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College of Natural Sciences

COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES

POSTGRADUATE PROSPECTUS 2013/2014 www.bangor.ac.uk/cns


WELCOME

The College of Natural Sciences at Bangor University is one of the leading centres in the UK for teaching and research in biology, environmental sciences, geography, and ocean sciences. We aim to educate and train a new generation of scientists aware of societal needs in a world-class research-led environment. Our international links are extensive and our research interests extend across a range of habitats with global significance from coral reefs to the polar ice caps.

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College of Natural Sciences

The college is comprised of three schools: The School of Biological Sciences, which offers degrees across the full spectrum of modern biology from biomedical science to ecology and zoology; the School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, which offers degrees in environmental sciences, geography, conservation, forestry and natural resource management; and the School of Ocean Sciences, which offers a range of courses from marine biology, through to oceanography, applied marine sciences, and coastal geography. Bangor provides a superb range of marine, freshwater, wild and farmed terrestrial environments locally, as well as access to experience and opportunities through the global reach and connections of the academic staff and former students. First-class research and teaching facilities are there to be used by students including molecular biology and DNA sequencing facilities, a Botanical Garden, experimental grounds, a University-based farming business, experimental areas for forestry as well as the university research vessel, RV Prince Madog.

The Welsh Institute of Natural Resources (WINR), which incorporates the Biocomposities Centre, the Centre for Advanced Research into Agricultural Development (CARIAD), and the Centre for Applied Marine Science (CAMS), are major contributors to knowledge transfer and enterprise in the College. Our Graduate School provides dedicated support to graduate students and offers the finest environment for personal and academic development for students across disciplines and from different backgrounds and countries. Bangor is a friendly and welcoming place to study where individual aspirations can be met because of its size, accessibility of staff and friendly atmosphere. It is a great place to be a student and we are confident that you will not only learn a lot, but that you will have a hugely enjoyable time doing so.


LOCATION Bangor is the ideal location for the study of natural sciences, set between the mountains and forests of Snowdonia National Park and Gwynedd’s dramatic coastline, providing a ‘living laboratory’ for much of our teaching and research. The School of Ocean Science is ideally situated on the banks of the Menai Strait on the Southern part of the Isle of Anglesey, whilst Biological Sciences and Environment, Natural Resources and Geography are based in the centre of Bangor.

HOW TO FIND US

If you’re coming to Bangor by car, there are excellent road links along the north Wales coast, linking to the rest of the UK motorway network.

FACILITIES There are excellent facilities at Bangor, including large, modern, well equipped teaching and research laboratories; a £3.5 million seagoing research vessel and three smaller inshore vessels; a Botanical Garden; a Natural History Museum with extensive invertebrate and vertebrate collections; a Research Farm; along with extensive marine and freshwater aquaria. Seabird, seal and dolphin populations are resident locally and accessible for field study. Collaborative links with local and overseas organisations give us access to environments from the deep sea to tropical rain forest.

The College is associated with the Environment Centre Wales, a research institute for the integration of environmental sciences which is a partnership venture between Bangor University and the Natural Environment Research Council’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH). The centre is housed in a state-of-the-art building using energy efficiency measures, natural light and renewable energy technologies. The building has an international reputation as an exemplar building of sustainable design and construction, and is one of only three buildings worldwide to have received a commendation for its sustainable credentials.

A major redevelopment of the campus has taken place, including a £10 million business and management centre, a dedicated building for the study of environmental sciences, and a £35 million development of student residences to meet the high demand for contemporary living accommodation. Furthermore, the University is developing a £42m Performing Arts and Innovation Centre which will be home to cuttingedge teaching and learning facilities, a theatre with a capacity of between 450-550 seats, cinema space, a studio theatre as well as social facilities including bars, dining and park areas.

The nearest airports are Liverpool and Manchester International, which are both less than 2 hours away. Bangor is on the main train line to Holyhead and is served by direct trains to London Euston (approximately 3.5 hours travelling time), Manchester, Birmingham and Cardiff. The train station is a short walk away from most of the University buildings. Direct ferry connections from nearby Holyhead to Ireland are fast and frequent.

Bangor

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CONTENTS

1. College of Natural Sciences a. Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 b. Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 c. Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 d. Postgraduate Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 e. Knowledge Transfer and Enterprise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06

2. School of Biological Sciences a. Postgraduate Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 b. Module Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 c. Research Degrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3. School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography a. Postgraduate Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 b. Module Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 c. Research Degrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4. School of Ocean Sciences a. Postgraduate Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 b. Module Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 c. Research Degrees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5. International Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6. Tuition Fees, Scholarships and Admissions Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7. About the University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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RESEARCH The College of Natural Sciences has an international research reputation in areas critical to society, such as research into the causes of cancer, the implications of climate change, the promotion of sustainable development and the conservation of biodiversity. The advantages of combining research and teaching include students being taught by scientists at the forefront of their field, and lively interactions between students and staff. Our research is organised into the following research groups:

DEVELOPMENT & DISEASE This research group uses model biological systems to analyse the cellular mechanisms of development with a focus on understanding how failure of normal developmental mechanisms can lead to disease. Research teams work in a multiuser laboratory environment fully equipped to undertake cutting edge molecular cellular research. Our research activities are built around the Cancer Biology group (incorporating the North West Cancer Research Institute), which investigates the molecular mechanisms of cancer; and the Animal Development group, which uses a variety of organisms to undertake basic and applied projects to understand the mechanisms of normal animal development and how mis-regulation of these processes can lead to disease.

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION This research area is among the largest in the College of Natural Sciences. A central part of our work is the application of molecular markers

such as microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequence data (454 Roche and Sanger) to fundamental evolutionary and ecological questions relating to the origins, levels, distribution and ecological significance of genetic variation in wild, captive and exploited populations.

climate change and human activity since the land-ocean boundary is both the most intensively exploited by man and the most susceptible to climatic perturbations. Much of the research is focused on critical interfaces in the system: land/river, river/estuary, estuary/shelf, shelf edge, sea bed, sea surface.

BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND PLANT SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT

This group uses a number of molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate important research areas. The plant molecular biology group is interested in increasing the disease resistance of crop plants, as well as using molecular approaches to reduce the effects of global warming. Wetland biogeochemistry is an important area and this group has been developing methods to identify factors regulating peatland enzyme activities, to ensure that enzyme activities remain at their present low levels. A major research group is involved in investigating various aspects of metal-microbe interactions, isolating and characterising bacteria that live in extremely acidic environments and using them in novel biomining systems for extracting metals from ores. Environmental genomics and proteomics is a rapidly expanding area – members of this group have performed in -silico and functional genome analysis of Alcanivorax borkumensis, the key player in marine oil degradation worldwide and the first marine oildegrading bacterium ever sequenced.

LAND-OCEAN SYSTEMS SCIENCE Research is directed at the physical, chemical, and biological processes and responses that characterise the coupled land-ocean system between river catchments and the edge of the continental shelf. Emphasis is on the major challenges that arise from

The research of this cluster is focussed on the global, grand challenges of maintaining food security whilst sustaining ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, water regulation, provision of fibre and fuel and cultural services. Research on food production spans crop and shellfish genetics, agronomy and aquaculture. There is a strong focus on the environmental impacts of agriculture and fisheries from production through the supply chain to consumption using approaches such as life cycle assessment and carbon foot printing.

LIVING WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE This cross-cutting research theme is focussed on the science-policy interface and brings together staff who undertake research of relevance to the challenges of a society adapting to rapid environmental change. It aims to strengthen the evidence base that informs key policy decisions concerning the maintenance of functioning natural ecosystems and of human well-being. Our research will provide decision makers with evidence to inform management and protection of vital ecosystem services in the most effective and practical ways taking into account uncertainties inherent in the prediction of climate change impacts.

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POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES We offer a wide range of taught postgraduate degrees, a range of MRes programmes and formally structured research degree programmes. Many of these are one-year, full-time, taught Masters (MSc and MA) programmes but there are also distance learning courses, and two-year taught Masters’ programmes that result in a double degree award. Many of the taught Masters courses have a common structure involving a series of modules designed to deliver specialised education and training. Field courses and outside visits are an integral part of many of our programmes. Students also complete a piece of original research in a chosen field relevant to their degree subject. The taught part of the course runs from late September

to early June, followed by the dissertation phase, which runs from June to September. Applicants are normally expected to have a first degree in an appropriate subject but the College also welcomes enquiries from individuals with different qualifications or relevant experience. The College offers Master of Research (MRes), Master of Philosophy (MPhil), and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) research programmes in a wide range of subject areas that reflect our research expertise. As well as offering strong support for research activities, the College offers unique opportunities for students to conduct project work under internationally recognised supervisors. Students

also benefit from our extensive local, national and international links with state and private sector organisations. The MRes is a one-year full-time research programme that differs from a taught Masters programme by placing more emphasis on research. It is also available on a part-time basis. To obtain a PhD, which normally takes 3 years fulltime, the student is expected to conduct independent research that will make an original contribution to knowledge about that particular subject and present this in the form of a thesis. The MPhil usually takes 2 years full-time to complete, and also involves independent research and completion of a thesis but this may be extension of existing knowledge rather than an original contribution.

RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER & ENTERPRISE Knowledge transfer and enterprise activities reach across the College through the Welsh Institute for Natural Resources (WINR), which is an umbrella under which three of the University’s major contributors to knowledge transfer and enterprise shelter. The Centre for Advanced Research into Agricultural Development (CARIAD) promotes agricultural and forestry development and 6

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the provision of technological and scientific innovation to improve natural resource development and management. Whilst the Biocomposites Centre is at the forefront of research, development and the commercial application of bio-based alternatives to synthetic materials in manufacturing and industry. SBBS is a newly emerging group of sustainable development specialists who appraise businesses to help them understand where they’re at, in terms of sustainability, and advise them how to improve.

The Centre for Applied Marine Sciences (CAMS), which is embedded in the School of Ocean Sciences, provides contract research and consultancy services in ocean modelling, marine biology, coastal zone management and aquaculture and incorporates SeaCams (Sustainable Expansion of the Applied Coastal and Marine Sectors); a partnership of internationally recognised marine research experts from three leading Universities in Wales – Bangor, Aberystwyth and Swansea.


SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

“I CHOSE TO STAY IN BANGOR BECAUSE I LOVE THE CITY AND SURROUNDING AREA, AND CAN’T FAULT THE LEVEL OF TEACHING AND SUPPORT PROVIDED BY THE ACADEMIC SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITY. HERE AT BANGOR WE ALSO HAVE A THRIVING POSTGRADUATE COMMUNITY, WITH ITS OWN FORUM AND SOCIAL CLUB WHICH BRINGS TOGETHER STUDENTS FROM ALL ACADEMIC SCHOOLS. I WOULD DEFINITELY ENCOURAGE MORE POSTGRADUATES TO STUDY AT BANGOR!” LINDSAY PEPPIN PHD IN WILDLIFE FORENSICS

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The School of Biological Sciences offers degrees across the spectrum of modern biology, from biomedicine and medical biology through to zoology, ecology and conservation. We pride ourselves on our supportive and friendly atmosphere, the international standard of our research and the high quality of our teaching. The School is home to the North West Cancer Research Institute, a centre of excellence for cancer research in Wales. Some of our plant biology teaching and research is carried out in the Treborth Botanic Garden situated along the Menai Strait which offers landscaped gardens, and a range of grassland and woodland habitats. The School is unusual in boasting its own Natural History Museum with a large collection of vertebrate and invertebrate specimens and an extensive marine aquarium, and a freshwater aquarium. We currently offer undergraduate degrees in Biology; Biology with Biotechnology; Biomedical Science; Ecology; Medical Biology; Zoology; Zoology with Animal Behaviour; Zoology with Conservation; Zoology with Herpetology; Zoology with Molecular Ecology; and Zoology with Marine Zoology. Master degrees are 8

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available in many of our undergraduate degree programmes. To achieve a Master you will study a fourth year, following on from three years of undergraduate study. During this extra year you will undertake an individual research project, accompanied by 30 taught credits. The biomedical science degree has been accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS). Students successfully completing the programme may be eligible to apply for registration with the Health Professionals Council upon graduation. As a postgraduate you can study one-year taught Masters Degrees in Medical Molecular Biology with Genetics, and Molecular Biology with Biotechnology. One year research (MRes) degrees, are also available in Ecology and Natural Sciences. These differ from the taught Masters programmes by placing emphasis on research methods and the research project. Some of the areas available for research degrees are the application of metagneomics and other genetic and OMICs approaches to the discovery and monitoring of species and community diversity, as well as the exploration of microbial habitats rich in industrially-relevant enzymes;

behavioural ecology of threatened species; speciation and evolution of venom and venomous snakes and other reptiles; population genetics and morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptation to changing environments in a variety of organisms; paleogenetics and paleogenomics; hostsymbiont evolution and molecular parasitology; cancer studies; crustacean neuroendocrinology and neurogenetics; cellular and molecular mechanisms of nervous system development; carbon storage and cycling in relation to aquatic and wetland systems; A full list of topics can be found on the School website. We receive substantial financial support from Research Councils, charities, government departments the European Commission, and British and overseas industry. Our postdoctoral base is strengthened by individuallysponsored Fellowships from the NERC and the European Commission (e.g. Marie-Curie). Our diverse interests facilitate a wide exchange of interdisciplinary ideas and techniques and promote collaborations both within the School and with colleagues in other institutions and industry, in the UK and overseas.


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES POSTGRADUATE COURSES MSC MEDICAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY WITH GENETICS The application of molecular biology in medical sciences has led to huge advances in the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Students who successfully complete the course should have a good understanding of the practical and theoretical aspects of medically-related molecular biology, as well as an ability to critically evaluate relevant literature; well developed problem solving skills, and the intellectual, practical and communication skills to undertake molecular and/or medical research. Graduates from the programme will have the skills and experience required to enable progression onto a research degree or a career in medically related molecular topics. COURSE STRUCTURE  Medical Microbes, viruses and parasites  Molecular and Medical Laboratory Techniques  Medical Biotechnology  Human Immunology & Disease  Genomes & Molecular Genetics  Stem cells, Disease & Therapy  Bioinformatical Analysis Tools

 Project

Preparation Project

 Research

MSC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY WITH BIOTECHNOLOGY This taught postgraduate degree course provides intensive training in this important area of biology and is designed both for new graduates and for those wishing to develop and extend their expertise in this area. The course has a strong practical emphasis and will provide the advanced theoretical and practical background necessary for employment in the Biotechnology industry, as well as equipping students with the knowledge required to pursue advanced studies in this area. The course consists of a taught component and a research project. During the taught phase of the degree, you will take a range of modules covering Agrobacterium Ti plasmid based plant transformation vectors and the development of transgenic crops; the use and interpretation of microarrays and proteome systems; the development of transgenic fish and the diagnosis of fish diseases using molecular markers; bioremediation, biomining

and the use of bacteria to degrade novel organic pollutants; and stem cell technologies and the diagnosis of genetic disease using single nucleotide polymorphisms. During this part of the course, you will also take part in intensive laboratory exercises designed to introduce you to essential techniques in molecular biology and biotechnology including nucleic acid and protein extraction, PCR and QTL analysis, northern, southern and western blotting etc. The research project will take place during the summer and will be conducted under the direct supervision of one of the staff involved in teaching the course. Students will be able to choose their research project from a wide range of topics related to the taught material. COURSE STRUCTURE  Marine Biotechnology  Plant Biotechnology  Techniques of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology  Environmental & Industrial Biotechnology  Genomes & Molecular Genetics  Bioinformatical Analysis Tools  Medical Biotechnology  Project Preparation  Research Project www.bangor.ac.uk/biology

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MSC PLANT CONSERVATION (SUBJECT TO VALIDATION) This one-year course will provide students with a thorough understanding of the principles and processes that underpin plant conservation including the social and environmental contexts. Bangor University possesses a world class cohort of conservationists, as well as access to the flourishing Botanic Garden at Treborth and Henfaes Research Centre. These resources provide educational facilities, such as extensive glasshouse space for experimental and horticultural practice, and an extensive global display of plants assembled over 50 years for teaching and demonstration. There are excellent opportunities for botanically orientated postgraduates in a wide variety of fields from botanic gardens to countryside survey and research, conservation management and environmental education. COURSE STRUCTURE  Conservation Biology  Evidence based conservation  Issues in Plant Conservation  Plant Diversity and ecology 10

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 Field

Trip

 Research

methods  Research Project

 Wetland

plant identification

MSC WETLAND SCIENCE AND CONSERVATION This taught one-year course will give students a thorough understanding of all aspects of wetland science and ecology. Students will also gain experience and knowledge on the complex conservation, restoration and management issues associated with wetlands. Field and laboratory work will cover the latest techniques in environmental analysis needed for contemporary wetland monitoring and experimentation. COURSE STRUCTURE  Wetland ecology  Classification of wetland types  Properties and functions of wetlands  Wetland zoology and botanical adaptations  Wetland hydrology and biogeochemistry  Carbon sequestration in wetlands  Use of wetlands for carbon offsetting  Wetland conservation and restoration techniques  Use and design of constructed wetlands

“The course is great for graduates who are interested in extending their knowledge of biotechnology issues – the modules cover a range of topics from oil remediation, medical biotechnology to GM crops, and ways in which to assess and remedy these with the use of molecular genetics. The workload is intensive yet manageable and the staff are extremely helpful and will always make time for students who request assistance.” LIZ SMITH MSc Molecular Biology with Biotechnology


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES MODULES

BIOINFORMATICAL ANALYSIS TOOLS The purpose of this module is to teach PG research & Masters students how to utilise online bioinformatics tools to analyse (i) DNA & RNA, (ii) genomes and (iii) proteins. These skills are essential for the successful completion of modern research projects and provide PG students with transferable employability skills. The teaching strategy uses problembased-learning in combination with three workshops. These workshops take place in a computer room allowing students instant access to the software tools. They are structured according to the three main biological topics (DNA & RNA, genomes, proteins) and equip students with the tools required to solve a set research problem. Students are offered two drop-in sessions to resolve any issues they may encounter during the problem solving exercise.

ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY This module will be broadly divided into two sections – the first dealing with bioremediation and biomining

and the second dealing with the use of microorganisms to tackle marine oil pollution as well as to enhance oil recovery. The first section will cover various aspects of metal-microbe interactions, most specifically the use of micro-organisms that live in extremely acidic environments (acidophiles). In the second section, the use of Alcanivorax borkumensis, the key player in marine oil degradation worldwide and the first marine oil-degrading bacterium ever sequenced, will be examined.

GENOMES & MOLECULAR GENETICS The lectures of this module are designed to equip students with an in-depth understanding of the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in genome organisation, DNA replication, transcription, RNA translation and the uses of RNA transcripts. The second half of the module will go on to explore the molecular mechanisms and regulation of cell signalling, the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, cellular ageing and programmed cell death. Finally, the principles of experimental methods used in the genetic and molecular analysis of both human cells and key model organisms. This module will provide background understanding

required for more specialised modules of medical molecular biology.

HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY & DISEASE The lectures in this module will describe the human immune system and its roles in the development, progression and treatment of major human diseases and disorders. Major topics covered will include the molecular mechanisms of the immune response, how loss of regulation can result in immunological syndromes and cancer development and how immunology can be harnessed to develop and improve the treatment of key human diseases with special emphasis on immunological based cancer therapies.

MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY During the last 20 years marine biotechnology has been, and continues to be, of prime importance to aquaculture worldwide. This truly global industry is one of the few that continues to grow at approximately 10% per year! From artisanal roots, the current focus of the industry is now firmly based in modern technologies. This module aims to introduce students to marine www.bangor.ac.uk/biology

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biotechnology by addressing topical issues.

MEDICAL MICROBES, VIRUSES AND PARASITES The aim of this module is to develop an understanding of the medical and molecular aspects of infection and toxins. Topics covered will include medically important bacteria, viruses, parasites and venoms. The microbial section of the module will discuss “Normal flora”, its role in disease and factors affecting microbial pathogenesis. Infectious disease of major and minor organ systems and the efficacy of antibiotics and in vitro techniques used to measure antibiotic susceptibility. The section on viral disease will discuss major human blood borne viruses. The final section of the module will explore the molecular aspects of “parasitical diseases” and venoms

MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY This is a lecture module designed to equip students with an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the medical aspects of biotechnology. Topics covered will include; bioinformatics in medicine, cancer immunotherapy, stem cells in regenerative medicine, biomaterials in regenerative medicine, 12

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pharmacogenomics of angiogenesis, novel antimicrobial agents and their design and other future medical biotechnologies.

MOLECULAR & MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES This is a practical module which will provide both an understanding of the key aspects of standard techniques of molecular biology and medical microbiology and practical training in how to use them in a research environment. It will be presented by staff with extensive research and research publication records.

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY This module aims to cover aspects of plant biotechnology from transformation to societal issues to do with genetically modified crops. Agrobacterium biology will be covered in detail, including the construction of Ti plasmid vectors and how these are used in plant transformation. This module will also cover modern methods of plant breeding including QTL analysis and marker assisted selection with respect to breeding for abiotic stress resistance.

PROJECT PREPARATION The purpose of this module is to prepare students for the research project. The student will become proficient in researching (processing, interpreting, evaluating and presenting published research information) and improve their presentation skills (via written scientific reports, posters and seminars). They will also become familiar with a key medical, molecular, and/or genetic research topic.

RESEARCH PROJECT All registered students who have passed the theory modules undertake a research project under the supervision of a member of academic staff. The project addresses a biological question or topic by practical experimentation in a laboratory setting. Experimental work will be conducted either as an individual or as a member of a small group researching related aspects of a single topic. This module is designed to give students experience in conducting independent research.


STEM CELLS, DISEASE AND THERAPY This lecture series is designed to give the student an in depth understanding of stem cells, their uses in regenerative therapies and how stem cells can be the initiating cells in diseases such as cancer. The course will start with a general introduction to stem cell biology and will cover definition, characterisation and signalling pathways involved in maintenance of stem cells. The use of stem cells in regenerative therapies will then be covered, along with the generation of the alternative induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for use in patient specific therapies and for the study of disease. Finally the course will focus on stem cells as the initiating cells of cancer and will consider the adverse effects of possible genomic instabilities, associated with long term culture of human stem cells, on regenerative therapies and disease.

TECHNIQUES OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY This is a practical module designed to equip the student with expertise in standard molecular biology techniques. The course will start with training in methods designed to extract DNA and RNA from animal and plant tissues, and progress to the analysis of these nucleic acids on agarose and polyacrylamide gels. The skills learnt in this early part of the course will then be carried forward to mapping unknown recombinant plasmids and finally to the analysis of human DNA polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction.

“The modules I have taken, especially Genomes with Molecular Genetics, work in harmony with my medical qualifications and have allowed me to appreciate the pathogenesis of medical illnesses more deeply. The information is novel and fits accurately with the remit of the MSc. The success of the course is due primarily to a high commitment from the organisers and staff involved in teaching the degree.� DR. RASHA ALI AL-KHAFAJI MSc Medical Molecular Biology with Genetics

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MRES ECOLOGY AND MRES NATURAL SCIENCES The MRes programme is a full-time 1 year degree by research (also available on a part-time basis), and differs from an MSc in placing more importance on the research project. The MRes in Ecology is built on the strong foundation of the former MSc in Ecology which ran at Bangor for over 40 years and which has an excellent reputation in the UK and internationally, among employers and academics in the field. The MRes degree will equip you with confidence and competence in the latest research skills and allow you to apply for further research training (PhD) programmes or to directly apply for research positions in universities or research institutes. The course is composed of a taught component covering

important generic skills such as literature searching, health and safety aspects, grant proposal writing, introduction to statistical manipulation of data (60 credits), and a research dissertation (120 credits). Your project plans will be developed as part of the generic skills component in association with your supervisor. As this is an important component of your degree, you are encouraged to approach a potential supervisor and agree a project title before you make a formal application. If you are not sure who to approach, the Graduate School staff can provide advice. The MRes in Natural Sciences is run by the School of Biological Sciences but is open to students in any school of the CNS.

“I chose to study at Bangor as I was impressed by the published research from the School of Biological Sciences as well as the obvious enthusiasm of the staff for the subjects they are teaching. During the course I had the opportunity to learn a wealth of genetic and bioinformatic techniques and felt as though the university was committed to providing me with the tools I needed in order to produce the most successful research results possible. All in all the high teaching standard and the fantastic natural surroundings of the university would make studying at Bangor a wonderful and worthwhile experience for anyone.� CAROLINE KERBYSON MRes Ecology

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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH DEGREES (PHD/MPHIL)

The School supports a vigorous research base in a number of areas including animal behaviour, endocrinology, energetics and physiology, molecular ecology, fisheries genetics, molecular cancer studies, microbial biodegradation and bioremediation, genomics of microorganisms and plants, plant systems and technology, wetland biogeochemistry, and comparative neuroscience and development. Research within the School is supported by a range of national and international funding agencies and there are links with industrial and academic partners all over the world. Our researchers, whose current funding exceeds £5.7 million, are supported by a new aquarium,

animal and plant growth facilities and our molecular research needs (from ecology to cell biology) benefit from the newly-established Biomolecular Technology Unit within the School. This Unit provides a strong platform for our rapidly growing suite of biomolecular instrumentation, enabling leading edge/novel research approaches to be developed. For those people interested in Ecology/Environmental research, this is a strong theme within the School and Bangor generally, with some 90 academics in four major departments involved in teaching and research under this broad umbrella, and external research funding totalled some £14 million between 1996 and 1999.

“ Bangor has one of the largest Peer Guiding schemes of any UK university. From the moment you arrive, you’ll be given as much help and support as possible with health and welfare matters as well as your academic work.” Our biomedical science laboratory was recently renamed the Robert Edwards Laboratory after the Bangor Graduate and Nobel Prize winner for Medicine in 2010 for his pioneering work on in vitro fertilisation. Research degrees are offered in the following broad subject areas:  Animal

Physiology and Behaviour and Molecular Biology  Ecology and Evolution  Plant Systems and Technology  Cellular

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SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES & GEOGRAPHY “WITH THE SNOWDONIA MOUNTAIN RANGE AS A BACKDROP, AND BORDERED BY THE MENAI STRAIT, I CHOSE TO STUDY AT BANGOR BELIEVING THAT THIS WOULD BE AN IDEAL SETTING FOR ENVIRONMENT BASED COURSES, AND THIS WAS CERTAINLY THE CASE. IT ALSO EQUIPPED ME WITH PRACTICAL SKILLS SUCH AS USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SOFTWARE AND CARRYING OUT STATISTICAL ANALYSES, WHICH HAVE ENABLED ME TO GO ON TO WORK IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FIELD.” ANNA KAYE JONES MSC CONSERVATION & LAND MANAGEMENT GRADUATE

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This friendly School has the highest possible independent rating for the quality of teaching, and the pastoral care we provide for our students has also been very highly rated. The School has a world-class reputation in research, with particular expertise in forest ecology and management; environmental and soil science; agricultural systems; agroforestry; biodiversity conservation; and tropical ecosystems. The School has a wide range of modern facilities including a dedicated Research Station, which accommodates investigations into the production of novel crops and livestock, biomass crops, woodlands and horticulture on farms. The School hosts other major internationally and nationally recognised research centres such as the Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, and the Centre for Integrated Research in the Rural Environment. Much of our research is undertaken overseas and we have projects in countries as far apart as Vietnam, Ethiopia, Antarctica and Peru. Our location is not only a beautiful place to live; it also provides unique opportunities for study in the disciplines we cover, particularly the natural environment, land use

and conservation. The Snowdonia National Park is less than 20 minutes away and this provides a ‘living laboratory’ for much of our teaching and research. We offer a wide range of degree programmes at undergraduate level, such as Environmental Science; Environmental Management; Environmental Conservation; Geography; Forestry; Agriculture, Conservation and Environment; and Applied Terrestrial and Marine Ecology.

Many of our programmes are professionally accredited, including our forestry-related programmes which are accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters (ICF) and our Environmental programmes, which are accredited by the Institution of Environmental Sciences. Furthermore, we are IEMA Approved for the Associate Certificate in Environmental Management course.

Our taught Masters programmes include Agroforestry; Conservation and Land Management; Environmental Forestry; Sustainable Tropical Forestry; and Sustainable Forestry and Nature Management. We offer taught postgraduate distance-learning programmes in Forestry; Tropical Forestry; and Food Security in a Changing Environment. Research degrees are offered in a wide range of environmental subjects; such as Plant and Soil Science; Natural Resources Ecology, Conservation and Management; and Crop and Forest Science. We also offer, in conjunction with the Business School, an MBA in Environmental Management. www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy

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ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES AND GEOGRAPHY POSTGRADUATE COURSES MSC AGROFORESTRY In this one year course, you have the opportunity to learn about how trees, people and agriculture can be combined in sustainably managed farms, forests and landscapes. There is a long tradition of agroforestry practice in many parts of the world, but recently it has become a major focus in international development and is now at the forefront of innovation in natural resource management. Bangor is a world leader in agroforestry teaching and research with strong institutional links to ICRAF (the World Agroforestry Centre) and other leading international organisations. The course equips you to deal with the principal forces driving change in farming and forestry, from thinking globally about issues like climate change and carbon trading to dealing with practical issues of how to manage trees on farms at a local level. This involves taking a human perspective to land use management while emphasising an ecological approach in agriculture. The course has a world focus and the University has specific links with agroforestry organisations where project work can be done in Africa, 18

Asia, Europe and the Americas, as well as an active programme in Wales. Our graduates are either already employed when they start the course or have a strong track record in finding employment within the sector. This course is partially accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters. Taught modules are normally 20 credits, and the dissertation is 60 credits. COURSE STRUCTURE  Agroforestry Systems  Silviculture for Agroforestry  Experimental Agroforestry  Natural Resource Management  Global Agriculture and Food Security  Research Methods  Research Project/Dissertation

MSC CONSERVATION & LAND MANAGEMENT The one year course in Conservation and Land management is intended for students with a strong interest in land use who want to increase their knowledge of conservation issues. The course aims to provide students with a broad and balanced understanding of the fundamental science

School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography

underpinning Conservation and Land Use. The course addresses issues concerned with sustainable use of the countryside. It examines habitats, wildlife and landscapes and the natural and human factors influencing them. The course also examines how economic activities such as farming and forestry can be managed in an environmentally acceptable way, and how human enjoyment of the countryside can be incorporated within an integrated land use approach. Students with degrees in biology, law, environmental studies, social sciences, geography, economics and psychology have graduated from this course and gained employment with conservation agencies, NGOs and government organisations and with academic institutions both in the EU and overseas. The course is designed with a flexible modular format that enables students to specialise in topics that are directly of interest to them. COURSE STRUCTURE  Conservation Science  Agriculture and the Environment  Evidence-based Practice in Conservation  Management Planning  Research Methods  Field Study Tour  Research Project/Dissertation


MSC ENVIRONMENTAL FORESTRY

This course is fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters.

This one-year course will develop your understanding of how forests function, and of the ways in which they can be managed to provide the wide range of ecosystem goods and services that we require.

COURSE STRUCTURE  Forest Resources & Assessment  Temperate Silviculture  Natural Resource Management  Management Planning  Research Methods  Field Study Tour  Research Project/Dissertation

This course is intended primarily for students who already have an interest in forestry and who wish to learn more about the environmental and societal benefits provided by forests. Lectures, seminars and independent learning are supported by an active programme of field practicals and forest visits benefiting from the excellent range of forest and woodland types, and management, in north west Wales, during which students are able to discuss policy and management issues with forestry professionals. The course also has a strong international ethos, being heavily influenced by our long record of research in forests throughout the tropical world. The MSc Environmental Forestry course, which is fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters, has been running for more than 25 years, and its graduates are now working in forestry all over the world.

MBA ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT The role of the corporate environmental manager is becoming increasingly complex and strategic. Corporate social and environmental responsibility is becoming prominent in consumer demand and a prerequisite for tender eligibility. This necessitates a more sophisticated environmental manager who can interpret legislative and audit requirements and deliver them in a manner conducive to continued economic development, whilst recognising the market trends. The aim of this programme is to develop skills in the delivery of economic activities related to environment, green technology and sustainability. The programme includes highly topical case studies from across these sectors reflecting changing strategies and alternative

“I found the blend of technical and social elements in the Bangor Agroforestry MSc programme invaluable. This degree was the ideal launch pad into an active research career in Asia and the UK.� TIM PAGELLA MSc Agroforestry Graduate

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approaches. The course is suitable for graduates in a wide range of disciplines, including Environment, Engineering, Finance, Social Sciences and other subjects. COURSE STRUCTURE  Organisations and People  Strategic Management  Management Research  Business  Planning for the Green Economy  Finance for Managers  *Strategic Environmental Management  Green Technology  Research Project/Dissertation *This module is approved by the Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment (IEMA) for the Associate Certificate in Environmental Management course.

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*MSC FOOD SECURITY IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT (*SUBJECT TO VALIDATION) This programme will provide students with a detailed understanding of the principles and processes of sustainable food production, including social and environmental contexts. It will equip students who already have work experience in the food supply chain to implement the latest research into sustainable systems thinking, and will facilitate cutting edge careers for those who want to enter the food production and supply chain. COURSE STRUCTURE  Upland Farming Systems  Carbon Footprinting and Life Cycle Assessment  Soil Management  Agriculture and Society  Resource-efficient farm management  Agro-ecosystem services assessment  Research Methods  Research Project/Dissertation

is designed to provide students with detailed knowledge and expertise of direct relevance to the modern forest manager and those working in associated disciplines. Teaching and learning for each module is supported by a guided reading handbook plus various supplementary materials, such as books, journal articles, scientific reports, online lectures, podcasts, discussion forums and a ‘virtual learning environment’. Guided reading and recorded lectures and student self assessments are the main methods of learning. Extensive use is made of the University’s virtual learning environment platform (Blackboard), and there is regular communication between students and module tutors on discussion forums. Field and laboratory practical classes and forest visits take place during the week-long summer school that is held each year in Bangor.

MSC FORESTRY (DISTANCE LEARNING)

Studying through distance learning, allows students in fulltime employment or with other commitments, to study for a high quality, internationally recognised postgraduate qualification.

The course, fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters,

All the modules comprising the programme are designed to be

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stand-alone. It is possible to study any number of individual modules, although we would encourage you to work towards a Postgraduate Certificate (three taught modules), a Postgraduate Diploma (six taught modules), or a full MSc (six taught modules plus a research dissertation). COURSE STRUCTURE  Social lssues in Forest Management  Silviculture  Forest History, Policy & Management  Forest Ecosystems or Agroforestry Systems  Forest Inventory, Assessment and Monitoring  Sustainable Use of Non-Timber Forest Products  Research Project/Dissertation

MSC FORESTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (TRANSFOR-M) TRANSFOR-M (Transatlantic Forestry Masters) is a two-year taught masters programme leading to a European degree and a Canadian degree (i.e. a dual degree) in forestry and environmental management. The programme is offered by a consortium of seven universities, three in Canada

and four in the European Union (EU). TRANSFOR-M students will be educated in modern sustainable forestry and environmental management approaches that are sensitive to cultural and situational differences. They will acquire a global view of their disciplines and multi-cultural perspectives on environmental, economic and cultural issues. Students spend one year at a Canadian university and one year at an EU university, and complete a dissertation that is jointly supervised by the two institutions.

MSC SUSTAINABLE TROPICAL FORESTRY This Masters Course in Sustainable Tropical Forestry (SUTROFOR) is a world-class programme aimed at preparing qualified graduates to deal with contemporary tropical forestry. The two year programme is funded by a grant from the EC Erasmus Mundus programme and offered by a five university consortium. The Course consists of a year of study in one of three institutions (Bangor, Copenhagen, Dresden) followed by a second study year at one of the four other institutions.

The aim of the first year is to provide a thorough and broad introduction to sustainable tropical forestry. This allows students to choose freely among the five specialisation options in the second year. The first year ends with the Joint Summer Module including field work in a tropical country. Specialisation options in the second year are agroforestry systems (Bangor), socio-economics of tropical forestry (Copenhagen), tropical forest management (Dresden), environmental management and policies for tropical forests (Montpellier), or ethics and responsible trade in tropical forest products and services (Padova). Funding is available for qualified International and EU students on a competitive basis. For further details and the application procedure please visit www.sutrofor.eu This degree is fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters. COURSE STRUCTURE YEAR 1  Forest Resources & Assessment  Silviculture  Natural Resource Management  Contemporary Tropical Forestry  Location Specific Knowledge www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy

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 Joint

Summer Module Methods

 Research

YEAR 2  Agroforestry Systems  Silviculture for Agroforestry  Experimental Agroforestry  Natural Resource Management  Research Methods  Field Study Tour Students may opt for year 1 or year 2

MSC SUSTAINABLE FOREST & NATURE MANAGEMENT This two-year Masters Course in Sustainable Forest and Nature Management (SUFONAMA) is a world-class programme aimed at preparing highly qualified graduates to deal with contemporary forest and nature management. The programme is funded by a grant from the EC Erasmus Mundus programme and is offered by a five university consortium. The Course consists of a year of study in one of three institutions (Bangor, Copenhagen, Goettingen) followed by a second study year at one of the four other institutions. The aim of the first year is to provide a thorough and broad introduction 22

to sustainable forest and land management. The first year ends with the Joint Summer Module including field work in a chosen country with good forest and nature management facilities. Students can freely choose one of the following specialisation options for their second year of study, including conservation & land management (Bangor), economic management of forest and nature (Copenhagen), timber and non-timber forest product use and processing (Goettingen), Scandinavian and East European forestry (Sweden), and mountain forestry and watershed management (Padova). Funding is available for qualified International and EU students on a competitive basis. For further details and the application procedure please visit www.sufonama.net This degree is fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters. COURSE STRUCTURE YEAR 1  Forest Resources and Assessment  Silviculture  Natural Resource Management  Management Planning  Field Study Tour  Research Methods

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 Joint

Summer Module

YEAR 2  Conservation Science  Evidence-based Practice in Conservation  Agriculture and the Environment  Management Planning  Field Study Tour  Research Planning  Research Project/Dissertation Students may opt for year 1 or year 2

MSC TROPICAL FORESTRY (DISTANCE LEARNING) The Tropical Forestry MSc has been developed in collaboration with the prestigious University of Copenhagen. The course provides part-time students from across the world with training in the management of forest resources, understanding of the scientific, academic and practical principles which underpin forest management, forest measurement and forest ecosystem function and the interrelationships between government, industry and communities’ forests and associated land-use. The Tropical Forestry MSc is primarily designed to allow students to undertake a Master of Science level


course whilst they remain in full-time employment or pursue other interests. Teaching and learning is supported by a guided reading handbook plus various supplementary materials, such as books, journal articles, scientific reports, online lectures, podcasts, discussion forums and a ‘virtual learning environment’. The course is part-time and the MSc is completed in three years. The Tropical Forestry MSc at Bangor is designed to develop participants’ existing skills through a scheme of specialist advanced study. The course also enables students to develop their own research and professional interests within the context of specific course modules. The course benefits hugely from advances in communication technology, allowing students to interact with each other and with academic staff on a regular basis. The wide range of backgrounds, expertise, interests and skills amongst both the staff and students on the programme make for a hugely enriching learning experience. The School has been awarded a number of prestigious, fully-funded scholarships by the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in relation to this course. The scholarships are available to students from developing

commonwealth countries. This degree is fully accredited by the Institute of Chartered Foresters. COURSE STRUCTURE  Agroforestry Systems  Forest Inventory, Assessment and Monitoring  Sustainable Use of Non-Timber Forest Products  Tropical Forests, People and Policies  Participatory Forest Management  Location Specific Knowledge  Joint Summer Module  Research Project/Dissertation

“Soon after graduating I obtained the job role of Assistant Forestry Manager in the Midlands for one of the UKs largest rural property management companies. Whilst writing up my dissertation, I volunteered as a forest ranger for a community forest and then worked in an oak sawmill for a short period of time. The MSc along with this ‘hands-on’ experience meant I was in full time employment before I had even graduated. An Environmental Forestry degree from Bangor University opens up so many doors into the forestry world and it is an extremely respected university within the profession.” HUGH DAVIES MSc Environmental Forestry Graduate www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy

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ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES & GEOGRAPHY MODULES AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

AGRO-ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ASSESSMENT

This module reviews agricultural systems and practices, the scientific principles underlying them and their impact on the environment. It then considers the scope of relevant EU and UK government legislation and codes of practice aimed at minimising negative effects, including the role of agri-environment schemes and discuses their impact at the farm level. The role of the different agencies involved is also explored.

This module will introduce students to the ecosystem services framework to assess pasture-based food production, with an emphasis on the critical importance of considering landscape context and scale factors when assessing the sustainability of farming practices.

AGRICULTURE AND SOCIETY This module will study the environmental, economic and social implications of pasture based agriculture from an ethical perspective. Topics will include global climate change and resource pressures, the distribution of environmental costs associated with current farming systems, the distribution of market power within food supply chains, costs and benefits arising from a transition to sustainable farming, political drivers, and global food security and food sourcing.

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AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS This module examines key issues in Agroforestry and introduces the concepts behind this land use system and ways in which it is practiced around the world. Topics covered are the principles of ecological and biophysical interactions, and the social, economic and ecosystem benefits. Case studies are used to illustrate the ecological interactions and the social and economic aspects of agroforestry.

BUSINESS PLANNING FOR THE GREEN ECONOMY This module explores the process of establishing a venture from idea generation to the completion of a business plan which incorporates environmental planning and management. It takes the student through the actual process of

School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography

developing a business plan and its different components, the market and sustainability.

CARBON FOOTPRINTING AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT This module will consider in detail the principles and practices of life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting, in relation to eco-efficiency assessment and improvement of pasture based farming systems. Case studies and structured carbon footprinting exercises will demonstrate how LCA and CF can be used to determine and assess Greenhouse gas mitigation options. Students will be informed of the latest developments in agricultural LCA methodologies, focussing on biodiversity, soil quality and water consumption. The role LCA in food supply chain improvement will be examined in the context of retailer management and global food security.

CONSERVATION SCIENCE This module considers questions such as ‘in a post-wild world what should be the focus of conservation attention?’ ‘What are the relative roles of ecology, economics and social science in conservation?’ ‘What are the advantage and disadvantages of the introduction


of market-like mechanisms into conservation policy?’ We look closely at the current and emerging drivers of biodiversity loss world-wide, while carefully analysing the range of responses.

CONTEMPORARY TROPICAL FORESTRY This module allows the student to undertake a desk-based research project looking in depth at a current forestry-or environmentally-related issue, culminating in a student conference. Sources such as tabloid and broadsheet daily and Sunday newspapers, broadcast media, the internet, ‘popular’ scientific journals and peer-reviewed scientific journals will be consulted.

EXPERIMENTAL AGROFORESTRY This practically-based module seeks to introduce students to the idea that the best science is outward facing. As a group, students summarise existing literature in an contemporary area, and identify a tractable and policy relevant experimental study. They conduct the work, and deliver the results in forms suitable for the scientist and for the policy-maker. The students consider the role of science in society, and they consider their role within the project group and process.

EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN CONSERVATION This module concerns the interface between conservation science, policy and practice. It introduces students to the concept of evidence-based practice, the theoretical basis and methodological approach, focusing on systematic review as a rigorous critical appraisal of evidence, through to dissemination of information and its practical application. The module will use real examples of partnerships between scientists and conservation bodies aimed at improving effectiveness of conservation actions.

FIELD STUDY TOUR This field study module provides opportunities for students to see and discuss how the principles of natural resource management, presented in earlier parts of the course, are put into practice by resource managers working on behalf of various stakeholders to achieve a range of different objectives. Visits will be made to research sites, sites of conservation interest, farms, forests, national parks etc. Wherever appropriate, local staff (wardens, conservation officers, farm and forest managers etc) will participate so that students have opportunities to gain from their experience and knowledge. Hence

this will also give students an insight into the roles and responsibilities of different professionals, and so help inform their career choices.

FINANCE FOR MANAGERS This module is designed for those who aim to achieve a basic understanding of financial management and control, and who require an understanding of finance in order to manage an organisation effectively. Financial planning and control are central themes, as well as the appraisal techniques of investment projects.

FOREST ECOSYSTEMS The purpose of the module is to present the occurrence and ecology of different forest types. Emphasis will be placed on forest biota and soils, and nutrient cycling and hydrology. The module will provide students with the opportunity to acquire knowledge and understanding of specialist areas of forestry ecology.

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FOREST HISTORY, POLICY AND MANAGEMENT

FOREST RESOURCES & ASSESSMENT

production and overcome constraints to food security.

In recent decades there has been an increasing demand from society for the forestry sector to simulate ‘natural’ processes, structures and attributes in managed forests. At many governance levels (global, regional, national, local), policy, legislation, regulation, grant schemes and other incentives have been put in place to fulfil this demand. This module will question many common misconceptions about forestry and will provide students with a much broader and deeper understanding of this vast subject.

Students will be introduced to world forest resources and policy. They will gain an understanding of the ecological information needed to implement forest policy, and for forest management and conservation: what is known already, what assessment and research methods are used, and how the results can be applied. Applications relate, in particular, to ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, criteria and indicators, and adaptive management. A key feature of the learning outcomes is practical skills in planning, carrying out, and analysing and interpreting the data from three forest assessments.

GREEN TECHNOLOGY

FOREST INVENTORY, ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING The purpose of the module is to consider ways in which forest resources can be assessed and recorded, enabling growth and development to be scientifically monitored. The module will provide students with the opportunity to acquire knowledge and understanding of the specialist areas of mensuration, forest inventory and forest resource assessment and monitoring. The module will enable distance learning students to work with each other, through the introduction of a group assignment. 26

GLOBAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY Provision of food is already one of the greatest global challenges and is going to intensify as population approaches a projected 9 billion by the middle of this century. Intended for non-specialists, the module will describe the existing situation and likely future prospects, how we have met food demand in the past and might in the future, how global food systems are managed, and ways in which we are trying to reduce the environmental impact of food

School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography

This module reviews the environmental consequences of economic activities, including energy generation, waste management, food and water supply, consumer goods. It then goes on to consider recent policy initiatives and drivers and examines key green technologies.

JOINT SUMMER MODULE The module includes a two-week field course to a tropical environmentally diverse area, such as Costa Rica or French Guiana. Students are taken to a variety of sites which demonstrate a range of natural and managed vegetation, and a range of conservation and sustainability issues. Some of these involve meeting and discussion with local experts. In the second stage of the module, students work in small teams on a project evolved in discussion with the teaching staff.


LOCATION SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE This module aims to impart a thorough understanding of the importance of field work preparation. This will be achieved through acquisition of in-depth factual location specific knowledge, building on theoretical knowledge obtained in other courses, relevant to tropical forestry issues and development of practical skills with emphasis on (i) ability to collect, analyse and evaluate appropriate qualitative and quantitative information, and combining this with (ii) choice of appropriate research tools in order to plan high quality field work. This module is a pre-requisite for students to attend the Joint Summer School Module.

MANAGEMENT PLANNING The module explains the concepts that underpin management planning for conservation and the process of planning using the Conservation Management System methodology. Additional components include landscape, recreation, archaeology and land law. The module is assessed on an individual basis by the production of a plan for a protected site.

MANAGEMENT RESEARCH This module analyses the philosophical basis for research in the management sciences, and examines a number of key methodological issues and approaches. Research designs for both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies are developed, including interviews, case studies, focus groups, surveys and experiments.

NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The purpose of this module is to give students a theoretical understanding of the systems approach to managing natural resources to provide various ecosystem services, as well as a practical grounding in the ways in which natural resource managers can draw on a variety of knowledge sources to inform themselves and others of the impacts of land management interventions.

ORGANISATIONS & PEOPLE This module examines key issues arising from contemporary research in organisational behaviour and human resource management. It provides an integrated analysis of management,

organisations and people, developing the conceptual, strategic and practical skills necessary for managers in complex, global organisational contexts.

PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT Emphasis is on the political and socioeconomic aspects of participatory/ community forestry as a means to promote rural development and conserve forest/nature resources in an equitable manner. Central themes are the theoretical foundation of participatory/community forestry vis รก vis the tragedy of the (unmanaged) commons, conflict management, institutional arrangements, policy, legislation and economic incentives.

RESEARCH METHODS The module aims to support the dissertation planning process and encourage critical thinking about the research process. The course covers principles of hypothesis generation, sampling, study design, spatial methods, social research methods, quantitative & qualitative analysis, and presentation of research findings. The practicals illustrate examples of www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy

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these principles and also cover subject specific methods for conservationists, foresters and agroforesters.

RESEARCH PROJECT/ DISSERTATION The research project provides students with the necessary resources and time to independently investigate a specific scientific topic (chosen by the student with appropriate guidance of the academic staff). It aims to provide experience of undertaking and reporting an independent research project.

RESOURCE-EFFICIENT FARM MANAGEMENT This module will demonstrate application of a quantitative systems approach to select priority farm management practices that optimise the resource efficiency, and minimise the environmental impact, of food production on pasture-based farms. The module will be divided into units that address key resource efficiency challenges for pasture based systems.

SILVICULTURE FOR AGROFORESTRY The purpose of the module is to develop students’ understanding of 28

the silviculture of single trees and trees in complex systems. This module focuses on tropical agroforestry systems and considers the interaction of tree management systems with the physical environment (soils, climate etc.) and with human beings.

SOCIAL ISSUES IN FOREST MANAGEMENT The purpose of the module is to consider the ways in which social, cultural, economic and political factors can influence the shape and scope of forest management systems and how these may affect the livelihoods of communities living in or close to forests. The module will provide students with the opportunity to acquire knowledge and understanding of the specialist areas of social and rural development forestry.

carbon cycling, greenhouse gases and mitigation.

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT This module is designed to provide an understanding of the principles of sustainable development, environmental legislation, environmental auditing and assessment, and green technological development. *This module is approved by the Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment (IEMA) for the Associate Certificate in Environmental Management course.

SOIL MANAGEMENT

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

This module will provide a practical and theoretical overview of soil management. Sustainable soil management is reviewed in relation to increasing food production efficiency, whilst limiting the environmental impacts and decline in soil quality and services. The dynamic function of the soil system will be explored, including ecosystem services, nutrient budgets,

This module analyses strategic decision-making within business. You will develop a critical understanding of the strategic processes of business management, the interconnections with the functional domains of marketing, human resource management and corporate finance, and the management of knowledge systems.

School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography


SUSTAINABLE USE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS The purpose of the module is to give students an understanding of the ways in which forests may be managed in ways which recognise the value and enterprise development potential of non-timber forest products (NTFPs).

of management systems with the physical environment (soils, climate etc.) and with human beings. It enables students to acquire knowledge and understanding about silviculture and its place in forestry;

TROPICAL FORESTS, PEOPLE AND POLICIES

The module will provide students with the opportunity to acquire a detailed knowledge and understanding of the increasing role of non-timber forest products in modern forest management.

This module takes a people-oriented approach to issues that all natural resources managers in developing countries should be familiar with. Emphasis is on the relationships between people and forest use and conservation in developing countries.

TEMPERATE SILVICULTURE

UPLAND FARMING SYSTEMS

The purpose of the module is to develop students’ understanding of the principles and practice of silviculture in temperate forests, the place of silviculture in sustainable temperate forest management, and the role that silviculture can play in delivering ecosystem services from temperate forests.

This module will examine the environmental, economic and social viability of alternative upland farming systems. The course will explore upland environments and land use; socio-economics of upland farming; production and marketing of food from upland farming; impact on ecosystem service provision; drivers of future change in the management of upland environments; and methods in ecological and economic appraisal appropriate for upland farming.

TROPICAL SILVICULTURE The purpose of the module is to develop students’ understanding of silviculture and tropical forest management and the interaction

“After spending 8 years working in various banks I decided to go back to school and study forestry, a topic I had always been deeply interested in. However, I needed to keep working and Bangor was the ideal solution for me as it offered the flexibility of following a distance learning course while providing one of the best forestry tuitions in Europe. Following graduation, I started to apply for forestry-related positions. I am now leading a dynamic team working on the development of sustainable forestry in my country Belgium and abroad, and I am using the knowledge and many of the skills I was taught and attained during my degree on a regular basis.” THOMAS DAVREUX MSc Forestry (distance learning) Graduate

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ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES & GEOGRAPHY RESEARCH DEGREES (PHD/MPHIL) The types of research undertaken vary widely across the environment and land use spectrum. Much of our research is undertaken overseas and we have projects in countries as far apart as Vietnam, Ethiopia, Antarctica and Peru. In addition to this field work, and our laboratories in Bangor, the school runs its own research centre 5 miles outside the city. This is the home to long-term experiments in forestry, agroforestry, animal breeding and ecology. The School also hosts major internationally and nationally recognised research centres such as the Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation and the Centre for Integrated Research in the Rural Environment. The research reputation of the school is evident in the number of research projects that it runs; we currently have more than 60 students undertaking research for their PhDs. Their work is undertaken over a three-year period, and results in the production of a thesis and several scientific papers. This concentration of postgraduates concerned with environmental and resource management topics makes the 30

school a considerable force in terms of global research. We attract visiting scholars from every corner of the globe, who in their turn contribute to a lively and invigorating atmosphere within the School. Research degrees are available in the broad subject areas of Agricultural Systems; Agroforestry; Biodiversity Conservation; Environmental and Soil Science; Forest Ecology and Management; Renewable Materials; and Tropical Ecosystems. Some examples of our current projects include: Optimising monitoring as a conservation tool Developing a biodiversity indicator for Wales Habitat connectivity – review of evidence for landscape-scale interventions to facilitate species’ response to climate change Assessment of drought effects on ecosystem services Flood risk management research consortium The evidence base for the Wales Climate Change Implementation Plan Integrating local and scientific knowledge in conservation management in Nicaragua

School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography

Sustaining and restoring biocultural diversity of indigenous sacred sites in Southern Ethiopia Conservation and management of natural resources, under the challenges of a changing climate in Bangladesh Carbon – and biodiversity-based payments for ecosystem services in the Peruvian Amazon Antarctic ecosystems – partitioning of resources between plants and microbes Investigating the interactions between agricultural productivity and biodiversity conservation in Central America Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon balance of intact and degraded mangroves Greenhouse gas emissions from lowland peat soils

MRES An MRes degree in Natural Sciences, which is a 1-year full time degree (also available as a part-time degree) is open to students in any school of the CNS. It is run by the School of Biological Sciences; please refer to the entry under Biological Sciences for further information.


SCHOOL OF OCEAN SCIENCES

“I WAS REALLY KEEN TO STUDY FOR MY PHD AT BANGOR AS I APPRECIATED THE FRIENDLY YET PRODUCTIVE ATMOSPHERE AT THE SCHOOL OF OCEAN SCIENCES. ONE OF THE BEST THINGS ABOUT BEING A STUDENT IN BANGOR IS THE SUPPORT OFFERED TO POSTGRADS. WE’RE OFFERED SKILLS TRAINING AND GIVEN ACCESS TO SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT AND ACADEMIC EXPERTS AND HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO COLLABORATE ON OUR WORK. THE GENERAL CAMARADERIE WITHIN RESEARCH GROUPS IS ALSO A PLUS.” GARETH JOHNSON PHD IN FACILITATION & BIODIVERSITY IN THE MARINE BENTHOS www.bangor.ac.uk/sos

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The School of Ocean Sciences is one of the largest university marine science departments in Europe and a leading international research institution, which is ideally located on the shores of the Menai Strait in north Wales. A range of undergraduate degrees are offered in Applied Marine Biology, Marine Biology, Marine Biology with Zoology, Marine Vertebrate Zoology, Ocean Sciences, Oceanography with Computing, Coastal Geography, Geological Oceanography, and Marine Environmental Studies. Four-year extended degree programmes are offered in Marine Sciences. One-year taught Masters degrees are offered in Applied Marine Geoscience, Applied Physical Oceanography, Marine Biology, and Marine Environmental Protection. Research degrees are also offered in a wide range of marine subjects. The School is an actively seagoing research institution with an international reputation for the quality of its research on shelf seas and shallow marine environments. Ocean margins, shelf seas, estuaries and the coastal zone are the key elements of the marine system with respect to climate change 32

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impacts (sea level, ecosystem functioning) and anthropogenic interactions. Our activity accordingly encompasses blue skies, strategic and applied research, and active knowledge transfer. The School’s research culture is based on a multidisciplinary, earth systems, approach to the investigation of shallow marine systems and processes. The Centre for Marine Sciences (CAMS) spearheads our third mission, has very close links with relevant national and international agencies, governmental bodies and the user community, provides policy advice, and has had a profound impact on applied shelf sea science through work on particle tracking, oil spill management, and aquaculture and marine conservation. The School of Ocean Sciences has excellent support facilities for both teaching and research. These range from large, modern, well equipped teaching laboratories to high tech’ research laboratories; from a local area PC based computer network to powerful number crunching workstations used in numerical ocean modelling; from photographic and desktop publishing graphics systems to in-house electrical and

mechanical workshops capable of designing and building state of the art oceanographic equipment; from a filtered seawater supply direct from the Menai Strait to tropical and cool water marine aquaria. Our strong seagoing capability is enabled the RV Prince Madog, a state-of-the-art research vessel, and an inshore boat fleet. All our postgraduate taught programmes have been accredited by the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEST), and as such facilitate your progression to Chartered status in later professional life.


OCEAN SCIENCES POSTGRADUATE COURSES

MSC APPLIED MARINE GEOSCIENCE This course is primarily intended for students with an interest in developing their theoretical knowledge and practical skills for offshore geophysical and geotechnical survey. The course will give students an appreciation of how to survey and the necessary understanding to put the results into an overall marine geological context. A series of modules have been designed to explain the processes that form and characterise a wide variety of sedimentary environments, from the littoral zone to the deep ocean. Those controls range from the dynamical, chemical, climatic to geological; all are inter-related. Students also gain knowledge and understanding of survey techniques in order to map these environments and thereby gain a better understanding of the processes that shape them. The final facet of the course involves an explanation of how these sedimentary materials react to imposed loads how they behave geotechnically. This programme has an extremely strong employment record. Past students have found employment in the offshore development industry

(oil, gas, renewables), geophysical contract companies (particularly those serving engineering contractors), river and harbour boards, the offshore detrital mining industry, government laboratories, and with certain specialist engineering and dredging contractors. The course may also serve as a conversion to allow a pure science graduate to proceed into postgraduate research in the marine geosciences. COURSE STRUCTURE  Key Concepts and Techniques  Practical Oceanography  Sediment Geotechnics  Sedimentary Environments  Literature Review and Project Planning  Climate and Climate Change  Geophysical Surveying  Research Project/Dissertation

MSC MARINE BIOLOGY This one year course combines theory and practical training in the field and laboratory to provide advanced training in Marine Biology and aims to elevate recent Natural Sciences graduates and those mature students with relevant experience to the level of being independent marine biologists so that they may successfully follow careers in the public, private and

“I moved from Newfoundland, Canada to Menai Bridge to attend the MSc course in Marine Biology in 2010/2011. As someone interested in all aspects of marine biology, this course was perfect for me. It provided the theoretical background in topics ranging from statistical analysis to invertebrate aquaculture (and everything in between), and the practical experience in habitat, fisheries and marine mammal surveys. As well, it provided solid instruction on the development and implementation of research ideas and experimental design. Once I completed the MSc in Marine Biology, I felt confident that I had the background and practical experience to apply for a variety of positions within the field of marine biology. Since graduating, I have worked as a science technician for a university and as an intern for a nonprofit organisation developing a coastal resource inventory. I am currently employed as a post-graduate research assistant at Bangor University’s School of Ocean Sciences under a European Fisheries Funded project about the sustainable use of fisheries resources in Welsh waters.” JULIA PANTIN, MSc Marine Biology

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higher education sectors of the UK, and overseas, or embark on doctoral research.

MSC MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

School of Biological Sciences; please refer to the entry under Biological Sciences for further information.

The taught phase of the course covers the major themes of marine ecology, habitat ecology and coastal survey, marine fisheries, marine vertebrates, and marine invertebrates. In the second phase of the course students study research design and planning, which is followed by an extensive research project and completion of a dissertation.

This course provides theoretical and practical training in measuring and quantifying marine resources and the effects of conflicting usage upon them. The aim of the course is to broaden the student’s awareness of the economic potential of the ocean, to generate an understanding of the major marine biological resources and the physical processes controlling these resources, to provide theoretical and practical training in measuring and quantifying these resources and the effects of conflicting usage upon them, and to enhance those skills necessary to manage effectively the sea area of national jurisdiction. It provides a sound scientific basis on which to develop policy and make decisions on marine resource exploitation and protection around the world. To date, most graduates have taken up employment in the private, public or voluntary sectors in the field of marine environmental protection in the UK and abroad. The course also equips students with the knowledge and skills to conduct doctoral research. An MRes degree in Natural Sciences, which is a 1-year full time degree (also available as a part-time degree) is open to students in any school of the CNS. It is run by the

COURSE STRUCTURE  Marine Ecology Skills  Marine Fisheries  Coastal Habitat Ecology & Survey  Marine Impacts and their Assessment  Marine Conservation and Coastal Zone Management  Research Design and Planning  Research Project and Dissertation

Past students have found employment in the public, private and higher education sectors of the UK, and overseas (e.g. Bahamas, Borneo, Cayman Islands, Mozambique, South Georgia), or continued their education and scientific training by undertaking doctoral research in the UK or overseas. COURSE STRUCTURE  Marine Research Skills  Marine Vertebrates  Coastal Ecology and Habitat Survey  Marine Fisheries  Marine Invertebrates  Research Design and Planning  Research Project and Dissertation

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MSC PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Physical Oceanography is primarily intended for students with an interest in developing their theoretical knowledge and practical skills in physical oceanography. It gives students an appreciation of the practical techniques used to observe and describe the ocean, along with the theoretical framework on which our understanding of the physics of the ocean is based. The first phase of the course is taught, introducing the student to the physics of the ocean and its role in the climate system. Modules cover oceanographic theory and its application, as well as practical oceanography. The latter includes an introduction of state-


of-the-art instrumentation, remote sensing, numerical modelling as well as practical experience working on small boats and the University’s stateof-the-art research vessel, the Prince Madog. During the second phase of the course the student begins to focus on specific aspects of the subject, initially through an extensive literature review and then a research project. The research project, which forms a major

component of the course, is selected in close consultation with the students to be of direct relevance to their intended future work. For overseas students, well founded projects based on investigations being undertaken in a home institute are encouraged. Many past students hold posts in the marine industries, particularly in consultancy companies that provide services in oceanography to the oil industry and companies concerned with engineering operations in shelf seas. There are opportunities in Government Laboratories and agencies with responsibility for estuarine and coastal waters. Many graduates have continued to higher degrees and an academic career. COURSE STRUCTURE  Key Concepts and Techniques  Climate and Climate Change  Practical Oceanography  Estuaries and Shelf Processes  Literature Review and Project Planning  Dynamics, Tides and Waves  Research Project/Dissertation

“I chose the MEP course for it’s unique balance of training in research, critical analysis and practical skills highly relevant to marine environmental management. Every aspect of the course has been enjoyable and allows students to build skills and expertise steadily throughout the year, independent of previous experience. No two weeks are the same! The staff and facilities are also fantastic, including the university research vessel, RV Prince Madog.” CLAIRE SZOSTEK MSc Marine Environmental Protection www.bangor.ac.uk/sos

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OCEAN SCIENCES MODULES

CLIMATE & CLIMATE CHANGE This module aims to introduce the factors and processes which control the Earth’s present day climate, in particular natural climate variability, anthropogenic climate change, climate change impacts, future climate change and mitigation strategies. These issues are addressed by developing models of the Earth’s climate, elucidating the role of the oceans in regulating the Earth’s climate, examining natural climate variability over different geological timescales, and assessing inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and the impacts of climate change.

COASTAL ECOLOGY & HABITAT SURVEY This module covers the principles of ecological surveys in relation to a range of coastal habitats, and to put that knowledge into practical use by undertaking surveys in intertidal habitats of north Wales. The module begins with the principles and background behind ecological surveys, including an in depth look at the variability inherent to many marine ecological systems, followed by lectures on different coastal habitats and the kinds of survey techniques 36

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utilised. A practical exercise is undertaken involving group work to make surveys at a diverse coastal site nearby.

DYNAMICS, TIDES & WAVES The module introduces the governing principles and the application of Newton’s Laws of motion to geophysical fluids. It covers classical Hydrodynamics and Waves, the equations of motion and continuity, rotation, streamfunctions, vorticity, and rotational and irrotational flow. Various simplified forms of the equations will be considered including linear surface gravity waves in ‘deep’ and ‘shallow’ water, and geostrophic balance. These equations will then be applied to looking at waves on beaches and the response of the upper ocean to winds. Finally we will consider the role of energy lost through friction in mixing the water column through generating turbulence.

ESTUARIES & SHELF PROCESSES This module concerns itself with identifying and parameterising the processes which determine water column structure, circulation and movement of sediment in continental

shelf seas and estuaries. The module will cover air-sea exchange (of heat momentum and gases), turbulence and mixing processes, shelf sea and estuarine fronts, impact on the biological oceanography, tides in estuaries, criteria for entrainment, transport and deposition of sediment, bedforms and coastal morphology.

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING This module concerns itself with the principles of geophysical surveying within the context of applied marine geoscience; specifically for its use in engineering and environmental geophysics. It deals with understanding the different techniques with which the Earth’s sub-surface can be mapped as well as the theory underpinning these techniques. The aim of the module is to enable the student to have a broad overall understanding of geophysical surveying for engineering and environmental applications; but this coupled with the theoretical and practical understanding that enables them to critically analyse the acquired datasets.


KEY CONCEPTS & TECHNIQUES This module provides students with some of the key skills they will need for their Masters course and their project work. These skills include literature searching; referencing software; mathematics for marine scientists; MATLAB programming; an introduction to oceanography; and an introduction to sediment processes.

LITERATURE REVIEW & PROJECT PLANNING / RESEARCH DESIGN & PLANNING The prime element is the literature review, the purpose of which is to ensure that you are aware of background literature in the general area of your research project topic. It is an essential step in project design. At the conclusion of the literature review, you will be able to complete a project proposal form outlining the specific hypotheses to be tested and the overall plan for the project.

MARINE CONSERVATION & COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT The module will consider the use of satellite and other remote sensing techniques in the monitoring and

studying of the marine environment, with emphasis on biological applications and coastal zones. The inter-related framework of public and private law governing the administration and use of coastal land and water will be considered, as well as the legal problems involved in regulating the increasing pressures on the marine environment. Socioeconomic analysis will be introduced with examples drawn from recreational fisheries and tourism. Finally, there will be an overview to the history, need, framework, methodology, current and future practice of coastal zone management, and a review of genetic conservation.

MARINE FISHERIES The course will provide a broad overview of fisheries biology and detailed training in the techniques used in the assessment of finfish population dynamics. The following topics will be covered: the current status of global marine finfish fisheries; bivalve, gastropod/ echinoderm, cephalopod, crustacean and finfish fisheries will be reviewed; the types of models used in stock assessment and fisheries modelling will be introduced; the role of mapping essential fish habitat for commercial species as a means to both target

these species during fishing activities and to providing protected areas will be reviewed; and the effects of fishing activities on benthos will be discussed.

MARINE IMPACTS & THEIR ASSESSMENT An introduction to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) covering the: definition of impacts; physical processes causing impacts (erosion, sedimentation, dispersion); chemical processes causing impacts (pollution, hypernutrification); preparation of environmental documents; environmental attributes, scoping and baseline procedures; EIA methodology; procedure for developing an EIS; and procedures for reviewing an EIS. The EIA provides an opportunity to conduct a desk study of the expected environmental consequences of a plausible but generally hypothetical development project.

MARINE INVERTEBRATES The module will cover classification of marine invertebrates. Biological and ecological aspects of the life cycle of selected species will be covered, as well as larval development and factors controlling larval supply and recruitment in natural populations. Coverage of anatomy and physiology of selected groups will include endocrine control of moulting and reproduction www.bangor.ac.uk/sos

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in crustacea, osmoregulation and nutritional physiology.

PRACTICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

MARINE RESEARCH SKILLS

This module will give students a practical experience of acquiring oceanographic and geophysical data from both the RV Prince Madog and the School’s 8m Cheetah Marine catamaran. Students will be expected to process, interpret and report on the data acquired. Complementing the ship and boat work will be lectures focusing on geodesy and position fixing; marine acoustics; and satellite remote sensing and GIS.

The course will provide students with training in approaches to experimental and survey design, and the choice and use of appropriate statistical techniques to analyse the data output by experiments and surveys. Students will consider the sampling issues that relate to large-scale biological surveys, to experimental field studies, and controlled laboratory studies that include growth and behavioural experiments.

MARINE VERTEBRATES Students will be given a broad overview of the diversity of fish, seabirds and marine mammals, and in particular on the relationship between their biology and ecology. Lectures will cover evolutionary relationships, the challenges of and adaptations to living in the marine environment, life history and anthropogenic impacts. Students will select a topic of their choice and conduct a detailed desk study and write a report on this topic.

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SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS This module examines the origin, controls, and processes that determine the properties, transport and deposition of sediments in rivers, shallow water environments (e.g. beaches, barriers, deltas, tidal flats), continental shelf and slope environments, and the deep ocean basins. It considers both terrigenous and carbonate environments with emphasis, for the former, on the forcing hydrodynamics (waves, tides, boundary currents, turbidity currents, etc.) and, for the latter, on the dominating biological controls of sediment properties and deposition.

SEDIMENT GEOTECHNICS This module concerns itself with the physical properties of soils and sediments; in particular within the context of shallow engineering and environmental applications. This will start with the basic physical (or index) properties of a soil and explain how soils may be classified. This is followed by an explanation of effective stress, a key concept in soil mechanics. It will be apparent then, how important water is in determining soil behaviour and for that reason, ideas relating to permeability, hydraulic gradients, potential and flow nets will be presented. The flow of water within soils also plays a key role in controlling soil settlement or consolidation, and so this topic is also a part of the syllabus. Finally, concepts relating to shear strength are introduced.

RESEARCH PROJECT/ DISSERTATION The research project provides students with the necessary resources and time to independently investigate a specific scientific topic (chosen by the student with appropriate guidance of the academic staff). It aims to provide experience of undertaking and reporting an independent research project.


OCEAN SCIENCES RESEARCH DEGREES (PHD/MPHIL)

Research Degrees (PhD/MPhil) are available in the following broad subject areas:

MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: CONSERVATION & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

SHELF SEA & COASTAL PROCESSES

The conservation and sustainable use of aquatic living resources is crucial given current rates of global population expansion. To understand the extent to which human activities modify marine ecosystems we need a fundamental understanding of the processes that influence biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our research adopts an ecosystemwide approach and addresses the science that underpins mitigation of human activities through cultivation of marine resources, restoration of habitats or control of human activities. The integration of fundamental and applied science has led to outputs that have influenced international and national policy for conservation and sustainable use of marine resources.

Shelf seas represent the transition zone between land and ocean. Our focus is on the identification of key physical processes, and their interactions, which drive the fluxes across critical interfaces within this zone. Development of new observational techniques, coupled with our strengths in theory and modelling, have enabled existing paradigms to be challenged, stateof-the-art models to be critically tested and new ideas developed.

BIOGEOCHEMISTRY & PALAEOCEANOGRAPHY The group investigates the cycling and fate of carbon and nitrogen across a range of marine systems, in particular the supply of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to coastal waters, and the biogeochemistry of sea ice. Biogeochemistry underpins the validation and application of novel palaeoceanographic proxies, which we have applied to reconstructions of shelf seas and ocean margins.

MRES An MRes degree in Natural Sciences, which is a 1-year full time degree (also available as a part-time degree) is open to students in any school of the CNS. It is run by the School of Biological Sciences; please refer to the entry under Biological Sciences for further information.

“I was one of the few privileged Mozambicans that benefitted with a scholarship to go abroad for higher education. After completion of my PhD studies at Bangor University I returned home where I was offered I full time position at the Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of Physics, and given a task to set up an academic unit for Marine Sciences within the University. At the university I set and co-ordinated the British Council funded academic link with the School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University; a link which was very vital in getting the support I needed to accomplish the task I was given. I love teaching, carrying applied research and venturing in technology innovation in maritime affairs.� ANTONIO HOGUANE PhD Physical Oceanography BSc Physical Oceanography/ Maths www.bangor.ac.uk/sos

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INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS

Starting university can be a daunting experience to say the least but for international students it doesn’t just mean leaving home. Students from over 70 different countries choose to study at Bangor and therefore have to leave their native homeland, their families and friends and move to a foreign country. They not only have to adjust to a new culture and surroundings but in many cases face the challenge of adjusting to a new language. Bangor University strongly believes in looking after their students and making sure that everyone is made to feel welcome and settles in with ease. That’s why Bangor has a number of International Student Ambassadors and a dedicated International Student Welfare Adviser. Our aim is to support international students from the application process right up to their graduation day. A special Orientation Day provides an opportunity to meet other international students and external organisations, and take a trip around the surrounding area. This helps you to make friends, settle in and get to know your way around. Throughout the year, the International Student Welfare Adviser offers assistance and advice on a range of matters such as NHS health care 40

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in the UK, opening a bank account, immigration status, applications to extend your visa, work regulations and finding work, travelling outside the UK, police registration, accommodation, bringing your family to the UK, and nurseries and schools in Bangor. We also arrange coach trips to places of interest. The British Council’s Regional Services Officer is an important point of contact for information, advice and support for students attending Bangor through the British Council.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE COURSES International students are generally required to provide evidence of their English language proficiency. Students who have not yet achieved the level required by the University can undertake English Language and Study Skills courses at the University’s English Language Centre (ELCOS), prior to the beginning of their academic programme, in order to reach the required level. The English language level normally required for entry is IELTS 6.0 (with no individual unit score less than 5.5) or equivalent but differs for some courses, as follows: IELTS 6.5 for MSc Marine Biology and MSc Marine Environmental Protection.

Additional tuition can be taken as follows: IELTS 5.5 / 3 MONTHS / JUN – SEP IELTS 5.0 / 6 MONTHS / FEB – AUG IELTS 4.5 / 9 MONTHS / SEP – JUN

Students receive close attention in order to ensure excellent progression and successful completion of the course. At the end, students are not required to undertake a further external English test, as our highly experienced and qualified staff will conduct a test and provide an official report for the University. Students on academic programmes can receive English language support throughout the year in courses specially organised for international students. These include academic writing classes and English language modules. Students can also benefit from individual consultations with a language tutor. Students wishing to undertake further external English tests can benefit from special evening classes which focus on preparation for these examinations. Further details of English language courses are available from: elcos@bangor.ac.uk


TUITION FEES, SCHOLARSHIPS & ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS TUITION FEES Tuition fee rates may change and current information can be found at: www.bangor.ac.uk/fees Please note that bench fee/laboratory charges may be raised on certain postgraduate courses.

SCHOLARSHIPS Research Council Funding Each year the College seeks to draw down funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to provide scholarships and bursaries to support a range of postgraduate activity. These are advertised at various points throughout the academic year, usually in the form of PhD studentships. Some scholarship funding may also be available for selected taught Masters degrees. International Student Scholarships The University offers International Scholarships ranging from £1,000 to £5,000. All international applicants will be considered for a scholarship, and the award is based on academic achievements and the strength of the application. Only students who have not been offered any other awards, scholarships or bursaries from Bangor University, or other sources are eligible for these awards.

International Bangor graduates and alumni are eligible for a 10% tuition fee discount. Furthermore, Spouses of international students are eligible for a reduced tuition fee. China Scholarship Council Bangor University is working with the China Scholarship Council (CSC) to offer 10 scholarships to enable talented Chinese students to undertake fully funded PhD programmes. Commonwealth Scholarship Commission Up to 15 Scholarships are available in 2013/14 to international applicants from developing Commonwealth Countries to study MSc Tropical Forestry by Distance Learning. The scholarships cover tuition fees and a travel bursary to enable scholars to attend an overseas study tour. Kirby Laing Foundation Scholarships The Kirby Laing Foundation wishes to demonstrate its support of the School of Ocean Sciences. Therefore, over a three year period the Foundation is offering 9 Scholarships of £5,000 and 2 Scholarships of £3,750 to students applying to study MSc programmes in the School of Ocean Sciences. Nominations will be made by MSc Course Directors and the recipients will receive their awards in October.

Home, EU and international students are eligible for the Scholarships. Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS) This major European Convergence programme supports collaborative research projects (Research Masters and PhDs) with external partners based in the Convergence area of Wales (West Wales and the Valleys). For a student to be eligible for a KESS award they must have an address in the convergence area on application as well as the right to work in the convergence area on completion of the scholarship. More details available at www.bangor.ac.uk/kess Santander Scholarships The Santander Group award up to five postgraduate scholarships of £5,000 to students following taught Masters programmes. The scholarship fund aims to reward the most academically gifted students from countries that are supported by the Santander Universidades scheme, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay and Venezuela. More details are available at www.bangor.ac.uk/scholarships/ santander.php.en

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FONASO The School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography is a member of the Forest and Nature for Society (FONASO) consortium of seven internationally recognised European universities that offers a world-class Erasmus Mundus joint doctoral programme with funded scholarships. FONASO only issues one annual call for applications covering both EU and third-country applicants in order to obtain one pool of applications among which to select the best. More details are available at www.fonaso.eu Sustainable Forest and Nature Management (SUFONAMA) and Sustainable Tropical Forestry (SUTROFOR) These postgraduate degrees are world-class integrated courses delivered by a consortium of five of the best European universities within the field. The School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography is part of these European consortiums, which offers scholarships annually to EU and non-EU students. More details can be found at www.sutrofor.net www.sufonama.net

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College of Natural Sciences

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Usually, postgraduate applicants should have an appropriate first degree with a minimum of second class honours, or alternatively a qualification or experience which is an acceptable equivalent. Applications from mature students (25 or over) are not always subject to our standard entry requirements and will be considered individually. Also, a minimum of two years of relevant professional work experience may be recognised as an entry qualification. International students should also check the English language requirements in the relevant section. Applicants for Research Degrees should normally have a first or upper second class honours degree in a relevant subject.

“Within 15 miles of Bangor are 10 National Nature Reserves comprising 3 mountain sites, 3 woodlands, 3 wetlands and 1 sand dune warren. In addition there is 1 national park, 2 designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, 4 heritage coasts, 9 local nature reserves and 83 Sites of Special Scientific Interest.”

“According to The Independent’s A-Z of Universities and Higher Education Colleges, Bangor is “one of the cheapest places in Britain” to be a student. The Independent also placed Bangor 4th most cost effective location for students in their Student Living Index Guide for 2008.”


The compact size of the city means that student facilities – including halls of residence and Sports Centre – are within easy walking distance of the University buildings. High street, shops, banks, supermarkets, restaurants and pubs, are also in close proximity. The cost of living is lower than in most urban areas, so you can make the most of your money in what is a very pleasant environment in which to live and study. The opportunity to find part-time work is also important to some students, and, at Bangor, the student employment bureau within the Centre for Careers and Opportunities will help you find suitable work. Also worth bearing in mind is the fact that Bangor is considered to be a relatively safe place to study (the crime rate for north Wales is one of the lowest in the country). The Students’ Union organises a large number of student clubs, societies and entertainments, covering a wide range of sporting, social, cultural, religious and political interests. It also offers support and services, and encourages students to get involved in a wide range of activities. It’s a great way to meet new people!

While Bangor itself is compact and convenient, the surrounding area offers plenty of wide open spaces. The mountains and coastline of Snowdonia is an area of outstanding natural beauty, offering you wonderful recreational opportunities whether you’re interested in outdoor pursuits, or just want to enjoy the scenery. For the sports enthusiast, climbing, sailing, rowing, canoeing, surfing, and diving are just some of the outdoor pursuits available. Indoor sports are also well catered for by the University’s Sports Centre, while Bangor swimming pool offers reduced rates for students.

students prefer to live in private rented accommodation, and a range is available in and around the city. The Student Housing Office is on hand to help you find the right place. Whether students choose to live in university accommodation or in private accommodation, they will both be within easy walking distance of the University, which is situated right in the city centre. More information about the range of accommodation and prices can be obtained from www.bangor.ac.uk/accommodation

“A long established university (founded in 1884) and dedicated to academic excellence. Over half of the departments assessed to date in the teaching quality assessments have received the top rating of ‘excellent’.”

The University is developing a £42m Performing Arts and Innovation Centre which will be home to cuttingedge teaching and learning facilities, a theatre with a capacity of between 450550 seats, cinema space, a studio theatre as well as social facilities including bars, dining and park areas.

STUDENT ACCOMMODATION The University offers some accommodation in student Halls of Residence for postgraduate students and each year a limited amount of family accommodation is also available. Many postgraduate

The university makes all reasonable efforts to ensure the information in this brochure is correct at the time of printing (October 2013) but may be subject to change.

www.bangor.ac.uk/cns

Design: viewcreative.co.uk

ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY

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ALL ENQUIRIES ARE WELCOME. Please contact: SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Phone +44 (0)1248 382527 Email general.enquiries@sbs.bangor.ac.uk www.bangor.ac.uk/biology SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES & GEOGRAPHY Phone +44 (0)1248 382281 Email senrgy@bangor.ac.uk www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy SCHOOL OF OCEAN SCIENCES Phone +44 (0)1248 382897 Email oss090@bangor.ac.uk www.bangor.ac.uk/sos COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES Phone +44 (0)1248 382281 Email cns-enquiries@bangor.ac.uk www.bangor.ac.uk/cns


Bangor University College of Natural Sciences Postgraduate Prospectus