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AFI CHANGEMAKERS AT THE UNITED NATIONS

Report on Human Trafficking


Acknowledgements

Report written and edited by Samaira Nazar Ali, Satrupa Ghosh, and Zainab Ahmed

As participants as delegates at the United Nations as an important part of Ariel Foundation International (AFI), we had the great honour to hear and read the report of special rapporteur on trafficking in especially women and children. We were shocked to know the sheer magnitude of the problem, and deeply thank the AFI to give us this opportunity. We also like to extend a special thank you to Dr. Ariel Rosita King for dedicating her life to provide such incredible platform for the young people and that their voices and be heard and to make a difference.

Š Ariel Foundation International 2016 ISBN 78-0-9980092-3-0 2


Table of Contents E XECUTIVE S UMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 4 1.1: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TRAFFICKING ............................................................................................ 5 1.2: W HAT IS H UMAN T RAFFICKING ? .................................................................................................... 5 1.3: TRAFFICKER ...................................................................................................................................... 5 1.4: VICTIMS ............................................................................................................................................ 6 2.1: CONFLICT AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING ............................................................................................... 7 2.2: THE NEXUS BETWEEN CONFLICT AND TRAFFICKING ......................................................................... 7 2.3: RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 8 3.1: WHAT ABOUT THE MEN AND BOYS? ................................................................................................. 10 3.2: MEN AND BOYS ARE ALSO VICTIMS OF COMMERCIAL SEXUAL TRAFFICKING...................................... 10 3.3: ACADEMIC AND POLITICAL ELITE DISCOURSE ON MEN AND BOYS AS VICTIMS OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION........................................................................................................................................ 11 3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................... 13 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 14 BIOGRAPHIES ......................................................................................................................................... 15

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the result of the AFI Changemakers Summit at the Human Rights Council thirty-second session. The Summit witnessed youth aged 18 to 30 from all over the world come together to discuss issues relating to human trafficking. The youth proposed future policies and recommendations that should be put in place to create an everlasting change for victims of human trafficking.

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1.1: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TRAFFICKING The concept of trafficking and the key words associated to this notion vary across many contexts. Thus, this section will lay out the definitions and clarifications of the key words and terminologies of concern in this report.

1.2: WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING? Article 3, paragraph (a) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

1.3: TRAFFICKER Traffickers exploit victims for the profit gained from forced labor and sexual exploitation. They trick people into forced labor and sex trafficking by manipulating and exploiting their vulnerabilities. Human traffickers prey on people who are hoping for a good life, needs employment, don’t have a unstable home life, or might have pervious history of sexual or physical abuse. Traffickers often promise the victim a high-paying job, expectation of false loving relationship, or new and exciting opportunities and then use physical and psychological violence to control them. Traffickers can work alone or be part of a larger criminal organization, with the common intention of using, exploiting people for profit. 5


There are wide ranges of criminals, including individual pimps, family operations, small businesses, loose-knit decentralized criminal networks, and international organized criminal operations, can be human traffickers. Often the traffickers and their victims share the same national, ethnic, or cultural background, allowing the trafficker to better understand and exploit the vulnerabilities of their victims. This also gives them a better understanding of victim’s background and culture.

1.4: VICTIMS There is no definitive definition of a trafficked victim. Trafficked victims are identified as those persons who are exploited at the hands of their traffickers. A victim can be identified through the characterize of the trafficked person such as; •   Physical appearance; victims displays signs of physical and psychological abuse, they appear malnourished. •   Isolation; They appear withdraw from the society, rarely travel by themselves, always seem to be controlled by others. •   Poor living conditions; Poor and unhygienic living condition which is mostly crowded.

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2.1: CONFLICT AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING It is indisputable that human trafficking is a human rights violation, which is of increasing concern to the international community. However, it is important to acknowledge that armed conflict and post conflict situations are inextricably linked to human trafficking. Armed conflict leaves local communities and societies prone to violence, abuse, exploitation, forced prositition, forced labour and the recruitment of child soldiers by militias and government forces. Moreover, women and young girls are extremely vulnerable during conflict and post-conflict situations and become easy targets for perpetrators. More recently, the global community has witnessed the heinous crimes of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIS), where mass crimes of subjugation of Yazidi women and girls in sexual bondage have been reported (Roth, 2015). However, in the countries of Africa and south central Asia, human trafficking is seldom considered as a criminal activity, which is treated either as a practical solution to inter-family disputes or as a trap for victims for fear that breaking free would result in shaming their families or communities if they attempted to flee (Makerenko 2009). Human trafficking continues to flourish in many regions across the world, without any definite action against the crime. Thus, it is important for the international community to take a stance for the victims and against the perpetrators of human trafficking.

2.2: THE NEXUS BETWEEN CONFLICT AND TRAFFICKING The connection between armed conflict and trafficking is documented sparsely in academic literature and policy practitioner reports. Such reports and literature document the socio-economic factors of trafficking, however, little or no attention is devoted to the role that conflict may be playing to trafficking (Martin and Callaway 2009). Therefore, it is vital to address the intricate links 7


between conflict and trafficking to bring awareness to the problem. Below are the reasons how conflict and trafficking are interlinked: •   Women may be coerced into trafficking as comfort for the local troops •   Children forced to join conflict as child soldiers •   Trafficking used as a consensual arrangement where people to get themselves or family members smuggled out of a conflict region

2.3: RECOMMENDATIONS In order to ensure protection of all individual during conflict: •   The host nation should collaborate with the United Nation should identify and register the victims in order to keep track of them. •   To establish or revise existing policies on trafficking during conflict. •   Unaccompanied children should be place under state care and must will able to access health and schooling services. •   Women and girls should be recognize and address as vulnerable whether they are in refugee camp, under military observation. •   The host state must ensure that adequate medical facilities are available, such as free of charge birth. •   To, prevent forced marriages in conflicts, where families are put under coercion. •   To not to detain, prosecute or punish victim of trafficking in relation to any immigration law, meaning if the victim(s) are trafficked into a country the state government must ensure their safety first and should not deport or prosecute them. 8


•   To, prevent and prosecute all forms of trafficking among human being. •   Human trafficking is an organized crime, trafficker intends to gain benefit from the victim, and therefore the state along with the United Nation should put emphasis on indentifying the chain of trafficker.

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3.1: WHAT ABOUT THE MEN AND BOYS? While the voices of female victims of trafficking are often recognized, the issue of male victims of trafficking is ignored on a large scale in policy practitioner reports. It is important to add that the term of ‘male sex trafficking victim’ is uncommonly referred to in academic literature and policy reports. Historically speaking, investigating the commercial sexual exploitation of men and boys has been taboo (Leatherman 2011). The existing normative frameworks since the 1990s onwards, which have conceptualized gender and sexual violence, have formed a veil of secrecy surrounding male victims (Chuk and Skjelsbæk 2010). While, the trafficking of women and girls for commercial sexual exploitation has attracted attention from feminist scholars and the international community, male victims of sexual exploitation is greatly overlooked in the academic discourse. This in turn has emphasized the gender narratives of human rights in the discourse of trafficking. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge that men are also victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation.

3.2: MEN AND BOYS ARE ALSO VICTIMS OF COMMERCIAL SEXUAL TRAFFICKING Although it is indisputable that women and girls constitute the vast majority of victims and survivors of sexual exploitation through trafficking, males constitute a small number of those affected by sexual exploitation. Very few cases have demonstrated the sexual exploitation of males. For instance, the phenomena of ‘Bacha Bazi’ (Playing with boys) in Afghanistan is essentially a form of child slavery and prostitution of boys (D’Estree 2012). Since the fall of Taliban in 2001, Bacha Bazi began to flourish, which is mostly found in Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier and the adjourning areas of Afghanistan. In this region of the world, males are not considered men until they are married and are referred to as bacha bareesh, a boy without a beard or a beardless youth 10


(D’Estree 2012). It is common for the perpetrators to kidnap, imprison the young men and boys for their own sexual pleasure. In addition, the young men and boys have no freedom of movement and are subject to harsh physical treatment and punishment by their owners (D’Estree 2012).

3.3: ACADEMIC AND POLITICAL ELITE DISCOURSE ON MEN AND BOYS AS VICTIMS OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION In analyzing men as the victims of conflict related sexual violence, it is important to uncover the lack of attention by ‘political elites’ on sexual violence against men. There is a dearth of academic literature and reports by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (INGOS) focusing on the trafficking of women and girls. However, the references to male trafficking are few and often neglected (Sivakumaran 2005). Sivakumaran (2005) suggests an important and relevant argument on why the issue of exploitation of men has not been addressed. The first reason is that the sexual exploitation of men is a cause where there a limited numbers of people who are willing and able to speak on its behalf. In light of this, governments and aid agencies have been hesitant to raise the issue (Storr 2011). Moreover, Augusta DelZotto and Adam Jones (2002) note that out of the 4076 NGOs that worked on the issues of ‘war rape and other forms of sexual violence... only three percent of those organisations mentioned sexual violence against men and boys in their programs and international literature’ (p.1). Furthermore, one quarter of these NGOs have explicitly denied that sexual violence against men exists (DelZotto and Jones 2002). However, there is evidence that indicates that humanitarian assistance has reflected well-defined strategic interests. The nexus between conflict and sexual violence against men through trafficking leads to a highly gendered provision of services to exploited victims, which have 11


conformed to the re-emerging paternalistic political identity (DelZotto and Jones 2002). Therefore, the nexus between war and sexual violence demonstrates that the gender biases are inherent in the international community as well as in NGOs and aid agencies.

3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS •   A more nuanced and inclusive approach should be taken to the gender variable in the UN documentation on trafficking and sexual violence during armed conflict •   Access to gender-sensitive specialist medical health and mental provisions for the men and young boys who are victims of sexual exploitation should be guaranteed •   Investment in local authorities, the police, health workers, and schools for an improvement on their understanding of the experiences faced by trafficked men, and young boys is required, which will enable the recognition of early indicators and provision of support.

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4.1 OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS •   To grant residence without any conditions •   Unaccompanied children to be placed under the care of the host state. •   To ensure freedom of choice is attained. To both male and female children. •   To ensure maximum penalty for the traffickers and, trafficking to be considered among the gravest of crime. •   To ensure medical facilities is available for the victims.

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REFERENCES Chuk, S., Skjelsbæk, I, (2010). ‘Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts’, International Peace Research Institute, 1 (1). 1-4 DelZetto, A., Jones, A. (2002). Male-on-Male Sexual Violence: Human Rights’ Last Taboo? Available at: http://adamjones.freeservers.com/malerape.htm#N_13 D’estree, C. Voices from Victims and Survivors of Human Trafficking. In Human Trafficking: Exploring the International Nature, Concerns, and Complexities. ed. by Winterdyk, J., Perrin, B., Reichel, P. (Florida, CRC Press, 2012) Jones, A. (1994). Gender and Ethnic Conflict in ex-Yugoslavia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17 (1), 115-134. Leatherman, J.L, ‘Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict’, (Cambridge and Maiden, Polity Press, 2011) Makarenko, T. ‘Organized crime or crimes organized?: Isolating and identifying actors in the human trafficking chain. In Human Trafficking and Human Security. ed. By Johnsson, A. (Oxon, Routledge, 2009) Martin, S., Callaway, A. ‘Women, Conflict and Trafficking: Towards a Stronger Normative Framework for Protection’, In Women, Migration, and Conflict: Breaking a Deadly Cycle, ed. By Martin, S.F., Tirman, J. (USA, Springer, 2009) Roth, K. (2015). ‘Slavery: The ISIS Rules’. Human Rights Watch. 5th September. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/05/slavery-isisrules Sivakumaran, S. (2005). ‘Male/Male Rape and the “Taint” of Homosexuality’, Human Rights Quarterly, 27 (4). 1274-1306 Storr, W. (2011). ‘The rape of men: the darkest secret of war’, The Guardian.17th July. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men

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BIOGRAPHIES Samaira Nazar Ali holds a MA degree in Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution from the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (Manchester). Her master’s thesis explores the role of movements for women’s empowerment in countering violence against women and girls in Pakistan. She also holds a BA (Hons) degree in Political Science. She has taken part in various platforms such as One Young World (2014),UpRising, Remembering Srebrenica, Young Leaders UK to represent the voice of the youth. She is interested in the evolving gender roles in conflict and violence. She is also interested in how disadvantaged women can bring about change in building peace and in the resolution of conflict. Zainab Ahmed holds a BA (Hons) degree in politics and international relations from the University of Manchester. She has specialized her dissertation on the women of Srebrenica genocide and their yearn for transitional justice which she presented at the Political Studies Association. She wishes to pursue a career in which she will empower and engage with women victims of war and help them regenerate their lives in a post conflict zone. She is currently working on project regarding women refugees and raising awareness regarding female care and sanitation. 15


Satarupa Ghosh holds a BA.LLB Degree from University of Calcutta and also LLM from Nottingham Trent University in Human Rights and International Trades. Her dissertation was on ‘Child Labor in India, and the role of State government’. She is currently engaged with various NGOs such as Personal Support Unit (Manchester) providing free legal aid to the common and vulnerable people. She has further collaborated with a project called the Parasol which is commissioned by the Greater Manchester Police to monitor human trafficking and also interview victims of human trafficking in Greater Manchester. So far she has interviewed 3 victims. From September 2016 she will be starting her PhD in Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, investigating the way government deals with victims of human trafficking and prosecution of trafficker.

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ISBN ISBN 78-0-9980092-3-0 © Ariel Foundation International 2016

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AFI Changemakers at the United Nations - Report on Human Trafficking 2016