Aquafeed Vol 13 Issue 4 2021

Page 16


Empowering productive and sustainable aquaculture through bioactive marine peptides Zhou Hu-Ping, Rahul Mathew, Siok Thing Tan, Koen Meynen, Rajalekshmi M., Kemin AquaScience™

Protein utilization in aquafeed Fully exploited fish stocks stress the aquafeed market in terms of fishmeal supply. To increase sustainability, aquaculture tends to switch from fishmeal to plantbased protein sources. Replacement of fishmeal with new alternatives is complicated and involves many considerations in terms of nutritional profiles, feed palatability, digestibility and the compensation of essential micronutrients that come along with fishmeal. Efforts have been made in replacing fishmeal, which is the main focus in the aquaculture industry now, and the molecules that can functionally compensate for the loss of nutrients, palatability, digestibility and micronutrients when replacing fishmeal with alternatives are crucial in determining replacement success. Functional protein hydrolysate in aquaculture Low molecular weight peptides of protein hydrolysates have been studied for their positive effect in diets for many aquaculture species. They have been reported to increase feed intake, feed utilization and somatic growth (Refstie et al., 2004; Aksnes et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2011, 2013; Khosravi et al., 2015), as well as promote the immune system (Kotzamanis et al., 2007; Ovissipour et al., 2014; Khosravi et al., 2015, among others) and enhance the harmonious development of the skeleton and digestive systems in fish larvae (Cahu et al., 1999; Gisbert et al., 2012; Delcroix et al., 2014; Johannsdottir et al., 2014). In aquaculture, there is increasing interest to replace fishmeal with functional protein hydrolysate from animal byproducts modified through chemical, enzymatic or microbial hydrolysis of proteins to

generate peptides that have both nutritional and physiological functions in animals (Al-Souti et al., 2019). The quality of these functional protein hydrolysates highly depends on the abundance and diversity of different short peptide chains which are subjected to the source of raw materials and methods used for hydrolysis. Presently, there are several origins of animal hydrolysate utilized as protein sources in aquaculture, including shrimp, tuna and squid. The bioactive peptides and corresponding benefits from these origins in animals can vary due to the differences in resulting peptides. Although the complete replacement of fishmeal with animal-derived hydrolysate remains controversial, these hydrolysates still draw a lot of interest from the market to supply the demands of fishmeal alternatives in aquaculture and supplement the key molecules that are similar in fishmeal in the feed formulation adjusted with the protein alternatives. On the other hand, researchers have progressed to seeking bioactivities from these functional hydrolysates such as growth promotion, immunostimulation and palatability enhancement.

New generation shrimp protein hydrolysate Proprevia™ N 100 LQ, a new type of protein hydrolysate derived from shrimp via enzymatic hydrolysis, is a potential feed ingredient to enhance the palatability of feed and improve the growth and health of aquatic animals due to its enriched profile of free amino acids and peptides with different molecular weights that can stimulate the chemo-sensory mechanism of animals. Compared to typical fish hydrolysate, Proprevia™ N 100 LQ contributes 68% higher essential amino acids

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 13 Issue 4 2021

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