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AGRARIAGORA by Ben Hovland Graduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The College of Architecture at the University of Nebraska in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture Major: Architecture Under the Supervision of Professor Tom Laging FAIA Lincoln, Nebraska May, 2012


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abstract The intrigue of any rural community is the quality of life provided by people. The “village” identity is one of extreme social cohesion. Everybody knows everybody, neighbors help neighbors and the quality of life is dependent upon the relationships between people in such close quarters; however, as a rural community begins to grow in size and population, it loses this sense of village.

life. It was a place for buying and selling goods, lawmaking, casually meeting people and exchanging ideas. Not only were the structures of the ancient agora important for such functions but just as important, if not more so, were the spaces these structures created which focus on a sequential user experience. The recent trend in contemporary architecture has, arguably, shifted away from a focus on user experience and toward an algorithmic aesthetic. The primary concern of this project will not be “architecture for architects,” but, instead will be “architecture for people.” The ancient agoras were not designed to display some profound, deeper, architectural meaning but were planned in way that highlighted a powerful user understanding. A person in an ancient agora did not have to have an extensive knowledge of architecture and planning to recognize that the space they were engaging was significant.

The unfortunate issue associated with globalization and commercialism is that these rural villages are being torn apart by cheap development and corporate infiltration. People have begun to abandon their village identities for a small taste of the metropolitan and suburban lifestyle. A community of about 10,000 to 25,000 people is too large retain a sense of village and too small to grasp the benefits of urban areas. In the design community these towns are ignored. The idea of a “community architect” is not necessarily frowned upon but is seen as a safe career path; however, when an architect acts a community leader he/she can affect more change on a smaller scale. A community architect understands the implications of built work on the community of which he/she is fully engaged. The architect becomes the user and is responsible for their design as it changes the community.

The AGRARIAGORA (“agrarian agora” translates to “rural place of assembly”) will be the contemporary counterpart to the ancient Greek marketplace. Retaining its predecessor’s values of community gathering and public interaction, the AGRARIAGORA will reassemble the stretched and distorted physical composition of a rural community. The goal of the AGRARIAGORA is to recreate the abandoned identity of a rural community while creating a new identity which reestablishes place and occasion.

In Ancient Greece the Agora was a staple to every Greek city or town and, serving as a market and meeting place, the Agora was the heart of public

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AGRARIAGORA recreating community identity Ben Hovland LEED AP


table of contents


LOSING IDENTITY -

008

What Happened to the Village? - 010 The Yankton Problem - 028 AgrariaAgora - 064

FINDING IDENTITY - 068 Wave I - 070 Wave II - 088 Wave III - 114


losing identity


what happened to the


v illage ?


“History for the Future’s sake” -Kathy K. Grow & Lewis H. Varvel

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village identities A community is defined by the relationships, social, religious, occupational, or otherwise, created by a group of people within a specific geographical location. A rural Midwestern town expresses a community ideal which has been unique throughout American history. These communities were formed almost in an Autarkical way, not by choice but by geographic isolation. Towns were formed to support the agricultural industry and were spawned in the “middle of nowhere.” Because of this remoteness, communities were forced to rely on themselves for the services they needed. By depending on their neighbors for the basic needs of their lifestyle, people formed close relationships and bonds with one another leading to the American Village identity. With little support from outside sources, Midwestern towns acted more as villages to ensure their future as a viable community. In an ever-globalizing world, with more efficient forms of transportation and communication, the village identity of a rural community is left with less dependent but important social relationships. The “farmer’s wave” given by passing motorists, block parties, weekend festivals, community news, high school sporting events etc. These communities are still places where everybody knows everybody, one’s business is never his/her own, and people are always willing to help each other out. It is important to Midwestern America that this unique social lifestyle is completely engulfed by globalization.

AGRARIAGORA A GRARIAGORA

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the downtown Midwestern rural communities usually grew from an archetypal downtown. Typically these downtowns were the center of all business within the community. Brick storefront facades lined what were most likely the only paved roads in the town. Although most Midwestern downtowns follow a very similar architectural style, each building is uniquely designed and can be recognized by the community members. Locally owned shops and businesses did not compete with larger national corporations and, not only contributed to the local economy but also strengthened the community identity. Rural downtowns

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also played host to important community events social gatherings; furthermore, this is where information, community pride, and awareness. They established a unique forum for community assembly and communication which was identifiable and more importantly a source of dignity within the community. Most of these downtowns became historic icons as the communities grew. Identified as substantial parts of the community, they have earned enough attention to garner preservation and in most cases still exist today. These rural downtowns played a significant role in the formation of each community’s identity. 15

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VILLAGE <9,000

VILLAGE

CITY

<9,000

VILLAGE 9,000>

<90,000

?

COMMUNITY 16

CITY <90,000


the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;in betweenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; community The intrigue of a small rural community is the village ideal. It does not possess the ability to provide the breadth of services that a larger urban area can provide; however, people inhabit these communities more so for the social benefits associated with the village identity. These communities are made of, primarily, locally-owned businesses and are supported by the efforts of its inhabitants. The intrigue of the city is the ability to have a vast amount of services within a respectable vicinity; however the social aspects of the city are less intimate than those of a village. Granted, intimate relationships might occur in smaller enclaves of a city but these are not relationships that can be concentrated into a forum of contextual pride. Urban areas are home, for good reason, to larger national or global companies that can be supported by the larger population. A cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population is also large enough to support its identifiable icons such as a historic downtown. As a rural community grows in population and consequently in physical size it enters a classification transition taking on aspects of both the village and the city. The community still retains characteristics of the village like identifying with unique qualities of the town; however, it also takes on aspects of an urban area like, for instance, suburban neighborhoods or national corporations. The town has a large enough population to support these larger businesses; however, it is not larger enough to support the locallyowned businesses or identifiable icons of the area. This dichotomy initiates a competition between the differing characteristics and the village intrigue begins to subside.

GLOBALIZATION AGRARIAGORA

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the site-less assembly taken in these forums could be located anywhere in America and thus the identity of the community is subdued in daily life. The village identity is no longer the staple of the community and icons become forgotten and replaced by the frozen food section. While it is important that social interaction is still taking place, the contextual interaction between a group of people in an identifiable forum leads to more progressive dialogue about the community.

The “in-between” city is at risk for being taking over by “site-less” assembly. It is unfair to say there is no community gathering in these cities. People still assemble as part of their day-to-day activities; however, in a growing village, these assemblies happen in a “siteless” forum. Big chain stores like Wal-Mart and HyVee draw people of the community to a destination but these areas possess none of the characteristics of the area of which they take site. The gathering and communication

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Norfolk, NE 23,272 People

Fremont, NE 26,397 People

Brookings, SD 22,056 People AGRARIAGORA

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Columbus, NE 22,056 People

Vermillion, SD 10,571 People

Sioux Falls, SD 153,888 People AGRARIAGORA

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Yankton, SD 14,454 People

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the yankton problem

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Currently Yankton has two city “centers,” one being the historic downtown district and the other being the stretched Highway 81 commercial and retail strip. Yankton does not have a large enough population to support both of them and as a result the Highway 81 has taken over. Because of its stretched nature, it is misguided to call it a “center;” however, it is treated as such. This is not an argument against “big-box” stores, but rather an argument that a town of this size cannot provide the support needed for a “bigbox” system and a cultural center. A city with a larger population has a better opportunity to support a commercial strip and a downtown. For example, 27th Street in Lincoln services a large part of the community while downtown Lincoln is able to thrive as the primary identity of the community. Yankton cannot afford this luxury and must make ample adjustment so that Yankton is not known for its WalMart.

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In the 1970s, Yankton built its first golf course, Hilcrest Country Club. The town began to develop residential neighborhoods along the course and two miles north of the river. Commercial and retail industries followed the residential developments by moving north along the highly trafficked Highway 81 which runs from north to south through the city. This continual growth north has stretched Yankton to almost three and half miles away from its foundation at the riverbank. This strip is home to many corporate enterprises that have monopolized several local businesses. In order to seek a more competitive market, local businesses have also followed the northward development of the city, abandoning its identity.


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A community with a stretched and spread out city center has no place of central communication or accidental gathering. The strip gives little opportunity for people to unintentionally communicate, and the identity of the community continues to be restricted to individual connotations. The chance of two people individual people meeting at a single moment in time in a three mile stretch of services is very small. A town of this size requires a common place of gathering in order to uphold the values for which it was founded. The idea of “village,” which is what makes small rural communities unique and intriguing is lost to cheap development costs. If the community retained its “village” essence, people would have the opportunity to exchange information on community happenings, community pride, business opportunities, etc., which allows the community as a whole to progress toward a more sustainable future.


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“Leap-Frogging”

N

NEW HIGH - INCOME DEVELOPMENT

1 HIGH - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

LOW - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

NEW HIGH - INCOME DEVELOPMENT

2

$ HIGH - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

LOW - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

NEW HIGH - INCOME DEVELOPMENT

3

$ HIGH - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

LOW - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

1. The Growth of Yankton started like most communities, where low-income citizens were located near the center of downtown, while high-income citizens were located its outskirts. 2. However, since most of Yankton’s residents have been established in Yankton for quite sometime, they were able to generate a higher amount of income. 3. With this new income, the citizens who lived in lower-income areas and wanted the lifestyle of its high-income counterparts, moved to newer developments further away from the city center. 4. This trend continued for longtime residents of what once was the most developed neighborhoods... 5. ... and they moved into the newest developments, even further away from the city center, leaving the low-income neighborhoods forgotten and under-maintained. 6. This results in dilapidated neighborhoods for low-income residents and further separates different social classes.

NEW HIGH - INCOME DEVELOPMENT

$

HIGH - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

4

MIDDLE- INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

LOW- INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

NEW HIGH - INCOME DEVELOPMENT

$

HIGH - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

5 MIDDLE - INCOME NEIGHBORHOOD

DILAPIDATED NEIGHBORHOOD

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Non-Residential Buildings

Residential Buildings AGRARIAGORA

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Yankton Identity

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Site-less identity


YANKTON

277 mile s

Fargo, North Dakota

s i le m 3 24

Minneapolis, Minnesota

504 miles

148 297 m mil

44

iles 7m

es

Lincoln, Nebraska

Denver, Colorado

44 Kansas City, Missouri

Chicago, Illinois


Aberdeen

186

Pierre

Rapid City

Brookings

mile

s

Sioux Falls

ile

102 m il

16 5m ile s

s

58 m

mile

es

s

301

26

AGRARIAGORA

45

Vermillion

m

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Current Population 14,454 (city) 22,438 (county) White persons, Non-Hispanic

Family Households

91.6%

Black Persons

5,476

Average Household Size

1.5%

2.30

American Indian and Alaska Native Persons

In Group Quarters

2.5% 0.5% Persons of two or more Races 1.4% Persons of Hispanic or Latino Origin 2.7% Language other than English spoken at home 6.5% High School graduates, age 25+ 87.9% Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree or Higher, age 25+ 25.6% Mean travel time to work 14.9 minutes

2,296 72% Non institutionalized 27% Total Housing Units 9,652 Vacant housing 9.1% Owner-Occupied Housing 69.0% Population in Owner-Occupied Housing 15,125 Average Household size 2.50 Renter-Occupied Housing 31.0% Population in Renter-Occupied Housing 5,017

Asian Persons

Institutionalized

Average Household size

1.84

7 6,798 6,072 5,024 4,125 3,431

1880

3,787

3,670

1890

1900

1910

46

1920

1930

1940

1950


Population Projections 2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

0% Migration

13,528

13,484

13,522

13,596

13,652

4% Migration

13,528

13,751

14,063

14,419

14,765

0.6% Annual growth

13,528

13,939

14,362

14,798

15,247

49% 6,796

51% 7,070 15,247 14,454 13,528 12,703 12,011

11,919

9,279

7,709

1960

1970

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1980

1990

2000

47

2010

2020

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85+

Loss of Youth

80-84

The graph shows a significant drop in the younger demographic of Yankton. People of this age range begin to leave after graduating high school and they take with them the identity of Yankton which they grew up with. There is an increase, however, in the middle-age demographic. This does not necessarily mean that after graduating from higher education, the youth are coming back to Yankton to start their careers but instead could be evidence of Yankton being a place to settle down and begin retirement. While this not a negative aspect of the community, it is important to be able to provide incentive for people who understand the community to remain in Yankton to share their knowledge.

75-80

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49 Age Range 40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

15-19

10--14

5--9

Under 5

-200

0

200

400

600

800

Population 1990 population

2000 population

Change 1990-2000

1000

1200


87+

Population Distribution

49-86 30-48 18-29 10-17 5-9 0-4

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U.S. HIGHWAY 81

Primary Infrastructure

Douglas Ave

S.D. HIGHWAY 50

21st Street

Penninah St

Summit Street

BROADWAY AVE

21st Street

it Wh

in g

Ferdig Dr

Burleigh St

15th Street

Dr.

8th Street

8th Street

S.D

4TH STREET 4th Street

2nd Street

50

0 Y5 WA H HIG


R-1 Single Family R-2 Single Family

Existing Land Use

R-3 Two Family R-4 Multi Family B-1 Local Business B-2 Highway Business B-3 Central Business I-1 Industrial PUD

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Market Analysis Background and Process •

Mount Marty College Market Research classes assisted in creating two different surveys that were distributed and collected from 95 downtown building and business owners, followed by the completion of 200 customer surveys. • Smaller, less detailed survey distributed to 50 service clubs members • Gathered input from the Economic Summit and from over 90 participants from the visioning summit in September 2005 • Collected and analyzed relevant primary, secondary, demographic and socioeconomic information concerning the economic potential found in the marketplace, gathered through the Yankton Economic Development office, Yankton County Comprehensive Plan, City of Yankton Comprehensive Plan, and privately purchased segmented market potential information and data including retail, economic, and leakage / surplus or supply and demand data and tapestry segmentation from ESRI. • Continued education through on-going seminars and workshops with nationally recognized speakers sponsored by District III as part of National Main Street, Iowa Main Street, International Downtown Association and Disney Institute and on-going, day-to-day information. • Information from International Shopping Center Association, National Main Street, National Retail Federation and other outside sources to keep up on trends, patterns, and continued education about retail and services throughout the country and world.

Primary Trade Area Based on analysis of employee and customer zip codes 30 mile radius with the center point at the intersection of 3rd Street and Walnut Street

Secondary Trade Area

30 miles

Primary Trade Area Secondary Trade Area

52

60 miles

The secondary trade area contains the main competition from the larger retail box and national stores throughout Yankton as well as cities such as Sioux Falls, Omaha, Sioux City, Norfolk, Nebraska, Mail order and internet sales as identified by the survey participants and business owners.


Business Owner Survey Areas That Need the Most Improvement • Better Selection of Goods • A Reasonably Priced Place to Eat with Good Food • Appearance Improvement of Storefronts

• Vacancy Filled with More Retail

Most Desired New / Expanded Businesses • • • • •

Restaurant Book Store Men’s Clothing Store Women’s Clothing Store Shoe Store for Men & Women

Key Issues to be Addressed (HyettPalma Study, Oct 2005) • Improve use of Signage and Billboards • More cooperation and collaboration needed among downtown partners including city, business and area organization • Offer appropriate business hours for customers • Create a stable force of funds for downtown management and operations

• Tie River to Downtown • Attract more Retail and a Variety of Retail • Fill Buildings • Attract our own community as Costumers

Consumer Survey Main Concerns • Vacancy in Downtown Buildings • • • •

Places to Eat Hours need to be more Convenient More Retail Lack of Historic Preservation of Buildings

• • • •

Reasonably Priced Quality Clothing for Women Men’s Clothing Shoes for Men and Women Bookstore

Most Desired New / Expanded Businesses

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Other Attractions

Parade or Festival

Eat 50% 45% % 40% 0% % % 35% 30% % 25% % % 20% 15% % 1 % 10% 5% % 0%

Shop

Museum or Exhibit

Sightseeing tour

Live Theater or Performance

Movie

Religious Service Theme Park

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Heritage Tourism

“Traveling to experience places, artifacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present.” -Cheryl Hargrove

What they want: • • • • • • • • • • •

Facilities to e open when they travel – evenings and weekends Facility easy to locate and inviting Places to eat, shop, tour, sleep Restrooms and coat room Desire nostalgia, patriotism, education Local friendly hosts who are knowledgeable and authentic Multiple reasons to visit again and again What they do not have or can get at home. Unique shopping experience and unique items Appeal to the five senses Cater to a specific audience…in other words, not to everyone Local culture to enhance the experience…local music, storytelling, cuisine… keep in mind it must fit your business

Trends • • • • • •

See less, do more Focus on wellness Alternative modes of travel.. bike, rail, boat Seeking something new Desire easy planning and easy purchase Want quality rather than quantity. They judge by the appearance of externals

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Cost of Business • • • • •

No Corporate Income Tax No Personal Property Tax No Inventory Tax No Personal Income Tax No Inheritance Tax

Other Taxes Business Real Property Tax = $2.17 per $100 assessed valuation State Sales Tax = 4% City Sales Tax = 2% Available Incentive Programs Graduated real property tax abatement for 5 years Workforce training, recruiting and development programs State of South Dakota Redi low-interest loan programs of 3% up to 20 years Electric Rates Less than $0.05/kWh for large industrial Less than $0.09/kWh for large office Lease Rates Less than $10 / sq. ft. for class A office Less than $2.50 / sq. ft. for industrial

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Housing Market Number of Single Units Built in Last 2 Years

90 Number of Multiple Units Built in Last 2 Years 13

Average Cost per Square Foot of Single Units Built in the Last 2 Years

$77.60 Average Monthly Rental for 3 Bedroom House $650.00 Average Monthly Rental for 2 Bedroom Apartment $375.00 Average Cost of Houses Sold in Last 2 Years $176,000.00

Leading Employers Avera Sacred Heart Hospital

1,000 South Dakota Human Services Center 625 Hy-Vee 403 Yankton Public Schools 402 Kolberg-Pioneer, Inc. 370 Walmart 316 Sapa Extrusions, Inc. 303 Vishay Dale Electronics 300 Yankton Medical Clinic, P.C. 290 First National Bank South Dakota 257 AGRARIAGORA

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Median Income in Yankton is $45,066 vs. $50,221 in the United States 25

Percentage

20

15

10

5

0

Under $10,000

2007 2000

60

$10,

Busin

Percentage

50 40 30 20 10 0

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting and Mining

Manufacturing

Construction

Retail Trade

Wholesale Trade 58

Information

Transportation & Warehousing and Utilities

Professional and Scientific Services

Finance, Insurance and Real estate rental & Leasing

Arts, en ment, re Educational accomm services, Health and food

Care and Social Assistance


000 - 14,999

Yankton

Yankton County

$15,000 - 24,999

South Dakota

$25,000- 34,999

United States

$35,000- 49,999

Income Distribution

$50,000- 74,999

Over $75,0

ness Growth

Yankton County has more than the national average manufacturing employment concentration

2.5x

Public administrantertaintion creation, modation Other Services, services except public administration

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Environment

Oak Tree

Cottonwood

Average Daily Temperature (Summer)

74°f Average Daily Temperature (Winter) 13°f Average Annual Rainfall 24“ Average Annual Snowfall 40” Average Annual Wind Speed 12mph Average Annual Number of Sunny or Partly Sunny Days 211 days

Pasque flower

Coyote 8” MOST PRECIPITATION IN A DAY

AVG. PRECIPITATION

6” 4” 2” 0”

JAN

FEB

MAR

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

60

JULY

AUG

SEPT

OCT

NOV

DEC


Land Forms

HIGHEST POINT

BLU FFS LOWLANDS MISSOURI RIVER

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_Yanktonai Indians sign peace treaty to restrict their land area and cede 2.2 million acres of the Dakotas to the United States

1804

1825

_Dakota Territory organized. _Yankton territorial Capital. _Weekly Dakotan Founded

1859

_First City Hall built _Sacred Heart Monastery relocates to Yankton

_Last public hanging held

1883

1882

_Lawrence Welk gives his first Yankton performance

_Gurney Seed and Nursery Co. moves to Yankton

_City of Yankton purchases Meridian Bridge from stockholders

1943

1947

_WNAX Erects World’s Tallest Transmitter Tower

62

1897

1893

_South Dakota becomes a state

_Yankton Municipal Airport Opens

1933

_Santee Sioux Uprising. _Yankton Stockade Built _Territorial Capital Built

1889

1887

_Yankton loses territorial capitol

1927

1861

_Village of Yankton Was Surveyed

_Lewis and Clark’s expedition reaches Yankton. Council with the Yanktonai Sioux near Gavin’s Point. Pierre Dorian stays behind to live with Native Americans.

1862

_Sacred Heart Hospital opens

_Yankton adopts City Manager form of Government _KYNT goes on the air

1952

_Groundbreaking for Gavin’s Point Dam

1955


_Yankton Swells during Black Hills Gold Rush. _Yankton School District organizes _Weekly Dakotan becomes a daily

_City of Yankton is Incorporated

1873

1869

1918

_Rosebud Land Rush floods Yankton with more than 57,000 claimants

_Yankton College Closes _First Riverboat Days held

1922

1924

_Mount Marty Academy Opens _WNAX goes on air

_Yankton Celebrates 150th Anniversary _Missouri River Flooding

_Discovery Bridge dedicated

2008

1984

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_Meridian Bridge Opens

1988

1957 _Gavin’s Point Dam opens _Yankton named “All-American City”

_The Great Flood of 1881 disrupts almost all of Yankton downtown life _Yankton College Founded

_Jack McCall, the man who shot Wild Bill Hickok, is hung in Yankton.

1904

1881

1879

_Global influenza epidemic impacts Yankton _Rhine Creek renamed Marne Creek

_President Theodore Roosevelt speaks in Yankton.

1903

1877

1875

_Gen George Custer and 7th Calvary stop at Yankton _Railroad service Arrives in Yankton

_The Dakota Hospital for the Insane opens

_Yankton Federal Prison Camp opens

2010

2011

_Matt Michaels elected Lieutenant Governor

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AGRARIAGORA

AGRARIAN

AGORA

RURAL RUSTIC FARMLAND AGRICULTURAL “PERSON WHO FAVORS THE EQUAL DIVISION OF LANDED PROPERTY AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL GROUPS.”

ANCIENT GREECE COMMUNITY GATHERING PLACE MARKET THE AGORA WAS AN OPEN PLACE OF ASSEMBLY FOR POLITICS, MARKETS AND THE SHARING OF IDEAS IN ANCIENT GREEK CITYSTATES.

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ASSEMBLY

community pride

collaboration

ideas

involvement

REDISTRIBUTION RED DISTRIB RIBU BU UTION U TION

awareness

relationships

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IDENTITY

LEWIS & CLARK LAKE

YANKTON

Lewis and Clark Lake is an artificial reservoir created by Gavin’s Point Dam, the last dam on the Missouri River. It is, in itself a regional icon and provides various recreational activities. The lake draws many tourists to the area; however, there is little incentive for these tourists to come into Yankton. If Yankton used this valuable resource as a means to increase tourism into the town, the community would benefit economically as well as culturally. As of now, there is little connection from the town to the lake and if anybody is visiting the area to camp, boat, fish etc., they have few reasons to visit the community.

WAVE I Make Connection

In the first Wave of attacking this problem, Yankton will make a stronger connection to its successful counterpart, Lewis & Clark Lake. By making this connection, Yankton and Lewis & Clark will become one enterprise, feeding off each other’s resources. A stretch of public park will move along the Missouri River starting in downtown Yankton and ending in the South Dakota State Campgrounds at the foot of Gavin’s Point Dam. This will provide more public riverfront recreational property as well increase agritourism as the park would be bordered on the other side by local farm lands. Another connection is made by upgrading the Yankton’s primary vehicular access, Highway 52. By providing a stretch of walking and biking trails, people visiting the lake are given a direct route to downtown Yankton. 66


WAVE II

Increase appeal

After increasing people traffic to the town by using Yankton’s recreational resources, the city will also have to improve its own identity. Wave Two will focus on redeveloping Yankton’s downtown district. The area has in most instances has been abandoned even though it is the source of Yankton’s Identity. The new district plan will be stimulated by infecting the area with residential developments to support new retail and commercial properties. It will work with the existing Historic District to establish a lost sense of place, using the icons of the community as incentive for redevelopment. The redevelopment will begin to reveal these icons as stables to the community, respecting their value to the town.

WAVE III

In order for the problem to be attacked properly, this project will require a catalyst for development. Promote Development Wave Three will consist of the design of the AGRARIAGORA, a central gathering place for the community. The AGRARIAGORA will pay homage to the existing icons while creating one of its own. The AGRARIAGORA will create occasion and will not be about the architecture itself but rather what the social implications that the architecture imposes. It is the occasion created by architecture which architects should strive for. The AGRARIAGORA will be an extreme mixed-use block that will have a variety of services which will give reason for all the people of the community to come and gather in a place of occasions.

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finding identity


take advantage of existing icons to strengthen identity


WAVE I


MASTERPLAN Slowing City Growth

Farmland sold for development

More tax burden

Goal 1 Boundary Create an Agricultural Land taxed on market assessed value

More economically viable to sell land

Highest Market Value

Includes current value + development rights

FARMLAND TAXATION

Land taxed on current assessed value

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Value Taxingâ&#x20AC;?

Less tax burden

More economically viable to continue farming

Farmland remains undeveloped

72 72


Goal 2 Refocus Development Inward

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Goal 3

Reconnect the City to the Missouri River The Historic Downtown District and the Missouri River are to very important pieces of culture of Yankton but the physical separation between the two only lessens the economic opportunity of the area.

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Goal 4

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Existing Lewis and Clark Lake Area

S.D. HIGHWAY 50

LEWIS & CLARK LAKE

766

N


U.S. HIGHWAY 81 S.D. HIGHWAY 52

M

AGRARIAGORA

I

O SS

U

0

RI

R

IV

ER

0.5 77

1

miles

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Yankton Growth Options

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Connecting to the Lake

HIGHWAY 52 CORRIDOR

RIVER WALK

AGRARIAGORA A AG GRA AR RIAGOR OR RA A

79

hovland2012


Conceptual Masterplan N

80


HIGHWAY 52 CORRIDOR

MERIDIAN MUSEUM

RIVER WALK

AGRARIAGORA

81

hovland2012


Conceptual Highway Corridor

82


Establishes a park-infused infrastructure to the lake that highlights important features of both the city and the lake, which are: its rich agricultural heritage, its connection to the environment, and its unique bluff formations.

AGRARIAGORA

83

hovland2012


Conceptual River Walk

84


Providing a linear park that synthesizes the environmental recreational aspects of the local water system to the city of Yankton

AGRARIAGORA

85

hovland2012


86


Conceptual Bridge Museum

Since the Meridian Bridge has been decommissioned, the city has been lost on what to do with the existing iconic structure. By providing a museum on the existing structure, the city can benefit on the reuse of the bridge by connecting its iconic image to the city of Yankton

AGRARIAGORA A GRARIAGO ORA

87

hovland2012


re-organize existing areas to make development more viable


WAVE II


Mount Marty College

Missouri River

90


D o wn to wn Yank ton

AGRARIAGORA

91

hovland2012


Bishop Marty Chapel

Mount Marty College

H I S T O R I C

Discovery Bridge vehicular

Riverside Park

Meridian Bridge pedestrian

92

M I S S O U R I

R I V E R


Yankton Riverfront

3 R D

S T R E E T

Historic Brewery Stack

AY 81 US HIGHW Y AVE BROADWA

Grain Elevators

4TH

STRE

ET SD H

IGHW AY 5 2

Water Treatment

AGRARIAGORA

93

hovland2012


District plan Design Concepts Density

Activity Grouping

Character

Service Grouping

Priority

Activity Grouping

Hierarchy

Separated Flow

94

Landform Response


Sequential Flow

Orientation

Flexibility

Bridge Interaction

Activate Street

Deactivate Car

1HUDQ3Q@EjB

AGRARIAGORA

People Grouping

95

hovland2012


Existing Downtown

Connect Historic Downtown to River and Park 96


Infrastructure Barriers

Remove 2nd Street to Create Super Blocks AGRARIAGORA

97

hovland2012


98


Downtown District Plan N AGRARIAGORA

99

hovland2012


100


Downtown District Plan

Transverse Section

Longitudinal Section AGRARIAGORA

101

hovland2012


Stretched Street-scapes

Transverse Pedestrian Circulation

102


Bridge Interaction

AGRARIAGORA

103

hovland2012


104


COMMERCIAL

SPORTS FIELD

RESIDENTIAL SERVICE

RESIDENTIAL

RETAIL

AGRARIAGORA

105

hovland2012


RESIDENTIAL BLOCKS

GROCERY LUMBER YARD HARDWARE CAFE RESTAURANT

REVEALING THE BRIDGE

106

SPORTS COMPLEX CLOTHING ARTS & CRAFTS STORE GREEN SPACE AUTO SERVICE


INTEGRATED SPORTS FIELD

FRAMING THE BRIDGE

AGRARIAGORA

107

hovland2012


108


AGRARIAGORA

109

hovland2012


B

110


BRIDGE-BUILDING-BOAT

AGRARIAGORA

111

hovland2012


Physical Model


provide a contextual forum for community communication


WAVE III


Creating Identifiable Networks

YANKTON

LEWIS & CLARK LAKE

116


AGRARIAGORA

117

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designing event and occassion

118


AGRARIAGORA

119

hovland2012


social gathering under iconic context

120 112 20


architecture as a gameboard

AGRARIAGORA A GRARIAGORA

121 12 21

h ho hovland2012 ovl vlan and an nd20 2012 12 2


providing community information on a large scale

122


architecture as media AGRARIAGORA

123

hovland2012


combining both natural and built contextual elements as a progression toward the icon

124


architecture as extension

AGRARIAGORA

125

hovland2012


activity taking place within the bounds of new and old identities

126


architecture as a frame

AGRARIAGORA

127

hovland2012


honoring the history of the community while educating for the future of the community

128


architecture as pedagogue

AGRARIAGORA

129

hovland2012


AGORA Block

existing site

Historic Downtown

130

relocated program


primary access avenues

AGRARIAGORA

131

create a retail loop

hovland2012


FITNESS CENTER

SPA

SPORTS

FISHIN HUNTING

CONVENTION CENTER SWIMMING POOL

OUTDOOR SUPPLY STORE

RETAIL

HOTEL

RETAIL

RETAIL RETAIL

BO

POOL/ ICE RINK

FINE DINING RESTAURANT

BAR/ LOUNGE

CAFE

PLAZA RETAIL FARMER’S MARKET

RETAIL

ROOF PARK RETAIL BAR/ PUB

BRIDGE MUSEUM

BRIDGE GARDEN

HARBOR

RESTAURANT

AMPHITHETER

132

S.D. STATE PARKS & REC. HQ


NG

CAMPING

OOKSTORE

AGORA block programming

LIBRARY

ENGINEERING

PLANNING OFFICE

CITY HALL CITY MANAGER

FINANCES

PARKS & REC. HOUSING

DAYCARE

AGRARIAGORA

133

hovland2012


site-less forum

contextual forum

conceptual AGORA block

PIERPARK

sequential section


YANKTONPLAZA O


Yankton Community Cultural Center

136 13 36


contextual forum

AGRARIAGORA A GRARIAGORA

137 113 37

h hovl ho hovland2012 ovvllan and20 2012 12


138 113 38


media facade

AGRARIAGORA

139

hovl hovland2012 lan and d2012


river and bridge engagement

140


AGRARIAGORA

141

hovland2012


142


green roof

AGRARIAGORA

143

hovland2012


144


AGRARIAGORA

145

hovland2012


lobby

history exhibit 146


grand gallery

AGRARIAGORA

bridge exhibit 147

hovland2012


auditorium

reception hall 148


auditorium flexibility

AGRARIAGORA

149

hovland2012


HISTORY EXHIBIT

CIRCULATION

INDUSTRIAL EXHIBIT

LOBBY

AUDITORIUM

GRAND GALLERY

150

EDUCATION


RESTAURANT

SUPPORT

AGRARIAGORA

151

hovland2012


152


AGRARIAGORA

153

hovland2012


154


AGRARIAGORA

155

hovland2012


156


AGRARIAGORA

157

hovland2012


158


AGRARIAGORA

159

hovland2012


Physical Model


162


AGRARIAGORA

163

hovland2012


sources Bacon, Edmund N. Design of Cities. MIT, 1969. Print. Barry, Ronda. Economic/ Market Analysis: Downtown Yankton, South Dakota. Yankton, SD, 2006. Print. “City of Yankton.” City of Yankton. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. <http://www. cityofyankton.org/>. Crandall, Terrance. Southeast Yankton Riverfront Redevelopment Project: A National Brownfields Assessment Demonstration Pilot Proposal. Comp. City of Yankton. Yankton, SD, 2001. Print. Grow, Kathy K., and Lois H. Varvel. The Bridge We Built: The Story of Yankton’s Meridian Bridge. Yankton, SD: Vintage Point, 2001. Print. Grow, Kathy K., and Lois H. Varvel. Yankton, South Dakota in Vintage Postcards. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2004. Print. Lynch, Kevin. Good City Form. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT, 2001. Print. Nielson, Jennifer L. “Yankton’s History - The River City.” Www.cityofyankton. org (2011). Print. Shukert, Crose Gardner, The Yankton Plan: A Comprehensive Plan for Yankton, South Dakota, RDG, November, 2003 Yankton Press & Dakotan City of Yankton www.yanktonsd.com www.yanktonedc.com www.historicdowntownyankton.com Yankton Area Progressive Growth Yankton Area Chamber of Commerce Planning and Development District III 164


acknowledgements Mentor: Tom Laging FAIA Thank you for your wisdom and allowing and for trusting me to complete my work Special Thanks to Taylor Nielsen Ricky Hauptman Wayne Drummond Dave Mingo Joe Morrow Jim Schramm Cena Bernard Kyle Nickolite

I could not have conquered this endeavor without the support of my family. I could never fully express my gratitude toward my mother and father for helping me through the rough times throughout the thesis process and my college career. Thank you.

AGRARIAGORA

165

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dedication

This project is dedicated to my long time friend and role model MASON VIG. Mason was the very first person I met in Yankton; consequently when I think of Yankton, I think of the good times I shared with Mason. As the first relationship I formed in the community that I have focused this project, Mason and my friendship will always be a enormous part of my life. I miss you buddy. You are the reason I am the person I am today. Your, fellow ninja turtle, Ben

AgrariAgora: Recreating Community Identity  

2012 Master of Architecture Thesis

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