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The Research

Issue

Archiprint April 2012 \\ Volume 01 \ Issue 02


3

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6

Editorial

Research seems to be both loved and hated by architects as well as by our faculty at the university. If one looks at the endlessly ongoing discussion on a ‘scientific’ approach towards our field, a contradiction comes to mind: apparently nobody seems to know how architectural research should be done, yet everybody is practicing it. How did we get this ambivalent attitude? During the last AnArchi symposium on research and education in March 2011, a statement was made by Jacob Voorthuis: architecture is neither Geisteswissenschaft, exact, nor behavioural science (“alfa, beta, nor gamma”), so we need a new language to describe our profession. For a discipline that already exists for a few millennia, this seems strange. Do we question our own abilities as we are surrounded by the bèta focused engineers of Eindhoven? Is a University of Technology not the right place for a study that wishes to understand the world on the one hand, but learns us to be the creator of a new world on the other? Or do we lack both the rhetorical strength of alfa, as well as the statistic skills of gamma? These questions become especially relevant in the discussion on the plans of a university wide bachelor system, which is said to be the kiss of death for the design education programme for architectural students. What we actually would like to accomplish, is a magazine about research and education. This issue of Archiprint may be seen as a catalogue of research methods. Several different people, both university related and external writers, are asked to write about their opinion on the architectural discourse while they try to grasp the research in their own fields of interest. By explanations on the methods used and description of the results in the design processes we hope to offer some insight in what is already present. Perhaps this may contribute to a solution for this problem we seem to have. Erik Hoogendam, Jan Verhagen

Colophon Journal for Architecture, created by students of the Department of the Built Environment of the Eindhoven University of Technology and architectural study association AnArchi. anarchi@bwk.tue.nl, www.anarchi.bwk.tue.nl/archiprint Editor-in-chief Erik Hoogendam Final Editors Laurence Bolhaar, Nik Snellaars Editors Erik Hoogendam, Omayra Mingels, Nik Snellaars, Jan Verhagen, Laurence Bolhaar, Iris Jansen, Marjan Mohammadzadeh Sarab, Aris Santarmos Guest Editors Maarten Willems, Irene Curruli, David de Kool, Loes Martens, Tim Kouthoofd, Gijs Wallis de Vries, Tim Brans, Sem Holweg, Bob l’ Herminez, Ricardo Ploemen, Gerald Lindner, Thomas Krijnen, Myrthe Buijs, Mark Proosten, Han Westelaken, Robbert Peters, Mahshid Shokouhi, René Fuhren, Jan Schevers, Raoul Vleugels, Sanne Reinaerts, Gijs Adriaansens Martijn Schlatmann Advisory committee

Bernard Colenbrander, Jacob Voorthuis, Maarten Willems Design Jan Verhagen, Erik Hoogendam Printing Drukkerij Van Druenen, Geldrop


7

Content Opening statements Narrative

The Research Issue Maarten Willems, Irene Curruli, Laurence Bolhaar, Bob l’Herminez

08.

The Industrial Narrative Myrthe Buijs

10.

The Narrative Method Gijs Wallis de Vries Enoia Mark Proosten

Design Support Systems

Generative Design of Brickwork Ricardo Ploemen Educating Intuition Gerald Lindner Ex-plau-ra-li-sa-tion Thomas Krijnen

Eindhoven Method

Amsterdam Alphabet Gijs Adriaansens Contextual Awareness Martijn Kruijf Delirious Amsterdam Martijn Schlatmann

Models and Making Urban Research

15. 16.

18.

19. 21.

22.

Cultural Heritage RenĂŠ Fuhren

28.

30.

Three Quarks for Munster Mark Han Westelaken

32.

Berlin as Model Tim Brans, Sem Holweg, David de Kool, Loes Martens, Robert Peters

34.

Research as a Part of the Design Process in Theory and Practice Tim Kouthoofd

AnArchi

14.

Models and Making Sanne, Reinaerts, Jan Schevers, Raoul Vleugels

Measuring Mental Maps Mahshid Shokouhi

Education vs. Practice

11. 12.

AnArchi 3th board of AnArchi

36.

37.


8

The Research Issue

Opening statements

Research in Architecture In questioning research in architecture, the most interesting perspective is not the what-question but in particular,the howquestion. In that regard the ancient but vital debate emerges about the suitability of traditional valuation methods for architectural research. Are the classified lists of refereed journals the appropriate frame of reference for research in the realm of architecture? Is it not about time to start measuring, rating and valuing differently? The dissertation by Laurens Hessels (Science and the Struggle for Relevance, Utrecht 2010) offers some interesting observations: “With regard to research evaluation, I point to the perverse sideeffects of bibliometric quality indicators. They restrict the concept of academic excellence, promote a monoculture of science and create an inflation of the value of a scientific paper. A second aspect of the how-question is, with regard to the relevance of research, clustered in programmes. Research is only taken seriously, when it is integrated as a part of a larger entity. That makes sense. Why such programs should take place within the walls of one institute however is not quite clear. Research thrives in an atmosphere of liberal and intensive interchange of ideas. With the current state of ICT there are hardly any obstacles, bureaucratic at the very most.

Question the Question Itself Where art meets science, it is called architecture. Let us consider this to be genuine, knowing that this statement will need some refinement. However, it is essentially stated to acknowledge the awareness of the existence of both the scientist -the researcher, and the artist- the designer, within the architect. It is very important to be aware of the existence of both personalities, especially now, on the eve of a new Master-curriculum. As every research project and every study is designed, and every researching question is answered by a design, the two personalities -the two disciplines- do not lie far apart. On the contrary, they very much reciprocally depend on one another. If every design is essentially an answer to a question, we should not only be concerned about what we are designing and how we do so. We should invest in trying to weigh, to interpret and understand what we are searching for in a design. Not only answer the question; question the question itself. By that, we take an important step from a linear educational approach towards an iterative method which implies both the artist and the scientist within.

In brief: - Expand traditional research quality indicators (e.g. with indicators for social impact and didactic relevance. - Abandon local boundaries of research programs.

Now a new curriculum has announced itself, and we as students and docents have been given the opportunity to reposition ourselves within the academic world. This will be the moment to escape from our schizophrenic struggle and hesitation, and acknowledge that the architect does not stand in between the two worlds. The architect operates where the two worlds meet. We aren’t neither; we are both. And we should carry out this position with confidence. Here, at our university, and beyond.

Maarten Willems

Laurence Bolhaar


ARCHIPRINT: Issue 02

9

Sensing and Making Sense. A Research Method in Architectural Design

Research and Craftmanship

Sensing is the quality of perceiving, conceiving and understanding an existing environment. From this perspective making sense is based on the engagement of a dialogue within the context. Design is the direct result of it.

Research in architecture is, and always will be a very controversial topic. To understand this ‘controversy’ one has to understand the rules of research as well as the rules of architecture, which seems to be a problem in itself. What are the rules of architecture? Well, I believe there are two ‘sides’; The research orientated and the craft orientated architect, which are both innovative and able to deliver great projects. Albeit a totally different approach and result. None is superior over the other, I believe they are complementary. The majority of the established modern architects has been able to find an in-between formula that works. So why is it, that we are so interested in proving the existence and necessity of being scientific? Our world is continuously changing, the traditional position of the architect is shifting and vanishing. What happens now, will determine the new role of the architect. To establish our profession it seems to be necessary to reformulate or prove the scientific aspect of architecture. Possibly, because the essence of the profession is blurring because of high demands on multiple facets outside its traditional field of interest. In this technologically advanced world society demands proof. We assume science to be the godlike answer to prevent societies from failing. But some things cannot be predicted, and a profession which finds itself in the middle of this discussion between science and craft, has problems identifying or positioning itself. Therefore it is vital for a modern architect to consciously place himself within the frame of craftsmanship and researcher. Possibly, this would make the broad public believe that architecture is necessary for civilised society, even though, beforehand, designs are not always proven to work.

When transforming dismissed industrial sites for new uses, the notions of sensitivity and creativity play a key role in both interpretation and intervention. Both sensing a particular historical context and projecting an appropriate intervention in it, should be equally considered as deliberate actions. The former is expressed through the particular setting of the context of intervention (analysis); the latter is done by fitting our design intervention into that context (synthesis). These actions bridge the gap between theory and praxis, since analysis and synthesis are part of the same design activity. Therefore, sensing and making sense represent a further step beyond analytical skills and personal empathy.

Bob l’Herminez

Irene Curruli

This is the research method I follow every semester working on the transformation of the dismissed industrial canal zones in the Brabant region. Master students are mainly foreign ones, both in terms of nationality and to the Dutch context. In this respect, even if foreigners seem to be privileged for not being affected by any previous knowledge, team-working with local students creates the ideal conditions to sensing the existing context in the most appropriate way. Once the dialectic process is established, the design is about to be conceived. Moreover, the higher the number of students’ nationalities and cultural background, the wider is the spectrum of perception and understanding. Thus, the variety of design seems to be broadened as well as enriched both in terms of quality and creativity.


10 By: Myrthe Buijs

Narrative

The Industrial Narrative The Relationship between Stories and Architecture in Industrial Buildings. “Tell me (since you are so sensible to the effects of architecture), have you not noticed, in walking about this city, that among the buildings with which it is peopled, certain are mute; others speak and others, finally – and they are the most rare – sing?” (Paul Valéry, Eupalinos or the architect, 1921) [1] When we design or examine a building, we take into account its walls and roof, its construction and interior spaces, its materials and its doors and windows. These concrete typological elements construct a viable piece of architecture. Nevertheless, there is a more sensitive and subjective side to architecture. To me, that side consists of the stories that inhabit buildings. In the quote above, Paul Valéry introduces the idea that buildings can speak, even sing. In ‘The architecture of happiness’, Alain de Botton goes even further, imagining a dictionary for what buildings speak of [2]. In my graduation project, I investigate the stories of a specific building type: industrial buildings. What stories do they tell, and how do these stories relate to their architecture? Narrative Helmond The research originated in the graduation studio Industrial Water Street, which is supervised by Gijs Wallis de Vries and Irene Curulli [3]. The studio did an extensive literature study and analysed current strategies in reuse, as well as studied the canal zone of the city of Helmond. One of the most challenging parts of the research in Helmond was the interviews we

conducted according to a method derived from that of Kevin Lynch [4]. Passers-by at the local library and at the city hall were asked to sketch and narrate their experience of the city centre of Helmond. The interviews resulted in a Lynch-map that reproduces the most important elements of Helmond as experienced by its people. Another, unexpected result of the interviews was the personal attachment to the city that we as interviewers developed by getting to know the personal stories of Helmond’s inhabitants. [5] The narrating factory After the collective research of the studio, the research focussed on a specific building. Helmond’s oldest industrial building is, as are many factories in the city, located along the Zuid-Willemsvaart. It was built in 1840 by the Bots family and is often called ‘Auw Fabriekske’ [6] in the vernacular of the region. The building housed many functions related to textile production through its life, but now accommodates a flower shop and several other small businesses. The first step in the research of the Bots building was discovering its stories. Two different types of stories have been collected. The stories of the first type, which consist of the history of the building, were found in the regional archives. Stories of the second type are more personal and often occur in an anecdotal form. Collecting these stories was inspired by the anthropological approach of Mélanie van der Hoorn in her book ‘Indispensable Eyesores’ [7].

After her example, I collected the memories and anecdotes of several people with a personal connection to the Bots factory. The reciprocal relationship The collected stories were high in detail and consisted of both historical facts and very personal anecdotes. From these stories I selected six themes to study the industrial narrative of the building . The analysis of these themes led to the construction of a tentative theory about the relationship between architecture and the narrative. Considering the relationship between stories and architecture, it is important to first realise that both architecture and stories have an autonomous aspect. Nevertheless, stories and architecture do influence each other, and this relationship is reciprocal. What they influence is not each other’s physical presence, but the experience of the other. If architecture influences the way in which stories are experienced, these stories can become more visible and tangible, and they can beeasier to remember. Conversely, when stories influence architecture, the architecture becomes more meaningful and intelligible, and stays in people’s minds longer. Thus, stories and architecture strengthen each other and can even ensure each other’s existence. The opposite effect, in which stories and architecture contradict, can result in the change or even denial of stories and in less intelligible architecture. Though they are both autonomous, architecture and the narrative mutually


By: Gijs Wallis de Vries

11

The Narrative Method

Notes: [1] Paul Valéry, Eupalinos or the architect, in: Valéry, P., Selected writings (1964), New York: New Directions Publishing, p. 175 [2] Botton, A. de, De architectuur van het geluk (2006), Amsterdam: Olympus, p. 109-112 [3] The other students participating in this studio: Dominique Geelen, Milou Piethaan, Cyriel Prinsen and Rik Verhalle [4] Lynch, K., The image of the city (1960), London: Harvard University Press [5] The results of the M3 research of Industrial Water Street are published in: Curulli, I. (ed.), Kanaalzones B5 - 4 Helmond, University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Eindhoven, 2011 [6] ‘Auw Fabriekske’ is the corruption of the local dialect for ‘Oude Fabriek’ or, in translation, ‘Old Factory’ [7] Hoorn, M. van der, Indispensable Eyesores (2005), Dissertation, University of Utrecht

In my teaching I am looking for a narrative approach to architecture - with dubious results. No method! Lots of inspiration. Two papers presented on worthwhile congresses. Sympathetic response of colleagues. Prize winning graduates. Yet, no theory. More than in geography and history, where a ‘spatial turn’ followed the linguistic turn, narrativity has a dubious reputation in architecture. Perhaps, the whole narrative idea is doubtful. Methodical doubt however is a philosophical position. In this issue of Archiprint, Myrthe Buijs (now graduating) and Mark Proosten (graduated last year) give examples of narrative approaches to architecture. I would like to reflect on their positions. To tell a story is an ancient art. It is called literature, oral or written. What is the interest of literature and its tales and tongues in the global visual culture of today? If it is the freedom of art, the danger is arbitrariness and vanity. But if it escapes from social conformism and defies political correctness it can freely tell about our lives under globalism, capitalism, socialism, or fundamentalism. In what way do its explorations of life and death, of the self and the other, of the individual and the collective, and of the local and the global matter to the design of our environment? A typology of novels may help to clarify this question. Since Plato, the utopian narrative, and its dystopian cousin, often in the form of science fiction, addresses questions of technology, power, and space. Its idea of a project is close to design. Just now, Jacob Voorthuis has announced a studio on it. The second type is the Bildungsroman, that stages the coming of age of a protagonist, like Thomas Mann did in Buddenbrooks, commented by Bernard Colenbrander in his oration. Such novels often stage (an avatar of) the author himself, like in The Portrait of the artist as a young man by James Joyce. A variation that arouses intense complicity with the reader is the novel which reflects on its method: Mark Proosten mentions a few. A third type is the regional novel (Dutch: ‘streekroman’), considered a minor art, but its vernacular tongue and picturesque scenery disclose how local experiences are tied up in world history. Both Myrthe and Mark read such novels to conceptualize the climate and culture of a place. The successful relative of the regional novel is the so called world literature, whose heroes and adventures open the gates to vibrating cities and their destinies – an example is Milan Kundera, mentioned by Mark. >

Narrative

influence each other. Considering this, it is hard to understand the subsidiary role for small history and personal anecdotes in architectural design. In the final phase of my graduation project, I am now experimenting with the possibilities to let stories and architecture influence each other on a deeper level. In a dialogue, written after the example of Paul Valéry, two buildings become the protagonists of their own story. In a model, architecture is distorted to tell its story in a more powerful way. Finally, a small design intervention explores the possibilities to strengthen the relationship between stories and architecture by small-scale means. With all these different approaches, ranging from historical research and interviews, to creative writing and making models, I have explored the complex and somewhat obscure field of narrativity. An exploration that is certainly not finished yet. To me, stories are the most fascinating part of architecture.


12

METHOD: narrative

By: Mark Proosten

Narrative

Eunoia A special type is the historical novel, in which the recently deceased Hella Haase excelled. It is a genre that is superficially characterized by the fact that since the author has not lived the story, events and persons are (partly) ‘invented’ - which of course is the essence of fiction. Fiction is what makes the reader live the past, and that is quite interesting now that architecture is more and more involved with ‘heritage’. The last type of literary fiction is oral history - the source material of all literature. The problem is, that popular narrative rejects the idea of fiction: it is a ‘true story’. No factual argument can dismiss its deep truth, and that is why myths, legends, and folk tales constitute the domain of many scholars, from psychologists (Freud) to archeologists (Schliemann) - and it is where Myrthe picked the clues to reconstruct a family saga and the vicissitudes of a factory. Beyond recording ‘what really happened’, she designed a ‘possibility’, thus wishing the factory a happy future. Different from the objective technical and formal languages of architecture, the subjective languages of fiction acquaint us with street life, give a close reading of dwelling, impart commitment with cities, and stimulate personal experience of places, of events, of landscapes, and of climates. Architects have known this for a long time. To escape the dreariness of social housing in the 1970’s, Emile Aillaud paid homage to poets like Rimbaud and Hölderlin depicting them on blind end facades of housing blocks and inscribing their words in formerly left over space, to introduce ‘monumental’ urbanity in suburbs like Chanteloup les Vignes near Paris. In designs for Trieste Aldo Rossi used Slataper’s La vita calda and Blanchot’s Le Bleu du Ciel as motto’s to evoke love stories and its everyday décor. As we all know, Rossi coined quite a different method than the one I’m looking for! His typological approach to architecture is formal and that is its force, with which he opposed functionalism. He also said that typology is a language, it expresses collective memory. Probably the clear and hard method of typology correlates with the vague and soft method of ‘narratology’. The essays of Myrthe and Mark eloquently argue the importance for architects to join space and language, stories and images, fiction and reality.

Notes: [1] ‘Eunoia’ is the shortest word in English to contain all five vowels, and the word quite literally means ‘beautiful thinking’. The perfect title for a poetical book that is directly inspired by the exploits of Oulipo (l’Ouvier de Littérature Potentielle) –the avant-garde coterie renowned for its literary experimentation with extreme formalistic constraints. This works shows that even under extreme improbable conditions of duress, every chapter contains only one vowel, language can still express an uncanny, if not sublime, thought. Christian Bök, Eunoia, Canongate Books ltd, Edinbrough, 2001 [2] Zumthor, Peter, Thinking Architecture, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2006, p. 29-38 [3] Hoffman, E.T.A. Tales of Hoffman. Penguin Classic: May 2004, p.161 [4] 201101_Ulaval extension, in collaboration with Daniele Aulenta IT, Sara Jordao P, Maura Massone IT, for more information and details of the competition entry visit www.mlpproosten.net [5] Calvino, Italo. Six memos for the next millennium, 2009, Penguin, London, p.83

Eunoia[1], a literary approach within architectural practice. The title of this article introduces us to the beautiful thoughts of Christian Bök, a Canadian poet. To write “Eunoia”, he restricted himself by the use of only one vowel for each chapter. Nevertheless, each chapter transcends a character of its own; chapter ‘a’ the arab world of spices and herbs, chapter ‘e’ the adulterous woman of French nobility, and chapter ‘u’ the violence of a Mongolian warrior. The work of Christian Bök shows that the meaning of a text is not based on the single interpretation of words, but can be derived out of interpreting the text or chapter as a whole. Bök’s poetic work exemplifies the concept of literature and theory in contemporary culture. A culture in which the ever increasing speed of media, the fragmentation of information and a dominant need for visual metaphors are influencing literature and the architectural practice. When theorising a literature based approach one faces a challenge: the compatibility with the kind of knowledge as traditionally understood by the discourse of a technical university. This approach argues against the favouritism towards an unambiguous theory and opens up creative possibilities that in turn can be theorized. It sheds a light on the creative process of the architect and on the concept of knowledge production. When using literature within architectural design, one should consider the freedom of interpretation, a subjective approach that can strengthen the attitude of architects.


13

Beside the writers who question the spatial qualities of language, there are architects and thinkers who refer to literary works. Peter Zumthor, a world-renowned architect, refers to Italo Calvino’s concept of vagueness when he addresses the ‘hard core of beauty’[2], opting for a poetic precision that contains the richness for the multiplicity of observation. Furthermore, in the theoretical words of Steven Holl and Juhani Pallasmaa, references to the works of Milan Kundera and Calvino can be found, while Antony Vidler’s critique on “The Architectural Uncanny” is based upon Freud’s concept of ‘Unheimlichkeit’, a concept that emanates from the literary writings of E.T.A. Hoffmann. To strengthen Vidler’s main argument against the modern unhomely he uses another work from the same writer; E.T.A. Hoffman’s short story “Councillor Krespel”.

Instead of knowing what he wants to build as his new house, Councillor Krespel orders four walls, without doors or openings whatsoever, to be constructed. It is from this structure that he starts addressing the masonry man where to put the door, floor, interior-walls and windows. Therefore, Councillor Krespel’s house is enveloped around the physical needs of the inhabitant; the dimension of the space, the entrance of the daylight, they all derive out of intertwining common human condition with the spatial qualities of architecture. The result is a house with a rather awkward appearance from the outside, but ‘once inside you were filled with a quite unexampled sense of wellbeing and comfort’[3]. It seems to me that within architectural design, a literary approach supports the architects position in contemporary culture. Instead of knowing beforehand what he wants to build, with a preconceived image is his mind, he starts a research within literature and theory. Within this research, literature can be used to characterise space, which forms an important aspect within the stimulation of creative solutions. It creates these solutions by intertwining common human conditions with the spatial qualities of architecture. In my current practice, the literary approach that I was able to develop within my architecture education results in questioning every building assignment with a research

question. Each projects derives out of a research that combines morphological, typological, historical and theoretical studies with a vast reading of literature. For instance, I have read the works of Gabrielle Roy and Margaret Atwood when I was doing a typological research for developing the design of an extension to the architectural academy in Quebec [4]. These works gave an insight to the cultural and social values which were used in interpreting the other parts of the research: the traditional typology of the Canadian cabin. Because of a harsh climate the need for a comfortable zone, traditionally the room where a fireplace is located, became the conceptual tool within the design. A literary approach does not differ from an academic approach; it introduces a freedom of interpretation and subjectivity within the research. This can result in a more open and emphatic attitude towards architectural design. Instead of answering a complex assignment by adjusting it to a preoccupied image we have in our mind, we move towards a research driven design that can evolve into an idiosyncratic work. According to the Italian writer Italo Calvino we can distinguish two types of imaginative processes: “the one that starts with the word and arrives at the visual image, and the one that starts with the visual image and arrives at its verbal expression” [5]. As for me, I opt for the use of the imaginative process that starts with words, words that contribute to the beautiful thinking of the architect.

Narrative

There are multiple examples of literary works that contain spatial experiments. Take for example the books of Mark Z. Danielewski that need to be turned into multiple directions for making it possible to read them. Or George Perec, one of the most active and creative members of Oulipo (Workshop of Potential Literature), who investigated the spaciousness of the novel in all of his works. In “La dipsparition” (translated into English as A Void, 1994) he never uses the most common French letter ‘e’, and in “Species of Spaces and other pieces” he continues to investigate the use and position of words and letters.


14 By: Ricardo Ploemen

Design Support Systems

Generative Brickwork Brick is one of the oldest building materials which is still used in today’s building practice. The size and shape of brick is practically set, which makes this material more restricted in its design possibilities compared to materials like concrete or steel. In general the stacking of bricks to form a wall results in structures with flat surfaces. Fascinated by Mass Studies’ Pixel House, I was triggered to search for the possible tectonics of such structures. In order to obtain more knowledge on this specific subject I designed a script in AutoCAD VBA. The obtained wall surfaces, which result from the use of simple bricks that are shifted in orthogonal order, were then combined in a conceptual design.

The first row of bricks is formed by repeating this action for all points. Then the user can determine several parameters that are applied to a mathematical model to generate a mutual shift of the different bricks and layers.[3] By doing this the actual design process started as the chosen parameters defined the resulting form and texture of the wall.[4] As part of the project, the extreme results of the research were combined in a conceptual design for a chapel with a pitched roof and pleated walls, enclosing two curved surfaces for visitors to pass between. The roughness of the side facades is created by folding them and amplified by using bricks with three different lengths.

The script consists of four steps to create a 3D model in AutoCAD. A curved or pleated wall is created by allowing the bricks to slide out of plane, following the predetermined lines of the different layers. First of all, a line is generated that will act as the starting point for the first row of bricks. [1] It can be changed easily into any form by adapting a few parameters of the script. As the shape of this line can have a great impact on the overall structure of the wall, it is important to get a hold on the parameters that are being used. Before the bricks can be generated, the base line needs to be intersected with parallel lines to determine the different reference points for the bricks.[2] The script then generates a rectangular 3D volume that will represent a single brick on the first reference point.

The use of a script proved to be extremely useful when designing with complex structures. The main parameters concern the 3D elements representing the brick, with the possibility of using differently sized and shaped bricks simultaneously, and the base line for the different layers. So basically these fundamental aspects are translated into computer language to simplify and accelerate the design process. The ability of the user to easily change these parameters along with the size and shape of the elements enables the tool’s adaptability to different design criteria. Though, possible restrictions of the developed script are not to be ignored as they eventually could start to overrule the design. And that is, of course, the opposite of what we are looking for when searching for tools like these.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]


By: Gerald Lindner

15

Educating Intuition In 2006 the Bachelor Generative Design Project was initiated by prof. Bauke de Vries (design systems) and at first developed from an informal, almost illegal, little project and has over the years managed to wriggle itself into a place within the curriculum. Since the beginning it has been run by Ralph Brodrück (architecture), Aant van der Zee (design systems) and myself, Gerald Lindner (structural design), as we believe it to be of paramount importance, that our students have at least one chance during their first three years of studying Engineering, to research a design project using only generative and parametric based approaches. The reason we consider this to be of such importance, was expressed in a recent exhibition;

I would like to think that our task at the University, is to prepare our students by offering them sufficient skills, knowledge and self confidence, so that they can help shape the future of our complex societies. The underlying mindset is one of these valuable assets. A former student, Geert Jan Rohaan, once described it as a process of revealing hidden personal motives and values. These motives direct the design process, exposes his faults, and obligates the designer to more precision. The design process is drawn from the subconscious into the conscious. The aim is not to replace intuitive design, but to strengthen it. It is a powerful tool that has the ability to embed more intelligence into the design (process), especially when used in multidisciplinary levels. He believed there was no way for him to design without the use of design systems. In his pamphlet “Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams” (MIT, 1997) Mitchels Resnick makes a plea for “epistemological pluralism”, the acceptance of the validity of multiple ways of knowing and thinking without dominance and >

Design Support Systems

De Vries believes that by writing script explicitly you are forced to think clearly about the underlying principles and how this process of thinking and understanding leads to new approaches and solutions. Brodrück underlines, that these principles are about understanding relations. If these relations can be expressed in functions they can be visualised and researched. This can be applied to all domains; engineering, building physics, objects, processes, logistics and such. Van der Zee states that students need to learn to remodel existing tools, to solve and better understand the problem at hand.


Design Support Systems

16

By: Thomas Krijnen

proposes a constructionist approach to learning, based on the theories of Jean Piaget. Learning is an active process, in which people collect knowledge through their experiences. To do is to understand, and intellectual engagement is at its highest when constructing something personally meaningful. That is why the fascinations of the students themselves are always the starting point. The design process becomes more important than in other, more traditional, design projects. During lively discussions with multiple opinions, this often wide scoped fascination is reduced to a limited number of relevant components, of which the relations are precised and scripted. This is often done in the programming language Visual Basic. The process is then reverted and new entities are generated using different parameters as input. The resulting rich amount of varieties generated is studied and the script is elaborated. The fact that the results, 2D laser cut or 3d printed, are often surprisingly stunning, improves motivation as well.

Ex·plau·ra·li·sa·tion

Albert Einstein once stated: “We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” And so did Eduardo Chillida; “To look is one thing, to see is another thing; to see is very difficult, normally; to look is to try to see.” In my opinion the mindset, underlying the way we generally teach architecture and engineering at the faculty, is very much based on 19th and begin 20th century insights and developments. Sure some of these are still valid, but other very important parts of the story are not up to date or simply missing. Parts I believe to be very important in helping the student’s mind to develop useful parallel views on reality. For example, using either 19th century mechanics or a dynamic response to design a bridge results in radically different and even incomparable solutions. We stress on the significance of being creative, but how do we define it and for what purpose do we use it? I like Ian McHarg’s definition (Dwelling in Nature: Conversations with Students, 2007); “Define human creativity as the employment of energy and matter to raise matter and energy to higher levels of order; • from greater to less randomness, • from simplicity to complexity, • from uniformity to diversity, • from instability toward dynamic equilibrium, • from a low to a high number of symbioses. Resulting in “creative fitting” that can be measured in terms of health” The ability to develop and apprehend these parallel views is needed to solve many of the important problems facing us. Learning how to deal with complexity is one of them. On the one hand you have complicated architecture and on the other complex architecture. When investing valuable energy, understanding the fundamental difference is of significant importance.

Readers hoping to indulge themselves in proper English might end up bitterly disappointed not to find the word Explauralisation in a dictionary, for it is actually a contraction of Exploration and Auralisation. Besides, even Auralisation is hardly a word one would find in the dictionary: it is the aural counterpart of visualisation, thus to make audible. I wrote this essay while contemplating my graduation project. In this project, I aim to unravel the means that we - as architects - have to design the individual musical experience of the buildings that we conceive. In this sense, music is the progression of auditory experiences that the visitor encounters as he moves through the building. Just like regular music, this progression of everyday sounds is able to provoke emotions and provides tension and harmony. While fusing architecture and music into a single project, I integrate both the master track of Architecture and Design Systems in my project, to ultimately design a building that is explicitly based on its musical experience. In my project, Design Systems are used to find ways to predict, to evaluate, but, most importantly, to design the aural experience of space. The architect as a composer As an architect, we design our buildings to fit a certain programme, to house several functions. Different functions come with a distinct vocabulary of sounds that become a voice in a musical composition. Furthermore, by cladding spaces with


17

Making the symphony that unfolds in the act of exploring architecture audible

materials and shaping them accordingly, we determine how these vocabularies are articulated. By connecting different spaces and by creating a routing, we dictate the progression of phrases as they are perceived when moving through the building.

Design Systems These aspects combined are what I call the musical experience of architecture. To conceive and evaluate this experience, I have written a computer program as a part of this project. The program enables me and others, to virtually explore the aural experience of a building. Sounds, that one encounters alongside the route throughout the building, are mapped to a storyboard of sonic events. The program uses a library of materials, that not only contains information on how they propagate sonic energy, but also on how they sound when walked upon. To incorporate the effects of spatial acoustics, the program uses a model for

Designing an experience Some say our visual experience of space is always that from a certain distance, a mere projection on our retina. Only since we happen to have two of them, we obtain a sense of three-dimensionality in our perception, but never a total sense of visual envelopment or immersion. Whereas our auditory senses, more strategically placed to capture sounds from every direction, do provide this sense of envelopment in space. One can argue to what extent this is true, but it does indeed seem as if our sense of hearing is tremendously important for our sense of orientation, spatial identity and our experience of space. To some extent in this experiment, of designing architecture primarily as a succession of auditory experiences, musicality became more of a proxy or metaphor for a sensorial and social experience of architecture. Behavioural design This reminds me of an earlier research project, in which I created a system to simultaneously design the contours of a building and have virtual people walk alongside it. The interesting thing that happened was, that I - as a designer - was reacting on the behaviour of these virtual people, which in turn were responding to the design decisions that I made. Observing the complexity of human behaviour, you might wonder whether the models for human behaviour that I used were not

too crude, and by all means they were indeed. On the other hand it triggered me to think about architecture, directly embedded in the context of its use. Again, I felt I was designing an experience rather than a configuration of masses. When using simulations in architectural design, no matter how sophisticated the behavioural model or acoustical model would be, using a computer in a design process can never be a means to avoid responsibility for the designs we create, because a degree of autonomy in a decision process is a necessary condition to be held accountable for something. I will not touch on the existential discussion to what extent there exists an autonomous quality to the computer, for if a computer is a circuit of electric currents, how is that significantly different from our own brain? But with the computer intruded in every part of our daily life, I think it is safe to demystify the generative and analytical role the computer can have in the design process. Simply handle with care, treat her nicely, but first and foremost: embrace the possibilities.

About the author Thomas Krijnen is graduating from a combined Master of Architecture and Design Systems at the Technical University in Eindhoven.

Design Support Systems

The beholder By navigating in space, the visitor functions as his own personal mixing device, mixing the configuration of sound sources around into a personal experience. As architecture is not a mere collection of static masses, its aural experience is enriched by its visitors in the process of engaging architecture. The sounds that a building provokes from its beholders are a significant part of this experience: footsteps, slamming doors and the occasional conversational mutter; they make the building’s inherent vocabulary of sounds explicit.

the propagation of sound that enables both sound source and receiver to be moving.


Eindhoven Method

18 By: Gijs Adriaansens

Amsterdam Alphabet This project is part of the graduation atelier called the Amsterdam Crossection, which did morphological research on a big slice of Amsterdam running from the north to the south. Until the nineteenth century the growth of the city was determined by the concentric rings of the Grachtengordel (the famous Amsterdam canal housing). Since Amsterdam has grown - more or less - like a tree, marking each year with a ring, this crossection contains a variety of urban environments. Each student chose a spot on this crossection. For me, this was the Wibautstraat. The Amsterdam population has been heard to call it the ‘sewer of Amsterdam’, ‘the ugliest street in the city’ etc. Why? The Wibautstraat (Wibautstreet) is a strange street. For Amsterdam standards - and this needs to be stressed in an international context – a fifty-meter street is wide. The problem here, is that the buildings on both sides are a mere fifteen meters high, like the rest of Amsterdam. On top of this, the facades facing the street on some places strangely tend to act as if it is just an alleyway. The major problems people have with the street are the – and again, this needs to be stressed – for Amsterdam, huge modern office buildings, that appear here and there, and have no relation whatsoever with the existing street pattern. What is the history of this street? Whatever it is, what better place is there to experiment, than ‘the ugliest street in the city’?


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By: Martijn Kruijf

Contextual Awareness A brief Introduction to the Eindhoven Method in Architectural and Urban Research and Design

An accurate definition In my opinion there is no such thing as the ‘Eindhoven School’ neither in architectural research nor in design. The Eindhoven School is mistaken for what I would call the Eindhoven method in architectural research and design - avoiding the word methodology on purpose. For the sake of readability it here forth will be referred to as the ‘Eindhoven method’. The term ‘school’ (used in the sense of an architectural movement) implies a superimposed ideology proclaimed by one or more key figures within the school, a superimposed methodology for research, and a superimposed style or even an architectural grammar for design. An architectural school is based

upon tradition, ergo conservatism; a notion that reveals itself only by historical distance. This is - with all due respect - not (yet) the case in Eindhoven. I therefore would plead for the rejection of the use of Eindhoven School preferring an accurate and honest definition over a catchy slogan. Collage method

[1] Conzen

The Eindhoven method is assembled out of three different movements in architectural research and research driven design; the English or Conzenian school, the Italian school and the French tradition in city morphology, of

which each focuses on a distinct field of research within the broad scope of urban planning, architecture and sociology. The English school was founded by the German-British geographer M.R.G. Conzen, who gained recognition for his morphological analysis of the town Alnwick in the Northumberland County (GB) using a cartographical method in 1960. Nowadays the legacy of Conzen is - among others - carried out by J.W.R. Whitehand, who described the work of Conzen as a “Morphogenetic method, conceptualization of historical development, terminological precision and cartographic representation [...] During the last quarter of the twentieth century this was increasingly recognized as important for an appreciation of the development and significance of the historical grain of urban landscapes. Conzenian thinking has in recent years begun to influence urban landscape management [...]” The Italian school -in which the architect Saverio Muratori in the 1950‘s pioneereddeals with a similar topic, though approached differently; the active history of the city (storia operante) analysed through the grain of parcels and the typology of the buildings on them. It uses a small scale conception of the development of the city, instead of the large scale approach as used by Conzen cum suis. This method of so called ‘typo-morphological research’>

Eindhoven Method

Research in architecture has been conducted for over many centuries now and has provided us with innumerable insights we still use in our daily practice. Universities are hotspots for research, so it is no surprise that the department of Architecture of the the Faculty of the Built Environment, contributes in the ever growing heritage of architectural research and research driven design. Eindhoven’s contribution is more and more often referred to as the Eindhoven School. This article will provide a short statement on why we should reject the term Eindhoven School on the one hand, and an introduction on what it presumes to entail on the other; a method in architectural and urban research and design.


Eindhoven Method

20 Contextual Awareness

was developed by Muratori and his students - later refined by Gianfranco Caniggia - through analysing the spatial and typological structure of Venice and Rome. The French tradition focuses on the social and spatial morphology of the city. André Chastel, Francoise Boudon, et.al. (Versaille School of Architecture) studied on the morphological development of the Les Halles quarter in Paris in the 1970’s in which Chastel conclusively pleads for the conception of architectural research as a social science. The parcel was not any more being studied sec in terms of form and style but in terms of its transformation as a result of the dynamics of the program (function and usage) driven by societies actors: the culture of urban dwelling. This socio-driven architectural research was not only carried out using cartographic and typological analysis, but also by numerical inventories and statistical research. The Eindhoven method is a refined composition of morphological and geographical, typological and social analysis on the historical development of a lot, a block, a quarter or a (part of a) city. Sometimes (the importance of) the subjects vary, sometimes the analyzed scale levels vary. This ‘collage method’ started to gain field at the Eindhoven architecture faculty several years ago and has led - by the dedication and enthusiasm of professors and researchers such as Colenbrander, Yegenoglu, Rapp, Van Wesemael and many others - to innumerable fascinating results. An answer to current needs More than ever before we are confronted with inward expansion and renewal and

with confronting conclusions but nevertheless with an undeniable awareness of, and knowledge about the complex morphological, typological and social context the architect has to operate in. In combination with a relevant theoretical background it may lead to a solid foundation for a design strategy and it may lead to a successful transformation of the city that responds to our and the city’s actual needs.

[2] Muratori

have to build within existing cities with typical historical laminations, and more than ever we want to build architecture in a durable and defensible way. Some complex new challenges. But what to demolish then? And what to keep? What to build? How? And why? Ezra Pound’s proclamation “Make it new!” (paradigmatic for the modern movement) has been worn off years ago. The Eindhoven method offers a new research and design strategy in times in we waved the Modernism good bye and the generic VINEX building and the cacophonic offspring of the Superdutch generation - scattered around the city like candy - start to show their lacking. The Eindhoven method provides us with a huge amount of information, sometimes

The two adjacent projects are fine examples of the usage of the Eindhoven method and the translation of its conclusions into sensible urban and architectural interventions, hence its actual relevance and possibilities. Both projects are part of the triptych of Amsterdam graduation studios. These studios primarily focused on the historical development of the spatial morphology and the typological evolution of specific parts of the city. Gijs Adriaansens graduated in the cross section studio, on a catalogue for “new, dense building types based on the measurements of a typical nineteenth century building block”, applied on the context of the Wibautstraat. Martijn Schlatmann graduated in the ‘Rede van Amsterdam’ studio (the development of Amsterdam analyzed by its water structures) on a the design of three canal houses in the Golden Age canal district (grachtengordel), each with its own theme (light, rooms and court). These themes were distilled from his research into the typological development of the canal house by the reconstruction of seven intriguing examples. Figures: [1] (http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/Alnwick/index2.html) [2] Koster E.A., Stadsmorfologie. Een proeve van vormgericht onderzoek ten behoeve van stedenbouwhistorisch onderzoek. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, 2001


By: Martijn Schlatmann

house of light

house with ten rooms

The project is situated in the canal district of Amsterdam, and looks for answers to architectural challenges of heritage cities. Research into the architectural history of the Golden Age of the Netherlands (est. 1602-1672) is carried out by reconstructing seven canal houses in drawings. The evolution of the canal house as a type during this specific period, is described using three

primary architectural themes. For a design, these three themes taken from the research are connected to the urbanistic structure of the canal district, characterised by its generic allotment system. This results in three designs: the house of light, the house with ten rooms and the house with a court.

house with a court

Eindhoven Method

Delirious Amsterdam

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Models and Making

22


By: Sanne Reinaerts, Jan Schevers, Raoul Vleugels

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Models and Making How does one make architecture? Architects generally compose their expressions towards architecture as a composition of spaces and materials based on their inspirations and interpretations. In order to achieve this expression, all architects possess tools, using these tools to make the concept visible. Before doing this, the idea does not really exist yet, or is not understood in all its complexity. This process of research is necessary in order to develop an idea about creating spaces, which is strongly related to the human perception of space and material. This article explores the opportunities models provide during this research and design process. It will introduce the ‘making of architecture’ using a dialogue between two students and their tutor. This conversation is based upon their fascination with models and appending design strategies, in particular, the process and thinking regarding the position of models in the design process. Jan Schevers is a tutor of the department of Architecture and lectures the course: ‘Productions and Parts’. Models are a leading theme in the graduation research he conducts together with his students. He is fascinated by the influence models have on the design process. For this reason, he encourages students to ‘make’ architecture in order to get a better understanding of the profession of being an architect.

Raoul Vleugels recently graduated, with Jan attending his graduation committee as well. Using models proved to be a key element in his thinking about architecture. He was strongly influenced by his internship at Atelier Zumthor and attending the master studio: ‘Little Temple’ guided by Jan. The core of his design approach is based on working with models in a professional environment proved to be very revealing, repositioning model making.

Figures:

[1]

[1] The realisation of a few temples which are designed and built at full scale by students. These buildings are part of the master project ‘Little Temple’ led by ir. Jan Schevers, February - July 2009.

Models and Making

Sanne Reinaerts is graduating in the studio of Jan, researching the meaning of materials and models. As a result, she made an altar - scale 1:1 - out of candle wax. She is researching the significance of these models for her design. She is especially interested in the understanding and perception of them, providing inspiration for developing her individual fascination with architecture.


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Models and Making

Office of Jan Schevers/Open Architecture Office, 10 of January 2012, 20:00h

Models and Making

th

Jan: It’s up to you guys: which themes should we definitely touch? Sanne: What about the practical use of models? Just thinking about what scale to use already has huge implications. And what about reflection? A model reflects very strongly on the making of space. Virtually, every material has its own expression, and of course weakness. Jan: Do these strengths and weaknesses influence, or even dictate your design? Raoul: Good point.. Most designers feel very afraid of letting these characteristics be a starting point for a design. One needs to be able to ‘explain’, and these material expressions do not explain easily. Sanne: Well, I agree, it is quite hard to clarify the qualities of a certain material. Raoul: I keep wondering: why is this argument always needed? Why is the image not convincing enough? Jan: Must say, talking about a model, trying to find arguments, often helps you understand your own choices. Look, for example, at Sanne’s altar, its presence asks for a good discussion almost immediately. Sanne: Emotion plays a huge part in making a model like this, and it’s hard to discuss these emotions. The altar is based on the weakness of the candle wax: it melts when heated. For three weeks in a row, I covered a roofing sheet with wax, without knowing what to expect. I was totally surprised by the strong image the relief of the wax delivered! Raoul: But Sanne, coincidence must play a vital role when making a model like this? I mean, you did not really know what to expect when making this model, you discovered it on the go. Explaining this process could nullify the natural logic you use when designing. Jan: Hmm.. I’m not so sure about that. Did talking about a design ever kill it? Raoul: Well... Often, I was very afraid of following this natural logic during my studies. I strongly felt there should be a reason for every decision. It was only during my time at the office of Zumthor that I was introduced to this idea of actually looking at big 1:20 models. Just perceiving what is actually there, and thinking about how we could improve this image. If you would be building Sanne’s altar, and simultaneously having to think about every consequence of every action, you would just not be able to make something like this. Sanne: That’s exactly what I found so refreshing about this exercise, this freedom to discover gradually. Jan: What I really liked about this project: how much the end result surprised me! Raoul: Now we touch a delicate subject! This image is so intensely strong, merely because of its simple, elegant execution. Yet... the most difficult step is to translate this image into the design you’re about to make. Jan: That’s what the Little Temple project showed me: how such a simple space can have such a major impact and I must say: I’m quite certain the things you learn in these projects are very applicable to real life projects. Sanne: Ehm.. Raoul: I’m also not so sure about that. Most students struggle when translating these kinds of experiments into an actual design. It’s hard to break free from this teaching of diagrams and logical explanations, into a more sensory method.

2] The altar ‘Perfect commemorations’ is designed and built by Sanne Reinaerts, graduating in the studio ‘The naked architect’ lead by dr. Jacob Voorthuis and ir. Jan Schevers, October 2011 - August 2012. [3] The altar ‘Perfect commemorations’, designed and built by Sanne Reinaerts, shows the qualities together with the structure of its material, candle wax.

[2]

[3]


25 Jan:

[4]

Sanne: Raoul: Jan:

Sanne:

Jan: Sanne: Raoul: [4] The altar ‘Perfect commemorations’, designed and built by Sanne Reinaerts, is built at full scale so that people can grasp the expression of paraffine and the (im) perfection of its qualities. [5] The situation model of a preliminary design which express the local atmosphere and design proposal by its use of specific materials, made by Open Architecture Office , part of Jan Schevers Architect.

Jan: Jan: Raoul: Jan:

Models and Making

[5]

Jan: Raoul:

Well, that’s why we encourage the making of these models early in the semester, to show the impact of modelled spaces. The students can translate this into their final part of the project. To me personally, this translation is quite difficult. It’s hard to not loose this image created by the study models. This is where using models comes into play again: to provide an inspiration and guide for the design. Zumthor puts a lot of time and effort in constructing the setting of a building. This was a huge lesson I learned during my traineeship. The choices you make in constructing this landscape provide such a major atmosphere for the building. The design naturally comes from the model. Personally, I like this idea of time: maybe some models should take a lot of time, in order to understand the full potential, to study carefully. Other models should be made quickly; just tape some foam board together, break away some pieces. In fact, using the model like a sketch. During my internship at David Walker Architects, I noticed a similar method as Zumthor’s: an interest in the surroundings of a building. We made photographs of 1:50 models in order to see the impact of a façade regarding its neighbours. Trying to see how a façade would feel from another street and modify it accordingly. This in order to search for proportions which match the site. Hearing all of this, I feel there are a lot of different possibilities for models, each serving a different purpose. Visualizing this purpose by looking at the actual model, or, directing a view: using photographs and lighting Interestingly enough, when a model feels right, it often also results in really nice floorplans. My appreciation of the floorplan has grown because of making models. Just the floorplan? Well, yes, often you use the section as well, but making a floorplan together with a model is a strong combination. The strength of the floorplan is its ability to organize, keep things clear. It’s sort of an examinator I noticed the same thing in one of my office projects: after testing layouts for a family home in a model, I conjured up a floorplan which seemed really clear. The floorplan showed me the mess was gone. So they reveal the potential of one another: it gives you the means to check the logic, and keep it spatially interesting at the same time. By the way, I’ve got great news! Edwin Zwakman, a great artist, is probably going to give a lecture at our department of Architecture! That’s really nice! He has got this amazing book titled ‘Fake but Accurate’, which I think is a brilliant title, also within this discussion of the image a model can provide, whether it is Zwakman or Zumthor. Exactly this we have been researching with Productions and Parts, as the students are asked to recreate a building detail 1:1 which, now and then, lead to a hectic situation for the workshop staff.. These ‘fake’ models prove to be very challenging to make, to reflect one material with another is not as easy as it seems. This gives students way to very surprising insights with the students, as they need to make a design based on this model. Exactly why I want to attract more artists to this course, as they are often personally responsible for making their art. And this ‘making’ is often even part of the artistic process. >


Models and Making

26

Models and Making

I guess we can learn a lot from looking at artists like Zwakman. Sanne: Definitely, they also implement things on the fly, like the process I had with the altar, in order to get even a stronger or different image then they originally had in mind. Or the opposite: by being extreme perfectionists, the artist goes for one perfect image by tweaking. Raoul: But experimenting is finding its way into the architectural research at the faculty. I still feel, like Märkli said in his interview with you Jan, this support to the confidence of the student to make errors has to develop more. Designing is making errors, and these should be discussed more openly. There is this traditional way of design, starting with rough sketches and gaining in precision over the course of time, but this could be different. You can also start making very precise models, and maybe it can be convenient to be less precise further in your design to study a problem. This choice is very important. Jan: It would be nice to change this order of precision when designing. In Europe it often stays very traditional. Raoul: I can give an example: at Zumthor we designed a glazing detail by using a very precise clay model of the building and its surroundings. But we used Perspex and tape to conjure up the essence behind the detail by moving and testing different setups and lines for the glass. In the end we found one solution for the whole building. So, we first discovered the rule, and as a future step the exact detail was designed. Sanne: It was the same in London, where we used these models in so many ways. They are always present in the office and are also used as a tool for involving clients. Jan: Some people refer to your (Raoul red.) work, and for instance the graduation project of Jeroen van Aerle, as sort of an artisan approach to architecture, which I think does not cover the subject very well. Raoul: Me neither, I think there is a group of students present at the university who get involved in designing small buildings, because they want to develop this natural logic towards design. A complex program takes away the time and effort needed to research the choices you would like to make. This does not mean you cannot project this way of working on very complex situations. We just make a clear choice in what we would like to focus on at the moment. Jan: And how does this translate into architectural research for our faculty? Raoul: The Swiss architect Caminada is a huge inspiration considering research and the natural logic behind designing. He feels typology is very important, because one could say typology is based on social structures and economic needs, but certainly also on the strengths and weaknesses of the materials provided in a region. If an architect needs to intervene in the larger structure by making a new building, in essence, he needs to understand the typology, and its possibilities and restrictions. A model first of all gives him a perception of where this typology derives from, and, secondly, the means to react and express his own ideas. Jan: And if it doesn’t work, Märkli would say: at least you would have made a cardinal mistake at a very high level!

[6]

[7]

[6] The study model of a preliminary design’s mass formed with soapstone, made by Open Architecture Office , part of Jan Schevers Architect. [7] The altar ‘A perfect handshake’, designed and built by Thomas Gerritsen, graduating in the studio ‘The naked architect’ lead by dr. Jacob Voorthuis and ir. Jan Schevers, October 2011 - August 2012. [8] Impression of the final design and its surrounding ‘We just want to be tourists’, graduation project of Raoul Vleugels, led by dr. ir. Jos Bosman, September 2010 August 2011.

[8]


[9] Interior impression of the final design ‘We just want to be tourists’, graduation project of Raoul Vleugels, led by dr. ir. Jos Bosman, September 2010 - August 2011. [10] Photograph of the final design ‘We just want to be tourists’ and its position within the landscape, graduation project of Raoul Vleugels, led by dr. ir. Jos Bosman, September 2010 - August 2011.

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[10]

Models and Making

[9]


28 By: René Fuhren

Cultural Heritage

Urban Research

Figure: Amount of attributes per cultural value. Left the axis: Attributes recognised in local management plan. Right of the axis: Attributes attributes not recognised in local management plan.

Cultural Heritage & Sustainability: Research as a guide towards adequate design solutions. The graduation studio “Cultural Heritage and Sustainability: World Heritage cities as case study” is a studio, that links research with design. It includes in-depth field work in one of the World Heritage (WH) cities for a period of three months. The tutors are dr. ir. A. Pereira Roders, ir. L. Veldpaus and Prof. dr. B. Colenbrander. Galle (Sri Lanka) is a World Heritage city, and for a period of three months it was my home. WH cities are urban settlements, that include cultural heritage with the broadest level of cultural significance for whole mankind. This cultural significance is defined as Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). The research conducted by Robert Boxem and myself focusing on the Historic centre of Galle, is a case study that is part of a larger research program called: “OUV, WH cities and Sustainability: Surveying the relationship between the OUV assessment practices and the sustainable development of WH cities” lead by TU/e and UNESCO World Heritage Centre, France.

When recommending its inscription for the World Heritage list, ICOMOS stated that “Galle provides an outstanding example of an urban ensemble which illustrates the interaction of European architecture and South Asian traditions from the 16th to the 19th centuries”. However, nowadays the need for development jeopardises the historic centre. As society living in the WH city has changed over time, pressure for developments and upgrading within the historic city is being felt, in order to address evolving needs of its inhabitants in their day-to-day pursuits. So, in order to develop the historic centre sustainably and prevent development pressures from posing a threat to the OUV, the stakeholders concerned with the policy and management of the historic centre need to define adequate development strategies which take into account both the development needs of the local community as well as the protection of the OUV. In our research, we argued these to be the conditions for sustainable development of WH properties.

Now, the aim of the research was to determine the adequacy of the current strategies of the stakeholders involved with the policy and management regarding developments towards a sustainable development of the historic centre. In order to assess the adequacy of the current strategies, we started by identifying and categorising the stakeholders according to their role in the management process. It is interesting to understand their roles, but also the level of communication and cooperation between them. We identified several institutions concerned with the conservation and development of the historic centre, which are all represented in the Galle Heritage Planning Subcommittee. This committee regulates all development activities within the historic area. So, varied disciplines with specialised knowledge are gathered in this committee. We concluded that, especially due to the existence of this committee, an institutional framework is in place with great potential for the proper sustainable


29

development of the historic centre of Galle. Next, we identified what exactly is the OUV of the historic centre of Galle as well as the physical and non-physical attributes found representing it. The official justification for inscription on the WH list is to be found in the Advisory Body Evaluation (ABE) by ICOMOS, the official Advisory Body of UNESCO. Systematically analysing this document resulted in a list of physical and non-physical attributes representing the OUV of the WH property, categorised according to the eight cultural values as defined by Pereira Roders (2007). Also, this inventory was represented in a bar chart in order to make it easily comparable to the inventories of local management plans.

However, analysing the plans further, we observed that not all attributes mentioned in the ABE are mentioned in the local management plan. This means that these attributes are at risk as they are not protected. It is imperative that the unrecognised attributes from the ABE are included in a future conservation and development plan, as these attributes found in the ABE represent the OUV (figure 1).

After this documentary inventory, the state of the OUV at the time of inscription (1988) and its current state (2010) were assessed, in order to determine the current level of authenticity and integrity of the attributes which evidence the OUV. This physical inventory included the attribute ‘open verandah’, identified in the ABE, which was mapped for both periods and compared. We observed that the authenticity of the historic centre with regard to this attribute has diminished immensely, as a lot of authentic open verandahs have been built shut over time. However, at the same time we observed that the integrity of the historic centre with regard to the attribute ‘open verandah’ was maintained or even increased, as approximately the same amount of open verandahs were newly introduced on different buildings. Linking these attribute maps to building function we observed that the change of a residential use to a commercial use caused the attribute to be severely affected. A lot of house owners convert their historic houses to a family store, for instance, building shut their verandah for extra store space. Thus, evidence was found for a development need of the local community which currently was incompatible with the protection of the OUV; in other words, the developments

carried out here were not sustainable as the OUV was affected. Also, no adequate development strategy was found in the local management plans, which could guide these house owners towards sustainable solutions for their evolving, modern needs. After these assessments of the inventories we were able to make justified statements and recommendations about the adequacy of the current strategies of the responsible institutions towards the sustainable development of the historic centre of Galle; i.e. meeting the development needs of the society living in the historic centre, without representing a loss of its OUV. More importantly for this article, this elaborate research resulted in a solid foundation for the second part of the graduation project, which could either be a design project or further research into the subject. To me, the research revealed that the responsible institutions are in great need of a new elaborate conservation and development plan for the WH property: a structural sustainable solution is a necessity in order to develop Galle, not a local architectural intervention. Therefor, as a lot of damage has already been done do the historic houses since inscription on the World Heritage list in 1988, I focused on a sustainable reconstruction method for severely altered historic houses. In retrospect, in complicated and contextrich environments such as WH cities, I am fully convinced of the necessity of adequate and elaborate research methods in order to guide you to a well-defined and solidly founded problem statement. Only then are we able to make a justified choice for an adequate (design) solution.

Urban Research

Then, local management plans were systematically analysed in the same way as the ABE. By comparing both it was possible to conclude in how far the original justification for inscription (ABE) is to be found echoed along the local documents. We found that at first sight, there seems to be a good understanding of the OUV of the historic centre, as in the local management plans most of the cultural values mentioned in the ABE were recognised, although some remained a little underexposed.

From the above, we can conclude that despite the high potential of the institutional framework and the adequate knowledge of the OUV, the implementation of that knowledge into a thorough conservation and development strategy by the responsible institutions is insufficient for the purpose of sustainably developing the historic centre of Galle.


30 By: Mahshid Shokouhi

Measuring Mental Maps

Urban research

Research is defined as the search for knowledge to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories. Some universities tend to be more open minded about it, while some tend to roughly follow steps and give novel proofs. One of these universities is “University of Art of Tehran” in Tehran, Iran. One research project, by Mahshid Shokouhi, is considered to be a challenge, since it is based on facts that cannot be measured; studying mental maps and their reliability in understanding perception of the people from their environment. The study of perception of people in their environment, has been the focus of interest of researchers for many years. Studying the image of the city and what its users might perceive from their environment, could help planners to study and survey the impacts of their designs on the users’ minds. One of the tools for measuring the image of the city is drawing mental maps. In this article it has been attempted to describe a methodology for gathering data and analyzing them in this era. The methodology is experimental and the analysis is both qualitative and quantitative. How should we choose the respondents? Among the methodological problems, the differences of people in their familiarity with the place, their drawing ability, their difference of social class, gender, age, their modes of transport and their occupation affect the quality of the sketch maps drawn and should be controlled in different ways.

(Beck and Wood (1976), Appleyard (1969), Sadalla, Burroughs and Staplin (1980), Everett and Cadwallader (1976), Orleans and Schmidt (1972) and Orleans (1973)) As many previous studies show: • The respondents should be mainly selected in the range of 25-40 years old. • The respondents should have the same cultural background. • The respondents should be selected mainly from inhabitants of the zone of study (70%) and the rest could be chosen from the people who transit the area. • The proportion of respondents to the whole population of the zone of study should be considered rationally so the results achieved would be reliable.

Types of mental maps according to Appleyard’s categorisation

This ratio can be resulted from similar studies. Suppose we want to measure the perception of the inhabitants of a city from their environment. One of the tools that might help the researchers to do the task is studying mental maps. Measurement and Analysis of the Data Three different categories of parameters could be innumerated in the measurement and analysis of the data:

1. Complexity of the maps 2. Amount of the data presented on the maps 3. Organization of the data on the maps Complexity of the data could be measured by using categorization of maps by Appleyard or Moore (1973). Appleyard suggests a typology of the maps according to their complexity and general structure. The maps were divided into two main categories: Sequential and Spatial. In each category three different groups of maps are defined. Figure 1 : Types of the mental maps according to Appleyard’s categorization Amount of the data is measured by Cell-Percentage in the study of Walsh, Krauss and Reigner (1981). The Ratio of the surface presented by the respondents to the total surface of the zone of study show how much information is transferred on the map by the inhabitants. The organization of pieces of data on the maps has an essential role on the analysis of the data (Weisman & Rovine, 1995). To verify how the landmarks are placed on the maps and what are the orientations of the them according to the main geographic directions demonstrate the general orientation of the maps in the users’ minds. In three different towns in U.K., Sheffield (U. K), Runcorn and Saltaire it has been tried to measure the perception of the people from their city using above mentioned methodology; it was observed that the salient elements and their


31

Notes: [1] Appleyard,D. (1969) City Designers and the Pluralistic City, In Rodwin, L. (Ed.) Urban Growth and Regional Development, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusette [2] Appleyard,D. (1970) Styles and Methods of Structuring a City,Environment and Behaviour, 1970, 2.pp.100-116 [3] Hillier,B. (1996) Space is the Machine, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press [4] Orleans, P. Schmidt,S. (1972) Mapping the City: Environmental Cognition of Urban Residents, In: Mitchell,W. (Ed.) Edra 3. Los Angeles University of California Press [5] Sadalla, E.K. Burroughs, W.J. Staplin, L.J.(1980) Reference Points in Spatial cognition Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6 [6] Shokouhi,M. (1999) Legibility of Urban Layouts, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, U.K. The analysis of the visual fields of a salient element (Hillier, 1996)

organization around the main skeleton and different .parts, play an essential role on the perception of the people. (Shokouhi, 1999)

Using Space Syntax software, like Pesh and Ovation could help the measurement of visual zones of each landmark and the overlap of these zones in the area. The domain of research in this field could be developed enormously concerning different dimensions. Both analysis methods, quantitative and qualitative guide us to obtain access to valuable results. What researchers would like to develop is to find methods to measure the perception of people in more realistic and accurate ways that would enable them to design environments that attract more people and would be more livable. About the author Dr. Mahshid Shokouhi PHD in Urbanism from university of Sheffield England Associate Professor of University of Art Writer of the book “Typology of Spaces in Urbanism” Translator of “Public Spaces, Urban Spaces, the Dimensions of Urban Design” by Matthew Carmona to Farsi.

Urban research

Analysis of the data could be achieved by finding correlation between data presented by mental maps of inhabitants and the formation of the main structure in planners and designers’ maps. The parameters mentioned above guide us to quantitative analysis. Other measurements could be complimentary to these parameters and could consider qualitative aspects. Qualitative aspects could be emerged by asking inhabitants to describe their ways from home to work, or asking them to enumerate the landmarks of the area of study. The feelings of the people of their environment could be extracted from these interviews, are counted as the qualitative aspects of the study.

The importance of the landmarks could be deduced from the list of landmarks and their frequency pointed out by the respondents. The physical and other characteristics of the landmarks mainly mentioned by people could be analyzed and sorted out as influential characteristics which make an element a landmark, or a salient element. Appleyard in his study has introduced the different aspects of an element which make his study salient or distinctive among others. In each study of, according to the situation of the zone of study and its characteristics from the cultural and social points of view could vary enormously. Defining these aspects in each study could be one of the main tasks of the researcher. Using new methods of computer analysis in studying visual fields of urban elements propose different methods on measuring perception of people of their environment, quantitatively.


32 By: Han Westelaken

Three Quarks for Muster Mark If you were to ask an architect: “What scientific view is the foundation of your design?”, an agitated look is guaranteed. The design surely is realised by his intellectual view and creative thinking. If the same question would be asked to a quantum physicist, he will proudly and enthusiastically show you a complete scientifically proven analysis of the reasoning that lead him to his physical model. Without a clear veritable scientific substructure, the publication of his theoretical model in a professional journal would be impossible. In what way does this differ from the publication of an architect’s work? They both have a university degree. However, apparently there is a difference in the way the necessity of a scientific component in studies at a university is seen. What is the scientific component of, for example, the study in French language and culture at the VU University in Amsterdam more than an extensive knowledge about the language and culture? Similarly, architectural educations in the Netherlands are struggling exactly with this inconsistency and the discussion on this topic keeps lighting up. Perhaps the fact that the study of becoming an architect on the highest level is housed with other, more technical, studies like Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry, which have inherited a more scientific connotation, is the reason this discussion is such a persistent one. Lets define the notion of ‘science’. Science is knowledge attained trough study and research to laws which underlie a phenomenon.

By manipulation of the first component of this definition, we ought to be free to architectural education at the Eindhoven, University of Technology (as well as the education of France language and culture at the VU University of Amsterdam) to be scientific. The courses of this architectural education are surely aimed to let the knowledge of architecture and built environment be developed in an utmost professional way. Throughout the ages, numerous considerations which describe, certify and envision the beginning of our built environment have been gathered. Those are often combined with associated design methods. It started with the 3000-year-old Feng-shui methodology and Vitruvius’ 2000-year-old work ‘The Architectura’, and continued with contemporary guru’s like Christopher Alexander’s ‘A Pattern Language’, our own Dominican friar Dom Hans van der Laan - who died in 1991 - and professor Taeke de Jong active at the Delft University of Technology. It is unmistakable that the knowledge of these considerations contributes to comprehend the reality of our built environment. The research of this reality could be called empirical science. After all, innumerable manuscripts on this topic often arise from a well-wrought study and analysis of the use and perception of our architectural performances. When one would incorporate research results from another related science like neuroninformatics or environmental psychology, it is possible to generate a research methodology for architecture. In particular, designed for health-care that received

the slightly pretentious term ‘Evidence Based Design’ in the last decade. We could name the formerly described type of research, ‘Applied Scientific Research’, with a large empirical component in mind. The question that Archiprint asked me, is “How would you put your acquired knowledge into practice?”. The question, in itself, almost meddles with the scientific exponent of the architectural education. Of course, there are several followers of architectural methodists, who use the available design methods in an indiscriminate and sometimes dogmatic way. There are architects who carry out the design method of Christopher Alexander to the letter, with matching grammar and idiom. In the Netherlands, the architects from the sixties and the seventies, united in ‘De Bossche School’, used the ideas of Dom Hans van der Laan so strictly, (for instance the ‘Plastic number’ as fundament carved out in the drawing slat, and a wooden box of blocks, the ‘acabus’, as a library of proportion) that it was almost impossible to recognize which architect of ‘De Bossche School’ had designed which building. However, it should be noticed that this has lead to some gorgeous architecture. Even though, during an academic education, the vocational training – ausbildung [1], is not the only point of focus. Especially ‘evolvement’ – bildung [2], a matter of self-development and individual intellectual transformation through a cultural maturing process, is significant. To comprehend another man’s thoughts, and learning to critically evaluate them, will lead to a personal, intellectual


33 development. And so, especially a general and non-specific orientation of knowledge will contribute to this self-development. Definitely in relation to the social and intervene profession of an architect. That is why we ask ourselves: “Will there, in spite of applied scientific research, and of course other often occurred technical research, also be a possibility for fundamental scientific research during the university education for becoming an architect”? The answer of this question should be: “pre-eminently!” Fundamental scientific research concedes the experiment and the experimental thoughts. Obviously, we cannot submit the user of a brick building to an experiment. Nevertheless, a design is harmless on paper, but which kind of use do these somehow hypothetical designs have? The design is an illustration of thoughts. Thoughts lead to discourses, and discourses will lead to new ideas. Besides, with current technologies in visualisation and

information management, we should be able to interpret virtual sculptures as ‘real’ or genuine. Especially, combined with the experiences we, as architects, composed in the translation of models towards buildings, should be able to reasonably assess how something will work. Pre-eminently, the theoretical design process is capable of identifying concealed collective appreciation, and influences on social dynamics, since research does not have to be managed by the practical evidence such as the“tree-model”, in which hierarchical chronological choices are made by binary systems. It should be organised by the “Rhizome principle”, at which horizontal connections of potential relevant events are discovered or will arise. Instead of the usual ‘cause - effect’-clustering of ideas, a network of attractions should be addressed. In this way, buildings within urban structures and landscape interventions can be linked with alternated social structures. This principle leads to new ways of thinking, social views and architectural movements. Notes: [1, 2] Terms often used by German philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt. [3] Greene, B., De ontrafeling van de kosmos (The fabric of the cosmos), New York, 2004, p. 521 “alle dingen die we in de drie dimensies van het dagelijks leven zien gebeuren, zijn zelf holografische projecties van natuurkundige processen op een ver verwijderd, tweedimensionaal oppervlak.” [image] Haagsma, I., de Haan, H., Gebouwen van het plastisch getal, Amsterdam, Architectura & Natura, 2010, p. 288 About the author ir. Han Westelaken is Architect/ director of architectural office: Architecten aan de Maas. In 2008, a monograph of his work has been appeared; “Een symofonie van zes gebouwen” by Hilde de Haan and published by Architectura et Natura.

Fundamental research within architecture will conduct improbabilities and therefore contributes to innovation. If we draw a parallel with quantum mechanics, this ‘exact’ science will preeminently be a biotope for open minds and ‘Rhizome networkers’. Simultaneously, numerous scientists are searching for a unification-model; an overall model which will explain our cosmos onto the smallest imaginable scale. While the superstring theory – which claims eleven dimensions- has been accepted as the nearest approach to the unification-model, the Brane-model, two-dimensionsal strings, presents itself as an improved version of the superstring theory, of which Dutch physicist Gerard ‘t Hooft received the Nobel Prize: “Everything, we see happening during the three dimensions of daily life, is a holographic projection of physics based processes on a far placed two-dimensional surface.” [3] To get awarded the Nobel Prize for such an absurd thought, is only genuinely possible in a profession culture with a great ability for self-reflection. A culture, in which the most important and elementary particle is named after the throaty cry of a duck out of James Joyce’s verse: “Three quarks for Muster Mark.” These abilities and qualities would also greatly suffice within our architectural world, and could thereby significantly contribute to emancipating our ongoing need to prove the scientific value of our architectural education.


34 By: Tim Brans, Sem Holweg, David de Kool, Loes Martens, Robbert Peters

‘Berlin as Model’ a Vision on Architecture and Education On the 13th of May of 2009, ‘Vloer-e’ (an educational platform, organised by students) staged a symposium, concerning architecture and education. It was a final project of the students, who can be seen as the predecessor of AnArchi. Their plea focused on how the graduation studios functioned within the unit of Architectural Design & Engineering. Being “green” master students at the time, we took their thoughts with us throughout the master phase, knowing that we would have to choose a graduation studio soon. So far, we have reached the same phase as ‘Vloer-e’ at the time of their argumentation, so we felt the need to respond, to keep the existential discussion going.

Education vs. Practice

This article will focus on two matters. First, the clear signature of the professors leading the graduation studio, and the communication thereabouts. Secondly, the importance of students taking initiative where possible, to acquire the best result possible in their graduation project. We will start with a quote from the report of the ‘Vloer-e’ debate: [...] ”We would like to make a plea to secure as much freedom as possible for the professors to: determine research directions, underpin this in an ideological way and defend this towards the unit, the faculty and the outside world. The student enters a state of voluntary confinement to the world of the professor, and will

in this way acquire a smaller but more specific and productive window, to do research in, collaborate and debate”. [...] Now, this leads us to the conditions of this ‘voluntary confinement’. It seems to be a matter of installing the correct limitations. The several professors -with their signature- are responsible for the framing of the available research directions, from which the students make their choice. In this way, complete directionlessness, as well as total imprisonment, are avoided. Specifically this signature has gone missing in the past few years. Without the proper direction and guidance, the graduation process lacks a mutual theme, vision and a research component. Reflection on a theme is thus rendered impossible beforehand. In what way do these projects contribute to academic research? [1] Now, 2,5 years later, we can say that this challenge is adopted by the ADE Unit. We have had the possibility to be a part of several debates and lectures on architectural education. And moreover, every graduation candidate now participates in a studio, presented in a so called ‘graduation carousel’, in which the teachers present the themes for their graduation studio’s. The system ‘Vloer-e’ proposed, has arrived. Yet, there is still an interruption. The clear signature of the professor seems to be insufficient. It is either vague and undefined, or poorly communicated. In our opinion, an important part of the carousel should

comprehend the way the graduation studio fits in the encompassing research field of the professor. This would include former graduation or master studios, the PhDresearch, as well as the field, the position and continuity of the theme in the Unit. We would also like to note, that the planning and communication concerning the starting dates (or semesters) of the ateliers should improve. The studio Industrial Waterstreet (February of 2011) sufficiently illustrates the problem: the studio was planned, then deleted from the carousel, and after the persuasive protest by students finally started anyway. To conclude; only when communication is sufficient and on time, the ‘voluntary confinement’ can commence. Of course, this is something students barely have influence on. Are you, as a result of this, forced to surrender to the uncertainty, or to the “ideal of liberalism”, which was dubbed unwanted by ‘Vloer-e’? We chose the latter. Our wish to graduate in urbanism as well as architecture, and the conflicting communication surrounding this discussion, forced us to take matters into our own hands. ‘Vloer-e’ was right to warn us about the absence of a collective theme, vision and research component, when going down this road. We think that there is also a possibility to question the traditional way a graduation studio functions. Our initiative led to the formation of a studio of five students with a similar ambition.


35

Method We tried to find a method, in which graduating in a studio would be the most beneficial. The traditional partition of the final studio in a collective master project (M3), followed by an individual master project (M4), often leads to an impressive research report. But the consequence of this division is a ‘gap’ between the two phases, as we have learned from previous studios. We have tried to ease this division by defining multiple phases, where the collectivity decreases more slowly, whereas the atelier-structure endures. Our studio started with a theme where architecture and urbanism traditionally meet; dwelling. The first, collective phase of the research was focused on dwelling in Berlin. Subsequently, following different individual perspectives, we came to a specific geographical space, where the topic was relevant. Finally, on an individual basis, the research was completed and a design was made.

Reflection By choosing this way to form and execute a graduation studio, we have spent a lot of time contemplating the way to go. In addition, it is essential that the ambition of all the students is equal. This can be achieved more efficiently, when the studios are placed in a series with a comparable theme, especially if it properly fits the professor’s signature. The gained knowledge and collected information can be used for future generations, and in this way be the fuel for defining new assignments. We hope that our studio shows that student initiatives pays off. Graduation Studio: Berlin as model. Afstudeercommissie: Christian Rapp Michiel Dehaene Research report: (http://issuu.com/berlijn_als_model)

III & IV: Individual In the third part of the graduation process, each student focused on systematically exploring the theme of which the definition of secondary space was formed. We have researched these fields more thoroughly; hybrid building block, Großsiedlung, single-family homes, fractional zones between different urban systems, and solitary buildings in a fragmented zone. Each individual research topic is equally connected to the architectural intervention as it is to the collective theme.

Education vs. Practice

I: Dwelling paradigms As a city with a very turbulent history, Berlin is pre-eminently suitable for understanding the views on city-making concepts. We analysed the city through the method of sampling. By choosing representative samples, we have tried to show the whole of the spectrum. The short, though comparable analysis of the samples showed how different paradigms changed Berlin, and changed the way people lived. It revealed some of the trends of the 20th century, but in particular it formed a solid base to continue the research.

II: Secondary city The samples show, inherent to the development of a paradigm, that there are several parts of the city that did not contribute to the discussion, which we named ‘secondary space’. The multiformality of these areas made it very hard to define this conceptual space in an abstract way. So, we have chosen five different perspectives to interpret and specialise the notion of ‘secondary space’ in Berlin: Zwischenstadt, polycentric-city, lower ground prices, housing corporations and ‘terrain vagues’. We have tried to show different features and potentials, while simultaneously drawing this secondary space on the map of Berlin. In this way, the overlay of the maps and perspectives shows a more clear-cut definition. Finally, the different investigations are in the research-theme of the design studio.

Notes: [1] Cited and translated from a spoken plea on the symposium: ‘over architectuur en onderwijs’ by ‘vloer-e’ 13 mei 2009, TU Eindhoven)


36 By: Tim Kouthoofd

Research as Part of the Design Process in Theory and Practice How is research in the design process at the university relevant to architectural practice? If you answer that question you know what to focus on during your studies, with regard to design process research. Research is often directly related to a design problem you are trying to solve (e.g. a specific commercial project for a client with its particularities). Both students and working architects are familiar with this type of research; it is a necessary step in the design process and is often described as analysis. Fundamental research is more academic and scientific, but it does occur in architectural practice, often in cooperation with academic or governmental institutions. Examples that I have encountered in my own practice, are research into sustainability and renovating existing housing that need large-scale updating. Here, I would like to focus on research in the design process. University projects follow a familiar route, which starts with the analysis of the project’s parameters, often followed by a brief but in-depth research in the theme of the project, which leads to the design principles of the project. This process is repeated project after project, which teaches the student to think about the design problem in a scientific way. The student also gains knowledge with every new iteration. The research skills, that the university teaches us are very useful in the architectural practice. But there are additional factors to take into account: at the university, the main

limiting factor is time; in the real world it is both time and money. Typically time and money are interchangeable in this context. That means you need to use your time and budget wisely and plan your research or analysis accordingly. The standard parameters such as urban context, building regulations or urban planning restrictions, the functional program, the client’s taste, etc. always have to be analysed. If you can find a workable form to present these parameters visually, you will be able to give a smart representation of the parameters, which will help you to convince your client throughout the path you walk together during the project. This is the part where research experience from university becomes very relevant. Because during your studies, there is a lot of emphasis on the presentation of research data. Especially the graphical visualisation of data in 2D or 3D schemes or symbols are powerful tools that architects apply in their projects. Develop these graphical skills, because they can make the difference at a job interview. Architectural analysis is only partially scientific and partially coloured by the architect’s vision, therefore the architect will be able to prepare the client for his ideas, while giving the impression of presenting a clear and logical analysis. It is the scientific appearance that impresses the client, while the architect is actually selling his vision. There is nothing wrong with that, for the architect’s vision is based on his experience and knowledge

and therefore of value to the client. Many architects use this tool to deliver design proposals on time and budget, while giving a professional impression to the client. In a way, this is an important step in becoming an architect in the real world: Knowing how to capitalise on your research skills; in the same way as the TU/e capitalises on its patents from fundamental research. But it would be too bold to say that only visually attractive analysis will convince the client of your professional design approach. The outcome of analysis can be used as a tool for the design principles. By doing so, analysis becomes design by itself. Design follows research. Some architects have made that principle into an art form. The stacking of represented functions on paper, resulting in a tower design by OMA, is a well-known example. We often refer to that as conceptual design, something which Dutch architects are generally quite appreciated for. That brings me to the conclusion that the emphasis on research as part of the design process within university projects is very fundamental and useful for the architectural practice. You will be able to sell your ideas, if they are backed up by the analysis. Vice versa, when the design derives directly from the analysis, designing for clients will be a piece of cake. Always serve your clients a tasty piece of cake.

About the author Tim is owner of Bygg (“http://www.bygg.nl) and politician in the province of Noord-Brabant.


37

AnArchi It is time to look back and review our activities and accomplishments. As the third board of AnArchi, we are glad to say that we can look back at seven successful months. We organised several activities for our members; for our Dutch architecture students but also for the foreign students, visiting during the European Exchange. Right from the start we began with a “KIEK” with Haike Apelt, who hosted a fascinating tour throughout the city of Antwerp. On the 30th of November we launched a new activity, created entirely by our activity committee; the Architecture Pubquiz in the Zwarte Doos on the TU/e campus. A lot of our members have twisted their minds over a wide range of difficult architecture related questions. The quiz was considered to be a great success and therefore we already had the second on the 28th of February. There was also an activity concerning the Stanley Kubrick movie “A Clockwork Orange”. The movie was introduced by lecturer Geert Hovingh, a writer, translator and teacher in architecture and urbanism at the academy of architecture in Groningen. We are looking forward to the second half of our year with great enthusiasm. On the 21st of December we had a meeting for our active members where we officially changed our secretary and commissioner of activities, Matthijs Gerds. Matthijs will be studying abroad in New York and therefore transferred his responsibilities to Jurjen van der Horst. During his service Matthijs was a big asset in our board. Jurjen has been a very active member of AnArchi, for he is also the chairman of the activity committee. He started with great enthusiasm and we

Agenda are looking forward to work with him. What remains are the important activities in the upcoming months. By far the most important activity is the study trip to Singapore and Malaysia, which we organised in cooperation with VIA, the study association of the department Urban Planning and Design. This study trip will combine the aspect of Urban Planning with Architectural Design. Naturally, there will be tutors joining the trip; Sjef van Hoof and Johan van Zoest. In addition Also, there will be a new drawing excursion with destination Aachen this year, as well as, a Music and Architecture city walks in cooperation with Orkest Zuid, the Municipality of Eindhoven and Jacob Voorthuis. And of course the annual AnArchi party for both active and non-active members. We are looking forward to our endeavours in the upcoming months.

The 3th board of AnArchi

APR \\ Study trip Singapore \ Malaysia April 27th - May 7th \\ Film and Architecture Maarten Willems April 26th

MAY \\ Kiek Sjef van Hoof May 29th \\ ExperiArch Hüsnü Yegenoglu

JUN \\ Music and Architecture city walk, June 10th, start Vertigo TU/e

JUL

\\ Tekenen op Reis : July 8th - 14th


Would you like to respond to an article? Do you want to write an article yourself? Or would you like to join the editorial committee?

Send an email to: anarchi@bwk.tue.nl


Narrative

Design Support Systems

Typology

Models and Making Urban Research

Education vs. Practice

Profile for Study Association AnArchi

Archiprint 2 - The Research Issue  

Archiprint 2 \\ April 2012 (Volume 1 Issue 1)

Archiprint 2 - The Research Issue  

Archiprint 2 \\ April 2012 (Volume 1 Issue 1)

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