ISSUE NO 81, DECEMBER 2006
BEN pina § This edition brings you a report of BFD's African Honey Trade Workshop that has just taken place in the potential for apiculture to Uganda. Motivation to run this event arises from our perception that to Africa, is not yet being alleviation hence and poverty bring significant economic development and knowledge to harvest means have the in Africa of Thousands achieved. poor beekeeper-farmers
honey from bees, yet lack access to reliable markets.
That the Workshop took place depended upon two crucial factors: sponsors with vision who were to provide the willing to provide funds for it to happen, and local partner organisations willing essential logistic support to ensure it happened well. More details on pages 3, 4 and 9.
While they have problems in marketing their honey, beekeepers in most of sub-Saharan Africa are in the highly enviable situation of having honey bee populations that are free from introduced diseases and predators. This is not the case in most of the world, where beekeepers keeping Apis mellifera and predators. And here (the western honey bee) have to contend with a range of ‘new’ diseases comes another one Nosema ceranae read about it on page 6. Beekeepers in Bermuda (page 7) know all about exotic problems - their bees are pestered by introduced toads and ants but these
hassles seem minor compared to their main issue nowadays lack of land and forage for bees. in Afghanistan (page 12) lack the support they Meanwhile, for quite different reasons, beekeepers the is type of activity that can help the rural economy. just need, while it is clear that beekeeping Many good activities are underway around the beekeeping world: we hope you enjoy discovering more news of them in this edition!
Bees far Develupnienl! Trade Workshop open!
Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD, Co-ordinator Helen Jackson BSc Publisher Beesfor Development with readers in more than 130 countries
African Honey Trade Workshop
Zoom in on Bermuda
Beekeeping in Cabinda
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mai pictere Participants from t4 countries at BID's African Haney Trade Workshop lefi,
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AFRICAN HONEY TRADE WORKSHOP
AFRICAN HONEY TRADE WORKSHOP Over one hundred participants from fourteen countries attended the African Honey Trade Workshop that took place at Seeta, near Kampala, Uganda in
October. For four days African honey producing and trading businesses considered challenges that face honey trade in Africa. Bees for Development organised the Workshop in partnership with Uganda's Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries (MAAIF)
and Uganda's national beekeepers organisation TUNADO.
The need for development of honey trade towards poverty alleviation was emphasised by The Honourable First Lady of Uganda, Mrs Janet Museveni MP who graciously opened the Workshop. It was encouraging for the Workshop to receive such high-level support, demonstrating that apiculture is recognised as a mainstream economic opportunity with Significant potential. The Workshop was featured on Uganda news media.
The principal workshop sponsor was Rowse Honey Ltd and it was their Support and foresight that made the Workshop possible. Additional Sponsors were the DFID Business Link Challenge Fund, and the National jcultural Advisory Service of Uganda.
Bees/or Development Journal
Honey export For those who plan to export, Peter Marshall from the Workshop sponsors, Rowse Honey Ltd., presented the company's expectations fram any honey business wanting to supply Rowse. He emphasised the skills required of traders, from being good communicators to meeting EU legislation to enable traceability of every drum of honey. Peter explained that Rowse
Honey markets two categories of honey: blended and speciality. Speciality honeys are those of specific floral (e.g. Acacia, Citrus, sunflower) or geographical origin (e.g. Greek mountain honey), and those with special certification such as organic or fairly traded.
African honey, sold as a generic blended honey, is unlikely to compete on price with honey from major exporting countries like China and Argentina. Production systems, distribution and handling in Africa are not as efficient or streamlined as in major exporting countries. This is because African honey is produced at household level by thousands of small and scattered producers. Costs of distribution and supply chain management mean that African honey can compete only as a speciality honey. This is not bad news: honey from Africa is special and should be valued and traded as such. For example, Tropical Forest Products Ltd, UK company, sells Zambian honey in the UK, explaining to consumers how the honey is produced in bark hives hung high in trees, and describing the skill involved in a
harvesting the honey from these precariously placed hives.
aims of the Workshop were: to engage with experts on topics relevant to increasing trade in African
honey to formalise the emergent honey trade forum as a vehicle to promote
Presentations therefore covered export quality criteria; the requirements of honey buyers; trends in regional and international honey markets; organic, fairtrade and EU certification, and
supply chain management.
Sell locally or aim for export?
Many speakers reminded the Workshop that export is not always the
best idea. The domestic and regional honey markets are currently under-
saturated in countries such as Kenya and Uganda, where urban
supermarkets, hotels and other retail outlets provide opportunities for honey
sales. The advantages of selling locally include:
+ lower marketing and transaction costs
less stringent quality criteria
DJeypel in ence
Producer groups that are certified according to criteria set by the Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International Association (FLO) may sell honey labelled with the FLO logo. Rowse Honey Ltd is looking for FLO-certified African honey, because this is an important way to increase the marketability of honey. Another EU-based honey buyer at the Workshop was Maya Fair Trade, a Belgian ethical-trading company, selling only FLO-certified honey, but yet to find a source in Africa. a
Fairtrade certification Day 2 was dedicated to exploring fairtrade certification. The presentations and discussions revealed that for beekeeper groups to achieve FLO
certification is not straightforward. This is because FLO standards do not
The main issue is for the producer group to be governed by a business model based on calculating the profit margins of different marketing
apply in situations where a trader buys honey from individual beekeepers or small, informal groups. This business model cannot be FLO certified. FLO certification can be achieved only when beekeepers are organised into forrnal, democratic producer associations. This is achieved, uniquely in Africa, by North Western Bee Products in Zambia. To achieve this level of organisation requires considerable input, support and capacity building, and FLO certification can only become cost effective for a producer group if their profit margins will cover the cost of annual certification. Only a large association, like NWBP with 6,500 members, is able to enter into
In summary, it is important for any honey business to know the market and make a rational decision about the markets for which to aim. Statistics for trade in Africa - even the formal trade are difficult to obtain, but
An example of an enterprise with social conscience that does not fit the FLO certifiable business model is Bee Natural Products in Uganda. The company is buying honey from individual beekeepers and small informal
less stringent certification requirements + easier to sell without any special marketing approach * fewer consequences
supplies are erratic
* small volumes are acceptable
honey anecdotal evidence suggests that domestic demand for local honey is there is no need to increasing and sales are rising. For many producers think of export.
groups, and investing in good producer-buyer relations, including capacity building, input provision and training, but the model is non-certifiable according to existing standards.
AFRICAN HONEY TRADE WORKSHOP
Trade in African honey brings economic benefits
Organic certification is another way to add value to African honey and create a special product. Unlike FLO certification, there are several organic
to the rural poor
Standards. For honey to be sold as organic within the EU, it must comply with EU organic standards that have been created for European beekeeping, and may be difficult to apply in Africa. This area requires dialogue between European certifiers and African beekeepers - to understand what an appropriate application of organic standards can look like. For example,
most organic standards of European origin call for a map of the apiary. In an African context, this is almost impossible, as hundreds of local-style hives are placed in trees and forests over many hectares of land. Another
example is the eating of bee brood: this is common in some societies as it is recognised as a food source, while organic standards call for no destruction of brood. Interestingly on this point, Ulrich Broker of APICON, Germany, explained that the eating of brood would probably be acceptable
The FLO fairtrade standard refers to
a number of issues. The producers receive a minimum price that is above the world market price (currently US$1.8-1.95 per kg), and with the premium to be spent on social development projects. The FLO emphasis is to support a process of
producer empowerment and this is manifested through the establishment of democratic farmer organisations. In fact, African honey is rarely produced by farmers who are organised and empowered in this way: nevertheless Bees for Development Delieves that African honey is a highly ethical product with very
important pro-poor benefits. These are:
Honey is harvested by some of the poorest and most vulnerable households, and sales bring income into their homes, and is spent on necessities such as school fees and medicine
to organic certifiers as long is it is consumed for nutritional reasons and not commercial reasons, which provided an interesting insight into the
Beekeeping is accessible to the poor as there are no high start-up costs. This means that beekeeping can be without the risk of debt
organic philosophy. Another organic specialist, Haike Rieks, from EPOPA, Netherlands explained that organic standards in an African context can be misinterpreted. For example, she had known African certifiers disqualify a producer due to their proximity to heavy traffic. in fact, the road saw less than 20 cars each hour, which by local standards was heavy relative to the meaning of the European standard.
Beekeeping is undertaken by the young and old, men and women: iS a gender inclusive activity
Beekeepers produce products (honey and beeswax) that require little further processing. Therefore, they should capture relatively more the end value of the final product. *
Special African honey rT
Honey has multiple market opportunities. If an export market collapses, people can still sell or use the product within towns and villages at home, or eat it. This is unlike other commodities such as coffee or vanilla.
focussed on certification and meeting standards, and perhaps lose sight of
the real situation.
While FLO and organic certification are difficult to
achieve, the reasons
are not necessarily that the honey trade is
unethical, or that honey is contaminated with
chemicals. On the contrary, both these labels, even if achieved,
undersell the special qualities of African honey. The Workshop learnt that Tropical Forest Products Ltd sells Zambia honey to a highly prestigious retailer on the merits of high quality alone: it is the story of the Zambian honey that features on the attractive packaging, rather than the FLO or organic labels (even though the honey is fully certified).
What does this tell us?
More ecological than ‘just' organic! An organic certificate, if achieved, tells only a fragment of the story about the environmental benefits of African beekeeping. This is why:
Bees are indigenous and a natural component of the jocal ecosystem, and they contribute to biodiversity through pollination.
in most of Africa are disease free, which means that no medicines are used to maintain bee health - quite apart from the fact that poor people could not anyway afford them.
Beekeeping causes no disturbance to the natural environment. Compare this to a tea estate, which even if certified organic, has involved replacement of natural vegetation with an imported monoculture.
Beekeeping creates an economic incentive for rural African people to conserve natural vegetation. This is good news. imploring people to conserve forests for non-tangible benefits is usually a non-starter. Compare this with earning an income, through beekeeping, from natural forest ecosystems.
AFRICAN HONEY TRADE WORKSHOP
Acknowledgements Bees for Development would like to thank Rowse Honey Ltd, UK, the DFID/Business Link Challenge Fund, UK and NAADS Uganda for their
sponsorship of the African Honey Trade Workshop. We acknowledge also the kind permission given by FLO International eV to use information provided in this article. See more at www
Dict. (ROWSE) Gaienge und
The idea to create an association for Afrian honey traders first arose at Bees for Development’s First African Honey Trade Workshop, held in Dublin in 2005, and was progressed further at this Workshop. African honey producer groups and traders are confident that through cooperation and collaboration, some of the challenges facing their honey The main aim of the emergent° businesses will be overcome. association, named Apitrade Africa, is to promote African honey |
Honey is wonderful
Here at Bees for Development we do not know of any other commodity with international market value that can be more ecologically beneficial than honey, more natural and with more pro-poor credentials, with
implications for thousands of the most vulnerable households in Africa.
‘airtrade honey :
During the 1970s, the local government of Oaxaca State in southeastern Mexico trained farmers, mostly indigenous people, in beekeeping to help them to generate some income and so to make their way out of poverty. However, the only buyers they had for their honey were coyotes unscrupulous intermediaries who paid very
widely, break down barriers hindering access to global markets, and ultimately unlock the potential of the apiculture industry for the good of poor people in Africa. A Task Force of 12 people/organisations (including BfD) was elected and an internet-based discussion group is underway. The plan is for ApiTrade Africa to make its first public appearance at the Apimondia Congress in Melbourne 2007.
Sales volumes of fairtrade-certified honey per country in 2004/2005 in MT 2004
little, or nothing at all.
At the end of the 1980s, some of the producers formed an unofficial union, which eventually became the Miel Flor de Campaniiia Cooperative. In the nineties, they became FLO-certified and were able to find markets for their products by selling without intermediaries. Since then, Flor de Campanilla has built an
enterprise which sells 60 tonnes of honey a year to international in buyers. Flor de Campanilla is one of the 13 honey co-operatives in For these and others Fairtrade-certified. Mexico that are currently Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Zambia, Fairtrade has opened up opportunities in a difficult market environment.
Honey is not traded on the stock exchange. The price depends on “arious production costs, different climate and vegetation zones, and e yield per bee colony. There Number of certified have been fierce price battles on the market for honey that resulted falfirade honey producer in beekeepers being hardly able
groups per country
to live from their income on the
conventional market. In this economic environment, Fairtrade guarantees stability for
honey producers through a Minimum Price. It allows producers to cover their costs and contributes to more security for the beekeepers and their
Bees for Development is committed to helping beekeepers in We are developing countries find markets for their products. and between groups contacts to producer forge endeavouring with significant a If group producer you represent potential buyers. volumes of honey or beeswax for sale, then do contact us.
More information The Proceedings of the First Workshop in this series, held in Dublin in August 2005 are available - see page 14. The Proceedings of this second Workshop and details about ApiTrade Africa will be posted at the Bees/or Development website shortly www. beesfordevelopment.org
NOSEMA CERANAE A NEW THREAT TO APIS MELLFERA HONEY BEES
Acknowledgements thank the EU (projects Pollinator Parasites: QLK5-CT2002-00741, and BeeShop: FOOD-CT-2006-022568} |
and the Institute of Apiculture (Robert S Pickard) for financial support of our work on the genetics of bee
Robert Paxton, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast. UK
Nosema is considered one of the most
prevalent and economically damaging of honey bee diseases. Yet it often goes unnoticed
(Microspora, Nosematidae), morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite
because the causative agent, a microsporidium, is microscopic in size and therefore invisible to the naked eye, and because the disease rarely leads to the death of a diseased colony. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the great German bee scientist Zander first described Nosema apis as ‘the microsporidium responsible for Nosema disease’. Subsequently, all reports of microsporidia in honey bees, in both the western hive bee Apis mellifera and the
eastern hive bee Apis cerana, were attributed to
Disturbing developments In 1995, Professor Ingemar Fries of the Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala and an expert on Nosema in bees, visited China where he described a new microsporidium, Nosema ceranaeé, in indigenous honey bees Apis cerana (Fries et al. 1996). The differences between the two microsporidia, Nosema apis and Nosema
ceranae, \e in their ultrastructure and genetics (see Fries ef a/ 2006). Though Professor Fries subsequently demonstrated in experiments that Nosema ceranae |s infective for the western honey bee, little more was made of the observations until the spring of 2005, when was contacted by Dr Dinh Quyet Tam of the Bee Research and Development Centre (BRDC) in |
Hanoi, Vietnam, whose honey hees (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera) were suffering from Nosema disease. Julia Klee and Andrea Besana, working with me at Queen's University, Belfast, then developed a rapid and accurate molecular genetic detection system to differentiate
Nosema apis from Nosema ceranae and found the Vietnamese honey bees to be infected exclusively with Nosema ceranae. In summer
2005, a group of Taiwanese researchers also found Nosema ceranae in Taiwanese Apis mellifera (Huang et a/ 2006). It might have been anticipated that the western honey bee would acquire Nosema ceranae if kept in Asia, where Apis cerana and its parasite Nosema
ceranae are endemic.
A group of bee pathologists in Spain, led by Dr Mariano Higes, subsequently discovered Nosema ceranae to be widespread in Spanish honey bees Apis mellifera, as of 2005 (Higes ef a/ 2006), indicating that the parasite had moved out of Asia. Dr Higes' group have subsequently reported the disease in France, Germany and Switzerland (2nd EurBee Conference, Prague, September 2006). More worryingly still has been the massive colony loss in Spain over the
Feng, F., Silva, A. d., Slemenda, S. B. & J. (1996) Nosema ceranaeé n. sp.
of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae). European Journal of Protistology 32, 356-365.
Fries, |. Martin R., Meana, A., Garcia-Palencia P &
Higes, M. (2006) Natural infections of Noserna ceranae in European honey bees. Journal of Apicuttural Research. In press.
winter of 2005-2006, some of which have been linked to Nosema disease.
Given the potential threat posed to beekeeping by Nosema ceranae, we contacted bee Scientists and government agencies across the world for samples of Nosema, both old and new, that Julia and Andrea analysed using their genetic marker system. Our results have been
submitted to the Journal of Invertebrate
Pathology for peer-reviewed publication. In short, we demonstrate that Nosema ceranae probably jumped host from Apis cerana to Apis it
Huang, W.-F., Jiang, J.-H., Chen, Y.-W., Wang, C.-H. (2006) A Nosema ceranae isolate from the honey bee
Apis mellifera. Apidologie. In press. Klee,
Besana, A. M., Genersch, E., Gisder, S.,
M., Kryger, P, Message, D., Hatjina, F., Korpela, S., Fries, |. & Paxton, R. J. (2006) Widespread dispersal of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. Under review.
America, the Caribbean, across Europe (from south to north and west to east) and Asia. Only on the islands of Ireland and New Zealand have we looked but found only Nosema apis. We lack samples from Africa, Australia and the UK to State anything about those locations. However, given its rate of spread and occurrence even on isolated islands of the Danish archipelago, it is quite possible that Nosema ceranae is, or will soon be, spread worldwide.
Warning for beekeepers The implications for beekeeping with the western honey bee Apis mellifera are profound. First, we need to understand how virulent Nosema ceranae Is in its new host Apis mellifera. Currently, there is a correlation between Nosema ceranae and colony mortality, but this does not of course mean that Nosema ceranae was the cause of the colony mortality. Other factors such as Varroa mites or pesticide misuse could account for the Spanish colony losses, and Nosema ceranae might have then multiplied in the dying colonies. There may however be a synergistic relationship between Nosema ceranae and other factors, leading to increased colony mortality. Studies are needed on how to control Nosema ceranae, if it proves to be highly virulent. Dr Higes' group are looking into some of these issues; more needs to be done now. hope the relevant authorities |
Nanetti, A., Tam, D. Q., Chinh, T. X., Puerta, F., Ruz,
spread remarkably rapidly. It is found nowadays in the western honey bee in North and South
and beekeepers take note. Forewarned is forearmed.
Europe. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 92, 93-95.
Wide ranging analysis
mellifera within the last decade and that
Higes, M., Martin, R. & Meana, A. (2006) Nosema ceranae, new microsporidian parasite in honey bees
Everything for the Beekeeper!
ZOOM IN ON BERMUDA
O GULF OF MEXIC
Many people consider incorrectly that Bermuda is part of the Caribbean. In fact, it is 1,200 km northeast of the Bahamas: the closest land is Cape Hatteras in
Population: 65,773 inhabitants. The islands were first colonised in 1609 when a hurricane forced settlers bound for Virginia in the USA to
1953 in imported nursery stock. This ant is now island-wide, though its distribution is patchy. Occasionally bee yards are seriously infested and colonies may suffer considerably from ant robbing.
Size: Seven main islands all connected by bridges form 53.3 km?.
North Carolina, USA, 960 km west-northwest. The Gulf Stream passes near Bermuda and moderates the climate to subtropical: temperatures rarely exceed 32°C. The hurricane season is from June to November.
Agriculture: Only 20% of the land is arable and agriculture is limited. Products are bananas, Citrus, dairy products, flowers, vegetables and iey.
Beekeeping Honey bees were introduced into Bermuda in 1616. They were sent by Sir Nathaniel Rich from the UK to his brother, Robert Rich. Honey bees were not imported into the American colonies until six years later. There are no records indicating when frame hives were first imported to It is likely this was soon after their invention in 1852 because of the close commercial ties with the USA and UK. In recent decades virtually all Bermuda's honey bees have been kept in frame
hives. The long-term future for beekeeping in Bermuda is not bright. Undeveloped and cultivated land is quickly disappearing. Unfortunately for the bees, nectar-producing plants are less abundant in artificial landscapes. It is becoming increasingly difficult for beekeepers to find
The Bermuda Beekeepers’ Association (BBA) was formed in 1949. Today, most of the island's beekeepers belong to BBA and attend bimonthly meetings. In 1973 DAF offered a beginners course and 15 new
beekeepers were initiated. BBA has a permanent display including an observation hive at the Bermuda Aquarium, Museum and Zoo.
Honey production One colony can produce up to 170 kg of honey. Local folklore says a teaspoon of Bermuda honey taken with tea is a powerful aphrodisiac.
There are two honey flows a year, minor in June-July and major in September-October. In 2003, Hurricane Fabian caused substantial
damage to the focal honey industry, just at the start of the September honey flow. After it, no flowers were left from which bees could gather nectar. The effects of a hurricane linger for years while the vegetation recovers. In 1987 when Hurricane Emily swept over the island, the main honey flow from Schinus sp. Brazilian pepper tree, was interrupted and approximately 30% of the island's vegetation destroyed. The annual honey crop was reduced by over 50%. References
suitable sites for their hives.
Bermuda Online multi-national: www.bermuda-online.org
HILLBURN, D. J. An Historical Look at Beekeeping in Bermuda. Department of Agriculture & Fisheries. Unpublished report.
exports of honey and beeswax were in 1662 with small intities sent to the Caribbean and American colonies.
1988 Caroldey Douglas was the first beekeeper bottling her honey to
be sold as souvenirs to tourists. The initial response was excellent and this continues with several of the large resort hotels serving local honey on their breakfast tables. In the same year, Randolph Furbert opened the first commercial-scale extracting facility in Bermuda at Chartwell
Apiaries in Bailey's Bay. Today Randolph is assisted by his son John and is ‘Beekeeper Number 5' in Bermuda.
Diseases and predators American foulbrood Paenibacillus larvae was first detected in Bermuda in 1975 and an annual inspection programme was initiated by the Department of Agriculture & Fisheries (DAF). Bufo marinus (a giant toad) was intentionally introduced to Bermuda in 1875 in the hope it would help reduce the number of cockroaches on the island. The toad grows to the size of a cantaloupe melon. It is now abundant and a serious predator of honey bees with a voracious in the summer, when bees appetite for bees, especially on warm nights cluster outside the hive entrance. To minimise problems from toads, hives are elevated 50-60 cm above the ground.
Iridomvrmex humilis (the Argentine ant) was accidentally introduced in
Best in Bermuda The Philatelic Bureau of the Bermuda Post Office released the Heritage Made in Bermuda commemorative stamp issue on 22 June. This is the fourth in a series of stamps which showcases local artists and craft workers. The series consists of four stamps and an Official First Day Cover. The accompanying text reads "Beekeeping is an absorbing and fruitful pastime in Bermuda as bees have inhabited the Island almost as long as people. The tradition of beekeeping and honey production is continued by local beekeeper Randolph Furbert at his factory, Honey Bee House in Bailey's Bay where he produces some of the purest honey in the world”. Thanks to ‘Beekeeper No 5’, Randolph Furbert for sending the stamps and information
Bees/or Development Journal 81
BEEKEEPING IN CABINDA
BEEKEEPING IN THE ENCLAVE OF CABINDA, ANGOLA increase household wealth for a large number of families in Cabinda Province.
Beekeeping had not been known in Cabinda prior to the project although honey hunting is prevalent. spent time with the honey hunters and documented their craft as they are the main beneficiaries of the |
beekeeping initiative. The project was the brainchild of David Benafel, the Chief of Party for the CADA Project, and Paulino Poba, the CADA Training and Extension Officer. We worked particularly with honey
hunter, Eduardo Ngoma, who has plied his craft for 30 years in Congo Brazzaville, Cabinda and DR Congo. Mr Ngoma was eager to become a beekeeper and received two hives.
A market survey in Cabinda city found that most honey in shops is imported from Greece and Portugal. Local honey is sold on the streets
and is comparable in price to the professionally-packaged, importec products in the shops, selling for approximately US$15/kg. The lace product is poorly processed and bottled in recycled wine bottles.
CAB NDA (ANGOLA)
Consumption in Cabinda city alone is 3-4 tonnes a year, leaving great scope for building a small beekeeping industry.
Local consumers indicated that they prefer local honey to that imported informally from Congo Brazzaville and DR Congo, as this honey is said to be watered down and impure. One of the interesting reasons why honey is consumed in Cabinda is the folkloric belief that it protects the
Cabinda Province in the north-west of Angola is a separate enclave from the rest of Angola, located above the Congo River. It has three main
agro-climatic regions. a dense tropical forest at high altitudes, the central region - savanna interspersed with small forested areas, and the southern region and coast, which is savanna with scrub cover and sandy soils. Both the north and the centre have occasional problems with security as a result of activity by rebels seeking independence for Cabinda.
History The Portuguese colonised Cabinda in 1885, more than 300 years after the rest of Angola. The Treaty of Simulambaco in 1885 recognised Cabinda's special status as a semi-autonomous state. It was not until 1956 that the two Portuguese colonies were joined together, but without negotiating with Cabinda. Rebellions began immediately and in 1974 the collapse of the Portuguese Fascist Government necessitated the release of colonial holdings. In 1977 the Liberation Front of the Cabinda
consumer against poisoning.
Project activities The CADA Project had imported expensive frame hives, beekeeping tools and protective clothing from Brazil, in anticipation of my arrival. The sustainability of this equipment did not factor into the equation and was a great problem, and we began to make equipment fram local resources at a fraction of the cost. |
introduced straight-sided top-bar hives, as these have worked well for
me in trials in Ghana and Lesotho. Cabinda lies within the greater Cr-~Tropical Forest area and consequently there are many choices for gc
hardwoods from which to make hives. We used Cloraphora excelsa (Kambala) and 7erminalia superba (Limba) for the top-bars and hive bodies respectively. The majority of the project beneficiaries were good
carpenters and the first 25 hives were made in two days. have noticed the lack of any kind of treatment to the wood used for hive bodies in various projects in Africa. This is probably due to the high cost of paint. advocate a very simple method of dipping in hot, used |
Enclave (FLEC) announced a provisional government of the Republic of Cabinda. At the heart of the matter is oil, for Cabindan oil provides Angola with about half of its foreign exchange earnings. Although greatly
motor oil, which is effective and cheap, without any refusal by the bees. This is a well known method for treating commercial hives in South Africa.
decreased in recent years, sporadic guerrilla warfare still takes place in the far north of the country, however recent peace negotiations are lessening this.
CABGOC has a seemingly infinite supply of good pine and ply-wood crating that is given to the local oil workers to re-sell in the market. A request has been made to obtain this material to make hive bodies and sturdy trap boxes, which will further bring the cost of the project down, making it more replicable and sustainable. A smoker was made by a local tin-smith, in conjunction with an upholsterer, at a fraction of the
Project purpose was invited by the Cabinda Gulf Oi! Company (CABGOC) through ACDI/VOCA's Cabinda Agribusiness Development Alliance (CADA) in January-February 2006, and returned in July to follow-up. The purpose of the CADA Project is to leverage private-sector and US donor funds, |
together with ACDIVOCA's agribusiness development expertise, to
cost of the Brazilian smoker. Veils were made from straw hats with mosquito netting. Catcher boxes were constructed from throw-away cartons and plastic sheeting, baited with wax from our honey hunting excursions, as well as locally grown lemon grass.
BfD TRUST NEWS
Originally hive stands were made with the hive hanging from the local vines, smeared with grease. This proved to be ineffective against the
Bees/or Development Journ
highly organised species of ant, 7etraponera aethiops. Between February and July all the hives were inhabited at one time or another, but each swarm absconded due to lack of defence against the ants. We have now modified the stands to have large, powdered milk can bases into which we pour used motor oil.
We produced an area-specific 165 page manual full of pictographs showing how to make and place hives and trap boxes, management, pest control, honey harvesting and processing, a section on traditional honey hunting practices and a nectar survey of over 70 species. We hope to translate the manual into Portuguese.
The English edition is for sale (price 28;
The project plans are to make a further 300 hives and harvest at least two tonnes of honey within the next 18 months. The Department of Forestry (IDF) has shown interest in the project. An IDF extension worker, with some training in beekeeping is working with Manuel
Nathan Emery is Director of BioAfrica and lives in Lesotho. www. bioafrica.co.za
Nguimiti, one of the local honey hunters who has shown interest and leadership in this start-up operation. Mr Nguimiti is a former FLEC rebel turned carpenter and honey hunter. The main honey flow is June-August with minor flows in SeptemberOctober and December-January. Some of the major floral sources are Albizia ferruginea, Canarium schweinturthii, Chromoleana odorata, Coffea robusta, Dacryodes pubescens, Peterinthus macrocarpus, Piptadeniatrum africanum, Swaizia fistuloides, and Terminalia superba,
jongst many others.
Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) mitigation scheme
in the savanna areas of Cabinda using IUCN sanctioned methods of
chilli pepper deterrents. The method was proving highly fallible and explained a project set up in 2004 around Mole National Park in Ghana, using hive barriers for HEC mitigation. This intervention worked very successfully and it was a wholly indigenous concept as the local |
people were well aware of the elephants' aversion to bees: there is even
a Builsa proverb stating the case. We are now in the process of instituting this programme in Cabinda.
[see Bees for Development Journal 65 for more about HEC Ed]
B/D Trust News
A gift of a subscription to Bees for Development Journal tor 20 Reference books and posters as well as the Journa/ subscription
We are grateful to the many individuals, beekeeping associations, groups and companies who support our work. Please encourage your friends and colleagues to help. By cheque, CAF cheque or at welcomeees www.justgiving.com/ Sponsored subscriptions and donations from UK tax payers are eligible for Gift Aid a further 28p for every 1 donated we can one at send a form or please download www.beesfordevelopment.org
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Bees for Development Trust UK Charity Number 1078803
TRIATHLON FOR THE TRUST Rob Probyn took part in the London Triathlon in August to raise funds for BFD Trust. After intensive training and preparation Rob completed a swim of 1.5 km; 2) a 40 km cycle ride and 3) a 10 km run 1) without any breaks. Well done, Rob, and many thanks to you and all
BILL'S BEES Watch BFD Trust Patron, Bill Turnbull, in beekeeping action at wildlife and animals, and www.countrychannel.tv. Follow links to
then choose insects.
A range of different films featuring Bill and Bees, and BfDT
ata i ogue on
LOOK AHEAD, LEARN AHEAD
FRANCE APIMONDIA 41st International Apicultural Congress 21-24 September 2009, Montpellier Further details www.apimondia2009.com
AUSTRALIA APIMONDIA 40th International Apicultural
9-14 September 2007, Melbourne
Apimondia/SICAMM meeting: the Black Bee in Russia April 2008, Moscow Further details www.sicamm.org
Further details see page 16
Apimondia Congress and Australia A BID Safari in co-operation with Bikonsult of Sweden, September 2007 Further details. www.beesfordevelopment.org
SOUTH AFRICA XXXII International Congress of Entomology 6-12 July 2008, Durban Further details www.ice2008.org.za
BULGARIA International Exhibition
Apiculture 9-11 February 2007, Pleven Further deiails. www.partners-expo.com
TURKEY 1st Balkan Federation of Apiculture 1 April 2007, Edirne Further deiails
2do Congreso Cubano de Apicultura 16-19 January 2007, Havana
Further details icongreso2007 @eeapi.cu
British Beekeepers’ Association Annual Convention
Developing business in bee products 16-18 January 2007, Addis Ababa Further details firstname.lastname@example.org
Further details email@example.com
LEARN AHEAD UK BFD
2 February 2007, Monmouth
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Further details see page 16 Bees for Development can arrange beekeeping study tours and visits. Tailor-made to suit
requirements and to fit any budget. Contact us for details. if you want notice of your
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2007, near Warwick Further details www.bbka.org.uk
or meeting to be included here send details to
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given of (he un AUIHOFES)
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Remember to tell BID the outcome of your application.
The Kleinhans Fellowship supports research to better understand and improve the impacts of non-timber forest product (NTFP) harvest and
marketing on rural livelihoods and tropical forest ecosystems. Application deadline 31 December 2006. Contact Deanna Newsom
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ULUDAG BEE JOURNAL
supports beekeeping projects in developing countries. Beekeepers’ groups and associations may apply for small project funding of up to
News, practical information and research articles - 2 /ink between Turkish beekeeping and the world. Published quarterly in Turkish with
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English summaries. Contact www.uludagaricilik.org
BEE BOOKS NEW AND OLD The Weaven, Little Dewchurch, Hereford HR2 6PP UK, for your new and second-hand books. Telephone +44 (0)1432 840529 or
estimates and the reporting arrangements. Submit your request to the office of FAO or UNDP in your country. Applications for projects with
Do your bees
James Fearnley of BeeVital is a leading world authority on the nature of propolis & its
A major research project has been started by BeeVital and we would like your help.
make propolis? We would like to test
medicinal properties, he is author of Bee Propolis-Natural Healing from the Hive retailing at 9.99 plus p&p.
you are interested in finding out whether your propolis is suitable for medicinal use and learning about sustainable ways of harvesting & using propolis please send a sample (50g) to: If
BeeVital, Brereton Lodge, Goathland, Whitby, North Yorkshire YO22 5JR, UK Tel:
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Bees/orDevelopment Journal 84
NEWS AROUND THE WORLD
NEWS AROUND THE WORLD transportation of their produce. He said there was no market for honey in Afghanistan and they were compelled to send the produce to
AFGHANISTAN Beekeepers returning home August a delegation from the Afghan Beekeepers' Association held discussions with top Government officials in Kabul and began In
negotiations regarding setting up bee farms in
Afghanistan. Mr Babakarkhel has spent 27 years in Pakistan but is now determined to return to Afghanistan to develop his business and improve the country's economy. He wants to motivate his
colleagues to play their role in rebuilding. Mr Babakarkhel said that Afghans living in Pakistan have 8,000 bee farms and every farm has 150-200 hives. About 0.1 million people are busy with this profession, harvesting
50-60 kg honey from each hive and selling
Peshawar in Pakistan for sale. Also there were no medicines for bees and they had to bring Deputy Minister for
them from Peshawar.
Agriculture and Irrigation, Mohammad Sharif Sharif said establishing the farms would be a great benefit to Afghanistan. Though not promising great assistance, he said he would try his best to provide basic facilities to beekeepers, and they had many experts who could provide valuable suggestions. Head of the Ministry of Foreign Trade in Commerce, Mohammad Azim Wardak, said although the granting of trade facilities was the job of the
Government, traders should not be lethargic spectators. Beekeepers should publicise their products and arrange national and international exhibitions. He said that although
tha produce both within and outside the ntry. Mr Babakarkhel said Pakistan
some companies wanted to invest money in Afghanistan, the lack of electricity, industrial
receives millions of dollars in tax from the honey, and with the planned project not only would Afghanistan benefit from the tax, but thousands of people would be employed.
parks and security were great obstacles to
Association Official Syed Aga Naeemi was pleased with the prospects and said that if individuals started working together, the Government would assist them because working in groups would help to create markets for the honey. Mr Naeemi also demanded that the Government provide beekeepers with a letter of authority to enable them to easily
transport their produce to neighbouring Pakistan. He said that even if they harvested honey from their bees in Pakistan, they would be bringing it to Afghanistan to sell. Mr Naeemi
said that bee farming started in 1974, and at that time Afghanistan exported 40 tonnes of
honey per year.
According to a verse of the Holy Koran Allah has stored a healing touch in honey for human beings’.
Afghan residents would have the chance to buy honey at lower prices. Mr Babakarkhel asked for markets to be built in the cities and,
because their beekeeping is migratory (the beekeepers move colonies from one source of forage to another), he asked the Government to provide transport facilities. He also asked for the checking procedure to be relaxed for
beekeepers, because if a car loaded with hives is stopped for 10 minutes in the heat, the death of bees is certain. BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT
Mohammad Salman, a beekeeper who has worked for 18 years in Pakistan and two years in Afghanistan, complained that they are sing numerous problems. Keeping hives in Khogiani District of eastern
Nangarhar he said police were demanding money, or sometimes honey as bribes during
because of a climate problem, and consequently cannot provide the product to
Beekeeping emergency declared Buenos Aires Province has declared a ‘Beekeeping Emergency Status’. Commission President, Daniel Gurzi explained: "The area is suffering from an unusual drought that this time repeats in 7-8 year cycles, however it is more extensive. Economic problems have
become worse, not only in beekeeping, but also for industry and trade. When an emergency situation is declared in any economic sector, it triggers measures such as improving national bank credit rates, not levying interest on delayed tax payments or any type of credit acquired by the producer. beekeepers cannot harvest their crops
the market, they must deal with the possibility of credit expiration, quotas or the
implementation of taxes. The emergency declaration means that the producer will have
handed over to the Beekeepers’ Association of Bhutan (BEKAB). Currently the Association has 28 beekeepers with 370 colonies of
a delayed term to fulfill debts due to the
Apis mellifera producing 8,400-10,300 kg of
Source Portal Apicola and thanks to Rafael Thimann for providing the translation
This year BEKAB expects to collect more than 11,000 kg of honey. An Association official
said that good weather had favoured the bees in their nectar collection. The first honey
Apis mellifera was introduced to Bhutan's
harvest starts on 10 July and is usually completed by the first week of August. In
Bumthang Valley by a private beekeeper in 1987. In 1995 a Project was established with
2005 the Association had a yield of 8.5 tonnes in the first harvesting season and
Beekeeping with European honey bees If
support from Helvetas (Swiss Association for International Co-operation). After training some Bhutanese beekeepers, the Project was
NEWS AROUND THE WORLD
3 tonnes in the second harvest in September. "Last year, bears destroyed about 60 colonies
which drastically reduced the yield in the second season: weather conditions, bears and
diseases threaten honey yields every year", said Tek Bahadur Pulami, Chairman of the Association. Alter harvest the Association buys the honey from its members. Tek Bahadur said that the honey is checked for quality and if it contains more than 18% moisture, it is sold to wine makers. The Association pays its members Nu 122.50 (US$2.7; €2.10) per kg of honey and also supplies sugar for spring and winter bee feeding.
Beekeepers check their colonies regularly for diseases and give the appropriate treatment. Aum Choden said that beekeeping is her main source of incame, earning Nu 30,000 (US$653: €515) annually. "| became a member 13 years
ago with two colonies and now have nine colonies", she said. The first honey harvest
2006 technical support is being directed to
beekeeping research and training to help the industry produce 250 tonnes of honey. The target is 50 tonnes more than 2005's total, but
is still 50 tonnes short of satisfying the local demand. Agriculture Ministry spokesman
Josefa Uluilakeba said the Ministry planned to boost the industry through hive development programmes and was pleased that people have shown interest in beekeeping.
Beekeepers in areas including Sigatoka, Nadroga and in the Ra Province sell their harvest to hotels. A women's group engaged honey production sells haney for (US$3.6; €2.7) per kg to retailers. in
Mr Uluilakeba said that manufacturers were at an advantage because the Ministry arranged
markets for the bee farmers.
provides golden yellow honey from mixed flowers, and white honey from clover.
Source Nima Wangdi, Bjakar www. kuenselonline.com
Fiji has 7,000 colonies whereas its potential is thought to be 50,000. The number is being increased by 1,000 every year until the demand for honey is met. 20% of beekeepers
commercial and the remaining 50% are hobbyists. Fiji imposed strict quarantine procedures on imported honey in June 2006.
Source www. fijitimes.com/story
Winning ways iranian experts have succeeded in the biological fight against two important honey bee pests: the mites Varroa and Acarapis. Iran's Veterinary Organisation has issued the license for the mass production of the
medicine, a formic acid gel produced by researchers at a domestic pharmaceutical company. The gel is available for use in the field from the beginning of October 2006. In addition to creating resistance to treatment, most of the currently used medicines affect the quality of the honey produced, but the new drug rules out these disadvantages.
Source www.mehrnews. ir/en
are fully commercial, 30% are semi-
Mercy reaches out to women beekeepers The Community Development Service (CDS) of Mercy Ships, in active collaboration with the Forestry Commission of Ghana, has trained and supported 52 women to keep
honey bees in the Ga West District near Accra. Honey, beeswax and propolis will be
produced and packaged to add good value. In this way the women and their families'
in Ghana, average about 2 ha, that are kept by the local communities) protection in their villages. Two start-up workshops took place,
the second in August 2006 in
the district capital. The start-up equipment supplied included two hives, bee suits,
smokers, boots and harvesting buckets.
income levels will be improved. The support was part of a micro-enterprise initiative of Mercy Ships MV Anastasis which is currently
The greatest challenge was to prepare the mind set of the women to receive honey bees
fear of bees and replace this with care of
the World, |
Selection was based on the individual's active involvement in woodlot development and sacred grove (small traditional forest reserves
Tema Harbour (see News around
colonies for greater benefits. Another
The women were selected from various farming communities
into their lives. They have to remove their
interesting innovation that added to the women's training was a sensitization
programme carried out in the various communities from which the participants were selected.
An evening session was made up of a film show on beekeeping and a question and answer time. These outreach
programmes offered a platform for the people to appreciate the importance of bees and to
learn to live with them. This was to avoid the occurrence of the honey bee-human conflict which often sees only the negative attributes of bees.
The workshops were deliberately planned ahead of the September-December
swarming season and we hope to stock all the hives by December 2006.
BfD's Correspondent in Ghana
NEWS AROUND THE WORLD
PAKISTAN Haji Wahid, a 54 year-old-beekeeper in Peshawar was leading a happy life earning a
handsome amount to feed his family until two thirds of his honey bee colonies were destroyed in the October 2005 earthquake.
A native of Bajaur, Wahid is running his honey business with the assistance of 50 members
travel with the bees across the country to provide them with pollen and nectar", said
Wahid, who started his business in 1992. He said that he visited Punjab and Azad Kashmir in search of bee flora at the end of the spring season. "The large-scale cutting of berry, Calocacia (palosa), Citrus fruits, peaches, shisham, and sunflower in the NWFP has
a credit scheme which allows those who are
honey in the local market. He sold berry honey for Rs 180,000 (US$2961; €2318) a
interested to obtain their equipment and take courses run by visiting beekeepers from the
tonne in 2005 against Rs 160,000 (US$2632; €2059) in 2006. Rafique added that local
beekeepers needed to have technical know-
UK. Honey from our scheme has won awards including a 2nd prize at the 2006 UK National
how and training to improve the quality of honey and to increase their annual income.
Honey Show. Our honey is served on the meal trays of Air Mauritius and sold in shops
Source www. pakistanlink.com
in Rodrigues and in many hotels in Mauritius. Care-Co aims to become a beekeeping and
of his family at Tarnab, a hub of honey trade in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). "|
honey producing model for groups of disabled people in East Africa. The Care-Co Project
Care-Co is a non profit company on the remote Indian Ocean Island of Rodrigues that assists disabled people in beekeeping, honey processing, bottling and marketing. There are
has been selected as one of the 12 finalists in the BBC/Newsweek/Sheil World Challenge
Contest 2006 (www.theworldchallenge.co.uk)
15 beekeepers in the organisation, all with disabilities. Five run the 'Mike Duggan Model
Paul Draper - Care Co Project Manager
Teaching Apiary' and honey processing and bottling plant. ‘Hives for the Handicapped! is
[For more about the Project see BfDJ 58 or our website Information Centre]
affected beekeeping", he added.
He said there was an ever-increasing demand
for Pakistan's honey in Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi ibia, the UAE, Yemen, and other Middle
Mangiki Jabani sent this photograph showing the participants of a recent training programme held at Sifoe Katdye Farm
_ustem countries because of its fine quality. He urged the government to fix honey rates to help thousands of beekeepers in their
business. Raza Shah, President of Pak Beekeepers Association (PBA), said that 6,000 honey farms exist in the NWFP He said the
government should impose a ban on the cutting of berry and palosa trees to save millions of bees from starvation and ultimate extinction. Also beekeepers should be provided with interest-free loans.
Haji Rafique Najeeb, a leading honey exporter in Jarnab said the average yield of honey per
colony had increased from 4-21 kg, while the total production in the country had risen from 250 to 2,500 tonnes during the last two
decades. He said the increase in honey yduction had brought down the price of
A LIFETIME DEDICATED TO APICULTURE
between East and West, and organised many congresses and symposia in this spirit in the late 1960s, 70s and early 80s. Dr Cannamela also promoted the creation of the European Co-ordination Group on
Silvestro Cannamela (1924 - 2006)
Apiculture, from which stemmed the Honey Group within the Agricultural Professional Organisations Committee in Brussels in the EU. After collaborating with the Bulletin of Apimondia in 1965 he participated in
A beekeeper since 1952, Dr Silvestro Cannamela became Secretary-General of Apimondia, the International Federation of Beekeepers’ Associations in 1965. He immediately worked hard with the newly-elected President of Apimondia, Professor V Harnaj, to revive the
the creation of Apiacta, the Apimondia official magazine. In 1993 he resigned as Secretary-General of Apimondia and Mr Riccardo Jannoni-Sebastianini took over. Dr Silvestra Cannamela was appointed Knight of the Agricultura! Order by the French Republic, and worked as organiser and promoter of a long series of Apimondia International
Federation structure and created the international Institute of Beekeeping Economy and Technology in Bucharest, Romania. Under their strong drive, the two institutions reached levels of activity and representation that are still unparalleled. Strong working partnerships were established with FAO and other UN agencies.
Apicultural Congresses. To those proudly taking over from him in carrying out his legacy, there remains the challenging task of continuing his work and keeping alive
In particular, Dr Cannamela, Professor Harnaj and Mr van Rappard, the Dean of Apimondia Presidents, believed that bees are not bound nor
his example and memory. With the bees always tucked in the heart.
affected by borders and they fostered the international nature of beekeeping, promoting close relationships between beekeepers and scientists world-wide. They supported the elimination of any division
Riccardo Jannoni-Sebastianini Apimondia Secretary-General www.apimondia.org
AVAILABLE FROM B/D NOW AT WWW.BEESFORDEVELOPMENT.ORG
BOOK SHELF CD: FIRST AFRICAN HONEY TRADE WORKSHOP Theve
For two days prior to the Apimondia Congress in Ireland in August 2005, BfD organised the First African Honey Trade Workshop as part of our DFID/BLCF Project on African Honey. The specific
purpose of the Workshop was to enable honey marketing organisations in Africa and other developing countries to understand requirements for honey intended for import by the EU. The Proceedings can be accessed on our website, however the files are large. This CD provides all the presentations, the programme and resolutions, list of participants and information on legislation (up to date at October 2006) that applies to honey imports to the EU.
THE HIVE: THE STORY OF THE HONEYBEE AND US Bee Wilson 2005 308 pages Soft cover
BE E S
The narrative style of this book sets it apart from others intended for the novice beekeeper, or interested nonbeekeeper, because it reads like a novel but is backed up by both experienced beekeeping and scientific knowledge, can also see that beekeepers and bee experts may be able to look at bees in a different way and begin to deepen their knowledge of bee nature as well. The author is someone with an obvious passion for beekeeping. was impressed by the translation from German. My only complaint is exemplified when Weiler describes a queen bee's legs as ‘having a reddish gleam' and the accompanying photograph is in black and white, as are all the photographs. It would have been nice to see that gleam too. Reviewed by Ronald Pritchard
BEES AND HONEY: FROM FLOWER TO JAR (€13)
This book is an exploration of the ‘magical’ relationship between honey bees and humans. The honey bee has always been recognised as one of the wonders of nature: social, industrious, beautiful, and even terrifying. Bee Wilson comments in her introduction that when reading books on political theory from centuries ago, and also from writers including Aristotle and Shakespeare, she constantly found the honey bee community used as a model for human society. Finding this both ‘interesting and odd’, her desire to find out more culminated in this book. Although not a beekeeper the long list of 'pee' names in the acknowledgements shows how much Ms Wilson pursued her interest to produce this book of fascinating facts. Nevertheless we are disappointed that Bees for Development is omitted from the list of those consulted - especially when we are referred to briefly in chapter 6 and summarised with the words "there is a kind of enduring zeal to these people, with their good works".
Michael Weiler 2006 144 pages Soft cover 8.99
(€12) Code W610
Bees for Development, 2006 10
BEES OF THE WORLD Christopher O'Toole & Anthony Raw 2004 edition 192 pages Hard cover 24.50 (€36.80) Code 0150 This is the reprint of the book enjoyed by anyone with a liking for bees. It is full of interesting illustrations (many in colour) and helpful diagrams. The book explains what bees are, and how they differ from other insects. Most bee species are solitary and the life cycles of mining, mason, leaf-cutter and carder bees are described. The road leading to social honey bees and stingless bees is then discussed. The final chapter focuses on bees and flowers, with a whole chapter devoted to the unlikely partners: bees and orchids. The idea of the male honey bee as the lazy feckless drone, relying on workers to feed him has permeated our culture. To set the record straight the authors have devoted a whole chapter to males of the species carefully emphasising the vital role of male bees. How unfortunate that the picture on the cover of this new edition is a fly!
HONEY AND DUST Piers Moore Ede 2006 295 pages Now in soft cover 8.99
(€13.50) Code M560S
Suffering from a hit-and-run road accident, Piers Moore Ede was smitten by interest in the gentle craft of beekeeping. As part of his recovery process, he set off (after consulting with Eva Crane) on journeys to seek beekeeping being practised in time-honoured ways. He travels to the Middle East and Asia, visiting beekeepers in Lebanon and Syria, and honey hunters in Nepal and Sri Lanka. Moore Ede brings fresh, engaging and sensitive a account of these activities. He gets to know the people he is with, and manages to convey the importance of bees and honey within their lives. This enjoyable book conveys last minute awareness of the rich apicultural diversity that is all too fast disappearing. HOW TO ORDER 1.
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APIMONDIA CONGRESS 2007 9-14 SEPTEMBER 2007, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Full information regarding registration, social functions, accommodation, the World Honey Show and ApiExpo can be found on the website or a copy of the 2nd Circular can be downloaded from the website.
15 February 2007 - Submission Fax:
of abstracts 15 May 2007
Speakers and ‘early bird' registration fee
PO Box R838, Royal Exchange NSW 1225 Australia
SAFARI SAFARI SAFARIY Beesfor Development Beek rs' Ge s Sa Safari aris
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Special holidays and study tours withth a bee
- Meet local beekeepers
29 January - 8 February 2007, 10 nights 1,225* Hosted by Mr Gladstone Solomon, President of Tobago Apicultural Society and their bees - Africanised and European honey bees, Stingless bees
Experience Caribbean culture, music and cuisine
- Tobago - the best flora, fauna and beaches
BEES AND FLOWERS
xperiences expe Excellent opportunities to meet local people Appreciation of the areas you visit Our Safaris are part of the
BiD campaign to promoté of
12-21 June 2007, 10 days €1005* (700 approx) Organised by Bikonsult of Sweden in co-operation with Bees for Development -A unique opportunity to celebrate 300 years since the birth of Car! von Linnaeus - Follow in of the Swedish Father of taxonomy from his birthplace at Stenbrohult to his the footsteps home, botanic garden and tombstone at Uppsala Optional: midsummer night's eve at a folklore festival or watch the midnight sun never go down together with the Lapps, North of the Polar Circle.
BMONDIA CONGRESS AND AUSTRALIA
awareness beekeeping a worthwhile and sustainable
September 2007 dates and price to be confirmed Also in co-operation with Bikonsult of Sweden
activity for development.
Prices do not include international flight costs INTERESTED? More information from Bees for Development contact details below
Novemnber/December 2007, 14 nights - dates and price to be confirmed. Hosted by our partners at Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, part of the famous Serengeti Wildlife Research Institute
-A beekeeping holiday combining all the best aspects of a conventional Safari Village beekeeping with African haney bees and Stingless bees Experience the fabulous National Parks Lake Manyara, Serengeti and their exciting inhabitants
+44 (0) 16007 13648
Printed on environmentally friendly paper
NP25 4AB, UK
Bees for Development 2006