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LAUDMARKS IN THE EDUCA'fiON OF AMERICAN GIRLS . The. college girl of today j_s very apt to accept the goods the gods prov~de, wholly unconscious of t h e rare good fortune that is hers . . S~e ~ooks_upon an education as a birthright , and such, to be sure, ~t ~s ~n th~s day and een~ration, when the state stands ready to ~ccord to her, as to her brother, every educational advantage. It ~s well for her to know, however, that the world has not always been so gene!ous to women. There is no better way in which she can £omp:ehend how favored of the gods she really is than by getting a gl~mpse of the American girl of other periods . Probably most New England girls in Colonial times could read, since the ·Bible held so prominent a place in every Puritan household, b11t writing was not considered es sential. It is rare to see a woman's signature on any document of t h at day. - Sixty pereent maqe their mark. The daughte"rs of the 'very best families, according to Abigail Adams, daugh t er of a New England {in]s ter and wife of John Adams, President of the United States, l :earr •.td only to read and 1 o write, to do a very li ttJ.e f j_guring, and but rarely to play upon the spinnet, or to dance. In New YorJ::: girls were taught to read the Bible in Dutch ana iNere thought accomp li : > hed if they could read Eng .. lielL Conditions were equa lly unsati sfactory in the other colonies. Severa l forces vrere at work to produce this state of affai~s. The· attitude of the Puritan fathers vms l arge ly det ermined by their interpretation of the Scriptures. According to their way of thinking, st. Paul had been most explicit on thi s point. Then, too , there were the ir~erit e d class distinctions, as we ll as age-long prejudice against popular education . Another thi n g that blocke d any attempt at progress along oducationa~ lines was the drudgery inseparably connected with Col~ni a l life. . Boys and girls had no time for either study or . pl ay in the go od ol<1 Colony days . Children, while tending sheep or cattl e, were oxpected, by order of the magistrates, to s pin thread with a hand distaff, to knit mittens and stockings, to weave braid and t ape on the heddle frame.' .on the farrns sober-f a ced 1'i: ttle Puritans sowed seed, weeded vegetables, hetchelled flax, combed wool . Sedate maidens at the advanced age of six spun flax and, s tanding on a foot ... stool used evE}n the big spinning wheel. The weaving of every particle1of cloth used in the household, the braiding of ~ugs , the weavT ing of earpets, the setting of ever~ stitch by ha~d in_every g a r ment in ti.1.e f amily wardrobe, as well as ~n the patch mr k qu~ lts , t ho maJI ing of cheese and butter, the preserving of ~rui t and _vegetable~ , ''T"r ~, a few of the things that occupi ed the a ttent~ on of vromen, and f~lle d a~l the waking hours in t he busy ~ ifo of ev en the sma lle st girls. Of co~r se, this unremitti ng toil ~as not a necessit y i n the h'omes of the 11ea1 t hy but the pr i nci p:1.1 · C'.mbi tion of Coloni a l dame s . They took for their Has to n ave t he ir daught ers look elhhereal. p2.ttern th e Enr.; li sh gentl enornn.n \7ho ~hough t de l icacy of. fea ture and fo r n a sure s i Gn of blue b l ood . liJe ~ the r the mode of l~ fe nor the


dress 'at this period was calculated to gi ve the daughters of the

fa~o~ed few any desire for learning or a physique capable of ~ny great mental strain. Doctor Holmes has cr iven us a g ~.l.mpse J.nto a typical finishing school of that time in one por~ra~ture he has drawn with his inimitable pen. · l1irth-provoking

as l.t seems today, the laughter it excites is most akin to tears . "He sent her to a stylish school ; '~1as in her thirteenth June · .And ~vi th her as the rule requir~d 11 'J"tln towels and a spoon" . They braced my n~nt against a board To ma!~ e her ctraight and tall . . They laced her up , they st~rved her do~n, To her light and small. They pinched her feet, t hey s i!1ged her hair; They screwed it up with pins-~ Oh, never mortal suffered r.1or e In penance for her sins. ;r

It was the \far of the Revolution that was reapo:asible for most of the changes in the educational ideas of the co l onies . Those were stirring tines that roused both men and women to independence in thought and action. England's school system, founded by King ' Alfred in the Ninth Century, h a d been established for the benef~ t of the r'1:ch. Such a plan must fai 1 to prove popular with a nation that had abolished classes and decl~red a ll men equal. 'Zhe high places in the land were henceforth the rewards of ability, not the perquisftes of birth. The open sesa,me to success and honor mus t nov; be education. It is a signtficant facJ::. that until 117.89 , the year when George Washincton v;as inau3urated, the 1\'assachusetts lan 11ad required only reading and writing in the township school. In that year, ho~ever, arithmetic, spelling, grammar and 'decent behavior' were made compulsory . The half century i rnmedi a tely follbv:ing the establi shment· of the new government is remarkt:',b le us having r;i ven na tionnl che.,racter to education and people alike. It ·;;as during this period that the district school c ame into existence. Eere the girls usually had the same opportunities as the boys . When a school m~ster was lliired, h e vVas expected to teach a.J.l who came. The number uas limited only by the capacity of the sch oolroom. The selec tmen were never troubled about hygiene, but they did norry a good de::1.l about keeping the teacher employed, so no objection IYas r~hen girls applied for admission to country schools. In the large cities, hov1ever, ilhere so much had been done by reli gious bodies o~d private individua ls thru cndomnent to relieve ioc a l authorities of much of the responsibility, and where the amounts appropriated for the support of the schools we re all too meagre to provide for the educ ati on of the boys, conditions were decidocUy diffe ren t . Boston may be t aken £\ S an example. According to President Quincy of Harv2..rd Coll ege , '\o7ho wro ~e n, history of the town in 1790 , girls were admitted to the schools 1n the summer months only, and not then unless there were vacant seats. J:t i~ra s not until 1022, the year in v-.rhich Bo ston became a city, tho..t girls JiGd free access to even the elementary s chools. Other citi es rre re equn,lly slov; about acco"rding educ at iona l privileges to girls , Another s ch ool that came into vogue e.f t er the Revolt~tion , and one in Ythich the French influenc e i s p l ainly seen, the

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academy. 'I1'le first aco.demies ·were for boys only . Vlhere t hese institutions bec2.m~ f o..mous, they n c. tur a lly remained boys' schools 1 but whe re they were 1nadequa tely endowe d, and consequently dependent to c. la:ge extent upon tuition fees for their support, they were f orced by c1rcumstances to become coeducationa l . It was but a step fro~ this to the academy.for girls , · and to the independent college for women. It was a r1sky step but there were heroic souls to take it . Such _a one was Hrs, Emma V:illo.rd, who in 1819 made a most eloquent appeal to the New York Legislature to charter at Troy an academy for girls., It seems stro.nge today tha't there could h ave been the slightest objection to such a project, but as a matter of fact there was the most violent opposition. Another Yvoma.n who saw visions and who gave her life to the work of convincing her generation of the need to educate girls was Mary Lyon. Today r ~ t. Holyoke College stands a s n. monument to her gren.tness. Altho apparently free secondn.ry education for girls ·- in the large cities. had received its de~th blow by Boston's act in 1828, there ,-.ras a force that was slowly and silently, yet steadily, working to bring about .r ational ideas on the subject . This was the unfluence. of the German system of school3 , which grew in intensity from 1830 to 1850 as the result of university residence on the part of American students . Such representative men as Everett, Ticknor, Bancroft, Longfellow and Motley had done postgraduate vmrlt in Germany, and they vTere followed by many others vrgo He re in a position later to influence public thought. Charlemagne, vrho laid the foundations of the Prussian educational system in the Ninth Century,believed that the I:Jational idea could be developed only the teaching of intelllgent patriotism in the schools . In pursuance of this policy of universal education, Ge rma~y had normal s chools as early as 1734 . Gradually the idea took in t he mi!1ds of thoughtful men in the United States that since the neu Republic ~a s to depend for its structural strength upon the intellgence of its peo ple , its education must be supervised. Teaching from this uiewpoint vras a pl;"'ofession. The teacher must be trai ned for the work. · The first grea t awakening came in 1 D37 , ·when t h e Mas sachusetts Legislature appoi nted a State Board of Education . Realizing that the trans~er of many industries from the home to the factory . · had deprived the men of their usual occupations, this body of men established three state norma l schools for the tra in ~n_g of women teachers . Many sta tea soon follo v;ed the example of b assachusetts . A little later several large cities ~pened normal schools . One · of the earliest of these was the Girls; Normal School of Boston, which was opened in 1852. Tvm years later a fe w h igh school studies vvere introduced. This vras the entering wedge, but t wen ty years passed before the two ideas v-;ere made distinct , before the &irls' Hi gh School became an accomplished fact . That this cult ured city was not alone in the stand that it took is shown by a similar state of affairs in Philadelphia, which had no high school for girls, in the modern acceptation of that expression, until 1893 . The question of the advisability of allowing girls the privileges accorded to boys was one that never seemed to demand serious consideration in the West. Coed~cation is and always has been the prevailing system in that vast section of the United States. Several important factors have worked to bring about this characteristic tea ture. . vT.nen the Nine teenth Century davmed, the century that has done more t-o a dvance the cause of Yroman than all the centuries before, it dawned upon n. ·~ rest rri t h out a pas t, v.ri thout educ a-

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:ti£6nal traditions. Still, in the minds of those nho r.,rent fro __ _ t h e Ea st to establish nev.r homes in t 1e r ilderness, there ling ere d per 1a:9~.; the memory of the old district sch ool whore boys and girls trod t he ~electable paths of knowledg e tbgether . Here was the initiatory i ncentive toward coeducation . Th en, too, all the conditions i nci d e ~-rt ·-.. 1 to pioneer life, sparsely settled localities 1 limited resources , soG j.a equality, fostered th~ grouth of democratic ideas and made it n ec es sary for even sectarian schools and private academies to become co educational. Hovrever, t'1e great force mal~ing for coeducation was an ordinance framed by the Continental Congress in 178 7 for t h e government of the Northwest Territory . This act decreed 1 that teligion , morality and l<no1-rledge being essential to g ood [;ove rnment and t he happiness of m.ankincl , schools and the me<".llS of education shall be forever encourat;ed ' . To this end a certain amount of land in each to \·mship and in each coun-'.:.y ~-ras reserved for 1 the maintenance of public schools 1 • The tot2.l amount of land s et aside for the support 9f public schools by t":le United states a pprox imates one hundred million acres , In this way element ary school s , high sch ools and universities v.rere providc:;d by t h e bounty o:L a national r;overP.ment. , and t he girl who had been admitted without qu estion to th e primary department as offering the only available me a ns for elementary instruction passed on to the hi gher grades ~ n chall A ~g ed . . The fact that the south has alwE~ys b een an agricultural district ~ith comparatively few larg e ci t i e s ha s militated against any general system of education such as h a s been for years past a marlced feature of the North and Tie st. In Coloni a l times plantations were so scattered that uni t.y in educ a.ti·o nal effort v,ra s an impossibility. The wealthiest planters s ent th e ir children to be educated, or ; where this was not fe a sible, imported Engli sh tutors. Some times a few f amilies would combine 2..nd hire o.. schoolma st er who taught his charges in one of the homes or in a cabin erected in an exh.austed tobacco field , In such <:..n edifice George \7ashington secured most of his education. VVhen the North started in 1030 its a r;it.o.tion for universal education, there ':ra;::, a corre s ponding movement in the South to pro-: vide free schoolin[_; for the chil dren of the v1h i te population, but except in a fevi cities the attempt came to naught , for the social conscience of the descendants of the Cava liers had not b e en quiclcened to a realization of the fact that the chief busine s s of a ll American civilization is the education of those vrho are to be the future guardians of the Republic. They s till clung tenaciously to aristocratic ideals and institutions left as an icl1eritance from the English rule of Coloni a L days . Altho the Southern Stat e s had no system of universal education prior to the Civil Vla r, they did have excellent schools and a c a cler:J.ies, and sus t.cdned a l a r g er number of college students at a greater an.nuo..l cost in proportion to the po:pulation, tal~ing man for man, n egroes exclude d , ~han any other. sect~ on Of the country. In some cases s ~c ci a l attent~on h ad been g~ven to the education of young n omen, but, except in t h o ca se of these fe w private academies and colleges , no opportunitie s for schooling beyond the most elementary branc11es Here opened to th e daughters of the South . Virginia, ac!~now le dg ed loader in the matt er of superior education, may be taken as an example of t he . progres s t?-at has be~n . . r' sinc.e 1U70 . Prior to that da te the clnldren of tne Old D?m~l1lllon h .J..d to dep end al;nost entirel y upon pri v o....~~e nchoo~s, even for pr~mary instruction. The publlC s cho ol sy s tem ~naugurac.ed in that year

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· opened to girls the element a r y school and to a limited ext ent t he se c onda ry. In some of th e lare:;e r cities hi gh sch ools ha ve been es -· ~lished and here girls may co ntinue the i~ educat i on, s t il l ~uc~ of t h e preparatory wcrk for colle ge is be:tng .dune by pri va t e a carle _j_es. I n lf393 R~ndolph-Nacon Wor:JE'-11.' s ColleGe, t h e f irst and f or a l :mz t i.u0 t h e only J.ndependent wom:::tn' s colleGe of 11 A11 grade s outh of Maso'."! a:."Jc'. Dixon's line, was open ed ander the auspice s of t h e Meth odist Epi3':)0 __ H j Ghurch South. In this s ame year the Univ er s i ty of Virgi ni a , ia re sponse to a demand for opportw"'li ties f or th e h i gh er edu ca tion of women, decided to offer' them the privil ege of s tudyi ng under tutors, but without attending th e university l e c t u re s or exe rcis e s. s o:1ly one woman ever applied the s cheme wa s abandone d . Ro. t her -rec ently a movement wa s s·et on foot to open this same ins titut i d:m to woYl"!en, bu t the project had to be given up owing to i nt ens e opposition fr om a lumni. Coeducation is not popular in the South and a s yet is limited to the state universities and to a v e ry f ew of t h e small e r colleges. Plato, originator of the first systematic scheme of e ducation known to history, maint a ined that boys and girls should b e e ducated alike, but twelve centuries elapsed before there was a rul e r wise enough to make even elementary education · compulsory for both sexes . Ten more· centuries passed before pub lic opinion in any l and was ready to demand the s ame eo.ucationa l privil tB ggs for girls as for boys. To the Americ a n girl of today, a s to no other , has been bequeathed a precious herit ag e. May she acce pt it rev e r ently, resolved that it shall be dedicated to the welfare of hum&nity and to the glory of God.

"Education is a comPanion no misf ortune can depFess , no clime destroy, no enemy ali en~te, no despotism ens lave ; a t h ome a friend, abroad an introduction, in solitude a solac e, in society an ornament; it chastens vice, it guides virtue , it di gnifies labor, -it . gives at once grace and govermnent to genius . · Vfithout it, what is mana A splendid sl a v e , a reasoning s avag e , .vacillating between t h e degradation of untrained instin cts and th e power of God-given intelli g ence." I

"The real scholar s e ts before himse lf to know everything of something and something of everything . . Th e s ~holar s eel< s know ~ e dge as a means toward the vi gorous ex pressJ.on of hJ. s manhood , a knovr ~ edge of those seething elements in the midst of whi ch he lives1 and or· which he is a part. He v1ho onl y i mitat e s t h e past f orget s th e . de mands of the present, but he who ada pts himself best to mode:n J. Ssues who serves best the present age, has been and a l ways wJ.ll b e the ~uccessful man. In li ghting your torch es we bid you s et them af tre at the brightest living altars of le a rning, not at the smoulder ing coals of dead issues .;;

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The Ka.:ssas City f~lu~nnac c ciatj_on h .ld its Octo e eet .d, en the 4th vvi th Hrs. t·-; yr t. ! e Pe::-ry K31J.ogg. The local ID')m:.-, ,::;-c-"' we r- e ~ ,,!'ticularly p l eased t o ui th t'1c:1m Mrs. Fral'"1...k G. Munsoi"". d' t r:"' C.~:lahoma Chapter, rho hr-ts -:-ervecl. aince its i nr- t ll r-t tion as s +.n t<> r")ec:cet.a r y , and viho haa been vi si ti~g her no·i~ her, The 1\.s oci n. t : _ :n · heard of the pr esenc e in Kansas City of several other 1S\s and h o pe ~ to have t hem present at future gatherings. Eliz abeth Uhe 1 vrhc ser ed l ast year as Chapter rresi c ent 01 Alpha Beta and v.rho ~.-;a s i.1i ss J e·,-:et t 1 s roo!llna te, during their at t e nclnn r _ a t the Summer Session of the Universi+y of _:issouri, ~:rites that ~ 1-).e is COi1t inuing he r wo r k at the "U" this year and tha . . she ic ea,i i n[; the pleasant a ssociat j_on Yvi th Celest.e Nc c l a:nd Julia Spark s, -.1h o arG als o enrolled. They alao get r-. chanso to me et qu1 te frequen:l y He len Viilliams 7 a Hay init i.1te of Alpha Bet a , now at stephens Collet; , Whi ch is i n the same to\m aa the st CJ.t e unive::-3i ty. · Mrs . Jes sie S. Walker has taken up her residence at 268 We st 65th Street, ~i c ago 7 where she is i11teresting herself in the sales of 11 The Book of Knonleclge 11 • She writ es that she is planning to tal.{e vvork at Chicag o Unl versi ty next quarte r. Th e Springf..ield Alumnae Association is to have its first week end part y of this year October 20 - 22, at the home . of Dorothy Clason, whe re no doubt t hey vJ i 11 have t~1eir usua l good times. Alice Vaughn i s en jo y in~ her v;ro rk in the Fulton Hi t;h Schoo: and h a d the pleasure recen tly of a visi t \Vi th the 1\.Sfl.s now enrol le d at the Univ e r si ty of Wissouri . Sorrow ha s ent e r ed the homes of some of our memb e rs . Florence York Stahl lo st both her father and her father-in-lai·, . Lora Holloway Wilhoit lo st her baby gi rl t he very day it ~as bo rn . Both these women h a ve the sympa t hy of the Sorority . A movement i s on foot to lwve the nn.mes of the state normal schools Missouri amendr;d by adding the wo rds 11 and Teachers Collee;e" It is contende d that these sch ool::: are more than 'normal' school s, in that they g ive mor e ext ended cour3es than can be found in in~ti­ t·utions bea ring the s a me in other states, that they are do:u1g work or the same g rade a s t h ose calling themselve3 Tea~hers C?lleges . . · Alpha Beta re por t s another wedding, that of ~ lldred ffar d to Joseph Da vidson, who ·in the PI:'incipal of the high s cho ol at Greencastle 1 i.·Io . Carey Butler returned for study: a t t he Kirlcsvi l le Summer S9ssion and conducted a. s vrimming c hans three times a :reek. It fu rnished a regular sourc e of pleasure to the girls durine the heated pe riod . Alpha Be t a gav e an ' a t home ' on September 30th . The sorority colors vre re brought out in the decorations 1 one. parlor _b '? lng bri ght with salvia, the other g orge ous with go ldenrod, the. d1n1ng room being inos tly in g r een and v-rhi te with a profusion of asters . Invitat ions Vle r e extended to the Norma l Schoo l Faculty and t h eir Wives, to 'I'ri Sigma, to Phi Lambda Epsi l on, a men ' s fraternity a t t:t: 0 schoo l, t o the a lumn ae and patronesses of the Chapter, to the men' s fratern ity a t th o Coller,e of Osteopathy and to a .number of rushees . . :1 lpha De to. rAports that Tri Sigma has initiated b oth i ts h onorary members and npons ors . The sponsor in Tri Si gma has the same r e lation t o that oo rori ty as has the Faculty Advis e r to l~.SA Chapters . Alpha Si gma Alpha does not extend the privil ege of initiat i on to honorary membe r ::;. I n this it rese Jbles Cone;re :::n sorori t~



Alpha Beta marries off its g irls about as fast as one c a n t .rn 0ver a. new page. Another bride is Ada F . Blakeslee, ho is now t .o v·if e of John LL Cham~Jerl ain , a g r aduate of the Law School of the Uni·,'::•r·si ty of Hissouri and a practising attorney with offices at r:oli V eL , LlC'. Alpha chapter wr ites that it has returned Elsie Ba~by, Grace Bonney} Elizabeth Clements, Eatie Edmunds, Mary Ke llam , Eli zaoeth Lewis, 8lvira Maclin, Harie Prif!e, Sallie Ravrlips, and Katherine rratkins. A . . . l!··""" alpha is terribly proud of itself. In addition to its eight fine pledges it has its last year's President, Nora Moser, back as !{atron of Hepburn Hall, as well as another 1 9 16 graduate , Chlc6 Edgar, in an official pos1tion. TI1e Central Office is afraid the · Chapter will be altogether vain, if any further g lory is added to the Chapter, but it cannot resist the temptatioh of publishing a bit of information coming its vray thru a Mi ami friend who had a Miami SSS as her guest during the summer. This Tri Sig said at one ti me that she vvished she knew the hidden . spring of ASA strength , that ASA had everything its own ~7ay at Miami, that it g ot gi rls away fro m SSS right along. Perhaps our other chapters can do so too, if they will use the Alpha Alpha arguments as set forth in the Rushing Manual . . The Hembership Slips for the Directory are n9t coming in so rapidly as the Central Office would like . ' Pleas e aslc every ASA you meet, or to whom you write, whether she received he r s~ip and whether · she has mD.iled it. The letter containing the s lip VIas mailed o:n September 30th, an<;~. 1aas sent in every case to the_home address, as given in the Card Catalogue. The home address was chosen in preference to the teaching address 1 because experience has shovvn that a large proportionof the membership chang es i.ts profes s ional ad dress each year. To date three envelopes have been r eturned, me.r ked UNCLAIMED . Those were addressed to .1\.rie Lyle at. Trevilians, Va ., to Linnie E. Pearson at 405 College Street, Columbia, to Elizabeth Walkup, Fredericksburg, Va. The Central Office will apprec i ate receiving the correct addresses f~om anyone ~ho c an furnish them ,

. "Youth of the p resent, proud of your vigor, reliant on self, scornful of aid, remember your old .n ere the young of the past, that you too shall be elders a nd sas es at last, that there shall succeed you men strong er and bigger to elwe ll i n the houses your hands ahall havo made, to lool::: bacl{ at yov. as errant and blind, feeble of intellect, narrov: of mind ; ·for each new epoch that onward swings still nearer the goal its chi l..dren brings, into de epe r e;·loorr: its forebears flings . The fields of them that solived in t he darkness you re ap now the night is fled, and the g ods who have v;atched in the da.rkness repay a.s the da.vm g rows red; ancl, the seed you c;a th er at earl y morn you shall scatter again at prime, that your distant follo n ers yet unborn may ~·; innow and sift in their gleaning-time. And so, till the l ast. red Run shall set for man , a nd the fina l shadows cove r th e loftie s t purpl e hil l, and ultimate ni ght descend, the heart of youth with hope sha ll thi.~i ll, -r.rith faith and trust and courage fill t1'}.at he may help with hi s for m rd pace the one nho at lenr;th s hall ·;rin in the race. For o.s a.h.rays ane1-r thru the orien t portal i ssues the train of youth iornor t~~ on its never-ceasing quest fo:r all that's c:;ood, for all that ' s best. " Franci s Lane Childs .



Most persons have th e idea that to drink water or any .other fluid with meals is h a rmful to the digestion, that water dilutes and r•eakens the gastric juice, thus interfering with the proper functionL~e­ of the stoma~h. The latest themry, however, is that plenty of pure ) · but not too cold, water taken vri th the daily meals is conduoi ve to health. Professor:S of the 1 old school' taught that the contents of the . stomach were rotated and more or l~ss uniformly mixed, or 'churned' as 1t were, so that the gastric juice could permeate the entire ~ass, that the digestion of starchy foods ceased ·when they reached the stomach, that the musculature of this or~an was in the nature of a. grinding machine. · Later and more n1odern studies by means of X-ra¥s ) of tambours int-roduced into the stomach tD measure the pressure changes · and of other nethods emphe,si zed the fact that the fundic, or upper 1 end of the stomach is not actively concerned in its movements, but serves rather as a reservoir for retaining th~ bulk of the food and allowing the ptyalin more time to continue its work. The normal tone of the :t'undic, as well as of the whole organ , c a uses the food to be gently forced dovm into the main body .and pyloric reg'i on of the stomach, as is required by orCerly digestive prog ress . The ca~ity of the stomach is only as large as its co n tents, so the fi rs t portion of food entirely fills it ,' SucCJessive portions fi nd the wall layer occupied and are received into the i nterior. A s tomach lacking in tone would probably be somewhat unhappily affected by the ingestion of much liquid, but not so one of the normal tone . \!Then liquid food is talcen alone, . it requires but a few minutes for it to be forc e d into the duodenuJTI. v.Jhen a mixed meal is eaten, the liquid part is first . expelled , then the larger parto of the sugars and starches, t h en the proteins, and finall y the fa ts. 'l'he latter remain long in th e stomach when tal{en alone, a nd vvhen combined with other food stuffs are much delay ed . The food first taken has the position of advantaee . If i t is starch or sugar it is Qjected into the intestine, but if it is protein or fat the passage of t h e sugars and starches Yvill be delayed . Water, however, finds a ready exit Hhen taken at any s tac e of a meal . It does not perme ate a mixed meal to any great extent . Consequea tly , there is no e,reat dilution or interference n ith the potency of the gastric juice . Some m ai~tain t h a t an abundance of water taken nith f ood prevents t h oro naa stic a tion and salivat ion Oth ers con tend that the eareless or hlllrriecl e a ter vrill be car ele s s or hur ri ed wh ether h e t alces water or not, while t h e one vrho mas ti cc. te s fo o d suffi ciently will not be deterred by drinldng a lib e ral qu a nt i ty of wat er . The apostles of Fl e t cherism ins ist th at every pa rti cle of food shall ~ e r educed t o a liquid before it is allowed t o pass i nto the st 0maoh . It i s vre ll to remember that the. cri nding of f ood is one of the legitima te functions of th e stomach 1 tha t if thi s organ i s robbed of it s prope r duty it may become weakened ) jus t as any othe r ac tiv e part of the b ody w ~ul c"". be impaire d by disuse. For sani i c>" . -~ 3 salce th e hmrnan body n e eds an abundanc.e of Ytater, in order t ha t i D ~.rc.t:' perf on ·we ll t he man ifo l d dutiR s of its constrl~ cti v e bousekeepl.:&g A c areful observation wi ll slvwv anyone 'Lha,t ·c.l-:os·G pers ons wll o su.f!L er l' rom poor nutriti on ? intestinal t;_~ ouble ~ , o 1• othe r di s orders of the c.l.i t;e s t l v e -~:. r a c lt are th e~ se who dr 'i.rllc li i.. t 1 o or no Ha t e r at mea l s or r:l ny tJ t he r t i me . o

Asa phoenix vol 3 no 5 6 oct 1916  
Asa phoenix vol 3 no 5 6 oct 1916