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Бъдни Вечер и Коледа в България На Бъдни вечер, в нощта срещу Коледа, цялото семейство се събира на празнична вечеря. Най-възрастният мъж в дома запалва огън, в който се поставя бъдник - специално отсечено дъбово или крушово дърво, което гори цяла нощ. Ако бъдникът гори буйно, с голям огън и пръска много искри, годината ще бъде здрава и плодородна за цялото семейство.На трапезата се поставят нечетен брой - седем, девет или единадесет, постни ястия. Пита, варено жито, варен фасул, постни сарми, туршия, лук, орехи, други ядки, зелник, тиквеник, кравайчета, баница, ошаф (компот от сушени плодове), мед, пресни плодове.Неизменно се слага и чесън, който според народните вярвания отблъсква уроки, магии и болести. Вечерята започва с прекадяване на цялата къща с тамян, за да се прогонят злите духове. Обредната питка боговица, се замесва с тройно пресято брашно и с „мълчана” вода. Тази вода най-младата невяста донасяла от чешмата, без да продума нито една дума по пътя. Питката е украсена с направени от тесто фигурки, символизиращи плодородието - житен клас, грозд, слънце, пчела, орач, фигури на домашни животни и др. На трапезата стопанинът на дома вдига високо над главата си питата и изрича благопожеланието: Да се ражда пшеницата под път и над път, класовете да станат като лъжици, а зърната - като дренки! Да се раждат гроздето, ечемикът и царевицата! Да се плодят агнетата, козите и кравите! Боже, ела ни на гости да вечеряме заедно! Боговицата се разчупва от най-възрастния на трапезата, като първото парче се нарича на Богородица или на къщата. Другите парчета се раздават по ред от възрастните до най- малките. Всеки търси в своето парче скрита пара. Който я намери, ще бъде богат и честит през цялата година. Момите слагат под възглавницата първия залък от парчето си, за да сънуват за кого ще се оженят.Някога, щом някое дете кихне на бъдни вечерната трапеза, стопанинът му обещавал да му подари агънце. Намислете си и вие какво ще си поискате вместо агънце, ако се случи да кихнете на Бъдни вечер.Може да ви кажат,че не са чували за такъв обичай. Тогава може да им припомните старата пословица:„Нима си кихнал на Бъдни вечер,та да ти го харижа (подаря)?”В края на вечерята всеки чупи по един орех и по това дали той е хубав или лош, гадае за своето здраве. Обичаят повелява трапезата да не се прибира, за да може Богородицата да влезе във всеки дом. Среднощ тръгват коледарите.Много е важно кой ще посети дома първи на Бъдни вечер и на Нова година. Ако полазникът (първият гост) е добър човек, то и годината ще бъде добра и благополучна за всички в къщата. Някога е имало обичай домакините сами да канят гости, които вече са доказали, че носят щастие на хората.

автор: Иванка Чокойска


Bulgarian Christmas Eve and Christmas Christmas and Christmas symbols in Bulgarian tradition On Christmas Eve all the family get together for a holyday dinner. The oldest man of the family lights a fire where he puts a specilal cut oaken or pear log which stays on fire all night. If the log roars in flames and shower sparks, the following year will be healthy and productive. There is an odd number of meatless dishes on the table – seven nine or eleven. There is a round loaf, boiled wheat, boiled beans, meatless stuffed cabbage baves, pickles, onion, walnuts, leek pasty, pumpkin pastry, ring – shaped bins, sheese pastry, compote of dried fruit, honey, fresh fruif. By all means peaple put also some garlic on the table according of the popular belief it repels black magic and illnessee. The supper begins with burn incencense all the house for sending away the evil spirits. The ritual round loaf (consecrated bread) – is kneaded whit triple screened flour and “silent” without saying a word. The loaf is decorated with made of dough figures, symbolising fertility – an ear of wheat, a bunch of grapes, a sun, a bee, a ploughman, some domestic animals. When all the family is around the table the host raises the losf over his head and reonounces whishes: “ Let the wheta grows all over, the ears of wheat to become as big as spoons and grains – as big as fruit of the cornel! Let the grapes grow and the barley and the corn! Let the lambs and the goats and the cows breed! God come and be our guest and let’s have dinner together!” The consecrated bread is broken to pieces by the oldest member of the family and the first piece is set for Mother of God or for the house. The other pieces are given in turn from the oldest to the youngest. Everyone looks for a hidden coin in his piece. The one who find it will be rich and happy all next year. Unmarried women and girls put a small bit of their bread under their pillows because there are thoughts they will dream about the boy they will marry. In times gone it a child sneeze while they are having dinner, the host promises to give him away a lamb. Think about what you would ask if you sneeze at Christmas Eve dinner. Some people could tell you they have never heard abut it such a custom. Then you can remind them the old proverb: “Did you sneeze at Christmas Eve to ask me to give it to you?” At the end of the dinner everybody breaks a walnut and if it is good inside he will be healthy. The custom prescribes to leave the table that way all night without cleans it up because the Mother of God will come through the night. In the middle of the night the carol – singers set out. It is very important who will come first in the house at Christmas Eve or New Year’s Day. If the first guest is good man – the year will be good for everyone in the house. There was a custom in the past when the host invited guest who had already proved to bring happiness.

Author: Ivanka Chokoiska Translator: Tsvetelina Nikolova


Christmas and Christmas symbols in Bulgarian tradition Коледа и коледните символи в българската традиция RITUAL LOAF (consecrated bread) ОБРЕДЕН ХЛЯБ -БЪДНИК CHRISTMAS LOAF КОЛЕДНА ПИТКА CHRISTMAS BLESSING КОЛЕДНА БЛАГОСЛОВИЯ VRATSA AREA CAROL – SINGERS КОЛЕДАРИ ОТ ВРАЧАНСКО


Ελληνικά έθιμα Χριστουγέννων Στην Ελλάδα υπάρχουν πλούσια έθιμα για κάθε γιορτή ή γεγονός. Ειδικά για τα Χριστούγεννα, στις περισσότερες ελληνικές πόλεις ή επαρχίες: Χριστουγεννιάτικο δέντρο. Μερικές μέρες ή ένα μήνα πριν τα Χριστούγεννα, ε κάθε σπίτι ή επαγγελματικό χώρο στολίζουν ένα αληθινό ή ψεύτικο έλατο σαν Χριστουγεννιάτικο δέντρο. Κρεμάνε στα κλαδιά του πολύχρωμες μπάλες ή άλλα στολίδια. Προσθέτουν μικρά φωτάκια που αναβοσβήνουν. Χριστουγεννιάτικα κάλαντα. Την παραμονή των Χριστουγέννων, τα μικρά παιδιά γυρνάνε από σπίτι σε σπίτι και λένε τα κάλαντα: τραγούδι που μιλάει για τη γέννηση του Χριστού. Στο τέλος, τους δίνουν χρήματα για το τραγούδι τους ή/και γλυκά. Χριστουγεννιάτικα γλυκά. Μερικές μέρες πριν τα Χριστούγεννα όλοι φτιάχνουν τα παραδοσιακά χριστουγεννιάτικα γλυκά: τους κουραμπιέδες με βούτυρο και ζάχαρη άχνη και τα μελομακάρονα με μέλι. Δείπνο Χριστουγέννων. Το κύριο πιάτο στο Χριστουγεννιάτικο τραπέζι είναι η γαλοπούλα. Πολλές φορές γίνεται γεμιστή με ρύζι, κάστανα κ.ά. Το Χριστόψωμο. Σε πολλά μέρη της Ελλάδας όπως η Κρήτη, η Τρίπολη κ.ά. οι άνθρωποι φτιάχνουν το Χριστόψωμο, που στο κέντρο του έχει ένα σταυρό. Το ψωμί αυτό κόβεται στο γιορτινό τραπέζι. Οι Καλικάντζαροι. Σύμφωνα με τη λαϊκή φαντασία, οι Καλικάντζαροι όλο το χρόνο βρίσκονται κάτω από τη Γη. Είναι τερατόμορφα όντα που τις μέρες των Χριστουγέννων μπαίνουν στα σπίτια από τις καμινάδες και φέρνουν την καταστροφή στα νοικοκυριά. Γι’ αυτό το λόγο, τα Χριστούγεννα ορισμένοι κλείνουνε τις καμινάδες των τζακιών με πανιά. Ακόμα, καίνε λιβάνι και θυμιάματα και τα τοποθετούν στο τζάκι γιατί οι Καλικάντζαροι δεν αντέχουν αυτή τη μυρωδιά. Υπάρχουν και άλλα Χριστουγεννιάτικα έθιμα που γίνονται σε ορισμένα μέρη της Ελλάδας: Χριστουγεννιάτικο καράβι. Κυρίως σε νησιωτικές περιοχές, αντί για Xριστουγεννιάτικο δέντρο, στολίζουν ένα ξύλινο ομοίωμα καραβιού. Το τάισμα της βρύσης. Γίνεται από τις κοπέλες στην επαρχία, τα χαράματα των Χριστουγέννων. Αυτές πηγαίνουν στην κοντινότερη δημόσια βρύση χωρίς να πουν καμία λέξη στη διαδρομή. Όταν φτάσουν, ταΐζουν τη βρύση με λιχουδιές, λένε κάποια λόγια και γεμίζουν τη στάμνα τους με νερό και τρία χαλίκια. Έπειτα σιωπηλές επιστρέφουν στο σπίτι τους, σκορπίζουν τα χαλίκια στο σπίτι και ραντίζουν τις γωνίες του σπιτιού με το νερό. Το Χριστόξυλο. Κυρίως στη Βόρεια Ελλάδα, ο νοικοκύρης παίρνει από τα χωράφια το πιο όμορφο και γερό ξύλο (π.χ. ελιάς ή πεύκο). Το πάει στο σπίτι του και το καίει στο τζάκι για 12 ημέρες από τα Χριστούγεννα μέχρι τα Φώτα. Το πάντρεμα της φωτιάς. Στη Θεσσαλία, παίρνουν ένα ξύλο από θηλυκό δέντρο π.χ. κερασιά και ένα ξύλο αρσενικό από αγκαθωτό δέντρο και τα καίνε στο τζάκι. Αν καεί πρώτο το θηλυκό σημαίνει ότι το κορίτσι θα έχει περισσότερη τύχη ή θα παντρευτεί πρώτο. Το ίδιο ισχύει για το αγόρι αν καεί πρώτο το αγκαθωτό ξύλο. Οι Μωμόγεροι. Το έθιμο αυτό γίνεται στη Βόρεια Ελλάδα και σχετίζεται με μεταμφιέσεις και τους καλικάντζαρους. Οι Μωμόγεροι είναι άνθρωποι που μεταμφιέζονται και κρατάνε σπαθιά. Πηγαίνουν σε ομάδες στις γειτονιές τραγουδώντας και παίρνοντας δώρα. Όταν δύο παρέες συναντηθούν, κάνουν ψευτοπόλεμο μεταξύ τους ώσπου να κερδίσει η μία παρέα και η άλλη να δηλώσει υποταγή. Νυχτερινά κάλαντα. Στη Θράκη, νεαρά αγόρια 12-15 ετών χτυπούν τις πόρτες τα μεσάνυχτα της παραμονής των Χριστουγέννων για να δώσουν το μήνυμα της γέννησης του Χριστού. Η Γουρουνοχαρά. Στη Θεσσαλία, πολλές οικογένειες κάνουν το έθιμο της Γουρουνοχαράς, δηλαδή το σφάξιμο του γουρουνιού. Το σφάξιμο σε κάθε οικογένεια γίνεται σε διαφορετική ημερομηνία. Μετά ακολουθεί γλέντι, φαγοπότι, χορός και τραγούδι. Ελληνικά έθιμα Πρωτοχρονιάς Πρωτοχρονιάτικα κάλαντα. Την παραμονή της Πρωτοχρονιάς, τα μικρά παιδιά γυρνάνε από σπίτι σε σπίτι και λένε τα κάλαντα: τραγούδι που μιλάει για την αλλαγή του χρόνου. Στο τέλος, τους δίνουν χρήματα για το τραγούδι τους ή/και γλυκά. Η αλλαγή του χρόνου: γλέντι και χαρτοπαιξία. Την παραμονή της Πρωτοχρονιάς το βράδυ, οι άνθρωποι μαζεύονται στο γιορτινό τραπέζι, τρώνε, πίνουν και διασκεδάζουν. Παίζουν τυχερά παιχνίδια, χαρτιά, κυρίως 31 ή 21. Στις 12 τα μεσάνυχτα, υποδέχονται το νέο έτος σβήνοντας τα φώτα και αμέσως μετά με ευχές, αγκαλιές, φιλιά, δώρα, χαρές και γέλια, ελπίδες, όνειρα. Ευχές για ότι επιθυμεί ο καθένας, ακόμα και πυροβολισμοί είναι στο πρόγραμμα για την υποδοχή του χρόνου. Ο άγιος Βασίλης. Τα παιδιά, αρκετές μέρες νωρίτερα στέλνουν γράμμα στον Άγιο Βασίλη για να τους φέρει δώρο. Εκείνος θα τους φέρει δώρο, εφόσον ήταν καλά παιδιά όλο το χρόνο. Στο σπίτι, το βράδυ της παραμονής της Πρωτοχρονιάς, αφήνουν κάλτσες δίπλα στο τζάκι για να βάλει ο Άγιος Βασίλης τα δώρα. Το ποδαρικό. Ο πρώτος που θα μπει στο σπίτι με τον καινούριο χρόνο κάνει το ποδαρικό! Ορισμένοι βάζουν ένα συγγενικό τους άνθρωπο που θεωρούν καλότυχο να έρθει την Πρωτοχρονιά και να τους κάνει ποδαρικό. Έπειτα η νοικοκυρά τον φιλεύει με γλυκά. Το ρόδι. Σε πολλά μέρη, την Πρωτοχρονιά πετάνε στην είσοδο του σπιτιού ένα ρόδι για να σπάσει και να φέρει γούρι και καλή τύχη στο σπίτι. Φροντίζουν να μπούνε στο σπίτι με το δεξί πόδι. Η βασιλόπιτα. Από την παραμονή της Πρωτοχρονιάς, η νοικοκυρά φτιάχνει ένα ειδικό γλύκισμα που μοιάζει με κέικ, τη βασιλόπιτα. Μέσα στο γλύκισμα ρίχνει ένα νόμισμα. Στο γιορτινό τραπέζι κόβουν τη βασιλόπιτα και όλοι παίρνουν από ένα κομμάτι. Αυτός που θα βρει το νόμισμα είναι και ο τυχερός του νέου χρόνου. Προλήψεις. Υπάρχουν πολλές προλήψεις για την ημέρα της Πρωτοχρονιάς. Ο κόσμος πιστεύει πως αυτό που θα συμβεί εκείνη την ημέρα, θα συμβαίνει συνέχεια όλο το χρόνο. Γι’ αυτό αποφεύγουν να πληρώσουν χρέος, να δανείσουν λεφτά κλπ. Το σίδερο. Σε κάποια χωριά, όταν πλένονται το πρωί της πρώτης μέρας του χρόνου, αγγίζουν στο πρόσωπό τους ένα κομμάτι σίδερο για να είναι «σιδερένιοι» και υγιείς όλο το χρόνο. Οιωνοί. Στις Κυκλάδες θεωρείται καλός οιωνός να φυσάει βοριάς την Πρωτοχρονιά. Επίσης είναι καλό να έρθει στην αυλή του σπιτιού περιστέρι τη συγκεκριμένη ημέρα. Αντίθετα, αν έρθει κοράκι, είναι κακό σημάδι. Η είσοδος του χρόνου στην παλιά Αθήνα. Παλιότερα, οι Αθηναίοι περίμεναν τον Άγιο Βασίλη το βράδυ της παραμονής με ανοιχτές τις εξώπορτες και στρωμένο τραπέζι για να μπει, να φάει και να ξεκουραστεί. Τα μεσάνυχτα έδιωχναν τον παλιό χρόνο με γιουχαΐσματα και πετώντας στο δρόμο ένα παλιό παπούτσι. Οι Κολώνιες. Στα Επτάνησα, την παραμονή της Πρωτοχρονιάς το βράδυ, οι κάτοικοι κατεβαίνουν στο δρόμο με μπουκάλια κολώνια και ραίνουν ο ένας τον άλλο τραγουδώντας.


Greek customs of Christmas In Greece, there are several customs for each feast or occasion. Especially for Christmas, in most Greek cities or provinces one can find: Christmas tree. Some days or one month before Christmas, people decorate a genuine or fake tree as Christmas tree, in each house. They hang multicoloured balls or other decoration on it. They also add small blinking lamps. Christmas carols. During Christmas Eve, small children go around people's houses and sing the carols: song that speaks about the birth of Christ. In the end, people give them money and/or Christmas cakes for their song. Christmas cakes. Some days before Christmas, all make the traditionally Christmas cakes: white 'koyrampiedes' with butter and sugar and brown 'melomakarona' with honey. Christmas Dinner. The main dish for Christmas dinner is stuffed turkey with rice and chestnuts. Christmas bread. In Crete, Tripoli and lots of other Greek areas people make a special kind of bread for Christmas. There is the sign of a cross on the top of it. That is the main bread for the Christmas dinner. The Goblins. According to the legend, the Goblins live under the ground. They are ugly creatures. During the days of Christmas they enter people's houses from the chimneys and untidy the households. That's why, during Christmas period some people close the chimneys of fireplaces with cloths. Still, they burn incenses and they place it in the fireplace because the Goblins do not bear this smell. There are some other Christmas customs that take place in certain Greek places: Christmas boat. Mainly on islands, they decorate small wooden boats instead of Christmas tree. The feeding of tap. Young girls in the province, go to a public tap without saying a single word on the way on Christmas Day early in the morning. When they get there, they "feed" the tap with delicacies, they say certain words and they fill their pitcher with water and three little stones. Then they return home silent, scatter the little stones in the house and rain the rooms of the house with the water. Christmas wood. Mainly in Northern Greece, the landlord of the house takes the most beautiful and robust piece of timber (e.g. from olive tree or pine) from the fields. He takes it to his house and burns it in the fireplace for 12 days from Christmas day on. The "marriage" of the fire. In Thessaly region, people take a piece of timber from female tree e.g. cherry tree and a piece of male timber (with thorns) and they burn them in the fireplace. If the female is burned first, it means that the girl will be luckier or get married first. The same happens with the boy if the male timber is burned first. Crazy old men 'Momogeroi'. This custom takes place in Northern Greece and is related to disguises and the Goblins. 'Momogeroi' are people who are disguised and keep swords. They go around the neighborhoods in teams singing and taking gifts. Whenever two teams meet, they pretend that they are arguing and fighting until one team gain the fight and the other declare subjugation. Nightly carols. In Thrace region, 12-15 years old young boys, knock at the doors to announce Christ's birth, at midnight of Christmas Eve. The pig happiness. In Thessaly region, lots of families follow the 'pig happiness' custom. Each family slaughters one pig on different dates. Afterwards, they have a fiesta, where they eat and drink a lot, they sing and dance. Greek customs of New Year's day New Year's day carols. During the eve of New Year's day, small children go from house to house and sing the carols: song that speaks about the change of the year. At the end, they receive money and/or cakes for their song. The change of the year: celebration and games. In the evening, of the New Year's Eve, people sit at the marry-making table, eat, drink and have fun. They play lucky games with cards gambling. At midnight, they welcome the New Year by switching off the lights and turning them on again, and afterwards, they embrace and kiss each other with joy. They wish to each other good luck and happiness for the New Year, and they sometimes have some gun shootings for the occasion. Santa Clauss. The children send a letter to Santa Clauss to bring them a gift, some days earlier. He will do so if they are good children during the whole year. In the evening of the New Year's Eve, they leave socks next to the fireplace for Santa Clauss to put the gifts in. The lucky step. The first one that enters the house in the new year makes the lucky step! Some people ask one of their relatives, that they consider lucky, to come on the New Year's Day and make the first lucky step. Afterwards, the landlady of the house gives him some cakes. The pomegranate. The New Year's Day they throw a pomegranate in the entry of the house in lots of areas. This breaks and brings lucky charm and good fortune in the house. They also step into the house with the right leg. The New Year's cake. One day earlier, the landlady of the house makes a special cake similar to an ordinary one, the New Year's cake. She puts a coin in the cake. While having the marry-making dinner they cut the New Year's cake and all take one piece of it. The one that finds the coin will be the luckiest within the New Year. Preventions. There are a lot of preventions for the New Year's Day. People believe that what happens that day, is going to happen constantly all the year. That's why they avoid paying any debts, lending money etc. on that day. Metal. In certain villages, when they wash themselves in the morning of the first day of New Year, they touch a piece of metal on their face to become as strong as 'iron' and healthy for the whole New Year. Omens. In Cyclades, it is considered as a good omen if it is blowing north on the New Year's Day. It is also good if a pigeon comes in the alley of the house on the particular day. On the contrary, if raven comes, it is a bad sign. The entry of Santa Clauss in old Athens. Some years ago, Athenians used to wait for Santa Clauss in the evening of New Year's Eve with doors open and a table set. In case he entered, he could eat and get rest. At midnight, they send off the old year by saying some words and throwing an old shoe in the street. The perfumes. In Eftanisa region, at the night of New Year's Eve, people go around the streets carrying some bottles of perfume. They sprinkle each other with perfume singing.


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Μαθητές:

Apostolopoulos Panagiotis Attart Olympia Vytogiannis Panagiotis Gargalioni Maria Dimitra Gkountani Vassiliki Davros Elefterios Dimitrellis Dimitrios Diamantopoulou Maria Droulias Matthaios Zis Georgios Ziaziaris Ioannis Zouni Konstantina Theodoropoulos Vasileios Kavelaris Fotios Kada Maria Eleni Kamvisi Aggeliki Kapetaniou Aikaterini Kolliopoulos Panagiotis Mprotsi Georgia Ntagianti Maria Papanikolaou Anthi Sioutalos Dimitrios Spyropoulou Aggeliki Stathas Foivos Stathouli Eleni Troupis Vasileios Tsafaras Georgios Tsioli Konstantina Xaralampous Georgios

Αποστολόπουλος Παναγιώτης Αττάρτ Ολυμπία Βυτόγιαννης Παναγιώτης Γαργαλιώνη Μαρία Δήμητρα Γκουντάνη Βασιλική Δαύρος Ελευθέριος Δημητρέλης Δημήτριος Διαμαντοπούλου Μαρία Δρούλιας Ματθαίος Ζης Γεώργιος Ζιάζιαρης Ιωάννης Ζούνη Κων/να Θεοδωρόπουλος Βασίλειος Καβελάρης Φώτιος Καδά Μαρία Ελένη Καμβύση Αγγελική Καπετάνιου Αικατερίνη Κολλιόπουλος Παναγιώτης Μπρότση Γεωργία Νταγιάντη Μαρία Παπανικολάου Ανθή Σιούταλος Δημήτριος Σπυροπούλου Αγγελική Σταθάς Φοίβος Σταθούλη Ελένη Τρουπής Βασίλειος Τσαφαράς Γεώργιος Τσιώλη Κωνσταντίνα Χαραλάμπους Γεώργιος

Teachers:

Εκπαιδευτικοί:

Efstratia Liakopoulou Aspasia Palourdou

Ευστρατία Λιακοπούλου Ασπασία Παλούρδου


NATALE IN ITALIA Il Natale in Italia è la festa più amata del calendario essendo la festa cattolica più importante . Al tempo dei nostri nonni il Natale era un evento costruito attorno a riti e tradizioni tramandati con cura da generazione a generazione. Oggi, sovente, la sua natura speciale di una volta si dissolve in una continuazione, anche più intensa, della vita frenetica di tutti i giorni finendo spesso nel vivere il Natale come un qualunque altro momento dell'anno. Il Natale rimane sempre una parola magica che fa brillare gli occhi dei bambini ed evoca sensazioni e sentimenti di gioia e vita negli adulti: vita perché si celebra la nascita di Gesù e gioia perché è festa. I riti cattolici sono uguali in tutta Italia. Nelle chiese viene allestito il Presepio e cominciano le prime celebrazioni con l'Avvento e poi con la novena di Natale (attività di devozione cristiana che consiste nel recitare preghiere ripetute per nove giorni consecutivi fino al 24). Alla vigilia si celebra la messa di mezzanotte che una volta terminata si vede il prete porgere ai fedeli la statua che raffigura il Bambino Gesù perché venga baciata. La messa della Natività viene celebrata il 25 in tutte le chiese cattoliche e buona parte delle altre chiese cristiane. Natale in Italia non è solo celebrazione e tradizione religiosa. Quando si parla di celebrazioni natalizie intendiamo il periodo che va dal 24 dicembre al 6 gennaio. Già da metà novembre le vetrine e le vie delle città sono sfavillanti di luci e colori. In alcune regioni del nord ci sono i mercatini di Natale, dove oltre ad esporre decorazioni, ci sono manufatti e prodotti tipici del luogo. Il giorno dell'Immacolata Concezione (8 dicembre) si addobba l'albero di Natale ( il quale è entrato a tutti gli effetti insieme a Babbo Natale anche nella nostra tradizione ), si decorano le case con palline e festoni colorati, si prepara il Presepio, che fu introdotto da San Francesco nel 1233 e rappresenta la nascita del Bambino Gesù. Alla vigilia c'è fermento in tutte le case per finire di comprare gli ultimi regali e il cibo da cucinare per il cenone e il pranzo del 25. La sera della vigilia è tradizione in molte regioni riunirsi con la famiglia e fare il cenone. Il menù è a base di pesce con diversi tipi di antipasti, pasta alle vongole o risotto alla pescatora, il pesce tipico è il capitone ma ci sono anche anguille , baccalà o stoccafisso, tutta la cena naturalmente è annaffiata con del vino bianco. Si mangia inoltre frutta secca e mandarini, torrone e tanti altri dolci. I bambini aspettano la mezzanotte perché Gesù Bambino o Babbo Natale porta loro i doni che vengono portati anche dalla Befana, rappresentata da una vecchietta che va a cavallo di una scopa, con la gonna fatte a toppe, le scarpe tutte rotte e un sacco pieno di regali e carbone per i bambini che non sono stati bravi Il pranzo di Natale varia da regione a regione, come primo si mangia : lasagne, agnolotti, tagliatelle, cannelloni, ravioli, malloreddus, tortellini o cappelletti in brodo, e come secondo: cappone, agnello, porchetto. tacchino, polpettine di carne con i contorni di verdure cotte e crude, per finire il tipico panettone milanese (fatto con farina, uva passa, canditi, burro e zucchero) o pandoro di Verona ( farina, uova, burro e zucchero) mangiato con tanto mascarpone oppure si mangiano altri dolci regionali tutto accompagnato dallo spumante. Dopo pranzo si fanno diversi giochi di società. L'ultimo giorno dell'anno ci ritroviamo di nuovo con la tavola imbandita e questa volta aggiungiamo al menù lo zampone o cotechino e le lenticchie perché nella fantasia popolare rappresentano i soldi. L'Epifania tutte le feste porta via, si festeggia il 6 gennaio e conclude il periodo di feste Natalizie.


Christmas in Italy Christmas in Italy is the most beloved celebration of the year. To our catholic grandparents, it was centred around ancient rites and traditions that had been transmitted carefully from generation to generation. Today its special nature is often lost dissolving into an even more intense continuation of frantic every day life often ending up with Christmas being lived like any ordinary day. Christmas remains a magical word which makes children's eyes shine and to adults evokes sensations and feelings of joy and life: life because we celebrate Jesus' birth and joy because it being a holiday. Catholic rites are the same in every part of Italy, in the catholic churches the “Presepio” is lead out. The celebration starts with Advent followed by the Christmas Novena (Christian activity of devotion which consists in reciting prayers repeated for nine days until the 24). Midnight mass is celebrated on Christmas eve - after the mass the priest presents to the faithful the statue representing baby Jesus to be kissed. The nativity mass is celebrated on the 25th in every catholic church, and in many other Christian churches as well. Christmas in Italy is not just religious celebrations and traditions. When we talk about Christmas we mean the period from the 24th December to the 6th of January. From the middle of November the shop windows and the streets in the towns are shining with lights and colours. In some regions of the north there are open Christmas markets where, a part from the show of decorations, they sell hand made articles and locally produced objects. On the day of the “Immacolata Concezione” (8th December) we decorate our Christmas tree (that has become part of our tradition along with Father Christmas), we decorate our houses with coloured bunting, we prepare our “Presepio”, which was introduced by San Francesco in 1223. On Christmas Eve there is great excitement with everybody buying their last presents and the food to be cooked for the important lunch on the 25th. On Christmas Eve it is traditional to stay with all the family for the “cenone”. Nowadays, the menu is often based on fish with different sorts of antipasti, pasta with clams or fisherman's rice. A typical fish that is eaten is a female eel but there are also both salted and dried cod all washed down with white wine. We also eat dried fruit and mandarins, nougat and lots of other cakes. Children stay awake until after midnight awaiting baby Jesus or Father Christmas to bring them presents. Presents are sometimes also brought by the Befana an old women on a broomstick, with her skirt full of patches, her shoes all broken and a big sack full of presents for the well behaved and coal for the naughty. Christmas lunch differs from region to region. For the first course: lasagne, agnolotti, tagliatelle, cannelloni, ravioli, malloreddusu, tortollini and cappelletti in broth, and as the second course: capon, lamb, suckling pig, turkey, meat loaf with vegetables and salad, ending with the typical Milan speciality “Panettone” which is made from flour, sultanas, candied peel, butter and sugar) or “Pandoro” from Verona (made from flour, eggs, butter and sugar) eaten with lots of mascarpone cheese or other different regional cakes, all drunk with a bottle of sweet “Spumante”. After lunch we play table games. On New year's eve we gather again around a table adding to the menu Zampone or Cotechino with lentils representing wealth. Epithany is the last day of the festive season and is celebrated on the 6th of January and officially ends the Christmas holidays.


KALĖDOS LIETUVOJE Gruodžio 24 dieną – Kūčios. Kūčioms ruošiamasi visą dieną. Valomi namai, ruošiami valgiai, stengiamasi pagaminti valgių ir pirmajai Kalėdų dienai. Žmonės pasninkauja. Seniau buvo sakoma, kad Kūčiose visą dieną tegalima suvalgyti saują virtų žirnių ir atsigerti vandens. Tik maži vaikai, ligoniai ir seni senutėliai galėdavo kiek daugiau valgyti. Svarbu, kad Kūčių vakarienėje nebūtų jokių mėsiškų valgių. Kūčiose reikia labai gerai išvalyti visus namus, pervilkti lovas švariais skalbiniais, o prieš vakarienę visi šeimos nariai išsimaudo, persirengia švariais drabužiais. Kūčių vakarienei stalas paruošiamas taip: ant pliko stalo dedamas glėbelis smulkaus šieno. Stalas su šienu užtiesiamas visiškai balta staltiese, išdėstomos lėkštės ir papuošiama žvakėmis, eglių šakelėmis. Viduryje stalo dedama lėkštelė su tiek paplotėlių (“plotkelių”), kiek bus žmonių prie stalo. Kūčių vakarienei stengiasi visi šeimos nariai susirinkti į namus, net ir iš tolimesnių vietovių. Jeigu tais metais kuris šeimos narys yra miręs arba negali vakarienėje dalyvauti paliekama tuščia vieta prie stalo. Tikima, kad mirusiojo šeimos nario vėlė dalyvauja Kūčiose kartu su visais. Ant Kūčių stalo dedama 12 valgių. Visi valgiai yra tik pasninkiniai: žuvis, silkė, šližikai su aguonų pienu, kisielius, džiovintų vaisių sriuba (kompotas), žieminių ir džiovintų daržovių mišrainė, grybai, virtos bulvės, rauginti kopūstai (aišku, virti be mėsos), duona. Kai padangėje sužiba pirmoji žvaigždelė, visi renkasi prie Kūčių stalo. Visiems susirinkus prie stalo, sukalbama malda ir laužomas plotkelis – vieni laužia nuo kitų. Kūčių vakarienės metu užsilaikoma ramiai, per daug nekalbama, nejuokaujama ir nevartojama alkoholinių gėrimų. Jeigu kam būtinai reikia užsigerti, tai geriamas vanduo, naminė gira, vaisių sultys. Vakarienę pavalgius, neskubama nueiti nuo stalo: kas pirmas atsikels kam nors nebaigus valgyti, pirmas ir mirs. Kūčių vakaras labai turtingas būrimų. Pasibaigus būrimams, šeima renkasi prie Kalėdų eglutės. Pasidalinus dovanomis, vaikai paprastai eidavo gulti, o suaugusieji būtinai važiuodavo į Piemenėlių mišias (kitur dar vadinamas Bernelių mišiomis). Kalėdos Lietuvoje prasideda gruodžio 25 d. Ta diena laikoma saulės bei augmenijos dievo gimimo diena. Mūsų protėviai per Kalėdas kėlėsi anksti rytą, nudenginėjo Kūčių stalą, stebėjo, ar nesą vėlių buvimo pėdsakų. Nuimtą nuo stalo šieną dalindavo gyvuliams. Pirmą Kalėdų dieną žmonės niekur neidavo ir nieko nedirbdavo, bet burdavo ateinančių metų derlių bei orą. Eglutės puošimas riešutais, obuoliais bei degančiomis žvakutėmis nebuvo atsitiktinis. Riešutai simbolizavo vaisingumą, kuris visų pirma turėjęs pagausinti derlių. Apskritai riešutai ir lazdyno medis buvo laikomis šventaisiais, nes į lazdyną niekad netrenkiąs perkūnas. Obuoliui lietuvių tautosakoje priskiriama antgamtiška, stebuklinga jėga. Su jo pagalba žmogus galįs pasiekti viso, ko trokšta. Žvakučių deginimas ant Kalėdų eglutės buvo siejamas su prosenių vėlių atminimu. Mūsų mokykla turi savo tradicijas – gruodis skelbiamas „Gerumo“ mėnesiu. Visų klasių mokiniai atlieka įvairius gerus darbus: su dovanėlėmis lanko vaikų globos namus, koncertuoja ligoninėse. Vieningai puošiama visa mokykla, jos langai. Mokykloje skelbiami piešinių, foto nuotraukų, eglučių puošimo, eilėraščių ir rašinių konkursai. Gruodžio 5 dieną pradinukai skelbia akciją „Papuošk medelį, pavaišink paukštelį“ ir puošia mokyklos kieme augančius medžius ant jų kabindami lesyklėles bei iš lašinukų suvertas girliandas. Mokiniai su savo tėvais gamina įvairius suvenyrus, kepa pyragus, kuriais prekiaujama mokykloje gruodžio 13 dieną (per šventosios Liucijos dieną). Tada vyksta „Gerumo mugė“, o surinktos lėšos skiriamos mokykloje besimokantiems mokiniams, kuriems reikalinga materialinė pagalba. Mūsų mokykla yra muzikinė, todėl Kalėdoms statomi muzikiniai spektakliai, kuriuose vaidina, dainuoja ir šoka mūsų mokyklos mokiniai ir mokytojai. Rodomi penki spektakliai, kurių pažiūrėti visada susirenka pilna salė žiūrovų. Vyksta instrumentinės muzikos vakaras, kuriame groja mūsų mokiniai. Į vakaronę pakviečiami mokytojai pensininkai. Gruodis turtingas pasirengimo darbais Kalėdoms. Kokia tyli Šventų Kalėdų šventė, Užsnūdus žemė sniego pataluos. Virš žemės skaisčios žvaigždės pasilenkę Užmigusiam lopšinę uždainuos. Linksmų šventų Kalėdų!


CHRISTMAS IN LITHUANIA December 24th is Christmas Eve (Kūčios). Christmas Eve is more important than Christmas day in Lithuania. . All traditions are related to it. Preparations for Christmas Eve take all day. The house has been cleaning the whole week., food prepared not only for the special supper (Kūčios) but also for the first day of Christmas. People fast and abstain from meat. In ancient times it was said that on Christmas Eve people could eat only a fistful of cooked peas and drink some water during all the day. Only little children, sick and old people could eat a little more. It is vitally important that the Christmas Eve supper include no meat dishes. On Christmas Eve the house must be thoroughly cleaned, all the bed linens changed and all family members must bathe and don clean clothes before the evening meal. For the Christmas Eve dinner, the table is prepared as follows: a handful of fine hay is spread evenly on the table. This is a reminder that Jesus was born in a stable and laid in a manger on hay. The table is then covered with a pure white tablecloth, set with plates and decorated with candles and fir boughs. A small plate with as many Christmas wafers (plotkelės) as there are persons present is placed in the center of the table. The whole family gathers together. All family members make an effort to come home for the Christmas Eve supper, even from a distance. . If a family member has died that year or cannot attend the meal (only for very serious reasons) an empty place is left at the table. Twelve different dishes are served on the table because Jesus had twelve apostles. All the dishes are strictly meatless: fish, herring, sližikai with poppy seed milk, kisielius (cranberry pudding), a dried fruit soup or compote, a salad of winter and dried vegetables, mushrooms, boiled or baked potatoes, sauerkraut (cooked, of course, without meat) and bread. Everyone gathers at the dinner table as soon as the first star appears in the sky. When everyone is assembled at the table, a prayer is said. The oldest family member then takes a wafer (plotkelis) and offers it to every family member or guest at the table wishing each other a Happy Christmas. Everyone eats what he wishes, but it is essential to at least taste every food. The meal is eaten solemnly, there is little conversation or joking and alcoholic beverages are not served. If anyone needs to drink, water, homemade cider or fruit juice is served. Christmas Eve is rich in prognostications. It is a tradition to cast lots. As soon a the family has supper, the mother pours grains of wheat on the table. The more you pick up, the richer you will be next year. The girls draw straws from under the tablecloth. The shortest straw mean the girl will marry, the thickest meant the girl will be happy. If you are angry with someone on Christmas Eve, you will be angry in the new year. After the lots all family gather at Christmas tree. After presents were changed, the children usually went to bed while the adults went to Midnight (which is still called Bernelių mišios - Shepherds' Mass). December 25th is Christmas. It is the sun and the floral god‘s birthday. It is also believed that the souls of deceased members of the family might return briefly - and they must find a hospitable table. So, our ancestries got up very early on Christmas Day, unclothed a supper table, then examined it – wether there weren‘t any traces of souls at night. On Christmas morning, the hay used on the supper table was taken to the stable and fed to the cows, oxen and sheep. supper table was then The first day of Christmas was considered most sacred and, therefore, all unnecessary work was avoided. People didn‘t use to go anywhere, but they forecasted about the weather and foresaw the new year havest. The Christmas tree in Lithuania usually was old-fashioned having decorations that included red-cheeked apples, candies, gilded nuts, cookies, lighted candles etc. And it wasn‘t a coincidental decoration. Nuts symbolized fecundity, which should increase the harvest. Generally speaking, nuts and nutwood were saint because the thunder never crash at nutwood. In Lithuanian folklore a supernatural and miracle power was refered to an apple. With the help of the apple a man is capable of gaining everything he wants. Candles‘ lightening on Christmas tree was related to ancestors souls‘recollections. Our school has its own traditions – we declare December as „Kindness“ (Gerumo) month. All our pupils do various good works: they visit children‘s foster home with some presents, perform concerts in hospitals. The school, its windows are decorated with one accord. Contests and competitions of drawing pictures, photos, decorating of Christmas trees, poems and essays writing are announced. December 5th primary school pupils announce an action „Decorate the tree, treat the bird“. They decorate school yard trees hanging feedings with strung garlands of fat on them. Pupils and their parents make various souvenirs, bake pies which they sell at a school fair on December 13th (on St. Liucia‘s Day). On that day we have „Kindness fair“ and all raised money and collected means are commited to our school pupils in material need. Our school is musical school, so on Christmas we play musical performances where our pupils and teachers sing, dance and perform. Five performances are shown and we always have crammed hall. Instrumental evenings are held where our pupils and teachers play. The retired teachers are always invited to the concerts and performances. December is a plentiful month of preporations for Christmas. What guiet silent Christmas, Dropped off land in snow–bed. Lullaby will be raised for someone who dreams By bright stars leant over the Earth Merry Christmas!


COMO CELEBRAMOS O NATAL O Natal na nossa Escola O Natal é celebrado no último dia antes das férias. Temos uma actividade chamada "Mesas de Natal." Cada turma traz comida e bebida para a escola, que coloca numa grande mesa, para que todos os alunos possam comer juntos. Dantes, cada turma tinha a sua mesa, que decorava a seu gosto, mas os nossos professores acharam que a refeição deveria ser partilhada por toda a gente! Durante todo o dia, há também actuações por parte dos alunos dos diferentes anos. Ana Machado e Jorge Silva, 8D O Natal em Casa O dia mais importante é a Véspera de Natal. É a altura em que toda a família se junta para o jantar de Natal, que consiste em bacalhau com legumes e batatas cozidas. Seguem-se as inúmeras e deliciosas sobremesas. À meia-noite, é a altura de abrir os presentes. Algumas famílias vão à Missa do Galo e só desembrulham as prendas quando voltam a casa, no final da missa. Normalmente, o familiar mais velho faz de Pai Natal para as crianças. A Mesa de Natal fica posta para o dia seguinte. A família volta a juntar-se para celebrar o Nascimento. Come-se o bacalhau que sobrou do dia anterior - "a roupa velha" - e um assado, normalmente peru. Bárbara Eusébio, 8D A Comida Natalícia O Bolo Rei é um bolo com frutas cristalizadas. Esconde-se no bolo um presente e uma fava. Quem encontrar o presente, terá sorte para o ano todo. Terá que trazer o bolo - rei para o próximo ano quem encontrar a fava. O bacalhau é demolhado nos dias antes do Natal. Depois é cozido numa grande panela, juntamente com as batatas, as couves e os ovos. É a refeição principal na Véspera de Natal. No Norte do país, come-se Arroz de Polvo na Véspera de Natal. A Aletria é cozinhada com uma massa muito fina, chamada precisamente aletria, ou, em italiano, capellini. A massa é cozida em leite, juntando-se a casca de limão e as gemas de ovos. Coloca-se, depois, num prato e polvilha-se com canela. É parecido com o Arroz Doce, só que é feito com massa em vez de arroz. As Rabanadas são feitas com fatias de pão duro, demolhadas em leite e ovo e depois fritas em óleo. Fábio Ferreira, 8D As canções de Natal Há uma grande variedade de canções de Natal: algumas são canções tradicionais portuguesas e outras são versões de músicas internacionais como a "Noite Feliz" e o "Jingle Bells". As famílias juntam-se à volta da Árvore de Natal ou da lareira e cantam estas canções. No início do novo ano, há grupos de cantores que vão pelas portas a cantar canções tradicionais. Em troca, espera-se que se lhes dê dinheiro ou presentes. São as "Janeiras". Gilberto Santos, 8D As decorações de Natal No Natal, monta-se o presépio, que ocupa um lugar importante nas casas portuguesas. Decora-se a casa com fitas e luzes de Natal. Na árvore de Natal, põem-se diversos ornamentos, e no cimo da árvore, coloca-se uma estrela ou um anjinho. Os presentes vão para debaixo da árvore para serem abertos na Véspera de Natal. Inês Santos e Diogo Pereira, 8D Desejamos a todos um FELIZ NATAL e um BOM ANO NOVO! 8ºD, EB 2,3 DE ALVARELHOS


Christmas in School Christmas is celebrated in our school on the last day before the end of term. Art teachers put up the decorations with the help of the students. Each class brings food and drinks to school, and a huge table is set for all the students to eat together. There used to be one table for each class, but our teachers decided that the meal should be shared by everyone. Before this activity there are usually performances by the students. It is always a lot of fun! Ana Machado and Jorge Silva, class 8D Christmas at Home Christmas is celebrated mainly on Christmas Eve. It is a time for the family to get together and eat the traditional Christmas meal, which consists of codfish with vegetables and boiled potatoes, followed by a number of yummy desserts. At midnight some people go to church for the 'Missa do Galo' or 'Mass of the Rooster' service. After the service people return home, and open their presents. Those who stay at home open their presents at midnight. An older relative is chosen to play Santa Claus if there are children around. On Christmas Day the living room table remains untouched. Families come together again to celebrate Christmas Day. The menu consists of roast turkey and the leftover codfish. Bárbara Eusébio, class 8D Christmas Food Bolo Rei (or King Cake) is the Portuguese Christmas cake, which is a sponge cake with crystallised fruits. A gift and a bean are hidden in the cake. Whoever finds the gift will have luck for the rest of the year and the bean finder will have to buy the cake for the following year. Codfish is steeped in water for 24 hours to remove most of the salt. It is then cooked in a large pan of water with vegetables, potatoes and eggs and eaten on Christmas Day. Octopus is eaten in Northern part of the country. Aletria pronounced <A-leh-tri-ah>, is a dessert which consists of Aletria, a very thin pasta. It is made by cooking the pasta in milk and then sweetening it with sugar and adding egg-yolks. Then you pour the whole thing in a large plate and dust with cinnamon. It is similar to the Portuguese rice pudding, using pasta instead of rice. Rabanadas is stale bread cooked in an egg batter and cooked on a griddle. Fábio Ferreira, class 8D Christmas Carols There are lots of Christmas carols: some are traditional Portuguese songs, others are versions of foreign songs like "Silent Night" and "Jingle Bells". In some households people gather around the Christmas tree and sing these carols on Christmas Eve. In January, groups of singers travel from house to house singing carols, for which they are often rewarded with money or gifts. Money collected in this way is now normally given to charity. This is called “The Janeiras”. Gilberto Santos, class 8D Christmas Decorations The house is decorated with paper ribbons, candles and flowers. The family decorates the pine tree with Christmas lights and colorful ornaments during the days before Christmas. An angel or star is often placed at the top of the tree and the presents are placed under the tree The Nativity Scene is also a main Christmas decoration in most Portuguese homes, as we are Catholics. Inês Santos and Diogo Pereira, class 8D Christmas Greetings In Portuguese, we wish each other “Feliz Natal”, which means “Merry Christmas”. It is pronounced “FehLEEZE Nah-TALL". We also say "Boas Festas", meaning "Seasons greetings" On New Year we say “Bom Ano Novo” - “Happy New Year”. Class 8D from Alvarelhos School in Trofa would like to wish everyone a FELIZ NATAL and BOM ANO NOVO!


Gaeilge – Irish Language 24ú Nollaig 25ú Nollaig 26ú Nollaig

Oíche Nollag Christmas Eve Lá Nollag Christmas Day Lá 'le Stiofáin St. Stephen’s Day

An Nollaig Cuireann daoine suas crann Nollag sa teach ar an tochtú lá de mhí na Nollag. Crochtar maisiúcháin eagsúla air, ar nós cloigíní, liathróidí daite agus realtóga. Lastar lampaí sí agus coinnle air freisin. Nuair a thagann Oíche Nollag cuirtear bronntanais agus breagáin don clann ar fad faoin gcrann. Gach Nollag bíonn máínséir sa seipéal agus sa teach i gcuimhne an chéid Nollaig. Scéal na Nollag Ar an gcéad Oíche Nollag bhí ar Muire agus Iósaf dul go Beithil. Ní raibh loistín le fáil dóibh ann agus chuaigh siad isteach i stábla ar thaobh an chnoic. Bhí bó agus asal sa stábla agus bhí an oíche an-fhuar. Rugadh Íosa sa stábla. Lean na trí ríthe ón Domhain Thoir réalta sa spéir agus tháinig siad ar an stábla ina raibh Íosa. Thug siad bronntanais leo: ór, tuis agus miorr. Chuala na haoirí ceol na n-aingeal agus thug siad cuairt ar Íosa freisin. Aistríonn daoine bronntanais um Nollaig. Caitheann daoine alán airgid agus am ag ceannacht bronntanais san seachtain roimh an Nollaig. Tagann Daidí na Nollag Oíche Nollag nuair a bhíonn na páistí ina gcodladh. Fagann sé bronntanais faoin gcrann Nollag nó i stocaí. Tagann Daidí na Nollag as An Laplainn. Bíonn sé ag taistil ar carr sleamhnáin a bhíonn á iompar ag reinfhia. Itheann daoine bia speisialta um Nollag. Don dinnéir itear turcaí, liamhás, prataí rósta agus bachlóga bruiséile. Don mhilseog itear maróg Nollag agus cáca Nollag. Tarraingíonn daoine pleáscóga Nollag roimh dinnéir na Nollag


Before Christmas: We: Buy decorations in the shops. Buy a Christmas pudding for our family. Invite all our relatives for Christmas dinner. Children get our Christmas holidays from school. Wrap all the presents for our relations. Send out cards to all our friends and family. Give all our relatives gifts and presents. Send letters to Santa Clause for all our Christmas gifts. Put all the presents under the Christmas tree. Buy food for Christmas dinner. Go Christmas shopping!!! Walk from house to house Christmas Carol singing!!! Christmas Eve: We: Visit relations on Christmas Eve and Christmas day. Get gifts for friends and family. Collect our turkey, make the stuffing and cook our ham. Clean the house for visitors. Go to mass with family. Watch Christmas movies with our family. Open one present on Christmas Eve. Watch Santa leaving the North Pole on the news. Set out milk and cookies for Santa. Get into our new pyjamas and jump into bed. Christmas Day: We: Go downstairs really early Christmas morning. Eat our dinner with our family. Pull crackers while eating our dinner. Go to mass Christmas Eve night. We exchange presents with our friends and family. Visit relatives or they visit us on Christmas day. Play with our gifts from Santa Clause. Show our presents to other people that come to visit our family. Play in the snow if there is any. Celebrate the birth of Jesus. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a very special day. Wish everyone a happy Christmas. Eat selection boxes. Get dressed in our new fancy clothes. Send a thank you letter to Santa. Eat desserts. Give presents to our family. Get a film and relax on the couch after our dessert. St. Stephenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s day We: This is the day after Christmas. Go hunting the wren. Watch television in the afternoon. Visit relations and bring our toys and show them off. Share our gifts with family and friends. Help our parents tidy up. Just do what you like and relax. Take down our Christmas tree. Reheat the leftovers. Go to mass in the morning. Thank our parents for presents. Visit the graves of our dead ones.


Sarbatorile de iarna la Colegiul National “Andrei Saguna”Brasov În fiecare an Sǎrbǎtorile de iarnǎ,un timp al bucuriilor, al pǎcii şi al liniştii sufleteşti, ne învaţǎ sǎ primim şi sǎ dǎruim iubire şi multǎ cǎldurǎ sufleteascǎ celor din jurul nostru. Apropierea vacanţei şi spiritul viu al sarbatorilor de iarnǎ dau întotdeauna un suflu emoţionant celei mai calde serbǎri a Colegiului National “Andrei Saguna”:cea de Craciun. Ca în fiecare an Craciunul este întampinat printr-un spectacol ţinut în Sala Festiva,într-o atmosferǎ în acelaşi timp solemnǎ şi caldǎ,învioratǎ de de prezenţa unui uriaş brad împodobit.Acest prilej special îi reuneşte intr-un spaţiu somptuos pe domnii profesori,elevii Colegiului şi parinţii, dar şi oficialitţti ale oraşului venite sǎ ia parte la serbarea de Crǎciun ce a intrat in traditia liceului ca fiind una dintre cele mai aşteptate de elevi,atat de cei mai mici(clasele V-VIII) cât şi de liceeni. Serbarea oferǎ în fiecare an bucuria unor momente muzicale de excepţie realizate de fanfara şi corul liceului ce fac sǎ rǎsune armoniile corale ale colindelor ce sensibilizeazǎ prin interpretǎrile solistice si recitative.De altfel si colindatorii Minisatului refac atmosfera rurala a sarbatorii creştine prin cântece autentice şi obiceiuri traditionale precum “jocul caprei” sau “jocul mastilor” de Anul Nou. Au loc şi numeroase scenete atât în limba românǎ cât şi în englezǎ, francezǎ sau germanǎ ce reliefeazǎ caracterul magic al acestei sǎrbatori creştine. Sǎrbatorile de iarnǎ în Colegiul “Andrei Saguna” nu reprezintǎ numai o atmosferǎ specialǎ creatǎ în şcoalǎ sau o serbare cu scenete şi cântece specifice,ci si prilejul de a face fapte bune punând creativitatea şi imaginaţia în realizarea unor lucruri inedite. Câteva exemple ar fi tradiţionalul Bazar de Craciun şi Tombola care transformǎ curtea şcolii într-o expoziţie veritabilǎ de produse ce se întrec în a fi spectaculoase şi originale şi care sunt realizate de elevii liceului pentru colegii lor,fiecare dǎruind şi cumpǎrând,banii strânşi fiind destinaţi unor scopuri caritabile. Cu ocazia acestei sǎrbatori îndragite şi mult aşteptatǎ de copiii de pretutindeni, elevii Colegiului “Andrei Saguna” efectueaza vizite la diferite case de copii şi bǎtrâni din judeţ pentru a împǎrţi cadouri . Colegiul National “Andrei Saguna”este un liceu cu traditie si performante inalte care ne reinvata,an de an, ca a darui este un privilegiu si o bucurie. Sarbatorile de iarna la romani Sǎrbǎtoarea reprezintǎ o manifestare a sacrului, a sublimului, a absolutului în lumea profanǎ, cotidianǎ, a oamenilor obişnuiti,ea fiind nu numai spirit, duh,ci şi organizare, structurǎ si funcţionalitate. Sǎrbatoarea este unul din cadrele spaţiale -spaţiul festiv si temporal -timpul festiv, în care sacrul, se situeazǎ, dincolo de profan , în cadrul ei împletindu-se lumescul cu divinul. Sărbătorile de iarnă au avut dintotdeauna o mare importanţă socială pentru români. Poporul român a păstrat cu sfinţenie,din cele mai vechi timpuri, forma originală a obiceiurilor,datinilor,creaţiilor materiale şi culturalartistice.Acestea,strâns legate de viaţa socială a ţăranului,l-au însoţit de la naştere până la ultima suflare Începând cu 23decembrie şi până la 7 ianuarie,în fiecare an satele şi oraşele noastre sunt animate de o pregătire specială,tradiţională,specifică poporului nostru,în întâmpinarea sărbătorilor de iarnă :CRĂCIUNUL, ANUL NOU şi BOBOTEAZA.În cele 12 zile,oamenii ţin să marcheze caracterul deosebit,sărbătoresc,al timpului de trecere de la un an la altul prin acte rituale,ceremoniale şi spectaculoase,care sunt menite să întărească coeziunea familiei,a grupurilor sociale. Caracteristica cea mai importantă a acestor sarbatori fiind repertoriul neasemuit de bogat în datine şi credinţe, în realizări artistice literare, muzicale, coregrafice etc.Colindele, colindele de copii, urările de belşug şi recoltă bogată cu Plugul, Pluguşorul, Sorcova, Vasilca, Jocurile cu măşti (Capra, Cerbul, Brezaia, Turca), Cântecele de stea sunt câteva din manifestările folclorice care fac din sărbătorile de iarnă unele din cele mai spectaculoase manifestări spirituale ale poporului nostru. În AJUNUL CRĂCIUNULUI,pe înserat, în toate satele şi oraşele din ţară începe colindatul . Acest obicei a înglobat în el nu numai cântec şi gest ritual ci şi numeroase mesaje şi simboluri ale unei străvechi spiritualităţi româneşti .El s-a păstrat asociindu-se cu celebrarea marelui eveniment creştin care este NAŞTEREA DOMNULUI IISUS HRISTOS .Colindătorii ,copii şi adulţi , merg din casă în casă vestind prin cântec naşterea pruncului Iisus .Gazdele oferă colindătorilor covrigi ,fructe şi crăciunei ( colăceii de Craciun)Se spune că în seara de Ajun se deschid cerurile şi cei evlavioşi pot auzi glasurile îngerilor ,dacă vor veghea până la primul cântat de cocoş.Din ziua Naşterii Domnului şi până la Sfântul Ioan , copiii colindă cu steaua Cântecul de stea reaminteşte povestea Naşterii lui Iisus şi poartă simbolul steluţei care i-a călăuzit pe cei trei magi . Pentru cel mai important moment, trecerea în noul an , pregătirile se reiau .În săptămâna dintre CRĂCIUN şi ANUL NOU , în toate satele cetele de flăcăi se pregătesc pentru „urat” , sistem complex de datini şi obiceiuri . Pe înserat în ajunul ANULUI NOU sunt aşteptaţi să apară „Ursul” , „Capra” , „Bunghierii” , „Căiuţii” , „Malanca” , „Jienii”,„Mascaţii” , etc . Concretizarea spectaculoasă a unor mituri antice legate de simbolistica animalelor , aceste manifestări reprezintă o modalitate originală de exprimare a arhaicelor asociaţii rituale dintre animale şi cultul cvasiuniversal al soarelui . Există şi un cuvânt generic pentru aceste obiceiuri : „mascaţii”. Recuzita , măştile sunt cele care vorbesc cel mai mult despre imaginaţia şi umorul săteanului român ,unii meşteri s-au specializat în confecţionarea lor , ele devenind cu timpul adevărate podoabe de artă popula Faptul că aceste obiceiuri se practică la cumpăna dintre ani este justificat de simbolistica zilei de 31 decembrie care în gândirea populară reprezintă data morţii dar şi a renaşterii ordinei cosmice .Structura ceremonială a obiceiului este în acelaşi timp plină de forţă şi vitalitate . Muzica şi dansul remarcabile prin virtuozitate şi dinamism , măştile pline de expresivitate , alcătuiesc un spectacol unic . În noaptea de 31 decembrie timpul capătă o nouă dimensiune , cosmică , iar vatra satului devine un perimetru sacru în care urmează a se oficia , marile rituri de purificare . Este noaptea în care nimeni nu are voie să doarmă deoarece este noaptea împăcărilor şi a „ tuturor nebuniilor” , menite a anula „ordinea existentă” pentru a instaura „legea armoniei universale” În dimineaţa zilei de 1 Ianuarie( Sfântul Vasile) grupuri de fete şi băieţi merg pe la rude şi vecini cu SORCOVA şÎ SEMĂNATUL pentru a le ura sănătate şi belşug în anul care începe . Copiii poartă în mâini simbolul obiceiului: SORCOVA ,confecţionată odinioară din ramuri înflorite de pom roditor (cele puse la înmugurit din toamna) şi împodobite cu ciucuri roşii . În zilele noastre SORCOVA este confecţionată din flori artificiale puse pe o nuia . Copiii intră în casele oamenilor urându-i cu SORCOVA şi semănându-i cu boabe de grâu , porumb sau orez având credinţa că acestea vor determina belşugul recoltei viitoare . Sărbătorile de iarnă se încheie cu 7 ianuarie , ziua Sfântului Ioan ,ziua în care au loc diverse ceremonialuri de sărbătorire a celor care poartă numele Ioan. Iarna este sobră , plină de privaţiuni şi primejdioasă , dar sărbătorile acestui anotimp ,cele mai spectaculoase din tradiţia românilor , prefigurează parcă clipele în care totul va reveni la viaţă .


CHRISTMAS IN ROMANIA In Romania, winter’s national festivals take place between 24th of December and 7th of January .They include Christmas, the New Year and “Boboteaza”. The most important of all is Christmas, which is celebrated on 25th of December. On Christmas’ Eve people decorate the Christmas tree with the most beautiful ornaments. This is a very important family tradition in which all the family members take part while singing Christmas carols. The tradition in Romania is for children to travel from house to house singing carols and reciting poetry and legends. These carols create a festive environment in which Romanian people welcome The Birth of Jesus and the New Year. In Romania, especially in the country side, young boys use to go “caroling”, but the whole event is a little bit special. They all wear traditional costumes and one of them dresses up in goat .The one dressed in goat clamps his “mouth” (which is made of two pieces of wood) while the rest of them sing traditional songs. This custom lasts from the Christmas’ Eve, till New Year’s Eve .The boys go from house to house because the villages are not usually large and get treated by the locals with various gifts. These gifts consist most of the times of home-baked cakes red wine (home made as well) and a symbolical sum of money from time to time. They go on like this until it already the Christmas morning, and then they gather in the home of one of them to party, eat and drink all that they collected during the previous night. This was an example for an older Christmas custom .In Romania there are also customs present throughout the World. For instance, the children all around the country are waiting for Santa Claus .He comes with gifts only for the ones that deserve them. Those who were naughty during the year receive a little tree branch (as a symbol of being spanked for their misbehavior).Of course all the presents go under the Christmas tree where children open them the next morning. In the evening, Romanian families have the famous Christmas dinner. They all eat traditional dishes like pork, sausages, filled cabbages and drink wine. WE WILL ALL WELCOME CHRISTMAS IN OUR HEARTS AND TRY TO KEEP IT THROUGHOUT THE NEXT YEAR!


BOŽIČ V SLOVENIJI V Sloveniji je božič nedvomno najbolj priljubljen krščanski praznik. Priprave nanj se začnejo že štiri tedne prej, na prvo adventno nedeljo, ko v domovih in cerkvah prižgemo prvo svečko na adventnem vencu. Sicer pa je prižiganje sveč na adventnem vencu postalo del slovenske božične tradicije šele v 80. letih prejšnjega stoletja. Božični običaji v preteklosti (do srede 20. stoletja) V zahodnih krajih Slovenije je bil običaj, da so otroci k jutranji nedeljski maši prihajali z zelenimi venci in prižganimi svečami na glavi, po maši pa odšli po domovih in peli adventne in božične pesmi. Prav tako so se v božičnem času držali neobveznega posta – niso pijančevali, vasovali, niso se niti poročali. Današnji božični običaji 1. Vsako nedeljo prižgi eno svečo na adventnem vencu. 2. Kupi darila. Časa imaš do božičnega večera. 3. Okrasi novoletno smrečico. 4. Postavi jaslice. 5. Speci orehovo ali makovo potico. potica 6. Na božični večer pojdi k polnočnici. 7. Na božični dan odpri darila in dan preživi v krogu najožjih družinskih članov. 8. Uživaj božični čas s prijatelji in sorodniki. Kdo prinaša darila v SLoveniji? Trije dobri možje Dedek mraz ni edina oseba, ki v tem času obišče otroke in jim prinese darila. Po koncu komunističnega režima ali natančneje po osamosvojitvi Slovenije leta 1991 je javno praznovanje božiča postalo »varno« in pojavila sta se še dva dobra moža. Na predvečer 6. decembra pride sveti Miklavž v spremstvu angelov in parkeljnov. Pridnim prinese sladkarije, oreščke, suho sadje, mandarine in druga darila. Poredne pa pričakajo palica in parkeljni, ki neubogljive kaznujejo. Drugi dobri mož je Božiček, ki pride na božični večer. Tisti, ki nasprotujejo procesu amerikanizacije, ga do neke mere še vedno niso sprejeli kot del slovenske božične tradicije, vsekakor pa je v zadnjih dvajsetih letih med današnjo mladino brez dvoma postal zelo priljubljen. Zadnji dobri mož Dedek Mraz pride na predvečer novega leta. Je suh, oblečen v siv krznen plašč, ki je na notranji strani obdan s krznom, na zunanji pa lepo okrašen, na glavi ima okroglo polhovko, na nogah pa visoke bele škornje. S seboj nosi dolgo sprehajalno palico, ne vozi se z jeleni ampak konji in stanuje pod Triglavom, čeprav prvotno prihaja iz Rusije. Vsi trije možje so med seboj prijatelji in se izogibajo konfliktom. Kdo nas obišče in osreči, niti ni tako pomembno. Božič naj bo predvsem čas življenjske radosti, veselja ob tem, da drugim ponudimo tisto, v čemer smo vsi dobri – nasmejimo nekoga, ki je žalosten, in pomagamo tistemu, ki je v stiski.


SLOVENSKÉ VIANOCE Stredobodom vianočných osláv v minulosti, rovnako ako dnes, bol Štedrý deň. V tradičnej kresťanskej rodine býva dodnes zvykom zachovávať celodenný pôst. Hovorí sa, že kto sa na Štedrý deň vydrží postiť, uvidí večer zlaté prasiatko. Štedrovečerná večera nielen na Slovensku pozostáva z viacerých chodov. Prvým chodom tradičnej štedrovečernej večere bývajú obyčajne oblátky s medom, prípadne aj strúčik cesnaku. Tento rituál má zabezpečiť každému zdravie. S medom súvisí aj zvyk urobiť všetkým malým dievčatkám krížik na čelo, aby si ich okolie obľúbilo. Po predjedle sa podáva niektorá z tradičných štedrovečerných polievok z obilnín, húb, kapusty, strukovín alebo rýb. V katolíckych rodinách sa mäso mohlo jesť až po polnoci. V evanjelických obciach sa tento deň varievala kapustnica s klobásou a čerstvým či údeným bravčovým mäsom. Hlavným chodom večera býva tradične pečená ryba, považovaná za pôstne jedlo. Kosti z večere sa dávali na jeden tanier a zakopávali sa v ľanovom obrúsku pod jabloň. Magická moc sa pripisovala vianočnému pečivu. Podľa zaužívanej tradície muselo byť obradové pečivo hotové ešte pred východom slnka. Po vymiesení cesta na vianočné pečivo a chlieb si gazdiná poutierala ruky o ovocné stromy, aby budúci rok dobre rodili. Často z upečeného pečiva hádzali i sliepkam, aby dobre znášali vajcia. Bývalo tiež zvykom piecť z vody a múky figúrky domácich a hospodárskych zvierat. Tie potom hospodár zavesil nad chliev, stajňu, kurník i psiu búdu, aby zvieratá v novom roku dobre prospievali. Pod štedrovečerným stolom býval položený železný predmet, spravidla sekera. Verilo sa, že ten, kto naň počas večere položí nohu, bude v budúcom roku šťastný. Všetky nohy stola bývali obopnuté hrubou reťazou, aby sa zabezpečila súdržnosť rodiny v budúcom roku. Na mnohých miestach Slovenska vešali nad stôl venček upletený zo slamy alebo dávali pod stôl snop slamy, aby sa zabezpečila dobrá úroda obilia v nasledujúcom roku. Podľa ľudovej viery najvhodnejším dňom roka na predpovedanie budúcnosti bol práve Štedrý večer. Hneď po večeri bývalo zvykom rozkrojiť jabĺčko a podľa tvaru jadrovníka predpovedať prítomným ich osud. Ak mal jadrovník rozkrojeného jablka tvar hviezdy, očakávalo sa v rodine šťastie a majetok, ak mal tvar kríža, dala sa očakávať choroba, ba aj smrť. Nepekný jadrovník, červík, znamenali chorobu, nešťastie, zármutok. Dvanásť jadierok ako dvanásť mesiacov sa vložili do misky s vodou - koľko ich vyplávalo, toľko bude suchých mesiacov. Aby sme v budúcom roku nezablúdili - jabĺčko sa rozdelilo na toľko kusov, koľko bolo pri stole osôb. Na škrupinky vlašských orechov sa prilepili sviečky a poslali sa po vode v umývadle, či lavóre. Komu poplávala loďka ďaleko, mal odísť do cudziny. Majiteľ škrupinky, ktorá sa držala pri kraji nádoby, mal zostať blízko domova. Komu loďka nabrala vodu a potopila sa, ten mal zomrieť. Zo štedrovečerného stola sa nemohlo nič vyhodiť, odkladali sa aj odrobinky, ktoré vraj pomáhali, keď ochorel dobytok. Myslelo sa aj na statok v maštaliach a chlievoch. V tento deň mu patril lepší pokrm.


Preparations start early in Advent with buying nuts, poppy seed, flour and everything necessary for the Christmas baking. A few days before Christmas the women of the household start baking the pastries. Christmas Eve is a day full of activities in the Slovak homes. The house has to be cleaned and in the afternoon mothers are found to prepare the Holy Supper as everyone at home usually go on a fast during the day. Our parents used to put straw under the table to represent the Manger where the Jesus Child was born. The table is covered with a clean cloth and set. The Christmas Eve varied from village to village even from home to home. The meal is always meatless. In Catholic homes the supper starts with a prayer and the breaking of the Christmas wafers. The clinking of glasses of homemade wine and wishes of Merry Christmas are followed. The table is loaded with steaming bowls of food that will be eaten during the evening. We start with mentioned wafers which are followed by honey and garlic to be healthy during the coming year. Next course is soup made from sauerkraut and then we eat â&#x20AC;&#x153;bobalkyâ&#x20AC;?. They are small baked balls covered with sweet crushed poppy. Then we continue with fish, fried or baked, and potato salad. In some Slovak families, the head of the household traces the sign of the cross on the foreheads of the children in honey. This is a wish for a sweet New Year as well as a sweet disposition. During the supper, no one is permitted to leave the table so it is thought that someone would not be present there during the coming year. When the meal is completed, the dishes are cleared away but the pastries, nuts, candies and fruit are left on the table for any visitors even for the visitors from the other world who died. So and after the Christmas supper the whole family goes to unpack the Christmas presents which are under the decorated Christmas tree. They sing Christmas carols and at midnight they go to church. Next day it is Christmas Day which is spent by visiting of relatives and enjoying the atmosphere of Christmas. What the British call Boxing Day we call St. Steve's Day when the first ball is organized. New Year's Eve is celebrated in Slovakia mostly with friends at home, in some restaurants or in the mountains where people go skiing. Definitely Christmas time is considered as the biggest family holiday


CHRISTMAS IN SLOVENIA In Slovenia, Christmas is definitely the most popular Christian holiday. Preparations start four weeks before the holiday when on the first Advent Sunday in churches and homes the first of four candles on the Advent wreath is lit. Interestingly, lighting candles hasn’t been part of Christmas tradition until the 1980s. Past Christmas traditions (till the middle of the previous century) In the western part of Slovenia, children would come to the morning Sunday mass carrying evergreen Advent wreaths and candles on their heads and after the ceremony they would visit people’s homes singing Christmas carols. Christmas time meant no partying and drinking or loud midnight singing, no nocturnal visits to one’s sweetheart and no marrying. Present Christmas traditions 1. Every Sunday before Christmas light one candle on the Advent wreath. 2. Buy presents. Don’t worry, you have time till Christmas Eve. 3. Decorate your Christmas tree. 4. Set up a Christmas crib. 5. Bake a walnut or poppy-seed potica (roll). potica /po’ti:tsa/ 6. On Christmas Eve, attend the midnight mass. 7. On Christmas Day, open your presents and spend the holiday at home among the closest family members. 8. Enjoy Christmas time with your friends and relatives. Who brings presents in Slovenia? The three good old men Grandpa Frost is not the only figure visiting children and bringing them gifts at this time of the year. After the end of the Communist regime, or more precisely since Slovenian independence in 1991, it has become “safe” to celebrate Christmas publicly and two more presents-bringers have appeared in public. On the 6th December Saint Nicholas (Slovenian: Miklavž /mi’klauzh/) comes and with the help of his angels brings sweets, nuts, dried fruits, mandarins and other presents to those who behaved well throughout the whole year. But if children were naughty in the past year, a rod awaits them as a reminder to become more obedient in the future and devils are sent to punish them. The second one is Santa Claus (Slovenian: Božiček (bo’zhitchek/), who comes on Christmas Eve. Even though he is to some extent still rejected by those who strongly oppose the process of Americanization, his figure has definitely become extremely popular among in children even though it’s been part of our tradition for the past twenty years only. The last good old man comes on New Year’s Eve. He’s called Grandpa Frost (literally from the name Dedek Mraz (’dedek ’mraz). He is slim, wears a grey leather coat, which has fur inside and is decorated outside, a round dormouse fur cap, and white boots. He walks with a long walking stick, drives no reindeer but horses and is believed to have a home under Triglav (the highest Slovenian mountain), although he originally comes from Russia. When together, the three men are friends and avoid conflict. Who exactly comes and makes us happy is not important. Christmas time should be time of joy for life, joy for giving other people what we do best – a smile when one is sad, a hand when one needs help.


La Tronca de Nadal es un tronco recio al cual le añades dos patas frontales para que apoye en el suelo. En uno de los cortes se le dibujan unos ojos, cejas, nariz y boca. A veces se le pone también flequillo. Entonces se le cubre con una manta de lana aunque la cara debe quedar al descubierto. Otro elemento necesario es un palo de madera o bastón, con el cual se golpea al tronco. Dos semanas antes de Noche Buena hay que empezar a dar de comer al Tronco de Nadal todas las noches. La comida suelen ser mandarinas, galletas, chocolate y agua. Esto tiene truco ya que por la noche los padres se lo comen todo y así por la mañana no queda nada. Durante la tarde noche del 24 de diciembre empiza el ritual de la Tronca de Nadal. Primero los niños tienen que desaparecer del comedor así que se les manda a calentar el palo o bastón, a practicar villancicos y la canción de la tronca, algunos niños van a rezar o incluso a mojar el palo en el lavabo y luego tienen que secarlo. Cuando los padres les llaman, van enseguida al comedor y empiezan a cantar la canción tradicional del Tronco de Nadal ( Tronca de Nadal inf..wav) mientras golpean al Tronco con el palo, también cantan villancicos. Por ultimo, ya pueden coger los regales de debajo de la manta y repartirlos a toda la familia. Esta tradición es de Cataluña y zonas limítrofes como la nuestra. La realizan los niños más pequeños de la casa ya que son los que todavía creen en la Tronca y su magia Feliz Navidad a todos y todas!!!!


The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tronca de Nadalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or Christmas Log is a big log to which you add two front wooden legs to lay it on the floor. At the front you should draw two eyes with eyebrows, a nose, and a mouth. Sometimes you can add flinge. Then you put a woollen blancket over the Christmas Log although its face must be uncovered. Another necessary element is a wooden stick or walking stick with which you must hit the log. Two weeks before Christmas Eve you should start feeding the Christmas Log every night on a plate. The food should be mandarins, biscuits, chocolate and some water. It has got a trick, the parents eat all up so there is noting the next morning. During the night of the 24th of December it starts the Christmas Log ceremony. First, children must waste time out of the living room. They go to heat the stick and practice carols, sometimes children also pray or they dampen the top of the stick at the sink and then they have to dry it. When your parents call you, you go straight away and start singing a traditional song (Tronca de Nadal inf..wav) while stricking the log with a stick, more often than not you sing carols as well. Finally, you can take the presents from underneath the blanket and start giving them out. Merry Christmas!!!!


DECEMBER 2008 - nº 1  

eTwinning project

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