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W W W . H A N D E L A R C H I T E C T S . C O M


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W W W . H A N D E L A R C H I T E C T S . C O M

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WHY WE LIKE GLASS

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requires a lot of energy to make...

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contributes to global warming...

In the United States, buildings accounted for 41% of primary energy consumption, representing 7% of global primary energy consumption.1 United States Department of Energy, 2010

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wrecks art...

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burns people... melts coffee cups...

Las Vegas hotel guests left with severe burns from 'death ray' caused by building's design By Daily Mail Reporter UPDATED:05:53 EST, 29 September 2010 Guests at a new hotel in Las Vegas have complained of receiving severe burns from a 'death ray' of sunlight caused by the unique design of the building. Due to the concave shape of the Vdara hotel, the strong Nevada sun reflects off its all-glass front and directly onto sections of the swimming pool area below. The result has left some guests with burns from the powerful rays and even plastic bags have been recorded as melting in the heat.

Death ray: Guests at the Vdara hotel in Las Vegas have complained of receiving severe burns from the intense spot of sunlight reflected off the building

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kills birds...

In North America, estimates are that 100 million to 1 billion birds die from glass impact each year.1

Powdermill Avian Research Center

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UTOPIA

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DYSTOPIA


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Fewer small windows in a well-insulated wall.

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Improvements in Technology

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CLIMATE MAT TERS

USE MAT TERS

PERFORMANCE

ORIENTATION MAT TERS

SHAPE MAT TERS

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What metrics do we use? U-Value Shading Coefficient (SC)

R-Value

Visible Light Transmission (VLT) Solar Energy Transmittance Relative-Heat Gain (RHG) Solar Energy Reflectance .5) 9LVLEOH,QGRRU5Hテ?FWDQFH Solar Heat Gain

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What metrics do we use? New York City Green Building Code gives you a bonus for adding insulation but you can still use PTACs.

The average room air conditioner and PTAC leaks as much air as a six square inch hole—and increases total annual heating costs by $130-$180 million in New York City alone. The leaks account for 1% of citywide greenhouse gas emissions. Source: Steven Winter Associates


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CLIMATE Mat ters

Solutions vary...

DRY

HOT

TEMPERATE

COLD

WET

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ORIENTATION Mat ters

Effect of Building Orientation, New York City

S

W

E N

Glazing Type 1: Single Glazing Glazing Type 2: Double Glazed, No Low E-Coating Glazing Type 3: High Performance Double Glazed (Low E-Coating) Glazing Type 4: Triple Glazed, Low E-Coating Source: BuildingGreen.com


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SHAPE Mat ters

Building 1: 100,000 Sq. Ft.

Building 2: 100,000 Sq. Ft.

Building 3: 100,000 Sq. Ft.

Glazing Type 3: High Performance Double Glazed (Low E-Coating) Glazing Type 4: Triple Glazed, Low E-Coating Source: BuildingGreen.com


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10 TYPE 2

8

TYPE 3

6

TYPE 4

4 2 0

20% 40% 60% 80% Gross Facade Percentage

NEW YORK

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TYPE 1 Single Glazing TYPE 2 Double Glazed, No Low E-Coating TYPE 3 High Performance Double Glazed (Low E-Coating) TYPE 4 Triple Glazed, Low E-Coating

12 10 TYPE 1

8

TYPE 2 TYPE 3

6

TYPE 4

4 2 0

20% 40% 60% 80% Gross Facade Percentage

MIAMI

Energy Consumption (106 Btu/yr)

TYPE 1

12

Energy Consumption (106 Btu/yr)

Energy Consumption (106 Btu/yr)

Annual energy consumption is compared for a 100,000 sf square building in three different cities and with four glazing types as the glazing areas is increased from 20% to 80%.

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12 10 8

TYPE 1 TYPE 2

6

TYPE 3

4

TYPE 4

2 0

20% 40% 60% 80% Gross Facade Percentage

SAN FRANCISCO

Energy consumption is shown in million Btus per year (mmBtu/yr) for the building, including cooling, heating, ventilation, lighting (1.2 watts/ft2), and miscellaneous loads (1.5 W/ft2). Source: BuildingGreen.com


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USE Mat ters

%

U.S. COMMERCIAL SECTOR USE TOP 5 IN 2010

%

30

30

25

25

20

U.S. RESIDENTIAL SECTOR USE TOP 5 IN 2010 28.9%

20

19.7% 15.3%

15

14.1%

10

12.9%

14.0%

15

9.0%

10

8.9%

7.1% 6.5%

5 0

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Source: US Department of Energy


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What is a GL ASS BUILDING?

40 BOND STREET has a total opaque facade area of 65% of the building, and a total vision glass area of 35% of the building.

LEOBEN JUSTICE CENTRE IN AUSTRIA has a total opaque facade of 9% of the building and a total vision glass area of 91% of the building.


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GLAZING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

1928 Safety glass available

1940s Postwar building boom

for PPG. Developed for the automobile industry, the ‘Creighton Process’ bonds two plies of glass with a layer of cellulose acetate.

calls for more plate glass use in commercial construction than ever before. 1945 Double insulating glazing

introduced into the building market. It was first developed for railroad passenger cars.

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1918 Hallidie building :

1952 Float glass intro-

development of curtain wall glazing.

duced in England by Pilkington Glass Ltd., revolutionizing glass manufacture.

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What was the performance of a late 1950s or early 1960s curtainwall? How has the technology improved?

LEVER HOUSE, 1952

U-value of glazing of Lever House in 1952 was 1.01. Source: CTBUH


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BASELINE

Early 1950’s fleet: Avg of 12 MPG

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GLAZING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

1970s Building code changes

1979 Neutral colored, architectur-

following the energy crisis of 1973 begin to force a widespread switch to double glazing.

ally acceptable low-E coatings (softcoat on glass) first become available.

1961 Metalized window films

1979 Argon-filled low-e double

for solar control introduced.

glazing available in Germany.

1960

1970

1980 1978 Southwall Technologies

introduces ‘Heat Mirror.’ in which a low-e coated film is suspended within an insulating glass unit, creating a triple glazed unit with a weight of a double glazed unit. 1966 Ford acquires the rights

to the Pilkington float glass process and begins to produce the first float glass in the U.S..

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GLAZING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS

1984 First prototype of a ‘mini-float’

By 1993 one third of residential windows sold and one fifth of commercial windows sold employ low-E coatings.

plant opened by AFG Technologies.

1989 Pyramid of the Grand

Louvre is clad with insulating units made with a 10mm glass with low iron content.

1980

1990

2000

Ź

1989 ‘Superwindow’ marketed

using two suspended layers of 0.10 emissivity polyester film within Krypton gas filled units. 1989 ’Hard coat’ low-E coating is

produced by Pilkington and LOF.

Between 1974 and 1994 the ratio of glass area/floor area in the typical U.S. house increases by 25%.

2006 Triple-Silver low-E

coatings are introduced, with a new level of spectral selectivity to let in natural light while blocking solar heat.


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U-value of glazing of Lever House in 1952 was 1.01. After curtainwall upgrade in 1998, U-value of glazing of Lever House reduced to ~ 0.220.

LEVER HOUSE, 1998


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Early 1950’s fleet: Avg of 12 MPG

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1998 fleet: Avg of 22 MPG Improvement of < 200%


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AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT GLAZING Insulated glazing, multiple glazing, gasямБlled, vacuum glazing, spacer materials FRAMING All metal, thermally broken, non-metal CASSETTE SYSTEMS SHADING Static, active, adaptive DOUBLE SKIN FACADES COATING TECHNOLOGIES photochromic, thermochromic, electrochromic, bird friendly glass ENERGY GENERATING FACADES DEPOLLUTING COATINGS

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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Single-Glazed Clear 1.04 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.86

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Single-Glazed Tinted 1.04 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.73

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Double-Glazed (IG) Clear 0.48 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.76

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Double-Glazed (IG) Tinted 0.49 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.63

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Double-Glazed (IG) High-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.26 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.67

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Double-Glazed (IG) Medium-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.25 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.2

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Double-Glazed (IG) Low-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.24 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.26

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Triple-Glazed High-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.16 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.55

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Triple-Glazed Medium-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.15 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.38

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Triple-Glazed Low-Solar-Gain Low-e 0.15 U-FACTOR 0

1 0.24

SHGC 0

1

Source: EfямБcient Windows Collaborative


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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

Quad-Cavity R20 Glazing

0.05 U-FACTOR 0

1

0.12 SHGC 0

1

Source: Southwall Technologies

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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS

1.04

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U-FACTOR SHGC

1.04 0.86 0.76

0.73

0.67

0.63

0.55 0.48

0.49 0.38 0.26

0.25

0.2

0.24 0.26

0.24 0.16

0.15

0.15

0.12 0.05

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Q Do Do Tr Tr Do Tr u i i i G G L L L G p p p ub ub gl gl ow ub ow ub ow le ai le la ad ai u b l e een -G n le zin -C le le -G - e le - e le -e -G G G Lo la Lo - G -G -G l l G G g av la la a a w w la la l la la z z z it y ze ze a ed ed - e ed -e ze ze ze ze ze d, d, R2 ,H ,L ,M d d d d d Cl Ti ( ( ( ( ( o 0 i I I I I I e g G) G) G) G) G) nt w ea d h -S ed ,C ,L ,T ,H ,M iu -S r ol m o o in le i ed ar gh la w te S ar r-G -S o iu -S d l ol a m ol ai r-G ar -S ar n -G ol -G ai Lo ar ai n ai w n n -e Si n

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Source: EfďŹ cient Windows Collaborative

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GLAZING IMPROVEMENTS,WHOLE WINDOW

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Single-Glazed, Clear Glass Façade, Metal Frame Single-Glazed, Clear Glass Façade, Non-Metal Frame

шϭ͘ϬϬ 0.71-0.99

шϬ͘ϲϬ шϬ͘ϲϭ

Single-glazed, Tinted Glass Façade, Metal Frame Single-glazed, Tinted Glass Façade, Non-Metal Frame

шϭ͘ϬϬ 0.71-0.99

>0.60 0.41-0.60

Double-glazed, Clear Glass Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, Clear Glass Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, Clear Glass Façade, Non-Metal Frame

0.71-0.99 0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55

0.41-0.55 >0.60 0.41-0.60

Double-glazed, Tinted Glass Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, Tinted Glass Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, Tinted Glass Façade, Non-Metal Frame

0.71-0.99 0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55

0.41-0.60 0.41-0.60 0.41-0.60

Double-glazed, High-performance Tinted Glass Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, High-performance Tinted Glass Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, High-performance Tinted Glass Façade, Non-Metal Frame

0.71-0.99 0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55

0.41-0.60 0.41-0.60 0.26-0.40

Double-glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame Double-glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Themally Improved

0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55 0.41-0.55 0.23-0.30

>0.60 0.41-0.60 0.41-0.60 0.41-0.60

Double-glazed, Medium-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, Medium-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, Medium-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame Double-glazed, Medium-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Thermally Improved

0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55 0.41-0.55 0.23-0.30

0.26-0.40 0.26-0.40 0.26-0.40 0.26-0.40

Double-glazed, Low-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame Double-glazed, Low-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Metal Frame with Thermal Break Double-glazed, Low-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame Double-glazed, Low-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Thermally Improved

0.56-0.70 0.41-0.55 0.41-0.55 0.23-0.30

чϬ͘Ϯϱ чϬ͘Ϯϱ чϬ͘Ϯϱ чϬ͘Ϯϱ

Triple-glazed, High-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Thermally Improved Triple-glazed, Medium-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Thermally Improved Triple-glazed, Low-solar-gain Low-E Glass, Argon/Krypton Gas Façade, Non-Metal Frame, Thermally Improved

чϬ͘ϮϮ чϬ͘ϮϮ чϬ͘ϮϮ

0.41-0.60 0.26-0.40 чϬ͘Ϯϱ

dŚĞƌŵŽƵWsΡ͗dƌŝƉůĞͲŐůĂnjĞĚ͕>ŽǁͲ'ůĂƐƐ;ZϭϭͿ͕ůƵƉůĂƐƚƉƌŽĨŝůĞƐǁŝƚŚƐƚĞĞůƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞŵĞŶƚ dĞƌŵŽtŽŽĚΡdƌŝƉůĞͲŐůĂnjĞĚ͕>ŽǁͲ'ůĂƐƐ;ZϭϭͿ͕tŽŽĚ&ƌĂŵĞǁŝƚŚůƵŵŝŶƵŵƌĂŝŶŐƵĂƌĚƐ dŚĞƌŵŽWůƵƐůĂĚΡ͗dƌŝƉůĞͲŐůĂnjĞĚ͕>ŽǁͲ'ůĂƐƐ;ZϭϭͿ͕ůƵŵŝŶƵŵůĂĚtŽŽĚ&ƌĂŵĞǁŝƚŚWƵƌĞŶŝƚΡŝŶƐƵůĂƚŝŽŶ

0.14 0.14 0.123

0.5 0.5 0.5

Source: Efficient Windows Collaborative / Zola Windows


SPACER IMPROVEMENTS

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Sealant

Desiccant Primary Sealant

Metal with Butyl Tape

Secondary Sealant

Metal Spacer Desiccant

Super Spacer

Primary Sealant

Corrugate metal strip

Butyl Tape

Secondary Sealant

Sealant

Sealant

Spacer System 1. Aluminum box / PIB / silicone 2. Tin U-channel / butyl 3. Stainless box / PIB primary sealant 4. Stainless Steel U-channel / butyl 5. Coated corrugated plastic / butyl 6. Super Spacer Structural foam / butyl

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Stainless Steel Spacer

Aluminum box PIB / Silicone

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Effective Thermal Conductivity

Total IGU U-factor

8.t,

0.329

8.t,

0.304

8.t,

0.293

8.t,

0.287

8.t,

0.286

8.t,

0.277

Simulations performed by Enermodal Engineering Ltd. using Windows 5.2 and Therm 5.2 as per NFRC100-2011. Outside temperature 0Ă&#x201A;°F. Inside temperature 70Ă&#x201A;° F. Low-E glass is Cardinal Low-E 272. All air spaces are .500" wide. IGUs are 24" x 48". [Test Reports EIG906w, EIG10005, EIG10009w]

Source: Enermodal Engineering


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FRAMING IMPROVEMENTS

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Current technology with standard thermal breaks has improved aluminum frame U-factors from roughly 2.0 to about 1.0.

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Innovative new thermal break designs have been combined with changes in frame design to achieve U-factors lower than 0.5

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Wood-framed windows perform well with frame U-factors in the range of 0.3 to 0.5.

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High performance passive house windows achieve U-factors lower than 0.13.

Source: Efficient Windows Collaborative


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Roughly 100 MPGe

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SHADING IMPROVEMENTS

Heat Rejection

Good

Better

Interior Shades

Between-Pane Shades

Best Exterior Shades

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The FC value has been used as the common denominator to evaluate the effectiveness of sun-shading systems. It describes the relationship between the energy transmittance coefficient of a window with or without solar shading.

SOLAR SHADING SYSTEM

Fc values

Without solar shading system

1.00

Internal or Between the Panes Dark colors or higher transparency Light colors or low transparency White or reflective surface with low (<20%) transparency

0.90 0.80 0.75

External Awnings, general Canopies, loggias Awnings with top and side ventilation Roller shutters, folding shutters External venetian blinds and materials with low (<20%) transparency

0.50 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.25

Note: Values refer to a fixed solar shading system. Standard decorative curtains do not qualify as solar shading systems.

Source: plusminus20o/40olatitude by Schuco

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STATIC SHADING

ADAPTIVE SHADING

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0% SAVINGS: SHADING BASELINE Traditional code-compliant façade designs sacrifice daylight to reduce HVAC energy use due to solar and conductive loads. The daylit zone is typically at most 15 feet deep and is compromised by manually-operated interior shades that significantly reduce daylight and view.

Window Heat Gain

c/o lowenergyfacades.lbl.gov


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20% SAVINGS: INTEGRATED DAYLIGHTING SOLUTIONS Intelligent, dynamic and/or light-redirecting faรงades combined with automated lighting controls can extend the daylit zone up to 20-30 feet deep by actively balancing daylight and thermal loads on a real-time basis while mitigating sunlight and glare. This approach, however, requires careful space planning.

Automated Shades

The New York Times Headquarters : 100% lighting controls, and automated shades.

c/o lowenergyfacades.lbl.gov


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INTEGRATED DESIGN INTEGRATED FAÇADES WITH LOW-ENERGY COOLING juwi Group Headquarters in Wörrstadt, Germany : 183,000 SF Office Building that generates more energy than it uses. Solar electricity produced on a surface of 32,000 SF.

Combine high-performance façades, daylighting, and low-energy cooling strategies such as natural ventilation and radiant cooling to eliminate the HVAC system entirely in some climates. High-R windows and dynamic façades can significantly reduce thermal loads during critical peak periods while maintaining high daylight efficiency. Use building integrated photovoltaics for energy supply. c/o lowenergyfacades.lbl.gov c/o juwi.com


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COATING TECHNOLOGIES

: photochromic, thermochromic (passive); electrochromic (active)

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ELECTROCHROMIC GLASS

dŝŶƚ>ĞǀĞů LJŶĂŵŝĐϲϬ LJŶĂŵŝĐϰϬ LJŶĂŵŝĐϮϬ LJŶĂŵŝĐϰ

dƌĂŶƐŵŝƚƚĂŶĐĞй

ZĞĨůĞĐƚĂŶĐĞй

sŝƐŝďůĞ

hs

^ŽůĂƌ

sŝƐŝďůĞKƵƚ

sŝƐŝďůĞ/Ŷ

^ŽůĂƌKƵƚ

хϲϬй ϰϬй ϮϬй фϰй

Ϭ Ϭ Ϭ Ϭ

ϯϳ͘ϴ ϭϳ͘Ϯ ϳ͘Ϭ Ϭ͘ϵϯ

ϭϳ͘ϰй ϵ͘ϰй ϳ͘ϰй ϳ͘ϱй

ϭϵ͘Ϯй ϭϳ͘ϵй ϭϲ͘ϵй ϭϲ͘Ϯй

ϭϴ͘ϳй ϭϭ͘ϭй ϭϭ͘ϭй ϭϮ͘ϴй

hͲsĂůƵĞ ;dhͬ,Z͘&dϮ&Ϳ

SHGC ^,'

Ϭ͘ϯϴ Ϭ͘ϯϴ Ϭ͘ϯϴ Ϭ͘ϯϴ

Ϭ͘ϰϳ Ϭ͘Ϯϳ Ϭ͘ϭϳ Ϭ͘ϭϭ

Dynamic 60:

Dynamic 40:

Dynamic 20:

Dynamic 4:

0.47 SHGC, >60% Transmitted Light

0.27 SHGC, 40% Transmitted Light

0.17 SHGC, 20% Transmitted Light

0.11 SHGC, <4% Transmitted Light Images c/o Soladigm


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SUSPENDED PARTICLE DEVICE (SPD) windows can

instantaneously be adjusted to “tune” the amount of light, glare and heat passing through the windows. Regulating the voltage to the film adjusts microscopic particles’ orientation, instantly and precisely controlling the passage of light, glare and heat through the film. SPD-SMART film is laminated between panes of glass or plastic substrates. Source: SPD-SmartGlass


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PRINTABLE TECHNOLOGIES :

Organic thin-film, or plastic solar cells, use low-cost materials primarily based on nanoparticles and polymers. They are formed on inexpensive polymer substrates which can take advantage of the relatively inexpensive “roll-to-roll” production methods used in newspaper presses.

Source: Nanotechnology for Green Building


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DOUBLE SKIN FACADES

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The most energy efficient double skin glass façade is about 22.84% more efficient than the most energy efficient single skin glass façade.1 Building energy modeling of double skin facades is inherently more difficult because of varying heat transfer properties within the cavity, making the modeling of energy performance and the prediction of savings debatable.2

Source: Journal: Energy and Buildings - ENERG BLDG , vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 673684, 2005 2 Source: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 1


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VENTILATED MICROCAVITIES

Both vents closed

Both vents fully y opened p

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Outside vent closed

Multifunctional windows that offer insulation, sunscreen, ventilation and sound reduction properties. Involves two separate layers of glass (can be either single layer or insulated glass), where each layer is divided to allow small vents to be opened independently.

Source: Hansen Group


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BIRD FRIENDLY GLASS

WHAT WE SEE: light at wavelengths between 400 and 700 nanometers.

WHAT THE BIRDS SEE: the UV range as well, from 320 to 400 nanometers. (A design prototype on Vassarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s campus using Ornilux Mikado glass)

Images c/o Ornilux


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ENERGY GENERATING GLASS Transparent Photovolatic Glass Generates 4.275 - 5.3 W/Sq. Ft. vs. 8 - 10 W/Sq. Ft. for typical photovoltaic panel

Images c/o MSK Solar Buildings | Onyx Solar


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VACUUM-FILLED OR AEROGEL IGUS. Aerogel

is just 5 percent solid and 95 percent air, and is said to be the lightest weight solid in the world. A 3.5â&#x20AC;? thick aerogel panel can offer an R-value of R-28. (Source: Sandia National Laboratory)

Nanogel panels provide translucency and insulation. High-insulating Nanogel panels are available with up to 75 percent translucency. (Source: Kalwall)


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NANOPARTICLE

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles acting as a catalyst to form reactive hydroxyl radicals can oxidize and destroy most pollutant molecules, and remove nitric oxide from the atmosphere.

CONVENTIONAL GLASS

GLASS PRODUCT WITH PHOTOCATALYTIC AND HYDROPHILIC PROPERTIES

Source: California Energy Commission


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CASSETTE SYSTEMS : ADAPTIVE OVER TIME

c/o Enclos Corp.


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ADVANCED WINDOWS CAN BECOME ENERGY PRODUCERS (US Mixed and Northern Climates) U-factor Single Glaze U=1

1

Double Glaze U = 0.5

0.5

R6 Window U = 0.17 (Dynamic Niche)

Low “e” U = 0.35

LOSS

R10 Window U = 0.10 (Dynamic Wide Spread)

GAIN

0 1975

1985

1995

2005

2015

2025

Year

Source: US Department of Energy


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IMAGING IF WE COULD PUT IT ALL TOGETHER

Bird friendly

S lf Self cleaning and air cleansing

Adaptive over time

Tunable shading

Superior insulating Energy generating qualities

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W W W . H A N D E L A R C H I T E C T S . C O M

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Glass Without Guilt - Gary Handel