominantly passive, which means the defense simply check data based on if/then conditions. This research project aims to: •Make an active defense system

•Develop an AI to identify and learn attacks

•Create a network of AI’s to help defend the entire network

Research Objectives

• Explore different possible AI algorithm solutions • Determine ways for the AI’s to gather data • Code a prototype AI • Train AI on attack vector datasets • Create a small simulation network • Test the AI against real attacks on the simulation network

47 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

• Utilized GNS3 and CORE to create larger simulation networks

• Tests showed that the AI nodes were able to

identify known attacks signatures, while new attacks were identified as anomalies

Conclusions

Overall my research found that:

• AI security system is completely feasible

• Recurrent neural networks were able to be a starting point for the AI

• The learning of the AI can be a weakness and a strength

• Distributed AI nodes with a central AI can add an extra layer redundancies

• Further software and hardware optimization is needed

Data collecting internet protocols: • Sflow

• Netflow • IPfix

Areas for Further Study For future research :

• Start in depth study on creating a central AI • Investigate how to have AI monitor IoT devices

• Look into nested neural network to enhance the abilities of the AI’s

• Design AI systems to work across cloud systems

• Study how to have AI monitor mobile devices


Implementing a System for Intentional Concurrency in Jikes RVM AUTHORS: Adam Seavey Thomas Sorrell

Concurrent programming is becoming an increasingly relevant way to speed up Implementing a System for Intentional Concurrency in Jikes RVM computer programs. However, concurrent IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS programming is also notoriously difficult, BACKGROUND since the nondeterministic nature of parallel programs often produces bugs that are difficult to identify, observe, and debug. Our project implements a system for intentional concurrency in INTENTIONAL CONCURRENCY Jikes RVM, a research oriented version of the Java Virtual Machine. This system will force programmers to be explicit about which data is shared between parallel processes. We do this by adding FUTURE WORK information on which threads are allowed access to an object’s data to the object at runtime, and checking this information in the virtual machine when necessary. If the check fails our system will produce an error which is clearly indicative of this intent violation. Through this mechanism, our system is expected to catch and report unintentional usage of objects across threads before they cause elusive concurrency bugs, leading to fewer inadvertent bugs. This, in turn, will improve the quality of software produced for the end user as well as improve the development process for software developers. Sponsor: Dr. Philip Hatcher Student Authors: Thomas Sorrell, Adam Seavey

Our implementation of intentional concurrency focused on Java and the Jikes Research Virtual Machine. Implementing our system inside the virtual machine itself means that all code participates in the system without requiring any special libraries. Our implementation had three main parts:

Our main goal for our project was to demonstrate the feasibility of

However, this can cause numerous issues, as when data is shared among different simultaneous tasks the programmer must be careful how the data is shared. This is because the different tasks

Storing Concurrency Information in the Object Header

• Threads create a private object to store the results

When trying to improve program execution speed, one potential optimization is to make the program concurrent, splitting

ADVISOR: Phillip Hatcher

operations into multiple pieces that can be run simultaneously.

--------------------------------------------------------------|GCHeader| MiscHeader | JavaHeader | fld0 | fld1 | … |fldN – 1| --------------------------------------------------------------Fig. 2. Spacial Layout of Object

do not update shared data in a deterministic manner. This can

often lead to scenarios where two tasks attempt to edit data at

the same time, or one task reads the data before the other task

• We were able to add our own fields to the object header (in MiscHeader) to track which thread owned an object, and what permission state an object had

has finished editing it, etc. Preventing these sorts of issues makes concurrent programming difficult.

implementing our system in Jikes RVM. To test our

implementation, we created a simple program to estimate Pi using multiple threads.

• Multiple threads read from a frozen object

• Each thread then transfers the object to the main thread, and stores it in a global buffer • The main thread performs the final calculations using the objects created by the threads

Inserting Permission Checks Before Data Accesses

• We inserted our own machine code when data is accessed to check the fields in the object header. This code effectively added our check before any data is accessed in any object

Our project aims to help prevent concurrency issues by adding the concept of intent to concurrent programming. The concept of

intent forces the programmer to think explicitly about which data should be shared among tasks, and which should not. This is accomplished by adding a set of permission states for data within

Fig. 5. Testing using parallel Pi approximation

the program. The hope is that if the programmer is forced to think about how their data is accessed, and the system enforces

restrictions on data accesses, they will take steps to ensure that data is accessed appropriately.

Permission

Read Access Write Access Change Permission Task Owner Other Owner Other Owner Other Private ✔ ✘ ✔ ✘ ✔ ✘ Frozen ✔ ✔ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ Permanently ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✘ ✘ Thread Safe Thread Safe ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Fig. 1. Visual Representation of Access Rights

Fig. 3. Check Insertion

A User Interface

Fig. 6. Incorrect accesses generate errors

Future work would be focused on completing the implementation

of the remaining permissions Loan and SameAsLeader. In addition, a new concurrency library is needed, similar to the existing

Fig. 4 New methods in Object.java

• We found an existing interface between Jikes RVM and Object.java. We were able to use this interface to add methods that allowed the user to access the object header from their own code in order to manage permissions themselves.

java.util.concurrent library. This library would be focused on adding internal support for intentional concurrency, so that the

user can take advantage of useful concurrency objects, such as semaphores and latches, without having to explicitly worry about the permission state of these objects.

Soccer Ball Cyber Security

ADVISOR: Jon Miner

Imagine the world’s networks as a mesh, Soccer Ball Cyber Security Paul DeGrazia, Trent Taylor, Pirro Shtino similar to the seams on a soccer ball. Project Advisor - Jon Miner Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 As a cyber attack plays out, rather than Introduction isolate oneself, work collaboratively with adjoining networks to “red card” the attacker, removing them from the game, while allowing legitimate traffic to continue. Incident response traditionally relies upon the human individual to make experience-driven decisions. Most, if not all widely accepted methodologies are based off of a single, reactive approach; an attack is conducted, and the host mitigates against the attack once it has concluded by isolating itself from the network. Soccer Ball Cyber Security aims to isolate the attacker by creating a ‘smart,’ node-based network infrastructure that communicates security information, and creates security policies autonomously. Imagine the world’s network is meshed similar to the seams of a soccer ball in which each vertex on the soccer ball represents a router within a globally meshed network.

Traditionally, when a network is attacked, it responds by isolating itself. Soccer Ball Cyber Security aims to remove the attacker by creating an ‘intelligent’ node-based network that communicates security information.

Node-Based WAN

Models

Simulated Model

Our simulation consisted of 8* raspberry pi’s that communicated wirelessly. Each raspberry pi was connected to one or two other pi’s to better simulate the complexity of a real wide-area network. Threats were created through the use of infectious-scripts that sought to propagate through those unsecured connections between nodes. It is assumed that the means of detecting threats has already been established, and that processing load was not taken into consideration.

Results

As a summary, we found that creating a node-based network capable of isolating “sectors” of nodes was feasible. The overall cost of detecting threats is negligible in industry-grade environments, but may prove to be resource intensive in those smaller instances. When referring to ‘scale,’ the amount of data processed is proportional to the ‘cost’ of the operation. For instance, we found that across all simulations, each parameter increases the amount of time it takes to interpret collected data by a rate proportional to data size.

The time it took to configure the pi’s was measured in hopes of establishing a meaningful relationship between threat count, and number of solutions deployed.

sTAMD CostSimulations Model

Looking Ahead

With this in mind, we anticipate semiautonomous security systems to take the place of traditional response-based threat management. Not only is the process more efficient, but it seeks to improve quality of life for employees in the field, as well as the overall uptime of associated services.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 48

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

AUTHORS: Paul DeGrazia Pirro Shtino Trent Taylor


Interpretable Reinforcement Learning with Ensemble Methods

Winning Project

COMPUTER SCIENCE-RESEARCH

2018

49 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Interpretable Reinforcement Learning with Ensemble Methods Alexander Brown and Marek Petrik Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire

Motivation

• Reinforcement learning continues to set new bounds on what is possible, recently with AlphaGo and AlphaGo Zero • Sometimes we need more than a black box • Healthcare – allocate scarce medical resources to handle rare ER cases • Targeted advertising, finance, etc. • Prior work focuses independently on humaninterpretability and reinforcement learning

Reinforcement Learning Paradigm Environment

Benchmarks

Approach

• Decision trees are naturally human-interpretable • Policy gradient descent can be used for reinforcement learning • Classification methods can be used for policy iteration algorithms

Figure 2: Cart-Pole diagram

Figure 1: Regression tree from a cart-pole ensemble

Results

Decision trees

• A reinforcement learning problem has the form of an agent choosing actions in an environment and getting some reward • A solution is a policy describing which action to choose in every state

Mountain Car SARSA Rewards 0

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Further Research

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research for facilitating the SURF program, and Mr. Dana Hamel and Brad Larsen for their generosity.

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Figure 3: Mountain Car Diagram

• Mountain Car Environment • State: Car position, car velocity • Actions: Apply force forward or backward • Goal: Drive the car up the taller hill (the hill is too tall to drive straight up)

• Cart-Pole environment • State: Cart position, cart velocity, pole angle, pole angular velocity • Actions: Move the cart left or right • Goal: Keep the pole upright as long as possible

Reward

ADVISOR: Marek Petrik

We propose to use boosted regression trees as a way to compute humaninterpretable solutions to reinforcement learning problems. Boosting combines several regression trees to improve their accuracy without significantly reducing their inherent interpretability. Prior work has focused independently on reinforcement learning and on interpretable machine learning, but there has been little progress in interpretable reinforcement learning. Our experimental results show that boosted regression trees compute solutions that are both interpretable and match the quality of leading reinforcement learning methods.

Reward

AUTHOR: Alexander Brown

• Policy gradient boosting was able to learn in the cart-pole environment • Unable to match performance of the neural network

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AUTHORS: James Bowden Zachary Ivey

This was created for use with the Facebook Capture the Flag: Game Masters Northeast Collegiate Cyber Defense NECCDC James Bowden & Zachary Ivey Sponsor: Ken Graf Competition, or the NECCDC 2018 event, Department of Computer Science, University of New Hampshire but can be used for any implementation Introduction Results Discussion the New England Collegiate Cyber of Facebook Capture the Flag, or FBCTF. During ❏On March 18 2018, NECCDC Game Defense Competition or the NECCDC, Masters held the Capture the Flag teams of ten competed to “conquer competition. During the NECCDC, twelve teams of twelve the world”. Each question that they ❏The event ran for an hour. correctly captures the respective ❏12 teams of 8 to 10 students competed. ten competed to “conquer the world”. answer country, awarding them points, in addition ❏Team Wario won with 10130 point, to incrementing points from holding bases Second place was taken by team Facebook Capture the Flag or FBCTF has Each question that they answer correctly Sephiroth with 9000 points. some limitations: ❏It only allows for one question to be Methods captures the respective country, entered in at a time. ❏The process for entering in a question is ❏The provisioning script was created to awarding them points, in addition to long and tedious.There close to 180 automate the installation and start up of countries. FBCTF servers, so that future FBCTF ❏If you use the same country in two incrementing points from holding bases. events can be created easier. different questions or bases, it will crash ❏The question import script was created to the game. automate inserting questions from a self Currently, FBCTF only allows you to enter validating CSV file to the MySQL Database. in one question or one base at a time, ❏The System Manager Script was written Goals to automatically create a base out of any ❏Participants to network with people and it is a long and tedious process. Due new server. outside of their schools. ❏ To test their Cyber Security knowledge. to the number of countries that are in Contacts ❏Participants to have a fun time competing against each other. the game, it is necessary to automate the For more information contact: James Bowden: Jmb2017@wildcats.unh.edu process for uploading questions. In order Zachary Ivey: Zji2001@wildcats.unh.edu to successfully upload all of the questions into the database, the questions have to be stored in a format checking csv file. As for the bases, we now only need a list of IP addresses for the servers that will be the bases. The provisioning script was created to automate the installation and start up of FBCTF servers, so that future FBCTF events can be created easier. th

ADVISOR: Kenneth Graf

.

Living Bridge Database Reconstruction AUTHORS: Christopher Brown Rachel Karp Melissa Steinberg Jorge Velazquez

The Living Bridge Database collects data Living Bridge Database Reconstruction from the Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth, Information Technology tracking both water and bridge activity Details Summary through various sensors incremented in five minute intervals. Eventually data from both the platform and the bridge itself Queries will be kept within the database, however we are tasked with solely reconstructing ADVISORS: the water sensor data storage system Scott Valcourt from the bridge. Currently, the data Kaelin Chancey collected by the multiple sensors on the platform is organized in a way that forces Objectives Future Work researchers to pass the data through a number of complicated MatLab scripts Technologies Deployed before the data is able to be used. This, in addition to the large volume of data being collected, causes researchers to have to work with a system that simply does not fit the needs of the project. The overall objective of the database redesign project is to minimize the amount of time that researchers spend manipulating the data, allowing researchers to focus on data Honorable Mention analysis. Long term, the estuary database associated with the Memorial Bridge will become accessible to more researchers who can work with the data every day, as well as the public who will have full access to Project the information captured. Authors: Chris Brown, Jorge Velazquez, Melissa Steinberg, Rachel Karp Sponsors: Scott Valcourt, Kaelin Chancey

By reorganizing the database, researchers now have unprecedented usability with the data collected from the Living Bridge. Now the amount of time it takes for researchers to manipulate the data is decreased, giving them more time to focus on more relevant details.

The Living Bridge project creates a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy, by transforming the landmark Portsmouth Memorial Bridge into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community at large.

A top priority was to align similar data into the same tables to make information comparison through SQL queries more efficient.

Analysis of the existing data storage system revealed: ● Organization issues ● Inefficient practices for data download ● Absence of predefined queries ● Outsourced to third pary vendor

● Development of a new schema ● Creating a database backup and transferring onto a Linux virtual machine ● Setting up Microsoft SQL Server ● Creating the new tables ● Migrating data into the new tables ● Creating SQL queries to simplify data manipulation

SELECT [timestamp], timestamp_utc, ADCP1EARTH_VEL_X_VAL FROM dbo.ADCP1_EARTHVEL_X WHERE LEFT(timestamp_utc, 10) BETWEEN ‘2017-07-10’ AND ‘2017-07-24’;

● VMWare

● Box

● Fedora Linux

● Trello

● Microsoft SQL Server

● DBeaver

● Transfer reconfigured tables from static to dynamic data ● Eliminate use of any third-party storage technologies ● Store bridge, platform, and underwater camera footage on UNH servers ● Data eventually accessible via livingbridge.unh.edu in CSV format ● Incorrect data collection flagging system

This project was partially funded by the National Science Foundation under award IIP-1430260.

2018

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 50

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

Facebook Capture the Flag: NECCDC Game Masters


AUTHORS: Tyler Bedgood Kirk Sandstrom Ian Wallace ADVISOR: Christina Dube

Since the widespread emergence of Open Source IoT Network Using LoRaWAN Authors: Ian Wallace, Tyler Bedgood, Kirk Sandstrom Sponsor: Chris Dube the Internet of Things (IoT), a need for College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 a new wireless protocol has arisen. Introduction Hardware This protocol must be able to connect low power, battery operated, devices over long ranges; at the same time, it must also allow for secure bidirectional communication between devices. Enter Software LoRaWAN, an open source protocol designed specifically for the Internet of Things to tackle these very issues. The long range of this networking protocol Dashboard (up to 10 miles), makes it ideal for easily deploying and connecting IoT devices in a mesh network. Currently, the UNH Connectivity Research Center (CRC) uses a proprietary, closed source solution provided by a third party company for interfacing with IoT sensors using the LoRaWAN network. The goal of this project is to the provide the CRC with a customized, scalable, solution for interfacing with sensors around campus using the LoRaWAN network. This will allow the CRC to take full ownership of the network. Additionally, a CRC web dashboard will display real time data from IoT sensors all around the UNH campus. Place your Project Logo Here

Network Diagram

mDot : Device that interprets code from the sensor and sends it to the gateway over LoRa

The UNH Connectivity Research Center (CRC) is currently seeking networking solutions for communicating with various IoT devices around campus. Our goal for this project is to utilize the LoRaWAN protocol to create a customized and scalable IoT network for the CRC. This will allow our devices to communicate over long ranges (up to 10 miles) while maintaining energy efficiency.

Gateway : Low-powered Linux computer with accessory slots for a LoRa antenna.

Gateway Bridge : This takes the LoRa frames and translates them into JSON, which is then sent over HTTP.

LoRa Server : This is in charge of deduplicating the uplinks from the devices and scheduling the downlinks.

Displaying Data

LoRa-App-Server : This is the bulk of the administration panel. It allows creation of projects, nodes, and gateways to be used.

Raspberry Pi : Sits between the gateway and the web server. Listens for the message broker running on the gateway, runs the administrative software, and has databases of the information. Server : This is a simple web server running PHP.

Technologies

● Responsible for displaying data from sensors

Moisture Levels

● Data displayed both numerically and graphically ● Underlying structure designed using PHP ● Bootstrap on top for increased usability ● Allows for multiple types of data

● Modular code to benefit future administrators

Moisture Level

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

Open Source IoT Network Using LoRaWAN

Time

Living Bridge Alert System AUTHOR: Zachary Girard ADVISORS: Ian Gagnon Collette Powers

Zachary Girard The Living Bridge Project aims to convert Advisors: Ian Gagnon, ColleYe Powers the Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth, NH Living Bridge Alert System into a self-diagnosing, self-reporting, selfBACKGROUND FLO CHART sustaining “Smart Bridge.” To do this the RESULTS The Living Bridge Project aims to convert •  SMS Gateway Domain: bridge has been outfitted with sensors the Memorial Bridge in Portsmouth, NH into Allows a computer to send or receive a self-diagnosing, self-repor,ng, selfa Short Message Service transmission to or sustaining “Smart Bridge.” To do this the monitoring the bridge structure and from a telecommunica,ons network. bridge has been ouXiYed with sensors EX: server.sendmail( <number>@vtext.com) monitoring the bridge structure and a a platform, which houses instruments plaXorm, which houses instruments that •  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): monitor the ,dal currents in the river that monitor the tidal currents in the below. The plaXorm will eventually include An internet standard for electronic mail a ,dal turbine, which will generate energy transmission. from the current. river below. The platform will eventually EX: to =[‘person1@example.com”] include a tidal turbine, which will generate PROBLEM OBTAINING THE DATA energy from the current. An alert system •  There is no ac,ve monitoring of the Interface: A point where two was developed and implemented. The system. systems meet and interact. •  Data repor,ng is only passive. alert system will notify project personnel •  Goal is to create an alert system that What is HTTP? ac,vely monitors the sensors. •  Enables communica,on between clients and servers. if data readings go outside of acceptable Get: to request data from the ranges, or do not record, which both server. could be an indication of the bridge, the tidal turbine, and any of the instruments malfunctioning. This system will help minimize the downtime of instruments and enable project personnel to more responsibly operate the tidal turbine by creating automated notifications of system malfunction.

“This project was par,ally funded by the Na,onal Science Founda,on under award IIP-1430260.”

51 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHOR: Colin Dorsey ADVISOR: David Woolf

NVMe drives, which are solid state NVMe Power State Transition Testing Project done by Colin Dorsey drives that connect to the PCIe bus, are Sponsored by David Woolf & the InterOperability Laboratory the fastest growing market in the data storage industry. The University of New Hampshire InterOperability Lab (IOL) has a testing service for NVMe drives. The main focus of this project was to create new tests that dealt with the lack of coverage for Power States that the testing suite lacked before. Power States dictate how much power an NVMe drive consumes and the expected performance of the NVMe drive. Comprehensive testing of Power States benefits the NVMe community in both consumer based drives (laptop hibernating) and enterprise based drives (giant data centers consuming huge amounts of power). These tests will be implemented partly in the subscription based IOL-INTERACT software and partly in the IOL in-house testing process. Through these tests, complete coverage of how Power States behave according to the NVMe specification can be verified. Introduction

Problem: There was not full coverage for testing NVMe Power States in the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory’s NVMe testing suite.

Why this is important: • NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) drives are solid state drives that are connected through the PCIe bus. • NVMe drives are projected to be the fastest growing market share of the data storage industry. NVMe drives contain a feature called Power States, that lets the drive switch between two different Power States that have different attributes, such as read and write latency, read and write throughput, and the amount of power that the drive require. • Practical applications include laptop lids closing, which makes the drive draw less power, to controlling tens of thousands of drives consuming massive amounts of power in a giant server farm.

Conformance Testing

Base Software Explanation • The tests for Conformance testing were implemented on the IOL Interact Base software. • IOL-Interact is regularly updated and distributed to customers. • Contains over 150 different tests for different of NVMe features.

Tested Features Description • Non-Operational Power States: Making sure that drives were not able to perform disk operations while in a Non Operational Power State. • Host Controlled Thermal Management: Making sure that drives behave properly when they respond to different temperatures. • Power State Transition Latency: Changing Power States under time. • Power State Throughput: Measuring different Power States read and write throughput against each other.

Interop Testing Description

• Interop testing is I/O testing to the disk under different circumstances. • The methods of interop developed for this project are designed around changing the power state of the computer, and making sure the NVMe drive is still functional after state change. • The different kind of power state changes include complete shutdown, restart, hibernation, and sleep. • To make the power cycling automatic, a microcontroller is wired to the power button, to “press” the power button to transition the computers state. Startup scripts run I/O testing and then return the computer back to the desired state. • To pass the testing, the drive must be able to be discovered by the computer and have I/O testing run against it when the computer is in an operating state.

The solution: The solution to the lack of testing is to use the NVMe specification to develop a full suite of tests for the power state features required and approved by industry.

Above: IOL – Interact Software running

Test tools and Verification

I/O Verification – VDBench – VDBench is a feature rich open source I/O testing program, that will work on any platform. Conformance Verification tnvme and dnvme – library and driver that let you formulate very in depth NVMe commands and have complete control over the driver. Written in C/C++.

NVMe CLI- Command line interface to the default linux kernel NVMe driver, created by Intel for NVMe testing. Teledyne LeCroy PCIe Analyzer – Generates and analyzes PCIe traffic with full and comprehensive traces.

Conclusion

• After comprehensive review, the new test were accepted by the official NVMe industry group. • The conformance tests have been . designed, documented, developed, and integrated into IOL-NTERACT NVME testing suite and recently released to storage industry. • Tests will be used in two upcoming industry test events at IOL and at an official NVMe industry event in China. • A proof of concept for the new interop setup has been completed.

Northeast Collegiate Cyber Defence Competition Black Team AUTHORS: Methodius Kpan Benjamin Leland ADVISOR: Kenneth Graf

This Spring, the University of New Northeast Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (NECCDC) Black Team Hampshire hosted the annual Northeast Department of Computer Science/Information Technology Project Team Members: Ben Leland & Methodius Kpan Collegiate Cyber Competition. Project Advisor: Ken Graf Competing universities sent student Background: teams of cybersecurity experts to Project Goals: This March, UNH hosted the annual Infrastructure The purpose of this project was to New England Collegiate Cyber complete a series of computer security facilitate the deployment and to Defense Competition. Ten challenges. In an effort to reduce costs competing Universities sent student monitor each team’s PC clusters, as well as to introduce exploits for the teams of cybersecurity experts to and remain current, the infrastructure complete a series of computer competing teams to overcome. security challenges. this year was almost entirely cloudbased. By heavily utilizing Amazon Web Ansible: It is an automation platform that Services, we were able to cut costs and deploys configurations to multiple computers simultaneously. Specific provide a more real-world experience sets of instructions called Playbooks are sent from a host computer to to the contestants. Moving the bulk of multiple computers to be executed. the processing to the cloud allowed for us to focus on the physical equipment: Conclusion: Tremendous amount of time was saved by changing the configuration of 80 the networking gear and the team separate computers simultaneously by using Ansible playbooks rather than configuring each individual computers. Also by hosting all services in computers. The purpose of our project physically the cloud, using Amazon Web Services, costs was greatly cut down. was to facilitate the deployment and monitoring of the team PC clusters, as well as introducing exploits for the team to overcome. # Notes: # In order to promote a host to a domain controller, it must have a local administrator password set that meets # password complexity requirements (typically, 8 chars, 1 lowercase, 1 uppercase, 1 num/special char) # cmd: net user administrator * - hosts: windows-clients remote_user: admin gather_facts: no

tasks: - name: Join Domain script: ../scripts/Join-Domain.ps1 {{ domainname }} {{ domaincontrollerip }} {{ username }} {{ password }}

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 52

COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

NVMe Power State Transition Testing


COMPUTER SCIENCE-SYSTEMS

Packaging the UNH-IOL iSCSI Testing Tool AUTHOR: Aaron Morneau ADVISOR: David Woolf

The UNH-IOL provides testing services for its vendor companies. One such testing service is iSCSI testing that is run using a set of software tools that emulate iSCSI devices. These emulated devices then connect to whichever device is being tested. Output of the testing is then provided to the user. Currently, many of the UNH-IOL’s vendor companies wish to acquire this tool for themselves to enable them to perform testing internally at their own convenience.

Objectives

Packaging the UNH-IOL iSCSI Test Tool

Simplifying Installation Installation of this test tool was more challenging than was desirable. The three tools needed to be abstracted into a single entity that is installed in a single step. This is done through the creation of a convenient installer script that compiles and builds each component of the test tool separately, while also performing the file and directory management that was once required of the user.

Protecting the Application

Project

Purpose

Members of the UNH-IOL iSCSI Testing Service have requested that they be given direct access to the UNH-IOL’s iSCSI Testing Tool. In providing this, the iSCSI Testing Service will shift its focus away from primarily providing direct in-person testing solutions towards a licensed software-based solution.

Most members find it too logistically challenging to utilize the Remote Test Server that we offer. Furthermore, iSCSI devices can be too expensive and bulky for it to be desirable to ship devices to the IOL. Members want a consistent and immediate way to verify the quality of their iSCSI device without having to wait on the turnaround time of a formal report.

To ensure this application is not stolen, licensing software is included in both QTestor and Testor. Furthermore, each script is stored in encrypted form and decrypted at runtime. With these changes, all three components of the application are protected.

General Improvements There are some design aspects of the functionality of this test tool that presume complete familiarity from the user. Consequently, there are numerous flaws in the UI that make it unsuitable for commercial use. These flaws are remedied in the final build of my project.

Before the tool can be given to the UNHIOL’s vendors, it needs to be improved. Several UI bug fixes and design changes need to be made to make the application Project by: Aaron Morneau Computer Science Department Advisor: David Woolf more aesthetically professional. To facilitate its packaging, an installation script is created so that the installation process becomes more user friendly. To protect the source code from theft, each test script written in an interpreted language is encrypted, then decrypted and read at runtime. To ensure the tool is only usable to vendors who are actively paying the recurring membership fee, licensing software is attached. How it works:

The graphical improvements, packaging, and licensing implementation will enable the UNH-IOL to provide this test tool to its vendor companies as part of their membership fee.

Indoor Wayfinding for UNH Library Resources AUTHOR: Andrew Hebert ADVISOR: Scott Valcourt

Mobile mapping applications have become second-nature for us. Global Indoor Wayfinding for UNH Library Resources Andrew Hebert and Advisor Scott Valcourt Positioning System (GPS) technology Abstract Development helps us to find the right way after getting lost on the open road, identifying the quickest route to take. Indoors, we can use similar interfaces, along with Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) technology, Goal to triangulate a user’s position and find the best way to missing items inside buildings where it may be easy to get lost. The BlueDot Indoor Location Service from Meridian uses BLE embedded in Configuration Future Implementations Aruba Networks’ Wireless Access Points (WAP) throughout the Dimond Library to triangulate locations of mobile devices and small wireless tags. These tags can be attached to objects to track and share their locations as they move, helping staff with the regular task of finding missing whiteboards by placing a “blue dot” representing the object on a map within a mobile application. Using the same technology, students can use the app to find their way to study rooms and bookshelves. The app has been designed with the Meridian SDK to display object locations on each floor. As the user selects a location, a blue dot will appear, and a path shows the way from the user’s current location. By placing a blue dot on the item of interest, students and staff no longer need to be lost in the library. Mapping systems using GPS technology help us find the right way after getting lost on the open road. Indoors, we can use similar interfaces, along with Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) technology, to triangulate a user’s position and find the best way to missing items. The BluDot Indoor Location Service from Meridian uses BLE embedded in Aruba Networks’ Wireless Access Points (WAP) throughout the Dimond Library to triangulate locations of mobile devices and small wireless tags.

The Meridian SDK for Android and iOS gives a set of tools for developing a mapping interface for displaying tags, accessing user location, and displaying waypoints through the Meridian API. Customization allowed for extra features that added to the app’s functionality: • Filtering: show only selected objects (object type, size, etc) • Searching: specific objects and stationary targets (rooms) • Call numbers: find a book by translating to its bookshelf location

The project was intended to create an interface to find movable whiteboards, and the library staff identified several other features that would be useful for both staff and students. Two components of the Meridian API were used to achieve this:

• Asset tracking: locating moving objects with wireless BLE tags • Wayfinding: displaying a path between user’s location and target

Each of the WAPs delivering WiFi to the Dimond Library are capable of using BLE to triangulate positions Aruba wireless tags or mobile phones using the app. To configure the system:

With the system in place, new custom location features can be implemented within the existing app or in other buildings. The AppMaker can create mobile apps from pre-defined templates, and the new REST API could be used for other types of web applications.

• Floorplans for each map are added to the Meridian system • Each of the library’s access points is assigned a relative location • Temporary access points were installed on floors 4 and 5 to account for blind-spots from the dense collection of books • Aruba relay beacons can also be used to extend range

Tracking equipment, finding a book, or simply finding your way to a study room can be made easy within a familiar interface.

This project was partially funded by the National Science Foundation under award OAC-1659377

Winning Project

2018

53 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Detection of Repeating Earthquakes within the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 2013-2014 Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network Data Liam F. Kenefic (lfk2000@wildcats.unh.edu)1, Emily A. Morton2, Susan L. Bilek2 1: Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 2: Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM

4

6

BABR

• Previous studies suggest that the fault zone is segmented along-strike with discrete fully locked sections separated by areas of partially creeping zones (Figure 1). These studies suggest that the locked portion is completely offshore, making it potentially difficult for land stations to detect small earthquakes in the offshore locked zone.

• Unlike most other subduction zones where there are two aseismic zones and a seismic zone between the two (Figure 2), Cascadia is proposed to have one seismic zone reaching the trench and one aseismic zone below it.

• Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), as part of the Cascadian Initiative Amphibious Network, were installed above the inferred seismogenic zone. Because of their position above the locked zone, these stations may be better at detecting smaller offshore earthquakes.

0

-20

Oceanic Plate

Aseismic Zone

Figure 2: An example sketch of a classic subduction zone with two aseismic zones (purple) seperated by one seismic zone (green).

2

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DEC 25 (359), 2013 4

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Time (Seconds)

• Templates were chosen from regional and national catalogs. In order to be chosen as a template, catalog hypocenter locations indicated a possible plate interface location. Template locations are shown in figure 4 as seismograms. Stations used for the study are also shown in figure 4.

Amplitude (Counts)

X 10+3

JAN 16 (016), 2014

APR 05 (095), 2014

APR 05 (095), 2014 07:28:47.886

JUN 01 (152), 2014

0

17:14:26.515

NOV 23 (327), 2013 00:45:29.651

2

4

6

Time (Seconds)

17:18:56.179

NOV 11 (315), 2013

07:03:43.582

APR 14 (104), 2014 17:50:50.753

DEC 25 (359), 2013 21:15:46.957

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4

D

03:25:44.888

50 0 -50 40

OCT 18 (291), 2013

MAR 06 (065), 2014

X 10+2

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Template Date and Time 09/01/13, 18:24:24 11/25/13, 21:15:36 11/23/13, 00:45:25 09/16/13, 08:05:42 01/07/14, 05:15:35

• Using a single week of each month of data the subspace detection was run using the templates to find a correlation value for the rest of the month using MatLab. How the subspace detection method works is depicted visually in figure 5.

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WISH Event Detections

40 0 -40 20 0 -20 2 0 -2 1 0 -1

SEP 16 (259), 2013 18:29:46.492

JAN 31 (031), 2014 23:24:31.367

APR 15 (105), 2014 02:24:40.290

MAY 03 (123), 2014 09:55:09.714

50 0 50

50 0 -50 2 0 -2 0

4 MAY 25 (145), 2014 15:04:14.816

SEP 16 (259), 2013 08:05:49.960

JAN 07 (007), 2014

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Number of Events Names of Stations Used BABR, J25C 63 M05C, M06C, RADR 17 6 LEBA WISH, LEBA, FN02C 10

Conclusion

• Using this correlation value, the full month-long subspace detection was run to find potential events.

• Data is from 64 OBS, a part of the Cascadian Initiative Amphibious Network that had roughly 70 km spacing between stations (Figure 3).

18

JAN 04 (004), 2014

Cluster Number 1 2 3

• Data was downloaded from IRIS and filtered to a bandwidth that would enhance the signal-to-noise ratio.

Figure 3: Map of oocean bottom seismometer and land station locations over the study period.

16

14:27:12.656

11:47:01.281

4 0 -4

Figure 6: Seismograms of detected events (black) and template events (red) comparing a few events with the template events from stations BABR (a), RADR (b), LEBA (c), and WISH (d).

Figure 4: Map of the Cascadia Zone depicting the locations of stations used as well as the origins of template events used. Red triangles represent OBS stations and blue triangles represent US land-based stations. Template event seismograms are labeled with station name and date of occurence.

−125˚

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Neptune Canada

• Using the five template events from the four clusters, a total of 96 potential new events have been identified from Cascadia Initiative year three data. The majority of the events are associated with the first cluster. The least number of events were found with the third cluster, totaling only six events.

• These potential events were then manually reviewed using SAC. Events that were visually similar to the template event were kept, while false detections and most events that were not similar were discarded.

• The Cascadia Initiative also includes 31 seismic stations from the EarthScope Transportable Array, and 128 stations from preexisting networks including the Global Seismic Network (IU), U.S. National Seismic Network (US), University of Washington/Pacific Northwest Regional Seismic Network (UW), Berkeley Digital Seismograph Network (BK), U.S. Geological Survey. Northern California Regional Network (NC), and University of Oregon Regional Network (UO).

Continental Plate

Seismic Zone

RADR BHZ

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Year 4 (7/11/14 - 9/1/15)

18:24:38.034

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LEBA Event Detections

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• Subduction zones create the largest earthquakes on earth. However, the Cascadian subduction zone has been seismically quiet since the last great earthquake, which occurred in 1700. This event was estimated to have a magnitude between 8.7-9.2.

OOI Cabled Network (8/1/14 - present)

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Year 1 (7/25/11 - 8/7/12)

Year 3 (8/2/13 - 7/3/14)

18:56:20.828

APR 14 (104), 2014

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NOV 23 (327), 2013

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−125˚

Figure 1: Segments along strike of the Cascadian subduction zone depicting high moment release areas modeled for the 1700 M9 event (pink), forarc basins (grey), and measured ETS recurrence, with the longest reccurence rate is along the middle of Cascadian subduction zone

18:18:02.476

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• Although some clusters did not produce many detected events, 96 new events were detected overall, which is an implication that there are many events that had previously gone undetected. As only four of the 15 clusters were completed in this study, there may be many more new events detected.

detection window

H0: noise only

H1: signal + noise

Acknowledgments

s

a [n]

U

a1[n]

Signal model: s = U a [n]

-I would like to thank the Incorporated Research Institute for Seismology (IRIS) for the opportunity to work in the field of seismology within this program. -I would also like to thank Dr. Susan Bilek for the funding she provided for this research as part of the NSF-OCE-143455 grant -Finally, I would like to thank PhD candidate Emily Morton for all the assistance and direction which she provided throughout my time working on the project.

a2[n] a3[n]

UT U = I

• This study uses only three OBS and four land stations from the UW network, using data between August 2nd, 2013 and July 1st, 2014.

a4[n]

Figure 5: Visualization of how the subspace detection method works. Showing the detected event (s) and sum of the weighted template events (U)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aquatic Sediment Incubations Rivers and streams are often net sources Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aquatic Sediment Incubations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere because of the biogeochemical activity within their sediments. Yet, little is known about how gas production varies along a headwater stream reach. Headwater streams often flow through a diverse array of habitats with varying flow conditions such as wetlands, beaver ponds, reservoirs, floodplains, or other impoundments. The primary research objective is to examine how greenhouse gas production varies between sediments in channelized segments of the stream and sediments underlying pooled segments of the stream. On average, pooled sediments were observed to be more productive than channel sediments. Additionally, gas production displayed positive, linear increases with percent organic matter content of the sediment. The results of this study suggest that pooled segments of rivers and streams must not be overlooked when scaling for entire reach or network greenhouse gas production. Kyle Hacker1, Andrew Robison2, Wilfred Wollheim2

Department Natural Resources and the Environment (NREN), Environmental Science Major

Hypotheses

• Ponds will exhibit greater GHG emissions than flowing channel locations because of increased OM accumulation • OM content of the sediment will be the primary driver of GHG production • Microbes consume OM and respire CO2 under aerobic conditions and CH4 and N2O under anoxic conditions • As OM is processed, GHG production will increase but eventually plateau

0.140

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Cart Creek Sawmill channels Brook ponds

mg CH4/g sed/hr

Cart Creek

GWP equivalent (100 years) of average gas production

Sawmill Brook

Methods

• Two study locations: Cart Creek (CC) in the Parker River watershed and Sawmill Brook (SB) in the Ipswich river watershed • Sediment samples were gathered in the field twice (6/27 and 7/17) using mason jars • Overlying water was replaced with de-ionized water, the jars were sealed, and the incubation period began • Samples were analyzed for CH4 using a Gas Chromatograph, N2O using an ECD, and CO2 using a Licor machine • Headspace samples were drawn once every 3-4 days for the first batch (6/27) and twice daily for the second batch (7/17) with headspace being flushed after collection

mg CO2/g sed/hr

Sawmill Brook channels mg N2O/g sed/hr

Methane

Nitrous Oxide Carbon Dioxide

Cart Creek ponds

0.742

0.0684

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Cart Creek channels

3.048

0.0791

0.0394

Sawmill Brook ponds

3.859

0.1997

0.0136

Sawmill Brook channels

0.190

0.0344

0.0015

Figure 2. GHG production increases exponentially with organic matter availability within the sediment implying that OM content is a good indicator of GHG production

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R² = 0.7688

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R² = 0.5281 1.00E-04

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10.0

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2

Figure 3. Time-series of CH4 production suggests that respiration rates increase then decline as OM is consumed

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Cart Creek

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Table 1. Global warming potential (GWP) equivalents of GHG production show that CH4 and N2O emissions from the study streams are more significant than CO2 emissions [4]

Study Locations:

mg CH4/g sed/ day

0.0008

mg N2O/ g sed/ hour

• How does sediment greenhouse gas (GHG) production vary spatially and temporally over a segment of two headwater streams? • Do flowing streambed sediments emit similar amounts of GHGs relative to ponded streambed sediments? • How important is organic matter (OM) availability to GHG production?

0.160

mg gas/ g sed/ hour

Research Questions

NREN

2

Figure 1. Average GHG production is greater in channel sediments at CC and ponded sediments at SB with co-varying individual gas production suggesting that local sediment properties influence gas production

mg gas/ g sed/ hour

ADVISOR: Wilfred Wollheim Andrew Robison

Rivers and streams were once thought of as passive “pipes” that strictly transport materials to the ocean, however, it is now well understood that they are active areas of carbon processing and must be included in global carbon cycles [1][2][3]. The role that headwater streams play in carbon cycling is not well defined, especially considering that headwater stream networks are often dotted with various natural and man-made impoundments that alter flow conditions. Few studies isolate how much gases are produced by headwater streambed sediments and relate gas production to sediment properties and flow conditions.

6

days Sawmill Brook

8

10

Figure 4. Time-series of CO2 production suggests that as OM is consumed, respiration rates increase, then decline

mg CO2 /g sed/ day

1

Rationale

mg N2O/ g sed/ hour

AUTHOR: Kyle Hacker

0

2

4

Cart Creek

6

days Sawmill Brook

8

10

Discussion

• CO2 absolute values are not what is expected but patterns are still legitimate • One channelized segment of CC exhibited the greatest overall GHG production along the study reach • Ponded stream sediments are not necessarily more productive than channels at CC, inconsistent with the hypothesis • Sawmill Brook ponds were much more productive than channels supporting the hypothesis • Strong exponential relationships between GHG production and OM content of the sediment supports the hypothesis • CH4 and CO2 production increases with time but begins to level off or even decline, consistent with hypothesis • More time is needed to fully support hypothesis • N2O production did not display any pattern with time • Headwater streams are active carbon processors and may be significant sources of GHGs with high global warming potential to the atmosphere • The effect of impoundments must be considered when modeling GHG production on the river network scale

Works Cited

[1] Aufdenkampe, A.K., Mayorga, E., Raymond, P.A., Melack, J.M., Doney, S.C., Alin, S.R., Aalto, R.E. and Yoo, K., 2011. Riverine coupling of biogeochemical cycles between land, oceans, and atmosphere. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(1), pp.53-60. [2] Bastviken, D., Tranvik, L.J., Downing, J.A., Crill, P.M. and Enrich-Prast, A., 2011. Freshwater methane emissions offset the continental carbon sink. Science, 331(6013), pp.50-50. [3] Cole, J.J., Prairie, Y.T., Caraco, N.F., McDowell, W.H., Tranvik, L.J., Striegl, R.G., Duarte, C.M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J.A., Middelburg, J.J. and Melack, J., 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems, 10(1), pp.172-185. [4] Myhre, G., D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura and H. Zhang, 2013: Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 54

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

M05C

Amplitude (Counts)

ETS Recurrence (months)

10

LEBA RADR

12

20:52:04.429

DEC 19 (353), 2013

X 10+2 X 10+2

10

8

SEP 11 (254), 2013

Amplitude (Counts)

6

LEBA HHZ

6

SEP 16 (259), 2013 4

X 10+2 X 10+2

WISH

-50

X 10+2

0

2

40˚

12

50

-100

50˚

10

8

7D Stations UW Stations Template Events Cluster Locations

Dataset

20

6

WISH BHZ

100

Amplitude (Counts)

4

B

BABR Event Detections

5 0 -5 1 0 -1

X 10+2

2

JAN 07 (007), 2014

50

• Better understanding of margin segmentation and seismicity may provide insight into future great earthquakes.

15

A

WISH BHZ

0

• Using the subspace detection method, it is possible that more events can be detected, thus improving our understanding of the margin segmentation and identifying areas of clustered seismicity.

45˚

Results

Methods

2

-2

X 10+2

Motivation

• This project looks to use these Cascadia Initiative OBS to find new events using the subspace detection method. This method is an improved model of the cross correlation method that uses single templates.

X 10+2

Introduction

50˚

X 10+2

ADVISORS: Susan Bilek Margaret Boettcher

It is well known that subduction zones Detection of Repeating Earthquakes within the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 2013-2014 Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network Data create the largest earthquakes on Earth. However, off the coast of the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) remains relatively quiet and modern seismic instruments have not recorded large earthquakes in this zone. Previous studies suggest the margin is most likely segmented alongstrike. However, variations in frictional conditions in the CSZ fault zone are not well known. Geodetic modeling indicates that the locked seismogenic zone is likely completely offshore, which may to far from land seismometers to adequately detect related seismicity. Ocean bottom seismometers, as part of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network, were installed directly above the inferred seismogenic zone, to better detect small interplate seismicity. Using the subspace detection method, this study looks to find new seismogenic zone earthquakes. The presence of repeating event clusters can indicate persistent seismic patches, likely corresponding to areas of stronger coupling. This work will ultimately improve the understanding of CSZ fault zone heterogeneity. Preliminary results gathered indicate 96 possible new events between August 2, 2013 and July 1, 2014 for four target clusters off the coast of northern Oregon. X 10+2

AUTHOR: Liam Kenefic


What is Forest Diversity? AUTHOR: Kaitlyn Baillargeon ADVISOR: Scott Ollinger

Biodiversity is an important characteristic What is Forest Diversity? of ecological communities that describes the species composition, genetics, and structure. There are other diversity metrics that can be used in conjunction with biodiversity to describe a community. These metrics include the diversity of the community’s structure, functions, phylogenetics, and spectral properties. What we want to know is how these different diversity metrics are related to each other and if they provide similar information. To answer this, we looked at how a forest can be characterized by comparing the different metrics of diversity related to the forest’s dominant species; trees. Using tree inventory data from over 400 30m by 30m plots at Bartlett Experimental Forest, we characterized each plot by its structural, spectral, functional, phylogenetic, and biodiversity. We tested for correlations between all diversity metrics to understand the similarities or the uniqueness of each metric. We discovered that only functional and biodiversity were moderately correlated. None of the other diversity metrics showed significant relationships with the other metrics. Therefore, we can conclude that each diversity metric provides unique information about the forest that can be used in various relevant applications. Kaitlyn Baillargeon, Scott Ollinger, Andrew Ouimette, Rebecca Sanders-DeMott, Franklin Sullivan, Zaixing Zhou, Michael Palace Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space and Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Background:

Diversity Metrics (cont.):

• Diversity is a key component of ecosystems which describes variation and complexity within communities. • Maintaining high forest diversity offers many tangible benefits including: o Sustainable forest management o Increased timber production o Maximized carbon storage capacity to reduce global atmospheric CO2 o Protection against biotic and climatic disturbances o Increased efficiency in resource use such as water, light, and nutrients

2) Functional Diversity: (Variation in species traits that describe their functional attributes (e.g. their ability to capture light, transport water, acquire nutrients). (1) Wood anatomy

Results:

(2) Leaf Types

(3) Mycorrhizae Fungi

1.

What are different metrics that can be used to describe forest diversity?

2.

Are these different metrics of diversity strongly correlated to one another or do they each contain unique information about forest complexity?

Study Site:

Structural

Spectral

Phylogenetic

C

Figure 7: (A, B) Correlations of diversity metrics. (A) Functional diversity plotted against species diversity (R2 = 0.57, P-value = <.0001. (B) Spectral diversity plotted against species diversity (R2 = 0.018, P-value = 0.0057). (C) Principle component analysis (PCA) showing relationships between the 5 diversity metrics.

Low

High

Data Sources: • • •

Functional

Species

Figure 3: Functional traits of trees associated acquisition of water, light, and nutrients. (1) Two of the three xylem types used to transport water. (2) The two most common leaf types; needles leaves (top) and broad leaves (bottom). (3) Trees vary in the type of mycorrhizal fungi used to obtain growth-limiting nutrients.

3) Structural Diversity: Variation in tree shape, size, and arrangement. Measured through LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and ground measurements. Characterized by variation in tree height, diameter, crown width and overall spatial arrangement.

Figure 1: Map of Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) showing the species composition distribution and the 400+ inventory plots

2003 BEF inventory data of species composition and abundance 2014 Lidar data obtained through the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Hyperspectral reflectance imagery from SpecTIR (commercial airborne flight)

Conclusions:

Figure 4: Comparison between a uniform forest with low structural diversity (top) and a forest with trees varying in heights and widths to show a high diversity in structure (bottom).

4) Phylogenetic Diversity: Variation in taxonomic groups by traced through evolutionary history.

Quantification of Diversity:

• Each of 5 diversity metrics were calculated using one of the following indices: o Shannon H Index: H = -∑(Pi * ln Pi) where Pi is the proportional number of species, groups, classes: Pi = ni/N o Faith’s PD: sum of the branch lengths in the minimum spanning path o Standard Deviation of reflectance values

1) Species Diversity: (the variation in species composition) A

50% of the variation found in functional diversity and 40% of the variation found in phylogenetic diversity can be explained by species diversity.

Spectral and structural diversity are related to one another when run through the PCA but they do not share a strong relationship with other diversity metrics.

We conclude that each metric contains unique information than can’t fully be explained by the other diversity metrics.

Next Steps:

• Quantify forest diversity in New England and the US.

Figure 5: “Family tree” of all tree species found in BEF

5) Spectral Diversity: Variation in light reflectance based on infrared radiation (IR) and visible light waves. Spectral imagery is one of the most common methods used to map species across broad scales.

5 Diversity Metrics:

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

B

A

Research Questions:

• Search for other diversity metrics that characterize forests.

• Explore the possibility of combining multiple diversity metrics into one supermetric and assess its usefulness. • Investigate approaches to quantify diversity metrics at large scales.

B

Acknowledgments:

Figure 2: (A) Example of a low diversity forest where only conifer species are present. (B) Example of a diverse forest with a mixture of broad leaved tree species and conifer species.

A big thank you to Andy Ouimette and Rebecca Sanders-DeMott for their guidance in this project, Scott Ollinger for giving me this opportunity, and Frankie Sullivan and Zaixing Zhou for their assistance in the data calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number (1638688). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Partial funding was also provided by the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, the Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research program (NSF 1114804), and the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research program. We also acknowledge the help and support of infrastructure and staff at Bartlett Experimental Forest.

Figure 6: Areal image of a forest showing a true color image (top) against a false color image (bottom). True color images show reflectance values based on visible light reflectance while false color images show near IR light waves that are not visible to the naked eye.

Spatial Conductance in the Lamprey River Watershed Specific conductance, which measures Specific Conductance in the Lamprey River Watershed the presence of dissolved ions that Brian Hauschild, B.S. Environmental Science: Hydrology, bkh2000@wildcats.unh.edu Advisor: Anne Lightbody, Associate Professor of Hydrology, Department of Earth Science increase salinity, is a valuable indicator Specific Conductance Spatial Trends of water quality. High salinity levels can threaten sensitive aquatic species. This project focuses on a long-term S record of specific conductance within the Lamprey River, which is one of New ¯ Hampshire’s two Wild and Scenic rivers. Discharge Relationship Temporal Trends Elevated specific conductance levels Data Analysis Methods were found downstream of urban land cover, likely due to increased road salt usage in those areas. In addition, a Management Implications References dilution relationship, in which increased k discharge was correlated with lower specific conductance levels, was Acknowledgements k observed in both winter and summer months, suggesting that groundwater is the primary source of dissolved ions throughout the year. Future changes in land use may increase loading of road salt, and future increases in precipitation may increase delivery to water bodies. Therefore, it is important to take steps to mitigate salt pollution of the Lamprey River. Land Cover Type

ADVISOR: Anne Lightbody

Station Averages

Forest

Specific Conductance (µS/cm)

Water

Less than 80

Urban

• Measure of dissolved ions that increase salinity • Elevated by application of sodium chloride on roads for wintertime ice management • No significant natural removal processes • Class B New Hampshire surface water quality standard is 230 mg/L (835 µS/cm), but deleterious effects start at 100 µS/cm (Environment Canada, 2001) • Concern in rapidly urbanizing southeastern New Hampshire (Daley et al., 2009)

200

81 to 120

Agriculture

180

121 to 180

Greater than 181

Packers Falls

Specific conductance (µS/cm)

AUTHOR: Brian Hauschild

160 140

Summer Watersheds y = 1230.9x - 34.701 R² = 0.6351 Winter Watersheds y = 569.11x + 11.454 R² = 0.5303

120 100

Summer Watersheds Winter Watersheds Summer Near Channel Winter Near Channel

80 60

Summer Near Channel y = 275.41x + 67.055 R² = 0.4311

40 20

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Winter Near Channel y = 152.16x + 53.458 R² = 0.5122

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Urban land cover fraction

2

4

6

8 Miles

Specific conductance (µS/cm)

1000

• Used data downloaded from New Hampshire Environmental Monitoring Database and EPA STORET • Publicly available, quality-controlled grab samples • 22 stations with repeated specific conductance measurements (>37) for 1990-2013 • Analyzed data using Microsoft Excel and ArcMap 10.5 • Separated data by season and discharge condition

Specific conductance (µS/cm)

Winter

Summer

Winter

32 28

600

24

500

20

400

16

300

12

200

8

100

Winter

0.01

Summer Low FlowSummer High Flow Winter y = 142.74x-0.19 y = 129.11x-0.167 y = 136.1x-0.163 R² = 0.1643 R² = 0.0886 R² = 0.1206

0.1

1

10

Discharge on day of sampling (m3/s)

100

1000

400 350 300 250 200

50000

Historical Summer Low Flow Summer High Flow Winter Population

45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000

150

15000

100

10000

50

5000

0 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

Time series of specific conductance from 1950-2013, including historical data from Daley et al. (2009). There has been a significant increase since 1950 (MannKendall p=0.0005), but levels have stabilized since 1990 (MannKendall p>0.05).

• Salt loading throughout the entire watershed contributes to elevated specific conductance in rivers, especially during summer low flows • Future land use change in the watershed may increase salt loading and delivery of dissolved ions to water bodies • Dynamic management of road salt can mitigate gradual accumulation of sodium and chloride in groundwater and surface water

Groundwater

Conceptual model of loading and transport of road salt in the Lamprey River watershed

Daley, M. L., Potter, J. D., & McDowell, W. H. (2009). Salinization of urbanizing New Hampshire streams and groundwater: effects of road salt and hydrologic variability. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 28(4), 929-940. Kotowski, M. (2016). Water Quality Analysis of the Lamprey River Watershed. Report to the Lamprey River Advisory Committee. Priority Substances List Assessment Report Road Salts; Environment Canada: Canada, 2001.

4

0

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Specific conductance at all Lamprey River stations (1990-2013) compared to average daily discharge at Packers Falls. 17 of 20 stations with year-round measurements had significantly (p<0.05) higher specific conductance levels in the summer.

55 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Summer High Flow

Relationship between average daily discharge and specific conductance in the Lamprey River. Summer low flow, summer high flow, and winter data are inversely correlated with discharge (Kendall tau p<0.0001). The consistent dilution relationship under all three conditions suggests groundwater as the primary source for dissolved ions entering the Lamprey River.

36

Cla Chloride equivalent standard for NH Class B surface waters (835 µS/cm)

800 700

Summer Low Flow

1

Discharge (m3/s)

900

100

10

Relationship between specific conductance and urban land cover, which was calculated for each station, both within its entire nested subwatershed (Kotowski, 2016) and within the upstream quarter-mile near-channel buffer. Summertime specific conductance was controlled by urban land use throughout the entire subwatershed (multivariate linear regression p=0.01) rather than only the near channel area (p=0.43), suggesting that dissolved ions are loaded throughout the entire Lamprey River watershed.

Lamprey River watershed land use (1998) compared to average Source: summer GRANIT specific conductance. Black segments show a quarter-mile buffer around the river and major tributaries.

Population

1

Specific Conductance (µS/cm)

0

Funding and guidance for data analysis were provided by the Wild and Scenic Subcommittee to the Lamprey River Advisory Committee. Funding for collection of water quality data was provided by the NH Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Cooperative Agreement R-83058601-0), the NH Water Resources Research Center, NH Agricultural Experiment Station, the US Geological Survey (USGS), UNH Cooperative Extension and NH Sea Grant. Numerous volunteers through the Volunteer River Assessment Program and the Great Bay Coast Watch Water Quality Monitoring Program assisted with sample collection.


Constraining the Age of the Fossil-Bearing La Colonia Formation Using Magnetostratigraphy AUTHOR: Tyler Smith ADVISOR: William Clyde

La Colonia formation, Patagonia, Constraining the Age of the Fossil-Bearing La Colonia Formation Argentina, is a fossil-rich sedimentary (Patagonia, Argentina) Using Magnetostratigraphy sequence that was deposited in shallow marine conditions as the late Cretaceousearly Paleocene Atlantic Ocean flooded much of southern South America. The diverse fossil assemblages, both terrestrial (e.g. dinosaurs, plants) and marine (e.g. plesiosaur), indicate a relatively poorly resolved age of Campanian-Danian (83.6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 61.6 Ma). This constraint suggests that La Colonia formation encompasses the K/Pg boundary, making it one of the few complete stratigraphic sections in the Southern Hemisphere to record this extinction event. The goal of this study is to determine a more precise age for this formation and its fossils using magnetostratigraphic correlation; a dating technique that compares the local stratigraphic pattern of magnetic polarity reversals to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. Tyler Smith and Cody Whelan Advisor: Dr. Will Clyde, UNH Earth Sciences

Introduction

Methods

â&#x20AC;˘ La Colonia Formation (Patagonia, Argentina) preserves a diverse fossil assemblage of both terrestrial (e.g. dinosaurs, plants) and marine (e.g. plesiosaur). â&#x20AC;˘ Prior biostratigraphic studies have suggested a poorly resolved age of Campanian-Danian (83.6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 61.6 Ma). â&#x20AC;˘ The suggested age constraint, as well as the fossil assemblages, make this formation of particular interest regarding South American geologic history and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. â&#x20AC;˘ The goal of this research is to provide a more precise age constraint of La Colonia Formation using magnetostratigraphic correlation.

Interpretation

â&#x20AC;˘ Four oriented rock samples were collected from 19 sites along two ridges of La Colonia Formation. â&#x20AC;˘ Samples from each site were cut into ~1 inch cubes â&#x20AC;˘ Remanent magnetization was measured initially and after each step of demagnetization. â&#x20AC;˘ Demagnetization was achieved by one of two methods, depending on the sample: 1. Stepwise alternating field demagnetization, up to 1000 mT, using a Molspin Shielded Alternating Field Demagnetizer. 2. Stepwise thermal demagnetization, up to 630°C, using an ASC Model TD48 SC thermal demagnetizer. â&#x20AC;˘ Site mean directions calculated using Fisher statistics and/or great circle remagnetization analysis.

A)

Declination

B)

Results B)

A)

Figure 3: Correlation of site declination (A) and site inclination (B), to stratigraphic level and the geomagnetic polarity timescale (Cande and Kent, 1995). Sample data displayed in place of site average when data is contradictory. Correlation based on dinoflagellate data from the upper section of La Colonia Formation (Guler et al., 2014).

Geologic Setting

â&#x20AC;˘ La Colonia Formation is a relatively homogenous upward fining sedimentary sequence. â&#x20AC;˘ Deposition occurred in shallow marine conditions as the late Cretaceous-early Paleocene Atlantic Ocean flooded much of southern South America. â&#x20AC;˘ The formation is separated into three facies: 1. Lower: coarse grained sandy conglomerate 2. Middle: laminated mudstone; fine-grained sandstone; Siltstone and mudstone 3. Upper: silty claystone with ostreid (bivalve) shell fragments

References

Cande, S. C., and D. V. Kent. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Revised Calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic.â&#x20AC;? Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 100, no. B4, Oct. 1995, pp. 6093â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6095., doi:10.1029/94jb03098. CĂşneo, N. RubĂŠn, et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina.â&#x20AC;? PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 8, 2014, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104749. Guler, M. VerĂłnica, et al. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Brackish to Freshwater Dinoflagellate Cyst Assemblages from the La Colonia Formation (Paleocene?), Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.â&#x20AC;? Ameghiniana, vol. 51, no. 2, 2014, pp. 141â&#x20AC;&#x201C;153., doi:10.5710/amgh.15.02.2014.949.

Figure 2: A) Stereonet Projection (above) and Zijderveld diagram (below) of sample LP1707A displaying normal polarity results. B) Stereonet projection (above) and Zijderveld diagram (below) of sample LP1701A displaying reversed polarity results.

Honorable Mention Project

2018

Nitrogen Mass Balnce for the Pawtuckaway Lake Watershed

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Tributary nitrogen input depends on watershed size and land use Direct inputs from near-shore areas amount to 29% of the total nitrogen inputs to the lake Magnitude of loading higher than anticipated from earlier models, though uncertainties remain Organic nitrogen comprises large fraction of inputs Largest inputs in spring

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Tributary Direct Input Total

Field 1992 (NO3)

SPARROW (TN)

Field 2017 (TDN)

SWAT (TDN)

450 350 300

20 15

250 200

10

150 100

5

0

1.40

Model minimum Model maximum Model average Measured

1.00 0.80

Evapotranspiration

Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Modeled hydrology was calibrated using SWAT-CUP (Calibration and Uncertainty Parameters). This program performs a stochastic calibration routine for 24 key parameters.

Pond/Wetland Storage

Reservoir Storage

Flow Out

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool is a numerical model representing water and nutrient loading and transport within a watershed (Neitsch et al. 2011). To apply the SWAT model to the Pawtuckaway Lake watershed, subbasins were delineated based on topography data. Within these subbasins, spatially explicit land use, soil, and topography data (NH Granit) were used to divide the area into 20 to 300 unique Hydraulic Response Units (HRUs). Modeled water and nutrient outputs from each HRU were averaged to determine subbasin output values. Nitrogen loading was estimated using measured atmospheric deposition (Daley et al. 2010), estimated manure inputs of 170 cows and 35 kg of manure per cow per day (Conroy and Standish 2013; USDA 1995), and septic system density (based on number of residences). Nitrogen removal pathways consisted of plant uptake, volatilization, and bacterial denitrification. Weather data from the Epping and Concord NCDC stations was used to drive the model.

Modeled tributary inflow Modeled direct input Measured outflow

Seasonal variation in modeled inputs of organic nitrogen (ORGN), nitrate (NO3), and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to Pawtuckaway Lake compared to discharge in the Lamprey River at Packers Falls.

Field 1992 (NO3)

0.00

Precipitation

Streamflow

532.8

0.40 0.20

Snow Storage

Soil Storage

Ground Water

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

316.3

SWAT model estimates of 2017 nitrogen inputs (kgN/yr) to Pawtuckaway Lake from tributaries and direct input, and measured outflows (kg-N/yr).

0.60

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

HRU Processes

70.6

57.7

0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

0.4

1.7

25

50

1.20

770.8

56.1 North Lake Near Shore 196.5

1.0

44.5

ORGN NO3 TDN Discharge

400

Sampling Station

Estimates of nitrogen inputs to Pawtuckaway Lake from the SWAT model compared to the regional SPARROW model and part-year field measurements. Vertical error bars represent the standard error among 200 model runs using parameters from the best-fit ranges.

Nitrogen Loading (Kg N/Month

Nitrogen loading in the 48 km2 Lamprey River Watershed Pawtuckaway watershed comes from non-point source Pawtuckaway Lake Watershed pollution such as residential septic systems and livestock manure. Previous attempts to estimate nutrient retention focused on nitrate loading in major tributaries using field Great Bay measurements from 1992 (NHDES 1995) and regional regression equations based on observations from 2002 (SPARROW; Moore et al. 2011). This project used continuous discharge records and infrequent nitrogen concentration measurements for four major tributaries and the two lake outlets during 2017. Direct nitrogen inputs from minor tributaries and high-density lake-front residences are difficult to measure, necessitating the use of a numerical model.

N inputs (kg/yr)

Estuaries, such as Great Bay, are under increased stress from anthropogenic nutrient delivery, which decreases overall estuarine health and reduces an estuaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to recover from disturbances (PREP 2018). Great Bay water quality has been in decline despite improvements to waste water treatment, so non-point sources are very important to the future of Great Bay. Anthropogenic nutrients primarily enter coastal waters through stream networks. Lakes and dammed reservoirs increase residence time and allow natural processes to remove nutrients that would otherwise be transported into the estuary. This project attempts to quantify nitrogen retention in Pawtuckaway Lake, which is the largest lake in the Lamprey River Lakefront Residence, Pawtuckaway Lake, Nottingham NH watershed and therefore plays an important role in reducing nutrient delivery to Great Bay

Discharge (m3/S)

ADVISOR: Anne Lightbody

Estuaries are under increased stress Nitrogen Mass Balance for the Pawtuckaway Lake Watershed from anthropogenic nutrient loading, Matthew Healy, B.S in Environmental Science: Hydrology, msh2003@wildcats.unh.edu Advisor: Anne Lightbody, Associate Professor; Department of Earth Sciences which primarily enters through stream Pawtuckaway Lake Watershed Results networks. Within these stream networks, Lake Nitrogen Retention lakes and dammed reservoirs, such as Pawtuckaway Lake in the Lamprey River watershed, can retain nutrients and reduce the total load to estuaries, but the exact amount of load reduction SWAT Model Calibration is difficult to quantify. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was Conclusions used to develop a nitrogen budget for Pawtuckaway Lake based on spatially variable watershed soil and land use characteristics. The model was calibrated using discharge and nitrogen concentration measurements from four stream inlets to Pawtuckaway Lake, then applied to all fifteen subbasins within the watershed. Modeled nitrogen retention was used to improve existing empirical models, improving our estimates of the effectiveness of regional water bodies at retaining nitrogen and reducing the nutrient load to estuaries. Discharge at Back Creek B (m3/s)

AUTHOR: Matthew Healy

Modeled nitrogen was calibrated manually by adjusting parameters until average model output was the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. To account for spatial variability, calibrations for the 4 major subbasins were combined with spatially explicit HRU data to create appropriate parameter values for each of the 15 subbasins.

Input Output Interpolated tributaries 1992 interpolated

SPARROW 2002 (TN) Modeled Lake nitrogen retention was estimated as: Field 2017 (TDN) Interpolated tributaries đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153; SWAT 2017 (TDN) Modeled đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;&#x2013; Detailed watershed modeling allowed us to account for previously unquantified direct inputs. The improved estimate of the retention rate in Pawtuckaway Lake is consistent with previous Field 2017 empirical observations of the relationship SWAT 2017 between residence time and nitrogen retention (Seitzinger et al. 2002). Thus, this empirical Field 1992 relationship is appropriate to represent SPARROW 2002 waterbodies in the Great Bay watershed, improving our understanding of non-point sources to this important regional estuary.

Retention 28%

2017 interpolated

15%

2017 interpolated 2017 interpolated

69% 53%

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank David Simon for his continued guidance and support throughout this project. Support for this project is provided by the National Science Foundationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Research Infrastructure Improvement NSF #IIA-1539071. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

References

Conroy, D., and Standish, B. (2013). New Hampshire Dairy Farmer Panel â&#x20AC;&#x201D; sharing expertise and ideas for the future. Retrieved from Country Folks: http://countryfolks.com/new-hampshire-dairyfarmer-panel-sharing-expertise-and-ideas-for-the-future/ Daley, M., et al. (2010 ). Nitrogen Assessment for the Lamprey River Watershed. Moore, R.B., et al. (2011). Source and delivery of nutrients to receiving waters in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. American Water Resources Association, 47, 965-990. NH DES (1995). Pawtuckaway Lake Diagnostic/Feasibility Study. Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (2018). State of our Estuaries 2018. Neitsch, S.L., et al. (2011). Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation. Texas A&M University System. Seitzinger, S.P., et al. (2002). Nitrogen retention in rivers: model development and application to watersheds in the northeastern U.S.A.. Biogeochemistry, 57/58, 199-237. USDA (1995). Animal Manure Management. Retrieved from USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table2

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 56

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Conclusions and Future work

â&#x20AC;˘ Stratigraphically over-lapping data from the two sample sites contradict each other, suggesting some unaccounted for factor (e.g. disconformity, fault, slump, incorrect stratigraphic correlation). â&#x20AC;˘ These data may serve to enhance the resolution of the age-constraint of La Colonia, however the ambiguity of the over-lapping requires further investigation. â&#x20AC;˘ Resolving the overlapping section is crucial to understanding the data and is the subject of future examination. â&#x20AC;˘ Unresolved sites require additional sample analysis.

Figure 1: Map showing sample site of La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina (Modified from Cuneo et al., 2014).


Metamorphism in Glen Esk, Scotland AUTHOR: Tess Murray ADVISOR: Jo Laird

The bedrock from a traverse northwest Metamorphism in Glen Esk, Scotland of the Highland Boundary Fault near Tess Murray Advisor: Jo Laird Glen Esk, Scotland, is characterized by University of New Hampshire, Department of Earth Sciences the metamorphism of deep marine Introduction and Geologic Setting Photomicrographs Results and Conclusion deposits (siliciclastics) during the Caledonian Orogeny. The bedrock in this area consists of rocks from the Dalradian supergroup, which are approximately 600 Study Area to 800 million years old. The approximate Mineral Assemblages pressure and temperature path of the metamorphism was determined through Thompson Projections the use of mineral assemblages and petrogenic data in hand sample and thin Methods section. Through the metamorphism, the siliclastics became slates, phyllites, and Acknowledgments and References schists. The samples along the traverse represent progressive metamorphism, which is evidenced by the increasing grain size and changing mineral assemblage. Each sample was plotted on a pressure and temperature grid that shows stable mineral assemblages; this showed a prograde and subsequent retrograde path of metamorphism. The approximate temperature and pressure ranged from 500 degrees Celsius and 250 MPa, to 600 degrees Celsius and 625 MPa on the prograde path. 200 µm

Introduction:

A

B

Figure 2 A: Sample S-7 showing an opaque porphyroblast. Note the very fine grains in this sample. Crossed polarized light.

Figure 2 B: Sample S-10 showing a staurolite porphyroblast at the bottom of the image and a garnet porphyroblast at the top right. Plane polarized light

C

A

The metamorphism of shales was observed in hand sample and thin section. Six samples

S-12

were collected along a traverse from the Highland Boundary Fault to Glen Esk, Scotland

S-11

(Figure 1). The purpose of this was to interpret the petrology through mineral

S-10

assemblages to determine the approximate pressure and temperature of metamorphism along the traverse. Geologic Setting:

This area is mostly composed of the Dalradian Supergroup (Figure 1). The protolith for this group was a deep marine deposit (~600-800 Ma). The metamorphism occurred

during the Caledonian Orogeny (~500Ma). Through metamorphism, the deep marine deposits became slates, phyllites, and schists (Jones, 2008).

Figure 1: Simplified geologic map of northern Scotland. The samples analyzed start at the Highland Boundary Fault (HBF) with sample S7, and finish with sample S-12 at the end of the traverse. Each sample, six in total, is a part of the Dalradian Supergroup (light green on the map). (Map from Breton et al, 2013)

S-9

D

S-7 &

Figure 2 C: Sample S-11 showing two kyanite porphyroblasts at the bottom (yellow and purple). Crossed polarized light.

S-8

B

E

Figure 2 D/E: Sample S-12 showing sillimanite, variety fibrolite, with a garnet porphyroblast at the top of the image. D is shown in plane polarized light. E is shown in crossed polarized light to highlight the fibrolite.

Table 1: Mineral assemblages for each thin section. Sample S-7 is from the southernmost part of the traverse and sample S-12 is from the northernmost part of the traverse.

Figure 4: Petrogenic grid used to find the phase field of the traverse (Modified from Laird, 1990). Approximate pressure and temperature path of traverse is shown by pink arrow, based on Figure 3.

Conclusion:

Figure 5: A) Pressure and temperature grid showing stable mineral assemblages (Bucher and Grapes, 2011). Samples are plotted at approximate pressures and temperatures based on Figures 3 and 4. B) Pressure and temperature grid showing prograde metamorphism and retrograde metamorphism (Bucher and Grapes, 2011).

• Samples represent progressive metamorphism to the northwest, which is evidenced by the increasing grain size and changing mineral assemblage.

• The locations of the samples on the petrogenic grid (Figure 4) confirm that the

beginning of the traverse was metamorphosed at a lower pressure and temperature

Mineral assemblage tie lines based on Table 1. Mineral abbreviations: Al 2O3 is either kyanite or sillimanite, C is cordierite, Chl is chlorite, B is Biotite, G is garnet, Ct is chloritoid, and S is staurolite. All samples are projected from quartz and muscovite, and it is assumed that H2O is externally controlled (Thompson, 1957).

than the end of the traverse.

• Samples plotted on Figure 5A show a prograde and subsequent retrograde path of

metamorphism, which very closely resembles the prograde and retrograde paths in Figure 5B.

• The approximate temperature and pressure on the prograde path of metamorphism ranged from 500˚ C, 250 MPa to 650˚ C, 625 MPa.

• Examined hand samples with a hand lens

• Mineral chemical analyses are required to estimate temperature and pressure

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

• Analyzed each sample in thin section with a Leica DM EP microscope to identify

Figure 3 A: Thompson Projection for samples S-7 and S-8

accurately

Figure 3 B: Thompson Projection for sample S-9

minerals (using Nesse, 1991) to determine mineral assemblage

• Plotted the mineral assemblages for each sample on a Thompson Projection

I would like to thank Professor Jo Laird for all of her help and endless support with this project, and for allowing me to use her samples to complete my analysis. Without her this project would not have been possible.

• Used the Thompson Projections and mineral reactions for each sample to find the phase field of the traverse on a petrogenic grid (Modified from Laird, 1990)

• The phase field was used to find the pressure and temperature path of metamorphism

Figure 3 C: Thompson Projection for sample S-10

Figure 3 D: Thompson Projection for samples S-11, which contains kyanite, and S-12, which contains sillimanite.

• Breton, E. L., P. R. Cobbold, and A. Zanella. Cenozoic reactivation of the Great Glen Fault, Scotland: additional evidence and possible causes, Journal of the Geological Society, 170, 403-415, 22 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2012-067 • Bucher, Kurt, and Rodney Grapes. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. 8th ed., Springer-Verlag, 2011. • “Chapter 3 The Taconic Orogen.” The Appalachian-Ouachita Orogen in the United States, by Jo Laird et al., Geological Society of America, 1990. • Jones, Scott. “The Highland Boundary Fault of Scotland.” The Highland Boundary Fault of Scotland, 2008, academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/jones1/highweb.htm. • Laird, Jo. “Chapter 11, Chlorites: Metamorphic Petrology.” Hydrous Phyllosilicates: (Exclusive of Micas), by Sturges Williams. Bailey, Mineralogical Society of America, 1991. • Nesse, William D. Introduction to Optical Mineralogy. 2nd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1991. • Thompson, J.B., 1957. The graphical analysis of mineral assemblages in pelitic schists. American Mineralogist.

Metamorphic Pressure and Temperature; Highland Boundary Fault to Findon, Scotland AUTHOR: Haley Currie

The Highland Boundary Fault (HBF) is a Metamorphic Pressure and Temperature; Highland Boundary Fault to Findon, Scotland Author: Haley Gale Currie major geological feature that separates Advisor: Jo Laird, Ph.D. University of New Hampshire, Department of Earth Science two main landscapes in Scotland, south T of the fault being rolling hills, and north of the fault being more mountainous. The fault is thought to have formed 500 million years ago, and much of the tectonic forces that caused the pressure to shape the highlands occurred over the next 100 million years. The old and tectonically complex history of this area has allowed for shales to metamorphose into slates, phylites, and schist. Samples were taken along a traverse from the HBF north to Findon. This traverse goes from chlorite + biotite+ quartz + muscovite to staurolite + biotite +garnet + quartz + muscovite assemblages, along an andalusite geotherm. The pressure and temperature path along the traverse was found through analysis of these mineral assemblages. These mineral assemblages indicate metamorphism increased from 100MPa and 400 degrees Celsius to 280MPa and 525 degrees Celsisus. Introduction:

ADVISOR: Jo Laird

Results:

Photomicrographs:

The Highland Boundary Fault (HBF) in Scotland separates metamorphic and

plutonic rocks of the northern mountainous area from sedimentary and volcanic rocks to the south. The metamorphism in this area is 520-490 Ma (Harte, 1988). The old and tectonically complex history of these metamorphic rocks has allowed for shales to metamorphose into slates, phyllites, and schist.

Figure 4A

Figure 4B

Figure 4A: Sample S13B in PPL. Minerals: Chlorite (light blue), quartz and muscovite (colorless), biotite (brown).

Table 1: Mineral Results of Each Sample Minerals found in each sample, an x indicates that mineral was present in the sample. Porphyroblasts are noted as proph, and accessory minerals are also noted. All samples contain muscovite and quartz.

Figure 4B: S16A in PPL. Minerals: Biotite (brown) over growing a location of garnet (colorless), quartz and muscovite (colorless).

Figure 4C

Figure 4C: S17B in XPL. These are larger grain sizes than Figure 1A, and a twinned muscovite grain can be seen.

Conclusion:

• The petrogenetic grid gives the general pressure and temperature path of

metamorphism, that plots close to near the Kyanite, Sillimanite, Andalusite triple point

• There is a general trend of increasing temperature and grain size

• Mineral chemical analyses are needed to find the exact pressure and temperature

Figure 1: Geologic Map of Scotland (British Geologic Survey). The red circle shows the area of study and the black arrow shows the path of the traverse studied.

Figure 2: Thompson Projections of samples are projected from quartz and muscovite.

Methods:

• Analyzed 15 hand samples and thin sections to identify the mineral assemblage

Figure 5: KFMASH model system. The colored dots represent the samples that are projected in Figure 2.

• Used a Leica DM EP petrographic microscope (Table 1)

• Mineral assemblages were projected onto a Thompson Diagram, from quartz

Acknowledgments and References:

and muscovite (Fig. 2)

• The mineral reactions were found between assemblages (Fig. 3)

I would like to thank Jo Laird for her guidance and patience throughout this project. She also generously provided the samples needed for this work.

• From the plotted assemblages the predicted temperature and pressure path of metamorphism was drawn

• The reactions were plotted on a KFMASH model system to determine the temperature and pressure ranges

57 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Figure 3: Petrogenetic grid of the [Al2SiO5, Cordierite] invariant point. The colored dots represent the samples that are projected in Figure 2.

Bucher, Kurt, and Rodney Grapes. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. 8th ed., Springer- Verlag, 2011. “The Taconic Orogen, Chapter 3.” The Appalachian-Ouachita Orogen in the United States, by Jo Laird et al., Geological Society of America, 1990. Laird, Jo. “Chlorites: Metamorphic Petrology, Chapter 11.” Hydrous Phyllosilicates: (Exclusive of Micas), by Sturges Bailey, Mineralogical Society of America, 1991. Nesse, William D. Introduction to Optical Mineralogy. 2nd ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1991. Thompson, J.B., 1957. The graphical analysis of mineral assemblages in pelitic schists. American Mineralogist.


How Can the University of New Hampshire Reduce Its Nitrogen Footprint? How can the University of New Hampshire reduce its nitrogen footprint? 1Undergraduate,

Kathryn Bennett1, Allison Leach2, John Aber3

Environmental Sciences and Sustainability; 2PhD Student, NRESS; 3Professor, Natural Resources

the GOAL of this project: To asses the impact that sustainable scenarios would have on UNH’s nitrogen footprint in order to inform a campus footprint reduction goal What is a nitrogen footprint?

What tool did we use to asses our footprint?

a NITROGEN FOOTPRINT measures the amount of REACTIVE NITROGEN released from an individual or institution’s resource consumption

SIMAP was created in 2017 to generate a combined carbon and nitrogen footprint result. SIMAP is currently used by 100s of universities around the country.

Reactive nitrogen gets released in excess into the environment and causes pollution from fertilizer runoff, GHG emissions, and other sources.

www.n-print.org

80% C REDUCTION GOAL SCENARIOS to REDUCE our impact: by 2050: 2 pathways

UNH’s 2014 BASELINE footprints 67,000 MT CO2e

-5%

N footprint (metric tons N)

-12%

-71%*

-1%

-7%

C footprint (1,000 MT CO2e)

141 MT N

www.unhsimap.org

sustainable FOOD PRODUCTION and CONSUMPTION

Achieve UNH C reduction 2050 goal

C footprint (1,000 MT CO2e)

-50%

**

• The same data sets were used for both footprints • The N footprint is dominated by food production (77%) • The C footprint is dominated by utilities (53%) and transport (33%) • These differences affect the relative impacts of the scenarios tested on the two footprints

• The vegetarian campus scenario serves as a reference point for the • Assumes C reduction is accomplished through combination of replacing colower limit to UNH’s N footprint reduction, but is not feasible gen facility with solar power, replacing remaining fuels and electricity sources with natural gas and renewables, and reducing emissions from transportation • Flavor Forward achieves the largest feasible N footprint reduction from food (7%) and commuting • This scenario results in a 12% reduction of our N footprint and 71% reduction • Replacing beef with chicken achieves a reduction of 5%, as chicken has a lower environmental impact. of C footprint • Increasing UNH’s local food purchases has minimal impact. *2050 C reduction goal is set for 80% but was established prior to food being included in **Flavor Forward is a dining initiative to serve more plant based meals

the C footprint

NEXT we will continue talking with stakeholders to assess feasibility of these scenarios in order to inform and recommend a nitrogen footprint reduction goal for the University of New Hampshire.

Reactive N graphics by Andrew Greene Project funding provided by: US EPA and the UNH Contact Kathryn at Sustainability Institute kab1006@wildcats.unh.edu

New scenario results for the nitrogen footprint considering food choice, food production systems, and energy consumption will be presented. These scenarios are the following: 1) Replacing 10% of meals with Flavor Forward meals, 2) Replacing 25% of beef purchases with chicken, 3) Vegetarian campus, 4) organic food replacement, 5) local food replacement, and 6) Achieving the 2050 80% C footprint reduction goal via different pathways. These scenarios will be analyzed with current campus initiatives and stakeholder meetings to inform a feasible nitrogen footprint reduction goal and pathway for the University of New Hampshire.

Analysis of Methane Accumulation in the Old Durham Reservoir during Periods of Ice Cover at Durham, New Hampshire AUTHOR: Jeremy Gelinas

Methane is a strong greenhouse gas with Analysis of methane accumulation in the Old Durham Reservoir during periods of ice cover at Durham, New Hampshire a high global warming potential greater than 30 times that of carbon dioxide. Results Introduction Natural Methane emissions come from bacterial respiration in anaerobic environments such as lake sediments, and wetlands. These emissions also tend to be Discussion understudied during the winter months, Methods when methane sampling techniques are challenging and traditional methods Temporal Change in Methane (i.e. floating chambers) can be rendered useless. The goal of this study is to measure methane accumulation in the water column, and at the sediment-water Future Work interface during a period of ice cover in a reservoir. Water samples were collected from the reservoir at 5 sites weekly. At each site, water samples were collected at the surface and a few cms into the sediment. It is expected that methane concentrations within the reservoir will be elevated during periods of ice cover relative to when the reservoir is partially or completely thawed. The ice surface creates a barrier for emission and allows methane to accumulate in the water column. When ice cover recedes, concentrations decrease because methane diffuses into the atmosphere when disturbed by wind, or seasonal mixing. Measurements made in winter allow us to estimate the loss of methane to the atmosphere when the ice melts. Jeremy Gelinas– Environmental Science: Soil and Watershed Management (jpi348@wildcats.unh.edu) Advisor: Ruth Varner, Professor, Dept. of Earth Sciences and Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space

Site 1

Site 2

The goal of this study is to measure methane accumulation in the water column and sedimentwater interface during ice covered periods in a reservoir.

• Syringes were then brought to the Trace Gas Biogeochemistry lab

Lab Methods

• 30 ml of ambient air was added to the syringes.

• Syringes were shaken vigorously by hand for 2 minutes to exchange 95-98% of the methane from water to air, the water was then expelled from the syringe.

Image 2: A sediment-water sample being taken at site 5.

2/23

3/2

3/9 Date

3/16

3/23

7

3/30

4/6

4/13

Spatial Variability

6 5

• The sediment-water interface generally has a concentration > the surface water.

4 3 2 1 0

1

15 10

5 0

Image 8: Site 3 4/06/18.

2

3 Site Number

4

5

• Site 2 showed the largest different while site 5 was the least variable site.

500 400 300 200 100

0 1/15/17 3/6/17 4/25/17 6/14/17 8/3/17 9/22/1711/11/1712/31/172/19/18 4/10/18 5/30/18 Date

Site 1 Surface Site 1 Sediment Site 2 Surface Site 2 Sediment Site 3 Surface Site 3 Sediment Site 4 Surface Site 4 Sediment Site 5 Surface Site 5 Sediment

Figure 9: Methane concentrations compared over 3 different sampling periods from 2017 through 2018.

8 6

• Both sampling periods in late winter show low methane concentrations compared to the summer sampling period.

4 2 0

2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 Date

Figure 5: Methane concentration at site 3.

Image 11: Discharge from dam above site 5

2/16

Figure 7: Methane concentrations over the 9 sampling dates for each sampled depth at each site.

Figure 8: Average methane concentrations (µM) over 9 sampling periods at each site. The error bars represent standard error.

20

10

Porewater CH4 (uM)

• 12 standards (2.51 ppm) were run before and after sample analysis to determine a response factor.

Image 6: Site 2 3/23/18

2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 Date

Site 5

References: Wik, M., R.K. Varner, K. Walter-Anthony, S. MacIntyre and D. Bastviken, (2016) Climate-sensitive northern lakes and ponds are critical components of methane release, Nature Geoscience Reviews, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2578

0

Figure 4: Methane concentration at site 3.

Image 9: Site 4 3/16/2018

• Methane analysis on the remaining gas was completed using a Shimadzu GC-8A gas chromatograph with a column temperature of 50 ᵒC and injection temperature of 130 ᵒC

5

Figure 3: Methane concentration at site 2.

Porewater CH4 (uM)

Figure 1: Google map of the Old Durham Reservoir and the 5 sampling sites in Durham, New Hampshire.

15 10

Site 3

Site 4

2/9

Site 1 Surface Site 1 Sediment Site 2 Surface Site 2 Sediment Site 3 Surface Site 3 Sediment Site 4 Surface Site 4 Sediment Site 5 Surface Site 5 Sediment

20

Image 5: Site 2 3/09/2018

Image 7: Site 3 3/16/2018

5

2/2

Image 4: Site 1 03/30/2018.

2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 Date

• The syringe was attached to a hollow metal tube (sipper) with perforations to collect 30 ml water samples.

10

25

Porewater CH4 (uM)

Field Methods

• Samples at each site were taken at the surface and a few centimeters into the sediment.

15

0

2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 Date

Figure 2: Methane concentration at site 1.

20

Average Porewater Methane (uM)

Image 3: Site 1 3/09/2018.

Image 1: Gas bubbles trapped under the ice at Site 4.

Porewater CH4 (uM)

• Methane (CH4) emissions are largely understudied during winter periods (Wik et al, 2016).

-Sediment

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Porewater Methane (uM)

• Lake sediments can provide anoxic environments which is a suitable environment for methanogenesis (production of methane by microbes) to occur.

-Surface

Porewater CH4 (uM)

• Reservoirs are artificially made lakes that are typically used for drinking water and hydroelectric power.

Porewater Methane (uM)

25

ADVISOR: Ruth Varner

Image 10: Site 4 4/06/18.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0

2/2 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 3/9 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/6 4/13 Date Image

Figure 6: Methane concentration at site 3.

12: Site 5 3/30/18

• Site 5 showed the highest peak concentration during summer, sampling while it was the lowest average concentration this winter

• Consistent weekly sampling to fill gaps in current data set to capture the seasonal variability and determine annual methane budget for the reservoir. • During ice covered period, sample surface methane throughout the reservoir using a grid sampling system while the ice is stable to capture the true spatial variability. Image 13: Methane sampling on • Floating chamber measurements near Site 2 to 2/9/18. (Photo: R.Varner) capture more data to observe annual change

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Apryl Perry and Paige Clarizia for training on the GC and support in the Trace Gas Biogeochemistry laboratory, also Sarah Carlson and Dave Bertalomi for providing their research.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 58

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

ADVISOR: John Aber Allison Leach

The nitrogen footprint, a novel metric for campus sustainability, has been calculated at the University of New Hampshire since 2014. A nitrogen footprint measures the amount of reactive nitrogen generated and released into the environment from food, utilities, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agriculture. In fall 2017, the UNH Sustainability Institute launched a new integrated campus carbon and nitrogen footprint tool that is already being used by hundreds of campuses across the US. We are using this new tool, SIMAP (www.unhsimap.org), to assess management strategies for reducing UNH’s carbon and nitrogen footprints together.

N footprint (metric tons N)

AUTHOR: Kathryn Bennett


Capturing and Quantifying CH4 and CO2 Fluxes from Freshwater Systems AUTHOR: Nathan Cleveland ADVISOR: Ruth Varner

Methane is a major driver in terms Capturing and quantifying CH and CO fluxes from freshwater ecosystems of warming the Earth’s atmosphere. Introduction Methods and Specs Despite a much shorter residence time than carbon dioxide, it is able to absorb much more solar energy which makes it an important greenhouse gas to understand. One natural way in which Future Work methane enters the atmosphere is Research Goal through production in anoxic sediment and subsequent bubbling, releasing it Automated Flux Chamber (AFC) Systems into the water column and eventually the atmosphere. This naturally occurring process may be influenced by human activities which are causing an increase in methane concentration being released into the atmosphere. In order to monitor these rates, we configured and assembled a first generation of Automated Floating Chamber (AFC) systems which are capable of collecting, storing, and analyzing samples of trace gases (methane and carbon dioxide) which rise through the water column. These systems centralize around large floating containment areas, or chambers, which measure these gases from atmospheric air samples. The gases trapped within the system can be collected along time intervals and stored in vials within the control box. Each of these systems are powered by a solar panel and battery-based generator. Boxes will be tested in the Old Durham Reservoir in Durham, NH before deployment to the Ipswich watershed in May 2018. URC #: 4977

1

4

2

Nathan Cleveland1, Paige E. Clarizia2, Duc Nguyen3, Ruth K. Varner2

Departments of Natural Resources and the Environment and Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 2 Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space and Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3 Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

• Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) serve as two prevalent greenhouse gases (GHG) which account for about 84% of the atmosphere’s radiative forcings each year1 • Transport mechanisms of these gases in a freshwater system are well studied: • However, production and release mechanisms of such trace gases remain understudied • What little research has been done shows a correlation between rising temperatures and increased CH4 and CO2 release2 • Understanding the rates of release will further our knowledge and understanding of natural processes involving production of GHGs Fig. 1. Conceptual model of CH4 and CO2 transport in a freshwater system. Transport mechanisms include: diffusion, ebullition, vegetative transport and stream transport.

• Construct systems to automatically measure CH4 and CO2 in freshwater ecosystems across a spatial gradient.

ntc2003@wildcats.unh.edu

• AFC composed of 12V 7Ah battery and manual sampler contained within floating containment box. Battery connected through box to top-mounted solar panel. • Attached through one end of containment box is the floating chamber which is home to two different types of samplers • Sense Air CO2 sensor responsible for CO2 concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity • Figaro CH4 sensor for measuring methane concentrations • 9 vials for automatic sampling and internal storage of trace gases for further analysis

Fig. 3. 12 volt battery based generator to store and distribute electricity to the AFC.

Fig. 4. Solar panel mounted atop the AFC box to provide electricity needed for daily operation. Floats along the side serve as stabilizers while the device is deployed.

System Deployment • AFC deployment along various reaches of the Ipswich River watershed in northwestern Massachusetts beginning May 2018 until ice in • Collect weekly water samples for N2O flux, DOC and NO3- content • Continuous readings of CH4 and CO2 concentrations at predetermined intervals

EARTH SCIENCES /ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

• Floating systems used to collect and analyze gaseous samples from the water column Data Analysis • Chambers attached to watertight case which houses electronics and samples • Data collection will result in data sets of different • Systems powered by solar energy; each containing a solar panel hooked up to a batterybased generator time resolution and MATLAB will be used for • Design based off prototypes created by D. Nguyen3 statistical analyses

• Measure N2O using a gas chromatograph (ECDGC) • Measure NO3- using ion chromatography and DOC in UNH’s Water Quality and Analysis Laboratory • Sediment cores to determine microbial production rates

Fig. 5. The Ipswich River watershed, Massachusetts, USA.

http://pie-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/content/about-plum-island-ecosystems-lter

Works Cited

1

Dones, Roberto, et al. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Systems, Comparison and Overview.” Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004, pp. 77–95., doi:10.1016/b0-12-176480-x/00397-1.IPCC, 2013:

3

Nguyen Thanh Duc, Samuel Silverstein, Martin Wik, Patrick Crill, David Bastviken, Ruth K. Varner, Greenhouse gas flux studies: An automated online system for gas emission measurements in aquatic environments, in prep.

2

Marotta, H., et al., Greenhouse gas production in low-latitude lake sediments responds strongly to warming. Nature Clim. Change 2014, 4, (6), 467-470

Acknowledgements

Fig. 2. Pilot deployment at Cart Creek, Ipswich River June 2017. Photo by A. Robison.

59 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Support for this project was provided by NH EPSCoR with support from the National Science Foundation’s Research Infrastructure Improvement Award # EPS 1101245, the National Science Foundation Collaborative Research Grant (EAR #1623899) and Plum Island Ecosystems Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER) grant (OCE #1637630). Special thanks to Ruth Varner and especially Paige Clarizia for taking the time to help me through the process of constructing these mechanisms. Without Paige’s extraordinary knowledge of the electronics and overall functions of these boxes, none of this would be possible.


Lumen Musicorum AUTHORS: Tim Beaulieu Jeremiah Vardaman ADVISOR: Michael Carter

The objective of the Lumen Musicorum project was to create an audio visualizer that gives the team members experience in designing a system that incorporates hardware and software. This motive behind came from a mutual interest in music and wanting to create a project based around acoustic signals. Lumen Musicorum meets those interests.

Lumen Musicorum Team Members: Tim Beaulieu, Jeremiah Vardaman Project Advisor: Dr. Michael Carter University of New Hampshire Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Display Circuit Design

What Is Lumen Musicorum?

Software Design

The Lumen Musicorum project displays an audio visualizer, or a retro game, on an array of RGB LEDs. The project gave team members experience in designing a system that incorporates hardware and software design.

● Microcontroller program controls multiplexer chips with 3-bit data to refresh the display one column at a time. ● Each color diode on an LED is controlled through a single channel on a LED driver chip. ● Individual LED brightness controlled via PWM from 0% to 100% duty cycle. ● The location of the Pong paddles are controlled by reading potentiometer position from an analog input on the microcontroller. ● The FFT is performed on an audio signal by using pre-coded libraries. ● The audio is broken into 40 frequency bins, one for each column on the LED display.

Design Goals ● Create a 40 x 20 array of individually addressable RGB LEDs. ● Program a 40-bin audio visualizer on a microcontroller. ● Design hardware and software to support a version of Atari’s game, Pong. ● Design and build a housing for the entire system. ● Use wireless Bluetooth as the audio input.

● The LED diode cathodes are tied to the same buses, which are each tied to a single channel on the LED driver chips ● Each anode bus line in the display is tied to the drain of one MOSFET. ● A resistor pulls the gate of the MOSFET high to maintain zero drain current. ● Microcontroller uses 3-bit parallel data to an 8-channel multiplexer chip to pull the gate low and turn on MOSFET.

Software Flow Diagram

System Flow Diagram

Challenges

The system takes in a Bluetooth audio signal, sends it to an Arduino microcontroller, and performs a frequency analysis. The frequency data is then sent to an LED display controller system, which then activates the 40 x 20 array of RGB LEDs that are soldered onto a custom PCB board. The LED controller system is composed of an Arduino Mega microcontroller, TLC5940 constant current sink LED drivers, shift registers for multiplexing, and power MOSFETS to drive anode buses of the display. A retro game, Pong, was also programmed into the system. The user input to the system is accomplished by using potentiometers to control the paddle locations. The user is able to toggle between the audio visualizer and retro game. ● Learning MEGA2560 microcontroller programming. ● Designing circuitry hardware to power and control the LED display. ● Multiplexing the LED display. ● Maintaining a sufficient refresh rate to avoid a flickering effect observed by the user of the system. ● Programming a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm on a microcontroller. ● Programming the microcontroller to correctly activate the LED display.

Accomplishments

● Soldered 800 RGB LEDs onto a custom PCB. ● Programed Pong onto the microcontroller. ● Connected system with a Bluetooth input and loudspeakers. ● Added a medical grade 110V outlet on the outside of the system table, along with a system off switch. ● Designed and tested multiple prototypes. ● Controlled LED activation with Texas Instruments’ TLC5940 LED driver and CD4051 multiplexer chips.

Acknowledgements

● Associate Professor Dr. Michael Carter ○ For being the project advisor and providing helpful insight ● Engineering Technician III Jim Abare ○ For the extensive help throughout the project build ● Associate Professor Dr. Richard Messner ○ For providing advice on reports and presentations ● UNH Electrical and Computer Engineering Department ○ For providing funding to purchase the custom LED PCB ● Senior Project Machinist Scott Campbell ○ For the design and build of the aluminum LED spacer

A Miniaturized Wireless Sensing Module for Geotechnical Measurements A Miniaturized Wireless Sensing Module For Geotechnical Measurements 1Department

Participants: Amadou Tall1 & Theophile Nkengfack1 Advisor: Professor Edward Song1 & Professor Majid Ghayoomi2 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

INTRODUCTION

RESULTS/CONCLUSION

The general purpose of this project was to design and build a modular geotechnical sensing platform where multiple soil characteristics could be measured simultaneously at the same location, with wireless data transmission capability allowing the user to collect the recorded measurements to be analyzed and illustrated appropriately.

Battery

ADXL335

Real-Time Data Transmission

DHT11 Water Level Sensor

Water Level Sensor

ESP32

• Build a miniature sensing device • Implement wireless data transmission capability • Integrate multiple sensors into a single device platform • Enclose the components in a 3D printed casing

The designed module can successfully interface with the sensors as well as output data over a PC or a smartphone wirelessly. Using the ESP32’s Wi-Fi capability, the measured data can be printed in real-time as they are being collected or can be stored in a file for post-processing and analysis. Measurement Readout

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Objectives:

ADXL335

ADVISORS: Edward Song Majid Ghayoomi

Although there have been improvements that have led to the increase in the reliability and practicality of sensors in soil characterization, sensor technology has not fully met the needs of geotechnical engineers and researchers on several fronts: (1) Wired sensing constrains accessibility and applications, (2) sensor sizes are still too large for miniature-scale experiments where multiple types of measurements are needed at the same location, and (3) sensor-to-grain size ratio is not optimized. Technical difficulties exist in the positioning of the sensing devices when the experiment involves multiple sensors.

Battery

AUTHORS: Theophile Nkengfack Amadou Tall

Data Analysis and Plotting

Code for Connecting to the Wireless Module

DHT11 Sensor Containment unit

ESP32 System-on-Chip (SoC)

DEMONSTRATION ADXL335 Accelerometer

Espressif ESP32 SoC DHT11 Temperature/H umidity sensor

Lithium Polymer 3.7v 1200mAH battery

Experimental set-up of the module on a breadboard.

Geotechnical-sensor embedded in sand for the following measurements: • Temperature • Humidity • Acceleration • Water level

We have successfully performed the measurements of temperature, humidity, acceleration and water level. For future research, we plan to extend this work to: • Implement more sensors • Implement an alarm to indicate sudden changes in • Reduce the size of the device the environment • Increase the speed at which data can be collected • Integrate a data logger for storing data to be viewed • Increase battery life at a time

ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank our advisors Prof. Edward Song and Prof. Majid Ghayoomi for their guidance and suggestions on the project. We also thank Mr. Jonathon Havey for his assistance in the 3D rendering of the 3D-printed parts using SolidWorks.

The goal of this project is to develop a self-powered wireless sensing platform to measure geotechnical dynamics. The hardware portion of this project is comprised of two major components. The first involves the investigation of power requirement to operate the system. The second component consists of the Espressif ESP32 system-on-chip (SoC) development board with built-in wireless capability to which sensors are attached. The final product will be a miniaturized wireless self-contained module that consists of the development board, a power source and the sensors. This unit will be embedded in the soil environment, where acquisition of data is conducted.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 60

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Future Improvements

● Add a layer of infrared emitters and detectors to implement a variation of a touch screen. ● Design a single PCB to hold the LEDs, LED drivers, and power circuitry. ● Add an ambient microphone input option. ● Display digital images and motion video. ● Group LEDs tighter to increase resolution of the display. ● Add multiple layers to create 3D effects. ● Program more games, or modes, on the microcontroller.


Myoelectric-Controlled Prosthetic Hand AUTHORS: Isabelle Brock Max Radermacher Colin Rockwell ADVISORS: Ioannis Korkolis Richard Messner Wayne Smith

Over two million people in the United States are missing limbs. Current hand Myoelectric-Controlled Prosthetic Hand prosthetics are expensive and not Introduction Design Approach Results easily accessible to the majority of Mechanical Design people who need them and many do not mimic the proper dexterity. The development and prototyping of an affordable prosthetic hand, which can be controlled myo-electrically through using a non-invasive muscle sensor, is Electrical Design Objectives presented. This sensor measures muscle stimulus through electromyography Conclusions Goals (EMG) from the inside of the forearm. To retrieve the myo-electrical signal, a Future Work MyoWare sensor is connected and the Acknowledgments signal is sampled and processed using an Arduino microcontroller. Based on this signal, linear actuators are programmed to either extend or retract the fingers. Through the advancement of 3D printing technology, it was possible to greatly reduce the cost of materials and thus make the hand more affordable and life-like. Presented By: Colin Rockwell (ME), Max Radermacher (ECE) & Isabelle Brock (ECE)

Advised By: Richard A. Messner, Ph.D. (ECE) , Wayne Smith, Ph.D. (ECE) & Ioannis Korkolis, Ph.D. (ME)

! Current prosthetics are expensive ! Many of the prosthetic hands do not mimic the dexterity of a true hand ! Received approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB) to test on Human Subjects at UNH ! Awarded the Undergraduate Research Award (URA) to perform research

Cost per Hand Linear Actuators (x5) MyoWareTM Muscle Sensor Arduino Mega H-Bridge Motor Drive (x5) Actuator Cable Adapter (x5) Isolation Amplifier DC/DC Converter Tendon Line 3D Printing Total

! PLA plastic: Skeleton of the hand. ! Tendon Line: Used to bend fingers naturally ! 85A TPU Flexible Polyurethane: Joints of fingers

$325.00 $38.00 $38.50 $16.45 $15.00 $19.45 $15.00 $1.00 $44.34 $512.74

Figure 3: Final Setup of Prototype

Figure 1: Design of 3D Printed Hand

! Design and build an affordable prosthetic hand which can be controlled myoelectrically

! Arduino for Microcontroller

! Actuonix Linear Actuators with Feedback

Figure 4: Demonstration of Hand Functionality

!

! Advancer Technology MyoWareTM Muscle Sensor

! Reduction of Cost ! Ability to clench and release the hand ! Life-like appearance

! !

Affordable (~$520) vs Open Bionics Brunel Hand ($2139) Ability to clench and release Basic structure and movement of a hand

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Figure 2: Electromyography (EMG) of Muscle Activation

Amplitude

!

! !

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Time

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This project was supported by the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research at UNH and the ECE and ME Departments. A special thank you to: Richard A. Messner Ph.D., Wayne Smith Ph.D., Ioannis Korkolis, Ph.D. Jim Abare, Melissa McGee, John R. LaCourse, Ph.D., & Open Bionics

! ! ! !

Use the ATmega2560 processor on combined PCB with Actuator circuit Be able to move each finger independently More freedom of motion of the thumb Fully battery operated Ability to dictate the strength of grip

Improving the Robustness of the UNH Remotely Operated Vehicle AUTHOR: Alex Sarasin ADVISORS: Michael Carter May-Win Thein

The purpose of this project is to increase the robustness and reliability of UNHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remotely operated vehicle (ROV) through the design of its power and control systems. Primary improvements to the power system include implementing voltage converters that can be added in parallel to increase the power available to the ROV, identifying and fixing the cause of intermittent losses in communication between the ROV and its shore station, and creating a lighter, more durable tether for power transmission. A testing platform was designed to observe the effect of these changes on the ROVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electrical performance.

Improving the Robustness of the UNH Remotely Operated Vehicle Objectives

â&#x20AC;˘ Design a new power system for the ROV with the following qualities: â&#x20AC;˘ Ability to source 600W continuously to onboard devices â&#x20AC;˘ Easily scalable for if power requirements change in the future â&#x20AC;˘ Identify and fix the cause of intermittent losses in communication between the ROV and its shore station â&#x20AC;˘ Build a platform separate from the ROV to perform electrical stress testing â&#x20AC;˘ Design a control system for the ROV which is capable of maintaining its heading and height in the water column without the need for an operator

Testing Platform

Tether Design

â&#x20AC;˘ Through stress testing, the intermittent losses in connection were found to be caused by damaged wires in the tether â&#x20AC;˘ Through regular wear and tear, wires were becoming stressed and breaking â&#x20AC;˘ Primary cause of breaking was ethernet wire material â&#x20AC;&#x201C; solid core copper clad aluminum (CCA) cable â&#x20AC;˘ A number of improvements were made to the tether to improve its performance â&#x20AC;˘ All ethernet cables in the tether were made with pure copper stranded wire (stranded wire is less likely to break when bent) â&#x20AC;˘ Power cable was changed from 2 re-used extension cables to 12 AWG speaker cable, eliminating unused copper, increasing flexibility, and decreasing weight per foot

Power System Design

â&#x20AC;˘ Power is transmitted to the ROV at 48 VDC, and down-converted on the ROV to 12V and 5V to power thrusters, computers, and sensors â&#x20AC;˘ Transmitting at higher voltage improves efficiency and stability by reducing the amount of current running through the tether, which has a fixed resistance â&#x20AC;˘ 48 to 12V Down conversion is performed by the Vicor DCM Modules â&#x20AC;˘ Converters have built in load sharing capability, making increasing the power available to the ROV as simple as adding another converter in parallel â&#x20AC;˘ Small form factor (3.4â&#x20AC;?x1.4â&#x20AC;?) makes it easy to fit the converters into the electronics tray

Control System Design

â&#x20AC;˘ Incorporates all of the ROVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s power system components â&#x20AC;˘ Includes power resistors that allow the current on the 12V bus to be viewed on an oscilloscope â&#x20AC;˘ Allows the thrusters to run in the water â&#x20AC;˘ Running them dry damages them and does not accurately represent their electrical properties when running

Testing Results

High Level View of Power System

Component

Surface Station 120V AC Supply

120V AC to 48V DC power supply

30 A Circuit Breaker

48 to 12V converters 12 V bus ESCs (average) Center of electronics tray

48 V Tether

ROV 48 to 12 V converter 48 to 12 V converter

12V Bus

ESCs* (8x)

Thrusters (8x)

12 to 5V converter

Raspberry Pi 3

Sensors

*ESC stands for Electronic Speed Controller

Presenter: Alex Sarasin

Oscilloscope measurement of the 12V bus voltage (CH1), 12V bus current (MATH), and 5V bus voltage (CH4) responding to the motors being rapidly brought to maximum power and back to resting. Note that a 1V change on the MATH channel corresponds to approximately 20A.

Project Advisor: Michael J. Carter

Maximum Temperature (Ë&#x161;C)

37 33 70 37

â&#x20AC;˘ 4 degrees of freedom feedback control using an inertial measurement unit for heading information, and a pressure sensor to determine height in the water column â&#x20AC;˘ Used a MATLAB Model to simulate the system and find controller gains â&#x20AC;˘ Implemented the controller on the ROV using python Error signal Desired Trajectory đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§ đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

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PID Controllers Current Trajectory đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§ đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

Vehicle Dynamics

Pressure Sensor Inertial Measurement Unit

High Level view of the control system. Desired coordinates are passed in through the laptop, and feedback is given by the pressure sensor and IMU. Output is given by in the form of force from the thrusters

Result of 30 minute stress test where all 8 thrusters were run at maximum power continuously. Temperatures were measured using an infrared thermometer.

Co-Advisor: May-Win Thein

Simulated response to a step input on each degree of freedom. Desired depth was set to 2 meters, and roll, pitch, and yaw were set to 0.2 radians

The objective of the ROVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control system is to make the ROV less prone to human error while in operation. The ocean environment that the ROV is designed to operate in has a multitude of disturbances that are difficult for a human operator to correct for such as currents and tides. By using feedback from the vehicleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pressure sensor and IMU, PID controllers were developed to keep the its heading and height in the water column stable without the need of correction by a human operator. This same method was examined for controlling the ROVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s latitude and longitude in an effort to pave the way for a fully autonomous vehicle.

61 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Displaying Octaves with the Constant-Q Transform AUTHORS: Samuel Leahy Brett Nelson Adam O'Neil ADVISOR: Michael Carter

This project features a microcontrollerbased approach to audio band spectral analysis and visualization. The spectral content of a digital signal is commonly evaluated through some variation of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). However, the DFT produces linearly spaced frequency bins, while humans perceive audio pitch on a logarithmic scale. In contrast to the DFT, the Constant-Q Transform (CQT) effectively distributes the spectral content of a signal into logarithmically spaced frequency bins. Therefore, the CQT is employed in this design to visualize the spectrum of an audio input signal as it is perceived by the adult human ear.

Displaying Octaves With The Constant-Q Transform Team Members: Adam O’Neil, Brett Nelson and Samuel Leahy Faculty Advisor: Dr. Michael Carter

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Real-Time Sleep Apnea Detection and Mitigation AUTHOR: Joshua Letterman ADVISOR: John LaCourse

Sleep apnea is difficult to inexpensively monitor in the home and difficult to treat comfortably. This device has been developed to address both issues. To unobtrusively detect sleep apnea, a highly sensitive sensor mat--to be placed under the sleeper--has been created to detect rhythmic breathing, heart beats, the cessation of breathing, and the associated elevated heart rates that accompany waking due to sleep apnea. The device, upon achieving a level of certainty that sleep apnea events are occurring, takes actions to alter the sleeper’s head and neck posture and to arouse the sleeper’s level of subconscious awareness.

Real-Time Sleep Apnea Detection & Mitigation Dept. of Electrical & Computer Eng.

Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Background: Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Is A Terrible Disorder

Joshua Letterman Faculty Advisor: Dr. John LaCourse

Is There A Better, Alternative Solution?

Affecting ~20,000,000 American adults alone

Sleep Apnea is Primarily Caused by Tongue/Uvula Obstruction

Leads To: Heart problems Constant fatigue Loss of mental acuity

During Deep Sleep, Muscles Relax and Airway Becomes Blocked Sleeper Then (Partially) Awakens in Panic, Heart Rate Increased

Higher Risk Of: Diabetes Stroke Headaches Moodiness, Depression, and Personality Changes

Potentially Hundreds of Times Each Night—Depending on Severity

Problem: Limited Options — Static, “Dumb” Solutions CPAP Machines Primary Therapy Uncomfortable Restrictive Always On Unattractive •

Strap-On Pillows Force Side Sleeping Uncomfortable Must Awaken to Rollover •

Chin-Straps Better For Snoring Uncomfortable •

Questions to Be Answered By This Device Can a sleeper be repositioned to clear the airways? Can a sleeper be woken… just a little bit? Just sufficient to prompt breathing without the panic? Can the response be adjusted according to event frequency? Can the treatment be done gently and without discomfort?

How Does It Work? High-Sensitivity Vibration Sensor Mat • Detects Breathing and Heart Rates—Reacts Accordingly Raises Conscious Awareness—5 Levels • Raises Ambient Blue Light • Ambient Sound with Beta-Wave Binaural Beats Adjusts Head/Neck Positioning—5 Levels • Inflates One of a Two Chamber Pillow • Alternates Hourly To Reduce Neck Soreness

State of Development

Looking Ahead: Effectiveness Study

Captures Breathing and Heart Rate Data From Sensor Mat

Requires Manual Level Triggering

Chambers Inflate with Level-Based Pressure Monitoring

For Automated Level Triggering— Some Steps Remain

Binaural Beat Music Plays at Level-Based Volume LED Panel Provides Ambient Blue Light at Level-Based Intensity

Breathing Rate Heart Rate

1.25 Minutes of Device Vibrational Monitoring of Resting Subject

Peak-Detection—Frequency Spectrum Ensemble Analysis • Establish Lock-On (Programmatically Identify Base Rates) • Detect Breathing Rate Disappearance, Potentially Followed By Increased Heart-Rate Frequency • Handle Violent Signal (Reject Sleeper Body Repositioning) Improve Sensor Mat Sampling Time Accuracy • OS Thread Scheduling Has To Be Worked Around Isolate Pillow Pressure Sensors From Pumps • Place Directly In The Pillow Chambers To Provide Continuous-Time Feedback

The first task is primary, and is accomplished by altering the pressure in a two-chambered inflatable pillow so as to cause the sleeper’s head to rotate sideways. This should help reduce the obstruction to air passage and prompt on-side sleeping. Continuous pressure monitoring of each chamber allows for multiple levels of inflation. Also, the occasional alternation of inflated chamber helps to prevent stiff necks and other discomfort. The second and auxiliary task is accomplished by raising the level of ambient blue light in the room via LEDs and by playing binaural beat sounds in an attempt to entrain the brain to beta waves. INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 62

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

2018


Piezoelectric Crystal Shoe Power AUTHOR: John Carlson ADVISOR: John LaCourse

The necessity to find not only renewable, but stable sources of energy for the future Piezoelectric Crystal Shoe Power is rapidly increasing. With dwindling John Carlson Advisor: Dr. John Lacourse supplies and harmful effects, fossil fuels University of New Hampshire, ECE Department are soon to be obsolete in the energy industry opening doors for innovation Introduction Piezoelectricity Implementation in the energy production field. With this being such a large industry, there likely won’t be one singular solution to the problem and the solutions will not Mechanical Solid State ▪ Generates large ▪ Generates less happen quickly. Throughout this project amounts of power power ▪ Small there were two main goals in mind, one ▪ Heavy ▪ No moving parts ▪ Bulky ▪ Nearly Results ▪ Moving Parts undetectable for the short term picture and one for the larger, long term picture. Initially the goal was to showcase a way that by focusing on the smaller scale and strength in numbers, that the energy generated by humans can be harnessed to make a small impact on the energy issues. This was done through the physical implementation of piezoelectric crystal pads into a shoe that will generate electricity to in turn, charge a cell phone or other electronic device. Through many different iterations and tests, the most efficient method was determined and implemented into a final product. Moving forward toward the larger goal, there is a vast amount of potential using this technology to conquer the bigger issues such as placing these crystals into roadways, sidewalks, or keyboards to name a few. Given the drastic amount of energy used in todays world it is imperative to find alternative sources. This project explores ways to harness energy that would otherwise go unused. With a goal to prove that small steps can be made in large amounts to make an impact on creating useable energy. This was done through using human movement to charge a cell phone. The final product is a proof of concept using everyday shoes to generate electricity.

Crystals (quarts) are compressed to generate electricity

▪ ▪

Atoms are forced to move which changes the electrical balance, making electricity

▪ ▪

▪ The initial goal of charging a cell phone was achieved after many trials and modifications. ▪ As mentioned above the need for a power bank was necessary because not enough power was generated per step to keep the phone charging. ▪ After about an hour of walking a test phone was charged about 7%. ▪ Though not the most rapid way to charge a phone, it proves that there is energy all around us that can be harnessed and turned into useful electricity.

Ultrasonic Receiver for Power Line Noise Localization AUTHORS: Sean Couture Devon Crawford

When arcing occurs on an electric power Ultrasonic Receiver for Power Line Noise line, it emits a wideband radio frequency Localization signal which could cause interference in the reception of common devices such as radios and cable television systems. The arc also generates an audio signal with frequency content in the ultrasonic range. The device that we have designed and created is a directional ultrasonic receiver, which is intended to be used to detect and precisely localize the source of this ultrasonic noise on power lines. The device was also designed with usability in mind; it is easy to handle and safe to use. In order for the received signal to be analyzed, it is converted down to an audible frequency using a mixer and listened to through headphones. Optimizing the amplifier, transducer, and mixer stages of the circuit allowed for the desired operation of the receiver in a controlled environment. After completing laboratory tests, the integrated ultrasonic transducer and frequency converter will be tested on known local power line arc sources to evaluate its sensitivity, spatial resolution, and overall effectiveness. Sean Couture | Devon Crawford Project Advisor: Michael Carter University of New Hampshire Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Device Block Diagram

The Problem

ADVISOR: Michael Carter

Results

System Performance

• Arcing on a power line emits noise interferes with common devices such as • Radios/Emergency Communications • Cable television systems • Internet • Frequency emitted is not band limited • Federal Communications Commission requires powerline companies to eliminate this noise • Difficult to isolate a noise source beyond a stretch of power lines or general area

2

10

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2 -80.9

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100

250

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750 1000 1500 2000

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100 -54.5 -44.1 -31.7 -24.5 -17.7 -13.3 -12.5 -12.1 -11.7 -11.7 250 -47.7 -38.5 -25.3 -19.3 -12.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 500 -49.3 -38.9 -25.7 -18.9 -12.5 -11.3 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9

LO @ 660mV Input Amplitude Mixed product (mV) magnitude (dB) 2

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10

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50

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100

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1000 1500 2000

-6.15 -7.35 -9.35

750 -40.5 -36.7 -24.9 -18.9 -12.5 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9

Design Goals

• Detect the interference location to within a few feet without use of expensive equipment or a bucket truck • Produce a clearly audible output when interference is detected • Portable, easy to handle • Safe for the user • Cost efficient, components readily available

LO signal amplitude (mV)

Received Signal Amplitude (mV)

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

Piezoelectric crystals only generate electricity during compression or decompression. No energy is generated while in a resting or compressed state.

Piezoelectric pads were laid out in a formation that would have the most efficient pressure points on a foot After testing the pads, calculations were made in order to determine the wiring schematic - A combination of series and parallel connections were made to achieve proper voltage and current Power needed to be converted from ac to dc - A full bridge rectifier was constructed and connected to piezo pads Power was not constant – phone charge would go off and on -Power bank was connected to store power that phone could be connected to

Hearing the Interference: The Mixing Process

1000 -35.7 -32.9 -24.1 -18.9 -12.5 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9 -10.9

• The power line interference emits noise at frequencies inaudible to the human ear. • In order to be heard by the human ear, it must be brought into the hearing range (20Hz-20kHz) • Transducer operates at 44.1kHz signal mixed with 39.5kHz signal (produces by oscillator) to yield audible 4.6kHz sound • This can be heard through the headphones as a distinct sound

Powerline Noise Power Spectrum 120 Hz tone

FFT of the Final Mixing Product

Isolating a Point

Using a parabolic dish, we can make the receiver highly directional so that we can identify the noise source within a foot.

System Gain Loaded: 9 dB Unloaded: 26 dB

Special thanks to James Abare for help throughout the project

Winning Project

2018 63 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Vegetative Voltage Generation AUTHOR: Samantha Sirois ADVISOR: John LaCourse

The goal of this project was to create a more efficient model for harvesting energy from trees. Due to increased energy needs, it is important to explore new green energy harvesting methods. This project focused on whether or not different species would impact the amount of voltage generated. Two different species of trees were compared, the white ash tree and the sugar maple tree. The models were based on each tree’s nutritional needs, previous research, and electromagnetic properties of cylindrical capacitors.

Vegetative Voltage Generation Samantha Sirois Advisor: Dr. John LaCourse

Properties of Vegetation:

Problem Addressed: • As energy needs keep growing, the need for new, safe, and inventive forms of harvesting energy are rising. • This project aimed to explore a new source of energy by harvesting voltage from trees. • This project will explore ways to optimize harvesting through a model that specifically focuses on properties of different species of trees. • Two different species of trees were compared, the white ash tree and the sugar maple tree. • The models were based on each tree’s nutritional needs, previous research, and electromagnetic properties of cylindrical capacitors

Current Models:

• Input into the system modeled as a current source, based on nutritional needs of each species of harvesting energy are rising. • Tree modeled as cylindrical capacitor, diameter of phloem and xylem • Resistance based on previous experimental data

Proposed Harvesting System:

White Ash Tree

Previous Model:

Problems: • Not much is known about how different environmental factors influence the model • The current system only extracted energy for 0.1hrs per day.

• Programmable clock set to RC time constant of tree • Resistance based on impedance going into BJT and properties of device • Output capacitor based on projected charge-discharge cycle- more steady power source

Project Goals: • Design a model that factors in different environmental factors– specifically, how properties of different species affect the power output of each system • Design a system that optimizes the amount of energy able to be harvested for each species of tree

Sugar Maple Tree

Future Improvements: • Test during the warmer months • Use microelectronics for more speed and efficiency • Run several systems in parallel • Change soil Ph and see effects

RFID Chessboard AUTHOR: John Curl-Larson ADVISOR: Kent Chamberlin

The RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Chessboard is an electronic chessboard that records the moves of a game automatically. It is based on RFID technology which allows small, passive tags to be uniquely identified through wireless interrogation by a sensing device. The purpose of the RFID Chessboard is to record the game in chess notation as well as to display the position of the pieces on a computer or smartphone. This will eliminate the need to manually record the game on paper and pencil.

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The RFID Chessboard operates by /01'2#1* <&8#=*%A*.::3'A#.'1#@%:=)98*# <&8#H#;"#H#=*%9%9"=8#E%*G/#28*"#E8++6#0'"# 3'98*>.@3'A#E./#1%'8#%'#9&8#0*1)3'%# @%:;3'.93%'#%>#=38@8/#3/#@%**8@9+"#318'93>3816#<&8# positioning an antenna underneath each J'%6#<&8#IJD#E./#=*%A*.::81#)/3'A# IJD#@%**8@9+"#/&%E/#9&8#@&8//;%.*1#+%@.93%'#%># 9&8#V"9&%'#=*%A*.::3'A#+.'A).A86 9&8#=38@8/#%'#9&8#@%:=)98*#/@*88'6 square on the chessboard and by placing an RFID tag on the bottom of each chess piece. When a chess piece is sensed on a given square, the information about what type of piece and what specific square it is on is sent to a computer. The computer then uses formatting techniques to save the game in PGN (Portable Game Notation). X=8@3.+#<&.'G/#<%4 $.:8/#0;.*8 B3@&.*1#T@(%*:.@G 5*6#78'9#(&.:;8*+3'

The final product of this work is a prototype 4 x 4 board (a standard chessboard is 8 x 8) that achieves design objectives by correctly identifying the pieces on that board. The next step will be to build the full-sized chessboard.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 64

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - HARDWARE DESIGN

University of New Hampshire Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Predicative Intra-Traffic Management & Analysis st

Hockey Game February 10th: Gate A2

80

import pexpect import time

70

try: while True: child.expect("Device (([0-9A-Fa-f]{2}:){5}([0-9AFa-f]{2}))", timeout = None) bdaddr = child.match.group(1) bdaddrs.append(bdaddr) results.write(bdaddr+" "+time.strftime('%Y-%m%d %I:%M:%S %p')+"\n") except KeyboardInterrupt: child.close() results.close()

Bluetooth Devices Detected

60

results = open("Feb14Hockey_001.txt", 'a') child = pexpect.spawn("bluetoothctl") child.send("power on\n") child.send("scan on\n") bdaddrs = []

50 40 30 20 10 0

5:45

6:57

8:09 9:21 Game Time (PM)

10:33

11:45

Raspberry Pi 006

Data Analysis

March 2018

Setting the Stage

ADVISOR: Andrew Kun

Predicative Intra-Traffic Management & Analysis The purpose of our project was to October 2017 October 21 2017 January – February 2018 December 2017 understand the trends of how people Hockey Games Program Perfection Past Statistics Football Games, Homecoming Trial maneuver through stadium during the duration of a sporting event. We identified several different aspects that are affected by the flow within stadiums: immediate surrounding road traffic, advertising & concession location, parking management and crowd attendance during particular times. To Our Vision The Impact of venU accomplish how people flow within a stadium, we developed software for a Raspberry Pi Zero W that can detect The Technology Bluetooth devices. The software thus detects when an ubiquitous device comes within close proximity. Once the software detects the device, it reads the unique MAC address, and then logs it in a file with an associated time stamp. Note that the software boots automatically when the Raspberry Pi is powered up, resulting in simple operation – there is no software setup needed. We used the system to collect data at both the new Wildcats Stadium and the Whittemore Center, for football and hockey games, respectively. We collected data at one football game. With innovations to our program and we strategically placing our devices within the Whittemore Center and we detected about 5,500 unique MAC addresses for an attendance of about 3,500 fans. This data can help us understand how and why people move throughout the event.

September 2017

AUTHORS: Ty Kartiganer Joel Nkounkou

Joel Nkounkou & Ty Kartiganer

Our project was driven by the goal to create a phone application that can be utilized

The purpose of our project was to

during sports games and other stadium-type events. About 60% of fans want an improved

understand the trends of how people

connectivity within stadiums and over 40% want a better traffic management system for parking spaces. This application will both give fans the desired stadium interaction

maneuver through stadium during the

interface to enhance their experience during the event, but will also provide stadium

duration of a sporting event. We

operators with a platform to advertise and give promotional offers to the fans.

identified several different aspects that

are affected by the flow within stadiums: immediate surrounding road traffic, advertising & concession location, parking management and crowd

attendance during particular times. To accomplish how people flow within a stadium, we developed software for a Raspberry Pi Zero W that can detect Bluetooth devices.

Autonomous Mapping Robot With the advancements of technology, more and more robotic systems are Autonomous Mapping Robot Presented By: Christian Vance, Alec Crimmin, Ethan Stewart being designed to accomplish complex objectives. The Autonomous Mapping Applications Objective Implementation Performance Robot was developed with the task of Server Motors autonomously navigating a foreign ` terrain and providing a topographic Sensor map of its surroundings. Using a LiDAR sensor as its sight and stepper motors Hardware for its controlled movement, the AMR communicates wirelessly with a server to Design create a map and determine its desired destinations synchronously. Such a robot could be used to survey unknown and/ or unsafe areas and could lead to further progressions in autonomous robotic systems. The 2018 AMR design team was tasked with improving chassis design, as well navigation and sensor readings. Hardware and software optimization and efficiency were also long term goals throughout this year. Advisor: Dr. Se Young Yoon (ECE)

Problem:

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Design robotic systems to preform scientific exploration with little to no risk to it’s user.

LIDAR RANGE TEST

The Autonomous Mapping Robot can be used to access high risk areas with little to no risk to the operator. This makes it highly applicable for search and rescue.

Micro Controller

Average

RESULT

Solution:

Space Exploration:

Remote or autonomous exploration of planetary surfaces would be made possible.

Caving:

LiDAR over Sonar:

Stepper over DC:

More precise range measurements as well as farther distance readings overall.

Higher level of control without the use of additional hardware and sensors. More torque for heavier components.

Archeologists would be able to survey hard to reach areas and collect data they were unable to obtain before.

20

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Expected

30 35 DISTANCES

40

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15 10 5 0

Chassis Schematic

Circuit Diagram

+

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-

65 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

20

Error

ADVISOR: Se Young Yoon

Search and Rescue:

Certain scientific exploration can put its observers in dangerous situations. It is desired to reduce or eliminate this risk to make exploration safer and easier.

Error Factor

AUTHORS: Alec Crimmin Ethan Stewart Christian Vance

20

1.55 1.5 1.45 1.4 1.35 1.3 1.25

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40

Error Factor (Avg./Exp.)

20

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40

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EEG and EMG Sensorimotor Measurements to Explore Neurophyslological Control Mechanisms of Balance in Response to a Unilateral Stance Perturbation AUTHORS: Teagan Northrup Anna Snarski

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament !!"#$%&#!'"#()%*+,-.+/+,#')$*0,).)%/*#/+#!123+,)#4)0,+256*-+3+7-8$3#9+%/,+3# ')85$%-*.*#+: ;$3$%8) -% <)*2+%*)#/+#$#=%-3$/),$3#(/$%8)#>),/0,?$/-+% (ACL) is one of the most common knee B'&";2& !"#$%&' ?)2)+50);<&8&+ injuries and is repaired through surgery. Even after successful surgery there is an increased risk of re-injury. One factor that is believed to contribute to subsequent injury is proprioceptive P):7/#%"0= deficits post-surgery. Proprioception plays an important role in sensing movement. A common method to ('&2+6'2"$ C%0:;"&8%0 measure proprioception is Joint Position Sense (JPS) testing which does not take into account the response time. Timing of responses to a stimulus is an important B'F'#'0:'& factor in proprioception as it is part of the communication between the knee and motor cortex when motion is detected. This project examines an alternative method of measuring proprioception, using electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) to record the responses to motion consequent to a lower-limb perturbation. Data was analyzed to detect event related potentials affected by the perturbation along with the response time of muscle contraction to regain balance. This study used healthy participants to determine if EEG and EMG can be used to measure proprioception feedback to the cortex. This method may be used to measure proprioception after ACL reconstruction and help determine when a patient can return to physical activity. DDO+(#)0&8'02+)2+CX D;':2#%='+G823+C"##'02+6%"#:'+?'0&82<+,)$&+

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MCTS With Best NN, 20 Playouts

80%

70%

60%

AlmostImplemented[1]:

70 % Wins

50%

Bit-level code

40%

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Track board state

30%

• Selection

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Gui:

Simplify format

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Alert AI of changes on the board

Get Moves from Human & AI

20%

10%

• Expansion

0%

win %

loss %

• Back-Propagation

Neural Network Alone

MCTS without NN

90

70

80

60

70

50

60 50

AI:

50 Playouts

40

20 Playouts

Neural Network

Monte-Carlo Tree Search

We would like to thank Professor Richard Messner for loaning us his Linux server

30

10

10

0

0

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40

20

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draw %

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win %

loss %

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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• Best: 59% Win

[1] almostimplemented, Andrew. Checkers (2014), Github repository, https://github.com/almostimplemented/checkers

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 66

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

ADVISOR: Richard Messner

Software is ever evolving to solve Learning Checkers Using TensorFlow tasks both mundane and complex as Justin DeVinney and Eric Ouellette Advisor: Richard Messner efficiently as possible. With this trend, Department of Electrical and Computer engineering: University of New Hampshire, 2018 there has been a recent surge of interest Results: Conclusions: in the developing field of using machine Intro: TensorFlow Graph: • Neural Networks can be learning to create artificial intelligence • Recent surge of interest in trained to optimize results machine learning to create artificial intelligence (AI) (AI). Many systems developed with • AI search algorithms can • Using Neural Networks (NN), make the process more artificial intelligence involve the use of this technique can be applied to intelligent various games, such as checkers neural networks, capable of learning to • Neural Networks rely on large amounts of computing power effectively map inputs to outputs of any Planned Method: • TensorFlow bolstered design type. This allows the program to adapt and implementation Monte-Carlo Tree Search: to find the best solution to the problem • Reinforcement learning requires minimal initial data rather than looking up the answer from a database. One such application where Acknowledgments: neural networks (NN) are often used is in learning how to play a game. In this References: project the team created a NN based AI, which could learn to play checkers by studying the moves of other players and by playing against itself to improve performance. Win Percentage

AUTHORS: Justin Devinney Eric Ouellette


How Healthy are your Plants? AUTHORS: Ezequiel Abreu Issam Benabdelkrim Sean Cronin Alfred Odierno ADVISOR: Richard Messner

Plant health is correlated to how green its How Healthy Are Your Plants? leaves â&#x20AC;&#x153;look.â&#x20AC;? This is due to the reflection and absorption properties of chlorophyll, The SPAD Number Project Statement Results which is proportional to the amount of chloroplast that creates energy for the plant. Industry professionals currently make use of a SPAD meter to make estimates of the plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chlorophyll Image Processing Hands Free! density. A number of readings are taken from a large selection of leaves and averaged to obtain an overall number for the plant. This is a time-consuming process that can be automated to make a more efficient system. Using digital Future Improvements image processing, the SPAD number Challenges can be replicated by obtaining an image of a plant and processing that image in color space. Since the color of the plant is related to the wavelengths of light measured by the SPAD meter, computer algorithms have been developed to extract these values. A low-cost automated approach to monitoring plant health by using computer software to approximate a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chlorophyll levels has been developed and will be presented. Ezequiel Abreu, Sean Cronin, Alfred Odierno and Issam Benabdelkrim Advisor: Dr. Richard Messner UNH Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

ď&#x201A;§ A low-cost automated approach to monitoring plant health by using computer software to approximate a plant's chlorophyll level. ď&#x201A;§ Industry relies on a SPAD meter to measure the chlorophyll level. This device is costly and timeconsuming. ď&#x201A;§ Image processing is used to estimate the chlorophyll level by analyzing a plant image and producing a SPAD number. Farmbot is used to automate the process.

ď&#x201A;§ Image Processing is the use of algorithms to enhance an image or extract information from it.

SPAD meter is a hand-held device that measures the chlorophyll Level in plants. It requires a database of measurements to determine the health of plants.

Plant 1 SPAD data Comparison

SPAD meter emits two frequencies, red @ 660 nm and infrared @ 940 nm. Chlorophyll absorbs red but not infrared, Absorption difference is measured by the Meter and a SPAD number is produced.

Plant 2 SPAD data Comparison

ď&#x201A;§ The software finds the edges of the plant. Creates a mask then extracts color information. The Color information is in RGB.

đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ?&#x2018;&#x2020; = â&#x2C6;&#x2019;0277.05 â&#x2C6;&#x2014;

â&#x20AC;˘ Access to SPAD Meter â&#x20AC;˘ Importing PySerial â&#x20AC;˘ Connecting FarmBot to WebApp

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â&#x20AC;˘ Acquiring FarmBot â&#x20AC;˘ Change of Plans

ď&#x201A;§ Farmbot, Created by Farmbot Inc. Automation. ď&#x201A;§ Uses Raspberry Pi 3 and Arduino Mega ď&#x201A;§ Added own RaspBerry Pi and coded to read image data and SPAD number ď&#x201A;§ Web-App Connects to FarmBot Pi which connects to Secondary Pi ď&#x201A;§ Secondary Pi has camera and Python code ď&#x201A;§ Python Code takes image and gets data using PlantCV ď&#x201A;§ Secondary Pi returns SPAD Data

Plant 3 SPAD data Comparison

ď&#x201A;§ Our software uses PlantCV to analyze the Image. Image Analysis reads the histogram data and returns a SPAD number. Using the formula:

Plant 4 SPAD data Comparison

Four Bamboo plants were measured with SPAD meter and the Raspberry Pi 3 camera. Data shows that the results acquired with the camera are closely related to the SPAD Meter measurements.

â&#x20AC;˘ Measuring Data with greater light Intensity â&#x20AC;˘ Be able to send an alert when SPAD data is unusual â&#x20AC;˘ Modify code to analyze Plant Phenotype, Traits and Characteristics

Acknowledgements: Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to thank Dr. Ryan Dickson and Crysta Harris from the UNH College of Life Sciences and Agriculture for their collaboration and use of their SPAD meter.

Faraday Rotation Ammeter AUTHOR: Jason Sisk

The Faraday Rotation Ammeter (FRA) Faraday Rotation Ammeter experiment uses a polarized laser source Student: Jason Sisk Advisors: Matthew Argall, Professor Kent Chamberlain Original FRA Design: Analyzing the Verdet Constant: that is coupled to into a fiber optic cable Problem Statement: Faraday Rotation Experiment to measure current density. When placed ADVISORS: in the desired environment, the magnetic field changes the angle of polarization Introduction: Matthew Argall â&#x2C6;&#x2020; = Âľ đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030; đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x153;&#x2039;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; đ??˝đ??˝ of the propagating electric field via the Kent Chamberlin Equipment Faraday Effect. The change in polarization angle is given by the Verdet constant, which describes material properties Results: of the fiber relating to angular change Accomplishments Measured Verdet Constant Data and provides a measurement of current density. This device is to be deployed in a satellite to measure current systems Future Improvements Objectives: in the Aurora. Estimated current density values are expected to be tens of microamps per square meter (10-100ÂľA/m^2). The main goals of the project are to simulate the Faraday Effect on the propagation of the linearly-polarized light wave, measure the Verdet Constant, rebuild the previous design, and determine what components, if improved or replaced with newer Honorable Mention technology, could provide the FRA the necessary sensitivity. In lab, measurements and simulations of the project have shown that the Verdet Constant increases at lower wavelengths than were used previously. This Project data, along with improvements in the fiber and angle-detection system, suggest that a greater sensitivity can be achieved. The need for a direct, non-intrusive measurement of space plasma current densities is required to determine critical currents at which the ionospheric plasmas become unstable. Observations show that current densities within the aurora are on the order of 10-100uA/m^2. Previous attempts at creating an instrument 20 years ago were able to achieve a sensitivity of 4mA/m^2. This project investigates ways to increase the sensitivity further to meet the expected values.

The Faraday Rotation Ammeter (FRA) experiment uses a linearly polarized laser source that is coupled to into a fiber optic cable to measure current density. When the device is placed in the desired environment, a present magnetic field (B) changes the angle of polarization of the propagating electric field via the Faraday Effect. The change in polarization angle is given by the Verdet constant (Vc), which describes material properties of the fiber relating to angular change and provides a measurement of current density. The strength of the magnetic field and length (l) of the fiber also affect the angular change of the as seen in the diagram and equation below.

â&#x2013;Ş A linearly polarized laser source (A) was powered and the polarizer (C) was rotated as the light exited the SF-57 glass to analyze the polarization angle as the signal entered the photodiode detector. â&#x2013;Ş Voltage levels given by the photodiode detector (D) when a constant magnetic field was or wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t present in the solenoid (B) allowed the Verdet Constant of the SF-57 glass to be measured using Malusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law. â&#x2013;Ş The detected Vc value of a laser source seen at a wavelength 650nm was 28.7 rad/mT while the expected was 23 rad/mT. â&#x2013;Ş Switching to a laser source with a wavelength of 532nm the detected Verdet Constant was increased to 37.34 rad/mT with the expected value for SF-57 glass seen to be 38 rad/mT.

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2

â&#x2013;Ş Near-IR Laser diode (Îť = 830nm) â&#x2013;Ş Polarizer to completely polarize the Laser source. â&#x2013;Ş Half Wave Plate to rotate the polarization state. â&#x2013;Ş Non-polarizing Beam splitter where 50% of the wave continues through (50% wasted). â&#x2013;Ş Fiber Lens/Coupler to focus the transmitted wave into the SEB fiber ring. â&#x2013;Ş Mirror to reflect the transmitted wave to increase the traveled length. â&#x2013;Ş Polarized Beam Splitter to split the rotated linearly polarized light wave down toward the photodiodes. â&#x2013;Ş Photodiodes to output the detected polarization state

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Faraday Rotation Setup used to measure the Verdet Constant

Visual Demonstration of the Faraday Effect

â&#x2013;Ş Simulate a linearly polarized light source traveling through the system â&#x2013;Ş Measure and analyze the Verdet Constant of medium â&#x2013;Ş Rebuild the previous design â&#x2013;Ş Test the rebuilt design to verify the ability to measure the current â&#x2013;Ş Suggest improvements that will increase the sensitivity to be able to measure the expected values

2018

67â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

â&#x2013;Ş Created a functional MATLAB simulation to show how the Faraday Effect impacts the Electric field and determine the angle of rotation â&#x2013;Ş Verified that the Faraday Effect is real and that the Verdet Constant is a function of the wavelength of the laser source. â&#x2013;Ş Functional Laser Source, polarizer and half wave plate mounted. â&#x2013;Ş Mounted Beam splitter and fiber coupler with installed fiber chunk. â&#x2013;Ş SEB fiber from previous project intact. Talking with fiber companies on improving the fiber design and attenuation. â&#x2013;Ş Responsive Photodiodes and angle detection circuit

â&#x2013;Ş Changing the wavelength of the laser source in order to take advantage of a higher Verdet Constant in the medium. â&#x2013;Ş Change the type of material used in the Fiber ring to obtain a larger Verdet Constant. â&#x2013;Ş Improve the fiber used in the Fiber Ring to minimalize the attenuation values in order to maximize the total length usable. â&#x2013;Ş Acquire photodiodes or polarimeter with greater sensitivity in order to detect smaller changes in polarization angle.

Special Thanks to: Professor Richard Messner, Professor Allen Drake, Professor Olof Echt, Roy Torbert, Ivan Dors, Stan Ellis, and Todd Jones for their help and input on the Project.


The Rolling Spider Drone Using Feedback Control System AUTHORS: Abdulrahman Saed Chang Ki Sung ADVISOR: Se Young Yoon

The goal of our project is to construct the The Rolling Spider Drone Using Feedback Control System Members: Abdulrahman Saed, Changki Sung | Faculty Advisor: Se Young (Pablo) Yoon , PhD control of robotic swarm test platform. ECE Department The test platform consists of microFlow Chart Communication Introduction quadcopters, motion capture system and Task I software integration to real time control system implemented through Matlab Simulink. With the use of Quadcopters Design Approach Task II that are based on popular low-cost Results hardware, with updated firmware to customize the internal control system. Task III We attain our purposes with the use of a Procedure motion capture system based on infrared Hardware, Software, and Lab Space Project model cameras and a software that determines the location and orientation of objects in their field of vision. For testing the control system, we implemented algorithms to control the quadcopters with the joy-stick controller. Then, we add additional layers to the interface of the quadcopter for autonomous control. Optitrack camera systems, are used to track the position of the quadcopters and stream the position data to Matlab using a server setup. Then, create a Simulink streaming model, to input the quadcopters arguments from Matlab script files. We integrate the control system with the Simulink streaming model to command the drones to move a certain direction simultaneously together. With our test platform, people can test their control of robotic swarms, rather than using expensive hardware. Hopefully this project will expand. The test platform has been developed with low cost commercial quadcopters and motion capture system. The Matlab Simulink is used to design the autonomous flight control system and receiving position data from the Motive. The infrared camera is used to capture motion of quadcopters.

Printing:

- Design Flight Controller - Testing Flight Controller using the Joystick Controller

TCP/IP

- Calibration - Streaming Data - Import Streamed Data to the Simulink

• Designed Control System using the Simulink • The Control System is tested through the Joystick Controller • Collecting position data from the motion capture system and streaming data to Matlab. • Design the Simulink model to control the flight and movement of the drone, using the NATNET firmware provided by Optitrack.

The Block Diagram of Feedback Control System

- Integrate Task 1 and Task 2 - Testing Control system

This model outlines the pattern we followed to setup and run the routines needed to implement the test platform and analyze the data received through computer interfacing and communication.

For our project space we have the cameras set up in a symmetrical manner to ensure the motion capture is accurate. Then the cameras are able to display the quadcopters and show their rigid bodies according to how the markers are aligned on the quadcopter asymmetrically.

Toward a Tool to Evaluate Visual Behavior In Multi-Device Environments

ADVISOR: Andrew Kun

Human visual behavior has significant potential influence for activity recognition. Our eye movements are closely linked to our goals, tasks, and intentions. We are interested in understanding visual behavior of multiple users engaged in a collaborative task around a table. We hope to use visual behavior to identify activities that multiple users are engaged in. However, we don’t know where multiple users cast their gaze, and more importantly when multiple users cast their gaze, how long they look at a particular target, as well as how these behaviors are related between users.

Toward a Tool to Evaluate Visual Behavior in Multi-device Environments Xihong Su

Advisor: Andrew Kun

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03823 Email: xs1004@wildcats.unh.edu

2. Objectives • Where two users cast their gaze • When two users cast their gaze • How these behaviors related between two users

Recording

4. Results

1. Introduction • Mobile eye tracking technologies open up the possibilities of gaze-based human-computer interaction systems • User gaze is used to recognize human activity

• Y axis : six registered surfaces named 1,2,3,4,5,6 • X axis: the time the user cast his gaze on each surface User two

User one

Cross-recurrence plot Order of user one : 1,2,3,4,5,6 Order of user two: 1,2,3,4,5,6

3. Methods • Main idea is from “Richardson, D. C., & Dale, R. (2005). Looking to understand: The coupling between speakers' and listeners' eye movements and its relationship to discourse comprehension. Cognitive science, 29(6), 1045-1060.” • Collected data from one participant; used this data to simulate having two users engaged in a collaborative task

Order of user one : 1,2,3,4,5,6 Order of user two:1,2,3,6,5,4

5. Conclusions •

Order of user one : 1,2,3,4,5,6 Order of user two:6,5,4,3,2,1

Results show that two users finish the task collaboratively or separately • Gaze measurement data includes noisy measurements mainly caused by eye tracker and calibration

In order to be able to answer these questions, we designed software to visualize the gaze behavior of two users around a table. The visualization shows us how the timing of user gazes is related: do they look at the same place at the same time, or no? We conducted controlled experiments to demonstrates visualizations for three cases: (a) when the gazes of the two users follow each other perfectly around the table over time, (b) when the gazes of the two users do not follow each other perfectly around the table over time, and (c) when the gaze measurement data includes noisy measurements which makes it difficult to determine how the visual behaviors of the two participants are related to each other. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2015

www.PosterPresentations.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 68

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

AUTHOR: Xihong Su


Designing a Solder Reflow Oven AUTHORS: Ross Carey Timothy Harry Kyle Tierney ADVISOR: Richard Messner

Soldering printed circuit boards is a Designing A Solder Reflow Oven crucial part of working with and creating Team: Timothy Harry, Kyle Tierney, and Ross Carey Faculty Advisor: Richard A. Messner Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering at the University of New Hampshire electronic circuits. Considering how small circuits and their associated components Project Objective: System Architecture: Results: are becoming, it is imperative that soldering is no longer done by hand. The Background: solder reflow oven uses a ProportionalPID Controller Design: Integral-Derivative (PID) controller to moderate the temperature output of the heating elements, which allows specific control of the oven chambers GUI Development: temperature. This is necessary such that the control system can follow a thermal profile through four stages: pre-heat, Design Process: soak, reflow, and cooling. The profile Future Work: temperatures and time spent per stage are defined based on the circuit board material, the solder paste, and the components on the circuit board. Furthermore, a graphical user interface was developed to enable the user the ability to analyze the progress of the soldering, as well as configure their own profiles. With this, a lowcost and easily customizable solder reflow oven was created. • The controller was not able to follow the profile directly • Despite this, the reflow oven was still able to effectively solder circuits using low-temp lead-free solder, and lead solder • The cooling was difficult to manage without adding extra ventilation to the oven.

The objective of this project is to create a solder reflow oven that has several of the same features and accuracy as an industry-proven reflow oven, but with a cost that is well below these popular ovens. The base of the project will be centered around an off-the-shelf toaster oven.

Figure 2: Block diagram of the over all system design and interaction.

• The solder reflow oven is an important tool in the manufacturing and prototyping of printed circuit boards (PCB), and they are generally used to solder surface mount devices (SMDs) • To solder SMDs to a PCB, a solder paste is applied to the surface of the solder pads on the PCB • Specific heating profiles are used to effectively flow the solder on all of the desired components, without damaging them

• Determine the characteristics of the plant and the transfer function • Fine tune the PID values to fit the desired level of overshoot, ramping, and stability • Microcontroller used to model and implement the PID controller in system design

Figure 5: Initial results for a low temperature unleaded solder paste

Figure 3: Block diagram of the PID controller function

• Developed the graphical user interface using Python • Communicates with the microcontroller to plot the current temperature in real-time and update current target temperature • Allows users to customize profiles or select from a variety of pre-determined profiles

Figure 1: Comparison of through-hole components and surface mount devices.

Figure 6: Initial results for a leaded solder paste

• Create a PID controller that can effectively respond to a solder profile requests for desired temperature changes • Generate multiple pre-defined temperature profiles for common types of solder and PCB substrates and component temperature requirements • Design an interface in which a user can setup the desired temperature profile and begin the soldering process

• Develop and tune a more accurate PID controller • Implement a more advanced cooling and airflow system, ensuring little to no hot and cold spots • House a touch screen and all electronics in one unit that is attached to the oven and thermally isolated

Figure 4: Sample of the GUI used to control and monitor the reflow oven

Acknowledgments: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Prof. Richard A. Messner

Underwater Sensing System for Water Body Protection: Neptune AUTHOR: Cameron Whitaker

The world is ever changing and our Underwater Sensing System for Water Body Protection: Neptune bodies of water are more valuable and Team members Block Diagram Testing vulnerable than ever before. The ‘Neptune Project’ takes a commercially available underwater drone, the OpenROV 2.8, and outfits it with system components that Objective enable the underwater surveying of a water body floor terrain. The electronics Results are designed to fit inside a watertight Solution Implementation acrylic chamber which mounts directly on the OpenROV 2.8 platform. Features include a communication link to the + surface laptop, a camera to acquire the Next Steps underwater video and still images, a lighting system to allow for proper image acquisition in low light environments, and the ability to easily add additional features. During underwater testing, the Neptune’s watertight acrylic chamber kept the electronics system sealed from water infiltration, communication proved to be continual and error free, and the camera system acquired clear underwater footage of the water body’s floor. The gathered test data and video acquired confirms that Neptune system worked well in the underwater conditions. Student: Cameron Whitaker Electrical Engineering

Tenda Homeplug AV PCA

Battery Tube (3 x 3.6 V Lithium-Ion) = 10.8V

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kenneth Baldwin Professor Ocean Engineering and Mechanical Engineering

Main Body

3.3 Volt Supply

5 Volt Supply

Arduino Mega Processor

Develop an underwater remote sensing system that contributes to the management of water ecosystems. The system should be as inexpensive as possible to allow for citizen science adoption. The first phase is video-based water floor surveying. To improve the quality of the survey, a distance measuring sensor capability should be provided.

PC

Open ROV Interface PCA

Battery Tube (3 x 3.6 V Lithium-Ion)= 10.8V

Light Intensity Control

Internal Temperature

Reel

Custom Protoboard

Raspberry Pi 3 Processor

Scaling Laser

External Light

Neutral Buoyancy Tether

Tenda Homeplug AV PCA

Garmin LIDAR Lite V3

Internal Light

Servo

ADVISORS: Kenneth Baldwin Richard Messner

Top Side Box

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Richard Messner Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineer

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Internal Light

External Light

External Light

Open ROV Interface PCA

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Enhanced Maxbotix Ultrasonic

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External Light

Sensor Data

Operational Checklist

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Sensor Payload = “Neptune”

COMMUNICATION

Logic Level Converter

SDA

COMMUNICATION

Logic Level Converter

AREF

SCL

POWER

GND

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

IOREF

• Use available processors • Servo mounted Camera • Distance Sensors • Ultrasonic • LIDAR • Lights • Independent of drone • Own Tether • 100M depth max • Expansion growth

Open ROV- An open source community dedicated to citizen science investigation of the underwater world.

Multi-disciplinary project with custom hardware and software. Use as many commercially available elements as possible in an attempt to limit scope.

External Temperature Servo Motor

POWER

12DIGITAL PWM

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11DIGITAL PWM

External Light Circuit LR

5V

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A1

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Vin

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External Light Circuit LF

8DIGITAL PWM

Internal Light Circuit #1

7DIGITAL PWM

5DIGITAL PWM

A3

ANALOG

A4

ANALOG

A5

Internal Light Circuit #2

3DIGITAL PWM 2DIGITAL PWM

ANALOG

A6

ANALOG

A7

ANALOG

A8

TX0->1

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COMMUNICATION

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COMMUNICATION

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COMMUNICATION

RX3 15

COMMUNICATION

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ANALOG

TX2 16

COMMUNICATION

A10

ANALOG

RX2 17

COMMUNICATION

A11

ANALOG

A12

TX1 18

ANALOG

RX1 19

COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION

A13

ANALOG

SDA 20

COMMUNICATION

A14

ANALOG

SCL 21

COMMUNICATION

External Temperature

ANALOG

A15

GND

52

50

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225V

External Temperature

GND

53

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235V

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DIG

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Bat + Output 19

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Arduino Analog A2 INPUT 17

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5V Outputs 22,23

3V Regulator

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5v

Input 12

BAT+ after fuse Input 13

BAT+ after fuse Input 14

BAT+ after fuse Input 15

BAT+ after fuse Input 16

Input 4 Input 5 Input 6

Front Light

PWM Circuit

front vert Light + Output 25

Rear Light

PWM Circuit

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right front light PWM

left front light PWM

right rear light PWM

left rear light PWM

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Level Shifter

Input 11

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rear vert Light + Output 26

Output 31

Output 33

Output 34

Output 35

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Ultrasonic in Air

500

450

400

350

300

250

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100

In water performance, as currently configured, is under 100 cm for both sensors. Expectation were at least 500 cm. Alternative configurations being Explored.

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300

350

400

Arduino SCL Output 27 Arduino SDA Output 28 Arduino 5V Output 29

500

#1 Improved sensor settings and added control loop that maintains a constant height off of the floor when during operation #2 Add mechanical scanner on LIDAR and related processing to provide a 3D contour map of the floor

#3 Integrate a location system that can identify the precise location of the drone to aid in survey execution. #4 Imaging processing of the images to allow automatic object or sealife detection and cataloging

Output 36

Arduino Gnd Output 30

450

ACTUAL DISTANCE (CM)

Rear Scaling Laser Control

Custom Proto-board

FUSE

connection

Battery Monitoring Circuit

BAT +after FUSE

BAT +after FUSE

GND

INPUTS 3,10

Lidar

5 Volt supply 3.3 volt supply Homeplug through tether Raspberry Pi to Homeplug Raspberry Pi to camera Raspberry Pi to Arduino through level shifter Arduino Camera servo Arduino Laser control Arduino Internal light control incl. brightness Arduino External light control incl. brightness Arduino LIDAR control Arduino Ultrasonic control Arduino Internal temperature Arduino External Temperature Arduino Voltage monitor Laptop Payload control Laptop Video display Laptop Data display

Front Scaling Laser Control

External Temperature Level Shifter

INPUTS 1,2

Lidar

4DIGITAL PWM

ANALOG

A2

Input 8

69 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

10DIGITAL PWM

POWER

6DIGITAL PWM

Battery Monitoring Circuit

Internal Temperature

3V

2018

Camera Servo Motor

POWER POWER

Input 9

Winning Project

POWER

13DIGITAL PWM

RESET 3.3V

                 

MEASURE DISTANCE (CM)

DIY Kit Version 2.8

#5 Add water quality sensor and soil retrieval device to advance pollution monitoring function


Design of Robotic Swarm for Indoor Testing of Cooperative Control Systems AUTHORS: Michael Steed Justin Wang ADVISOR: Se Young Yoon

Swarm technologies have many valuable uses ranging from surveying to search and rescue, because large groups of small robots can cover wide areas to gather Abstract Hardware Simulation Results and share information. The objective of this project is to program multiple robots to work together via a single control scheme to form a basic swarm, utilizing Design Goal and Objectives a system of motion tracking cameras Software to provide movement information to the system. The swarm behaviors Control Model Test Results desired are aggregation, dispersion, and collective movement. Four robots were constructed to implement the Conclusion desired swarm functions. Each robot utilizes an Arduino Mega, which is able to receive input commands from a central computer and determine the necessary direction of movement. Each robot can perform these actions individually, in small groups, or as a whole. The four robots are placed in a test space with 8 motion tracking cameras that live stream the coordinates of each robot. The coordinates of each robot are interpreted in real time by the control scheme to determine the next location for each agent. Swarm technologies have many valuable uses ranging from surveying to search and rescue, because large groups of small robots can cover wide areas to gather and share information. The objective of this project is to program multiple robots to work together via a single control scheme to form a basic swarm, utilizing a system of motion tracking cameras to provide movement information to the system. The swarm behaviors desired are aggregation, dispersion, and collective movement. Four robots were constructed to implement the desired swarm functions. Each robot utilizes an Arduino Mega, which is able to receive input commands from a central computer and determine the necessary direction of movement. Each robot can perform these actions individually, in small groups, or as a whole. The four robots are placed in a test space with 8 motion tracking cameras that live stream the coordinates of each robot. The coordinates of each robot are interpreted in real time by the control scheme to determine the next location for each agent.

● Goal is to create a robotic swarm consisting of 4 robots ● Swarm determines which behavior to perform based on commands sent from central computer ● Desired swarm behaviors include aggregation, dispersion, and collective movement ● Coordinate of each robot are live streamed and interpreted in the control model to implement desired behaviors

● ● ● ● ● ●

Robot Chassis Motor Driver Arduino Mega Xbee 2S/3S LiPO Battery OptiTrack Flex 13 Camera

● Arduino C/C++ for programming movement of robots ● Matlab for GUI, Simulink for Control Model ● OptiTrack Motive for streaming coordinates of each robot ● NatNet SDK for interfacing between Matlab and OptiTrack

● Robots respond to input commands and move in desired direction ● Simulink model live streams coordinates of one robot ● Simulation of model forces robot travel to a desired location ● Swarm functionality to be implemented in future improvements

Understanding Student Travel Trends using Bluetooth

Joshua Kuun Faculty Advisor: Nicholas Kirsch Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

! The rapid deployment of smartphones in recent years has led to a wide adoption of wireless communication protocols such as Bluetooth in everyday scenarios ! The communication systems integrated in mobile devices broadcast information to the surrounding region during operation

1. Host controller interface scan discovers Bluetooth devices and sends information over MQTT channel

2. Message broker provides mechanism for devices to communicate and rules engine directs payloads

! We aim to develop a system for passively tracking mobile devices that will provide an understanding of the trends of pedestrians

3. Incoming messages are partitioned into sensor identifier, timestamp, and scan result data columns

! The unique hardware addresses of a device can be used as a fingerprint. It is conceivable that user mobility information and habits could be studied to uniquely identify individuals ! As a result, storing timestamped and geotagged records of MAC addresses is highly sensitive and a privacy risk ! To address this risk, all the collected MAC addresses from the sensors are transformed via a hash function for privacy issues

4. Set of functions compute aggregate count for each hour of the day and attach location information

5. Store webpage content and client side scripts for data visualization of sensors

! A set of preliminary evaluations was designed to explore the feasibility and accuracy of the developed sensing system BRAVO SENSOR SCAN RESULTS

100

6. Manage traffic routing and domain name service queries for domain hosted zones

7. Display graphical dashboard populated from collected data stored in database

90

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20 08:30

08:45

09:00

09:15

Time

09:30

09:45

10:00 Apr 17, 2018

11:30

11:45

12:00 Apr 17, 2018

ALPHA SENSOR SCAN RESULTS

24

22

20

! The system was installed on the University of New Hampshire campus near DeMeritt Circle ! Each node was positioned near an entrance to the region with the goal to estimate pedestrian traffic and determine crowd density ! Detection scan was performed on forty-five second intervals ALPHA

BRAVO

CHARLIE DELTA ECHO

FOXTROT

18

16

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10

8 10:30

10:45

11:00

11:15

Time

! The ability to automatically estimate pedestrian trends in near real time throughout cities will be a step change in the way public service usage is currently estimated and provide significant insights ! We have confirmed that the present system can approximate the variations of pedestrian movement in a region ! Future work will address a handful of issues: (1) we plan to incorporate filtering and estimation algorithms to develop a precise model of the actual number of pedestrians, (2) define a procedure for establishing ground truths, and (3) expand the network to encompass the entire campus

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 70

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Our implementation is focused on a “off-grid” node network that acts as a detection mechanism for monitoring Bluetooth traffic. Each module will support communication uplink to the application server for storage and processing. Bluetooth Scanning event detects device from inquiry response frame which contains MAC identifier LoRaWAN Enables low power, wide area communication between remote sensors and gateways connected to the network MQTT Lightweight messaging protocol where a client can register to send and receive messages on topic channel

Bluetooth Devices

ADVISOR: Nicholas Kirsch

The rapid deployment of smartphones in Understanding Student Travel Trends using Bluetooth recent years has led to a wide adoption of wireless communication protocols such as Bluetooth in everyday scenarios. INTRODUCTION DATA PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE PRIVACY CONCERNS The communication systems integrated in these mobile devices broadcast information to the surrounding region RESULTS during operation, which can be utilized as a means for monitoring pedestrian SENSOR SYSTEM DESIGN movement and estimating crowd density. The ability to automatically DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY estimate pedestrian trends in near realtime throughout cities will be a step CONCLUSION change in the way public service usage is currently estimated and provide significant insights. For this project, we have developed a system for passively tracking mobile devices that will allow us to understand the trends of pedestrians and provide a visualization to interpret the spatial data collected. Bluetooth Devices

AUTHOR: Joshua Kuun


EEG and EMG Sensorimotor Measurements to Assess Proprioception Following ACL Reconstruction AUTHOR: Teagan Northrup

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) EEG and EMG Sensorimotor Measurements to Assess Proprioception Following ACL Reconstruction is the primary source of rotational Purpose Participants stability in the knee by preventing the tibia from sliding in front of the femur. When the ACL is torn, it typically must Data Analysis Results be repaired through reconstructive surgery which results in proprioceptive Background deficiencies in the knee. Proprioception plays an important role in understanding where one’s knee is in space, sensing Conclusion movement and reacting accordingly. Test Setup This study examines an alternative method of measuring proprioceptive responses to a stimulus (motion) by References using electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to observe muscle and brain activity. Two participants (one with an ACL reconstruction and a second with healthy knees) were tested three times over a six week period. Repeated measures allowed for an initial examination of how proprioception may vary over time in an individual with healthy knees and with an ACL reconstruction. This measurement strategy can examine the process of proprioception recovery after an ACL reconstruction. It has the potential to help physicians and physical therapists decide when a person can return to normal or strenuous activity as well as provide insight into whether uninjured patients have a proprioceptive deficit which may indicate an increased risk of injury. Problem

• Design and test a new method to measure proprioception • Electroencephalogram (EEG) • Electromyogram (EMG) • Platform Perturbator • Compare subject with a recent ACL reconstruction with healthy controls to explore differences in proprioception • Examine reliability through repeated measurements over time

Using BrainVisionTM Analyzer on EEG and EMG Data:

O N S E T

O N S E T

Before Ocular Correction

ACL Reconstruction Participant (Right, dominant, reconstructed knee)

ACL Reconstructed Participant vs Healthy Participant - Gastrocnemius

Time between Onset & Peak (ms)

80.00

79.44

78.46

82.66

72.26

70.00

65.45

62.59

60.00

68.83

54.69

50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

T1

T2

ACL Reconstructed - Right

T3

Average over Time

Healthy - Right

ACL Reconstructed Participant ACL knee vs healthy knee

EMG Electrodes

• 2 - Malleolus (ankle bone) • 2 - Anterior Tibialis (shin) • 2 - Medial Gastrocnemius (calf muscle)

EEG Cap

• Motor Cortex • Somatosensory Cortex • Frontal Lobe

Time between Onset & Peak (ms)

90.00

Platform Perturbator

• Stand on one leg • 100 trials forward and 100 reverse

ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING - SOFTWARE/SYSTEM DESIGN

Team Members: Teagan Northrup Faculty Advisors: Dr. Wayne Smith, Dr. Ron Croce

80.00 70.00

83.13

82.66

79.44

69.51

65.24

60.00

69.53

62.62

62.28

54.69

59.06

52.40

50.00

36.43

40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

T1

T2

T3

T1

Gastrocnemius

ACL Reconstruction Knee

T2

Anterior Tibialis

Healthy Knee

T3

Healthy Participant (Right, dominant, healthy knee)

• Comparison of ACL reconstructed knee and healthy participant knee • On average, ACL reconstructed participant knee had longer response time

• Comparison of ACL reconstructed knee vs healthy knee of the same participant • ACL knee has longer response time in all anterior tibialis trials and the majority of gastrocnemius trials

ACL Reconstructed Participant vs All Healthy Controls

90.00

83.13

81.01

79.44

80.00 70.00

69.53

68.60

65.24

61.38

65.21

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

ACL

Healthy

ACL

Anterior Tibialis

Healthy

GASTROCNEMIUS

Right

After Ocular Correction

4. Segment into 600 ms epochs(-200 ms pre-stimulus, 400 ms post-stimulus) 5. Baseline Correction EMG Data 6. EMG Onset Search 7. Calculate EMG Onset and Peak 8. Average EEG over trials 9. Compute CSD Map on average EEG 10. Compare EMG Onset and CSD CSD Map

P E A K

P E A K

90.00

Setup Block Diagram

1. Remove unnecessary channels and bad trials 2. Filter EEG - 0.1 to 50 Hz EMG – 10 to 200 Hz 3. Ocular Correction

EEG Transient at Cz Electrode with Current Source Density (CSD) Map

• ACL prevents the tibia from sliding in front of the femur and provides rotational stability[2] • Mechanoreceptors are used as a communicator within the central nervous system and make up 2.5% of the ACL [3] • During an ACL reconstruction the existing ACL is removed and replaced with a graft resulting in a loss of neural communication • After surgery, communication must be reestablished between the brain and ACL graft • This loss of communication results in proprioceptive deficits

71 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Yellow: Path of communication resulting in EMG Onset

[4]

Goal

Time between Onset & Peak (ms)

ADVISORS: Ronald Croce Wayne Smith

2 Female UNH athletes measured at 3 points in time (approximately every two weeks) • 1 participant with ACL reconstruction on her right knee 14 months prior • 1 participant with health knees 6 female participants with healthy knees measured once

Red: Path of communication resulting in EMG Peak

• Proprioceptive deficits often exist after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction • Increases the risk of a subsequent injury • Existing measures of proprioception have limitations • Neglects the timing of responses [1]

Left

Gastrocnemius

• All healthy controls have faster response on dominant (Right)leg • ACL reconstructed participant is right leg dominant but still has slower response on that leg

• Increased time between Onset & Peak • ACL reconstructed knee vs healthy knee • ACL reconstructed knee and other healthy participants’ knees • Since day to day activities can affect muscle fatigue and response, a single measurement may not be accurate • Data from the three different measurements over time suggests that one specific trial may not accurately represent the variation in timing of muscle activation • This method could be used to measure proprioception over the course of ACL rehabilitation to track improvements in recovery over time • Future research should include more participants to test for statistically significant results

Anterior Tibialis

• Both ACL and healthy participants have slower dominant leg responses • ACL participant has much higher difference in dominant to nondominant

1. J. Baumeister, K. Reinecke, M. Weiss, “Changed cortical activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a joint position paradigm: an EEG study”, Scand J Med Sci Sports, vol. 18, pp. 472-484, 2008 2. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, “Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries”, Last Reviewed March 2014. [Online]. Available: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00549. [Accessed: 29- April2017] 3. M. Dhillon, K. Bali, S. Prabhakar, “Differences among mechanoreceptors in healthy and injured anterior cruciate ligaments and their clinical importance”, Muscles, ligaments and Tendons Journal, vol 2, no 1, pp. 38-43, 2012 4. Bupa, Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, Last reviewed April 2017. [Online]. Available at https://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/a/acl%20reconstruction. [Accessed: 15-April-2018]

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department


AUTHORS: Andrew Ervin Zhangxi Feng Cory Greenblatt Bryant Volk Garrett Wedge Matthew Westbrook

The 2018 UNH LunaCats team designs, UNH LunaCats: Extra-Terrestrial Mining Robot builds and competes with a mining robot built to handle a simulated Martian or Lunar terrain at the Ninth Annual NASA Robotics Mining Competition held in Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida between May 14 and May 18, 2018. NASA established the competition to encourage college students to submit our creative ideas for extra-terrestrial mining since it would be impractical to send construction materials from Earth to build a colony on Mars or a base on the Moon. For the first time in the LunaCats eight-year history, our robot features both an auger and a conveyor belt. The robot will begin at one end of the arena, traverse through an obstacle region containing boulders and craters, and reach the mining area. The goal is to mine at least 1 kg of the target icy rock material (simulated as gravel) that is buried beneath 30 cm of Martian surface regolith (simulated as BP-1 made from volcanic ash), and deposit into the collection bin at the starting side of the arena within 10 minutes. An additional goal of the competition is to achieve autonomous navigation and operation with the robot by using various sensors that does not rely on Earth-unique environment such as GPS or the magnetic field. Zhangxi Feng, Matthew Westbrook, Cory Greenblatt (ME), Andrew Ervin (ECE), Bryant Volk, Garrett Wedge (CS) Advisor: May-Win Thein

Special thank you to our supporters and Partners: Beswick Engineering, Reactive Technologies, UNH Parents’ Association, UNH CEPS Dean’s Office, and ME, ECE, and CS departments. Also: Thank you to Scott Campbell of the Kingsbury machine shop

Robot

Mechanical Chassis

Drive Train

Figure 2: Subsystem hierarchy – Robot systems outline Controls

Electrical

Power

Mining

Excavation

Rasp Pi

Tele-op

Autonomy

Control Box

Server

Arduino

Client

Deposit

2 Mechanical Components (figure 3):

4: Software Interactions (figure 6):

3: Power and Controls (figure 5):

• Gamepad is connected to client computer (netbook/laptop).

• Client interfaces with Raspberry Pi over local WiFi network.

• Raspberry Pi decodes and

ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

processes gamepad input sent

Figure 3: Mechanical components. Left: mining auger; middle: deposit conveyor belt; right: drive train

over Wifi using a UDP connection.

• An auger design is used to mine through the

Figure 1: AO – Competition Arena at Kennedy Space Center

• Raspberry Pi interfaces with

top layer of simulant and collect icy regolith.

1: Mission Objectives

• Two 150lbf actuators on four-linkage armature

Code Name: DIG

Zone of Operation: Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida

Area of Operation (AO): Simulated Martian environment (figure 1) Mission Period: May 14th, 2018 – May 18th, 2018 Tasks:

• Design and build a mining robot that is capable of mining at least 1 kg of icy regolith (gravel) buried beneath 30 cm of

• Toggle controls used to reduce

• 12V DC for the rest of the control system

the mining sub-routine.

data usage.

• 5V DC subsystem derived from 12V

• Custom conveyor system transports mined

• Arduino controls PWM for:

material and deposits into the collection bin.

• Drive train

• Components designed to have minimum factor

• Frame assembly lifters

of safety of 4 as shown in figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Component design SOLIDWORKS stress simulation, chassis example

Martian top soil (BP-1 simulant) within 10 minutes.

motors on the robot.

• 40V DC for the auger and auger controller

• Dual ball screws lower and lift the auger during

• Complete community STEM outreach to K-12 student groups.

Arduino over serial input.

• Arduino controls actuators and

• Two power subsystems

lift assembly.

Agent Assigned: 2018 UNH LunaCats

Figure 5: Systems Control Schematic

• Conveyor belt

• In-house designed stepper motor control board receives signals from Arduino and controls ball

• Participate in various CEPS outreach for perspective and

screws.

admitted students.

• All power monitored and logged.

Figure 6: Software control flowchart

UNH Aero AUTHORS: Alex Claire Katelyn Cronin Abdul-Rahman Dambazau Carly Lavender Patrick MacLea Brittany Marshall James Rice Andrew Stokes

The goal of this project was to produce a large-scale remote control model Test Flight and Redesign aircraft to compete in the Society of Design Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aero Design East competition held in Lakeland, SAE Aero Design Requirements Florida from March 9th-11th. The objective of the competition was to design and manufacture a cargo plane Competition Results capable of carrying passengers and luggage, represented as tennis balls and Analysis/Experiments steel plates, respectively. The design Manufacturing restrictions of the competition included a maximum wingspan of 144 inches, a maximum gross take-off weight of 55 pounds, banned use of fiber-reinforced plastics, among others. The competition scoring was based off of a technical design report, oral presentation, and flight score. The plane was constructed mainly out of balsa wood, foam insulation, and aluminum. The initial design was tested multiple times before competition to allow for the crucial redesign stage to take place. At competition, the plane had to be redesigned and rebuilt over-night after experiencing substantial damage during the initial flight rounds. Ultimately, the plane was able to complete three successful flight circuits, carrying a total of 14 passengers with a corresponding luggage weight of 28 lbs. Alex Claire, Katelyn Cronin, Abdul-Rahman Dambazau, Carly Lavender, Patrick MacLea, Brittany Marshall, James Rice, Andrew Stokes

First Test Flight Round: • Purpose was to evaluate the plane’s capabilities

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Alireza Ebadi Pilot: Daren Hudson

Motor: Hacker A6-6XS 370 KV Propeller: Xoar 18x10

Second Test Flight Round: • Finalized how many tennis balls the plane could carry

Wing: • S1223 • Chord: 24.66 in Empennage: • NACA 0012 • 50% taper on vertical stabilizer

March 9th – 11th, 2018 Lakeland, FL Flight Requirements: • Take-off within 200 ft. • Complete a 360 degree circuit • Land in same direction as take- off • 1 minute to load all passengers and luggage Design Requirements: 55 lbs. gross weight limit, 12 ft. maximum wingspan, 1000 Watt power limiter, and material restrictions

Servo motors for control surfaces

Changes made between test flights: • Rear wheel for ground control • Wider, rubber main wheels

144 in

106 in

Test Flight

8 in

1 2

69 in

3 4

Modular design for ease of transportation and repair

Take off # of Tennis Balls Distance (ft) 10 120 32 200+ Redesign and Rebuild 22 70 30 150

Material Structure Wings Balsa wood ribs, Insulation foam sleeve, Primary aluminum spar, Secondary spruce spar Fuselage Balsa wood Howe truss, Aluminum brackets, Plywood luggage support base Empennage Insulation foam airfoil ribs, Balsa wood support

Empty plane weight: 21.5 lbs. Tennis ball carrying capacity: 32 Gross flight weight: 41.5 lbs.

• Utilized ANSYS Fluent to test Pressure (psi) multiple airfoil shapes • Applied SolidWorks analysis to simulate 2G’s of loading • Tested multiple motor and propeller combinations for different flight situations to find the ideal pair • Used theoretical models for flight characteristic predictions 9.53E-03 7.59E-03 5.65E-03 3.71E-03 1.77E-03

-1.71E-04

• Full-scale blueprint drawings printed to lay out parts • Laser cut balsa wood ribs in airfoil profile and fuselage Howe truss system • Band saw used to shape insulation foam

-2.11E-03

-4.05E-03 -5.99E-03

ADVISOR: Alireza Ebadi

-7.93E-03 -9.87E-03 -1.18E-02 -1.38E-02 -1.57E-02 -1.76E-02 -1.96E-02 -2.15E-02

Test Flight 4

Test Flight 3

Day 1:

Day 2:

3rd Flight Round: Successful flight, but zero points due to flying out of bounds 2nd Flight Round: Again, failed to take off in 4th Flight Round: Successful flight, but no 200 ft. and crashed on landing score due to touch-and-go Design 23rd out of 34 landing Presentation 14th out of 34 5th Flight Round: Flight 21st out of 34 Successful flight, but disqualified due to technicality Overall 22nd out of 34 1st Flight Round: Did not take off within 200 ft. and experienced crash

Acknowledgements: The University of New Hampshire Parents Association, Mechanical Engineering Department, Dean Wayne Jones, Scott Campbell, Daren Hudson, Andy Fagen, John Yassemedis, The Freemont Flyers, Academy of Model Aeronautics

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 72

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

UNH LunaCats: Extra-Terrestrial Mining Robot


MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

UNH FSAE: UNH Precision Racing Team AUTHORS: Scott Bednarz Trevor Bednash Kyle Carmichael Steven Farrell Erik Garcia Brendan Grenier Yagoub Hashim Hunter Lamphere Keith Nason Brian Rainville Jacob Savoie Nathan Soucy

The UNH Precision Racing Team has designed and manufactured a working prototype of an open-wheeled miniature racecar to compete in the Formula SAE competition at Michigan International Speedway. Our goal is to place in the top third of competitors. The competition includes dynamic events (endurance race, autocross, skid pad, and acceleration), a business presentation where the car is pitched to potential investors, and a design presentation.

Engine & Drivetrain

Frame  Redesign of frame to reduce engine bay size due to smaller engine to minimize frame weight  Lowered the center of gravity by .5” lowering roll hoops resulting in a COG of 9.73” vertically  Frame design simulated in SolidWorks for stress and strain of 1020 cold rolled steel, manufactured and TIG welded by students  Total mass of 68 pounds with a torsional rigidity of 1450 N-m/degree Scott Bednarz Steven Farrell Yagoub Hashim Brian Rainville

Controls

Presented By: Trevor Bednash Erik Garcia Hunter Lamphere Jacob Savoie

MGT12 Compressor Map

 Intake:

• Completely redesigned plenum with uniaxial layup for stiffness. • Different internal volumes tested on dynamometer, 2200cc volume determined to optimal • Improved fuel combustion efficiency by changing injector location and spray pattern • Custom 19mm restrictor to conform to competition rules  Exhaust: • Larger diameter tubing to increase flow velocity while keeping full system under 10 lbs. • Factory FMF 4.1 RCT muffler to abide by noise regulations  Fuel System: • Converted to run E85 • 45 lbs/hr (470cc) injector • Completely redesigned from previous iteration

Wheels & Tires  LC0 Hoosier Tires and lightweight OZ Magnesium wheels weigh 11 pounds each Car #083 Model

Suspension  Reduced un-sprung weight to the four suspension corners

Electrical System  Computerized Dash Box  Engine RPM LED display, single digit gear indicator display, LCD, warning lights, USB plug for downloading data  CAN bus communication for reliable communications between modules  Engine Control Unit  Microsquirt ECU, monitors engine conditions and adjusts fuel and ignition  Monitors intake temperature and pressure, coolant temperature, crank position, exhaust gas  Enables RPM limits for launch control and flat shifting using clutch position  Printed Circuit Boards designed and made for reliable and well-packaged wiring connections  Wiring Harness  SAE J1128 wire suited for automotive applications, with sealed connectors  Throttle Controller  Module utilizes pedal positions with throttle position as feedback  Adjustable parameters for response and idle position

Packaging Layout

• Uprights machined from 7075-T6 Al. to increase ultimate tensile strength by 55% from 6061-T6 Al. • Redesigned rear corner suspension, eliminating linkage bending and reduced forces on A-Arm members to allow for a lighter design

 Incorporated Adjustability

 Easy suspension tuning with adjustable ride height, spring pre-load, tire camber, and toe angle

 Improved cornering

• Widened front and rear track width by 1.5 inches • Improved theoretical front to rear frequency response for increased driver response and handling

We retained the desirable characteristics of last year’s frame which was the second lightest steel space frame at competition. To improve the power-to-weight ratio over last year’s team we decided to switch to a KTM 450 sx-f engine which is 20 lbs. lighter and has 20 more stock hp. Implementing the Honeywell Turbocharger and running the engine with E85 for fuel results in a maximum power output of 85 hp. We improved ergonomics over previous versions by using a new carbon fiber steering wheel and installation of a Rekluse hydraulic clutch which will allow the driver to the shift the car with ease and reduce the risk of stalling. Projected power curve

Flow simulation of 2200cc plenum

Front suspension modeling in Lotus software

Exploded view of suspension

Electronic board design of LED RPM display

Dash plate with computer box

ADVISOR: Todd Gross

Kyle Carmichael Brendan Grenier Keith Nason Nathan Soucy

 Adjustable pedal placements: • Two pedal system: Throttle and Brake • Designed to accommodate the 95th percentile male • Must withstand 2000N force from the driver  Cast Iron Brake Rotors with GB moto calipers:  Made from cast iron featuring better thermal properties than low carbon steel  Brakes feature floating rotor setup with slots for ventilation  Installed clutch on shifter: • Implemented hydraulic clutch to reduce risk of stalling • Installed push-pull cable to lighten shifting mechanism

 Engine: 2017 KTM 450 SX-F: • 449.9 cc Displacement • Stroke: 63.4mm, Bore: 95mm • 12.75:1 Compression Ratio • AT Power 36mm Throttle Body • Rekluse COREEXP 3.0 Auto Clutch  Honeywell Garrett MGT1238Z Turbocharger • 0.38 A/R ratio • Capable of up to 150 HP • Lightweight at 5.58 kg • Dual water/oil cooling system • Integrated wastegate and recirculation valve  Drivetrain: • Adjustable differential carrier for chain tensioning • Tunable Drexler differential • 12/36 tooth drive ratio chosen to optimize usable powerband

Rear suspension modeling in Lotus software

Exploded View of Differential Assembly

Special Thanks to: Sheri Millette, Tracey Harvey, Sheldon Parent, Lauren Foxall, Hitchiner Manufacturing, Diamond Casting, Service Credit Union, B&B Excavating, UNH Parents Association, Todd Gross, Scott Campbell, Sheldon Parent

UNH AeroCats - Advanced Team AUTHORS: Charles Bauer Michael Cook Matthew Diorio Stephen Gormley Timothy Levins Jackson Riedel Timothy Russell Michael Rutigliano

The University of New Hampshire AeroCats (Advanced Class) was formed to design and manufacture a model remotecontrolled plane that would compete in the Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE) Aero Design East Competition held in Lakeland, FL. The goal of the competition was to design a plane that could ascend 100+ feet and drop multiple two-pound sand bags on a predetermined target location. The teams were scored on their design, project presentation and flight. The flight score included how accurately they dropped the sand bags as well as how much static weight was carried throughout flight. The SAE limited the planes to using a 7.55 cc gas engine and maximum gross weight of 55 pounds. It also required that each team had to use a First Person Viewing system (FPV), and a Data Acquisition System (DAS) that updated in real time during flight. The former was used to direct the pilot to the target location where the payload specialist would then activate the dropping mechanism to release the two-pound sand bags. The latter was supposed to record altitude with an accuracy error of less than ten feet. The AeroCats finished 14th place in the design report category, 4th place in the presentation category, and 7th place in the flight score category. SAE Aero Design East (Advanced Class) Over view

Analysis

Controls

Flight Controls: • Servo controlled throttle, ailerons, rudder, and elevator Mission Controls: • First person video recording • Velocity and altitude acquisition • Payload release mechanism • Gyroscopic assist

Issues: • Pilot lost control of the right aileron mid-flight • Crash landing into a 60 ft.+ tree, unrecoverable • Could not diagnose failure

Aircraft Design

Main Wing: • Eppler 423 Airfoil • Chord Length – 16 in. • Effective Aspect Ratio – 8.25 Dropping Mechanism: • Spring loaded door • Pins locked door shut until servos were activate remotely by ground station payload specialist

Solution: • Obtained necessary materials and electronics from local hobby store and Home Depot • Rebuilt in 5 days just in time to leave for competition

Propulsion

Engine: • OS 46 AX II 2-Stroke, Nitro Engine • 12.25” x 3.75” APC Sport Propeller • Methanol Based RC Nitro Plane Fuel • Produces 10.25 lbs. of Static Thrust

Flight Requirements: • Drop 2 lb. sand bags from 100+ ft. onto a target (Maximum radius of 60 ft.) • Maintain telemetry connection • Use onboard camera to direct pilot to drop zone

Test Flight

ADVISOR: Alireza Ebadi

Team Members: Stephen Gormley, Timothy Russell, Matthew Diorio, Michael Cook, Timothy Levins, Charles Bauer, Michael Rutigliano, Jackson Riedel Team Advisor: Alireza Ebadi Team Pilot: Daren Hudson

Plane Requirements: • 7.55 cc internal combustion engine • Maximum gross weight of 55 lbs. • Empty weight must be flyable

Fuselage: • Length – 32.25 in. • Span – 5.5 in. Empennage: • Horizontal Stabilizer (NACA 0012) • Chord – 10 in. • Span – 34 in. • Vertical Stabilizer (Flat body) • Height – 16 in.

Competition Results and Final Product

Location – Lakeland, FL Design Report – 14th Place Oral Presentation – 4th Place Flight Score – 7th Place Overall – 10th Place

Empty Weight – 19.5 lbs. Static Weight Capacity – 6 lbs. Dynamic Weight Capacity – 4 lbs. Final Plane Weight – 29.5 lbs. Number of Expellable Cargo – 2

ANSYS Fluent: • 3D simulation of airflow velocity and pressure across model • Theoretical lift and drag coefficients at various angles of attack • Velocity and pressure contour plots of plane Soildworks: • Stresses in wing assembly from lift forces • Stress and frequency analysis of plane during flight Matlab: • Optimize number of dynamic payloads to maximize score • Predicted location of impact by using ground speed, altitude, and drag of dynamic payload

Manufacturing

Laser Cutting: • Airfoil geometry (Eppler 423, Servo housing) • Fuselage components (Load bearing ribs, electronics housing) Machining: • Front landing gear machined from steel for impact resistance and CG location purposes • Aluminum tail rods made porous for weight reduction

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4

Altitude (ft.)

Ground Speed (mph)

Acknowledgements: The University of New Hampshire Parents Association, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Dr. Wayne Jones (Dean), Mechanical Engineering Department, Alireza Ebadi, Scott Campbell & Machine Shop, Daren Hudson, Andy Fagen, John Yassemedis, The Freemont Flyers, Academy of Model Aeronautics

Winning Project

2018

73 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


AUTHORS: Jonah Blum Dingxin Liu Annavitte Rand Nicholas Schott Ethan Setear FACULTY ADVISORS: Ivaylo Nedyalkov Anthony Puntin

The present refugee crisis in Eastern Europe leaves many families without housing. Temporary refugee shelters used by the UN and similar agencies are often uninsulated and thus unfit for the climate. The goal of the 2018 ASHRAE Applied Engineering Challenge is to design a shelter to help governments and NGOs address this issue. This shelter must house 6-8 people in 260 square feet and maintain safe indoor temperature and air quality. An electrical supply is guaranteed; however, there will be no access to municipal water and sewer.

INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Paul Bemis The UNH ASHRAE Team Shelter is designed for mass-production and Nils Carlson

Modular Refugee Shelter Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Civil Engineering

Jonah Blum, Dingxin Liu, Annavitte Rand, Nicholas Schott, Ethan Setear Faculty Advisors: Ivaylo Nedyalkov, Anthony Puntin | Industry Advisor: Paul Bemis, Nils Carlson

Introduction

Analyses

Goal Design a temporary shelter that will provide living quarters and essential domestic systems for displaced persons in Eastern Europe.

Structural Analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Snow Load = 47.6 psf (EUROCODE) â&#x20AC;˘ Allowable moments provided by Unistrut for Telespar â&#x20AC;˘ Telespar channel size and spacing selected for purlins, rafters, and columns using load distribution and Telespar section properties

Background & Design Constraints According to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees[1], a global average of 20 people are forcibly displaced every minute, including large numbers of refugees that cross Eastern Europe. Temporary shelters are an essential tool for refugee aid efforts.

Heat Loss and Ventilation To fulfill the requirements of ASHRAE standards 55[2] and 62[3] for thermal environment and air quality, we used a PTAC heat pump unit. A PTAC (Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner) provides heating, cooling, and ventilation in a single replaceable unit. Our recommended model is the Amana DigiSmart.

The ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) 2018 Applied Engineering Challenge seeks to improve refugee aid with a shelter design meeting the following criteria: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Functional in Eastern European environment Fits 6 to 8 people Essential domestic systems provided Independent of municipal water and sewer Maximum 3300 W power provided Maximum 260 ft2 floor plan, 8.5 ft height ASHRAE thermal standard 55 and air quality standard 62 met

Currently Utilized Shelters Advantages â&#x20AC;˘ Easy assembly â&#x20AC;˘ Lightweight â&#x20AC;˘ Inexpensive Disadvantages â&#x20AC;˘ Lacks modularity â&#x20AC;˘ No provision for utilities â&#x20AC;˘ Uninsulated and unheated â&#x20AC;˘ Not durable

Setty Family Foundation 2018 Applied Engineering Challenge

Design

UNICEF Refugee Tent

REF #

COMPONENT

1

Structural Framing

IKEA Better Shelter

COST (USD)

WEIGHT (lbs)

Unistrut Telespar bolt-together steel frame

256

Amana PTAC â&#x20AC;˘ Heat pump uses 650 Watt peak (recommended) â&#x20AC;˘ Backup heater uses 2500 W (not recommended) â&#x20AC;˘ Provides 6800 Btu Heating and 7600 Btu Cooling

1800

1200

2

Steel Sheathing

Corrugated steel panels walls and roof

-

700

725

3

Insulating Tarps

Hung from wall and ceiling frame, laid under floor

-

525

90

4

Floor Tarp

Conforms to ground surface, creates waterproof barrier

256

250

35

â&#x20AC;˘ Modified To Provide 95 cfm Ventilation

5

Clear Tarp Window

Clear PVC tarp wraps around upper structure, provides light and weather seal

-

300

40

â&#x20AC;˘ Dehumidifies 4.4 pints/hr

6

Doors

2 mobile home doors with window

-

550

100

7

BioLet Separating Toilet

Composting toilet supports 6-8 inhabitants with use of 2 additional bins

3.2

1500

67, 59*

HVAC System

Built-into-wall PTAC unit operates on a highly efficient two-way heat pump

Built into wall

900

110

9

Water System

Water stored in 4 plastic 55 gallon drums, hand pump and portable utility sink provided

14.25

500

150

10

Rainwater Collection

Gutter directs water from pitched roof into a 55 gallon drum

-

140

30

11

Basic Furniture Needs

8 stackable beds

108, 24.5 **

320

124

-

7485

2671

8

Design Goals

DESCRIPTION

FOOTPRINT (ft2)

TOTALS

Shelter Advantages Modularity â&#x20AC;˘ Perforations in Telespar channeling allow various bolt-together configurations â&#x20AC;˘ Insulating blankets can be implemented, removed, or doubled depending on location and season â&#x20AC;˘ Shelter is designed as a home, but space can be used for other purposes â&#x20AC;˘ Utilities can be scaled as necessary: more water barrels, larger PTAC

* Toilet weighs 67 lbs during shipping and 59 lbs when installed ** Beds require 108 ft2 when in use and require 24.5 ft2 when stacked against wall (short edge on floor)

Modular structure and utility configuration Able to withstand Eastern European climate year-round Single unit able to function alone or in a refugee camp Able to fit in shipping container for transport Durable enough for reuse Insulated for energy efficiency Built with existing components to decrease costs and improve ease of maintenance â&#x20AC;˘ Integrated essential domestic systems â&#x20AC;˘ Sustainable materials and systems used where possible â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Sustainability â&#x20AC;˘ Use of existing materials in construction decreases maintenance requirements â&#x20AC;˘ Shelter can be repacked for repeated use â&#x20AC;˘ Structural components can be easily repurposed â&#x20AC;˘ Heat pump PTAC provides high efficiency HVAC Community Projects This shelter incorporates additional opportunities to integrate refugees into society: â&#x20AC;˘ Composting toilets generate fertilizer that can be used to farm surrounding land â&#x20AC;˘ Assembly and modification of structure can be easily performed by inhabitants

REFERENCES: [1] United Nations. (n.d.). Figures at a Glance. Retrieved April 16, 2018, from http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/figures-at-a-glance.html [2] ASHRAE. (2017). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, 14-15. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved December 08, 2017. [3] ASHRAE. (2016). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Residential Buildings, 2, 1-45. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved December 08, 2017.

repeated year-round use. The structure uses bolt-together framing, metal sheathing, and insulated tarps to decrease cost. These materials also simplify packing, assembly, and maintenance. Conformity to the Eurocodes ensures adequate structural strength. The shelter incorporates all essential domestic systems for living independent of external utilities, with the exception of electricity. A heat pump PTAC unit provides energy efficient HVAC in conformity with ASHRAE standards. Water is stored in reusable plastic barrels, and a composting toilet treats human waste. The modularity of the shelter components also creates the potential to adapt the design configuration to other uses and climates

ET-NavSwarm AUTHORS: Jordan Bates Jacob Branchaud Andrew Dickson James Holden Timothy Morales Ryan Nagelschmidt Mohit Sagar Shelby Strickland ADVISOR: May-Win Thein John McCormack

The ET NavSwarm Team is an interdisciplinary team of mechanical engineers and software engineers Sensors and Electronics Rover Specifications working together to manufacture a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO) swarm of rovers. The goal is to use these rovers to research different methods for future NASA missions, such as the Velocity Control autonomous robotic surface exploration of extraterrestrial bodies. One such way is to utilize a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The PSO algorithm employs genetic algorithms, Software and Controls Internal Organization SAND-D as developed by UNH graduate students, to determine an efficient means to achieve an objective using intra-team communication. For this purpose, the ET NavSwarm robots have been designed and fabricated to be rugged, autonomous rovers to test the developed PSO algorithms to survey a given area. This yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s objective is to survey UNHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Boulder field to determine the highest elevation, as an example proof of concept. The swarm of robots is not only designed to be able to effortlessly traverse the rugged terrain, but also to avoid obstacles and quickly and accurately determine the highest elevation. With the successful completion of this project, the ET NavSwarm Team will present the project results, in conjunction with the preliminary performance results of the PSO algorithm, to Aerospace Engineers at NASAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Team Members : Jordan Bates, Jacob Branchaud, Andrew Dickson, James Holden, Ryan Nagelschmidt, Timothy Morales, Mohit Sagar, Shelby Strickland

Advisors: Professor May May-Win Thein, May-Win John McCormack

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

IR Distance Sensors

â&#x20AC;˘ Detects obstacles, provides 110 o field of view

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) â&#x20AC;˘ Combination accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope â&#x20AC;˘ Accurately determines roll, pitch and yaw of robot with 9 degrees of freedom

Aluminum welded chassis â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ Water resistant 17â&#x20AC;? H x 18.5â&#x20AC;? W x 15â&#x20AC;? L â&#x20AC;˘

Dynamic suspension Top speed: 2.5 mph Total weight: 11.4 lbs

PSO utilizes mathematical principles to determine the most efficient movements to accomplish a common goal amongst the swarm. Derived from the behavior of natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s swarms (birds, bees etc.), the algorithm operates without a centralized leader. Each robot communicates with one another and makes decisions based on shared information

XBee Wireless Transceiver â&#x20AC;˘ 2.4 GHz transmitter/receiver used to wirelessly communicate data throughout the swarm Global Positioning System (GPS)

â&#x20AC;˘ Communicates with up to 22 satellites to

determine the robotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location in the coordinate system

Arduino Mega Microcontroller â&#x20AC;˘ Analog and digital input/output pins read sensor data and perform various tasks â&#x20AC;˘ Sends sensor data to Raspberry Pi via serial communication for processing Raspberry Pi Microprocessor â&#x20AC;˘ Main microcontroller for the Swarm â&#x20AC;˘ Uses sensor data and the PSO algorithm to select search points and plan path to destination

đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;?đ?&#x153;? = 0.3526 seconds

Mission: We aim to design, manufacture, and test a swarm of autonomous rovers to search an area for the highest and lowest elevation. The swarm serves as a test platform for the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Pololu 18v17 Pi Motor Controller

â&#x20AC;˘ Uses pulse width modulation from Arduino to

power motors

â&#x20AC;˘ Each controller powers one side of the robot

Theoretical response vs actual response of PID controller implementation

Trajectory without PID controller implemented (left) vs trajectory with PID controller implemented (right)

â&#x20AC;˘ Arduino code for optimization, organization, sensor â&#x20AC;˘ Behavior modes for demonstration and testing purposes processing, GPS waypoint navigation, and communication â&#x20AC;˘ Threading of Arduino with C Protothreads and interrupts with Pi â&#x20AC;˘ Basic bot to bot communication via Xbee â&#x20AC;˘ Python code for Raspberry Pi to handle high level control, planning, and cross-swarm communication Raspberry Pi (Python) Arduino Mega (C/C++)

Front View

GPS Waypoint Navigation

Obstacle Avoidance

Basic state machine diagram representing bot behavior at the highest level

Arduino Interface

Swarm Network

PSO Goal Calculation

XBee Interface

Overview of connected software mechanisms

Proposed UI

Swarm Autonomous Navigation and Diagnostic Display (SAND-D) is a handheld device that is used to consolidate and monitor information about the Swarm. It can display data the bots have collected, bot battery life, and the real time position of each bot

Before After â&#x20AC;˘ Before, it was difficult to troubleshoot due to the disorganization of internal components â&#x20AC;˘ Wires would frequently come undone, and components were not modular â&#x20AC;˘ Added a power board so all components are powered through one main board â&#x20AC;˘ Internal components are modular and easily removed and troubleshot

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 74

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

Modular Refugee Shelter


MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

UNH SEDS AUTHORS: Kevin Bucher Nicholas Clegg Daniel Nemr Charlie Nitschelm Reilly Webb

Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) is a new multi-disciplinary student organization at UNH. Members of the club are designing, manufacturing, and launching a high powered multi-stage rocket for the SEDS University Student Rocketry Competition. Collegiate rocketry teams will be competing nationally, with points ADVISOR: awarded to the rockets that achieve the Todd Gross highest altitude, are fully recoverable, and are backed by the strongest design methodology. Since our team is working from the ground up, UNH SEDS has taken a “first principles” approach towards reaching these goals. Once fundamental aerodynamic relationships were studied and understood, they were implemented to create models of flight dynamics, drag, and stability. A static test fire rig was constructed to obtain experimental thrust curve data from the engines; further increasing the accuracy of our simulated Honorable Mention trajectories. Driven by both manufacturing and competition constraints, our models were then used to optimize nose cone, body tube, and fin dimensions. Five rocket iterations have been designed and launched. Project We have analyzed the flight data from each launch to continuously improve and learn important lessons out in the field that could not have been gathered from theory and simulations alone. Department of Mechanical Engineering Authors: Charlie Nitschelm, Kevin Bucher, Nick Clegg, Reilly Webb Advisor: Dr. Todd Gross

Project Overview

To design, manufacture, and launch a high-powered, multi-stage rocket for the SEDS University Student Rocketry Competition • Goals • Design a high-powered engine class rocket to achieve maximum altitude • Implement a comprehensive recovery system that results in a fully reusable rocket • Constraints • Total combined engine impulse must not exceed 640.0 N-s • Must have at least two propulsion stages

Launch Simulation

Drogue Parachute

Custom Nose Cone

• Rocket trajectory was simulated using MATLAB. This required accurate stability, thrust, drag, and atmospheric models to produce ordinary differential equations that are then numerically solved for given rocket dimensions

A small parachute deployed at sustainer apogee

A carbon fiber nose cone that houses the drogue parachute and connects directly to the electronics bay

Electronics Bay

Houses the TeleMega GPS and controls both parachute deployment and sustainer ignition

Sustainer Parachute

• Caliber is a measure of passive stability, and should remain between 1-3 for stable flight (right)

A larger main parachute that slows the sustainer to a safe landing speed

Flight Data

Sustainer Engine

Propels the rocket to max altitude after booster burnout; 1.7 second burn time

OpenRocket Model

1154.1 m

Booster Apogee

276.3 m

290.0 m

• The MATLAB flight model is verified by comparing results to flight data from launches and to OpenRocket predictions (a pre-existing rocket simulation program)

MATLAB Model

Sustainer 1071.1 m 1020.6 m Apogee 238.6 m

Forward Fins

Check Integrity with Finite Element Analysis

Research Aerodynamic Theory

Supports stage separation at sustainer ignition

Booster Parachute

Rocket Improvement Cycle

Improve Aerodynamic Models

Provides stability to the sustainer after stage separation

Staging Coupler

Optimize Rocket Dimensions

Manufacture and Assemble

A large parachute to slow the booster to a safe landing speed

Design & Analysis

••

Booster Engine

Launch and Gather Data

Improve Manufacturing Techniques

Improve Field Launch Techniques

Initiates flight with a 0.7 second burn time

Provides stability to the rocket before stage separation

• A Static Test Fire Rig was designed and manufactured to test the propulsion characteristics of each engine and to verify total engine impulse stays below 640.0 N-s Reported Max Measured Max Reported Total Measured Total Thrust

Impulse

Impulse

Booster Engine: Cesaroni H399

545.8 N

549.6 N

282.2 N-s

277.1 N-s

Sustainer Engine: Cesaroni I204

356.8 N

329.7 N

347.7 N-s

322.7 N-s

This was achieved by maximizing the height output from the combined aerodynamic models through nonlinear programming using the interior-point algorithm

Aft Fins

Propulsion

Thrust

An Anoptimization optimizationprogram programwas wascreated createdtotodetermine determinethe thenominal nominaldimensions for each component will resultthat in the altitude. dimensions for eachthat component willhighest result insimulated the highest simulated altitude

• • •

Optimization Constraints: Maintain in-flight stability Structural integrity factor of safety of at least 3.0 Manufacturing limitations

• Stress analyses are performed on the optimized components that are prone to failure, such as the engine centering ring (left)

Manufacturing

• A laser cut fin alignment tool was designed to keep fins in place during the epoxy curing process • Many components are assembled from scratch such as the nosecone, fins, ignition leads, ejection charges, and launch pad

• Data acquisition was performed using the custom test rig, a 150 lb load cell, and NI SignalExpress software

• Optimization must be reconfigured if resulting FOS is less than 3.0

• Results were verified by comparing to official data reported by the engine manufacturer

Acknowledgments

A huge thanks to all the members of UNH SEDS, Prof. Martin Wosnik, Alireza Ebadi, Thomas Collins, the Parents Association, and our advisor Todd Gross for all the support

2018

Autonomous Quad-Rotor Formation Design AUTHORS: Jonathan Alcantara Evan Grissino Nathan Hall Xinglun Li Nicholas Long Kyle Ouellette Kuldeep Prajapati Samuel Shippee Anthony Velte Huntington Welch

The Autonomous Quad-Rotor Formation Autonomous Quad-Rotor Formation Design Design (QuadSat) project is based upon the question, “How can one develop a Introduction Autonomy & Communications Design remote system that will simulate the dynamic motion of a satellite formation in space?” The QuadSat group is attempting to solve this problem by using a Feedback Control Loop combination of quadcopters and a variation of swarm intelligence. The team has designed and built four quadcopters that are able to fly in formation and follow Results Future Work a GPS waypoint signal, allowing all four aerial vehicles to concurrently perform Position & Attitude Control Acknowledgements individual tasks (e.g., collecting data References using instruments or tracking targets) in a priori assigned relative locations. The onboard feedback control system specifies a single quadcopter as the “leader” and has all others (“followers”) track its commands. Using this leader-follower system, the swarm of quadcopters can change direction and speed without danger of collision. The particular implementation chosen creates a stable environment for testing and allows the quadcopters to work together with full autonomy. The use of this system for tracking and data collection will allow for future testing of satellite control algorithms on an Earth-based test bed. Jonathan Alcantara, Evan Grissino, Nathan Hall, Xinglun Li, Nicholas Long, Kyle Ouellette, Kuldeep Prajapati, Samuel Shippee, Anthony Velte, Huntington Welch Advisor: May‐Win Thein

Four quadcopters were designed to fly in formation and follow a GPS signal. Formation

the UAV’s can change direction and speed without crashing into each other. The con-

trol system specifies a single quad as the leader and has all others follows its orders.

This implementation creates a stable environment for testing and allows the quads to

work together with full autonomy. The use of this system for tracking and data collec-

tion has many applications that future teams will expand upon.

Arduino Uno Rev3 : Flight Controller

Adafruit MTK3339 GPS Module : Position Measurement

Adafruit BNO055 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) : Orientation Measurement Raspberry PI : Autonomy Software

Communication between the Server, Raspberry Pi, and Arduino is all done via serial

XBee modules through USB are used as the interface between the Server and Raspberry Pi. UART is used between the Pi and Arduino.

Autonomy is achieved by giving a list of location (x, y, z) deltas to the Server and following these steps:

SparkFun MPL3115A2 Barometer: Altitude Measurement

1) The server sends the next location delta in line to the Pi as a JSON string and waits until a variable number of messages are received.

Digi XBee Radio Communicator : Signal Communication

2) The Pi parses the deltas from the JSON and sends them to the Arduino.

3-D Printed Component Housing Allowing Custom Sensor Fixture

3) The Arduino uses the deltas to move the quadcopter accordingly. As the quadcopter moves, it periodically sends its current location back to the Pi. 4) Once the current location is within a margin of the destination, a message is sent back to the Server and the Pi waits for the next location delta from the Server. 5) When the Server receives a variable number of messages the process repeats until all location deltas have been sent.

XBee

Server

Raspberry Pi

GPS

Arduino

Motors

IMU

Controllers are implemented to allow the quadcopter to remain steady when flying

A PID Controller is a feedback mechanism which calculates an error value and then applies a correction signal to the system •

75 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Processors and Sensors

could include tracking, mapping, and data collection. Using a leader-follower system,

ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

flight allows them to perform tasks at the same time in different locations. These tasks

A modular flight controller program was developed from the ground up, allowing edits and upgrades to be added to the existing system without disrupting the framework

A fully functioning rate control quadcopter was built and tested to satisfy the design criteria

A time-varying, extended Kalman Filter was designed to create a more accurate value for position using sensor fusion of the GPS and IMU

Collision avoidance protocol

A neural network using image recognition Object tracking guidance systems

Professor May-Win Thein, Sital Khatiwada & John McCormack for their constant support throughout the project.

Proportional: control the speed of response Integral: minimize steady-state error

Derivative: control to minimize overshoot

Czerniak, G. (2018). Greg Czerniak's Website - Kalman Filters for Undergrads 1. [online] Greg.czerniak.info. Available at: http://greg.czerniak.info/guides/kalman1/ [Accessed 16 Apr. 2018].

ElKholy,H.2014, “Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor Using Linear and Nonlinear Approaches,” M.S. Thesis, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo. J. M. Brokking, “Brokking.net - My personal project page.,” Brokking.net - My personal project page. [Online]. Available: http://www.brokking.net/.

Brockway, L. (2011). AHF: Laminitis Research - Winner of Best Content in a Poster. Available at: http://www.ahf-laminitis.org/2011/11/winner-of-best-content-in-poster-lynn.html (Poster Formatting)


AUTHORS: Alexander Bickford Nathaniel Bissey Anthony Cafiso James Fey Patrick Glynn Ryan Joaquin David Knapp Ryan Pinard Connor Rose Nathaniel Steggall Belinda Vuto Colin Williamson ADVISOR: Barbaros Celikkol

Baja is a single-seat, all-terrain vehicle built to compete against other teams in a Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Suspension Chassis Front Suspension Shocks sponsored collegiate event. The SAE Design competition is composed of five dynamic events, which includes acceleration, Ergonomics Rear Suspension Material maneuverability, hill climb, rock crawl, and a four hour endurance race. Setting a design goal to reduce the weight and lower the center of gravity of the previous team’s car, the UNH Baja team Drivetrain Controls Engine Steering aims to finish within the top 25 out of 100 Thank You to Our Sponsors teams competing. To achieve our goal of Gearbox minimizing the car’s center of gravity, Brakes drivetrain was tasked with relocating Clutch the engine. The required stock engine Driveshaft being used has 10 horsepower; therefore decreasing the weight is the most effective way to increase the acceleration and maximal speed of the car. Improvements in performance were also achieved by drivetrain. Tuning the CVT through testing is another route to improve overall vehicle performance. Other improvements included the design of the adjustable suspension A-arm and a durable, intuitive steering that will stand up against the rugged terrain of the competition track. All of these improvements were designed to aim at achieving the best performing vehicle for each event at competition. • • • • •

Utilized 1020 DOM steel for primary and secondary members Triangular tube design to increase strength by dissipating forces Angled front end to avoid obstacles Designed around Collegiate Design Series Baja SAE® 2018 Rules Lengthened the rear end of the vehicle to ensure a more uniform weight distribution throughout the vehicle

• Cockpit designed to accommodate 95th • 36.6% greater bending strength than recommended 1018 steel percentile males and 5th percent females • 28.0% greater bending stiffness • Increased width of frame to than recommended 1018 steel accommodate leg space

Front Impact Crash at 30 mph

Side Impact Crash at 30 mph

Alex Bickford, Nate Bissey, Tony Cafiso, Jim Fey, Pat Glynn, Ryan Joaquin, David Knapp, Ryan Pinard, Connor Rose, Nate Steggall, Belinda Vuto, Colin Williamson

Barabaros Celikkol

Baja SAE is a collegiate competition where engineering students design and build a single-seat, all-terrain sporting vehicle. This vehicle serves as a prototype for a recreational production vehicle. Each team is judged in both static and dynamic events. These competition events are listed below. STATIC

Cost Analysis Design Presentation

DYNAMIC

• Fox Float 3 air shocks • Air adjustable

• Semi Trailing Arm Design • 2.5º of Camber while banking • Minimal toe in with wheel travel

Semi-Trailing Arm Design

A-arm Analysis Chamber Angle vs. Wheel Travel (2000 lbf Maximum Shock Force Applied)

Acceleration Hill Climb Maneuverability Rock Crawl Endurance

• Unmodified four-cycle, air cooled, Briggs & Stratton 10 HP OHV Vanguard Model 19. • Slotted engine and gearbox mounts for ease of access and adjustability.

• Decreased angle of steering column to reduce “school bus” driving feel • Designed steering in conjunction with front suspension with Lotus Shark software • Incorporated a lightweight, compact steering wheel to improve handling and driver comfort

• 8:1 reduction gearing ratio • Output shaft hex bore reduces stress concentrations compared to keyway design

• Top mounted brake and throttle pedals for ease of use and increased foot space • Included Wilwood reverse pedal assembly and hydraulic cylinders

• Gaged GX9 Continuously Variable Transmission • Low speed ratio 3.9:1, High speed ratio 0.7:1 • Tuned through testing to maximize output

• Re-engineered shaft to minimize stress around brake mount

• Reduced ground clearance from last year that contributes to a lower center of gravity • Included hex bolt for adjustability in bottom arm length • Designed suspension dynamic systems with Lotus Shark software

Special thanks to Scott Campbell, Tracey Harvey, Lauren Foxall, Kevan Carpenter, Sheldon Parent.

392 ft-lb Applied Torque 9,325 lb Force Applied to End of Shaft

Lotus Shark Full Suspension Model

Toe Angle vs Wheel Travel

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 76

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGCOMPETITION TEAMS

New Hampshire Baja


Slurry Test Re-Design AUTHOR: Anthony Young FACULTY ADVISOR: James Krzanowski INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Kevin Guay

The bearings used in New Hampshire Industries’ (NHI’s) idler pulleys contain a custom-engineered, triple lip; propriety seal to shield the ball bearing’s internal lubricating grease from external debris. These seals are tested using a machine called a ‘slurry tester’. NHI utilizes a slurry test to validate the contamination resistance of new seal designs and for sample testing of production bearings. The current slurry test apparatus and current test method have many deficiencies.

SLURRY Anthony TESTYoung RE-DESIGN Faculty Advisor: J ames Krzanowski

2.) PROJECT OVERVIEW

1.) BACKGROUND

Only 6 Bearings at a Time  Bearing Replacement = Test Stopped  Time Intensive Replacement Process  Inner-Ring Rotation & Vertical Orientation  Uneven Test Results (Slurry Concentration)

New Hampshire Industries (NHI) is a manufacturing company located in Claremont, NH.  Founded in 1960 and specializes in all types of pulley assemblies with a main market in Outdoor Power Equipment 

Project Specifics:

Slurry Test: Validates the contamination resistance of production and sample bearing seals.

The current slurry test apparatus and current test method have many deficiencies...

4.) ANALYSIS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

1. Belt Shroud Needed

Horizontal Orientation & O.R.R.

*

2.

2 Drums = 12 Bearings per Test

6.) FUTURE WORK

5.) RESULTS

Spacer / Bore Adapter Dimensions: C = Spacer Length

Where:

Note: The 6203 Bearings had a Green (G) and Black (B) Seal

6200 A 6200 B

A = Overall OD of Spacer / Bore Adapter

99502 B 99502 A

6203 BA 6203 GA 6203 BB 6203 GB

E = Insert Diameter

6004 B 6004 A

Create

Figure 1: Theoretical vs, Experimental results for the old motor (2.25” diameter motor pulley, 5” diameter drum shaft pulley, and 1779.2 rpm)

and Install Belt Shroud

Purchase

Inner Tub - 5 sided acrylic container to hold slurry mixture with a drain no larger than 4” x 4”

6204 B 6204 A

Purchase

and Mount Desired Motor used in Bearing Speed Calculations - Double-Grooved Motor Pulley

NHI engineering has developed the Bearing Speeds: following design requirements which must be incorporated into the new slurry test apparatus. The tester must be safe and OSHA compliant, accurately replicate the operating environment through horizontal bearing orientation and outer-ring rotation, simplify operation to minimize setup and run time, and allow for the removal and replacement of bearings while the test is still in operation. The tester must also be able to be replicated in other NHI locations and be able to run all NHI bearing sizes with outer-diameters ranging from 30 to 80 millimeters and widths ranging from 9 to 23 millimeters. The purpose of this project is to analyze, re-design, and manufacture a new slurry tester for NHI that meets the aforementioned requirements. General Equation

Drum Shaft Speed

Bearing Speed

 Spreadsheet that calculates speeds for all 14 bearings based on Pulley Diameters (Motor and Drive Shaft), Motor Speed, and Drum Diameter

2018

Minimal Setup Required

5.

Slotted Cap Design Locks into Roof

1.) Be Safe and OSHA Compliant 2.) Replicate Operating Environment 3.) Minimize Setup and Run Time 4.) Bearing Removal and Replacement when Test is still Running 5.) Run all 14 Bearing Sizes:

B = Clearance Hole for D = Insert Length / Bearing 3/8” Bolt Width

Winning Project

3. 4.

The New Slurry Tester Must:

NHI bearings contain a custom seal to shield the internal grease from external debris. 

3.) DESIGN

Current Slurry Tester Deficiencies:

Company Information:

Project Sponsor / Industry Advisor: Kevin Guay

Bearing Outer-Diameter (mm)

Figure 2: Theoretical results for the desired motor (2.5” diameter motor pulley, 5” diameter drum shaft pulley, and 1100 rpm) in relation to the NHI approved bearing speed window.

TOO FAST

6200

Finish Assembly

ACCEPTABLE

99502

6203

- 2nd Drum Shaft and 6 More Bearing Shafts

6004

6204

 Manufacture

TOO SLOW

Custom Spacers for all 14 Bearings

Bearing Outer-Diameter (mm)

Automated Window Seal Quality Control Machine AUTHORS: Nicholas Deskur Johnathon Fones Jesse Kelley

Hutchison Sealing Systems develops and Automated Window Seal Quality Control Machine manufactures window seals for various automobiles. After the manufacturing process of the part, the quality control process begins. Currently, Hutchinson operators place the part in a manual jig that secures the part in multiple locations. Once secure, critical components of the part are measured and inspected manually to ensure those components fall within the given tolerances. This process is inefficient and costly as the jigs are expensive and changing parts in the jig takes a considerable amount of time. Hutchinson asked that we design an automated non-contact measurement machine that performs these measurements on the rear inner window seal of the 2018 Jeep Wrangler. Hutchinson required that the machine have a faster completion time than manual jig, be 100% accurate, meet company and Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA) standards, and be cost effective. We developed an automated non-contact measurement machine that consists of stepper motors, pneumatic devices, electrical components, and a sophisticated vision system that can accurately determine if the part meets the required tolerances and sorts the parts into conforming and non-conforming parts. Nicholas Deskur (E.E.), Jesse Kelley (M.E.), Johnathon Fones (M.E.) Project Advisor: Prof. Barry Fussell (M.E.), Prof. Micheal Carter (E.E.) Industry Advisor: Saman Nouri Industry Sponsor: Hutchinson Sealing Systems

Introduction

 Goals:

FACULTY ADVISORS: Michael Carter Barry Fussell

Pneumatic System

Master switch- Supply /Exhaust

Pressure Regulator set to 80 psi

• Presented a project that would involve the rear inner window seal of the 2018 Jeep Wrangler.

Components • Pneumatic slide rail • Pneumatic Grippers

• Improve efficiency and lower cost of manufacturing process.

Flow control valves were used on pneumatic slide rail to ensure camera does not get damaged from abrupt stop.

• Design and produce an automated window seal measurement device to inspect and determine whether a part meets given requirements. • Must perform more efficiently than the manual measurement that is currently done by Hutchinson operators. • Automated machine must meet, both, Hutchinson and Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA) standards.

 Components:

• Pneumatic System • Sensors, Actuators, and Electrical System • Camera Measurement System • Window Seal Holding System • Operator Safety System

Automation Process

INDUSTRY ADVISOR: Saman Nouri, Hutchinson Sealing Systems

Window Seal Holding System

 Gripper set for passenger and driver side part.

 Background: • Hutchinson Sealing Systems manufactures automotive window seals.

 Programming performed using Programming Logic Controller.  Written using Ladder Logic

 Rotate to center and release part if part does not meet spec.

 Rotate to outside and release part if part does not meet spec.

 Arms are 3-D printed to fit the profile of the part.

 Gripping system was designed to keep a low rotational inertia, keeping all components as close to the shaft as possible.

Sensors, Actuators, and Electrical System

 Programming Logic Controller (PLC) • Communicates the automation process with each component  Relays • Cut power to PLC when safety inputs are missing  Stepper Motors • Rotate gripping system  Limit switches • Signal the PLC the next step in the automation process can be started  Photoelectric Sensors • Sense when there is a part present in a certain area.

Operator Safety System

 Plexiglas around machine • Prevent entry from unauthorized locations  Light Curtain • If entry plane is crossed stops machine.  Emergency stop switch • Machine stops when button is pushed.

Conclusion and Future Work

 Conclusion: • We were capable of designing and manufacturing an automated measurement machine that is more cost effective and efficient than the previous method.

Camera Measurement System

 Keyence iv-500ma • Standard sensor model • Built in processing system • 50 to 500 mm view distance • Automatic Focus • Monochrome type  Compares an image of current part with a “master” image to determine if part is within spec.

• Machine meets both Hutchinson and OSHA requirements.  Future Work: • Improve machine to fit more window seals. • Integrate machine into manufacturing process such that robotics place part into machine instead of operator.

Cost Analysis

Manual Jig

Automated machine

Cost of Machine

Average Operator Salary per Year

Total Cost over entire lifespan

$50,000

Ratio of Time Used to Run machine Compared to Manual Jig 1

Operator Cost Considering Time Spent

$10,000

$50,000

$260,000

$13,000

$50,000

1/4

$12,500

$75,500

Estimated savings, over 5 year period, when implementing the machine is $184,500.

77 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Industrial Application of Time Sensitive Networking Kristopher Fargo (ME), Erik Gustafson (ME), Bradley Olsen (ME), Brandon Smith (CS) Advisors: Se Young Yoon, Yannis Korkolis

Mechanical Analysis:

XMOS is a semiconductor company with various projects providing voice, music processing, and control ICs. They were gracious enough to donate the TSN capable multicore microcontrollers for this project.

Mode 6

0

-0.5 -1

-1.5

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Position Along Cord Length (m)

Aluminum T-Slot Frame Brushless DC servo motors (BLDC motors) BLDC speed controllers Control panel for manual or digital operation XMOS xCORE-200 multicore microcontrollers Master – the reference speed for the system Slave – synchronizes to the master • Safety shield and emergency stop • Custom CNC machined components (control panel brackets, motor shaft to rope interface)

Functional Differences Between Systems:

Encoder

XMOS (Master)

ESC

ω

Motor

DAC

ESC

ω

Motor

1.2

1

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Encoder

A known input signal eω is provided into the system through the microcontroller. When using TSN, output from the microcontroller passes through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The signal is then used as an analog input in the electronic speed controller (ESC). The ESC, which has a built-in PI controller, then operates the motor. The demo also incorporates manual control to emulate a traditional analog system with independent inputs.

0

TSN Control System

1.4

1.2

Manual Control

TSN

XMOS (Slave)

Traditional Control System

1.4

DAC

This output is observed from the rotational motion of the system.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0.6 0.4 0.2

Master Slave

0

1

0.8

10

0

0

1

2

Master Slave

3

Absolute Time (sec)

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Absolute Time (sec)

In a traditional control system, the slave response to the master will increasingly lag over time. With TSN, the slave system will still experience some small lag, but this will remain constant over a long period of time. In other words, the difference in absolute time between two samples of data from different devices will remain constant in the master-slave outputs.

®

This project is intended to act as a demonstration of the TSN protocols in an electromechanical system. Two motors, which represent industrial machinery, are synchronized using TSN to ensure they operate at a set output velocity. The resulting outputs can be used to produce standing waves in a rope. With TSN controls applied, the system will remain stable with the desired standing wave output. This project is sponsored by the UNH-IOL, who support adoption of this technology in the industry.

Automated Visual Defect Inspection AUTHORS: Graeme Bignell Hyenjin Jeong Michael Locke Colten Tenney FACULTY ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Chris Bickford, Jeremy Seiferth INDUSTRY SPONSOR: John Graham, GE Aviation

In the aerospace industry, a blisk is a jet engine component which goes into the compressor section of the engine. A blisk combines a rotor hub and numerous blades into one assembly. It is crucial that a blisk is free of dents, nicks, burrs, and scratches as small as a thousandth of an inch. Current inspection routines are time consuming, laborious, and subjective between inspectors.

AUTOMATED VISUAL DEFECT INSPECTION Bignell, Graeme | Jeong, David | Locke, Michael | Tenney, Colten

2. VISION RESEARCH

Extensive research was performed to identify the available vision technologies that would meet all the set criteria. It was decided that the most important factors to rank each technology were:

1. INTRODUCTION

3. INTEGRATION

At any given time, there are 5,000 aircraft in the sky, and on any given day, there are 2.5 million passengers traveling by air. Therefore, safety is a top priority in the aerospace industry. A single defected component can be catastrophic, so a quality inspection is paramount.

To optimize the use of the optical camera technology, a complete automated solution needed to be designed and integrated. There are 3 main elements to the entire solution:

Hardware Cost | Precision | Time Efficiency One speci�c component in the compressor section of �et engine is a bladed disk, also known In order to maximize the viewable surface area of the blisk during Ease of Implementation | Reliability as a blisk. GE Aviation manufactures the blisk and inspects this component by hand, which an automated inspection process, a camera mounted to a 6-axis is time consuming and has poor ergonomics. Also, the process contains room for robotic arm and a stepper motor driven rotary table were With these criteria at the forefront of the research, two out of �ve explored improved gauge R&R (Reproducibility and Repeatability). Within this inspection implemented. Custom camera, blisk, and robot mounts also needed vision technologies demonstrated potential; conventional optical cameras and process, defects caused during machining/handling need to be located and classi�ed. to be designed and manufactured for successful operation. 3D laser scanners. The high cost, state-of-the-art 3D laser scanners seemed Defects, which include nicks, dents, and scratches, as small as 0.001" in any Mounted Camera Electronics most promising upon initial review, but testing revealed a lack in precision. The dimension can cause an entire blisk to fail an inspection. At the center of the electronics  is the main robot optical camera clearly demonstrated pro�ciency in revealing defects as small as controller, which acts as a hub for all communication 0.001”. Due to this, the team chose the optical camera technology for the This inspection process can take between 1 to 2 hours to inspect the entire between the Arduino controlled rotary table and the inspection process. surface area on a 2 staged blisk (See Figure Below). To improve the inspection computer controlled vision system. Each system has its process as a whole, an automated solution would be greatly bene�cial to the own dedicated inputs and outputs (I/O)  to allow for entire aerospace industry. successful handshaking throughout the entire inspection Stepper Control System process.  Software The custom vision scripts that obtain and process images are the most crucial software component of this automated solution. These images are at the forefront of the entire inspection process in terms of determining if a blisk passes or fails an inspection. 3D Laser Scan Optical Camera Image (Cognex DS925B)

Custom Vision Application

(Basler Ace acA4600)

4. INSPECTION PROCESS

An automated inspection process was designed to successfully acquire the images needed to fully inspect both stages of a  blisk. The blisk undergoes a calibration routine to follow the industrial standards for blade identi�cation (i.e.,  clockwise counting each blade around the blisk). The process was also validated using kinematic simulations to ensure all mechanical components would operate as they were designed. The process �owchart below demonstrates the entire inspection process:

5. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Completed Work • An automated solution was designed and successfully integrated into the current 2-stage blisk inspection process at an affordable cost compared to overall manufacturing costs • Able to locate defects as small as 0.001" in a repeatable method • Improved the total inspection time from 2 hours to an approximated 45 minutes, using time per square inch over the entire surface area

In order to enhance current inspection methods, a six-axis robotic arm is utilized to manipulate a camera which scans the surface area of the blisk. Using image processing, defects can be identified and located. Due to the limited reach of the robot, a stepper-motor driven rotary table is used to index the blisk so that all blades can be seen. Upon completion of the inspection, an inspector can view the results obtained via the image processing and further inspect any areas that failed the automated visual inspection. Future Work • Aquire proper camera, lens and lighting solution to provide higher quality images for an improved inspection • Increase scope to inspect more surface area and more difficult to reach areas

Optimize kinematics and communications to reduce cycle times • Optimi

Located Oil Hole

Academic Advisor: Brad Kinsey, UNH M.E. | Industry Sponsor: John Graham, GE Aviation Industry Advisors: Chris Bickford, BSME ’08, Jeremy Seiferth, BSME ‘09

Overall System Arrangement

The goal of this project is to develop an automated solution that would reduce the total inspection time, improve the repeatability and reproducibility of defect discovery, and improve the overall efficiency of the inspection.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 78

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

One of the primary purposes of this project is to connect the UNH Interoperability Lab (IOL) to research projects conducted in the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. The intent of IOL NeXt is to promote the exploration of new ideas leveraging emerging concepts in networking, cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, advanced manufacturing, the internet of things, and other areas of research.

Mode 3

1

0.5

-2

Project Sponsors:

Mode 1

1.5

Frame vibration analysis was conducted to ensure system stability when in motion. The resonant frequencies were determined and compared against the expected motor operating speeds. It was determined that there were no conflicts with the speeds achieved during typical operation.

Key Components: • • • • •

This project is a demonstration of the TSN protocols in an electromechanical system. Two motors, which represent industrial machinery, are synchronized using TSN to ensure they operate at a set output velocity. The resulting outputs are used to produce standing waves in a cord. With TSN controls applied, the system will remain stable with the desired standing wave output.

Simulations show that given an input velocity into the cord, a standing wave will be produced at a given frequency mode.

Standing Wave Simulation

2

Vertical Position Relative to Anchor Points (m)

Abstract: Traditional industrial control systems are often rudimentary and wasteful, which leads to lost productivity and efficiency. Companies are beginning to turn to Industry 4.0 as the solution, a concept which is composed of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), sensor fusion, cyber-physical systems, and networking. Connecting various systems can often be quite complicated and expensive. Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a method of utilizing standards-based protocols to facilitate the connectivity of devices by ensuring that they are all operating on the same time-base. TSN is fundamental to ensuring that machinery exchanges time-relevant data to act upon quickly and reliably.

Normalized Response

ADVISORS: Se Young Yoon Yannis Korkolis

Traditional industrial control systems Industrial Application of Time Sensitive Networking are often rudimentary, energy wasteful, and generally based on last century’s technology, which leads to lost productivity and efficiency. Companies are beginning to turn to Industry 4.0 as the solution, a concept which is composed of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), sensor fusion, and cyber-physical systems. Connecting various systems can often be quite complicated and expensive. Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a method of utilizing standards-based protocols to facilitate the connectivity of devices by ensuring that they are all operating on the same time-base. TSN is fundamental to ensuring that machinery exchanges time-relevant data to act upon quickly and reliably. Normalized Response

AUTHORS: Kristopher Fargo Erik Gustafson Bradley Olsen


Power Analysis for Tool Monitoring Adaptive Control AUTHORS: Caroline Quintal Erik Rockstrom Kristin Snyder

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

FACULTY ADVISOR: Barry Fussell INDUSTRY ADVISORS: Mike Newsky Jason Pier Dave Smart

Metal cutting by end milling is used in many manufacturing processes to produce high-grade metal components, such as aircraft parts and engines. The milling machining process can perform various cuts by altering the machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s input parameters: spindle speed, rate of movement of the working part, and the cutting depths and diameter of the tool. To optimize the metal cutting process, manufacturers can implement adaptive controls, which continuously monitors the power required to cut the part and adjusts the spindle speed accordingly to maintain a desired power. The software monitors tool performance, time and cost for a more efficient machining process.

Power Analysis for Tool Monitoring Adaptive Control Caroline Quintal, Erik Rockstrom, Kristin Snyder Barry Fussell, Faculty Advisor Mike Newsky, Dave Smart, Jason Pier, Industry Advisors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH Introduction:

Theory

Overview

Pratt & Whitney values an efficient and cost effective process in the manufacturing of aircraft engine parts. Spindle power during machining indicates performance and the amount of work performed by the tool. The input parameters directly related to the power are depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed. Adaptive control software is able to monitor and adjust the feed rate to maintain the recommended and optimal cutting conditions regardless of part geometry.

Goal:

â&#x20AC;˘ Determine the required power to machine individual cuts â&#x20AC;˘ Study power changes between new and worn tooling to maximize tool life â&#x20AC;˘ Predict and confirm power input for the adaptive control software

Setup

Charge Amplifier

Force Plate

Peripheral and Face Milling Cuts at Specified Inputs

Tool

đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2026; = đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; â&#x201E;&#x17D; â&#x2C6;&#x2026; + đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; â&#x2C6;&#x2026; = đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??śđ??ś â&#x2C6;&#x2014; â&#x201E;&#x17D; â&#x2C6;&#x2026; + đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ??¸đ??¸ đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; Theoretical and Experimental Power Equations á&#x2C6;ś đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192; = đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C; đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = đ?&#x2018;&#x201E;đ?&#x2018;&#x201E;đ??žđ??ž đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192; = đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; đ?&#x2018;&#x201E;đ?&#x2018;&#x201E;á&#x2C6;ś + đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021; đ??´đ??´á&#x2C6;ś

đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś

đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

Results

Tool Description Axial Depth Radial Depth Spindle Speed Table Feed of Cut [in] of Cut [in] [RPM] [IPM] 1. 4 Flute, 12 mm .150â&#x20AC;? .020â&#x20AC;? 1173 9.4 2. 6 Flute, 16 mm *.090â&#x20AC;? .630â&#x20AC;? 1390 10 3. 4 Flute, 8 mm .150â&#x20AC;? .025â&#x20AC;? 1451 6.4 *modified depth of cut to .010â&#x20AC;? for face milling procedure due to machining difficulties

â&#x20AC;˘

Adjust the spindle speed (n) to monitor power at smaller and larger chip per tooth values (fz)

A calibration procedure of the force plate was ran and specific force constants were calculated as a function of chip thickness. Direction X Y

Theoretical Sensitivity (lbf/V) 115.05 114.44

đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§ =

â&#x20AC;˘

đ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;Łđ?&#x2018;&#x201C;đ?&#x2018;&#x201C;

đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; â&#x2C6;&#x2014;đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;§đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?

[in]

Run cuts at constant feed rate (vf) and a 20% increase and 20% decrease of the spindle speed

Conclusions

Experimental Sensitivity (lbf/V) 112.13 112.13

Experimental values of power from the machining processes are used to validate the determined input power values for the adaptive control software.

Specific Force Constant, đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? = đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? â&#x2C6;&#x2014; â&#x201E;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?

XYZ ...

Material Setup

* Used integrated forms of these equations for model coefficients

In efforts to analyze power values at varying parameters, the spindle speed was proportionally increased and decreased.

Force Plate Dynamometer Sensitivities

The desired setup for machining Inconel 718 using a 3-Axis Mill requires the following components and technologies. Sandvik Tool

Method

Theoretical and experimental spindle power are from the radial and tangential forces acting on the tool. Conversion of Translational to Radial and Tangential Forces *đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľ â&#x2C6;&#x2026; = â&#x2C6;&#x2019;đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2014; cos â&#x2C6;&#x2026; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; sin â&#x2C6;&#x2026; *đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Śđ?&#x2018;Ś â&#x2C6;&#x2026; = đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2014; sin â&#x2C6;&#x2026; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??šđ??šđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; â&#x2C6;&#x2014; cos â&#x2C6;&#x2026;

â&#x201E;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; â&#x2C6;?

Data Acquisition

3-Axis Mill: Fryer MB-14 w/ mist coolant Sandvik Tools: CoroMillÂŽ Plura solid carbide End-Mills Material Setup: Inconel 718 (Nickel Chromium Alloy) â&#x20AC;˘ high-strength, corrosion resistant â&#x20AC;˘ 6â&#x20AC;? x 6â&#x20AC;? plates of .15" & .25â&#x20AC;? thickness Force Plate: Kistler 9257B â&#x20AC;˘ Three component quartz dynamometer Charge Amplifier: Triple output Data Acquisition: NI USB-6218

1 đ??žđ??žđ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?

Tool 1, Peripheral Cut:

Tool Power: Theoretical, Observed, and Predicted Input Power Tool

â&#x201E;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; : đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;? đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ą đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018; â&#x2C6;&#x2019;.25 3 đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;

Slope = â&#x20AC;˘ Based on a log scale Tool 2, Face Mill:

Theoretical Observed Input Power [hp] Power [hp] Power [hp] 0.84 0.91 0.73 0.50 0.74 0.27 0.79 1.01 0.81

1 2 3

Future Considerations:

â&#x20AC;˘ Analyze the effect of runout on force analysis â&#x20AC;˘ Consider various complex geometries and multiple tooth engagement

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Drummond Biles and Scott Campbell for assisting us in the UNH Machine Shop.

Pratt & Whitney has requested cutting force analysis of various cuts in their aircraft engine manufacturing process, to reduce machining time. Through extensive research and knowledge of the adaptive control software, the optimized power levels are critically determined for each defined cut, with known cutting parameters. The focus of our study, is to measure real-time cutting forces during the machining process and convert them into power values that can be used as input into the adaptive control software, creating an improved manufacturing process.

Rifle Barrel and Bolt Proofing Machine AUTHOR: Benjamin Londrigan

The capstone project Team 22 will be Rifle Barrel and Bolt Proofing Machine presenting is a detailed review of the design for Sig Sauerââ&#x201A;Źâ&#x201E;˘s Barrel and bolt proofing fixture. The problem Sig Sauer had was the inability to quickly pressuretest military and commercial rifle barrels and bolts external to the firearm. Because of internationally accepted engineering specs, proofing these components is Design required to be for sale. Unfortunately, this test can damage other parts of the firearm costing the company. These tests could be performed external to the rifles to avoid unnecessary damage. A machine that could efficiently perform this test would benefit the company. The machine should require minimal operator input while insuring the safety of all surrounding personal. After studying the geometry and kinematics of the M16 and MCX platforms, the machine procedure was developed, and a preliminary design was created. The machine will be powered with multiple pneumatic pistons and controlled by a PLC. By autonomously executing the rifle operations, Sig Sauer can proof barrels and bolts quickly. Analysis For Design

Benjamin A. Londrigan

A major aspect of this project was studying the dynamics of the a functioning rifle. By understanding the forces and moments a rifle experiences while operating, we can simulate motions, such as bolts going into battery and extracting bullets from the chamber.

Adviser: Marko Knezevic

SIG SAUER MCX

What is Proofing?

ADVISOR: Marko Knezevic

When a firearm is built, it needs to pass function tests in order to be sold to the public. One of the most intensive test required by standards such as C.I.P. is proofing. Proofing a firearm is preformed with special bullets that can be 130% power of standard rounds. An over-pressured round will put a lot of stress on the barrel and bolt in a rifle not experienced in normal usage. By firing a proofing round through a new firearm, you â&#x20AC;&#x153;proveâ&#x20AC;? that all parts that contain the explosion are free from premature-catastrophic defects.

Hammer spring analysis to determine applied torque on receiver

INDUSTRY SPONSOR: Sig Sauer

Standard (lbf)

Proof (lbf)

7.62x51mm

~20

90+

5.56x45mm

~15

60+

300 BLK

~15

50+

Caliber

3rd and Final Design

LEFT: AR 15 BARREL AND BOLT CARRIER GROUP; RIGHT: MCX BOLT

Project Overview

Sig Sauer is a large manufacturer of firearms based in New Hampshire. Having the ability to quickly proof barrels outside of a firearm has shown to be very valuable for production. With a growing demand for Sig Sauerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rifles, a machine to proof both bolts and barrels will be needed. This is especially desired for rifles such as the MCX where different length and caliber barrels are sold separately and should be tested before sale. Design parameters:

ď&#x201A;ˇ Front tube bolts against range function tube and is adjustable to different barrel lengths; Overall dim. 18â&#x20AC;?x12â&#x20AC;?x36â&#x20AC;?

ď&#x201A;ˇ Pneumatically operated with 6 different systems; Implemented standard, compacted, guided, and rodless actuators ď&#x201A;ˇ PLC controlled solenoids which directs air to each actuators

Push-Pull gauge used for determining force required for extraction

ď&#x201A;ˇ Magnetic, proximity, and solid state switches strategically placed to ensure completed motion

ď&#x201A;ˇ Lexan glass encloses machine protecting operator from actuator motion and explosion from bullet ď&#x201A;ˇ Drop down firing group for easy bolt removal

ď&#x201A;ˇ Top bolt carrier securing guide for true concentric forward motion ď&#x201A;ˇ Wear plates on highly abused areas

ď&#x201A;ˇ 4 controlled buttons to start, confirm fire, E-stop, reset

ď&#x201A;ˇ Safety!

ď&#x201A;ˇ Ability to proof bolts and barrels

Sizing pneumatics was not only force produced but bending moments experienced

Operator inputs

ď&#x201A;ˇ Minimal user input

1.Insert barrel with bullet into tube and firing block, 2. Insert bolt into modified bolt carrier, 3. Press both yellow hand tie down buttons 4. Confirm bullet fired

ď&#x201A;ˇ Portable and secures to function tube

ď&#x201A;ˇ Modular to different rifle bolts and barrels

5. Extract and inspect bolt and barrel

Moving Forward

Complete drawings and send out for machining P/O Pneumatics and electronics Assemble and debug

79 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Timberland PRO Midsole

ADVISOR: Yaning Li

To analyze, design, and prototype an Timberland PRO Midsole underfoot platform that aids wearers in Chris Steinke, Sean Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Grady, Garrett Faino, Taylor Maniatty, Matt Walsh Advisor: Yaning Li their daily lives (jobs), while keeping in mind support, alignment, and comfort. The major goal of this project is to maximize energy return while keeping it lightweight and safe so the wearer will get the most out of their day on the job sight. We have made a midsole for the Timberland PRO shoe that will be worn by laborers in a manufacturing environment. The heel had to be kept under a height limit. The midsole needs to be rigid enough to support the load by any size worker, and return energy to the wearer. This product needs to be able to withstand tens of hours of work per week by the user while reducing fatigue and decrease likelihood of injury which means that fatigue testing had to be performed. We designed a midsole that is aesthetically pleasing and performs better mechanically than any other. We have developed a midsole from various forms of inspiration that includes all of the design criteria and satisfied the project sponsor. Problem Statement: To improve the daily lives of the consumers by designing, analyzing, and prototyping a midsole that focuses on maximizing energy return and comfort.

Ă&#x2DC;

Ă&#x2DC;

Consumers targeted: Laborers in a manufacturing environment

Ă&#x2DC;

Midsole Criteria: Support, alignment, lightweight, unique, safe

Ă&#x2DC; Ă&#x2DC;

Ă&#x2DC;

Customers are walking and standing all day On your feet for 60+ hours per week translates to standing for 35% per year - thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more time than we spend sleeping Some workers walk 10+ miles per day Fatigue, injuries and chronic pain can occur because of these high stresses on the body

Material selection Geometries

Five unique designs from various forms of inspiration; childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s toys, prosthetics, exercise equipment, etc.

1st Iteration

Water-Flow Analogy Testing of an Involute-Profile Counterflow Heat Exchanger with Crossflow Headers Flow Distribution and Pressure Loss Characteristics AUTHOR: Daniel Berry ADVISORS: Jim Nash Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat between two fluids. They are used in a variety of applications from transportation to power plants. A platefin compact heat exchanger is one type that is currently used when space and weight are limited. One problem to recognize when designing plate-fin heat exchangers is understanding the pressure drop through the system. As the fluid flows through the plate-fin exchanger, the fluid will lose pressure due to flow patterns, frictional forces from the fin, and the entrance and exit losses. The present work is focused on the distribution of flow and pressure loss through a novel plate-fin heat exchanger envisioned for recovering exhaust heat in a gas turbine engine.

Water-Flow Analogy Testing of an Involute-Profile Counterflow Heat Exchanger with Crossflow Headers Flow Distribution and Pressure Loss Characteristics By: Daniel Berry Advisors: Jim Nash, Ivaylo Nedyalkov

1. Purpose â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Design and build experimental apparatus, and perform physical experiments on an involute profile heat exchanger Observe flow distribution using dye Use pressure ports and manometers to measure pressure loss through heat exchanger matrix and compare to analytical model

2. Background â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

An involute profile can be imagined as having a string around a circle, then pulling the string back to create another curve Calculating pressure drop is important in compact heat exchanger design because it can affect the heat transfer rate and the pumping power required to move the fluid As the fluid flows through the plate-fin exchanger, the fluid will lose pressure due to flow patterns, frictional forces from the fin, entrance losses from sudden contraction and exit losses from sudden expansion

Fig. 1: Involute Profile

Fig. 2: Plate-Fin Matrix (43 tpi)

4. Results

3. Design & Setup â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Involute profile, mass flow rate and temperature of actual system given by Brayton energy Apparatus designed in Solidworks, and involute profile stencil cut out using a laser cutter to trace on red oak wood for the ribs Flow rate of water calculated to match the Reynolds number of the actual system đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;đ?&#x2018;&#x2026; =

Relief Valve

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;D á&#x2C6;ś h đ??´đ??´Îź

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;á&#x2C6;ś đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤ =

â&#x20AC;˘ The below results were taken with a Reynolds number of 1.1e4 â&#x20AC;˘ Flow rate of 8.05 gal/min at 37.2 °C Fig 4. Flow distribution (Colors do not indicate temperature)

đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;á&#x2C6;ś đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; Îź Îźđ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D; đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;¤

Pressure Ports Heat Exchanger Polycarbonate Gasket Dye Ports Inlet

Dye Ports

Inlet

Heat Exchanger

Outlet

Outlet 4-MD little Giant Pump

Fig. 3: Design Setup

Acknowledgements Thank you to the team advisors, Ivaylo Nedyalkov and Jim Nash, and the staff at Brayton Energy for allowing me to use their facility to build and perform the experiments.

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Fig. 5: Pressure Data from 4/11/2018

Fig. 6: Pressure Data from 4/4/2018

5. Conclusion

Data collected is a factor of 2 different than the analytical model that was completed Current results different from analytical model from bubbles in the water and pressure ports not between fins Flow distribution pictures, the bubbles were absent Future work: Plot velocity vectors from flow pictures, Conduct tests at different Reynolds numbers, and alter outlet header to minimize variation in flow through heat exchange fins

This project consisted of designing, building, and implementing procedures, then conducting experimental analysis on an involute profiled heat exchanger. Water was used to match the Reynolds number of the actual system which uses air at a very high temperature. Pressure ports were placed at the inlet and outlet of the fins and the pressure difference was observed using manometers. Finally, optical measurements were performed by inserting dye into the inlet header and photographs were taken of the observed flow patterns. This project is sponsored by Brayton Energy LLC.

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 80

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -INDUSTRY

AUTHORS: Garrett Faino Taylor Maniatty Sean O'Grady Christopher Steinke Matthew Walsh


Functionally Graded Microstructures with Dream 3D and MATLAB AUTHOR: Zhangxi Feng ADVISOR: Marko Knezevic

Under a microscope, the microstructure of a metal is revealed to be composed of so-called grains. These grains are made up of atoms and are the building blocks of the material like community blocks in a city. The grains have different crystal lattice orientations, dependent on the atomic arrangement, and have different sizes and shape. Smaller grains improve a metalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strength as they work as a unit under stress. Larger grains better resist effects such as thermal creep to last longer in service under high-temperature conditions.

Functionally Graded Microstructure with Dream 3D and MATLAB Zhangxi Feng, Marko Knezevic (Mechanical Engineering) 1 Background

2 Project Merit and Objectives

4 Results

The microstructure of a metal is

The goal of the project was to develop a procedure that can generate a

A model that has linearly increasing

revealed under a microscope to

FDM model using open-source software such as Dream 3D and owned

grain size from left to right is shown in

software such as MATLAB. Mathematical and simulated models are

figure 5. There are 4 average grain sizes

often developed and used to accelerate the design of such materials.

in the shown model (figure 6) where

These models can predict properties and behavior of FDM materials

the ratio between the largest grain size

on a computer and save the need of physically creating the material

and the smallest is 21. Using this

and perform destructive tests. Therefore, an accurate model merits

method, any other grain size patterns: square, circular,

be composed of so-called grains (Figure 1). These grains are made up of atoms and are the building blocks of the material like community blocks in a city.

Figure 1: Micrograph of a polycrystalline metal; Figure Micrograph of a polycrystalline metal; grain 1: boundaries highlighted by acid etching grain boundaries highlighted by acidCreative etching. By Edward Pleshakov Used under ByCommons Edward Pleshakov, reusedWikipedia under CC BY 3.0. license through Retrieved from Wikipedia: Grain Boundary

The grains have different crystal lattice orientations, dependent

significant reduction in cost and time needed for the development of a

on the atomic arrangement, and have different sizes and shape.

novel material.

The number of atoms per grain determines grain size and shape.

3 Methods

Smaller grains improve a metal's strength as they work as a unit under stress, this is known as the

quadratic, and more can also be easily created. The same code can also be

The main difficulty in generating such a microstructure model is

modified

having an algorithm to generate normal looking grains. Dream 3D has

Hall-Petch effect as shown in

last longer in service under high-

Figure 2: Hall-Petch effect showing decreasing strength with increasing normalized grain size with limitations. Image from: C.S. Pande et al. (2009), Nanomechanics of Hallâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Petch relationship in nanocrystalline materials, Progress in Materials Science, Vol 54, Issue 6

temperature conditions. For applications of metal in

machine elements such as the jet

engine, a part of the metal may be under high stress while another

part of the same piece of metal may be at a high temperature.

pattern. The solution is to use grains and output the seed file

Figure 6: Generated FGM model with decreasing grain size from left to right

5 Future Works

Figure 3: Dream 3D model synthesis process. Dream 3D User Manual

Dream 3D to create the

generate

grain shapes.

synthetic grains but cannot generate models with grains of a specified

effects such as thermal creep to

to

models with non-spherical

an algorithm outlined in figure 3 that can generate uniform sized

figure 2. Larger grains better resist

Figure 5: Generated FGM model with increasing grain size from left to right

1. Dream 3Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s built-in functions can be modified with C++ programming. The tasks completed by MATLAB script in the current method can be added to Dream 3D and allow one

that contains the centroid of

program to generate any kind of desired models.

each grain and their sizes. Then, the

Therefore, it would be beneficial to create the metal spatially

seed files are combined together using a MATLAB script that simply annexes the seed

customized to address the local conditions. The variation of the

data to each other and output a combined seed

grain sizes can be described by a function, hence the name

file can then be used in Dream 3D to generate

Functionally Graded Microstructures (FGM). It can even be

the custom-designed synthetic FGM model.

observed in natural materials such as bamboo (Figure 3).

The model can then be volume meshed in

2. This procedure can also be used to create the models for other simulations such as fracture mechanics, carbon solute in metals, and Ti-64.

6 Acknowledgements and Contact Info

Thank you Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) for

For applications such as the jet engine, part of a metal may be under high stress while another part would be at high temperature. Therefore, it is beneficial to create the metal spatially customized grains to address the special needs. The distribution of the grain sizes could be described by a function, hence named functionally graded Honorable Mention microstructure (FDM). funding my summer research.

Abaqus for finite element analysis as shown in

Special thanks to the following persons for having assisted me in

figure 4 to predict the materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s properties such as fracture toughness, yield strength, and

Figure 3: An optical image of the functionally graded microstructure of bamboo. T. Tan et al, (2011), Mechanical properties of functionally graded hierarchical bamboo structures, Acta Biomaterialia, Vol 7, Issue 10.

Project

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -RESEARCH

2018

other non-linear relationships.

the completion of the project:

Daniel Savage (UNH ME PhD), Dr. Milan Ardeljan (UNH ME Alum) Interested in this research? Reach me at zf1005@wildcats.unh.edu

Figure 4: Volume meshed model

Material models are often developed and used to accelerate the design of such microstructures. These models can predict properties and behavior of materials with FDM on a computer to cut the cost and time involved in developing such materials. This URC project developed a method to create an FDM model using an open-source program Dream 3D and programming environment MATLAB.

Aerodynamic Forces on Cyclists in Formation AUTHORS: Reed Bell Sydney Michalak

Offset Pelotons, or Echelons, are common Aerodynamic Forces on Cyclists in Formation cycling formations. Our research aims to Reed Bell and Sydney Michalak determine favorable angles of echelon formation, as a function of relative wind direction. Drag and side force coefficients for a group of three cyclists were experimentally determined for varying formation and apparent wind direction; with low coefficients of drag corresponding to high efficiency. Three competitive cyclists were 3D scanned, modeled, and 3D printed at a 1 to 12 scale. Uncertainties of the equipment were studied, quantified, and whenever possible â&#x20AC;&#x201C; addressed. A detailed experimental procedure for using the 6-axis, pyramidal force balance, was written together with a reliable set of techniques for processing data. Repeatability studies result in plots with overlapping uncertainty bars, confirming the accuracy of the procedure. Furthermore, initial results suggest that the most efficient formation occurs when riders align themselves in the direction of the apparent wind. This project serves as an essential foundation for future experimentation with the force balance in the UNH student wind tunnel, while also providing insight into cycling strategies applicable in crosswind scenarios. Future work will include investigations of rider size dependence and location within the group. Department of Mechanical Engineering

Introduction

â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

ADVISOR: Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Equipment & Procedure

Aerodynamic drag can account for up to 90% of the resistance experienced by cyclists. [1] Echelon: Diagonal drafting formation in crosswinds. [Fig.1]

â&#x2013;Ş

Objectives: â&#x2013;Ş Determine efficient angles of echelon formation as a function of relative wind direction. â&#x2013;Ş Formal experimental procedure written for using the 6-axis, pyramidal force balance in the UNH student wind tunnel.

â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

Yaw angle: (đ?&#x153;˝đ?&#x153;˝) Angle of apparent crosswind with respect to the cyclistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s direction of motion.

â&#x2013;Ş

Echelon angle: (đ?&#x153;śđ?&#x153;ś) Angle of formation of cyclist echelon, where 0° corresponds to straight, wheel to wheel alignment.

Scale Modeling

Fig. 4: Tim Putnam posing for 3D scan.

Tools: Autodesk Recap Photo Scale: 1:12

Collaboration: Worked with UNH Cycling Team for model creation.

â&#x2013;Ş

Fig. 1: Full scale implementation of an echelon during competition [2].

Fig. 5: Final 3D render of Tim using Recap.

Summary: â&#x2013;Ş Most efficient riding formation occurs when yaw (đ?&#x153;&#x192;đ?&#x153;&#x192;) equals echelon angle (đ?&#x203A;źđ?&#x203A;ź). â&#x2013;Ş This happens when riders align themselves in the direction of the experienced wind. â&#x2013;Ş Results support current techniques and strategies practiced on the road. Fig. 7: Method to determine Application Strategies: relative wind direction. â&#x2013;Ş Mount a length of string to bike handlebars. â&#x2013;Ş Direction of string will indicate relative wind direction. [Fig. 7]

(a) (b) Fig. 6: Drag and side force coefficients from cyclistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frame of reference acting on a 3-cyclist echelon plotted verses echelon angle. (a) Yaw angle setup of 15°. (b) Yaw angel setup of 25°.

Future Work

â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

Fig. 2: Moving average of force plotted over 20 min.

Fig. 3: Repeatability of 9 tests taken over 3 days.

Results

Process: 1. Collect images of cyclists (~100) 2. Create Mesh (~440,000 Vertices) 3. Post Process (~18 hours) 4. Print (~36 hours)

Conclusions

81 â&#x20AC;˘ 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Moving averages of 20 minute data sets were analyzed to find minimum test time, đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; . [Fig. 2] â&#x2013;Ş đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161;đ?&#x2018;&#x161; was defined as the time the avg. takes to reach Âą1% of the convergence value. It is necessary to test for a minimum of 7 minutes to achieve less than 1% uncertainty. Procedures were developed to reflect test time and other environmental factors: â&#x2013;Ş Force balance sensitivity â&#x2013;Ş Temperature and pressure variations â&#x2013;Ş Disruption of intake airflow â&#x2013;Ş Floor vibrations Uncertainties from the following readings: â&#x2013;Ş Density â&#x2013;Ş Water height â&#x2013;Ş Atmospheric Pressure â&#x2013;Ş Voltage â&#x2013;Ş Calibration â&#x2013;Ş Temperature Repeatability results suggest that our improved data acquisition methods and techniques provide repeatable and accurate results. [Fig. 3]

Complete a Reynolds number dependence investigation. Vary cyclist position in echelon; quantify dependence between cyclist size and position. Run full scale tests in the Flow Physics Facility to verify that the results are scalable.

Fig. 8: UNH Flow Physics Facility

â&#x2013;Ş

When the relative angle of the wind (yaw angle) is 15°, lowest coefficients of drag & side force, and therefore highest riding efficiency, occur at an echelon angle of 15°. [Fig. 6a]

â&#x2013;Ş

Similarly, when the yaw angle is 25°, the highest riding efficiency occurs at an echelon angle of 25°. [Fig. 6b]

â&#x2013;Ş

The most dramatic changes in coefficient of drag are seen over the initial 5° shift in echelon angle.

References

â&#x2013;Ş â&#x2013;Ş

[1] Griffith, M., Crouch, T., Thompson, M., Burton, D. Sheridan, J. Brown, N., 2014, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effect of Leg Position on Cyclist Aerodynamic Drag,â&#x20AC;? Journal of Fluids Engineering, 136(10), 101105-101105-9. [2] Photo courtesy of Brian Ladd, head coach of the UNH cycling team.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our project advisor, Ivaylo Nedyalkov, as well as the UNH cycling team for their time and assistance.


Investigation of Motion Cueing Algorithms on the IMS Driving Simulator

ADVISORS: Jan Bohn Philipp Erler Stephan Rinderknecht

Dynamic driving simulators are Investigation of Motion Cueing Algorithms on the IMS Driving Simulator increasingly used by automotive manufacturers during the vehicle ABSTRACT MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL development process; they offer the opportunity to present vehicle dynamics and drive train behavior to subjects CLASSICAL WASHOUT and to assess system performance, passenger perception thresholds, etc., BACKGROUND before producing prototypes. Using a motion cueing algorithm, desired vehicle accelerations are transformed into EXPERIMENT translational and rotational movements of the simulator motion platform. The primary challenge is to present the accelerations exactly without exceeding the simulators workspace limits. Using the 3-DOF Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (LVDS) under development at TU Darmstadtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Institute for Mechatronic Systems, Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Classical Washout (CW) motion cueing algorithms were compared. A control module was developed using MATLAB and Simulink to present pre-parametrized simulator trajectories to nine test subjects from varying academic backgrounds and demographics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of workspace limitations, rotation rates, false cues from filtering, and optimization parameters on driver experience. Subjects found the MPC algorithm produced more realistic simulations overall, and suggested reasons for poor CW performance. Andrew Masters â&#x20AC;&#x201C; University of New Hampshire Philipp Erler, Stephan Rinderknecht â&#x20AC;&#x201C; TU Darmstadt

REU Site: Collaborative International Automotive Engineering in Germany and the USA NSF EEC grant # 1560107, PI: Jan Helge Bøhn, Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech

Dynamic driving simulators have traditionally been used to measure the physiological and behavioral responses of drivers in controlled environments. Today, they are increasingly used by the automotive industry during the vehicle development process; they offer the opportunity to explore designs before producing prototypes. A new motion platform has been developed for a 3 degree of freedom driving simulator at TU Darmstadt to investigate longitudinal driving dynamics. In this project, the new platform was used to compare Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Classical Washout (CW) motion cueing algorithms; An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of workspace limitations, rotation rates, and false cues from filtering on driver experience.

đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;

đ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;Ľđ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;

Î&#x2DC;

â&#x201E;&#x17D;

The MPC algorithm uses a state space model of the motion platform and a set of constraints to perform a finite optimization on the control process. This algorithm is ideal for motion cueing because it directly accounts for the workspace limits in the optimization, and has a predicative ability to anticipate future events and adjust control actions accordingly. It is particularly effective for offline trajectory parametrization when there are no limits on the computational cost of the optimization.

đ?&#x2018;&#x192;đ?&#x2018;&#x192;

Fig. 2: IMS driving simulator geometry

Past Past

The CW algorithm is the most common filter based strategy used in simulator motion cueing. High and low frequency accelerations are filtered to the translational and rotational axis respectively. It is tuned by a trial and error process, where filter corner frequencies are adjusted and tested until the desired quality of simulation is achieved without passing the simulator workspace limits.

Using a motion cueing algorithm, desired vehicle accelerations are transformed into translational and rotational movements of the simulator motion platform. The primary challenge is to present the accelerations exactly without exceeding the simulators workspace limits.

đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x2021;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x; đ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??śđ??ś

đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2030;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´

The IMS driving simulator was designed to investigate and simulate primarily longitudinal driving dynamics. It uses three linear actuators for heave and pitch control, and one for surge. The platform geometry is designed to position the simulatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center of rotation at or above head (ear) level, a critical factor in minimizing the subjectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception of rotation.

2nd Order Highpass Filter (Return to Zero)

1st Order Highpass Filter

Scale

1st Order Lowpass Filter

1st Order Lowpass Filter

đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;2

ReferenceTrajectory Trajectory Reference PredictedOutput Output Predicted MeasuredOutput Output Measured PredictedInput Input Predicted PastInput Input Past

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k

k+1

k+2

Reference Acceleration vs. MPC Acceleration

đ?&#x2018;&#x160;đ?&#x2018;&#x160;1

Tilt Coordination

đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018;&#x153;

Tilt Rate Limiter

1

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2

One CW and four MPC trajectories with varied optimization parameters were parameterized offline and implemented into a Simulink control model. Nine subjects - engineering students aged 19-29 with varying experience driving on the road and in simulators â&#x20AC;&#x201C; were randomly presented each trajectory three times. A virtual reality headset and noise canceling earbuds were used to present the driving environment.

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High magnitude powertrain vibration

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Reference Acceleration vs. CW Acceleration 1

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Fig. 4: MPC optimization prediction horizon

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Fig. 3: Classical Washout Filter

Future Future

Acceleration (m/s2)

AUTHOR: Andrew Masters

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As expected, MPC trajectories were more realistic over all. Because of the MPCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s predictive capability, the motion platform adjusts its starting position before the vehicle acceleration onset, using more of the workspace to achieve higher magnitude accelerations.

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Kinematics Model

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Simulink RT-PC - TwinCAT3

Fig. 1: IMS driving simulator control diagram

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The CW algorithm responds poorly to rapid shifts in demanded acceleration. Counterintuitively, subjects rated initial acceleration and strength of acceleration highly. But subjects consistently noted they had the feeling of being rotated. This is because the rotation rates are not directly controlled when tuning the CW and passed the subjectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception threshold. In this case, the high rotation rates were a tradeoff for accurately following the reference acceleration.

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Fig. 5: MPC translational and rotational position

However, some subjects noted they could feel simulator movement before the acceleration onset in virtual reality. In some cases, this lead to nausea and vertigo.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research has been funded in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation (EEC-1560107). The opinions presented here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Science Foundation. This research was performed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering (IMS) at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.

UAV Electronics Cooling System

â&#x20AC;˘ To gain a better understanding of the physics of our system, we performed analytical heat transfer simulations to find cooling load requirements under various operating conditions. â&#x20AC;˘ External temperature was varied from 0-40 °C (32-104 °F) â&#x20AC;˘ UAV speed was investigated from 0-60 m/s (0-134 mph)

In recent years there has been a transition towards unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to carry out military operations. These UAVs have significantly less power than traditional combat vehicles. Their missions are carried out by electronic equipment that is temperature sensitive and must be actively cooled. Because of the UAVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s low power, off the shelf cooling systems are too heavy. Our efforts are geared toward reducing this systems cooling load, therefore allowing it to be more lightweight.

Our numerical work focused on analyzing the external flows around the pod to find mass flow rate through the inlet scoop as a function of UAV speed. This determines mass flow rate of air through the condenser of a future vapor compression cycle, which determines in part the cooling capability of the cycle. Normalized Mass Flow vs. Wind Speed

Mass flow through the inlet remains between 80% and 90% of possible mass flow depending on speed. These losses are due to the air flowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interaction with the pod geometry.

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â&#x20AC;˘ The results of our initial evaluation show that the cooling load varies dramatically as a result of the external conditions. In addition, a heating load is required with cold external temperatures at high speeds. To avoid this, providing a layer of insulation to the pod was investigated.

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Below are simulations of air velocity passing through the pod inlet at different UAV speeds. There is a clear speeding up of the air as the UAV gains speed, which is the anticipated result.

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A traditional military vehicle like this F-16 has the appropriate power to operate with a currently available pod.

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â&#x20AC;˘ With a 1â&#x20AC;? thick layer of insulation applied, the need for heating has been eliminated. In addition, the highest level of cooling required has been significantly reduced.

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To test the validity of our theoretical analysis, a model pod was created for testing in a wind tunnel. The effects of varying wind speed over the pod as well as operating an internal fan were investigated.

Effects of Electronics Fan on Pod Temperature

Effects of Air Speed Pod Temperature

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Above is a schematic of our pod. Cold air passes through the inlet and over the condenser, extracting heat from the pod. The amount of heat transferred is proportional to the amount of flow here.

Average Internal Temperature (ď&#x201A;°C)

ADVISOR: Christopher White

The research objective of this project UAV Electronics Cooling System is to investigate lightweight cooling Samuel Whitmore | Nicholas Doiron strategies to effectively remove heat Advisor: Chris White Background and Theoretical Modeling Numerical Results from a sensor electronics housing POD Objective attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The challenge is that the sensor electronics produce significant heat (~ 2kW) but must be kept between 18-20°C (64-68 °F). In our work, we utilized analytical, experimental, and computational methods to determine cooling requirements under various UAV operating conditions including UAV Experimental Results Conclusions/Future Work speeds of 0-60 m/s (0-134 mph) and external temperatures of 0-40°C (32-104 °F). The analytical investigations revealed that forced internal convection is a very effective strategy to reduce cooling load requirements. The experimental investigations confirmed this result. A non-intuitive finding from the analytical studies was that given the operating parameters it is beneficial to insulate the outside of the POD. The reason is that under certain operating conditions (high UAV speed and low external temperature) if the POD was not insulated then heating of the POD would be required to maintain the electronics 18-20°C (6468 °F). The addition of a heating system would substantially increase the overall weight of the POD. Average Internal Temperature (ď&#x201A;°C)

AUTHORS: Nicholas Doiron Samuel Whitmore

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Our findings reinforced our theoretical model, showing that increasing wind speed results in lower internal temperature. The fan moved the high temperature regions within the pod toward the walls so that heat would be more effectively transferred.

Our main findings: â&#x20AC;˘ Forcing convection within the pod is an effective method of reducing cooling requirements. â&#x20AC;˘ Insulating the pod is a necessity to avoid a heating requirement â&#x20AC;˘ Over the operating range of speeds, mass flow rate over the condenser is linearly related to UAV speed Future work: â&#x20AC;˘ Numerically simulate the natural convective effects as well as forced convection inside pod â&#x20AC;˘ Incorporate this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s findings into sizing and design of vapor compression cycle components

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM â&#x20AC;˘ 82

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -RESEARCH

VR

Pink Noise


Generating Non-Equilibrium Boundary Layers at High Reynolds Numbers AUTHORS: Kyle Reisert James Ripley

The goal of this project is to design, Generating Non-Equilibrium Boundary Layers at fabricate, install, and test a ramp insert to High Reynolds Numbers produce a streamwise pressure gradient in the UNH Flow Physics Facility. The ramp is 16.5 m in length, 6 m in width, and has a height variation of 0.45 m. The insert has to be lightweight, easy to install, and flush with the ceiling of the wind tunnel so that experiments may be conducted on the floor of the tunnel. The design selected consists of an aluminum skeleton frame and a high density foam sheathing. The ramp is a sectioned design, as the size of the insert is far too large to install, store, transport, etc. in one piece. One of the most difficult design constraints is the tight tolerance on the allowable spanwise deflection of the ramp (less than 1 mm ideally). The tight tolerance is to ensure that the flow remains two-dimensional across the spanwise extent of the ramp. For this reason, the design allows for the mounting devices to be adjusted to correct for misalignment and beam deflection. A small-scale model was also developed and tested in the student wind tunnel to gain some insight on this type of device. Project Members: Kyle Reisert and James Ripley

Advisors: Prof. Chris White and Prof. Joe Klewicki

Objective: Design a ramp insert for the UNH Flow Physics Facility

(FPF) to produce a streamwise pressure gradient that in turn generates non-equilibrium (i.e. complex) boundary layer flow along and downstream of the expansion ramp.

ADVISOR: Christopher White Joseph Klewicki

Figure 4: Schematic of insert side view with required dimensions.

Design Criteria (3 sections, total length 16.5m, width 6m) (i) contract cross-sectional area of FPF from 2.85m to 2.4m over 3m. (ii) maintain cross-section area of FPF constant at 2.4m over 8m. (iii) expand cross-sectional area of FPF from 2.4m to 2.85m over 5m.

Figure 1: a) An outside view of the UNH FPF, the largest boundary layer wind tunnel of its kind in the world. b) An interior view of the FPF.

Motivation: Boundary layer flow of practical interest to the Navy

Figure 7: A SolidWorks Flow simulation for inside the FPF with insert at an 8 m/s inlet velocity. Shown is the resulting pressure gradient. The flow velocity increased to 10.2 m/s after the contraction.

includes the flow around a submarine or the flow around the airfoil of a fighter jet. The aerodynamic/hydrodynamic performance of these applications are greatly influenced by non-equilibrium effects in the boundary layer.

Figure 5: Model of the insert inside of the FPF wind tunnel.

SolidWorks Simulation: Above is a SolidWorks simulation of the flow over the insert when placed on the UNH FPF ceiling. The image shows the resulting pressure gradient based on an inlet flow rate of 8 m/s. The colors correspond to differing pressure values and the arrows correspond to the flow direction. The red represents atmospheric conditions and the dark blue represents 101,309 Pa. The other colors are intermediate values. The overall pressure drop created by the insert was 27.51 Pa over the 3m front ramp. Small Scale Testing: A small scale model was made out of

Figure 2: The complex flow lines related to the movement of Naval vehicles are shown. Nonequilibrium effects have a large impact on these movements.

Figure 6: SolidWorks model of the final aluminum frame design. These beams would be supported at each wall.

Boundary Layers:

Final Design: Skeletal frame of square aluminum tubing with a body of rigid polystyrene foam. These materials were chosen with the goal of reducing deflection, as they are lightweight and rigid. Reducing the deflection of the insert frame was very important, as large deflection values would yield undesirable spanwise pressure gradients.

Boundary layers form as fluid flows across a surface. They are caused by shear stress imposed on the flow by the wall.

Figure 3: Diagram of boundary layers with and without flow separation.

The 6m span posed a challenge with regards to reducing deflection, as supports can only be placed at the walls. This became especially difficult at the leading and trailing edges of the insert, where wall area for supports became scarce.

Non-equilibrium effects (caused by imposed pressure or strain) modifies momentum transport and turbulence production in often unpredictable ways.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -RESEARCH

plywood for testing in the UNH student wind tunnel in Kingsbury Hall. Pressure taps were inserted to measure the pressure along the centerline of the model. Additionally an oil film test was performed to test for separation of flow at the beginning of the flat section.

For the final design, deflection was reduced to: • 5mm at the leading edge • 0.3mm in the 8m flat section • 6mm at the trailing edge

Figure 8: Small scale model pressure tap results recorded at two different velocities and plotted against the theoretical pressures.

Wearable Air Pollution Device for Crowdsourcing Hot Spot Data AUTHORS: Amanda Lee Keelan McCoole Francesca Molinari Joel Nkounkou Caroline Quintal Kristin Snyder ADVISORS: Barbaros Celikkol Jeffrey Sohl

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Americans today. Air pollution and harmful gases contribute to health issues including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. By creating a device that can notify the user of areas with high pollutant concentration, one can reduce the risk of developing long-term lung and heart related problems. This device is targeted towards those of high risk: the elderly, children, and asthmatics; however, it is intended to educate everyone.

Wearable Air Pollution Device for Crowdsourcing Hot Spot Data Amanda Lee1, Keelan McCoole1, Francesca Molinari1, Joel Nkounkou2, Caroline Quintal3, Kristin Snyder3 Faculty Advisors: Jeffrey Sohl1, Barbaros Celikkol3 1College

3Department

What is

Technology

O2 & You is an interdisciplinary team from the University of New Hampshire comprised of business administration, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering students. O2 & You is committed to education and awareness of air pollution in the global atmosphere through an affordable, compact, and wearable air pollution monitor that will crowdsource the data to an air-quality map.

2018

Raspberry Pi Zero W ▪ ▪ ▪

Problem Air pollution causes 7 million deaths annually. World Health Organization 2017

A study of 60 million people shows that long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) increases the risk of premature death, even at exposure levels below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) currently established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Fully digital microcomputer 1 GHz processor with 512 MB RAM allows for local processing of data Small form factor and low power draw

Python 3 ▪ ▪

Robust object-oriented language Handles all input variables from sensors and runs locally on Pi

Google Firebase ▪ ▪

Cloud based data management server Houses collected data and runs global analytics

Harvard School of Public Health 2017

BreatheSmart Sensors Measure: ▪ Ground Level Ozone (O3) ▪ Carbon Monoxide (CO) ▪ Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) ▪ Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) ▪ Particulate Matter, including pollen and pet dander

Visit our website at: O2andyou.xyz • Access to a continuously updated air-quality map • Ability to customize notifications per users’ preferences • Interface between the user and their data through individualized user logins • Future: Mobile Application of O2andyou

How the Device Works A fan assists the air flow through the device Data from the sensors are averaged and sent wirelessly to the cloud based management server No geographical restrictions, a built in GPS device makes it independently functional 10 - 13 hours of standard use battery life Data over time displays user trends and progress Real time alerts and notifications to your smart phone

Market Water & Air Quality Testing Services Industry • 4.8% Annual Growth • $5.9 Billion in Revenue Target Market • Health Impaired • Children • Elderly

Acknowledgements Funding contributions by: Dr. Nancy Targett, Dr. Deborah Merrill-Sands, Brent McNeff, Dr. Brad Kinsey, Dr. Kent Chamberlin, Dr. Wayne Jones, Jr., Dr. Chuck Zercher Professional auditors: Andrea Kokolis, Dr. Samra Aytur, Emily Bolton Additional thanks to: Laura Hill, Chris Sohl, Will Taveras, Tiffany D’Amour Whitcomb, Margaret Donnelly, Phillip Boyle, Bob Gough

As outlined by the WERC Environmental Design Contest, the project objective is to create a wearable air pollution monitoring device that crowdsources hot spot data to an air quality map. Utilizing a microcomputer, five sensors, and a GPS, the device is independently functional. The five pollutants monitored by the device are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter. Design considerations include cost, portability, and an effective way of pushing data from the device to a cloud-based data management server. A device that sends notifications when pollutant levels are higher than normal, allows the user to take actions to reduce their long-term pollution exposure and health risks. 3.5” x 4.9” x 3.5”

Winning Project

of Business and Economics, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

83 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE


Measurement and Numerical Simulation Validation of Electromagnetically Compressed Metallic Tubes

ADVISOR: Brad Kinsey

A electromagnetic field can be used Measurement and Numerical Simulation Validation to compress a metal tube and create of Electromagnetically Compressed Metallic Tubes a solid state weld if a shaft is included inside the tube during the process. In Introduction Materials order to investigate this process, physical measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) were obtained for four electromagnetically compressed metallic tubes, AA6061-T6 (aluminum), Cu 101 (copper), Cu 260 (brass), Cu 932 (Bronze), and SS Measurement Setup 316L(stainless steel). For the AA6061-T6 Process samples, three different tube thicknesses (0.5, 1, and 2 mm) were also tested. All Results/Discussion of the experiments were completed for two different capacitor bank discharge energies, 2.4 and 3.6 kJ. These physical CMM measurements were compared to analytical models and numerical simulations to assess the accuracy of the predicted results. Also, the consistency of the measurement process was assessed through experimentation. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Advisor: Brad Kinsey Aaron Chapman

• • • •

An electromagnetic field can be used to compress a metal tube to a shaft and create a solid state weld. Tube compression can be used to weld two dissimilar materials, i.e., a tube to a shaft, which cannot be achieved with fusion welding. When conducting this high impact welding process, the key parameters are the velocity and deformation of the tube. Physical measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) were obtained for two electromagnetically compressed metallic tubes to validate numerical simulation results.

AA6061-T6 (aluminum) • • • •

Density – 2.70 g/cm^3 Modulus of elasticity – 68.9 GPa Yield strength – 276 MPa Electrical resistivity – 3.99x10-8 mΩ

Cu 260 (brass) • • • •

Density – 8.53 g/cm^3 Modulus of elasticity – 112 GPa Yield strength – 359 MPa strength Electrical resistivity – 6.20x10-8 mΩ

Blakely, 2008

• Experiments were completed for two capacitor bank discharge energies, 2.4kJ (20%) and 3.6 kJ (30%). • These physical CMM measurements were compared to numerical simulations to assess the accuracy of the predicted results. • The consistency of the measurement process was assessed through experimentation by remeasuring the same component five times.

Images from Magneform, 2018

• The parts were measured using a ZCat portable tabletop CMM from Fowler. • A fixture was designed to hold the part from moving during the measurement process. • A program was created with the ZCat control cat software to measure the profile of each part and send each measurement to an Excel file. • The parts were measured at 90°, 180°, and 270° locations with respect to a dead spot location on the tube from the process.

• The aluminum and brass tubes were compared out of five materials tested because of the range in material properties, which have a large impact on the velocity and deformation of the tube. • The experimental data has the same shape as the numerical simulation results for both materials. • The magnitude of the brass displacements is less than that of the aluminum for both the 20% and 30% discharge energies due to the higher density of the material. • The experimental displacement values are larger than the numerical simulation results for the aluminum cases due to momentum effects not being captured well.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING -RESEARCH

AUTHOR: Aaron Chapman

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 84


Project OASIS: Optimizing Aquaponic Systems to Improve Sustainability AUTHORS: Danielle Coombs Hannah Thomas ADVISORS: Todd Guerdat Ivaylo Nedyalkov

Aquaponic systems are a combination of hydroponics, growing plants in water, W K and aquaculture, cultivating fish. Water J circulates between the two subsystems, transferring the waste from the fish tank to the plant bed, where the plants absorb nutrients and filter the water for the fish tank. Small-scale aquaponic Y systems are of particular interest, as they V are appropriate for rural and developing locations to harvest both plants and fish P for a local community. Understanding the T flow within the fish tank will decrease the power required to run the pump, which will improve overall sustainability. The U shape of the fish tank greatly influences the flow in the tank and its initial costs. This study focused on experimentally mapping the flow in a 2 m x 2 m square fish tank with curved corners using four-inlet and two-inlet configurations. For each flow design, data was collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry. Detailed uncertainty analysis and repeatability tests were performed to ensure the validity of the data. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop an inlet-design configuration which minimizes initial and operational costs of the small-scale aquaponic system. 5'6)7-82(0%.%9(+-8026+"8(

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Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle AUTHORS: Lena Downes River Iannaccone Kimberly Radzelovage Alex Sarasin ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

The UNH Remotely Operated Vehicle Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) (ROV) Team is an interdisciplinary engineering team tasked with designing and fabricating an underwater ROV. This year, ROV 006 and ROV 007, designed last year and this year, respectively, are research platforms for the implementation of graduate level research of autonomous multi-platform collaborative systems. ROV 007 is an updated version of ROV 006 which has a higher-grade sensor suite and a more robust electronics subsystem and tether. This improved design also incorporates a rotating electronics tube, to reduce the significant drag effects from the tether. In addition to ROV 007 construction, UNH ROV has focused on developing autonomy for both vehicles through a stability control strategy and point-to-point navigation. Position and orientation feedback control has been implemented in computer simulations and is to be tested in UNH’s Engineering Tank and Tow Tank. The ROVs are to assist in a collaborative effort with the UNH Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) project to execute seafloor mapping and ocean profiling missions. For this purpose, the ROV and ASV projects have jointly been working on autonomous ROV deployment from the ASV and integrating a state-of-the-art acoustic sensor to track the underwater position of the ROV with the ASV. Team members: Kim Radzelovage, Lena Downes, Alex Sarasin, River Iannaccone Project Advisors: Dr. May-Win Thein, Allisa Dalpe, Sital Khatiwada, John McCormack

UNH ROV Mission The goal of UNH ROV is to design, develop, and fabricate a functional and expandable underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a platform for future research focused in autonomous ocean mapping in collaboration with Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASVs). Electrical System

• Parallel voltage converters to allow better load sharing • Molex connectors • Secure pin connections • Removable electronics tube end cap • More openings on electronics tray for wire routing

ROV 007 Chassis Design

Frame • Acrylic side frames • 80/20 T-Slotted aluminum connectors • 8x T-100 thrusters • Over actuated system

ROV 006

ROV 006 Improvements

Electronics Tube Cradle • 0.5" Diameter aluminum rod • Acetyl bearing, polyester housing • Tube can rotate 90° in either direction • Reduces drag from tether

ROV Evolution

• Troubleshoot and address unresolved issues including: • Faulty tether connections • Faulty electronics connections • Raspberry Pi communication issues

https://www.robotshop.com/en/bno055-9-dofabsolute-orientation-imu-fusion-breakoutboard.html?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIhcqg7My12gIVEI7I Ch3Ylgb4EAQYAyABEgKaIPD_BwE

https://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/salbta/

Sensors • Extensively test Sparkfun IMU • Adafruit IMU is a more user-friendly, easily calibrated choice • Vernier salinity sensor • Bar30 pressure sensor

https://www.sparkfun.com/products/r etired/10736

ROV 007

http://docs.bluerobotics.com/bar30/

Autonomous Waypoint to Waypoint Control

• ROV will autonomously transit to a given waypoint without direct user manipulation • 6 PID controllers, one for each DOF

ROV Dynamics Modeling • Free body diagrams for all 6 degrees of freedom (DOF)

Controller DOF Decoupling

• Decouple 6 DOF controls to simplify implementation and tuning • Correct position and orientation 1 DOF at a time

6 DOF Controller Simulation

OCEAN ENGINEERING

• ROV simulated response to ramp input for all 6 DOF • Robust response even with added noise

Underwater GPS Integration • Bar30 pressure sensor depth and temperature data integrates into GPS • Triangulates ROV position relative to surface control station using acoustic locators and depth readings • Control station determines absolute GPS position of ROV

https://www.bluerobotics.com/store/electronics/underwater-gps/aps-wl-11001/

85 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

ROV-ASV Interaction

• ROV will be autonomously deployed from the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) • 4 underwater GPS acoustic locators will be mounted on ASV

Special thanks to Dr. Martin Renken, Scott Campbell, John Ahern, the CEPS Office of the Dean, and the Parent’s Association


Autonomous Surface Vehicle AUTHORS: Peter Bowers Daniel Lamkin Seamus Sargeant Christopher Urbanski ADVISOR: May-Win Thein

An autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) is a watercraft capable of autonomous navigation and can be used for various tasks. The UNH ASV team is in charge of ROV Deployment Electronics Setup ASV Mission designing the craft for seafloor mapping which is resource intensive and requires automation. The current ASV, “SeaMOOS,” ASV 5 (SeaMOOS) was designed for the purpose of deploying a remotely operated vehicle Shore Station (ROV), which will be used to take detailed scans of the ocean floor. The team has worked in collaboration with Heading and Speed Controls the UNH ROV team on deployment for Testing the ROV as well as tracking its location Autonomy using acoustic sensors. Additionally, due to the longevity of the ASV project, “SeaMOOS” was designed to be modular so that changes can easily be made to the platform to suit the needs of future teams. The ASV is controlled by MOOS-IvP, an open source marine operating system containing powerful tools and frameworks for complex marine vehicle autonomy. Using this software, the team has been able to create a shore station to remotely control and monitor the ASV. MOOS’ IvP component also provides the basis for point to point navigation, and the team has been working on improving the autonomy of the ASV with obstacle detection using LiDAR, and by implementing heading and speed controls. Team Members: Peter Bowers, Daniel Lamkin, Seamus Sargeant, Christopher Urbanski Project Advisors: Dr. May-Win Thein, Allisa Dalpe, Sital Khatiwada, John McCormack

SeaMOOS Design: • ASV SeaMOOS is designed around deploying a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) • The pontoons allow for an opening in the center of the deck to lower the ROV into and provide stability when the ROV is deployed • Forward deck allows for ROV battery storage Deployment Method: • Deployment is controlled wirelessly through the shore station using Xbees • The ROV is raised and lowered using a winch • Deployment opening has a door that can be closed to allow for ROV to rest on the deck when it is not deployed • Tether reel will use slip rings to prevent tether wear

Modeling ASV dynamics using 3 DOF (surge, sway, yaw) Control heading and speed as waypoints change • PID controllers for both heading and speed

The goal of the ASV team is to develop a vehicle for ASV ocean mapping, capable of: 1) Autonomous navigation 2) The ability to deploy a ROV remotely operated vehicle (ROV) 3) Remote monitoring of the ASV and its mission

Shore Station

XBee

Shore Station

H-Bridge

Actuator

Winch

Starboard Motor

GPS

IMU

RC Controller

H-Bridge Port Motor

Autonomy

Remote viewing of the ASV’s position, speed, and other variables in the database Send deploy and recall commands to the ASV and ROV ASV commands sent over ad-hoc wireless network on a pair of 802 antennas • ROV commands sent over Xbee wireless transmitters • Live video stream from the ASV over radio signal • • •

Style: Catamaran Length: 7’11” Beam: 5’6”

Payload: 610 lbs. at half submersion Powerplant: Twin 55 lb. electric trolling motors

MOOS-IvP coordinates multiple processes defined in a mission file. It aggregates sensor data in order to make autonomous decisions GPS upgraded to Digital Yacht GPS150 with GLONASS and forward compatible with Galileo • Remote autonomy override and control using RC controller •

surge

Arduino

ROV Deployment

sway

MOOS—IvP (Laptop)

Relay

Tether Reel

yaw

Ad-Hoc Network

Arduino

Electromagnetic interference causes errors in IMU heading measurements Shore station gives effective means of mission monitoring • Motor controls yields accurate boat motions •

Special thanks to: Dr. Martin Renken, Bob Dewatcha, John Ahern, Paul Lavoie, Sheri Millette, the CEPS Office of the Dean, and the Parent’s Association

Marine Vehicle The UNH Marine Vehicle (MV) team has Marine Vehicle designed an underwater marine robotic vehicle. The team has worked diligently to produce a working prototype that is fast, agile, capable, and can stream high definition video to the operator. The purpose of the Marine Vehicle is to provide a platform for more advanced STEM education and research in ADVISOR: high schools. Successful integration May-Win Thein requires high levels of safety, a cost effective design optimized for effective manufacturing, and a fun platform for students to foster a love for marine robotics. The Marine Vehicle team wants to capture the attention of potential engineers with dynamic and highly functional controls, a high power to weight ratio, and a thruster placement design that emphasizes speed and agility. Every aspect of both the marine vehicle and the way it is built has been designed that high schools can build their own with ease. Honorable Mention Students will gain experience with electrical assembly, casting and molding, mechanical testing, and ability to build off the pre-designed platform to customize the vehicle to their own desire. Allowing for those Project interested in all fields of engineering to participate. /*8%"'>#&7)'';'()"@'CB.7&%4';'(-=0)%8'6=0")7D' <B3)&'/)*8#"';'<)=@'E)"?)&

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2018

INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM • 86

OCEAN ENGINEERING

AUTHORS: Mark Buntsev Tyler Costa Michael Schratz Judas Taylor John Yarmas


The Living Bridge Project: ADV Traversing System and Measurements AUTHORS: Garrett Caisse Kevin Strohschneider ADVISORS: Kaelin Chancey Ian Gagnon Martin Wosnik

A tidal turbine will be installed on a The Living Bridge Project: ADV Traversing System and Measurements floating platform at the Memorial Bridge, in the Piscataqua River in Portsmouth, NH. A traversing system was designed to mount an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to the platform. The ADV will be used to take velocity measurements of the inflow and wake of the turbine. The system consists of an aluminum frame spanning the width of the platform moon pool. Ceramic-coated aluminum rails were welded to the frame, on which plain-bearing pillow blocks are mounted. These bearings attach to a 2-inch nominal diameter stainless steel pipe supporting the submerged ADV. The pipe is streamlined with fairings to reduce drag and prevent vortex shedding. The system enables travel and positioning of the ADV over a vertical distance of 3 meters and a horizontal distance of 3.3 meters under loading. The system was designed to withstand the forces caused by a 3 meter per second tidal current. The entire system can be easily transported and mounted to the platform. The frame of the traversing system was split into sections that can easily managed without special lifting equipment. Dissimilar metals have been isolated to avoid galvanic corrosion. The structure is designed to survive short deployment periods, and will not be permanently mounted to the platform. Project Members: Garrett Caisse, Kevin Strohschneider Advisors: Professor Martin Wosnik, Kaelin Chancey, Ian Gagnon Department of Mechanical Engineering Tech 797 Ocean Projects

The Living Bridge Project Background

Frame Modeling and Design

6

The Living Bridge Project is focused on creating a smart, self sustaining bridge at the Memorial Bridge connecting Portsmouth, New Hampshire to Kittery, Maine. Sensors monitoring the structural performance, as well as estuarine sensors, are installed at the test site. These sensors will be powered by a tidal turbine mounted to a floating platform attached to the Portsmouth side pier.

Strut

Traversing Directions

5

Project Objectives

The project goal is to design, fabricate, and implement an ADV traversing system for flow measurement. The project utilizes an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to create a detailed map of the inflow and wake of the tidal turbine. The bridge pier creates complex flow that cannot be characterized by previously installed instruments.

Deformed deflection model. Deflection Scale Deformation scale: 100:1

Diagram of Platform. System mounting locations shown with red arrows.

13182

Vertical Load (Top Rail)

275 N

0.5

Horizontal Load (Top Rail)

700 N

Drag on Strut

350 N

Vertical Load (Bottom Rail)

275 N

Maximum Strut Deflection

2.5 cm (0.98 in)

Horizontal Load (Bottom Rai)

1050 N

Design Table

Dimensions: 142.5” x 51” x 32” Total weight estimate: 400 Pounds Strut length: 180” Track length: 129.5” Distance between shaft centers: 48”

3

Platform at Memorial Bridge test site

Model of ADV traversing system mounted to moon pool of platform

Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)

Sub Systems

ADV Mount

Nortek Vector • 3D velocity measurements • Sampling volume diameter: 15 mm • Sampling height: 5-20 mm • Sampling rate: up to 64 Hz • Velocity range: up to 7 m/s • 1 meter cable extension

1

Rail Assembly

2

• Secure ADV to pipe, utilizing mounting depressions • Streamline ADV body, as well as extension • Cable extension with prong mount • ¾ inch extension to minimize prong deflection • HDPE mounts isolate dissimilar metals

1

Aluminum alloy base material RC70 ceramic coated finish Lightweight, alternative to steel shafting Vibration resistant Frelon GOLD lined plain bearings Self-lubricating, low maintenance 21.75 pounds each Maximum compressive loading • 4167 pounds (18541 N) • Maximum tensile loading • 1250 pounds (5562 N)

4

Fairings

Frame assembly during initial mock up

Pillow block on 20mm shaft

Upcoming Work

Driving Systems

4

Horizontal

• Streamline body to minimize drag • Reduce vortex shedding • Vortex shedding may cause uneven, cyclic loading system • Formed using acrylic sheet • 0.093 inches thick • 12 inch tall sections • Heated to working temperature and formed over mold • Clamped over strut and clipped together • Sections rotate independently to account for misaligned flow

Diagram of ADV measurement principal

2018

Strut Extension - ADV mount

Strut - ADV mount

2

3

• • • • • • • •

Nortek Vector

Design Criteria

• Mount to pre-existing floating platform without major modification • Traverse 3 meters (9.8 feet) across moon pool • Move vertically 3.3 meters (10.8 feet) from free surface to bottom of turbine • Lock into place at each measurement location • Withstand loading caused by 3 meter per second current and a 0.5 meter design wave • Safely secure instrument • Minimize ADV movement/vibration • Minimal strut deflection • Reduce vortex shedding • Streamline bodies • Survive multiple days in harsh ocean environment • Maneuverable with 2 people • No section > 100 pounds (45 kg) • Easily load/unload onto platform, UNH Vessel • Assemble on platform in less than 1 hour • Move to next measurement point in under 1 minute • Discrete measurement locations with high resolution (5 cm)

Winning Project

Undeformed deflection model using beam elements feature

Reynolds Number Drag Coefficient

Modeling • Sold Works (Beam Elements) • Mesh: 20 elements per beam • Top and bottom beam: 40 • Maximum frame deflection: 1.853 mm • Validated by simply supported beam calculations • Upper bound axial and bending stress: 1.095(107 ) Pa • Safety factor: 5.04 • Neglects shear Design • 6063 structural aluminum • Weight: 242.12 Pounds • 7 Segments • Bolted to platform I-beam via angled mounts Corrosion Considerations • Isolated dissimilar metals when possible • Galvanic potentials of dissimilar metals must be considered: • Aluminum: -.75 to -1 Volts • Galvanized (Zinc): -1 to -1.1 Volts • Stainless Steel: 0 to -0.1 Volts

Vertical

5

• Manual system • 2 marine trailer winches, located on either side • Visually aligned to proper mounting position • Locked into place by track brakes

6

• Manual system • Self tailing sailboat winch, located on top corner of frame • Line runs through sailing pulleys to bottom of strut • Must start at lowest position, winch up during measurement cycle

• Initial full assembly with all components in lab • Simulated load testing on strut, traversing testing under load • Tow tank testing at Chase, ocean engineering building • Dry run at test site without ADV • Initial flow measurements at site, finalize measurement duration • Design and implement bow and stern mounts

3” acrylic fairing around 2” nominal diameter pipe

UNH Sustainable Surf Initiative AUTHORS: Neil Mistretta Jacob Moore

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87 • 2018 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

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