Bees for Development Journal Edition 54 - March 2000

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Lear Friends

Lots happening at Bees for Development! The Troy Trust

Beekeeping is a worthwhile activity, even for the poor est pe p i th ote places, It can Ost help people to improve their stand ards of living in that are completely sustainab! €. The Troy Trust is seeki ways more help. The ing funds to provide Troy Trust will not hand out free but it will provide free hives, information on how to build hives, manage bees, and make income from them. me year ahead ont is full of activities for Bees for Develo pment. Please continue this work help us to by Supporting The Troy Trust.


Worldaware Award

A farm worker does the work of a bee: pollinating apple flowers by hand in China. See pages six and seven UMA PARTAP

Bees for Development has once again We came second in the been recognised by a Prestigious award , Business Awards “not for Worldaware for our work in Profit” category, organising successful Beekeepers’ Safaris to Tanzania and India.

Congratulations Nell

The New Year also brou the news ght to marry: the that stalwart worker, Nell Holt-Wilson, is lucky fellow is Gus Hellier. Unfortunately for Bees for this mean s that Nell is leaving to establish a new home in Development inburgh (600 km away: too far to back ev send all best wishes to '). We say goodbye and Nell and Gus for the In this issue The consequences of genetic en gineering are going to reach into every corner of our lives. In this issue fly




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Letter to B&D

from Monica Barlow, Bristol, United Kingdom



I am a beekeeper and subscriber to B&D, a magazine | thoroughly admire and enjoy. wonder whether B&D can discover more information than | on the likely consequences for bees and beekeepers of |

the introduction of GMOs?

should state that have no sympathies with claims of GM crop producers. believe that this experiment is potentially disastrous for us and for the environment. There seem to be a number of likely consequences to the current rapid introduction of this untested, new technology. These include damage to our environment, to our own and future generations’ health, and to the long-term food security of the |


a beekeeper am also concerned by the few indications have found about the effects of GM crops on bees. Preliminary research has shown that there are dangers to beneficial insects. In a field trial of Monsanto's Bt-cotton in Thailand, 30% of bees around the test field died. Studies in the USA show that bees feeding on GM oilseed rape suffer damage to their foraging abilities. Do you know of any other research findings that might indicate less cause for concern? Is there any research monitoring the health of local bee populations, either independent or funded by the major bio-technical


world, and enormous profit without responsibility to the agrochemical and bio-technical companies developing and marketing GM plants. Marketing for GM foods claims that they will one day feed the world. This is

pernicious deception. The world can grow enough food already but we cannot yet manage to distribute it fairly. eople in the western world depend upon impoverished farmers in developing countries to grow cash crops for the commodity markets. Food shortages are a result of social, environmental, economic and political problems, not simply lack of food. Genetically engineered crops will condemn poor farmers to lifelong dependence on multinational companies who have no intention of feeding the world unless they are handsomely reimbursed for the service. Terminator technology ensures that poor farmers are caught in an endless and slavish cycle, unable to use seed from one year’s crop for the next.


The protection zones around GM crops

UK are laughable.Are there any better protection zones round GM crops in other countries? Is anyone monitoring the amount of GM pollen that must already be finding its way into honey supplies? Has any research been done on the consequence for human health? in the

read of much dissatisfaction (and destruction of GM crops) in India, so feel sure that beekeepers around the world will be sharing my anxiety. Perhaps you could cover some of these issues in |









Clive de Bruyn presents the issues:

ome people see genetic (GE) benefiting agriculture and medicine. Others view it as a threat to life and nature:


unethical, unnecessary, potentially harmful and only of benefit to multinational companies. Everyone has a view on GMOs. Where do beekeepers stand? In February 1999, opposite the Houses of Parliament in London the organisation ActionAid unveiled an ice sculpture showing a fish mutated with vegetables. This was to highlight a of Parliament's call for a Member British on GMOs. Prince Charles, five-year ban a vociferous and outspoken GMO critic has claimed that scientists are invading territory that he believes is “The province of God alone.” Sir Paul McCartney vows to use his late wife’s meals to spearhead the fight. He is spending 3m to make Linda’s foods ‘totally’ free from GMOs. Every pack of food proclaims “Say No to GMO”.

On the other side are the GE GE is at the companies. They claim that forefront of future developments in

insecticides.““GMOs will help to

resolve major agricultural problems”. They promise. acai



As we go to press, UK Prime

Minister Tony Blair has warned that GM food may be bad for us: "There’s no doubt that there is potential for harm, both in terms of human safety and in the diversity of our environment, from GM food and crops”, said Mr Blair.

The statement that GM crops could lead to lower pesticide use has been shown to be a deception by the agrochemical associations: they predict massive increases in sales as a result of this new technology.

by Clive de Bruyn, Essex, United Kingdom

agriculture and food. They promise plants that will resist insect pests reducing the need for farmers to spray

A cop

GMOs and Bees



== A Bees for Development publication



According to the media Frank Eggleton, an English beekeeper, became terrified of GMOs because of a GM oilseed rape

Is GM food safe? GMOs could produce toxins, the true effects of which no one understands.

trial near his hives. “My bees are in danger!” he cried, “The presence of GMOs will adulterate my honey. Wild flowers will be contaminated.” Ata

Pollen could present a problem for bees. Scientists have some information on the effects of GM oilseed rape on bees. The GM oilseed rape can produce enzyme inhibitors that interfere with the insects’ digestion. This means that predatory insects eating the leaves develop a lethal case of indigestion. Researchers could not find the enzyme inhibitors in the oilseed rape pollen. They surmised that it might be there, at levels too low to detect, but be concentrated in the honey. Caged bees were fed on sugar containing protein at levels found in the leaves. This had no effect. Only when fed 10 times the concentration of the protein in the leaves did bees die

village meeting Frank stated, “GM rape is a step too far. will dump my honey rather than eat it.” The media was quick to use Frank’s allegations to inflame public fears about GMOs without |

substantiating any of his assumptions. believe that Frank’s fear is genuine but feel we should try and look at the



problem rationally. By the middle of the 1990s 3,500 trials of GMOs had been conducted in 34 countries, covering 56 crops. In 1998 there were at least 30m hectares of GM crops world-wide. Plant GMOs now have improved agronomic traits such as herbicide tolerance and resistance to pest and disease. How far should GE go? If scientists want society to set limits then the public needs better information. will try to address some of the issues using questions raised by Prince Charles. |

Do we need GM food? Probably not. But if GE is not accepted in one country then that country may lose out to others that embrace the new technology. Without GM crops there might be a better bee environment with less intensive cultivation and increased forage.


Research was also carried out on plants incorporating Bacillus thuringiensis. This soil bacterium has been used for decades to control Lepidoptera. Beekeepers know it as the active ingredient in Certan® (sold to kill wax moths). Bacillus thuringiensis genes introduced into a plant cause it to produce toxins that disembowel insect pests. Tests carried out to check the toxicity of GM Bacillus thuringiensis maize pollen on honeybee larva showed no adverse effects in the laboratory.

GM sugar beet exists and sugar cane could be a candidate for GE. What effeet would GM sugar have on

honeybees and what if it turned up in honey? At the moment there is no evidence that GMOs are not safe but the same was said of DDT and cigarettes. More independent long-term research is required.

What about the environmental consequences? Molecular geneticists working at a cellular level in the GMO industry consider that GMOs are low-risk. Independent ecologists specialising in biology at the organism-ecosystembiosphere levels consider GMOs high-risk. All agree that science cannot predict what escaped GMOs will do, however, if GMOs are released into the environment the odds of controlling them are zero. There are several GMO research programmes in the United Kingdom. Bees benefit indirectly from this as some of the work is helping to fund research institutes working on bees. All investigations involving field tests inevitably cause GMO escapes.

Genes in GMOs can spread to related wild flowers. Such gene flow (outcrossing) is not unusual. The problem is that the genes inserted into GM crops may originate from viruses, fungi and bacteria giving the GM hybrids traits that could not be present naturally. Nectar secretion could be affected. Super weeds, could emerge requiring more toxic herbicides: precisely the opposite of what GMOs originally promised. If the hybrids contain insecticide genes they would ki

What sort of world do we want to

soya flour use in my pollen supplement will be labelled. |


live in? It took 60 years to appreciate that

Where does honey stand?


The EC Commission has

decided that honey containing pollen from GM crops does not come within the scope of the present legislation on Novel Foods. It appears therefore that such honey does not have to mention the presence of GM pollen. The EC Commission in Brussels has set a

feeding insects resulting in insect eating birds

starving. Upsetting the ecosystem may well have knockon consequences for bees. The effects of GMOs | could remain undetected for decades. Current research is only investigating short-term eonsequences so our grandchildren ould be in for a real “Silent Spring.”

food by GM ingredients of 1%. This is many times greater than any pollen levels usually present in honey.

What effect will GM crops have



poor countries?

Scientists are concerned that their

Prince Charles ridiculed as emotional blackmail the United Kingdom Government's claim that GMOs would

it sensible to test GMOs without regulations? experiments are safe. They are subject to similar social, moral and ethical influences as everyone else. European

Community Directives exist to protect humans and the environment. Currently consent to plant GM crops in the United Kingdom is for field trials only. Against this regulatory background present these notes of discord: |




According to the Gene Watch Newsletter, there have been almost as many unauthorised as sanctioned releases of GMOs in the USA. Monsanto have been guilty of flouting safety rules at an experimental GMO site in Lincolnshire (United Kingdom) in 1999 and were fined 17,000. Currently there are no regulations with respect to solitary or social bees.

The United Kingdom Government


currently considering the first application to grow GM maize for open sale.



be able to

exercise choice? The United Kingdom Government has decided that GMO foods should be labelled and new regulations took effect in 1999. Foods containing

detectable modified DNA or protein will require labelling. This means that 95% of the approximately 30,000 products potentially derived from GM crops will not require labelling. wait to see if the |

“prevent global hunger.’ A report from Africa claims that gene technology could destroy traditional agricultural systems. Action Aid claims that GMOs are more likely to exacerbate world hunger than cure it. Set against these statements is Monsanto’s !m advertising campaign promising that GMOs would feed “starving future generations.”

The facts are that GMOs exist to produce food for rich countries. The management of GMOs undermine the principles of integrated pest control, which tries to be sympathetic to the environment. GM crops with their herbicide tolerance are subject to a strict regime of broad-spectrum herbicides that will eliminate arable weeds that bees forage on. Farmers who pay a royalty to grow the crop are tied to the company for fertiliser, pesticides and herbicide treatments necessary to support the plants. This moves poor farmers away from selfsufficiency towards dependency on multinational companies. Currently 80% of the crops grown in developing countries come from saved seed. Big business solution to this is ‘terminator’ technology. This involves using a special gene to sterilise any seeds the crops produces, forcing farmers to buy fresh seed each year. The importance of bees to pollinate seed crops could decline.

affected humans, but we are

expected to instantly accept GMOs because there are no corpses! Following this provocative statement it must be appreciated that science can never offer people what they really want - total certainty. Proving something is absolutely safe is impossible. ask only: are the risks justifiable? |

The history of agricultural change is in the direction of growing crops “that no one eats but us” This has had disastrous consequences for other life forms that share the planet with humans. Recent surveys of the decline in bird, butterfly and bee populations are indicators of the changes that have already occurred. The thrust of GMOs must surely exacerbate such trends.

explanation please! GMO: Genetically Modified Organism Genetic Engineering (GE) Transferring genes between species. nature viable life forms are only


produced when animals mate within their own species: DNA from human cells never joins with DNA from cows, trees,

or bees. Only in the laboratory can

genes be transferred between species.

GM Food: Food crops that

have been developed with genetic engineering (transferring genes from other species,

for example genes from plants into animals).

Terminator Gene: Genetic engineering to ensure that any seeds a crop produces are sterile, thus forcing farmers to buy fresh seed each year.

Want to hear more? Clive de Bruyn is one of the invited lecturers at the Seminar being organised by Bees for

and the in Association Tropical Agriculture 2000. See Look Ahead April page || for


more details.

Antennae Up

Your opinions are important to us. Let us know what you think! Letters will be published in B&D only with your permission. All our contact details are given on page two.

A Bees

for Development publication


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of apples in China

by Uma Partap and Tej Partap, ICIMOD, Nepal

4.The apple farmers use pesticides excessively. They spray 10-15 times

is pollinated by hand instead of by insects like honeybees.

each season, even during flowering time. Past experiences indicate that

Pollinating apples by hand Pollination of apple flowers by hand is very common in Maoxian County despite the fact that beekeeping is popular in the area. The following Maoxian County apples planted on a large-scale in the 1980s are now an In

important cash crop. Dr Uma Partap explains, “Pollination problems started right at the beginning. There is a very low proportion of polliniser trees and a scarcity of pollinating insects because of pesticides”.

introduction Maoxian County is in Aba Prefecture in Sichuan Province, South China. Apple cultivation started in 1935 with the planting of 30 trees of six different varieties. Large-scale cultivation started in the early 1980s, when apple became a main cash crop of the County. Apples from this region are known as ‘Moawen Apples’ and are famous for their quality. They are sold in markets in Beijing,

Tianjing, Guangzhu and Hong Kong, and also are exported to Russia and south-east Asian countries. In Maoxian County there are 2,830 hectares of apple trees producing around 30,000 tonnes of apple, worth 33.9 million Yuans (US$ 4.2 million) every year. However in recent years, apple production has dropped in both yield and quality. We therefore investigated whether the pollination of the apples was adequate.

Study methodology We prepared a questionnaire, surveyed the apple area, and interviewed farmers. Because apple is the main cash crop, farmers aim for maximum yield and quality by using every possible orchard

pesticides used during flowering seasons killed many bee colonies and other natural insect pollinators, in addition to killing apple pests.

issues emerged: 1. Average

land holdings are very smail:

around 0.2 hectares. Therefore to make best use of the land, farmers have planted only the main variety of apple and a very low proportion (5-7%), of polliniser trees. The minimum requirement is 20%. The farmers simply do not want to increase the proportion of polliniser trees, as they are commercially less important. With such a low

proportion of pollinisers, honeybees can play only a small role in pollination. 2. Because apple is the main cash crop of the area, farmers want higher yields of better quality apples, at any price. They want to ensure that each flower is properly pollinated. Therefore they believe only in pollination by hand and feel that this is a way to achieve certain pollination when the polliniser proportion is

very low. 3. Farmers also believe that pollination by hand is the surest method of pollination even under adverse climatic conditions. It is still possible to hand pollinate apples in low temperatures and bad weather, when bees and other insects are not flying. t

5. Though beekeeping and migratory beekeeping are common in the area,

beekeepers are now not interested t rent bee colonies for apple pollination. Therefore farmers continue to pollinate their crops by hand.

Pollination by hand Pollinating apples by hand is a community effort. Apple flowering begins at lower altitudes and progresses upwards. Thus all apple farmers in the higher areas of the County are free of work and are hired to pollinate apples in lower areas. Since orchards are very small, larger families are able to

pollinate their whole crop by themselves. In hand pollination the anthers are picked from a flower of the polliniser variety when the flower is at the balloon stage (partially open flowers) and is dried to release pollen grains. Farmers usually dry the anthers by spreading them out in the sun for a day or two. Some use cardboard boxes provided with an electric bulb, and others even use electric blankets to dry the anthers. The pollen grains are stored in a cool, dry place and remain viable for three to four days. These are




a wnat nas SR.

management technique like irrigation, fertilisers, pruning, and use of pesticides and fungicides. Field investigation revealed that almost every apple flower

‘age 6


A Bees for Development publication

Beekeeping is common in the area but beekeepers are unhappy to rent colonies for pollination because of the danger from pesticide spraying


Farmers dry anthers by spreading them out in the sun

mixed with a little white flour or skimmed milk powder and are applied to the flowers of the main variety (within two days after a flower opens) ‘ith the help of a hand made brush, the mter side of a cigarette, or a pencil rubber. The farmers pollinate three out of the five flowers in an each apple inflorescence. Hand pollination is carried out three times in each season to ensure pollination of late flowers.


others use electric blankets!

completed by 1990, after which farmers were given training in 1991. At that time only some farmers accepted the technique. But as the impact of pollination by hand became apparent other farmers in the County were also convinced. In 1994, 1,300 hectares of apples were pollinated by hand, and by 1997 the whole 2,000 hectares of apples were pollinated this way. Acknowledgements

Economics of pollinating flowers

We are grateful to Dr He Yonghua and Xie Jiasuei for accompanying us to the field

Pollinating flowers by hand is very laborious and time consuming. About 20-25 people are needed to pollinate apples in one orchard in one day. The fee for one person is about 20 Yuans per day, and this means that farmers pay about 600 Yuans (US$ 70) for pollination of their apples. Farmers could hire less labour, as apples bloom “ r about a week, but they want to rush case of adverse weather conditions.

sites and assisting with interviewing farmers. Also to our Chinese colleague in ICIMOD,

by hand

Dr Tang Ya who helped co-ordinate our study. Our special thanks go to the mountain farmers

of Maoxian County for sparing time from their already busy schedule to provide us with valuable


Economics of bee pollination A maximum of two colonies of honeybees are needed to pollinate an apple orchard. The rental fee for one honeybee colony is US$7, which means that farmers would pay only US$14 to pollinate their orchards using honeybees. This calculation shows that bee pollination would be five times cheaper, but the farmers are still using hand pollination for the reasons described above. dj

Role of Government A farmer, Li Jicai of Jingzhao Village, was the first to start pollination by hand. The County Government then took over and with its extension services spread the technology of hand pollination. Field experiments to standardise the technique were


not b 2es, pollinate apples in China! —





Bee colonies are dying on our main island of New Providence and also Andros. Samples of brood comb and bees sent to the US Department of Agriculture Bee Research Laboratory confirmed our fear that Varroa mites

of an emergency assistance project to restore for honeybee populations honey production and plant pollination. The project was based on the appearance of the phenomenon of“crawling bees” in apiaries throughout Iraq a few years ago (see B&D39). Because of UN Sanctions imposed on Iraq, beekeeping has suffered as there is no medication. Beekeepers are isolated from the world community and news of how to control Varroa and bee

are present. “We had always considered our bees safe from the



The first stage of the emergency project was planned by Dr Nicola Bradbear and involved assistance in the control of bee disease and the provision of much

diseases and pests found on the mainland of North America”. Mal Evans writing in Bee Culture, November 1999

technical information. Embossing machines and wax were provided and these have allowed the much needed production of fresh foundation.



We face great difficulties because our “ “ bees are

africanizadas (Africanized), and we need to adapt to their defensive

temper. My work in Sorocaba City is to capture swarms in places that put people’s lives at risk. At first we had problems with the bees: there were many accidents caused by them. 3 tried to help the situation improve, but myself faced prejudice: in being a woman yet accomplishing capture of bees. When was working at City Hall developed environmental education for children and young people and included classes on beekeeping. Sadly this did not last, when the person who was Mayor changed, my position was |




We urgently need

partners or distributors to help us sell our honey in international markets. Contact Sanica Beekeepers clo Bees for






extinguished! It was a period of great change for me and was without employment. Today things are much better, but know that can do more for the |



beekeeping in my city:

for the bees!



have passion

am working towards

municipal legislation that protects bees and guards against extinction of

melliferous flora. Another factor that generates concern is the great number of industries that are transferring from SAo Paulo to Sorocaba. Our vegetation is disappearing and soon there will be poorer conditions for the bees. keep my hives in Pilar, a city 40 km to the south, where there is plenty of vegetation, both savannah and transitional forest. We must also stand firm against the great number of false honeys that are brought into our City. |

M6Gnica Grohmann

Margaret Ogaba, B&D’s Correspondentin Uganda, shows off a marvellous honey display prepared by Kitgum Women’s Beekeepers’ Well done ladies! _



quality grades from the



Bosnia, near Klju, an unpolluted region of mountain, forest and pastureland, very rich in wild flowers. Our honey achieved high


Sanica is in north-west

Dhafer Behnam, National Consultant for the FAO Project


which honey production was wiped out and we lost most of our hives. The Association was re-established in 1997 and currently Sanica Beekeepers’ Association has 40 members, with numbers increasing rapidly, harvesting about 8,000 kg of in Bosnia during

The second stage of the project is now taking place with the assistance of Dr Otto Boecking. The objective is to teach beekeepers more about bee diseases and to establish a diagnostic laboratory in Baghdad. Also by helping with seminars and workshops about bee biology, queen rearing and honey production. It is hoped to find new methods for Iraqi beekeepers to control Varroa: by biological treatment or with available chemicals. We hope that our bees will be once again fine and productive. We are ready to share our experiences with anyone having similar problems.


Bosnia Our Association existed before the war


is running the second stage


Pitcairn Islands exported for the first Honey time from Pitcairn Islands (Central South Pacific) after a governmentfunded project to rescue the Islands’ beekeeping industry. The islanders and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London hope that the trade, initially between Pitcairn and New Zealand, could prove a “money spinner” for the Island that is almost totally reliant on selling stamps for export earnings. Indeed, the saving of Pitcairn’s honey industry has been celebrated by the issue of stamps. is being

The Pitcairn Island bees mysteriously died out in the 1970s. In 1978 and 1992 Apis mellifera ligustica were introduced and have thrived. The success prompted the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) to fund training for the Island’s beekeepers and prepare a study on the disease status of the bees and honey. Pitcairn’s bees have been found to be free of disease and are very docile. It is hoped to export queen bees to parts of the world affected by diseases such as

International Beekeeping Symposium The Zimbabwe Beekeepers’ Council and Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) sponsored jointly a two-day Symposium in Harare in November 1999 on the promotion of beekeeping in Zimbabwe. The Symposium focussed on: * Developing common approach towards the threat posed by bee disease; a


Varroa. *


Save the Sahara Bee This race of bees fives in oases in the south of Morocco and Algeria. It was discovered by Baldensberger and studied by Brother Adam. Originally from Cyprus this bee race was brought to the area by the Israelis during the Exodus. It is now in danger of disappearing because of drought and the insecticides used to kill


Save the biggest apiary in the world! This apiary of 2,000 honeybee colonies is situated in a green oasis in the heart of Damssira Territory. It is protected by Saint Marabout Sidi Anmed Ounacer and overseen by religious

brotherhoods. This apiary deserves special attention to save it, mainly by building a seven km road so that tourists can visit and appreciate the apiary, and a museum showing the cultural riches of South Morocco. To give moral or financial support, write to

Moulay Radi Loumrhari, c/o Bees for


Mexico Ecosur is an ecological research centre with strong commitments to sustainable development in the “Frontera Sur” region. The bee project is undertaking: Basic research on the tolerance of Africanized bees to Varroa; * Applied research, aimed at adapting alternative Varroa control methods developed in southern Europe to tropical climates; * Applied research investigating the European bee that offers the best manageable hybrid with Africanized




bees; *

Training beekeepers to use methods to make them as completely

independent as possible. Remy Vandame

More information about Africanization and Varroa in Mexico/Africanizacion y Varroa en Mexico:

English http://www. 7/ap

may97.htm#2 Espanol hitp:// Francais Italiano| htm



Identifying priorities and strategies for research and support services; Understanding the current Bee Act and its impact on the bee industry; Bringing together all stakeholders in Zimbabwe's bee industry; Investigating ways and means through which Non Governmental Organisations and others can support the efforts of beekeepers

countrywide; Discussing strategies for training rural beekeepers; Recommending strategies for sustaining the bee industry and its contribution to food production in Zimbabwe.

Representatives of the bee industries in Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia also presented papers, which gave delegates an opportunity to learn from the experiences of others. About 100 delegates attended the Symposium. Papers were presented by 20 speakers covering rural beekeeping, pollination, honey by-products, training and extension services, marketing, bee diseases and access to finance. The Symposium was extremely successful. Copies of the papers presented can be obtained from Clara Chingosho, ITDG Zimbabwe, PO Box |744, Harare, Zimbabwe. E-mail Information kindly supplied by Emma Judge, ITDG, UK


Baraka Agricultural College offers week long courses in beekeeping with a focus on appropriate and sustainable beekeeping, and all aspects of production and marketing using top-bar hives. The courses are designed to be as practical as possible. Courses cost 3,500ksh (US$50) and are conducted in both English and Swahili, or translated into local languages depending on the group. For details of this year’s course dates see Look Ahead page ||. Tom Carroll (Beekeeping: a beginner’s handbook written by Tom Carroll is reviewed in Bookshelf, page |5).

A group of students doing practical work at Baraka College Apiary. All equipment is made at the College.

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effect of

Apis mellifera on ‘Ndigenous plant and in Japan animal species y Hideo Watanabe, Tokyo, Japan he first printed reference to bees in Japan is in AD 643, when the

for pollination of strawberries and melon in greenhouses has increased and the honeybee has become indispensable for our food supply.


indigenous Japanese honeybees Apis cerana japonica were used for beekeeping. In 1876 a European race of

Japan has devoted 20.1% of its area to state forests. Many Japanese beekeepers prefer to raise their bees in these areas to remain in harmony with the nature that provides them with their livelihood, and also to carry out their unofficial

the honeybee Apis mellifera was first imported to Japan, along with European beekeeping technology, and now almost all beekeepers in Japan have Apis mellifera. While the effect of this introduced Apis mellifera on various indigenous species has been observed, it has never become a subject of discussion, probably for the following reasons: |.

custodianship as observers and preservers of these lands. There have been no readily observable untoward effects from the high activity of Apis mellifera in such areas.

Apis mellifera’s negative effect on indigenous life is negligible in comparison with the loss of trees, environmental pollution and use of agricultural chemicals in Japan.

Under the Beekeeping Promotion Law established in 1955, many government organisations, public bodies, universities and institutes began to co-operate with beekeepers. However, due to economic and ecological problems, bees and beekeepers are on the decline. From 10,918 beekeepers and 320,171 colonies in 1980 to 7,235 beekeepers and 214,112 colonies in 1995. It has become a national theme in Japan to improve the condition of beekeeping, which helps to improve the natural environment, food supply and human health.

2. Apis mellifera has not adapted itself to life in the wild. 3. There are many predators of

honeybees, including birds, bears, dragonflies, Galleria mellonella, preying mantis, spiders, toads, Varroa jacobsoni, Vespa mandarinia and Vespa xanthoptera. In addition Apis mellifera suffers from many diseases. 4. Despite these various problems, it is not difficult to raise bees and

produce high quality products. As a result of the decline in pollinating insects due to the widespread use of agricultural chemicals, honeybees are widely utilised in the pollination of crops and fruits. The use of honeybees


Page 10


Recently there has been discussion among ecologists that small, isolated islands such as Ogasawara could be disturbed through the introduction of Apis mellifera. However, as mentioned above, the main islands do not seem to have been affected.

If you want to know more about Apis cerana japonica there will be plenty of opportunity for discussion at the 5th

Asian Apicultural Association Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand in March 2000. Details in Look Ahead, page ||. Also, consider the book Wonders of the Japanese honeybee by Masami Sasaki reviewed in B&D53

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Beekeeping for the Alleviation of Rural Poverty At the Apimondia Congress

in Canada African nations were called to work, to use beekeeping to alleviate poverty among rural communities. Beekeeping development methods must become sustainable and harmonise with the culture and aspirations of the people. Towards this end Apimondia's Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development appointed two Co-ordinators. Their task is to help ensure a strong representation of beekeeping from all African nations at the next Apimondia Congress taking place in Durban in September 2001. It is a great opportunity to show to the world what we have and what the future progress must be. in 1999,

Kwame Aidoo Ghana


Correspondent in

Apimondia vane Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development "



Co-ordinators for Africa

Eastern and Southern Africa contact Liana Hassan E-mail

Northern and Western Africa contact Kwame Aidoo E-mail If you do not have e-mail you can also contact Kwame and Liana c/o Bees for

Development. Information regarding the Apimondia Congress in South Africa is given in Look Ahead page 1, or see |

look ahead


Expo-Apicola San Francisco 2000 5-7 May 2000, San Francisco Further details from: Espacio Apicola Punilla 1784,

5006 Cérdoba, Argentina E-mail




4th International Conference on the Black Bee

Short Course Programme in Beekeeping

19-24 August, Dalsland Further information from: Ingvar Arvidsson Angemyrsgatan 5, SE 66631 Bengtsfors, Sweden




in Honeybees

Agritex 2000

17-19 October 2000, Kralupy (near Prague) Further details from: Bee Research Institute Dol, CZ 252 66 Libcice nad Vitavou, Czech Republic

Further details fram: ATASSI,PO Box 7904, Damascus, Syria Fax (+231) 2693

Fax (+4202) 2094 1252


5th AAA/7th IBRA Conference Tropical Bees: Management and Diversity

8th International Symposium on Pollination 10-14 July 2000, Mosonmayarovar Further details from: Professor P Benedek, Faculty f Agriculture, Pannon University of Agricultural

Agricultural College, Box 52, Molo, Kenya Fax (+254) 363 21100

Fax (+46) 5311 0816 E-mail

Molecular Mechanisms of Disease Tolerance


7-13 May or 20-26 August or

26 November-2 December, Molo Further details from: The Principal, Baraka

Beekeeping in Rural Development Training Course

6-9 July 2000, Damascus


4 August 2000, Cardiff University and

Bee biology 14-16 April 2000

19-25 March 2000, Chiang Mai Further details from: AAA, Honeybee Science

Queen rearing

Research Center, Tamagawa University, Machida Shi, Tokyo 194-8610, Japan Fax (+81) 427 39 8854

Further details from: Peak Bees, The Old Manse,



British Beekeepers’ Association Millennium Convention

14-18 August 2000, Four Seasons Resort

15-16 April 2000, Stoneleigh Further details from:

30 June

2 July 2000

Great Hucklow, Tideswell, Buxton, Derbyshire

SKI7 8RF, United Kingdom


Further details from: Congress Secretariat, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Housing & Co-operatives,



es for


Main Street, Charlestown, Nevis

BBKA, NAC, Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, CV8 2LZ,

Fax (+1) 869 469 1698 E-mail

United Kingdom E-mail


Seminar! The Role of Beekeeping in Development Programmes

Intermiod 2000 Exhibition and Conference on Beekeeping and Hive Products


ciences, H-9201 Mosonmayarovar, var 4, Hungary Fax (+36) 96 215 931

Second Caribbean Beekeeping Congress


Nijiro Wildlife Research Centre Further details from: Bees for Development

-\VE__ stand here

Send details if you want your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here. Bees for

Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, United Kingdom Fax +44 (0)16007 16167 E-mail

noticeboard BEEKEEPERS SAFARIS Bees for Development Beekeepers’ Safaris

2-6 September 2000, Moscow Further details from: Exhibition Complex, Nakhimovsky prospekt 24, 117218 Moscow, Russia Fax (+719) 9390

Tropical Agricultural Association Further details from: our website or at the address


encourage exchange of ideas and on-going contacts, friendship and support between beekeepers from different countries: Tanzania, April and November 2000 Trinidad and Tobago, August 2000 Further details from Bees for Development.



Improving What We Have

10 Quay Road, Charlestown, PL23 3NX, United Kingdom, for your new and second-hand books. Telephone 01726 76844 or

SLOVENIA ‘XXVIII Apimondia International #picultural Congress 24-29 August 2003, Ljubljana Further details from: Cebelarska Zveza Slovenije, Cankarjeva 3, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Fax (+386) 611 261 335 E-mail


XXXVI Apimondia

International Apicultural Congress 1-7 September 2001, Durban

Further details from: Apimondia 2001, Conference Planners, PO Box 82, Irene 0062, South Africa

Fax (+27) 12 667 3680

18 April 2000, Long Ashton Research Station,

Bristol Organised by

Bees for Development and the

1-4 September 2000, Sheffield Further details from: Bee Improvement and

Bee Breeders’ Association, c/o Tom Robinson, York YO! 4JP United Kingdom


Second International Congress on Africanized Honey Bees and Bee Mites

through Bees for Development.

10-12 April 2000, Tucson


Further details from: Dr Eric Erickson, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA Department

would like to contact someone interested in helping to set up a community bee farm in Nigeria. need assistance with funds and sending personnel to Nigeria.

of Agriculture, 2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA

learn ahead INDIA

SPAIN XIX Feria Apicola de Castilla-La Mancha

Beekeeping Education and Training

23-26 March, Pastrana


| L Herguedas de Miguel, Anton 35-2° 19003 Juan Diges Guadalajara, Spain Fax (+349) 4921 8476

Transparencies of bees and all matters apicultural from Professor John Free CMG’s high quality collection can be loaned, on a short-term basis,


Further information from:



Post-graduate programme leading to MSc in

Dr D Rajagopal, Director of Instruction (Agri), College of Agriculture, University of Agriculture Science Campus, V C Farm, Mandya 571 405 Karnataka, India Further details from:



Please write to O Osundina, c/o

Bees for


WORKSHOP ASSISTANCE Bees for Development can provide you with posters and information for use at your meeting. We must receive notice at least three months ahead of the date and an indication of the number of participants. This service is only available free of charge to those in developing countries.

Advertisements in Notice Board cost only 0.50 word (plus VAT to EU countries)

A Bees

for Development publication






Luapula f rovince,

by Jeremiah Mbewe, District Forestry Officer and Mogens Wium,

beekeeping matters. Drafts of awareness-raising materials were made and distributed to pilot areas, selected according to community demand.

ark hive beekeeping and honey hunting are forest-based activities commonly practised in rural parts of Zambia. In Luapula Province fishing is traditional and beekeeping is quite a new phenomenon, with bark hive beekeeping knowledge starting only in the 1980s. Although Government forestry personnel have existed for many years they practised more office work than field extension. This was mainly due to a lack of transport, and of training methods for easy understanding and adoption of extension services.

Beekeeping courses were offered in these areas in the first quarter of 1998, with an additional course in July on topbar hive beekeeping. This was intended to help women participate in beekeeping. Traditionally women are expected not to climb trees, but with top-bar hives there is no necessity for this.

Development Worker

1996 was a year that brought hope within reach of farmers. The Forestry

Department was given an opportunity for funding from the FINNIDA (Finnish Government Aid) backed “Provincial Forestry Action Programme”. This led to problem identification at community level, resulting in villagers making their own plans for resource management. Beekeeping was among the forestry related issues that arose. In March 1997 the first extensive beekeeping training was conducted in bark hive construction and use. Other types of hives introduced during the training were grass and calabash, although bark hives predominated. In July 1997 the Danish development organisation MS—Zambia also

started funding ,

Mansa in

beekeeping, and a Development Worker was attached to , advise on

During the first season of the year theoretical and practical training in bark hive beekeeping are given, with subsequent follow-up visits. In the second season training is given in honey cropping and grading, processing of honey and beeswax, and bottling and marketing honey. In this quarter we also run courses in beekeeping using top-bar hives made from bricks. Local people are traditionally good at moulding and firing bricks and building with them. This has brought success in hive construction.

However occupancy by the bees, and colony management are two major problems preventing the wider adoption of this innovative hive. Also

beekeepers. The Government Extension Officer is there only to monitor the performance of Community Facilitators during training (to identify pedagogical, technical,

participatory and practical shortfalls). These shortfalls are noted and advice is given to the Community Facilitators before continuation in the next pilot area.

Through this approach these Facilitators are training surrounding communities. The response has been very good and there are now 21 pilot areas, and people in over 30 villages trained in beekeeping. Honey harvest has risen from four tonnes in 1997 to nine tonnes in 1998. Production is still below consumption because most of the honey is used for field labour, food, Imbile, and honey beer, Imbote. Though the market is there, production is still minimal and it will take another five years to satisfy the local market in Luapula Province.

The major constraints are: *


top-bar hives are more labour-intensive and people return to bark hives that are easier to make.

The course


bark hive beekeeping raised interest from several surrounding communities such that demand has exceeded both human and financial support. In order to cope with this problem, the best performing beekeepers have been selected for training as Community Facilitators. This training started in February 1999. in



We invite the sharing of experience to continue improving rural peoples’ living standards.

Forest Certification in Zambia A Report on “Forest Certification in

Zambia” prepared for the European Forestry Institute (written by B&D reader Ben Masumba Robertson) provides much information and further contacts. The Report can be seen at www.efifi/cis/english/creports/zambia.html


Calabash and bark hives


Training for these Community Facilitators is practical rather than academic. In new pilot areas it is the Community Facilitators who are given training rather than Government


Lack of proper organisation by the communities to form structures for co-operation that would help them in fixing prices and exploring the market; Inadequate sensitisation of the business community on local availability and prospects for honey and beeswax business; Lack of knowledge by businessmen on how to go about this type of business; Increased beekeeping activities in the long run put pressure on forests.

videoshelf Beekeeping ~, Development

edited by Horst Wendorf fe x


1999 - 81 minutes !. Appropriate Beekeeping Technology (25min) 2. Processing and Marketing of Bee Products (29min) 3. Management of Bees in Top-Bar Hives (32min)








Three videos on one tape available from Bees for Development price 25

Bees for Development provides Workshop 3oxes to Zambia “Thanks so much for the Workshop Box of teaching materials containing 100 issues of B&D, wall charts, and other information from

Bees for Development” Weston Davy Sakala, District Forestry Officer, Nchelenge, Zambia

“Thank you Bees for Development. am glad to write that the Workshop |

Box we received in May 1999 assisted us very much to organise beekeepers’

groups in three different development associations in Nchelenge District.” Gaspard Mwangilwa, Nchelenge

Beekeepers’ Association, Zambia

The average cost to Bees for

Development of one Workshop Box, which provides copies of B&D, posters, books and information leaflets for up to 100 people, is 50 (US$80). We need help to continue providing this service. Please contact us (address on page two) if you can help.

Nchelenge Beekeepers, Association, Luapula Province, Zambia

The video shows people handling bees gently and expertly. It catches the excitement of bringing home a new swarm, and of people enjoying their beekeeping work. It has been made by the six-year project at Mpongwe in Zambia that has successfully established effective training, extension and


For people working in Africa, the video will bring fresh ideas for running a profitable enterprise. For people outside Africa, the video shows exactly how useful beekeeping can be in rural, remote places. It also reveals just what kind of equipment is appropriate and able to survive a typical African year of rains, forest fires, hot sun, floods, bumpy roads, too many predators and too few resources.

The whole programme consists of three sections: Part

describes beekeeping development underway in a rural area of Africa: Mpongwe in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. |

Top-bar hives are being promoted. Timber is expensive here, and excellent cost-free hives are made from clay. The video shows clearly how to make these, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Cement hives cost more, but bring some extra benefits. The video explains how the project assists farmers using a team of private (non-government) extension staff, and makes credit available. Part



MIOMBO WOODLAND EXCELLENT FOR BEES Miombo woodlands are the largest continuous dry deciduous forests in the world. They extend across much of Central, Eastern and Southern Africa: Angola, DR Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe share some 2.8 million km? of miombo woodland. That is 2.8 million km? of beekeeping!

Il describes the processing and marketing of products. Much honey for sale in Zambia is from honey hunting of wild colonies or from bark hive beekeeping. Subsequently the honey’s water content is high. The project has hit upon the idea of using this to make good quality honey wine, ‘mead’. The video shows honey being harvested from top-bar hives and simple ways to process honey and beeswax. The project has developed some novel marketing lines and shows good ideas for adding value to honey and beeswax crops.

Part Ill focuses on the management of bees in top-bar hives. The video does not claim to cover every aspect, but provides a good insight into obtaining bees and looking after them during the year. An excellent video. Congratulations to all the team at Mpongwe!

bookshelf Proceedings of the First Caribbean Beekeeping Congress

Asian bees and beekeeping: progress of research and development

edited by Mitsuo Matsuka, L R Verma, Siriwat Wongsiri, K K Shrestha, Uma Partap 2000 — 264 pages. Hardback.

Paul Latham

Available from Bees for Development price

Available from Bees for Development price

If you need an update on



appendices give yet more: useful inf information.


getver :



Se we







years ago. It contains a wealth S WONGSIRE SHRESTHA PARTAP, of new material on Asian bees ranging from academic research to reports on the beekeeping status of countries in the region. Research orientated papers relate to bee biology, pathology, management methods, bee products and pollination studies. The texts of 72 papers are MOMATSURS



presented in a very attractively produced format. There are a further 23 “fact boxes” dispersed throughout the book. Good value, and a useful addition for beekeepers’ libraries in Asia and beyond.

The next AAA Conference is in Chiang Mai, Thailand in March 2000.. Details in Look


Ahead on page

professionally published after the highly successful First Caribbean



’age 14









This manual is intended to encourage the conservation and planting of useful bee plants in the southern highlands of Seventy-four plant species (including crops, trees and herbaceous plants) are pictured and their values for bees are described. section The introductory describes the log hive beekeeping practised in this area, and shows a typical smoker, one metre long and constructed from bamboo, Vernonia stems and banana leaves. Paul


pictures are very good and this book will help anyone

to quickly learn to identify the species depicted.

Available from Bees for Development price

Details of the Second Caribbean Congress in Nevis are given on page |6.


92 pages. A4 Spiral bound with colour photographs.


Background to bee breeding

John H. Atkinson



John Atkinson 1999 — 290 pages. Paperback.

late 1998.

Publications are in English


Tanzania. in

Proceedings were speedily

Congress held in Tobago in




Conference held Kathmandu two




Beekeeping @

beekeeping development is happening in the Caribbean, then this is the book for you. An excellent source of current information on the region. There are also technical papers, for example on the reproduction of stingless bees in Tobago, the management of Africanized bees in Costa Rica, apitherapy and reports from institutions and non-governmental organisations on their work in the region. Seven



Asian Bees and Association

230 pages. A4 Paperback.

Available from Bees for Development price


This book arises from the 4th Asian

edited by Pamela Collins and Gladstone Solomon


Beekeeping and some honeybee plants in Umailila, Southern Tanzania



useful new book for beekeepers with a serious interest in bee breeding. John Atkinson is a highly experienced beekeeper and advisor who has spent a lifetime working with and learning about bees.

In this text he provides plenty of information that is not available elsewhere. Examples of the |3 chapters included are ackground tol lee ‘Genetics for bee breeders’, ‘Diploid drone production and its reeding avoidance’, and ‘Instrumental insemination’. With few illustrations a complex, technical subject is still made accessible by John Atkinson’s light hearted and relaxed style of writing. An excellent book but certainly not recommended for the beginner beekeeper!

A Bees for Development publication

Beekeeping: a beginner’s guide

Tom Carroll


37 pages Spiral bound A4.

Available from Bees for Development price



helpful text for

beginner beekeepers in Kenya and other countries in Africa.

Beginner's Guide

Clear, practical information on how to get started, what to do during the year, and the


harvesting and marketing of bee -roducts. Also gives useful sources of irther information and methods for making simple value-added products.

t shirts New

Design T shirts

These new, top-qualityT shirts are printed front and back with an attractive, full colour, bee design provided by B&D supporter John Chapple. Available in three sizes, medium, large and extra large.

Our model is Bees for



volunteer worker Mellisa Steele (Mellisa worked with us in

October and November 1999). The price is 21. Proceeds from sales


support the Bees

for :

Development information service.

Elimination of American foulbrood without the use of drugs

order? *

fax and e-mail and through our web site. You will find an order form in our catalogue Books to Buy, or just send us a note of what you want. * Payment should be sent with your order. We can issue a pro forma invoice in sterling or US$. * We can help you select publications for an excellent beekeeping library.

Mark Goodwin and Cliff Van Eaton 1999 — 78 pages. A5 Paperback.

Available from Bees for Development price


American foulbrood pee?

(AFB) is a bacterial disease infecting brood of the

Ly ca


Delivery *

honeybee Apis The disease heckeeters is found in many countries. Some to control the disease by beekeepers try the use of antibiotics. This is not an effective or desirable way to control the disease in the long term, because the bacteria develop resistance, drug residues appear in honey, and the antibiotics merely suppress and ‘hide’ the disease rather than eliminate it. ELIMINATION OF AMERICAN FOULAROOD WITHOUT THE USE OF DRUGS

We accept orders by post, telephone,



4 Prochrel Manwal for

by Mark Goodvrin ond Cliff Von Seton

Prices shown include delivery to addresses in the UK All orders outside the UK are now delivered by airmail service: Please add 10% for airmail delivery to

Europe Please add 25% for airmail delivery outside Europe

Ways to Pay * Credit cards Access, JCB,

Mastercard or Visa accepted. We need to know your card number, card expiry date and name on card.

New Zealand {as in the UK and other countries) the use of antibiotics to control AFB is illegal. This book does not describe methods to ‘cure’ a colony once




Cheque, eurocheque or bank draft in UK sterling Bank transfert Account number: 10167967 Sort code: 20-00-85 Barclays Bank pic, PO Box 29,

it has contracted the disease, rather it advocates destroying by fire all colonies in which the disease is identified. By this

Monmouth, NP25 3YG, United Kingdom

strategy New Zealand plans to reduce the incidence of AFB to below 0.1% by the end of ten years and ultimately to eradicate the disease from the country. This manual gives a lot of useful information on AFB, how to identify it, and practical tips on how to eliminate the disease from beekeeping enterprises.


Post Office Giro}

Account number: 4222067 tBank charges Your payment must cover all charges. If paying in currencies other than UK € sterling use current exchange rate and add the equivalent of 7 to the total

order cost.

All payments to Bees for Development please Bees for Development « Phone +44 (0)16007 13648 Fax +44 (0)16007 16167 * Post Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, United Kingdom E-mail * Web site


The journal for beekeeping science and practice in year 2000, a new Apiacta magazine will be available. It continues the tradition of the journal, which has been in existence since 1966 appearing four times a year and in four language editions (English, French, German, Spanish), but it will now be 48 pages long. Apiacta will include the


most important reports from Apimondia Congresses, as well as contributions from many other authors. Subjects will cover everything from honey quality to the health of honeybees, with a special emphasis on research for applied beekeeping science and practice. Apiacta fills the gap between local beekeeping journals and the mainly scientific, international

journals. Contributions will be selected and verified by a specialised forum, so only articles of high quality are published. Beekeepers who wish to know the practice and the science of beekeeping, and who want to read the experiences of the whole world should read Apiacta.

A year’s subscription costs US$28 payable by cheque to: *


Apimondia Publishing House, 42, Ficusului Blvd., RO-71544 Bucharest 18, Romania or transfer to Bank Account 251 10296990006, Romanian Bank for Development (BRD) Pipera, Bucharest, Romania.

A Bees

for Development publication


Page 15







Manufacturers of

High Quality





14-18 August 2000

“Expanding the Horizons for Caribbean Beekeepers”’ Congress topics

Production and

re Fe Les)

Congress venue

Five Diamonds Four Seasons Resort Congress infomation

Congress Secretariat Ministry of Agriculture Lands, Housing & Co-operatives Main Street Charlestown Nevis Fax (+1) 869 469 1698/0324 E-mail

Relevant government ministries and

Chunbo International


® ® ®


Ministry of Tourism



Nevis Island Administration

administrations UNO agencies and the European Community ~ NGO specializing in rural development Public and private agricultural establishments Beekeeping co-operatives, companies or individuals Training institutes, manufacturers, etc

ACTIVITIES Feasibility studies, project supervision and evaluation Comprehensive supervision of beekeeping development plans Market studies, technological know-how ® Help in establishing co-operatives, laboratories, extraction and processing plants, queen rearing mating or instrumental insemination stations ® Creation of software, audio-visual material, promotional material or press articles seminars, translations etc ® Testing of new equipment and technologies @A la carte training (beekeeping and/or computer) ®@

Importers and distributors of bee products want to import a total of 100 tonnes of crude propolis annually from beekeepers world-wide. Specifications are:

Purity - over 50% Total flavonoid content - over 5% * Heavy metal content- below !0 ppm Colour - red, brown or green *

(grey may be accepted on inspection)

Prices negotiable in accordance with purity and quality


Web sites


and hosting services -

"Virtual Beekeeping Gallery"

"Le Terrier", F-24420 Coulaures —


Email : Internet : Phone : +33 Mobile : +33 — Fax : +33


Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy,Monmouth, NP25 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone +44 (0)16007 13648 Fax +44 (0)16007 16167 E-mail Web Site Bees for Development 2000 Printed on environmentally friendly paper ISSN 1369 9555

ih. *

=WE \