Bees for Development Journal Edition 15 - November 1989

Page 1

NO. 15 NOVEMBER 1989


beekeepers in tropical & subtropical countries APIMOS"8 0a" SESS

The message from Brazilian Apiculturalists is: Africanized bees are manageable! The XXXiind International Apicultural Congress (Apimondia) took place in October in Rio de Janeiro, attended by

over 1400 beekeepers from around the world. The Congress allowed Brazilian Apiculturalists to demonstrate the major strides they have achieved during the past 20 years. African bees were first released in Brazil in 1956. The subsequent 10-15 years were disastrous for Brazilian beekeepers with no available technology or literature to help them cope with the Africanized bees. The turning point came in 1967 when a Confederation. of Apiculturalists was established. The 1st National Congress in 1970 was attended by 150 people, and methods for managing Africanized bees began to be developed. By the 5th Congress (held in 1980, attended by 1200) management methods were well established and a new beekeeping industry was underway. Brazil now ranks amongst the major producing countries with an annual honey production exceeding 30 000T, over 150 Beekeeping Associations, 12 Co-operatives and six State Federations. Commercial beekeepers own 2000 hives or more, from which they expect to harvest around 120 kg/colony/year. Migratory beekeeping is practised widely, taking full advantage of honey flows from citrus, eucalyptus and the



Beekeepers from around the world discussing the characteristics of Africanized bees.

native flora. Indeed beekeeping is proving so profitable and popular that a new problem has arisen: theft of hives. Brazilian success in coping with Africanized bees is due to the achievements of apiculturalists at a large number of research centres and University departments. There are excellent opportunities for beekeeping training, as well as graduate and higher research degrees available in apicultural science. There is a full network for the transfer of scientific and

technical knowledge, with regular meetings, National Congresses and a good range of publications. Research is also carried out on native species of stingless bees. Honey and other hive products are very popular with Brazilians, resulting in a strong and expanding market. This was evident from the array of products displayed at the Congress Exhibition. In particular, propolis extracts and a wide range of medicines, cosmetics and food .

TREES AND BEES, THE DEBATE CONTINUES The last edition of Newsletter which focused on the connection between beekeeping and conservation, and the need for promoting sustainable beekeeping practises aroused considerable debate. To continue the theme in th!3 edition, Bernhard Clauss (page 3) discusses whether beekeepers can have a strong voice in forest conservation. They will be listened to only when they are seen to be contributing economically to the local society. This emphasises the need for working systems of marketing honey and beeswax. Examples of this are given in Catherine Howe’s description (overleaf) of appropriate support leading to successful marketing by Tabora Beekeepers Co-operative Society, and Heather Latham’s description of beekeeping as a means of improving living conditions in villages of Bas-Zaire (page 9). A number of readers questioned why recent editions of the Newsletter have not been printed on recycled paper. The answer was cost. The extra cost of printing on recycled paper could only have been met by reducing circulation of the Newsletter. However, recent increased demand for recycled paper in the UK has meant that our printers have now been able to obtain suitable paper at a reasonable cost. For your interest, the Newsletter is currently sent, free of charge, to over 3000 beekeeping projects, institutes, groups and individual beekeepers in 145 different developing countries. Need a new smoker? Find out how to make your own on page 6! ,


100% recycled paper

International Bee Research Association

ISSN 0256-6626

preparations containing propolis were exhibited. Equipment manufacturers and traders were represented by a total of 47 stands and displays from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, France, Hungary, Italy, Mozambique, Switzerland, USA and West Germany. During most of the Apimondia Congtess, plenary sessions ran concurtently, with additional slide and film shows, and some 97 poster displays. Naturally, beekeeping with Africanized bees formed a predominant theme of the Congress, with many papers devoted to this subject. Aggressiveness of Africanized bees is sometimes still a problem, but on the whole Brazilian beekeepers are happy with their bees, from which they harvest honey, propolis, pollen, wax or royal jelly. In managing Africanized bees smoke is always required and protective clothing must always be worn. Selection and breeding programmes have been underway for many years now, making productive and manageable bees available. Varroa disease is not considered a major problem in tropical areas, but is more serious in southern Brazil where the climate is temperate. Varroa is also less problematical in Africanized bees than in Africanized/Italian hybrids. With annual inflation running at over 1000%, the organisation of such a large Congress is made especially difficult. However Brazilian apiculturalists offered a warm welcome to the Congress delegates, and the organisers deserve congratulations for the smooth-running of the Congress.

A display of propolis from various sources. The glass jar contains propolis in alcohol solution.

GOLD MEDALS! am delighted to report that the Newsletter for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries won a Gold Medal at the Apimondia Congress. In addition the Information Charts* were also awarded a Gold Medal!

Grateful thanks to the Apimondia Selection Committee for these kind honours.




The ‘“Gold-winning!"’ Information Charts are still available, free of charge, to institutes in developing countries. See Newsletters 9, 11, 12 or 14 for further details.

7y Catherine Howe, Traidcraft Exchange

The Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society in central Tanzania has over 5000 members, for whom selling honey and wax is one of few — both families and the community at large through extra cash. Young sources of cash income. Indirectly a lot more people benefit the in their to prospects of earning a living. All this depends upon the Co-operative being able to villages by people are encouraged stay

maintain and expand in markets.

and particularly assists small communityin Traidcraft Exchange is a British Charity which understands the value of trade development, based businesses in developing countries. A few years ago Traidcraft was alerted to the fact that the labora Co-operative was unable to Herklots from Traidcraft visited Tabora and found that technical and export honey because of lack of suitable containers. Jeremy well as attempts at export. One problem was the requirement by the as local marketing, financial problems were severely affecting Tanzania Bureau of Standards for tamper-proof seals on honey jars. Eventually a supply of special seals was arranged and the Colocal sales of honey. operative was able to use its stock of 90 000 glass jars, considerably boosting drums. was the On the export front Traidcraft Exchange established with UK honey importers that getting lacquer-coated difficulty beeswax itself could be used as a lining, and supplies of beeswax are no problem at Tabora! Another aspect of the container problem was worth of plastic collecting buckets. One firm in Tanzania could make them, but lacked the raw materials. They the need for 6000 who could pay cash in advance, which the Co-operative could not afford. customers would only supply be available for a bigger Traidcraft Exchange could not afford it either, and began looking for grants. It became clear that money might the future. A visit to the Co-operative in 1988 established the a more secure on would the which for footing Co-operative put project need or repairs to lorries, improvements at the factory, further basic equipment for the beekeepers and staff training. weeks A Traidcraft Exchange is now co-ordinating a project with a budget of 59 242 over two years. mechanic has just spent six Catholic Fund for Overseas CAFOD has been (the to the by local provided Money fleet. lorry Co-operatives refurbish staff helping the management costs. Nearly 60 000 Development), ODA and other charitable trusts, and Traidcraft Exchange is paying some of sounds like a lot, but when you realise that, including family members, an estimated 40 000 people stand to benefit, it is very good

dalue! was placed in Traidcraft ple is the marketing side of the Charity, whose support has also been vital. An order for six tonnes of honey — usual commercial November 1988 and a 50% advance payment made practise is to pay after honey arrives and the quality is checked. Traidcraft is delighted that the honey is finally in the UK warehouse and the quality is good.



The editorial in the last edition of this Newsletter (May 1989, No 14) pointed out clearly that traditional beekeeping methods are sustainable. Contributions by Gnagi, Svensson and Wainwright supported this statement in detail, providing most constructive and encouraging guidelines for beekeeping extension and development personnel, whether local or expatriate. | would like to add some observations and comments from my own experiences, mainly from Zambia's North-Western Province.

Development chances With the accelerated destruction of various types of tropical forest, growing attention and homage is being paid to traditional land use patterns like traditional forest beekeeping. Fewer people are now calling these beekeeping methods “primitive” because we now understand more about the complexity of this art. We have learnt something about forest beekeepers’ powers of observation and their detailed knowledge about their environment, which allows them to make multiple use of their forests: * First of all, of course, there are the “bee

plants”. Forest plants also provide food (fruit, nuts, vegetables, edible tubers and bulbs, gums, beverages and edible caterpillars) and numerous medicines. * There is abundant wood which provides building materials, timber for furniture and dug-out canoes, and bark, used not only for hives, but also for light canoes, durable ropes and even bags and blankets. Last but not least there is always enough firewood., * The forest beekeeper has always been a hunter and fisherman, not only snaring birds, rodents, and small antelope, but also hunting for larger game and catching fish in the numerous streams. In some areas beekeepers set up camps for better co-operation where of course part of the produce is turned into honey beer. It is obvious that beekeeping activities like hive making, baiting, hanging and maintenance all form part of multipurpose under*

takings. This is what makes extensive, side-line forest beekeeping so attractive. Accordingly, traditional beekeepers do not see any disadvantage in having their hives scattered over vast

areas. After honey harvest they undertake to carry buckets weighing 35 kg on their heads or shoulders over a distance of 10km or much further. The local market for honey is most attractive. Until the honey marketing centre was established in Kabompo 10 years ago, virtually all honey was turned into honey beer, highly esteemed for its social and food value! Even now an estimated 50% of all honey harvested still goes this way to the benefit of the beekeeper. For the beekeeper any quality of honey is a form of “sweet currency” against which desirable goods, animals and even services like bird scaring and ox-ploughing can be bartered easily. Any commercial honey marketing body which enters this barter structure as a com-

petitor with different standards, has to motivate remote area beekeepers to produce honey of selected quality. This has been successfully achieved here by offering attractive prices for both honey and beeswax, as well as a barter service for basic commodities hardly available in the rural areas. It is of course crucial to maintain such a “market-

ing service”! The continuity of new marketing system, being a welcome complementary income source for the beekeeper is the main key to any increase in marketable production. Beekeepers not yet included in the commercially a

orientated marketing network have often told us, “If someone will only come to buy our honey they will be amazed by what we can teally achieve!” Therefore: THE MOST POWERFUL OF


Only then will beekeepers adopt the principles of quality control. Only then will beekeeping extension workers get a responsive hearing for messages of improved traditional management practices. It is obvious that the trader is more dependent on the local beekeeper than vice-versa. However the bee-

keeper is of course always keen to maintain sources of income and commodities. If this anxiety coincides with a natural or increasing shortage of traditionally available hive materials, like suitable bark, the beekeeper becomes innovative and looks for other local resources. We found log hives in this province, as well as cylindrical hives made of slats of dead wood covered with grass. Although beekeeping or honey hunting is in principle a male occupation, some families may display a remarkable flexibility in their response to shortages. There are some cases where women assist their husbands in cropping. In Kasempa_ District some women even go out honey hunting alone. The sensible beekeeping extension and development worker (being first of all a learner), should be thankful when chance alternatives come from the people themselves. Being aware of innovative potential the extension worker should always test, demonstrate and offer alternative and appropriate hive types wherever traditional beekeeping prospects are limited. The North-Western Province of Zambia is still largely covered by forests. However some areas are rapidly becoming deforested because of population pressure. The availability of suitable bark and even other alternatives is reduced. Here, the prospect of “village beekeeping” with alternative simple hives may come in, with additional opportunities for women to be involved.

Like forest beekeeping, hive trials at village level must be adapted to the ecological conditions influencing the behaviour of the African honeybees and traditional management patterns. If alternative hives are to be accepted by villagers the bees should occupy them readily during swarming seasons. They should be easy to handle and control with minimum management. The hive and all other equipment must be available locally.

Forest Conservation As Wainwright put

it already, “Traditional bark hive beekeeping does not lead to deforestation”. The effect of even the excessive “one-way” system of bark trays and bark ropes still in use in many areas is negligible compared with the disastrous “late fires” during the last months of the dry season. Whereas a number of small shrubs seem to be particularly well adapted to “early fires” (and are induced to flower early) most trees and shrubs are adversely affected by regular fires, especially when late: bark wounds are charred, regeneration is hampered and important nectar sources are burnt (eg flowers of Cryptosepalum pseudotaxus exfoliatum and Brachystegia spiciformis). The beekeepers complain and call for government action which is, however, unlikely. Could beekeepers themselves spearhead conservation strategies? The question cannot be answered easily. First of all one has to examine the reasons for “late burning”: * to clear fields * to remove forest undercover to create a clear view for hunting purposes * to encourage fresh grass to shoot up thus improving grazing for cattle. These fires regularly get out of control. They have intensified since the end of repressive, non-educational colonial control, partly due to increasing population density in certain areas. When recalling the “multipurpose” nature of traditional beekeeping activities one realises that many beekeepers themselves are participating in the destruction!

So how can beekeepers become a growing pressure group for the conservation of their forest? First of all they have to regain aware-

ness (together with other local people) that it is their forest. This can be achieved only by an integrated land-use pattern relying on a (newly installed) traditional system of local hierarchy supervision of individual rights and duties. This has to go hand-in-hand with education. Finally reliable honey and wax marketing services may contribute considerably in strengthening the situation. It is in the beekeeper’s own interest to utilise each tree for as many bark hives as possible.



1g, *»




CAMEROON REPUBLIC The St Pius X Beekeeping Club in Bamenda has received a donation of 225.000 francs CFA from the Canadian Embassy in Yaounde. The donation will help to expand the club’s beekeeping activities: these in-

clude the publication of a new Newsletter on Beekeeping for distribution to members of the Club. Details from Barnabus Bonu, St Pius X College, Tatum, PO Box 46, Bamenda, NW Province, Cameroon Republic.


the como cut from the top-bars, tied into these frames and returned to the hive. Nasanov pheromone has been used successfully to attract swarms, and similar success is obtained by rubbing the interior of the brood box with a plant called fever grass. Originally it was intended to purchase lumber for the project, but in the aftermath of hurricane Gilbert found the scrap pile of a shingle factory. The cedar chunks no longer large enough for shingles are just right for our carpenter's electrical saw. We were thus left with only the boxes to be made of purchased lumber. A recent innovation has been the use of roof sheathing from an exquisite Wesley chapel for bee boxes. The chapel had a high pitched roof that was lost to hurricane Gilbert. The wood, hand sawn mahogany, is as sound as the day it was installed. Any scrap that can be cut to 47.5cm lengths can be joined for bee box construction, with a topbar slab left over. As you can see, whatever you need is out there. All it takes is a little creativity to find and identify it. Go for it!”

honey greatly as a medicine, they are not willing to eat it as food. It is believed that eating honey causes too much ‘heat’ and can be harmful especially in summer. Another erroneous belief that persists is that granulated honey cannot be pure. Since mustard honey granulates easily during the winter, we find it hard to sell without repeated heating. Per capita consumption of honey being extremely small, we have reached a state of glut without producing any substantial quantity.

(P S Pammi)


(George L Skirm)

LIBYA The Tripoli Beekeeping Association was founded in 1980 and has about 1020 members. The main activity of this Association is to improve the beekeeping industry in Tripoli by teaching modern beekeeping and import-

Donkor-Krom-Afram piains is in the Eastern tegion, and has an abundance of bee plants. In March 1989 the district administration ordered the arrest and prosecution of any honey hunter seen selling honey. The reason for thisis to try and stop the bush fires and killing of bees with fire brands.

Apiaka is a new eight page beekeeping newspaper published in Bahasa Indonesia, and costing Rp 500 per issue. It is available from Pusat Apiari Pramuka Kompleks Wiladatika, Cibubur, Jakarta, Indonesia.

ing modern materials and tools from foreign countries. It has also some minor activities such as buying and selling honey and other bee products. (Shamseddin M Elkritly)

(Francis Sosu, FES Beekeeping Promotion Centre, Ghana)



Beekeeping and honey production have received more attention since the 1979 Iran revolution. Over 1.5 million colonies of Apismellifera are managed by 40 000 beekeepers. Average yields are about 7.5kg per colony per year, with a total production of 10000T honey. Most beekeepers move their bees to the southern part of the country for over-wintering: the climate is sub-tropical and spring begins a couple of months earlier than in other zones. Forage at this time of year is provided by eucalyptus, orange and field crops. Serious bee diseases in Iran are Varroa and nosema. Varroa is treated with Folbex VA, varroasin, varoastan and perizin. Fumagillin is found effective against nosema. American foulbrood has been found

Mexico now has a new publication, Apicultura Moderna, published by a group with interests in bees and beekeeping. The new journal will be published in January, May and September, and is available from Instituto de Investigacion Apicola de Mexico, A C Apartado Postal 5-885, Guadalajara, Jalisco 45000, Mexico. Published in spanish, the cost is $3500.00 Pesos.

INDIA The Amritsar district of Punjab bears extremes of climate with cold winters and hot summers. Most bee forage is from cultivated crops and every bit of land is cultivated. The winter crop of mustard (October-January) is a steady source of honey and pollen. It is followed by a short but intense bloom of fruit orchards (pear, peach, plum and citrus) during February-March. Eucalyptus, which is grown for timber along the borders of the fields provides flora during DecemberMarch. Sunflower, now being introduced as an oil crop, is another source of forage during April and May. In the hot summer months of May and June, the main honey flow is due to the blooming of the fodder crop Berseem Trifolium alexandrinum. The monsoon period of July-September is the lean period when hardly any flora is found and predators like wax moth and ants become active. In the past, all honey and wax were obtained from wild colonies of Apis dorsata. With the introduction of Apis mellifera during the sixties, beekeepers have taken to keeping these bees in Langstroth hives. We have formed an Association to look after the interests of members and to arrange for the collective sale of honey. As beekeepers it has been our sad experience that although Indian people value


in a few apiaries.

(K H Mousavifard)

JAMAICA A beekeeping project organised by George Skirm is helping Jamaican youths to learn

practical beekeeping. He writes “Making Langstroth frames is a time-consuming process and ten frames a day, wired, is about the best one can do while transferring skill. To increase hive availability only four frames are used in each hive and the rest of the hive, for the time being, is fitted with top-bars. After a super and its frames have been made, additional deep frames are made and

A seminar was conducted at Tecoman,


the state of Colima, Mexico on 25-26 May 1989. The seminar was sponsored by the Autonomous University of Guadalajara, SARH (The National Agency for Soil and Hydraulics Resources) and the Ohio State University. Approximately 120 participants attended the various discussions on Africanized honeybee biology and behaviour. Dr James Tew presented lectures on bee biology, behaviour and instrumental insemination while Dr Jose Antonio Zozaya, subdirector for the Mexican National Program for the Control of Africanized Honeybees, discussed the various plans and programmes for the Mexican National Program. The seminar included a visit to a National Queen Production Operation and gave ample opportunity for debate and discussion. The attitude of the seminar was positive and co-operative.

(Apiculture Awareness, June 1989)






This group of Jamaican boys have been collecting scrap timber at a shingle factory. The scraps will later be sawed into frames for bee hives: the finished frames can be seen stacked in the background.

PAKISTAN The Department of Entomology at the Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab is executing a modest research project funded by the Government of Pakistan. A 15-day training course is given each year in March to prospective beekeepers of NWFP and Punjab (180 trainees in March 1989). Since funds are limited only locals who can afford board and lodging are encouraged for training. With the introduction of Apis mellifera in the early 1970s and the subsequent successful project for Afghan Refugees, there are now more than 12 000 hives of occidential bees with an annual honey production of 1500 to 2000 tonnes. The income generating scheme for Afghan Refugees was terminated in July 1987 due to lack of funds and profitable honey marketing. We are confronted with many problems: honey marketing, bee pests and diseases and the production of quality queens. We should be able to exploit the honey reserve, estimated to be 50 000 tonnes annually in NWFP alone, more gainfully.

(Imtiaz Ahmad, Agricultural Research Institute)

SOLOMON ISLANDS The Solomon Islands Beekeepers’ Association has decided to form a Co-operative Society. This new Co-operative will help with the provision of equipment, technical advice and centralised facilities for the extraction and marketing of honey. A new Workshop is planned for equipment manufacture and honey processing, and the Co-operative will own and manage around 150 of its own hives. Funding for technical assistance, a building, and a vehicle has been provided by the New Zealand Government, but the new Co-operative is designed to be self-supporting in its running costs. Revenue will arise from the 150 hives (which will cover the manager's wages and other labour costs), the sale of equipment and the packaging

and marketing of honey. Another important step has been to arrange a total ban on the importation of honeybees (including queens) into the Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands are currently free from any bee diseases, and this is the only way to ensure that they remain so. (Information from Island Bee News, edited by

J David Galvin,


TOBAGO Beekeepers in Tobago are to form an Association. The decision to get together followed a two-day seminar and workshop for practising and potential beekeepers organised by the Agriculture Division of the House of Assembly in conjunction with the Agricultural Development Bank on 18 and 19 May 1989. 42. people attended, 19 of whom were Extension Officers, the remainder being practising beekeepers and those who want to get into the honey-making business. M K I Hallim, Government Inspector of Apiaries, lectured on the characteristics of the Africanized bee, its migratory patterns through South America, over to Trinidad and its expected migration to Tobago. He spoke of successful ways of managing Africanized bees and on queen rearing. Gladstone Solomon, an experienced Tobago beekeeper, spoke on systems for the successful collection of pollen, and Linval Wilkinson, an ADB Officer, discussed the Bank’s role in financing a beekeeping enterprise.

The seminar which was held at the Agriculture Division’s Training Facility at the Kendal Farm School, also featured video tapes on the Africanized bee, and a field expedition was organised to demonstrate the proper selection of beekeeping sites. The seminar was described as a complete success and culminated with the decision of beekeepers to form an Association. (From Tobago News, 2 June 1989; sent in by Arlene Blade)

Heard the one about the fearsome Bengal tigers who only attack men from behind? Well, workers at the tiger reserves have, and it explains why most of them now walk around with rubber face masks tied to the backs of their heads. And, according to wildlife expert Peter Jackson, this is saving their lives. Since the theory was first put to the test two years ago, nobody wearing a face mask has been attacked and killed by Sundarbans tigers in West Bengal. Two-faced honey collecters and other workers can roam happily round the mangrove forests while the tigers remain timidly in the undergrowth. But people who believe the masks provide no protection have not, alas, fared so well. Mr Jackson says that 30 unmasked workers were killed last year because they refused to heed the advice. “There is no doubt that these simple, cheap masks are saving people's lives in an area where tigers are renowned for being particularly aggressive’, he said. Mr Jackson reported his findings to a species survival conference in Rome as an example of how humans and wildlife can live in peace with each other.

(Sunday Express, August 1989)

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF INVERTEBRATE REPRODUCTION The fifth International Society of Invertebrate Reproduction Congress was held in Nagoya, Japan in July. The following Resolution on Asian Honeybees was accepted by the 500 participants at the Congress: The Asian Hive Bee, Apis cerana, as well as other wild native bee species are on the verge of extinction especially in the Himalayan region because of traditional honey hunting methods, introduction of allopatric European honeybees Apis mellifera and continuing ecological degradations. All concerned institutions and organisations in the region are urged to initiate research on the biology and management of these scientifically and economically important species of honeybees. Professor Dr W Engels, ISIR President.


have a grandfather but no father, I have grandsons but no sons. Who am I? (Answer on page 10). |


The following instructions are adapted from Introduction to Beekeeping

by Peter Bechtel and Kathy Gan, the Swaziland published by Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives.


Materials needed 1. 1 large tin with lid (such as a 1 kg milk or coffee tin). 2. 1 smaller tin to fit inside the larger one (eg 500 g coffee tin). 3. 150 cm of wire, medium weight (1.6 mm

gauge) Flat iron; 1 piece 6 cm x 32 cm, 2 pieces 2cm x 6.5 cm. Any scrap metal will do as long as it bends easily. 100 g of small, flat-headed nails, 1-2 em in length.

100 g of 20 mm panel pins. 2 pieces of smooth wood, 1 cm x 12 cm x 19cm. Any scrap timber that can be


cut and planed smooth to these dimensions may be used, but if the thickness is more than I cm then the final smoker will be too heavy. 1 strong spring. From an old car seat or box spring mattress. A piece of metal pipe, 1.5 cm diameter and 5 cm long. A piece of tube from a broken tubular school chair works well. 10. A piece of strong material, 12cm x 68 cm. Old car seat, raincoat, leather or rubberised material will do, but it must be without any holes. 11. A few nails of large and medium size for punching holes.

Figure 2.

Shaping metal

}——__——__ 65cm


A. Bend melal strip Into L-shape, 65 cm tong


Metal strip

hotc tne



cm thick







Bend metal strip at corners of plank. Cut cul e Y-shaped notch es shown.

Pattern for bellows material. 68em


Small nail holes, 4


on each


3 on each end.




( Sc



Tools needed:

Attaching the spring


the Spring








Metal strip completed. Ful for inter use.




hammer, handsaw, hacksaw, wire cutter, pocket knife, scissors, metal cutting shears, hand plane, pliers, accurate ruler, brace drill with bit (the bit should be about the same size as the pipe), vice or 2 G-clamps.

Figure 3.



Cut the material for the bellows using the pattern shown in Figure 1.

side as shown in Figure 3. Fit the piece of pipe into the hole and glue if necess-

Prepare the 2 pieces of flat iron, 2 x 65 cm. Take one metal strip and bend it in half lengthways, forming a long Lshape (Figure 2A). Bend the metal strip over the edge of a table or other hard surface. Clamp the metal strip down tightly before striking it with a hammer. Repeat with the second metal strip. Fit one of the long L- shaped metal strips around the edge of one 12 x 19cm piece of wood. Cut a V-shaped notch out of each corner as shown in Figure 2B, and then fold the metal strip down at the comers. Repeat with the second piece. Take the small, flat-headed nails and punch four small holes in each long side of each metal strip. Punch three small holes along each short side of the strips. When finished the metal strips should be as shown in Figure 2C.


Take one piece of wood and drill a hole to hold the pipe tightly. The hole should centre on a point 2.5 cm from the bottom of the wood and 6cm from each



Centre the spring as high as possible on the other side of the wood to the pipe. Attach the spring with small panel pins nailed part way into the wood and bent over to hold the spring in place (see Figure 3). Attach the other end of the spring to the second piece of wood in the same manner. The pieces of wood and spring should now be as shown in

Figure 4B.

Bend the piece of metal 6 cm x 32 cm into a 4cm x 10cm rectangle as shown in Figure 4A. Punch four holes on each of the long sides: on the doubled side the holes will go through two layers of metal. Drill four corresponding holes into the wood that holds the pipe, such that when the metal is attached it will be 4 cm from the top of the wood. Using two pieces of wire attach the doubled side of the metal rectangle to the wood as shown in Figures 4B and 5A.

Figure 4.


Bellows construction.


attached ta Pleuks with nails



Metal rectangle, tied with wire to plank y


Fit the material around the edges of one of the pieces of wood and sew the ends of the material together where they overlap. Fold the material in half and mark the centre point on the top and bottom. On each piece of wood mark the centre of the short sides.

Tack the material to the wood using a few panel pins, matching the centre marks on the material with those on the wood. The narrow end of material should be along the bottom of the pieces of wood. Nail the metal strips prepared in (2) around the wood, on top of the material. Use the panel pins, using the holes already punched in the metal strips. Be careful to nail straight so that the wood does not split, and keep the material tight against the wood. The finished bellows should look like Figure 6. 8.


Cut a blow hole near the bottom and a smoke hole on the opposite side, near the top of the large tin, as shown in Figure 7. The blow hole should be 2 cm x 2 cm and the smoke hole 1 cm x 1 cm. Save the lid of this tin. Now attach the bellows to the tin as shown in Figure 7, using the four holes punched in the metal rectangle. Carefully punch four corresponding holes in the 1 kg tin, and tie the tin to the rectangle using the wire.

Figure 6. Metal strips

Attaching the material strip to the bellows.


10. Now prepare the small tin by making 15 to 20 holes in the bottom of it using a big nail. Cut a 1 cm x 2cm hole out of the top edge as in Figure 7. Discard the lid of this tin.

11. Punch two holes with a small nail 1 cm below the smoke hole of the large tin, and punch two corresponding holes in the small tin, also cm below the upper hole. Using the 20 cm piece of wire tie the small tin inside the large tin, with the upper hole of each tin in alignment. The bottom of the small tin will hang above the bottom of the large tin. Replace the lid of the large tin. 1

fetal ts attached in the centre of the plank, 4cm from the top edge 8 Mark the centre of top and bottom et potn planks as shown above ‘C Mark top and bottom corners of teather strip as shown below A

ttork here

The smoker is now ready for use. The smouldering smoker fuel is put into the small tin, and smoke is produced by squeezing the bellows. This smoker should give you many years of good service if you follow

these simple rules: 1. Do not lose the lid of the large tin. 2. Do not let burning fuel remain in the smoker after you finish working with your bees. Empty the smoker in a safe place where it will not start a fire. 3. Do not let the smoker get wet: it will rust. 4. Scrape the black tar out of the smoker occasionally. 5. Replace the tins when they become wom.

Figure 7.

Attaching completed bellows to smoker tins.

AWS inside large one





Punch holes in large tin carefully, so the pipe lines up with the blow hate

Tle bellows to tin with wire


The purpose of this feature is to increase awareness of the beekeeping projects funded by various aid organisations, and thus stimulate the exchange of information between them. IFS, the International Foundation for Science, found in 1972, is a non-governmental organisation with a membership of 85 scientific academies and research councils in 71 countries, of which two-thirds are in developing countries and one-third in industrial countries. The Foundation is governed by an International Board of Trustees, which is elected every three years, at General Assembly. The Secretariat is located in Stockholm, Sweden. The Foundation supports young scientists of merit. Their research must fall within the areas of aquaculture, animal production, crop science, forestry, food science, natural products, and rural technology. Besides being from a developing country, the researcher must be attached to an institution which provides salaries and basic research facilities. Research grant applications are submitted directly to the IFS Secretariat, which relies on an extensive network of senior scientists to evaluate an applicant on the basis of his or her education and training, the scientific quality of the proposed research, and the relevance of the work to the needs of the country. Eleven countries, as well as a number of aid organisations contribute to the Foundation’s budget, which in 1988 was approximately US$ 4.5 million. IFS, Grev Turegatan 19, S 11438 Stockholm, Sweden.

IFS has supported the following honeybee related research projects:




Dr Yeboah-Gyan, University of Science & Technology, Kumasi

Assessment of the efficiency of Ahomafufuo (Allophylus spp) extracts as plant-derived anaesthesia for honeybees Apis mellifera.

M_ Dicko, Direction Nationale des Eaux et Foréts, Bamako



NUMBER B/1205-1






Maskey Meera, Tribhuvan versity, Kathmandu


Dr Cleofas Cervancia, University of the Philippines at Los Banos

Insect pollination in selected vegetable crops.


Adelaida Costales, Department of Environment & Natural Resources, Bagui City Lap Pham Van, University of Hanoi

Apiculture under different reforestation species in Benguet.



between different types of bee hives for rural adaptation in Mali.

A study of nectar and pollen yielding plant resources in the Kathmandu Valley.






Dr N A Fernandez, Universidad Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata

Varroa disease of the honeybees in the Pampas region of Argentina.



Carlos [Echazarreta, Universidad Auténoma de Yucatan, Merida

A comparative study of drone re-

Lourdes Almeida, Universidad Cen-

Analysis of foraging behaviour and of some responses related to defensive behaviour of honeybees Apis-



tral de Venezuela, Maracay

Selection for prolific Apis cerana queen bees.

production in Africanized and European honeybee Apis mellifera colonies.




Paul Lokadito, Community Development Support Unit, Juba


SOURCES OF GRANT AID FOR APICGULTGRAL DEVELOPMENT This is one of the Source Materials for Apiculture leaflets originally published by IBRA in 1981, with a second edition in 1985 (along with french and spanish translations in 1984). The leaflet gives the names and addresses of aid agencies and other organisations that may finance beekeeping development projects. Since its first publication this leaflet has been in continuous demand, and many thousands of copies have been distributed. Some of the material is now out-of-date and a new edition is in preparation. If you know of, or work for, an agency which is funding beekeeping development and should be included in the list, then please send details to Nicola Bradbear at IBRA. The information needed is: Name and acronym of the organisation, whether a descriptive leaflet is available, type of support given, type of proposals required, who may apply for funding, and any special priorities, conditions or geographical areas.


Heather Latham, Bas-Zaire BP du Armee 45, Salut, Inkisi/Kavwaya, (Photographs: Programme Agricole/Apicole, D Bolrot). Living conditions in Bas-Zaire are not always easy and for many it is difficult to make two ends meet. The Salvation Army is an organisation which works to draw out the full potential of people, and salvationists consider that development goes towards this by several years offered a variety of providing basic needs: food, health, housing and education. The Agricultural Programme has for in rural villages. activities, including the teaching of beekeeping

How it started 1982-1986: during this four-year period there was a succession of Peace Corps volunteers who passed through the Army's Centre at Mbanza-Nzundu. Their work was teaching villagers to make hives and keep bees, allowing them to harvest honey without burning colonies. This led to 50 people becoming beekeepers in a 40km radius around Mbanza-Nzundu. Honey was produced but its transfer to a potentially lucrative market proved difficult. Teaching stopped and the beekeepers were left to carry on as best they could. 1985-1987: Two volunteers introduced the activity to villages close to Kavwaya — another Salvation Army base 70 km from Mbanza-Nzundu. Their aims were to teach beekeeping to a Zairian who could then help the activity to be independent of external aid, and to find a system of marketing the honey. It was during this period that the Programme Started to buy honey. The two expatriates managed to establish the present system of village teachers; people who were chosen and trained in order that they would voluntarily teach others in their own villages (auto-training). The aim was to reduce reliance on the Programme and to increase responsibility of the villagers. -1987: The leadership team was made up of one expatriate and three Zairians. Their aim was to stabilise and strengthen the system of village teachers and to co-ordinate the different activities of the Programme. During this time, to facilitate follow-up in the villages, the geographical area was divided into five sections with one village teacher responsible for each section. -1988: The emphasis was placed on a global approach to the problems faced by village groups. Other development projects and organisations in the area were put into contact with the groups and thus a wider variety of activities was offered in the villages. The agriculture and beekeeping Programme aims to integrate its activities into existing, independent village structures such as village associations. General objectives of the Programme * To teach beekeeping techniques * To establish financially independent production and marketing of honey.

Combs from a wild nest are attached with wire to top-bars.

Organisational structure Awareness, teaching and follow-up: this system of working has proved effective and efficient. When introducing an activity to a new area villagers are made aware of the benefits and opportunities of beekeeping. Teaching is then given on the biology of bees and techniques of beekeeping, and regular visits to the villages ensure complete understanding and putting into practice of the technique. The Salvation Army


and Beekeeping Programme



Christian Aid


Organising team

Village teachers


Village groups, associations, committees





The future The Programme would like to sell material for making hives at cost price. Wood is difficult to find and the lack of hives is a limiting factor in the spread of this activity. We aim to provide all village teachers with two bee-suits, a smoker and the necessary material for extracting honey. Smokers are made by the Programme and the suits are made in villages from flour sacks. This equipment is given with the understanding that the beekeeper teaches six people in six months. The Programme will stop giving basic beekeeping courses at its centre and will place the emphasis on encouraging beekeepers to organise and hold courses in villages. Refresher courses for those already trained will be held at the centre. The intention now is to concentrate on finding a suitable system which can be used io insure the auto-financing of the activity, taking into account a salary, transport costs for marketing honey, and costs of pots and labels.

Conclusions The Programme's aim is global and plu-

risectorial, in other words it: * thinks through with villagers the problems met in the villages '* puts village groups into contact with other development projects * encourages the formation of structured village associations of development committees, to facilitate thinking and working together to solve problems encountered by the community.

Honey flow Village beekeepers producing and selling honey

The Programme buys and


the honey


$0 a8 to sell it to markets in Kinshasa and Bes-Zaire

The work is finished. Now all that remains is to wait until the harvest season.



poison ourselves? What have always avoided is to take a sample of propolis from areas where spraying of chemicals is done. |

Therapeutic properties of propolis I have always been curious of the reactions people have when asked about the “wonders” of propolis. am not a chemist but just a technician who has observed the effect of taking propolis especially when am manipulating bee colonies. The following observations have been made during a three year |


period. ] have keenly observed the reactions propolis has on me personally and the results (in a layman’s language) are not alarmingly negative. The dosage I take whenI feel down is a speck (one quarter size of a chewing gum) of propolis, chewed up or rolled over in the mouth until it disappears or rather it dissolves in the saliva and is swallowed. Feeling down in this aspect is when have feverish symptoms or a slight cough. It is not easy to accept that possibly propolis has some fever reducing properties but used to be a malaria victim and from 1985 to date I have never had another attack. The attacks were sometimes severe. They were coupled with high fever and spinal-tremors. Thank God my wife is a nurse and she knew how to handle the situation. The 1982 attacks are still living in my memories. When started work in Mozambique in 1983, I had several attacks and had registered slight spinal-tremors. In those days I used to take two tablets of chloroquine to prevent me from getting malaria on a weekly basis. Since started the other prophylactic-practice of taking propolis three times a week, have done away with the chloroquine tablets and have always been on the safer zone. In 1986 travelled much and was subjected to variable climates. The itinerary covered Tanzania, Swaziland, Botswana, and Zambia. It took about five months to cover this route, much of it working with traditional African beekeepers in the bush. [ took the normal dose of propolis if there were fever symptoms. I had no malaria attack. During the past five years, 85% of letters from my family carried a message of one member suffering from malaria. told my family of the “wonders” of propolis. Propolis, by its natural appearance is a product which is never appealing to non-beekeepers. They found it strange and funny to the taste in the early days. Now, they are more or less accustomed to the blunt taste. Could this be a breakthrough in this terrible disease? Do you think you can do some observations from your side and inform us of your findings? Do you think that by taking bits of propolis now and again we might in the long run |








Appeal Please try to contribute ideas on this issue and see how far we can get. am sure it is a very interesting subject for research work. If this research turns out a success, just imagine how many lives we will save and how many tons of bee products will be increased; considering the number of beekeepers in the tropics who are victimised by malaria. Mathew N Kawa, Beekeeping Technical Advisor, Programa Nacional de Apicultura, C P 1011, Maputo, Mozambique. |

Beekeepers, here we come!

The name Liberia must certainly be

strange to the beekeeping world, but we want all of you out there to know that we have finally come, and intend to stay! Although honey hunting has always existed in Liberia, beekeeping has not really been a tradition. was introduced to beekeeping by a missionary friend who has a beekeeping family background. He presently runs seven Langstroth hives on the mission compound. In June 1988] started out on my own with two Kenya top-bar hives. collected one swarm using my friend’s protective outfit; the second swarm colonised the other hive naturally, and within a period of four months ran out of space and left the hive. am most disappointed whenever this happens, but reading the Newsletter always refreshes me. During October of last year formed a small co-operative called the Tappita Beekeeping Co-operative (TBC) starting a solely Liberian owned apicultural endeavour, with the aim of creating an apicultural awareness in Liberia. This year the US Small Projects Assistance Fund (SPAF) provided the Cooperative with US$733 for the construction of 40 Kenya top-bar hives. The hive construction is being carried out hand in hand with swarm capture as the swarming season here is from early June to early July. Out of 10 captures we so far have six remaining. Our young, tiny co-operative needs a lot of help, including training for cooperative members, and finance for expansion and equipment. We do solicit assistance from any kind donor agencies. |




Joseph M Toah, Chairman, Tappita Beekeeping Co-operative, Nimba County, PO Box 707, Monrovia, Liberia.

around the World’, Newsletter 14 under Cook Islands: ‘15 beekeepers from both public and private sectors attended a Workshop in the Cooks last year’. We asked the Co-ordinator if it would be possible to send one of our beekeepers to the Workshop. We were told that only beekeepers from the public sector were to attend the Workshop. If some enquiries had been made here in Western Samoa it would have been realised that there are no beekeepers other than with our Company. Instead a person from the Crop Protection Project was sent, who never has seen a live bee in his life before and will never work with bees after attending the Workshop. If Workshops like this are held and the money has to be spent anyway, then please send the right people who can benefit from it. Don’t just send stop-gaps. It is just another way of the Iaissezfaire attitude towards the beekeeping industry here in Western Samoa. Andy Welti, Managing Director, Samoa Bee & Honey Co Ltd, PO Box 4591, Apia, Western Samoa.

Help needed

We all know the value of introducing beekeeping into poor rural sectors where there is sufficient forage for bees to produce honey. We also know that in most developing countries where beekeeping is possible, particularly excolonial ones, a ‘bee policy’ has at some time in the past been developed. Unfortunately such policies often remain only

on paper. We are working in 40 villages. The people are landless, exploited tribals, living below the poverty line. We work with them at a real grass-root level and this means they trust us as people who not only speak and talk about things, but do them. We have a Community Centre where women and children come for various activities — including working in demonstration kitchen gardens. We know that it would not be difficult for us to set up a training programme for beekeeping. We also know that there would be more than 40 families who would be interested in setting up a hive system and it would be possible over the following years to have a — but.... ‘pass on the gift scheme’ where do we get funds to start and initiate the project? Who can give us funds to set up a small demonstration unit of 20 hives and run a series of training


Cook Islands With interest was reading in your ‘News |

Answer to question on page 5: A drone.

For people living below the poverty line in this area life is very hard. Even to run a demonstration class on a subject that women want to take part in is difficult unless we are able to give them a wage for the days they attend. This is because the pressure of a hand to mouth life means that when there is no daily field labour (rice planting and harvesting) they must spend the whole day in the jungle collecting seeds or firewood for sale in the daily market to obtain that day’s provisions. Please seriously give thought as to how we can obtain a grant, because with such a grant we are totally confident that beekeeping could become a major contributor in changing the whole quality of life for these women.

Gunanidhi Limma, New Hope Rural Leprosy Trust, Post Bag 1, Muniguda, Koraput Dist, Orissa 765 020, India.

Tranquilliser for the African honeybee has been said that green leaves of Vitex payos, Manihot utilissima and Voandzeria subterranean, and other plants can be mixed with smoker fuel to produce a smoke which tranquillises it

bees. It would be a great boon to beekeepers if Apis mellifera adansonii can be temporarily tamed with a soporific. Have you any information on the practical use of these or any other tranquillisers?

D M McKinnon, Box BW126, Borrowdale, Zimbabwe.

[Ed: Previous editions of this Newsletter have described the use by village beekeepers in Ghana of stalks of Ade-

nia lobata to subdue bees (Newsletters 8, 1986; 11, 1987) and the use of puffballs in smokers by beekeepers in Tanzania (Newsletter 11, 1987). It is stated that

bees usually recover after treatment with Adenia lobata, but the hydrogen sulphide gas given off from puffballs can be deadly for brood and adult bees. The identification of compounds which have a soporific effect on bees but which are toxic neither to bees nor

humans could be a useful step.]

LOOKING AHEAD Please note if you are planning a beekeeping event and you want details to appear in this column it is important that you send information to the Editor of the Newsletter well in advance of the planned date.



11th International Congress of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects. 5-11 August 1990, Bangalore. Further details from: The Secretary, 11th Congress of IUSSI, Department of Entomology, University of Agricultural

Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India.

NETHERLANDS Sixth International Symposium on Pollination. 27-31 August 1990, Tilburg. Further details from: The Sixth International Symposium on Pollination, Ambrosiusweg 1, 5081 NV, Hilvarenbeek, Netherlands.

PAKISTAN Beekeeping Training Course (National Level). 2-8 May 1990, Islamabad. Further details from: Dr R Ahmad, Honeybee Research Programme, PARC, National Agricultural Research Centre, PO National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Royal Show international Symposium: The Contribution of the Honeybee to Agriculture and the Countryside. 4-10 July 1990, Stoneleigh Further details from: Katherine Fort, Assistant to the Agricultural Director, Royal Agricultural Society of England, National Agricultural Centre, Stoneleigh, Warwickshire CV8 2LZ, UK. Changing patterns of crop production and changes in emphasis in land use will create challenges as well as opportunities for the beekeeper. The Symposium will address the following themes: Environment, Changes in agricultural practice, Apiculture and _pollination, The transfer of technology and education in apiculture, New directions from science. The Symposium will be held during the same week as The Royal International Agricultural Show. 8th

The Behaviour and Physiology of Bees. Joint Colloquium — The Royal Entomological Society of London and the International Bee Research Association. 11-12 July 1990, London.

Further details from IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, CK. The Meeting will consist of four main sessions: Environment within the hive; Communication; Foraging behaviour and Neurobiology.

IBRA’S ADDRESS 1986 IBRA moved from Hill House, Gerrards Cross in Buckinghamshire, England to Cardiff in Wales. Many readers seem to believe that there are IBRA offices at each address, and are writing to both. We have only one Headquarters and this is in Cardiff. Although some IBRA publications may still show the old address, please send all correspondence to IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff In

SOUTH AFRICA Bees and Beekeeping in Southern Africa, under the auspices of S A Federation of Beekeepers-Associations and Patronage of Apimondia. 24-26 January 1990, Stellenbosch. Further details from: Organizing Committee, PO Box 3306, Cape Town 8000, South Africa.


CF1 3DY, UK.



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This Newsletter is edited by Dr Nicola Gradbear with assistance from Helen Jackson, at the International Bee Research Association. Two editions of the Newsletter are published each year and are distributed free of charge to those in developing countries involved with beekeeping. The purpose of this Newsletter is to provide a forum for exchange of information; if you have a good idea then why not share it with others? If you are involved in beekeeping development then IBRA is always interested to hear of your work. Also if you have any enquiries about beekeeping and the information you need cannot be obtained locally then write to IBRA and we will try to help you. This Newsletter and the Information Service offered by IBRA to beekeepers in developing countries is funded by the UK Overseas Development Administration. It you know of another beekeeper who would benefit from access to this Newsletter or the information service provided by IBRA then his/her name can be added to our mailing list if they write to us. It your address has changed then please return the mailing label together with your new address.

Dr Nicola Bradbear, Advisory Officer for Tropical Apiculture, IGRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK




* Proceedings of the Fourth Conference held in Cairo, November 1988 are now * available. with financial support Published by IBRA, London, UK (1989) 549 pp; * from the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau. * Containing all papers presented at the Conference and including speeches and * resolutions. Sessions included:




African honeybees: Africanized honeybees: Asian honeybees Improving the quality standards of honey and wax: Marketing Appropriate beekeeping equipment: Management techniques and problems Beekeeping in integrated rural development programmes: Education and training Country reports: Crop pollination and forage: Pest control safe for bees Encouraging women as beekeepers: The importation of honeybees Mite parasites of honeybees: Other pests and diseases Bee products for the benefit of human health.

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