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Cyprus:National Tourist Guide Cyprus may be a small country, but being the third largest island in the Mediterranean means there is much to see and do. Situated in the top right hand corner of the Mediterranean, Cyprus is so close to Europe, Asia and Africa that it rightly, claims to be a stepping stone to three continents. Cyprus has always played an important role in the history of the Mediterranean, far exceeding its size. This is mostly caused by its strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea. With a historic and legendary background it is hardly surprising that Cyprus has developed a character which is quite unique. It is blessed with beauty, natural beauty that ranges from golden beaches and rugged coastlines to rolling hills and forest clad mountains, dotted with picturesque villages. NICOSIA: THE CAPITAL A Modern City Nicosia is a town that has something to offer to the majority of people. The town centre has a large modern shopping centre with many shops in which one can find almost everything. It has also many interesting monuments, first-class hotels, a very good service and financial system, a wide range of places of entertainment and an abundance of restaurants and taverns. Nicosia 'within the walls': Look at any map of Nicosia and you will see the distinctive shape of the walls of the old city. The walls and their eleven bastions were built by the Venetians in the 1570s - most of the historic monuments of Nicosia can be found in the winding streets within the walls. It is also the site of the famous tourist quarter, Laiki Yitonia, which is full of gift shops and restaurants. One of the most beautiful buildings in the old city is the house of Hadigeorgakis Kornesios - also known as the House of the Dragoman - built in the fifteenth century. It is a wonderful example of a combination of Venetian and Ottoman building styles. It is worth mentioning that only the capital, Nicosia, is not near the sea. All the following cities, Limassol, Larnaca, Paphos and Famagusta are distinguished by very nice beaches with luxurious and family hotels built next to the sea.

LIMASSOL: SECOND CITY Limassol is the second largest city in Cyprus and it is the biggest port in the Mediterranean transit trade. It has also become one of the most important tourism, trade and service-providing centres in the area. Limassol is renowned for its long cultural tradition. A wide spectrum of activities and a great number of museums and archaeological sites are available to the interested visitor. Consequently, Limassol attracts a wide range of tourists mostly during the summer season to be accommodated in its several luxurious hotels and apartments. In addition to the existing sights and attractions, a world class marina is currently being built, that will offer a wide range of services and attractions. Wine lovers will enjoy a visit to Limassol because it is the center of Cyprus’ wine industry. Limassol is famous in Cyprus for its festivals, like the Carnival and Wine Festival. The Limassol Carnival festival lasts for ten days, with jolly and amusing masquerading. During the first quarter of September, the great Wine Festival of Cyprus takes place. During the festival the visitor has the chance to taste some of the best Cyprus wines, which are offered free of charge. Other festivals are Yermasogeia Flower Festival (May), Festival of the Flood (June), Shakespearean nights and Festival of Ancient Greek Drama. Curium/Colossi Castle: Ancient Curium and the castle at Colossi are both in the Limassol area. They are just two examples of the wealth of history to be found in Cyprus - the Curium sites dating from the second century AD and Colossi from the thirteenth century. There are several old castles in Cyprus. One of the oldest is the Castle of Kolossi.The ruins at Curium are to be found in breathtaking scenery overlooking the sea - this is probably the most spectacular archaeological site in Cyprus. It is an ancient city-kingdom where excavations still bring new treasures to light. The magnificent GrecoRoman Theatre is now fully restored and used for musical and theatrical performances. There are actually two sites, the old city of Colossi and the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates - they are a few kilometers apart.

LARNACA: TOWN OF KIMON The city of Larnaca is in the southeastern coast of Cyprus. . It is the successor of the ancient city Kition, one of the important ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, including the birthplace of the ancient philosopher Zenon. και Λειβάδια ). Today is the third largest city of the island. Το Κίτιο , ιδρυμένο από Έλληνες αποίκους τον 14ο π.Χ. , ο οποίος πέθανε ενώ το πολιορκούσε. The island's largest airport, Larnaca International Airport is located on the outskirts of the city. It is an important tourist resort. The city of Larnaca is well-known for its picturesque seafront which includes rows of palm trees (oi finikoudes, in the Cypriot dialect). Here you will also find Larnaca Marina, one of the four official entry points, by sea, to the island. Much of the activity is centered around the city promenade during the major festivals. The most important of these for the city of Larnaca is Kataklysmos or the Festival of the Flood, celebrated in early summer with a series of cultural events. The advantages of Larnaca as a tourist resort are numerous. The archaeological sites and its six museums are in the centre of the city within walking distance. Summer sports, sea activities and cruises are available. The variety of restaurants, taverns and cafeterias is very great. The Cyprus “meze” is the food specialty of the town. Night life and cultural life are interesting and rich with many events organized by the town’s Municipality almost daily. Choirokitia To go right back to Cyprus' earliest history, you need to visit the remains of stone-age settlements at Choirokitia, better preserved than most other Neolithic sites in the eastern Mediterranean. The settlement dates back to the sixth or seventh centuries BC. It is perhaps one of the earliest human settlements on the island and is an UNESCO World Heritage site. The people of Choirokitia lived in beehive-shaped one storey houses - more than sixty such houses can be seen at the site, as well as the original streets and lanes and a larger chieftain's mansion. This site can be found approximately half way between Larnaca and Limassol. Lefkara To those in the know, Lefkara means only one thing, lace making. The exquisite Lefkara lace is one of Cyprus' most famous exports - Leonardo da Vinci is said to have bought some to take back to Italy. Lefkara is situated in the Larnaca district, around 35km south-west of Larnaca city.

PAPFOS: TOWN OF APHRODITE Paphos is the capital of Cyprus' western region and it is one of the main tourist spots in Cyprus. Its airport offers a great link point to many European cities. Paphos is very popular with tourists, and especially with English, German and Scandinavian tourists. The climate of Cyprus makes the summer months a popular time for tourism in Paphos, when temperatures reach easily into the mid 30 degrees centigrade every day. However the cooler winter months make walking and cycling ideal activities, especially further away in the mountains. The sun shines all day long in the radiant town. Located in Paphos is the gorgeous Coral Bay, a beauteous beach with soft sand and deep blue water, a perfect place for water sports. Among its attractions are its ancient mosaic floors, its beautiful old harbour, its modern hotels and restaurants, situated along the seaside promenade.Other sights include an archaeological museum, the Byzantine Castle of Paphos, the Tombs of the Kings and the Temple of Aphrodite (the goddess of love and beauty). There are a number of tourists sites that feature places mentioned in Greek myths. One such site is the Rock of Aphrodite. Another mythical site is the Baths of Aphrodite. The visitor to that spot can picture the goddess of love and beauty, bathing in those lovely waters. Not far from the Baths of Aphrodite is the Paphos forest. That forest attracts visiting biologists. One of the animals in that forest is the mountain sheep, the “Moufflon�. The forest is also a great place to watch for foxes and vultures. Biologists in Cyprus also like to visit Lara Beach. This is the one spot in Cyprus where the sea turtles build their nests. Visitors can sometimes catch a sea turtle swimming in the waters off Lara Beach.

FAMAGUSTA AREA: THE SOUTH EAST CORNER Ayia Napa If you like entertainment of the non-stop variety, then Ayia Napa should be top of your list. It was once a small fishing village, but not any more. Geographically, Ayia Napa is a resort at the far eastern end of the south coast of the island of Cyprus, famous for its sandy beaches. In recent years, apart from being a family holiday destination, it has become similar to Ibiza, Rimini and Mykonos. The name Ayia Napa is derived from a Venetian-era monastery of the same name, located in the center of the town, next to the square which today is the clubbing center. Ayia Napa attracts a large number of tourists and features a number of sandy beaches, on which water sports such as water-skiing, windsurfing, canoeing, scuba diving and speed boating are popular. The Cyprus Tourism Organization supervises the beaches and is responsible for protecting the interests of all tourists. All beaches in Ayia Napa have been awarded with the EU blue flag for their level of cleanliness and facilities offered. The most popular of these beaches is Nissi beach, which is visited mainly by young people. The town contains a number of museums. One of them, "Thalassa", the Municipal Museum of the Sea in Ayia Napa, is dedicated to the enhancement, promotion and preservation of marine heritage of Cyprus, from prehistoric times to present. Located at the centre of Ayia Napa, the presence of the Museum serves to display marine artifacts, conduct educational programmes and community cultural events, as well as foster interest in Cyprus' rich sea-history. The Museum houses sculptures, engravings, ceramics and paintings of seascapes made by some of the greatest 19th and 20th century Greek and Cypriot artists. Ayia Napa Festival The Ayia Napa Festival was first held in September 1985 and has been established as an annual event since then. It occurs in Sepheris Square in Ayia Napa Monastery. These festivities reflect the historic, cultural and agricultural traditions of Ayia Napa and Cyprus as a whole. The programme includes theatrical performances, operas, concerts and Cypriot and foreign folk dancing. Guinness World Record On September 16, 2007, the world's longest chain of "syrtaki" dancers (a traditional Greek dance) danced to Zorba the Greek in a successful attempt to enter the Guinness Book of World Records. The chain comprised of a total of 268 members of eight groups dancing in step to ”Zorbas”. Cape Greco is a 10 minute drive from the center of Ayia Napa, and is considered one of the most beautiful places on the island offering site seeing, cliff jumping and a variety of other activities. In Cape Greco lives the reputed Ayia Napa Sea Monster which is meant to resemble a cross between a porpoise and dragon. Protaras Protaras is one of Ayia Napa’s main satellite resorts and a firm favourite with British families. Sunbathing is usually at the top of most visitors’ agendas. Protaras is popular with Cypriots and the beaches can get busy (especially at weekends). Although Protaras is billed as a predominantly ‘family-orientated’ destination, it is also a place that knows how to party.

TROODOS: THE HEART OF CYPRUS Cedar Valley A must for nature lovers, Cedar Valley in Tilliryan Troodos is aptly named. However, the cedars in this secluded valley are no ordinary trees, but the indigenous Cyprus cedar, Cedrus brevifolia, a close relative of the famous cedars of Lebanon. There are thousands of them in Cedar Valley. And if you are really lucky, it won't be only cedars you see. Cedar Valley is in the heart of the habitat of the moufflon, a species of wild sheep native to Cyprus, and the national symbol. They are very shy animals - those who want a guaranteed viewing will need to go to the enclosure at Stavros tis Psokas. Panayia tou Araka It is almost impossible to pick just one of the painted churches of the Troodos - they are all little gems of craftsmanship set in breathtaking scenery. Panayia tou Araka - the church of Our Lady of the Pea - is a superb example and one of ten painted churches on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. Students: Agapitou - Koutti Christiana C’6, Avissinos Andreas C’10, Charalambous Vasiliki C’6, Gavriel Irene C’6. Teacher: Georgia Iosif (English)

Berlin Berlin ist die Hauptstadt Deutschlands. Sie ist mit 3,4 Millionen Einwohnern die bevölkerungsreichste und flächengrößte Stadt Deutschlands. Berlin ist das Zentrum der Politik, Medien, Kultur und Wissenschaft in Europa. Berühmte Sehenswürdigkeiten in Berlin sind das Brandenburger Tor, die Museumsinsel, die Siegessäule und der Reichstag. Der Potsdamer Platz ist das Zentrum Berlins und ein Treffpunkt für jeden Touristen. Eisenach Eisenach ist eine Stadt im Westen Thüringens. Die Stadt hat viele Sehenswürdigkeiten. Eine davon ist zum Beispiel die Drachenschlucht, welche ein 3 km langer und an der engsten Stelle nur 68 cm breiter Wanderweg ist. Eine weitere Sehenswürdigkeit ist das Burschenschaftsdenkmal. Es erinnert an die 87 im Deutsch-Französischen Krieg gefallenen Burschenschaftler. Das Denkmal wurde 1902 zur Erinnerung an Kaiser Wilhelm I. errichtet. Die bekannteste Sehenswürdigkeit ist die Wartburg. Die Burg liegt oberhalb der Stadt Eisenach auf 411 m Höhe. Sie ist nicht nur wegen der Wartburgfeste bekannt, auch die heilige Elisabeth und Martin Luther hatten dort ihren Wohnsitz. München München ist die Landeshauptstadt vom Bundesland Bayern. Hier wohnen 1.364.980 Menschen. Es ist die drittgrößte Stadt Deutschlands sowie die zwölftgrößte der Europäischen Union. München ist bekannt für das Oktoberfest sowie für den Fußballverein FC Bayern München.

Hamburg Hamburg ist die zweitgrößte Stadt Deutschlands. Hamburg hat über 60 Theater, etwa 100 Musikclubs, 30 Kinos und 60 Museen. Musicals, wie „Tarzan“ werden dort aufgeführt. Viele Sehenswürdigkeiten, wie das „Hamburg Dungeon“ führen jährlich tausende Touristen nach Hamburg. Unbedingt sollte man eine Hafenrundfahrt auf der Elbe durchführen. In der Nähe des Hafens liegt die bekannte Reeperbahn.

Die Ostsee Die Ostsee entstand am Ende der letzten Eiszeit vor etwa 12.000 Jahren. Jedes Jahr besuchen viele Touristen die Küste, um die Natur zu genießen. Beliebte Inseln sind Rügen, Hiddensee und Fehmarn. In den Städten entlang der Küste werden jedes Jahr viele Feste veranstaltet, wie die „Hanse Sail“. Der Spreewald Besuchen Sie eine Flusslandschaft, die zu den schönsten und zugleich einzigartigsten Naturschutzgebieten Europas gehört. Im Spreewaldinneren wird traditioneller Weise ein Kahn zum Einkaufen, für die tägliche Fahrt zur Arbeit oder zum Transport größerer Gegenstände genutzt. Man sagt, die Spreewaldgurke sei bekannter als der Spreewald. Auf jeden Fall macht sie überall Appetit auf ihre schöne Heimat. Man kennt sie als berühmte saure Gurke, Gewürzgurke, Pfeffergurke, Knoblauchgurke oder Senfgurke. Ortsnamen, Straßennamen und Namen der Wasserwege sind im Spreewald zweisprachig.

Die AlpenDie Alpen sind das höchste Gebirge im Inneren Europas. Die gesamte Alpenregion nimmt eine Fläche von etwa 200.000 Quadratkilometern ein. Sie sind 1.200 Kilometer lang und zwischen 150 und 250 Kilometer breit. Die Berge im Westen der Alpen haben eine Höhe zwischen 3.000 m und 4.300 m. Der höchste Berg in Deutschland, der zu den Alpen zählt, ist die Zugspitze mit 2.962 m.

Berlin Berlin is the capital of Germany. 3.4 million people live there. It is the centre for policy, the media, culture, science and education. Famous sights are the Brandenburger Gate, the Museum Island, the Victory Column and the Reichstag. The Potsdamer Platz is the modern centre of Berlin and attracts millions of tourists. Berlin was a divided city for more than 40 years. After reunification it has become the new capital of the united Germany.

Eisenach Eisenach is a city in the west of Thuringia. The city has many sights, for example the Drachenschlucht which is a 3 km long and at the smallest place only 68 cm wide footpath. The Burschenschaftsdenkmal is another sight. It reminds of 87 members of a student fraternity fallen during the German-French war. The monument was built in 1902 in memory of emperor Wilhelm I. The best known sight is the Wartburg. The castle lies above the city Eisenach at 411m height. It is known not only because of the Wartburg parties, also the holy Elisabeth and Martin Luther had their residence there.

Munich Munich is the capital of the federal state Bavaria. 1,364,980 people live there. It is the third-biggest city of Germany as well as the twelfth-biggest of the European Union. Munich is famous for the Oktoberfest and the football club FC Bayern München.

Hamburg It is the second largest city of Germany and the seventh largest city of the EU. Hamburg has got more than 60 theatres, 100 music clubs, 30 cinemas and about 60 museums. Musicals, like ‘Tarzan’ and ‘Ich war noch niemals in New York’ are performed there. Some sights are for example the ‘Hamburg Dungeon’. Furthermore you should do a harbour tour on the river Elbe. Next to the harbour is the famous Reeperbahn.

The Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea was formed at the end of the Ice Age about 12,000 years ago. Famous isles are for example Rügen, Hiddensee and Fehmarn. Every year many tourists come to swim and enjoy nature. There are many festivals, too like ‘Hanse Sail’ and ‘Kieler Woche’.

The Spree Forest Visit a river scenery which belongs to the nicest and most unique at the same time. In the Spree Forest a small boat is used for the traditional way to go shopping, for the everyday journey to work or for the transport of bigger objects. One says, the Spree Forest cucumber is more known than the Spree Forest. Everywhere anyway she does appetite for her nice native country. One knows them as a famous sour cucumber, gherkin or garlic cucumber. Local names, street names and names of the water ways are bilingual in the Spree Forest. The Alps The Alps are the highest mountains inside of Europe. The whole Alpine region takes a surface of about 200,000 square kilometres. They are 1,200 kilometres long and between 150 and 250 kilometres wide. The mountains in the west of the Alps are 3,000 to 4,300 meters above sea level, in the Eastern Alps the mountains are a little bit lower. The highest mountain in Germany Alps is the Zugspitze with 2,962 meters.

ŠIAULIAI – LINKAIČIAI - ŠEDUVA - BURBIŠKĖS- KLEBONIŠKĖS –– STULTIŠKIŲ LINO MUZIEJUS – PANEVĖŽYS – KRYŽIŲ KALNAS - ŠIAULIAI 1. Linkaičiai Linkaičių karinis dalinys mielai priima mokinių ekskursijas. Dalinyje yra puikus ginklų muziejus.

2. Šeduva Šeduvos malūno pradžia – 1905-ieji metai… Tada jis buvo pradėtas statyti. Tarsi kažkokio užkeikimo persekiojimas, malūnas, dar nebaigtas statyti, užsidegė, jo vos nepraradome karo metais (buvo smarkiai apgriautas). Tačiau malūnas niekada nebuvo užmirštas – tarybiniais (1967aisiais) metais jis tapo pasilinksminimų vieta – žmonės į jį plaukdavo kaip į atlaidus. Keletą metų malūnas buvo apleistas, paliktas likimo valiai. Tačiau 2000aisiais metais tarsi iš naujo atgimė! Malūno aplinka buvo suformuota taip, kad joje atgaivą rastų ne tik kūnas, bet ir siela (čia rasite daug motyvų, besisiejančių su skaičiumi 7, kuris yra laikomas mistiniu, magišku, nešančiu laimę. Dėl to tikimės, kad visi mūsų svečiai, pabuvoję Šeduvos malūne, taps šiek tiek laimingesni ir nuo jų niekada nenusigrįš sėkmė. Šeduvos malūne dabar įsikūrusi puiki kavinė, iš lauke esančio vasariško namelio lankytojai gali stebėti ir grožėtis aplinka, užkandžiaut 3. Burbiškės Burbiškio dvaras minimas nuo XVII a. Tuo metu jis priklausė dvarininkams Burboms, nuo kurių pavardės kilo vietovės pavadinimas. Nuo XIX a. dvarą valdė Baženskiai, kurie pertvarkė rūmus į dabartinį ansamblį. XX a. pradžioje akmens mūro svirnas buvo rekonstruotas į gyvenamąjį namą, prie kurio buvo pristatyti kiti pastatai, sudarantys uždarą kiemą. Dėl to dvaro rūmai atrodo kaip tvirtovė. Mykolo Baženskio iniciatyva buvo sukurtas peizažinio tipo dvaro parkas, užimantis 28 ha, su įspūdingais tvenkiniais, kuriuose yra 15 salų, o salose - poilsio aikštelės, į kurias veda tilteliai. XX a. pradžioje Burbiškyje lankydavosi žinomi visuomenės veikėjai Petras Vileišis, Jonas Basanavičius ir kt. Šiuo metu dvaras priklauso 1990 m. įsteigtam Daugyvenės kultūros istorijos muziejui - draustiniui. Dvaras restauruojamas, taip pat sutvarkytas parkas - atstatyti tiltukai, atkurti senieji parko keliai ir takai, sutvarkyti želdynai. Beveik visiškai atkurtas dvaro architektūrinis ansamblis. Atstatytame rūmų svečių korpuse veikia svečių namai, rūmų verandoje yra dvaro istorijos ekspozicija, dvaro ledainėje įrengta pobūvių salė. Parke gausu skulptoriaus Kazimiero Ulianskio darbų: poeto Adomo Mickevičiaus paminklas (1911 m.), Lietuvos Didžiojo kunigaikščio Vytauto paminklas (pastatytas 1912 m.), Šv. M. Marijos skulptūra, didingi parko vartai, liūtų tiltas. Parke auga 23 rūšių ir formų atvežtiniai augalai: kazokinis kadagys, europinis maumedis, didžioji pociūgė ir kt. Jame gyvena apie 40 paukščių rūšių. Dvare yra rengiami muzikos vakarai, kultūros renginiai, iškilmingi savivaldybės renginiai, seminarai, šventės šeimoms ir kolektyvams. Nuo 2000 m. gegužės 13 d. dvare kasmet rengiama Tulpių žydėjimo šventė. Dvaras priklauso Lietuvos kultūros paveldui.

4. Kleboniškės. Gražiame Daugyvenės upės slėnyje, senoje kaimavietėje, 18 ha plote, kuriamas kaimo buities muziejus, į kurį iš apylinkių perkeliami XIX a. ir XX a. pradžiai būdingi kaimų pastatai: gryčios, klėtys, pirtys, klojimai, daržinės ir kt. Šalia išlikusių – atkuriamos buvusios Kleboniškių kaimo sodybos, kurias išryškina įvairios tvoros. Seni kaimavietės medžiai bei šiaudiniai pastatų stogai teikia muziejui paslaptingumo, o jo gyventojai – tikroviškumo. Pastatuose įrengtose ekspozicijose atkurta ūkininkų buitis nukelia į XIX a. pabaigą. Įrengta veikianti kaimo pirtis. Eksponuojamos ąsočių, bezmėnų, muštokių, ližių, linų šukų, motorų kolekcijos, 1926 m. pagamintas traktorius, XIX a. pab. Anglijoje pagamintas lokomobilis (garo katilas). Kaime yra veikiantis 1884 m. statytas vėjo malūnas. Kleboniškių kaimo buities ekspozicijos lankymo maršrutas: Mašinų stovėjimo aikštelė; Senasis Daugyvenės tiltas; Žemųjų Levikainių kaimo koplytėlė; Šileikonių kaimo klėtis; Šileikonių kaimo gryčia; Šileikonių kaimo koplytstulpis; Žilaičių kaimo kalvė; Medikonių kaimo klėtis; Kubiliūnų kaimo klėtis; Stačiūnų kaimo gryčia, dūminė; Kleboniškių kaimo gryčia; Pyplių kaimo klėtis; Kleboniškių kaimo rūsys; Kleboniškių kaimo daržinė; Kleboniškių kaimo klojimas; Toleikiškių kaimo klojimas; Mankiškių kaimo pirtis; Lieptelis per Daugyvenę; Kleboniškių kaimo kapinaitės; Kleboniškių piliakalnis; Kleboniškių-Pakalniškių pilkapynas; Kleboniškių kaimo vėjo malūnas.

5. Lino muziejus. Stultiškių vėjo malūnas buvo pastatytas 1880 metais. Malūnas yra keturių aukštų, su pasukama prieš vėją kepure. Šiuo metu čia veikia Linų muziejus, jame galima susipažinti su senoviniu lino apdirbimu. Ekspozicija įsikūrusi per tris aukštus: audimo staklės, įrankiai linui apdirbti, taip pat raštuotos staltiesės, rankšluosčiai. Kiekvienas gali pamėgti nubraukti lino galvutes, minti, brukti ir šukuoti pluoštą, net pabandyti austi.

6. Panevėžys. Ant Nevėžio upės kranto įsikūręs Panevėžys (116,3 tūkst. gyv.) savo amžių skaičiuoja nuo 1503 m. rugsėjo 7 d., - tokia data pažymėtu raštu Lietuvos Didysis kunigaikštis Aleksandras šias žemes dovanojo bažnyčiai, kad ji kovotų su tuomet vis dar gaja pagonybe. Kelis šimtmečius miesto augimui trukdė nuolatiniai karai ir siautėjusios epidemijos. Panevėžio plėtra prasidėjo tik ekonomiškai ir politiškai gana stabiliame XIX a. Vyko luomų niveliacija, mieste buvo aktyvus lietuvių, lenkų ir žydų tautinis judėjimas; plėtėsi švietimo sistema ir didėjo raštingumas. XIX a. pabaigoje XX a. pradžioje Panevėžys Lietuvoje užėmė tą vietą, kurią išsaugojo iki šiol – tapo dideliu regioniniu ekonomikos ir kultūros centru, pagal svarbą užimančiu ketvirtą – penktą vietą Lietuvoje. Panevėžys – teatrų miestas. Režisierius Juozas Miltinis - šalies šimtmečio žmogus - sukūrė plačiai išgarsėjusį dramos teatrą, kuris dabar vadinamas jo vardu. Niekur kitur Europoje nerasite tokio kaip Lėlių vežimo teatras, kuris žiemą vaidina mieste, o vasarą išvažiuoja į gastroles po kaimus ir miestelius arklių traukiamu spalvingu vežimu. Teatro režisierius Antanas Markuckis – H. K. Anderseno premijos laureatas. Kasmet į Panevėžio tarptautinius keramikos simpoziumus renkasi menininkai iš viso pasaulio, o jų sukurti darbai saugomi miesto Dailės galerijoje. Miestą puošia daug originalių skulptūrų; tarp jų – ir fantazuotojas Don Kichotas, - nors miesto malūnai jau nebeturi sparnų. Technikos retenybė yra 1999 m. šimtmetį paminėjęs ilgiausias Europoje siaurasis geležinkelis, jungiantis Panevėžį su Anykščiais. Išvyka šiuo traukiniu – nuotykių kupina kelionė į praeitą amžių. Panevėžys yra pusiaukelėje tarp Vilniaus ir Rygos - Lietuvos ir Latvijos, į kurias veda pro miestą einanti Via Baltica automagistral.

7. Kryžių kalnas Maždaug 12 km į šiaurę nuo Šiaulių, netoli Šiaulių – Rygos geležinkelio linijos, laukuose stovi nelabai didelis, pailgas, per vidury įdubęs kalnas, visas tankiai nustatytas kryžiais. Tai garsusis Kryžių kalnas, liudijantis pagarbą ir ištikimybę kryžiaus aukai, per kurią Kristus išgelbėjo visų laikų ir kartų žmones. Kryžių kalnas primena ne tik Atpirkėjo kančią bei mirtį, bet ir Jo prisikėlimą ir išaukštinimą, sykiu ir kiekvieno žmogaus išaukštinimą per Kryžiaus slėpinį. Keliaujantys į Kryžių kalną, jame besimeldžiantys, statantys kryžius, liudija iš kryžiaus trykštančią stiprybę, neišsenkančią viltį ir tikėjimą Dievo meile. Viduramžiais ant šio kalno stovėjusi medinė pilis, kronikose vadinta „Kula“. Ją sunaikino Livonijos kariuomenė 1348 m. Ilgus metus kalnas stovėjo plikas. XIX a. viduryje ant piliakalnio, liaudies vadinto Pilies kalnu, Jurgaičių, Domantų piliakalniu, Maldavimų kalnu, imta statyti kryžius. Vietiniai žmonės pasakoja, kad pirmieji kryžiai pastatyti meldžiant Dievą sveikatos. Anot kitų pasakojimų, kalne kryžius imta statyti 1863 m. sukilime žuvusiesiems atminti. Numalšinusi sukilimą caro valdžia uždraudė statyti kryžius – žmones, kurių sodybose stovėdavo kryžius, bausdavo, o kryžius griaudavo. Maldingi žmonės nė neketino atsisakyti statyti kryžius, tačiau rinkdavosi atokesnę vietą, tokia ir buvo Kryžių kalnas. Tad Kryžių kalnas yra ir visas kliūtis įveikiančios tikėjimo stiprybės ženklas. Nepaisant caro valdžios draudimų, Pirmojo pasaulinio karo, Kryžių kalnas pamažėl augo. Kalnas suklestėjo tarpukariu. Į jį žmonės kopdavo melstis, jame būdavo aukojamos šv. Mišios. Ypač daug žmonių kalnan rinkdavosi vasaros šventadieniais. Liepos viduryje Kryžių kalne būdavo švenčiami atlaidai. Jų metu kalną apguldavo tūkstantinės žmonių minios. Sovietų okupacijos laikotarpiu statyti kryžius kalne griežtai drausta, maldininkai vaikyti ir bausti. Negana to, kelis kartus smarkiai apgriautas ir pats kalnas, nuo jo nušluoti visi jame sustatyti kryžiai, atkirsti į jį vedantys keliai. Vienu metu kėsintasi Kryžių kalną net užtvindyti. Viskas klostėsi priešingai okupacinės valdžios lūkesčiams: juo smarkiau buvo naikinamas kalnas, juo galingiau jis atsinaujindavo. Žmonės statydavo kryžius nakčia, juos nešdavo nepaisydami pavojaus, draudimų ir persekiojimų. Kryžių kalnas tapo didvyriško pasipriešinimo tikėjimo laisvės užgniaužimui simboliu. Lietuvai atgavus nepriklausomybę, į Kryžių kalną nenutrūkstamu srautu ėmė traukti piligrimai. Kryžius imta statyti ir kalno papėdėje, mat pačiame kalne jie jau ėmė netilpti. Pats svarbiausias įvykis Kryžių kalno istorijoje, išgarsinęs jį visame pasaulyje, – popiežiaus Jono Pauliaus II apsilankymas 1993 m. rugsėjo 7 d. Šventasis Tėvas meldėsi Kryžių kalne, aukojo šv. Mišias prie kalno pastatytoje koplyčioje ir kreipėsi į susirinkusią didžiulę tikinčiųjų minią: „Tegul šis Kryžių kalnas antrojo tūkstantmečio po Kristaus pabaigoje liudija ir skelbia naują, trečiąjį tūkstantmetį, skelbia Išganymą ir Atpirkimą, ko niekur kitur nerasime, kaip tik mūsų Atpirkėjo Kryžiuje ir Prisikėlime.“ Savo apsilankymą Kryžių kalne popiežius vėliau daug kartų minėjo įvairiose kalbose. Jonas Paulius II apsilankęs Italijoje, La Vernos kalno pranciškonų vienuolyne, paakino pranciškonus ir prie Kryžių kalno pastatyti eremą. 2000 m. liepos 8 d. pastatytasis vienuolynas pašventintas. Naujas Kryžių kalno istorijos puslapis atverstas įkūrus Šiaulių vyskupiją. Kryžių kalnas tapo tarsi Šiaulių vyskupijos širdimi, pagrindine po Katedros šventove. Šiaulių vyskupas Eugenijus Bartulis atnaujino Kryžių kalno atlaidų šventimą

ŠIAULIAI – LINKAIČIAI – ŠEDUVA - BURBIŠKĖS- KLEBONIŠKĖS –– STULTIŠKIŲ LINO MUZIEJUS – PANEVĖŽYS – KRYŽIŲ KALNAS - ŠIAULIAI 1.Linkaiciai Linkaiciai military divident kindly welcomes excursions.There is a nice arms museum in the divident.

2. Seduva You kindly invited to visit Šeduvos windmill, which has a long history. It dates back to 1905, when the construction of the windmill started. As if under a spell, the windmill had been set on fire before the construction works were finished. The windmill was almost lost as a result of severe damages during war periods. However, it was never forgotten. The windmill became a place of attraction in a Soviet period (1967) and attracted as many people as the Church on the feast day. Šeduvos windmill had been neglected and abandoned for several years until it was revived in 2000. Not only the body, but also the soul will find rest and repose in the surroundings of the windmill. There you will find many motifs that are related to 7, i.e. a mystical and magic number that brings luck. Therefore, we hope that all our guests will become more happy and lucky after their visit to the Šeduvos windmill. There is a wonderful café in Šeduvos windmill. Those who want to observe and enjoy the nature may have their meals in a summerhouse. The windmill is a perfect place for those who want to rest after daily works, escape from routine and the city, or just to have a good time with friends. Our guests may stay in a comfortable, cosy and romantic hotel (24 rooms). Russian bath is also at your disposal to have a good rest, to clean and revive your body. A modern pool with waterfalls will provide you with many pleasant moments. 3. Burbiskes Burbiskes estate is mentioned since XVII century. At that time it belonged to lairds Burbos.The name of this place came from that family name. From XIX Bazenskiai ruled the estate, who later rearranged the estate into nowadays building. At the beginning of the XX century stone granary was reconstructed into a living house, to which other buildings were built, that made a closed yard. Because of that the estate looks as a fortress. By Mykolas Bazenskis initiative the estate park was established, occupying 28 hectares, with stunning ponds with 15 islands, where you can find places to relax with small bridges leading to them. At the beginning of the XX century lots of famous people, as P.Vileisis, J.Basanavicius visited this place. At the moment the estate belongs to Daugyvene cultural museum - reservation, established in 1990 year. The estate and the park are renovated. In a reconstructed part, a guests house works too.You can also see the estates historical exibition.There are lots of sculpture‘s Kazimieras Ulianskas works in the park: a monument to a poet Adomas Mickevicius (1911), Lithuanian Great Knight Vytautas monument (1912), St M.Mary sculpture, magestic gates, a lions‘ bridge. 23 species, brought from abroad, grow in the park: a juniper, a European larch and others. About 40 species of birds live there too. Musical evenings, cultural events, municipality events, seminars, festivals for families are held there. Since 13th May, 2000 an annual Tulips blooming festival is held. The estate belongs to Lithuanian cultural heritage.

4. Kleboniskes. In the beautiful Dauguvene valley, the old village, which is 18 hectares area, a museum is created, where the typical village buildings of the XIX – XX centuries are relocated from the other vicinities: old cottages, stackyards, barns, bathhouses and other. Nearby the extant buildings homesteads of Kleboniskiai village are re-established which are highlighted by various fences. The old trees and straw roofs inject some mysterious for the museum and the villagers – reality. Farmers appliances exhibited in the museum carry back into the end of the XIX century. An old country bathhouse is built. There are a lot of exhibits: jugs, jars, peels and other ancient kitchen utensils, combs of flax, some collections of engines, a tractor made in 1926, a locomobile ( steam boiler) made in the end of the XIX century in England. There is also a workable windmill. The route of Kleboniskiai village appliances museum: Kubiliunai village granary; Staciunai village smoky barn, cabin; Kleboniskiai village house; Pypliai village granary; Kleboniskai village cellar; Kleboniskai village barn; Kleboniskiai village stackyard; Toleikiskiai village stackyard; Mankiskiai village bathhouse; A bridge through the river Daugyvene; Kleboniskiai village cemetery; Kleboniskiai mound; Kleboniskiai-Pakalniskiai tumulus; Kleboniskiai village windmill.

5. Flax museum Stultiskiai windmill was rebuilt in 1880. The windmill is a four-floor building with a swinging windward cap. Now there is a Flax Museum and you can get an acquaintance with the ancient flax processing. The exposition is displayed inside three floors: weave looms, some tools for flax processing, some inwrought tablecloth, towels. Everyone can try to produce the flax: to brush out the heads of flax, brake the flax, scotch and comb the lock and even to try to weave

6. Panevezys Settled on the bank of the Nevėžis River, Panevėžys city (pop. 116.3 thousand) was founded by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander when by the letter, dated 7 September 1503, he donated these lands to the church, which had to fight against pagan religion that was prospering at the time. For several centuries the growth of the city was impeded by constant wars and epidemics. Only the 19th century with its economic and political stability allowed Panevėžys to continue developing. In the social field, division into different classes within the society was almost extinct. The Lithuanian, Polish and Jewish ethnic movements were active in the city. The education system became more accessible, which resulted in an increase in the number of literate people. The end of 19th century-the beginning of the 20th century shaped Panevėžys as it is nowadays–a strong economic and cultural centre of the region and the fourth-fifth most important city of the country. Panevėžys is a city of theatres. The artistic director Juozas Miltinis, the country’s personality of the century, created a drama theatre that earned worldwide recognition and presently is called after the artist’s name. Nowhere in Europe will one find a unique Puppet Wagon Theatre. It is visiting the remotest villages and towns by a colourful horse-driven cart in summer, and performing in the city in winter. The Director Antanas Markuckis was awarded a prize of H.Ch. Andersen. Every year, artists from all over the world gather to the international Panevėžys ceramic art symposia. Their artworks are stored in the Art Gallery. The city is decorated with a number of original sculptures, including that of the idealist Don Quixote, even though the city has no windmills any more. The rarity of engineering is the longest in Europe narrow gauge railway, having celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1999, linking Panevėžys with Anykščiai. An exciting journey on this railroad is a scenic adventure into the yesteryear... Panevėžys is halfway between the capitals of Lithuania and Latvia, Vilnius and Riga, that can be reached by the Via Baltica highway crossing the city.

5. Hill of Crosses Religious meaning The Hill of Crosses, where people not only from Lithuania have put crosses for couple centuries, witnesses faithfulness and trust of a Christian community to Christ and his Cross. This is an expression of a spontaneous religiousness of the people, and is a symbol not of grief and death but of Faith, Love and Sacrifice. From here the Pope blessed all people of Lithuania and all of Christian Europe. Place The Hill of Crosses is situated in the middle of an arable land, sixteen kilometers from Šiauliai. It is seen from Šiauliai – Ryga highway. The hill is 60 meters long and 40-50 meters wide. Number of crosses It is hard to imagine so many crosses in one place. But all these crosses tell us about personal and public misfortunes and catastrophes. For example one cross was put after the wreck of the ferry “Estonia”. The crosses were first counted by Ksywicki in 1900. In historical chronicles he wrote that there were 130 crosses on the hill. Two years later there were already 155 crosses. After the Word War I, in 1922 there were 50 crosses but in 1938 – already over 400. In 1961 the Soviet government demolished over 5000 crosses, by 1975 – 1200 crosses more. After the political change the crosses were counted by enthusiasts from Šiauliai. They found 14 387 big crosses (1 112 from them were 3-4 meters high, 130 even higher) and about 41 000 small crosses (smaller than 0.5 meters). Each visitor tries to leave a cross or a rosary. If he has not brought any, he makes one right on the hill, from pebbles, little branches or grass. The monastery of the Hill of Crosses In 1994 during his visit to a Franciscan monastery of the mount of Verna (Italy), the Pope John Paul II encouraged the brothers to build a monastery by the Hill of Crosses. A hermit of the Franciscan Brothers was consecrated on July 7, 2000. It is built 300 meters away from the Hill and has sixteen cells. It serves as a novitiate of the Lithuanian Franciscan province of St. Casimir, but the monastery is also open to the pilgrims who look for silence and peace. History The crosses on the Hill were first mentioned in written chronicles in 1850, but it is believed that the first crosses were put by the relatives of the victims of the rebellion in 1831 as the tsarist government did not allow the families to honor their deads properly. Crosses of the kind became more numerous after the other rebellion in 1863. In the beginning of the 20th century the Hill of Crosses was already widely known as a sacral place. In addition to many pilgrims visiting, it was also a place for Masses and devotions. The Hill of Crosses became of special importance during Soviet times – this was the place of anonymous but surprising persistence to the regime. The Soviet government considered the crosses and the hill a hostile and harmful symbol. In 1961 wooden crosses were broken and burnt, metal ones used as scrap metal and stone and concrete crosses were broken and buried. The hill itself was many times destroyed with bulldozers. During the 1973–1975 period about half a thousand crosses used to be demolished each year without even trying to do this secretly. Later the tactics became more subtle: crosses were demolished as having no artistic value, different “epidemics” were announced forbidding people to come into the region or the roads were blocked by police. The Hill was guarded by both the Soviet army and KGB. In 1978 and 1979 there were some attempts to flood the territory. Despite all these endeavors to stop people from visiting the Hill, crosses would reappear after each night. After the political change in 1988 the status of the Hill of Crosses changed completely – it became both a Lithuanian and a world phenomenon. It gained a world wide fame after the visit of the Pope John Paul II on September 7, 1993. The Pope was extremely touched by the cross with the prayer for his health after the attempt upon his life in 1981. In his sermon during the Holy Mass his Eminence said: “Sons and daughters of your country have been carrying to this Hill crosses, akin to that of Golgotha, which saw our Saviour,s death. Thus people have declared their sincere belief that their deceased brothers and sisters “have found Eternity” (…). Cross is a symbol of eternal life in God”. In 1997 the Church revived devotions on the Hill. They take place every year on the last but one Sunday of July. Nowadays the Hill of Crosses is under the patronage of Šiauliai diocese, established on the 28 th oh May, 1997, and its first bishop Eugenijus Bartulis. Cross is a symbol of love The Hill of Crosses is a sacred place in the Šiauliai region with especially vast spaces for meditations of faith and manifestations of one,s love to God. It is here that Lithuania has passed through Golgotha, its people have experienced so much pain and misfortunes. Namely here revives the sincerest belief in our Saviours sacrifice, love finds response in one,s heart, hopes become stronger. “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life” (Jn 3, 16). Cross is a symbol of such Love. Eugenijus Bartulis Bishop of Šiauliai

GUIA TURÍSTICO de PORTUGAL Portugal é o país mais ocidental da Europa. As suas fronteiras são o Oceano Atlântico a oeste e a sul; e Espanha no leste e a norte. Os arquipélagos de Madeira e dos Açores fazem, igualmente, parte de Portugal. Portugal tem uma história muito rica e é um país diversificado, em termos geográficos e culturais. O turismo desempenha um papel importante na nossa economia: 11% do Produto Interno Bruto provém de receitas relacionadas com o turismo. O ICEP dividiu o país em cinco grandes zonas turísticas: Porto e Norte; Centro de Portugal; Região de Lisboa; Alentejo e Algarve. A não perder em Portugal: Porto e o Vale do Douro: Foram designados como Património da Humanidade pela UNESCO. A visita deverá começar pela fabulosa cidade do Porto e terminar com um passeio de barco pelo Rio Douro. Minho e o Parque Nacional Peneda-Gerês: O Minho é a região portuguesa mais verde e também a mais tradicional. Centro de Portugal: Na região Centro pode encontrar-se uma grande variedade de natureza, história e cultura. Há vales glaciares, águas termais e serras onde se pode praticar todo o tipo de desportos ao ar livre. Comece a sua visita na cidade de Aveiro, que é única no País devido às salinas, à Ria e aos canais que atravessam a cidade. Antes de se dirigir às montanhas, visite ainda a bela cidade universitária de Coimbra. Região de Lisboa: Lisboa é uma capital cosmopolita. A sua história remonta aos tempos de Ulisses e está imortalizada em monumentos romanos, mouros ou da Época dos Descobrimentos. Sintra é uma bela cidade perto da costa. A parte antiga é Património da Humanidade, rica em arquitectura diversificada, de que são exemplos o Palácio da Pena e a Câmara Municipal. A não perder temos, também, Óbidos, que transborda de encanto medieval. Mais a norte encontramos Fátima, que é o maior local de peregrinação em Portugal. Alentejo: A imensa planície do Alentejo, na parte sul de Portugal, está salpicada por aldeias pitorescas, castelos altaneiros e plantações de oliveiras, sobreiros e girassóis. Algarve: É um destino de férias de referência na Europa, pelo fantástico sol e pelas magníficas praias. Ultimamente, tem vindo a impor-se como destino importante para os amantes de golfe. Açores: Este arquipélago, que constitui o ponto mais ocidental da Europa, é composto por nove ilhas de origem vulcânica. Os Açores são um dos segredos mais bem guardados do mundo, oferecendo ao visitante a oportunidade de vivenciar experiências únicas. Madeira: A ilha da Madeira é afectada pela Corrente do Golfo, o que faz com que tenha Invernos pouco rigorosos e temperaturas amenas. É, frequentemente, apelidada de Pérola do Atlântico.

Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.

Portugal has a rich history and is a diverse country both geographically and culturally. Tourism plays an important role in our country: 11% of our Gdp comes from tourist-related activities. There are five tourist areas: Porto e Norte; Centro de Portugal; Regi達o de Lisboa; Alentejo and the Algarve. What you mustn't miss if you come to Portugal is: Porto and the Douro Valley: Downtown Porto and the Douro Valley are listed as WORLD HERITAGE SITES by Unesco. Visit the amazing city of Oporto and then take a boat trip up the Douro river.

Minho and the mountains of GerĂŞs: Minho is Portugal's greenest and most traditional province and also the country's best-kept secret. It is favoured by celebrities looking for peace and quiet.

Centro de Portugal: In the Centro de Portugal you will find a huge variety of nature, history and culture. There are glacial lakes, spring waters and mountains where you can do all kinds of outdoor sports: on land, in the sky or on water. Start your visit in the seaside town of Aveiro, which is distinctive due to its salt flats, lagoons and the central canal that runs through the town, and then travel to the university town of Coimbra before heading to the mountains.

Lisbon and the Lisbon Region: Lisbon is a cosmopolitan capital. Its history spans back thousand of years and is immortalized through its monuments, ranging from Roman Lisbon and Moorish Lisbon to the echoes of Imperial Lisbon.

Sintra is a beautiful small town on the Lisbon Coast in Portugal. Its Old Town is a UNESCO World Heritage listed site, and it is full of stunning architecture such as the Pena Palace and the Town Hall. Ă“bidos is another must go small town in the Lisbon Area packed with medieval charm. Further north you will find FĂĄtima, which is Portugal's most popular pilgrimage site.

Alentejo: The huge plain of Alentejo, which sweeps over the southern half of Portugal, is dotted with picturesque castle towns and quiet, hilltop villages, olive groves and fields of cork oaks and sunflowers. The Algarve: It's one of Europe's favourite holiday destinations, known for glorious year round sunshine and excellent sandy beaches. It is also becoming increasingly popular among golf lovers.

The Azores: The farthest-flung outpost of Western Europe comprises nine volcanic fragments peeking out of the North Atlantic. The Azores offer a wealth of wonders: from some of the oldest "New World" cities on the planet, to rich forests and dazzling lakes. Madeira: The island of Madeira is lapped by the waters of the Gulf Stream with warm comfortable summers and mild winters that make it an enchanting holiday destination all year round. It is often called the Pearl of the Atlantic.

Turismul in Romania Turismul în România se concentrează asupra peisajelor naturale şi a istoriei sale bogate. Traversată de apele Dunării, România are un scenariu sensibil, incluzând frumoşii şi împăduriţii Munţi Carpaţi, Coasta Mării Negre şi Delta Dunării, care este cea mai mare deltă europeană atât de bine păstrată. Cu rolul de a puncta peisajele naturale sunt satele rustice, unde oamenii de acolo trăiesc şi menţin pentru sute de ani tradiiţiile. În România este o abundenţă a arhitecturii religioase şi a oraşelor medievale şi a castelelor. Varietatea si bogatia atractiilor turistice, naturale dar si culturale si istorice aduce Romania pe unul din primele locuri in Europa. Localizarea Romaniei la intretaierea mai multor drumuri europene faciliteaza accesul aici pe toate caile - cu avionul, masina, trenul sau vaporul. În ultimii ani, România a devenit o destinaţie preferată pentru mulţi europeni (mai mult de 60% dintre turiştii străini provin din ţările membre UE), rivalizând şi fiind la concurenţă cu ţări precum Bulgaria, Grecia, Italia sau Spania. Staţiuni precum Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp şi Mamaia (numite uneori şi Riviera Română) sunt printre principale atracţii turistice pe timp de vară. În timpul iernii, staţiunile de schi de pe Valea Prahovei şi din Poiana Braşov sunt destinaţiile preferate ale turiştilor străini. Pentru atmosfera lor medievală şi pentru castelele aflate acolo, numeroase oraşe transilvănene precum Sibiu, Braşov, Sighişoara, ClujNapoca sau Târgu Mureş au devenit nişte importante puncte de atracţie pentru turişti. De curând s-a dezvoltat şi turismul rural ce se concentrează asupra promovării folclorului şi tradiţiilor. Principalele puncte de atracţie le reprezintă Castelul Bran, mânăstirile pictate din nordul Moldovei, bisericile de lemn din Transilvania ori Cimitirul Vesel din Săpânţa. Alte atracţii turistice importante din România sunt cele naturale precum Delta Dunării, Porţile de Fier, Peştera Scărişoara şi încă alte câteva peşteri din Munţii Apuseni. Bucovina este situată în partea de nord a României, în nord-vestul Moldovei. Regiune montană pitorească, cu tradiţii etnografice ce dăinuie nealterate, Bucovina se remarcă printr-o activitate turistică dinamică, datorată în primul rând mânăstirilor. Cele cinci mânăstiri cu pictură exterioară, intrate în patrimoniul turistic mondial, îşi păstreaza frumusetea după mai bine de 450 de ani.

Prin funcţiile sale complexe, prin poziţia în cadrul ţării şi prin numeroasele obiective cu valoare istorică, arhitectonică şi de altă natură, Bucureştiul reprezintă unul dintre principalele centre turistice ale României. Bucureştiul se remarcă prin de amestecul eclectic de stiluri arhitecturale, începând de la Curtea Veche, rămăşiţele palatului din secolul al XV-lea al lui Vlad Ţepeş cel care a fost fondatorul oraşului şi, totodată, sursa de inspiraţie pentru personajul Dracula -, la biserici ortodoxe, la vile în stil Second Empire, la arhitectura greoaie stalinistă din perioada comunistă şi terminând cu Palatul Parlamentului, o clădire colosală cu şase mii de încăperi, a doua ca mărime în lume după Pentagon. Cele mai importante obiective turistice ale municipiului Bucuresti sunt: Ateneul Român, Arcul de Triumf, Palatul Băncii Naţionale, Teatrul Naţional, Universitatea Bucureşti, Parcul Cişmigiu, Grădina Botanică, Parcul Herăstrău, Muzeul Satului, Muzeul Naţional de Artă al României, Muzeul Naţional de Istorie al României, Muzeul Naţional de Istorie Naturală Grigore Antipa, Biserica Stavropoleos, Hanul lui Manuc şi altele. De asemenea, în Bucuresti se organizează, în fiecare an, Târgul de Turism al României. Principalele puncte turistice din România sunt: capitala tarii (Bucuresti), Litoralul Marii Negre cu statiunile sale (Mamaia, Eforie Nord, Neptun etc.), Delta Dunarii, Muntii Carpati, in special Valea Prahovei si Poiana Brasov (zonele montane cele mai frecventate), Bucovina (situata in nordul Moldovei) cu vestitele mãnãstiri si biserici, ale caror picturi exterioare (datand din sec.XVI) au fost declarate patrimoniu UNESCO, Maramures, sudul Transilvaniei, incluzand si tinutul Hateg si zonele inconjuratoare (leaganul civilizatiei dacice) si Nordul Olteniei. Pe lânga aceste zone turistice in România sunt multe alte centre turistice, orase si statiuni. Ele includ orasele cu vestigii medievale: Iasi (vechea capitala a Moldovei), Cluj - Napoca (cel mai important oras al Transilvaniei medievale), Timisoara (oras multietnic si multicultural din Banat), Brasov, Târgoviste (capitala Munteniei, inainte de Bucuresti), Sibiu, Sighisoara etc. Fluviul Dunarea la Portile de fier, masivul Fagaras (cu cel mai spectaculos relief alpin din România) sau Parcul National Retezat din Carpatii Meridionali incanta vizitatorul cu frumusetea lor fara pereche. Locurile istorice si mediul lor natural sunt puncte de atractie pentru turistii straini, si nu numai, datorita legendelor populare locale (de ex. legenda lui Dracula). Dupa ce a petrecut o vacanta in Romania unui turist ii trebuie doar o ora de zbor cu avionul pentru a ajunge in fostele capitale ale Imperiului Habsburgic (Praga, Viena, Budapesta), in metropolele bimilenare din Peninsula Balcanica (Atena, Istanbul) sau in capitalele lumii slave (Kiev, Cracovia, Zagreb). Ospitalitatea românilor si sufletul lor deschis vor transforma o scurta vacanta intr-o experienta de neuitat despre caldura si prietenia umana.

TOURISM IN ROMANIA Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romania's economy. Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and characterized by a huge potential for development. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007-2016. Number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004. Similarly, the revenues grew from 400 million in 2002 to 607 in 2004. In 2006, Romania registered 20 million overnight stays by international tourists, an all-time record, but the number for 2007 is expected to increase even more. Over the last years, Romania has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of the foreign visitors were from EU countries). Romania destinations such as Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp, Constanta and Mamaia (sometimes called the Romanian Riviera) are among the most popular attraction during summer. During winter, the skiing resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Braşov are popular with foreign visitors. For their medieval atmosphere and castles, Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu, Braşov, Sighişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş have become important touristic attractions for foreigners. Rural tourism focused on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative recently, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, the Wooden churches of Maramureş, or the Merry Cemetery in Maramureş County. Other major natural attractions in Romania such as Danube Delta, Iron Gates (Danube Gorge), Scărişoara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains have yet to receive great attention.

Poiana Braşov is the most popular Romanian ski resort and an important tourist center preferred by many tourists not only from Romania, but also from Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states. Poiana Braşov is surrounded by four mountains: the already mentioned Postăvaru (1,799 m), Piatra Craiului (2,238 m), Bucegi (2,505 m) and Piatra Mare (1,848 m). Poiana Braşov is host to a number of hotels and restaurants, the majority of which cater for foreign tourists. Amongst other attractions in Poiana Braşov visitors can find traditional mulled wine and a pepper spiced alcoholic drink known as ţuică as well as other traditional Romanian fare.

Bran Castle situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Braşov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia. Commonly known as "Dracula's Castle" (although it is one among several locations linked to the Dracula legend, including Poienari Castle and Hunyad Castle), it is marketed as the home of the titular character in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Furthermore, there are persistent myths that it was once the home of Vlad Ţepeş, ruler of Wallachia. This is not true. The historical person Vlad III never resided here. The castle is now a museum open to tourists, displaying art and furniture collected by Queen Marie. Tourists can see the interior individually or by a guided tour. At the bottom of the hill is a small open air museum park exhibiting traditional Romanian peasant structures (cottages, barns, etc.) from across the country. The painted churches of northern Moldavia are seven Romanian Orthodox churches in Suceava County, Romania in northern Moldavia, built approximately between 1487 and 1532 : Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist, Church of the Assumption of the Virgin of the former Humor Monastery, The Church of the Annunciation of the Moldoviţa Monastery, Church of the Holy Rood of Pătrăuţi, Church of St. Nicholas and the Catholicon of the Probota Monastery, Church of St George of the former Voroneţ Monastery, and so on. The Danube Delta is the second largest delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in Romania (Tulcea county), If the lagoons of Razim-Sinoe (1015 km² of which 865 km² water surface; situated in the south, but attached to the Danube Delta from geological and ecological perspectives, as well as being the combined territory of the World Heritage Site) are to be added, the considered area of the Danube Delta grows to 5165 km.. About a third of the employed population is engaged in fishing and pisciculture, while another third is engaged in farming.

Wooden church Brežany From the architectural point of view it is an atypical three-pronged timbered building with significant impact Gothic Roman-Catholic sacred architecture. Windows are created deep zárezmi in two adjacent beams cabins. Paned opening is preceded by simple iron gratings. Baroque iconostasis dates from 1773. Composition of the temple is affected by wooden church in Hervartove. Typical self-standing tower, which is not connected with the umbrella design ship. It has an open podstienka serving as the church hall. Above the entrance, the solution to the Gothic way, is listed cathedral in 1727. Tower is presented sheathe boards and has ihlancovú roof. Wooden zrubová construction of this temple consists of the presbytery and a flat cap, the long ship and said the tower rebuilt. Presbyterium forms to ship a single package. It has refracted the ceiling, while the ship is equal. In the interior beam structure is deleted clay. High saddle roof is covered with shingles.

Z architektonického pohľadu ide o atypickú trojdielnu zrubovú stavbu s výraznými vplyvmi gotickej rímskokatolíckej sakrálnej architektúry. Okienka sú vytvorené hlbokými zárezmi vo dvoch susedných trámoch zrubu. Zasklený otvor je opatrený jednoduchou železnou mriežkou. Barokový ikonostas pochádza z roku 1773. Kompozícia chrámu je ovplyvnená dreveným kostolom v Hervartove. Typická je samostatne stojaca veža, ktorá nie je spojená so strešnou konštrukciou lode. Má otvorenú podstienku, slúžiacu ako predsieň chrámu. Nad vchodom, riešeným na gotický spôsob, je uvedená stavba chrámu z roku 1727. Predstavená veža je obitá doskami a má ihlancovú strechu. Drevená zrubová stavba tohto chrámu sa skladá z presbytéria s rovným uzáverom, pozdĺžnej lode a spomínanej prestavanej veže. Presbytérium tvorí s loďou jednotný celok. Má lomený strop, zatiaľ čo v lodi je rovný. V interiéri je trámová konštrukcia vymazaná hlinou. Vysoká sedlová strecha je pokrytá šindľom.

Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa, ležiaca v Slovenskom raji, patrí svojou dĺžkou a hĺbkou k najväčším ľadovým jaskyniam v Európe. Nikde mimo alpskej oblasti sa v Európe nenachádza toľko ľadu s hrúbkou miestami väčšou ako 25 m. Vďaka svojmu významu a unikátnej výzdobe bola zaradená do Zoznamu svetového kultúrneho a prírodného dedičstva UNESCO. Jej vchod, nazývaný aj „Ľadová diera“, sa nachádza pod vrchom Duča (1 141 m) na severnej strane planiny Hanesová a je umiestnený v nadmorskej výške 971 m. Treba k nemu vystúpiť serpentínovým chodníkom s prevýšením 130 m z osady Dobšinská Ľadová jaskyňa. Dĺžka prehliadkovej trasy s prevýšením 43 m je 515 m a jej absolvovanie trvá približne 30 minút. Jaskyňu objavil v roku 1870 banský inžinier E. Ruffini a už o rok ju miestni nadšenci sprístupnili verejnosti. V roku 1882 sa stala prvou elektricky osvetlenou jaskyňou v Uhorsku. Navštívilo ju viacero významných osobností, okrem iných aj bulharský cár a srbský kráľ. V roku 1890 sa vo Veľkej sieni konal koncert na počesť Karola Ľudovíta Habsburského. V minulosti sa v jaskyni organizovalo letné korčuľovanie. Pôvodne bola spojená so Stratenskou jaskyňou, avšak zrútením časti jaskyne sa prirodzené spojenie prerušilo. V tom čase sa vlastne začalo jej zaľadňovanie. Svojou dĺžkou (1 232 m) a hĺbkou (112 m) patrí k najväčším ľadovým jaskyniam v Európe. Nikde mimo alpskej oblasti sa nenachádza viac ako 110-tisíc m3 ľadu s hrúbkou miestami väčšou ako 25 m. Najväčšia hrúbka ľadu sa udržiava vo Veľkej sieni, kde dosahuje až 26,5 m. Zo svetoznámych ľadových jaskýň je Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa najnižšie položená, čo zvýrazňuje jej jedinečnosť. Ľad sa zachováva vďaka tvaru jaskyne, ktorá od vchodu klesá. V jej spodnej časti sa udržiava studený vzduch, ktorý sa ani v lete neohreje nad hranicu bodu mrazu.

In the south-western edge of the Slovenský raj Mts. is the Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa cave, one of the largest ice caves in Europe. Thanks to its significance and unique ornamentation, it was included into the List of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of UNESCO. Its entrance, also called the Ice Hole, is situated below the mountain Duča (1,141 m) on the northern side of the plateau Hanesová at the altitude of 971 m. The salient point is in the village Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa and tourists have to overcome the altitude difference of 130 m via switchbacks to climb to it. The length of the sightseeing trail is 515 m and seeing it takes 30 minutes. It originated some time at the end of the Tertiary Age, approximately simultaneously with the adjacent Stratenská jaskyňa cave, which is separated from it by a collapsed corridor. This 1,232 m long and 112 m deep cave is one of the largest ice caves in Europe. Except for the Alps, this is the only place in Europe with 110 thousand cubic metres of ice in places thicker than 25 m. The thickest layer of ice amounting to 26.5 m is in Veľká sieň (The Grand Hall) of the cave. The cave was discovered by the mining engineer I. Ruffini in 1870 and opened to public a year after. It was also the first cave in the Kingdom of Hungary with electric lighting. Several important personalities, among them the Bulgarian Tsar and the King of Serbia visited it. In 1890, a concert in honour of Charles Luis Hapsburg was held in the Grand Hall of the cave. In the past, it was also possible to skate in the cave in summer. The cave is also the lowest situated one in the world in terms of sea level altitude, which enhances its originality. Ice survives in the cave thanks to the form of the cave, which is similar to a sack. As the cave is situated lower than its entrance, the cold air maintains in its bottom and its temperature never increases above zero.

KaštieĽ / Manor house •

Toto je kaštieľ v Markušovciach. Postavili ho v roku 1643. Vznikol v období renesancie. Slúžil ako opevnené sídlo sto rokov. František Mariássy sa podieľal na jeho vzniku.

This is a manor house in a village Markušovce. It was built in 1643, when was a stage of renascence. It was used for a hundred years like a fortified seat. František Mariássy made this manor house.


Budovu letohrádku Dardanely dal postaviť Wolfgang Farkaš Mariássy v poslednej tretine 18. storočia z dôvodov, ku ktorým prispela aj ohlásená návšteva cisárskeho dvora Jozefa II., ktorá sa napokon neuskutočnila. V letohrádku sa nachádza aj múzeum.

Summer house Dardanely was built by Wolfgang Farkaš Mariássy in the last third of the 18th century because of the visit of Joseph II., which didn‘t come in the force. There is a museum, too.


Chránený objekt leží v Hornádskej kotline blízko obce Markušovce. Tento zriedkavý útvar je vysoký asi 8 metrov. Vedie k nemu z obce žlto značkovaný chodník.

This protected object is in Hornádska kotlina near the village Markušovce. This rare unit is 8 metres high. The yellow sign pathway leads to it from Markušovce. Aquapark Tatralandia Aquapark Tatralandia je najväčším celoročným areálom vodnej zábavy na Slovensku, v Čechách a Poľsku. Nachádza sa v oblasti zvanej Liptov. Táto krajina je bohatá na kultúrne pamiatky a je charakteristická svojráznou ľudovou architektúrou a folklórom. Liptov obklopujú najväčšie hory na Slovensku. Srdcom celoročného aquaparku je zdroj termálnej vody prúdiaci z viac ako 2 500 m hĺbky s teplotou 60,7 C. Termálna voda v niektorých bazénoch obsahuje časť vôd z mora, ktoré bolo na území Liptovskéj kotliny už pred 40 miliónmi rokov. Minerálna voda v Tatralandii blahodárne pôsobí na pohybové a dýchacie ústrojenstvo a je vhodná pre duševnú aj fyzickú relaxáciu. AQUAPARK TATRALANDIA Vám ponúka: vodné atrakcie – 11 bazénov: 8 celoročných bazénov s množstvom vodných atrakcií: masážne sedenia, vodné postele, vodný hríbik, chŕliče, vyvieračky, vodné prúdy, vodná hojdačka, vodný basketbal, volejbal, aquaerobic, vodné súťaže, ... 3 letné bazény – detský bazén, plavecký bazén a bazén s 21 atrakciami 28 tobogánových dráh a vodných šmýkačiek – viac ako 1800 m šmýkacích dráh Ostrov pirátov z Karibiku – jedinečný tropický wellness s bazénmi a výhľadom na Tatry Saunový svet – Tatra-Therm-Vital – komplex 16 parných, vodných a masážnych kúpeľov, sáun a procedúr Wellness Paradise - komplex masáží, kúpeľov, zábalov a iných liečebných aj relaxačných procedúr Showland – denné animačné programy Tarzánia – prekážková lanová dráha

Take a rest in Tatralandia! Aquapark Tatralandia is the largest round-the-year water fun area in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is situated in the region of Liptov. This part of the country abounds in cultural monuments and is known for its typical folk architecture and folklore. Liptov is surrounded by the highest mountains in Slovakia. The heart of the round-the-year water park is hidden in the source of 60. 7°C thermal water, springing from the depth of over 2, 500m. Some pools are filled with water containing part of sea-waters which used to cover the area of the Liptovská kotlina hollow as early as 40 million years ago. The mineral waters of Tatralandia are beneficial to motion and respiratory organs and are also suitable for mental and physical relaxation. AQUAPARK TATRALANDIA offers: Water attractions – 11 pools: 8 round-the-year pools with numerous water attractions: massage seats, water beds, a water mushroom, spouts, geysers, water streams, a water swing, water basketball, volleyball, water aerobics, water competitions… 3 summer pools – a children’s pool, a swimming pool and a pool with 21 attractions 28 water slide tracks and water slides - over 1, 800m of sliding tracks – 8 round-the-year The Pirates’ of the Caribbean Island – a unique tropical wellness with pools and a view of the Tatra mountains The World of Saunas – Tatra-Therm-Vital – a complex comprising 16 steam, water and massage baths, saunas and procedures Wellness Paradise - a complex comprising massages, baths, wraps and other medicinal or relaxation procedures Showland – daily animation programmes Tarzánia – the hurdle rope track

High Tatras

The High Tatras mountains are situated in the northern part of Slovakia, on the border with Poland. In 1949 it was declared to be the first Slovak national park (TANAP) and in 1993 it was together with the polish part of the Tatras mountains declared by the UNESCO to be the "Biospheric reservation of the Tatras".

The High Tatras were created about 60 mil. years ago heaving up the granite massif above the level of the surrounding land. It gained its current appearance by the glacier activity 2 mil. years ago. The characteristic peaks (such as Gerlachovský Peak, Kriváň, Rysy, Lomnický Peak), deep valleys of glacier origin (Mengusovská Valley, The Grand and The Small Cold Valley), moraines and mountain lakes (Štrbské Mountain Lake, Skalnaté Mountain Lake ) were formed the same way, too.

In the region, there are situated villages with numerous historical monuments (Kežmarok, Spišská Sobota, Poprad) and tourist centres (Old Smokovec, Štrbské Mountain Lake, Tatranská Lomnica and Ždiar) with a lot of accommodation facilities. From the abovementioned centres you can start all day trips to the following attractive destinations (Low Tatras, Pieniny, Slovak Paradise, Levoča, St.Jacob Church, Spiš Castle, Plejsy).

Gerlachovský Peak Gerlachovský Peak (2655 m) is the highest in the High Tatras and in Slovakia, too. It is situated in the crotch of the Back Gerlachovský Peak separated by the Gerlachovské saddle. The comb goes from the top of the peak to the Kotlovský Peak where it forks and creates characteristic Gerlachovská basin.


The Rysy peak (2499 m) is a peak of the main comb of the Tatras mountains situated right on the border between Slovakia and Poland. It consists of three peaks: the north-western (bordering) one, with a beautiful view; the middle (main) one and the south-eastern one, which is the lowest. Three mountain combs join the Rysy peak: northwards to Malé Rysy (Small Rysy), southwards through Váha to the Český štít (Český Peak) and westwards to the Žabí kôň (Frog Horse). A world famous nuclear scientist, Marie Curie-Sklodowska (1867 - 1934), and her husband Pierre visited Rysy in 1899. Vladimír Iľjič Lenin ascended to the Rysy peak in 1913, too.

Lomnický Peak

Kriváň (2494 m) is characteristic peak in the western part of the High Tatras. It is situated at the end of the long comb of the Krivánska crotch joining the main comb of the High Tatras from Čubrina. Several combs join the top of the peak. The southern and south-western one are the only ones interesting for tourists.


The most popular and most famous peak of the High Tatras is the Lomnický Peak (2634 m). The triangular top of the peak (high above the surrounding land) is connected to three ridges.

Štrbské Mountain-Lake (1346 m) is the most famous and the most visited lake in the High Tatras. It is called Štrbské because it is situated in the Štrba district. Fishes had been regularly added into the lake since the end of the 19-th century. The ice because of its excellent quality was broadly used (it was even exported to Budapest, Berlin and Vienna).

Štrbské Mountain-Lake

Šikmá veža Najcharakteristickejšou črtou mesta Vrbové je šikmá veža. Nachádza sa v blízkosti kostola svätého Martina v nadmorskej výške 187,68 m n. m. Ide o štvorbokú budovu postavenú s klasicistickom slohu, ktorá má pôdorys s rozmermi 6,5 x 6,5 m. Výška od päty veze činí 38,16 m vrátane kríža. Základný kameň veže-zvonice postavili 7. mája 1832. Projektu sa ujal murársky majster Jozef Verner z Čachtíc a dielo dokončil v roku 1835. Náklady na výstavbu hradila cirkev, ktorej objekt patrí. Hodinový mechanizmus je vlastníctvom mesta. 28. októbra 1930 sa veža po dlhotrvajúcich dažďoch náhle naklonila. Príčina bola v podmoknutí pôdy a v pomerne úzkych základoch stavby. Neskôr sa uvádzalo, že odklon činil 70-75 cm. Tento stav viedol Mestský úrad Vrbové k tomu, že v roku 1997 objednal u zememeračskej kancelárie Geodet Piešťany odborné zameranie. Zistilo sa, že veža je odklonená od zvislej osi o 98 cm smerom na juhozápad, čo v podstate potvrdilo aj nasledujúce meranie v roku 2000, ktoré vykázalo 99-centimetrovú odchýlku (resp. 85 cm bez kríža). Rozdiel jedného centimetra však predstavuje toleranciu v nepresnosti merania. Hendikep veže sa premenil na istú prednosť – stala sa z nej turistická atrakcia, pre ktorú býva Vrbové nazývané i slovenská Pisa. Pre porovnanie uvádzame, že päťdesiatpäťmetrová šikmá veža v Pise, postavená v r. 1360-1370, má odklon od zvislice 4,42 m. Most pertinent feature of the city is the Leaning Tower Vrbové. Situated near the church of St. Martin in the altitude of 187.68 m n. m. It is a square building built in classical style, which has a footprint with dimensions 6.5 x 6.5 m. Height of heels makes towers 38.16 m, including the Cross. The foundation stone of the tower-bell tower built by the 7th May 1832. Project took masonic master of Joseph Verner Čachtice and work completed in 1835. The costs of construction paid by the church, which the object belongs. Clockwork is owned by the city. 28. October 1930, the tower suddenly after prolonged rainfall leaned. The cause was wet land and relatively narrow bases construction. Later it was stated that the deviation did 70-75 cm. This situation led the Town Office Vrbové that in 1997 ordered the agency in surveying surveyor Piešťany areas. It was found that the tower is inclined from vertical axis of 98 cm toward the southwest, which in essence has the following measurements in 2000, which showed a 99-centimetrovú deviation (or 85 cm without the Cross). CENTIMETERS one difference, however, a tolerance of uncertainty in measurement. Handicap the tower is turned on a preference - it became a tourist attraction, which usually Vrbové called and Slovak Pisa. For comparison: fifty-five-meter Leaning tower of Pisa, built in 1360-1370, the shifts away from perpendicular 4.42 m.

Rocky Mountain-Lake • • •

Formerly it was called Lomnické Mountain-Lake. It is situated in Skalnatá dolina (Skalnatá Valley) under southern slopes of the Lomnický Peak. The local climate as well as the human activity (mainly by building the buildings) eroded its banks and caused the slow process of disappearance of the lake. The attempts to stop this process (from 1937 and 1957) remained unsuccessful.

BLED Bled z okolico in naravnimi lepotami je eno najlepših alpskih letovišč, značilno po blagem, zdravilnem podnebju in termalni jezerski vodi. Bled privablja poslovneže, umetnike, športnike, raziskovalce, rekreativce, stare in mlade ter ljudi z vsega sveta. Nadmorska višina (Altitude): 501m, Število prebivalcev (Population): 5,476. Bled with its surrounding and natural beauty is one of the most beautiful Alpine resorts, characterized by its mild climate and thermal lake water. Bled attracts businessmen, artists, athletes, scientists, and other people from all over the world. Blejsko jezero Jezero je nastalo ob umiku Bohinjskega ledenika na nadmorski višini 475 m. Dolgo je do 2120, široko do 1380 m, največja globina je 30,6 m, po izvoru je tektonsko. Eno od prvih stvari, ki jih opazimo na Blejskem jezeru je prav gotovo Blejski otok. Legenda pravi, da je bilo na otoku svetišče staroslovanske boginje Žive. Lake Bled The lake was created with the withdrawal of the Bohinj glacier at the altitude of 475 m. It is up to 2,120 long, 1,380 m wide and its maximum depth is 30.6 m. It is a tectonic creation. One of the first things you see on Lake Bled is certainly the Bled island. The legend says there was a sanctuary to a Slavic goddess Živa ('Alive'). Lake Bled

PIRAN Piran je pristaniško mesto na slovenski obali in središče občine Piran. Leži na samem rtu piranskega polotoka. V neposredni bližini mesta je mesto Portorož. Naselje se je začelo razvijati v zgodnjem srednjem veku, v prvem desetletju 7. stoletja se Piran prvič omenja v virih (Piranon). V 2. polovici 8. stoletja je skupaj z Istro prišel izpod bizantinske pod frankovsko oblast. Zaščitnik mesta Piran je sveti Jurij. Piran is a port town on the Slovenian coast and the center of the municipality of Piran. It is situated at the tip of peninsula of Piran. The nearest city is Portoroz. The settlement began to develop in the early Middle Ages. Piran was first mentioned in Piranon in the first decade of the 7th century. Together with Istria it came from the Byzantine power under the Frankish in 2nd half of the 8th century. The patron of the city of Piran is Saint George. Piran Stolna cerkev sv. Jurija - St. George Cathedral Nad strnjenim mestnim središčem kraljuje stolna cerkev sv. Jurija, ki daje mestu poseben pečat. O nastanku ni točnih podatkov, domneva pa se, da je nastala v XII. stoletju. V sedanji velikosti je bila sezidana v XIV. stoletju. Leta 1344 jo je na praznik sv. Jurija posvetilo devet škofov iz bližnje in daljne okolice. The urban center is dominated by St. George Cathedral ehich gives the place a special seal. It is presumed to have been built in the XII. century. The cathedral of the current size was built in the XIV. century. In 1344, it was consecrated by nine bishops from nearby and distant surroundings on St. George's day. Toni Krušnik in Marko Kastelic

LIPICA Lipica je naselje v občini Sežana in pomembno konjeniško središče na kraški planoti ob cesti Sežana – mejni prehod Lipica. Osrednja znamenitost Lipice je kobilarna, kjer gojijo svetovno znane konje – lipicance. Kobilarno je ustanovil avstrijski nadvojvoda Karel leta 1580. Konjeniško-turistični center Lipica ima tu velike travnate pašne površine, kobilarno, pokrito jahalnico in igrišče za golf. V Lipici je tudi galerija Avgusta Černigoja, slovenskega slikarja in konstruktivista. V galeriji je zbranih preko 1400 njegovih del, približno 400 pa je postavljenih na ogled. Nekaj sto metrov od kobilarne je Dolina Lurške Matere Božje. To je manjša kraška dolina (bolje rečeno vrtača), ki je urejena kot cerkev na prostem. Glavni oltar te cerkve je kapelica, ki ima v niši kip Lurške Matere Božje. Zgodovina te Doline je povezana s Karlom Grünnejem, ki je bil vodja kobilarne v letih 1848-1875. Ko ga je mučila jetika, se zaobljubil, da bo postavil oltar v čast Mariji, če ozdravi. V spomin nanj je pri kapelici vzidana plošča z napisom "IN MEMEMORIAM CAROLUS Grünne 1848-1875". Prvotni kip Matere Božje je postavil 1. maja 1892 kaplan Edmond Legat. Do druge svetovne vojne so ljudje, zlasti Tržačani in okoličani, množično romali v Marijino dolino, ki je slovela tudi po čudežnih ozdravitvah. V socialistični Jugoslaviji se je ta tradicija prekinila, v samostojni Sloveniji pa se je spet obnovila. V okolici Lipice je več kraških jam, med katerimi je najbolj znana okoli 1300 m dolga jama Vilenica, ki je verjetno najstarejša turistična jama na svetu, saj v njej potekajo organizirani vódeni ogledi že od leta 1633. Lipica is a settlement in the municipality Sežana and an important stud farm center on a karstic plateau beside road Sežana – border crossing Lipica. The central spectacle of Lipica is the stud farm, where they breed worldly known horses – Lippizaners. Austrian archduke Karel founded the stud farm in 1580. Here the tourist center Lipica has it's large grassy pasturing surfaces, a stud farm, covered riding ground and golf course. In Lipica there is also a gallery of Avgust Čenigoj, a Slovene painter and constructivist. At the gallery, 1,400 of his works are gathered, approximately 400 of them are set for viewing. A few hundred meters from the stud farm is the Valley of Lourdes Holy Mother. This is a smaller karstic valley (better said sinkhole), that is organized as an outside church. The main altar of this church is a small chapel with a statue of Lourdes Holy Mother in its niche. The history of this Valley is connected with Karl Grünne, that was the leader of the stud farm in years 1848-1875. When tuberculosis tortured him, he vowed he'd put an altar in honor of Mary, if he gets well. In the memory of him a plate is built in the chapel with an inscription: IN MEMORY OF CARLOUS Grünne 1848-1875. The primary statue of Holy Mother was constructed by chaplain Edmont Legat in 1892. Until the World War 2, the people of Trst and its neighbors went on a pilgrimage to Mary's Valley that was also known for its miraculous healing. This tradition was interrupted in the SocialistYugoslavia, but began again with the independence of Slovenia. There are many Karst caves near Lipica, the longest of them (about 1,300 meters long) is Vilenica, probably the oldest tourist cave in the world, because guided tours have been organized there since 1633. Naja Kepeš Lippizaners %C5%BE.aspx

LJUBLJANA – glavno mesto Slovenije Ljubljana je glavno mesto Slovenije in središče Mestne občine Ljubljane. Na Ljubljano je skozi zgodovino vplivalo več kultur. Ljubljana je dobro poznana po arhitekturnih umetninah (cerkvah, gradu, mostovih), pa tudi po gledališčih, galerijah in parkih. V Ljubljani je približno 30 hektarjev parkov, največji del te površine zavzema park Tivoli, ostalo površino pa si deli 28 manjših parkov. Center Ljubljane leži med dvema manjšima vzpetinama, Rožnikom in Grajskim gričem, na katerem stoji Ljubljanski grad. Ljubljana je eno najlepših slovenskih mest, turistično zelo obiskano in ogledano, saj jo krasijo stare hiše v različnih slogih, vodnjaki in kipi (med njimi je najbolj poznan Prešernov kip, ki stoji na Prešernovem trgu, ki je središče Ljubljane). Skozi Ljubljano teče reka Ljubljanica, čeznjo pa stojita Tromostovje in Zmajski most. Kot zelo znan del Ljubljane poznamo tudi Staro Ljubljano, ki je starejši del mesta. LJUBLJANA – the capital of Slovenia Ljubljana is the capital city of Slovenia and the center of Municipality Ljubljana. Many cultures had influence on Ljubljana through history. Ljubljana is well known for its architectural works of art (churches, castle, bridges,...) and also theaters, galleries and parks. There are approximately 30 hectares of parks in Ljubljana, the largest part of it is occupied by park Tivoli, the other 28 parks share the remaining surface. The center of Ljubljana lies between two smaller elevations, Rožnik and Castle Hill, on which Ljubljana Castle stands on. A furnicular railway to the top of Castle Hill was built in 2006 and brought to service in 2007. Ljubljana is one of the most beautiful towns in Slovenia, turisticly very visited and seen, because of its beautifiul old houses in different styles, fountains and statues (among them probably the most known is the monument to Prešeren on Prešeren Square - that is the center of Ljubljana). There is a river called the Ljubljanica flowing through the centre of the city and has some very interesting bridges such as The Triple Bridge and The Dragon Bridge. The old part of Ljubljana is simply called Old Ljubljana and its a magnet for tourists with numerous little shops and cafés. Nuša Hribernik

Ljubljana, the capital city of Slovenia

The Dragon Bridge with St Nicholas Cathedral in the background

The river Ljubljanica

POSTOJNSKA JAMA Postojnska jama je 20.570 m dolg kraški jamski sistem v bližini Postojne in je največji v Sloveniji. K Postojnski jami sodijo tudi Otoška jama, Magdalena jama, Črna jama, Pivka jama. Jamo je ustvarila ponikalnica reka Pivka, ki iz Postojnskega kraškega polja ponikne pod hrib Sovič in nadaljuje svoj podzemni tok proti podzemnemu sotočju z reko Rak v Planinski jami in priteče na površje kot reka Unica. Podzemni tok reke Pivke je v dveh milijonih letih postopoma zniževal svojo strugo in tako ustvarjal različna nadstropja jame. Stalna temperatura v notranjosti jame je bila še pred nekaj leti približno 8°C, danes pa se giblje med 8 in 10°C. Višje temperature že omogočajo rast lišajev na kapnikih, kar preprečuje nadaljnje odlaganje apnenca in rast kapnikov. Postojnska jama je znana po človeški ribici, ki prebiva v njej. Ljudje si Postojnsko jamo ogledajo s pomočjo vodičev. Skupaj morajo del poti prehoditi, drugi del pa se peljejo z vlakcem. V bližini Postojnske jame je tudi Predjamski grad, kjer vsako leto prirejajo viteške igre. Postojna Cave Postojna Cave is a 20,570 m long Karst cave system near Postojna, and it is the largest cave in Slovenia and the longest cave system which includes other caves such as Island Cave, Magdalena Cave, Black Cave, and Pivka Cave. This cave was created by the river Pivka, which ends below hill Sovič and continues its ground underground flow with the river Rak and finally comes back to the surface as a new river, the Unica. Over the last two million years the underground river flow created different floor pits. A few years ago, the constant temperature inside the cave was around 8°C, today however it ranges between 8 and 10°C. Higher temperatures cause lichens growth which prevents further growth of stalactites. Postojna Cave is also known for proteus or olm, which is a very rare animal and lives in this cave only. Visitors may visit the cave only in a guided group. They have to walk a part and they ride on a mini train. In the vicinity of the cave there is also Predjama Castle, where knight games are organized once a year. Nina Železnik

TRIGLAV Triglav, ki je visok 2864, je najvišji vrh Julijskih Alp in najvišji vrh Slovenije. Mnenja o nastanku in pomenu imena gore so deljena. Eni menijo, da se ime tri-glav nanaša na obliko gore, kot se jo vidi iz Bohinja. Drugi trdijo, da je gora poimenova po staroslovanskem poganskem božanstvu Triglavu. Oblika gore ni izrazito trodelna, kakor jo lahko vidimo stilizirano na grbu. Od daleč lahko opazimo samo dvodelno zgradbo, kjer predstavlja drugi vrh Mali Triglav. Triglav velja kot simbol slovenstva, nahaja se tudi na slovenskem grbu. Prvi, ki je Triglav opazil kot simbol slovenstva, je bil Jakob Aljaž. Prvič je prišel v Vrata leta 1883. Leta 1889 je prišel na Dovje za duhovnika in v tem času se je tudi povzpel na Triglav ter se odločil, da bo ta vrh za vedno ostal slovenski. Za nekaj goldinarjev je vrh Triglava odkupil od dovške občine in se odločil, da bo na njem postavil majhen kovinski stolp, ki so ga odprli 7. avgusta 1895. Stolp in njegovo postavitev je sicer v celoti financiral sam Aljaž, kasneje pa ga je podaril Slovenskemu planinskemu društvu. Istega leta je dal izklesati in opremiti tudi Staničevo zavetišče tik pod vrhom. Prvi vzpon na Triglav se je 26. avgusta 1778 na pobudo Žige Zoisa posrečil štirim domačinom iz Bohinja: Luki Korošcu, Matevžu Kosu, Štefanu Rožiču in Lovrencu Willomitzerju. Prvi ženski vzpon pa je leta 1870 opravila dvajsetletna Rozalija Škantar iz Srednje vasi, ki je bila kasneje oskrbnica v Vodnikovi koči. Njen oče Jože je bil poznan bohinjski gorski vodnik. Eden od težjih plezalnih pristopov na vrh je Triglavska severna stena, ki jo je prvi preplezal 1890 trentarski lovec Janez Berginc. Najbolj znana smer je Čopov steber, ki sta ga 1945 preplezala Jeseničan Joža Čop in Ljubljančanka Pavla Jesih. Triglav, the highest mountain in Slovenia TRIGLAV – the highest mountain in Slovenia Triglav (2864m high) is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the Julian Alps. Triglav means "threeheaded", but the Opinions of the occurrence and significance of the name are still divided.Some believe that it refers to the shape of the peak as seen from the valley of Bohinj. Others believe that the mountain may have been named after an old Slavic god Triglav. The form of the mountain is not exactly a three-part fold, as can be seen in the stylized depiction on the national symbols the Slovenian coat of arms and the flag of Slovenia). From far away you can see only a two-step structure, the second representing the top called 'Little Triglav'. Triglav is the Slovene national symbol. The first who recognized Triglav as a national symbol was Jakob Aljaž. In 1889 he came to Dovje where he became a priest, and at that time has also climbed Triglav, and decided that it will always remain Slovenian. For some little money purchased the top of Triglav from the Bovje county and decided that he would put a small metal tower on the top, which was opened on 7th August 1895. The tower was later given to the Slovenian alpine club. The first ascent to Triglav was made on 26 August 1778 by Luka Korošec, Matija Kos, Štefan Rožič and Lovrenc Willomitzer, on the initiative of baron Sigismund Zois. The first women's ascent, however, was made in 1870 by a 20-year-old Rozalija Škantar from Srednja vas. She later became a keeper of the Vodnik cottage. Her father was a known mountain guide. One of the more difficult climbing route is Triglav Northern Rock, which was first climbed in 1890 by a hunter Janez Berginc from Trenta. The most famous route is Čopov's pillar which was climbed by Jože čop And Pavla Jesih. Nejc Simon

ARBORETUM VOLČJI POTOK Arboretum Volčji potok je najbolj znana, največja in najbolj popularna vrtnarska znamenitost v Sloveniji. Arboretum je odprt od začetka marca do konca novembra. Nahaja se poleg vasi Volčji Potok pri Kamniku. Slovenski Arboretum je ustanovila Agronomska fakulteta iz Ljubljane. Razteza se na 88 hektarih in obsega pet urejenih jezer in 30 hektarov gozda, v katerem je zlasti pomembna pri nas redka združba jelke in trokrpega mahu. V Volčjem potoku uspeva približno 2.500 vrst in sort iglavcev in listavcev ter okoli 300 divjih zelnatih rastlin. Bogata je tudi zbirka bukev, brez, hrastov, lip, javorov, japonskih češenj, magnolij, borov, jelk, cipres, smrek, tis, tuj, in rododendronov. Na splošno je v parku preko 4500 domačih in tujih rastlinskih vrst dreves, grmičevja in drugih rastlin. Janez Vajkard Valvasor navaja, da je ob koncu imela Volčji potok v posesti rodbina Bonhomo. Po Valvasorjevi dobi sta bila lastnika dr. Janez Burger in njegova hči Pavlina, nato pa rodbina Gozani. Leta 1882 je posestvo Volčji potok od vdove Fredinanda Gozanija kupil Ferdinand Souvan. Ta je preuredil dvorec, nekatere pred dvorcem ležeče njive in travnike pa zasadil z drevjem in napravil park. Po njem je posestvo podedoval sin Leon, okoli graščine uredil park z ribniki in nasadi eksotičnih dreves. Graščino so požgali partizani. Park je bil dodeljen agronomski in gozdarski fakulteti v Ljubljani. To je bila podlaga za ureditev in razvoj arboretuma. The Volčji Potok Arboretum Volčji Potok is located next to village Volčji Potok at Kamnik. It is the best known arboretum, as well as the largest and the most popular horticultural amenity in Slovenia. The Volčji Potok Arboretum is open from the beginning of March till the end of November. Slovenian Arboretum was established by Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ljubljana. It is extended over 88 hectares and covers the five Great Lakes, 30 hectares of forest, where we can find a rare combination of fir and moss. There are about 2,500 species and varieties of coniferuous and deciduous tress, and about 300 wild herbaceous plants. Overall, there are more than 4,500 domestic and foreign plant species of trees, shrubs and other plants. According to Janez Vajkard Valvasor, at the end of the 16th century Potok Volčji was owned by family Bonhomo. After the end of the Valvasor age, owners of the so called Wolf Brook became Janez Burger and his daughter Pavlina, then the Gozan family. In 1882, the Fredinand Gozani's widow's estate was purchased by Ferdinand Souvan. He rearranged the castle and the sourrounding area. His son inherited the estate and arranged a park with ponds and exotic trees. The mansion was destroyed in WW2. The Arboretum was established in 1952 by the University of Ljubljana. Petra Veternik

The Volčji Potok Arboretum

The Volčji Potok Arboretum

The Volčji Potok Arboretum


Barcelona es una ciudad situada en el nordeste de España, capital de Cataluña. Se ubica en las orillas del mar Mediterráneo. Tiene una población de 1700000 habitantes. Es una ciudad multicultural y tiene mucha vida tanto de día como de noche .Sus principales atracciones turísticas son: El barrio Gótico, Las Ramblas, el paseo de Colón, l’Eixample, Montjuïc, El poble Espanyol, Tibidabo, Parc de la Ciutadella, Borne y La Barcelona de Gaudi. Madrid es la capital de España. Se encuentra en la zona central de la Península Ibérica. Se fundó en 1123. Es conocida como La Villa y Corte, es la ciudad más grande y poblada del país. Madrid tiene muchos monumentos importantes, como la Cibeles o la Puerta de Alcalá, también hay museos importantes; como el del Prado o el Reina Sofía... En el apartado de gastronomía podemos encontrar las “tapas”, son aperitivos o comida informal que se sirven en pequeña cantidad y van acompañadas por una bebida. Sevilla contaba en 2008 con unos 700.000 habitantes. Sevilla es la capital de Andalucia. La catedral de Santa Maria es la catedral gótica más grande del mundo. La catedral esta en el centro de la ciudad.Giralda es el nombre del campanario de Sevilla. La Giralda tiene 800 años. La plaza de toros de la Real Maestraza de Caballeria de Sevilla es la sede de corridas de toros. Se celebran durante la Feria de Abril. Vitoria se encuentra en el norte de España en el País Vasco, su nombre en euskera es Vitoria-Gasteiz, Vitoria es la segunda ciudad del mundo con más espacios verdes. Hay una gran cantidad de parques y numerosas plazas como el de la Florida, Vitoria tiene un gran atractivo turístico. Tiene un casco antiguo donde todo esta lleno de calles con tiendas. San Sebastián esta situado al norte de España en el País Vasco, su nombre en euskera es Donostia. Tiene un gran atractivo físico con la Bahía de la Concha y su playa, el paseo de la Concha, es una gran ciudad con 180.000 habitantes, tiene un gran comercio y turismo. Tiene un casco antiguo donde en cada bar hay tapas. Los Pirineos, o el Pirineo son una cordillera montañosa situada al norte de la Península Ibérica, entre España, Andorra y Francia. Se alarga a unos 415 kilómetros desde el mar Mediterráneo, hasta el mar Cantábrico. En su parte central tiene una anchura de unos 150 Km Los Pirineos centrales u Oscenses es donde hay más zona turística, por ejemplo: La iglesia de San Juan y el pico del Aneto y montañas similares. Hay tres picos de los Pirineos que superan los 3.200 metros de altitud, el Aneto, Monte Perdido y el Pico Maldito. La comarca de La Litera/ Llitera se encuentra en las estribaciones del Somontano oscense, entre el río Cinca y el Noguera Ribagorzana. Limita al norte con la Sierra de Cadorrilla, al oeste con el Cinca Medio, en la parte meridional con la provincia de Lerida y al sur con la comarca del Bajo Cinca. Se pueden visitar: Albelda: “Els aljubs” y “Les sies”. Zurita: Pozos de hielo. Castillonroy: El pantano de Santa Ana y el mirador del carro. Esplus: El eco museo. Gabasa: El barranco de Gabasa.

Spain is quite a big country with an enormous variety of landscapes, from North to South and from West to East you could visit any part of Spain finding lots of interesting places not only culturally but also grastronomically talking. We chose those cities that my students like most and furthermore we have added something about our own area. Barcelona is a city located on the Northeast of Spain, it’s the capital city of Cataluña. It’s located on the Mediterranean cost. It’s got about 1700000 inhabitants. It’s a multicultural city and it is a very lively city during day and night. Its main tourist attractions are the followings: El barrio Gótico, Las Ramblas, el paseo de Colón, l’Eixample, Montjuïc, El poble Espanyol, Tibidabo, Parc de la Ciutadella, Borne y La Barcelona de Gaudi. Madrid is the capital city of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in 1123. It is known as “La Villa y Corte”, it is the biggest and more populated city in the country. Madrid has got a lot of important monuments, for example the Cibeles fountain or the “Puerta de Alcalá”, there are many important museums for example Prado’s and Reina Sofía’s museums. Related to food we can say that the most characteristic food from Madrid is the “tapas”. They are an informal kind of food which is served in little quantities and goes with a glass of wine or a beer. Seville has got about 700.000 inhabitants. Seville is the capital city of Andalucía. The cathedral of Santa Maria is the biggest cathedral in the world. The cathedral is in the centre of the city. Giralda is the name of the bell tower from Seville. The Giralda´s tower is 800 years old. The Real Maestraza de Caballeria bullring of Seville is the center of bullfighting. They are celebrated during the April Fair. Vitoria is in the North of Spain in the Basque country, his name in euskera is Vitoria-Gasteiz, Vitoria is the second city with lots of green areas in the world. There are lots of huge evergreen parks for example the Florida park and medieval squares. Vitoria is a beautiful touristic old city with lots of shopping streets. San Sebastian is in the North of Spain in the Basque country. Its name in euskera is Donostia. If you see it from the sea you will admire a beautiful walk path shaped like a sea shell and all along it as it is full of modernist buildings, the Concha bay and its beach and the concha’s square, It is a big city with 180.000 inhabitants, it has got a big commerce and tourism. It has got an old town centre where there are a lot of pubs in which are delicious tapas are served along with superb local white wine. The Pyrenees are situated in the North of Spain. They are frontier between Spain and France and go from the Mediterranean Sea to the Cantatrice Sea. But it is the central part in the Pyrenees where I live what I am going to talk about. There are many tourist attractions for instance: the church of San Juan, the Aneto peak and similar mountains. The Pyrenees go beyond 3.200 meters for example, Aneto peak, Monte Perdido and Maldito Peak. La Llitera, this region is located in the foothills of Somontano Huesca, between the river Cinca and Noguera Ribagorzana. It is bounded on the North by the Sierra Cadorrilla, on the West by Cinca Medio, in the southern part by the province of Lerida and on the South by the region of Bajo Cinca. In La Llitera you can visit: Albelda, "Els aljubs” and “Les sies”. Zurita: The ice wells. Castillonroy: The dam of Santa Ana and the viewpoint of the cart. Esplus: The Eco Museum. Gabasa: The Gabasa ravine.

Thanks to all the teachers and pupils that have contributed for this project and have made it such a wonderful experience. We hope to count on you to further projects. Have a wonderful and deserved holidays.

June 2009  
June 2009  

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