Page 1


Many Norths: Spatial Practice in a Polar Territory Concept: Lateral Office Authors and editors: Lola Sheppard and Mason White Published by: Actar Publishers New York, Barcelona Research and design: Suzanne Harris-Brandts and Julia Smachylo Copy editor: Pamela Capraru All rights reserved © of the edition: Actar Publishers, 2017 © of the texts: Lola Sheppard and Mason White © of the drawings and images: Lateral Office Distributed by Actar Distribution Inc. 355 Lexington Avenue, 8th Floor New York, NY 10017 T +1 212 966 2207 F +1 212 966 2214 salesnewyork@actar-d.com Barcelona Roca i Batlle 2-4 08023 Barcelona T +34 933 282 183 salesbarcelona@actar-d.com eurosales@actar-d.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopyng, recording, or otherwise, without prior written consent of the publishers, except in the context of reviews. The editors have made every effort to contact and acknowledge copyright owners. If there are instances where proper credit is not given, the publisher will make necessary changes in subsequent editions. ISBN 978-1-940291-31-4 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016960056 A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA.

Cover: Iqaluit looking west, 2010. Photograph by Ed Maruyama, courtesy of the City of Iqaluit.


MANY NORTHS

iv Acknowledgements viii Preface 4 The (New) Idea of North(s)

URBANISM 20 26 42 54 60 66 70 78 88 96 104

Urbanism Timeline Urbanism below Zero Transition and Assimilation, Frank Tester Migration and Permanence Inuit Diaspora Wasting Space, Jack Kobayashi Built Form and Landform Growth of a City Utility of the North, Peter Clarkson Utility Infrastructure Snow Fences

ARCHITECTURE 112 Architecture Timeline 118 Impermanence: Building at an Edge 134 Constructing Communities, Harold Strub 142 Inuit Architecture 150 Government Housing 158 Fabricating a Northern Vernacular, Guy GĂŠrin-Lajoie 164 Climatic Factors 170 Nakasuk School 176 Beauty and Constraints, Gino Pin 184 Foundations 192 East Three School

vi


MOBILITY

RESOURCES

202 Mobility Timeline 208 Connectivity and Diffusion 224 Wayfinding on the Land, Claudio Aporta 234 Inuit Navigation and Trails 242 Dempster Highway 250 Shipping Logistics, Thomas Paterson 256 Deep-Sea Ports 262 Sealifting 268 Making a Winter Road, Tim Tattrie 274 Winter Roads 280 Aerial Connectivity

380 386 402 408 414 422 426 432 438 444 452

Resources Timeline Surface and Subsurface Hunting Big Food, Charlie Qumuatuq Bowhead Whale Hunt Icebergs Under the Ice, Aloupa Kulula Mussel Harvest Fur Trade In-Town Resources, Jim R. Brown Gold Rush Extraction

MONITORING

TECHNOLOGY INDEX

290 Monitoring Timeline 296 Monitoring the Remote 312 Space of Sovereignty, Shelagh Grant 320 Sea Ice 328 DEW Line 334 Agency in High Arctic Modernization, P. Whitney Lackenbauer 346 Northern Patrolling 352 Search and Rescue 358 Observing the North, David J. Scott 366 High Arctic Research 372 Mars Simulation

460 From Aircraft  to Wooden Posts

MANY NORTHS

vii


CANADA’S MANY NORTHS

Beaufort Sea

ALASKA

Whitehorse

Yellowknife Indexing North 1 Living Cost Differential This line relates to Urbanism and Resources.

2 Task Force Line

This line relates to Mobility and Urbanism.

3 North Extent of Roads Line This line relates to Mobility and Resources.

4 Tree Line This line relates to Architecture and Resources.

Edmonton

5 Northern Arctic Ecozone Line This line relates to Resources and Urbanism.

6 Permafrost Line This line relates to Architecture and Urbanism.

Victoria

7 Northern Territories Line

Regina

This line relates to Urbanism and Resources.

8 10,000 Heating Degree Day Line This line relates to Architecture and Urbanism.

9 Inhabitation Line This line relates to Urbanism and Monitoring.

10 Maximum Extent of Year-Round Ice Formation This line relates to Resources and Monitoring.

USA


GREENLAND 10 9

o

75

Baffin Bay

o

70

Ar

c c ti

Cir

cl e

o

65

8

7

Iqaluit

o

60

6 5 4 3 2 o

55

1

Hudson Bay o

50

St. John’s

o

Charlottetown Fredericton

Winnipeg Quebec City

Ottawa

Toronto

Halifax

45


1999 Nunavut is officially separated from Northwest Territories. 2001 Iqaluit receives order of official status as a city. 1987 Northwest Territories establish policy to fund 100% of the capital cost of trunk water and sewage infrastructure.

2005 Government of Nunavut approves a new staff housing strategy aimed at bolstering emerging private markets in Rankin Inlet, Iqaluit, and Cambridge Bay.

1998−99 The high-temperature water-heat distribution system is phased out in Inuvik.

2005 Agreement signed by the governments of Quebec and Canada to construct 275 homes in Nunavik. The agreement is renewed in 2010. 2001 16% of homes in NT and 33% in Yukon require major repairs, as compared with the national average of 8%.

Utility truck

2007 Northwest Territories begins to install wood pellet boilers in public buildings in support of NT’s Energy Plan, Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and Biomass Energy Strategy.

1990s Widespread issues with the size, design, quality, cost, and availability of houses in northern communities.

2000−06 Nunavut Housing Corporation has constructed 430 public housing units and 160 staff dwellings.

2006 Government of Canada invests $200 million in new affordable housing for Nunavut.

1999−2013 Since 1999, 325 subsidized housing units built in Nunavut communities.

2001 The current population of Canadian Inuit is approximately 45,070, with about 85% living in communities throughout the North; 5,000 live outside the four land claims settlement regions (Statistics Canada).

1990

NUNAVUT

ARCTIC COUNCIL

COLD WAR ENDS

Iqaluit Airport

2010

2000 Government housing

The typology of development is suburban: low-density, single-family detached homes with yards and driveways, a scattering of administrative, commercial, cultural buildings, schools, above-ground infrastructure, and utilidors. However, communities are compact and often develop as subdivisions. Overcrowding, with more than one person per room, affects many northern communities.

24

URBANISM

Attempts have been made to create more compact, efficient, structured, and modernized settlements in the Canadian Arctic, with limited success. In Nunavut, the level of overcrowding is twice the national average. As of 2006, approximately 3,000 units in Nunavut are needed to reach Canadian occupancy standards, and 274 units are required per year to keep pace with population growth.


2011 First time population north of 60 degrees surpasses 100,000 (Statistics Canada).

2013 Despite proximity of huge hydroelectric power plants, Nunavik Inuit communities are not connected to the Quebec power grid. 2012−13 A number of energy retrofits are completed in many communities across Northwest Territories.

2013−15 Government of Canada invests $100 million in new affordable housing for Nunavut.

2007 The government of Quebec announces that it will finance the construction and management of 50 social housing units for 20 years.

2020 Government housing initiatives

Future housing and planning will rely heavily on infrastructure investment, as well as on keeping up with population growth and the provision of affordable housing. Longer-term goals include the delivery of several hundred affordable units over a multi-year time frame.

MANY NORTHS

25


URBANISM BELOW ZERO

The North is often portrayed as vast, sublime, and empty. Yet it has become the fastest-growing region per capita in Canada, and this imposes remarkable pressures on regional and city planning. More than 115,000 people now live in the cities, towns, and hamlets north of 60 degrees. Nonetheless, the territories predominantly consist of small, dispersed communities, often isolated geographically and infrastructurally. With the exception of the three capitals — Whitehorse (pop. 25,000), Yellowknife (pop. 19,000), and Iqaluit (pop. 7,000) — most of the 85 communities in the region have fewer than 1,000 residents, and only four cross the 3,000-person threshold. This dispersal of remote settlements, particularly in the eastern Arctic, renders the provision of social and cultural infrastructure costly, if not altogether unfeasible. For instance, Canada is the only circumpolar country with no northern university. Nunavut has just one hospital and 30 to 50 percent fewer doctors per capita relative to the southern provinces, while Northwest Territories and Yukon are better connected infrastructurally and have greater access to health care services.1 Food and household goods are expensive to deliver, and travelling for cultural and leisure activities, whether arts performances or extracurricular sports, presents a financial challenge for many locals. Nonetheless, the region continues to experience rapid development, driven by resource expansion and high birth rates. As a result, the Canadian Arctic now has cities that continue to grow, albeit often with little debate or reflection on the spatial and social forms this might take. The cultural, economic, environmental, and infrastructural realities of communities and their planning and morphology differ significantly from east to west, with varying degrees of “nordicity.” The gridded town plans of Whitehorse and Dawson reveal the legacy of the 1890s Klondike gold rush, and the influence of the thousands who prospected there. In Northwest Territories (which included the eastern and High Arctic regions until the establishment of Nunavut in 1999), many settlements were equally driven by the rapid rise of resource industries, but they reveal a highly

26

URBANISM


suburban, subdivision-based model of development. Due to difficult access, the planning of communities in the central and eastern Arctic continues to be influenced by efficiency and economics. After all, most settlements emerged from the legacy of military bases, resource camps, and trading posts. Of equal consequence is the uneven urbanization across the North. While Dawson and Whitehorse built the foundations of their urban plans in the early 1900s and Yellowknife was established in the 1930s, Inuit in the eastern Arctic remained semi-nomadic until the contentious introduction of informal encampments in the 1950s. Urban Catalysts—Since 1890 The cultural transformation experienced in the 20th century by Aboriginal people in northern Canada is among the most dramatic and rapid changes. The emergence of settlements not only altered the seasonal patterns, economics, and social structures of families, but also the very physical and spatial realities of daily life, in what anthropologist Frank Tester describes as a “totalizing transformation.”2 He observes that this transformation induces portrayals of the North as having “epic narratives of progress,” though these suppress another story just “as episodic as it is epic”: relocation programs, residential schools, and other atrocious mistakes made in conjunction with the cause of rapid “progress.”3 Between the 1890s and the 1950s, numerous catalysts drove the transition to permanent settlements, including food and game availability, the promise and extraction of mineral resources, assertion of national sovereignty, and a desire to build “modern” communities. At this time, many Inuit migrated to trade and military posts, which served as points of attraction by offering economic and material opportunities. However, in many other instances Inuit were forcibly moved into settlements, as will be discussed later. Interactions with qallunaat, or non-Inuit (translated literally, it means “big, high eyebrows”), were critical to the transformation of traditional settlement and movement patterns and the increasingly sedentary lifestyle among Inuit. The effect of this change—which was rapid and coerced, though perhaps inevitable—is legible in the planning and infrastructure of the communities. Order Prior to Outside Contact For Inuit, seasonality shaped every aspect of traditional life: architecture, settlement organization, social structure, diet, and the materials of daily life “all change completely in accordance with the seasons.”4 The same people or their descendants returned to specific spots, barring any catastrophe that might destroy a settlement. As sociologist Marcel Mauss observed, “The settlement has more than just a name and a territory; it also possesses a linguistic unity as well as a moral and religious one.”5 Before European contact, Aboriginal peoples in the North were semi-nomadic, “aggregating for winter sea-mammal hunting, with dispersal for fishing and caribou hunting in the warmer seasons.”6 Community sizes and patterns varied across the Arctic, with the tendency in winter for larger groups of up to 100 to hunt on the ice.7 In summer, smaller groups (typically bound by family) built houses wherever a

MANY NORTHS

27


MIGRATION AND PERMANENCE SANIKILUAQ, NUNAVUT

Inuit migration and the establishment of camps or temporary settlements was an adaptive practice that responded to available resource, hunting, and trade opportunities. An area’s suitability was determined by the size of the population to be supported, as well as the duration and frequency of occupation. The location of settlements varied seasonally and annually, though familiarity with the local geography encouraged repeat visits. Leading up to the 1960s, Inuit settlements on the Belcher Islands tended to fluctuate in population composition, location, and degree of interaction with other settlements. The community divided into north and south camps at opposite ends of the islands, and the two groups’ specialized knowledge of the region determined their settlement preferences. Based on a 1959–61 study by anthropologist Milton Freeman, proximity to marine resources was the primary reason for selecting a winter settlement. Although people would sometimes travel between the islands and the mainland, off-island movement gradually decreased. This can be attributed to a decline in caribou on the mainland in the 1800s, as well as the establishment of trading posts on the islands in 1928. To centralize services, in 1971 the Canadian federal government relocated the buildings and people of the southern settlement to the northern settlement, site of the trading post. Residents still travel to different camps on the Belcher Islands; however, Sanikiluaq remains the only permanent settlement for the approximately 800 residents. The traditional movement patterns and subsequent settlement of the Belcher Island Inuit mirror many transformations across Nunavut.

54

URBANISM

SANIKILUAQ TIMELINE 1910 Pop.: 150 1915 First visit by Euro-Canadians 1928 Winter trading post established 1932 Regular RCMP patrols 1933 Year-round Hudson's Bay Company outpost established 1938 Pop.: 189 1950 HBC becomes seasonal 1971 Centralization in the northern community 2014 Pop.: 812


SETTLEMENT MOVEMENTS, BELCHER ISLANDS [1957−59]

+

le

Drawing informed by Milton Freeman, “An Ecological Study of Mobility and Settlement Patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo” [1960]

0

10

20

e tt

Temporary camps Major settlement areas Food mass and abundance Seasonal location, northern settlement [1957–58] Seasonal location, southern settlement [1958–59]

[1953] 20 Ungava Inuit

s

Some out-migration Hunting at floe edge

km

Bakers Dozen Islands

Northerners

Hudson Bay

Post-1971 camp location

+++++++

Settlement area 1

++++++

++++ Settlement area 4

Coats Bay

20,500

115,000 87,000

0

+++ 1,550,000 +

+ + + +

0

Northerners

Flaherty Island

400

Tukarak Island

600

+

+

7.5

2,500 ++

Kugong Island

75

400

+++++

250

40

Churchill Sound

Settlement area 2

Southerners

74,000

Southerners

+++ 540,000 +

+

40

400 + 0

Settlement area 3 ++

2,500

+ +

75

++

400

7.5

250

0 +++++++ 129,000

++++ 980,000

0

MANY NORTHS

55


BUILT FORM AND LANDFORM YUKON, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES & NUNAVUT

Northern settlements and infrastructure encounter unique landforms and physiography that necessitate innovation and negotiation. Central and eastern Arctic communities are often located on permafrost ground and along coastal regions with extreme geographic features such as glaciated mountains, fjordindented shorelines, and inland meltwater lakes. Western Arctic communities contend with interior plains and Arctic cordillera, with only some bedrock outcrops. Other distinct landforms include pingos, in the Mackenzie Delta; and tundra polygons, common in the central Arctic. Landform, permafrost, and geology continue to be primary factors in the growth and development of northern communities, further complicated by the ambiguities of how climate change may affect them. Climate challenges, seasonal changes in the landscape, and extreme weather events create instability and hazards such as flooding, landslides, building subsidence, coastal ice push, and coastal erosion. The transition from dispersed settlement patterns to permanent nucleated settlements during the 1950s and ’60s introduced Euro-Canadian-centric notions of community structure and administrative control. However, the form of Arctic settlements has developed primarily in deference to landform rather than through long-term planning or design. The complex geology and topography, compounded by remoteness, render construction difficult and costly. As a result, planning works opportunistically, seeking the easiest zones in which to build. These factors, combined with other challenges such as the risk of fire, produce seemingly haphazard built forms, with communities deferring to physiography.

70

URBANISM

COMMUNITY ESTABLISHMENT 1735 Rigolet, NL 1771 Nain, NL 1898 Whitehorse, YT 1911 Chesterfield Inlet, NU 1912 Aklavik, NT 1921 Pangnirtung, NU 1925 Salluit, QC 1927 Gjoa Haven, NU 1936 Yellowknife, NT 1942 Haines Junction, YT 1942 Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit), NU 1950s Igloolik, NU 1992 Norman Wells, NT


Norman Wells, NT

Baker Lake, NU

Arctic Bay, NU

Inukjuak, QC

150m 750ft

Salluit, QC

Rigolet, NL

Qikiqtarjuaq, NU

Ulukhaktok, NT

W/L

5.3

100m 500ft

200m 1000ft

Kangirsuk, QC

Gjoa Haven, NU

Haines Junction, YT

Akulivik, QC

Ross River, YT

Carmacks, YT

150m 750ft

100m 500ft

Makkovik, NL

Igloolik, NU 200m 1000ft 100m 500ft

100m 500ft

100m 500ft

100m 500ft

Kimmirut, NU

Rankin Inlet, NU

Resolute, NU

Nain, NL

MANY NORTHS

71


SNOW FENCES, NUNAVUT Snow fence

Snow fence, proposed

Iqaluit and Apex Pop.: 6,699 [2011] Fences: 6

Baker Lake Pop.: 1,872 [2011] Fences: 3 + 1 proposed

Chesterfield Inlet Pop.: 313 [2011] Fences: 2 + 2 proposed

Rankin Inlet Pop.: 2,266 [2011] Fences: 2

Clyde River Pop.: 576 [2011] Fence: 1

Gjoa Haven Pop.: 1,279 [2011] Fence: 1

Cambridge Bay Pop.: 1,608 [2011] Fence: 1

108

200m

URBANISM


Snow fences, Iqaluit, NU, 2009. Photograph by Ed Maruyama, courtesy of the City of Iqaluit.

MANY NORTHS

109


INUIT WINTER HOUSE Igloo Igloos were primarily used by Inuit in Canada’s Central Arctic and Greenland’s Thule Area. However, snow was a common material used throughout the Arctic to insulate dwellings, due to air pockets that trapped warmer air. Used for both temporary shelter and as semi-permanent dwellings, igloos were relatively fast and easy to construct in a short time, approximately 45 minutes to an hour. Igloos were typically built near access to food on sea ice after freeze-up, and in groups of two with multiple rooms. Inside, animal hides were used to insulate and extend the life of the dwelling, with raised sleeping platforms, as shown in the diagram below of a Inuit snow house. The longevity of the snow house also depended on weather conditions; in the coldest temperatures, igloos lasted four to six weeks. Drawings informed by: Molly Lee and Gregory A. Reinhardt, Eskimo Architecture, Dwelling and Structure in the Early Historic Period [2003]

Igloo Construction

1. Test snow quality with ice probe made of wood, baleen, antler, or ivory. 2. Trace a circle perimeter with a snow knife and remove snow.

3. Cut and place snow blocks in an upward spiral while trimming with a snow knife.

5. Cut doorway and shovel snow against exterior to shelter from wind and prevent erosion of snow.

4. Cut blocks from the base of the snow house to form a raised sleeping platform with warmer temperatures than in the main living area.

6. Build entrance tunnel.

Short tunnel

Loose protective snow

Furs for warmth Raised sleeping platform

Skins [> 125–126]

Snow block [> 125–126]

Snow knife [> 125–126]

Snow probe [> 125–126]

Toggles [> 125–126]

Qulliq [> 125–126]


Snow House Variations Windows face south to maximize sun exposure Located out of prevailing wind on east- or south- facing slopes

Vent hole

12-14’ Piled snow provides insulation

Storage Wind screen

Entrance tunnel

Raised sleeping area

Cooking place

Window above

Wood door

Southern Central Inuit Igloo Location: Central Arctic Materials: snow, ice, animal skin, board [door]

Storage

Communal dance area

Sleeping platform

Kitlinermiut Inuit Igloo Location: Central Arctic Materials: piled snow, snow blocks, animal skin roof Sleeping platform

Sleeping platform

Storage niche Raised sleeping platform

Kitchen

Traveller’s Igloo Location: Central Arctic Materials: piled snow, snow blocks, animal skins

0

100

200

Iglulik Igloo Location: Central Arctic Materials: piled snow, snow blocks, animal skins

Sleeping platform

km

MANY NORTHS

145


CLIMATIC FACTORS ARCTIC-WIDE

The climate in the Canadian Arctic reveals diverse conditions across a massive territory, even within the region of over 1.5 million kilometres designated as the Arctic ecozone. Weather and climate depend on such interacting conditions as latitude, temperature, land mass, and oceanic air currents, producing varying patterns and feedbacks. While some areas may experience similar conditions, the magnitude may vary, and areas near the ocean experience a more moderate climate, with slightly warmer temperatures and heavier snowfall than in the interior. Extremes in daylight hours are found above the Arctic Circle, where days can vary from 24 hours of daylight to constant darkness. Precipitation is low—some parts receive less than 250 millimetres a year—consisting mostly of icy snow that is often redistributed by strong winds. Indeed, most of the northeast is considered a polar desert. Winds tend to be stronger in the eastern region and are known as westerlies, the main wind pattern in the northern hemisphere. Understanding climatic factors is essential for building design, to mitigate high winds, anticipate snow accumulation, and integrate solar gain. A structure’s specific orientation can be used strategically to absorb direct and indirect light, and high-level window screens are often added to exterior facades to control direct low light into the spaces. Positioning a building with its long axis parallel to the equator maximizes sun exposure, while the entrance should respond to wind direction, to avoid snow accumulation and exposure.

164

ARCHITECTURE

ARCTIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Coldest Place December 17, 2013 Eureka Airport, NU: –42°C Coldest Temperature Recorded Snag, YT: –63°C Annual Heating Degree Days Below 18°C Resolute, NU: 12,630 Total Bright Sunshine Iqaluit: 1,487 hrs./yr. Yellowknife: 2,277 hrs./yr. Mean Wind Speed Chesterfield Inlet, NU: 22 km/h Maximum Gust Speed Baker Lake, NU: 177 km/h Soil Temperature at 1 m Deep Resolute, NU: –11 Total Annual Precipitation Sachs Harbour, NT: 127 mm Tungsten, NT: 646 mm Mean Annual Snowfall Arctic Bay, NU: 71.5 cm Keno Hill, YT: 365.7 cm


Arctic haze limits visibility for residents in Cape Dorset, NU, 2012. Photograph by Christa Jaypoody.

MANY NORTHS

165


DAYLIGHT FACTORS Drawing informed by Environment Canada

De ce mb er 21 Ju ne 21

e ur os e xp e ur lar os xp r so e e t n Wi lar r so me Sum

2

1 7

5

3

4

CANADA

6 8

AT NOR L OC AN TH EA TIC N

Nunavut Northwest Territories Yukon Territory Arctic Circle [66.5o N] Town / Hamlet

IA

RUSS

USA

2. Baker Lake, NU

1. Inuvik, YT

68°21’42” N, 133°43’50” W

64°19’05” N, 96°01’03” W

24-hr daylight

24 h

16 h 8h

0-hr daylight

0h JAN –26.9°C

JUN 11.6°

Daylight hours

Daylight hours

24 h

DEC –24.1°

0h JAN –31.3°C

24 h

24 h

16 h

16 h

8h

0-hr daylight

0h JAN –32.0°C

JUN 0.4°

DEC –27.9°

0h JAN –28.0°C

6. Sanikiluaq, NU

24 h

24 h

60°43” N, 135°03” W

Daylight hours

8h JUN 12.3°

DEC –12.5°

DEC –24.0°

JUN 6.3°

DEC –16.6°

69°07’02” N, 105°03’11” W

JUN 18.0°

DEC –3.0°

16 h 8h 0h JAN –22.8°C

8. Montreal, QC

7. Cambridge Bay, NU

45°30” N, 73°34” W

24-hr daylight

24 h

16 h

16 h

8h

0-hr daylight

JUN 2.7°

ARCHITECTURE

DEC –28.3°

Daylight hours

24 h

166

JUN 13.0°

56°32’34” N, 79°13’30” W

16 h

0h JAN –32.0°C

DEC –26.8°

8h

5. Whitehorse, YT

0h JAN –15.2°C [avg.]

JUN 4.9°

62°26’32” N, 114°23’51” W

24-hr daylight

Daylight hours

Daylight hours

74°41’51” N, 94°49’56” W

Daylight hours

8h

4. Yellowknife, NT

3. Resolute, NU

Daylight hours

16 h

8h 0h JAN –10.0°C


PERMAFROST FACTORS Permafrost Distribution by Latitude in Nunavut and Nunavik Drawing modified from Sladen [2011] Clyde River

Pangnirtung

Iqaluit

Kuujjuaq

–15.1°C

–12.8°C

–7.5°C

–9.8°C

–5.7°C

–4.8°C

–8.5°C

–7.2°C

–5.2°C

–7.2°C

–2.9°C

–1.2°C

Umiujaq

it

Treeline

St ra on ds

Nunavut

Nunavik

55 o N

0

Hu

75 o Ec N lip se

Depth [m]

So

C So um un be d rl

un

an

d

Ground Temp

d

Pond Inlet Air Temp

200 400 600

Discontinuous permafrost

Continuous permafrost

Permafrost Coverage [2005] Drawing informed by International Permafrost Association Continuous Discontinuous Isolated Sporadic

USA

CAN ADA

A SSI RU

Arctic Ocean

GR EE NL AN D

NORWAY

ICE LAN D

MANY NORTHS

167


EAST THREE SCHOOL INUVIK, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

The East Three School, the largest construction project commissioned to date by the Government of Northwest Territories, amalgamated the former Alexander Mackenzie Elementary School and the Samuel Hearne High School, which suffered from failing wood pile foundations. The 128,000-square-foot, crescentshaped building has 54 classrooms that can accommodate 1,050 students, which is large relative to a community of 3,400. A central gym, a library, and an administration area serve the high school on one side and the elementary school on the other. These programs function as a community hub where many local events and activities take place. Construction involves planning for major temperature fluctuations, from –57°C in winter to 32°C in summer, as well as an understanding of climate change and its future effects. The building design entailed careful planning and consideration of wind speeds, snow accumulation, sun exposure, and permafrost; the steel structure is set on steel friction piles that extend 15 to 23 metres down to anchor in the permafrost. Elevating the building allows for wind and snow movement underneath, to dissipate heat transfer to the ground below, while screens on the south-facing windows reduce the glare of low winter light. The landscape design sources local plants, using specimens that thrive in northern conditions. Indigenous seedlings were collected, but in the absence of nurseries they had to be grown in a propagation facility in Vancouver for two years before being transplanted locally. Planting strategies such as shelterbelts and swales protect the school from high winds and are used to collect water.

192

ARCHITECTURE

EAST THREE SCHOOL Operated by Government of Northwest Territories Architect Pin/Taylor Architects Landscape Architect Cornelia Hahn Oberlander Landscape Architects Size 11,500 m2 [128,000 sq. ft.] building on 6.25 hectares Cost $110 million Completion 2012 Students 1,050 capacity Classrooms 54


INUVIK ENVIRONMENT Average temperatures and daylight vary greatly throughout the year. JAN Temp. [avg.] Precip. [avg.]

–26.9°C 12.5 mm

FEB –25.5°C 13.1 mm

MAR –16.8°C 11.9 mm

APR –6.3°C 9.8 mm

MAY –5.2°C 17.3 mm

JUN 11.6°C 17.3 mm

JUL 14.1°C 35.0 mm

AUG 11.0°C 39.4 mm

OCT

SEP 3.9°C 29.3 mm

NOV

–7.6°C 24.4 mm

–21.1°C 16.0 mm

DEC –24.1°C 14.8 mm

Community Programming School Programming

Natural playscape at the East Three School, Inuvik, NT, 2012. Photograph by Ihor Pona.

MANY NORTHS

193


Snowmobile I Snow Fence

HBC

p1 in Line

Stone Slabs

Stone Wei

MB

Toggles Snow Fence Rope, Qamutik 25, 50, and 100 cents, with a sixth valued at one Arctic fox skin. All had HBC

stamped on them, with the reverse blank. Made Beaver Trucksfill Station Radarsat-2 utik Fuel Tank Snow Goggles nce TOKEN, MADE BEAVER 435

Token, Arctic Fox Snow Goggles Radarsat-2 UTILIDOR, MODERN 125, 178

Utilidor, Original Shipping Container Tarp Snow Probe Fuel Tank Snowmobile

Snow Goggles Fuel Tank Snow Probe Shipping Container cargo onto the platform of the barge,

Snow Pr HB EM I MB

Tarp Snowmobile, m

which is then towed inland.

Utilidor, Late TogglesHBCmulti Snowmobile, TarpCARGO VESSEL,

1 259, 264

Stone Slabs

Token, Arctic Toggle

Stone We

Inuvik has replaced its original utilidors HBC with a more modern tube type. Water Token, Made Beaver Trucksfill Utilidor, Original Station Utilidor, Late HBC is carriedStone in one tube with sewage in Stone 1 Snowmobile Slabs Water Tank Qamutik ns SnowWeights Block Slucer 1 insulated dual another, resulting in an The typical Arctic cargo ship has a mechanism that runs throughout the , Utilidette Utilidor, Wood cargowith The earliest currency established as Box community. Vessel, Barge reinforcedVessel, hull, and is equipped k Snow Block Slucer Made Utilidor, Original Trucksfill Station Utilidor, La Stone Weights ile Stone Slabs Water Tank part ofToken, the fur trade was theBeaver trade cranes and additional machinery for HB Token, Made Beaver Utilidor, O Trucksfill Station EM token, each with an assigned value in delivering supplies in the summer. Types I MB exchange for furs. Introduced between UTILIDOR, UTILIDETTE include the MV Mitiq, which can carry Toggl 730 TEUs (20-foot equivalents), and the 102 Tank 1860 and 1870, the Made Beaver token Tarp Fuel MV Avataq,HBwhich carries 567 TEUs. was stamped from brass and could be Utilidor, Utilidette EM Utilidor, Wood Box redeemed for Vessel, materials andBarge supplies at Vessel, cargo I Toggles MB TarpProbe Fuel Goggles Tank Token, Arctic Hudson’s Bay Company posts. Additional Snow Fence Snow Snowmobile, multi VESSEL, FERRY tokens were circulated by other trading HBC for commercial use. Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, 244 icebreaker Ferry posts andVessel, 1that A Utilidor, small utility corridor connects Utilidor, Utilidette gles Wood Box Snow Probe Snowmobile, multi Vessel, car Vessel, Barge Toggles Tarp nk Token, Arctic FoxBox individual houses or multiplexes to Utilidor, Utilidette Utilidor, Wood Vessel, B HBC the main utilidor. It typically contains TRUCK FILL STATION 1 water and sewage lines, and is heated 100 Token, Made Beaver Utilidor, O Trucksfill Station or insulated and covered in aluminum Many highways have ferry crossings in siding. Vessel, Iceb Vessel, Ferry erg Tourist Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, icebreaker the summer for traversing open water Token, MadeSlabs Beaver Utilidor, Original Trucksfill Station Utilidor, L Stone Weights bile Stone Water Tank where no bridge exists, or later in the season before the ice roads are ready. UTILIDOR, WOOD BOX Vessel, Supply Vibrodensifier Vessel, Francis serves a The MV Abraham rely Offshore on water delivery 102 Tugboat MerchantMost communities Stone Weights abs Water Tank Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Water Vessel, icebre crossing atIceberg the PeelLate River, near Fort by truckTrucksfill rather than by pipe. The two Vessel, Ferry Beaver Utilidor, Original Station Utilidor, Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Icebe Vessel, Ferry HB from around June 1 to McPherson, NT, main types of stations are dedicated EM I October 25. MB operations that draw from a source or a storage link, and truck fill operations Utilidor, Utilidette Utilidor, Wood Box Vessel, from a water main. These stations HB EM Vessel, Offs VESSEL, ICEBERG TOURISM Other, less costly receive theirVessel, water from a Tugboat piped source, Vessel, Merchant hore Supply I utilidor types include Vibrodensifier MB Utilidor, Utilidette Wood Box Vessel, car Vessel, Barge 417, 418 Fox theUtilidor, diamond-shaped econodor and such as a nearby lake, or via an inclined Toggles Tarp Tank Token, Arctic the wood box utilidor, which contains shaft system that draws the water up a community sewage line and a water from a source below. Water Temping Station Whale Bone Wood Poles Sprayer main covered in insulation and set upon Vessel, Offshore Supply Toggles Token, Arctic Fox Vibrodensifie Vessel, Tugboat Vessel, Merchant ilidette Utilidor, Wood Box Vessel, cargo Supply Vessel, Barge a gravel pad. The original econodor was Vessel, Offshore Vessel, T Vessel, Merchant designed to survive freezing without UTILIDOR, ORIGINAL Iceberg tourism has become a major damage, and contained water, heat, and 102 Vessel, Icebergand Tourist Vessel, Iceb Vessel, Ferry industry in Newfoundland Labrador, sewer lines. Both types have since been especially in Twillingate, known as the replaced by more efficient and durable Water Tempin ng Station Whale Bone “icebergWater capital ofSprayer the world” for the systems. Wood Poles Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, IcebergLate Water Vessel, icebre Vessel, e Beaver Utilidor, Original TrucksfillFerry Station large Utilidor, number of icebergs that float past its shores in early spring and summer. Tours are offered in a variety of vessels, Utility corridors were built in larger VESSEL, BARGE from kayaks to small float boats and communities with permafrost soil, and 244, 259 Utilidor, Original Water Temping Station tation Utilidor, Late Whale Bone Wood Poles Water Sprayer Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, icebreaker erry Water Temping Whale B Water Sprayer larger 30-foot motorboats.Station served as communal conduits to and from buildings. The early utilidors, built in the late 1950s and ’60s, were insulated Vessel, Offshore Supply Vessel, T Vessel, Merchant structures covered in aluminum siding. They contained a sewage line, a water Vessel, Supply When a cargoOffshore ship reaches shallow hot water supply and return. Vibrodensifi Vessel, Tugboat Merchant Utilidettemain, andVessel, Utilidor, Wood Box Vessel, cargo Vessel, Barge water, it transfers its load onto a barge. The system included numerous valve Built-in cranes on the incoming vessel houses, which allowed for junctions lift shipping containers and other bulk where it could branch.

od Box rchant

Ferry

Vessel, BargeSupply Vessel, Offshore

Vessel, Tugboat cargo Vessel,

Water Sprayer 470

TECHNOLOGY INDEX

Temping Station Water Iceberg Sprayer Tourist Water Vessel, Vessel, Iceberg Water

Vibrodensifier

Water Temping Station Whaleicebreaker Bone Vessel,

Whale

Wood Poles


Stone Weights Token, Arctic Fox Tarp Trucksfill Station

one Slabs oggles , Fuel Made Tank Beaver

Water Tank Vessel, Ferry Toggles Utilidor, Original

Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Vessel, cargo Vessel, Ferry Barge Utilidor, Utilidette Utilidor, Wood Box HB

or, Wood Box

VESSEL, ICEBERG WATER 418

HBC

1

Tarp r, Original or, Made Utilidette en, Beaver

VESSEL,

A ship is equipped with a mechanical

claw to grab 680-kilogram chunks Water from Vessel, Merchant Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Iceberg Vessel, Ferry icebergs. These are deposited into

Utilidor, Original sfill Station Vessel, cargo el, Barge idor, Utilidette Utilidor, Wood Box Vessel, Iceberg Tourist el, Ferry

Offshore Supply

VESSEL, ICEBREAKER 259 HBC

Water Sprayer Vessel, Tugboat Vessel, Merchant 1

Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, Barge

Stone Slabs Token, Arctic Fox Vessel, Merchant Utilidor, Original Vessel, Barge

Vessel, Offshore Supply Vessel, cargo Utilidor, Late

This ship can range from 20 to 100

WATER TEMPERING STATION

Vessel, Offshore Supply metres in length and accomplish a Vessel, Vessel, icebreaker Iceberg Tourist

102 Vessel, Tugboat Vessel, Iceberg Water

variety of tasks. Its main function is the transportation of goods and personnel Tank to and from Fuel oil platforms and other offshore structures. The oil industry also Tarp utilizes PSVs to tow icebergs, to prevent collisionsUtilidor, with offshore rigs.Late

Water Sprayer Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, Barge HBC

1 TUG VESSEL,

Water Temping Station Vibrodensifier Vessel, Offshore Supply 244 Token, Made Beaver

Water Ta

Vess HB

EM Vibrode I Vessel, MB

Token, Arct

Utilidors include a water temperature Water system Temping Station monitoring of circulation Vessel, cargo and Vessel, icebreaker heating stations, to prevent water from freezing as it passes through the pipes.

Whale Bone Vessel, Tugboat WHALE BONE 146

Wh

Wood Vibr

Utilidor,

Trucksfill Station

Token, Made Beaver Utilidor, Original Trucksfill Station is required to have dor, Wood Box The icebreakerVessel, Vessel, cargo Barge shape, with structural A tugboat hauls barges to land for Iceberg Water a specific Vessel, icebreaker Vessel, Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Iceberg Vessel, icebreaker Vibrodensifier of theOffshore bow and alongSupply dockingVessel, and unloading. It can rangeWater ssel, Ferry reinforcement Vessel, Tugboat el, Merchant the waterline of the hull, to withstand

Stone

Tog

Tarp Toggles

Vessel,

Vessel, i Vess

belly valves, and water tanks that spray the surface to prevent ice from building Stone Slabs up. Oversized flotation tires, which Stone spread theWeights load across the ice surface, make it suitable as a lead unit.

SUPPLY

420 Snowmobile

Snowmobile Toggles Utilidor, Late Utilidor, Wood Box Trucksfill Station

tanks below deck for transport back to land, where the water is harvested and bottled for consumption or used for Fuel Tank distilling spirits.

EM I PLATFORM MB

Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Token, Arctic Utilidor, Late Fox

Utilidor,

from 35 to more than 60 metres long and over 13 metres wide. The Beverly M1 Wood Poles Water Station is primarily usedTemping in the North Atlantic. At 35 metres long by 10.5 wide, it has a Utilidor, gross tonnage of 450Utilidette metric tons and a cruising speed of 7.5 knots.

Traditionally used as a structural Bone Woo material for Whale Inuit shelters where timber act as a heavy tug and supply vessel or driftwood was not readily available. for offshore oil rigs, to open up safe Utilidor, Box for their Ribs or mandiblesWood were chosen waterways for other vessels, to Vessel length, with animal skins stretched over deliver the annual sealift to coastal Utilidor, Utilidette Utilidor, Wood Box Vessel, c Vessel, Barge them. Whale bone was also carved to communities, and to support scientific Iceberg Tourist make utensils. expeditions. Notable examples include Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, icebreaker l, Tugboat Amundsen , a research vessel VIBRO-DENSIFIER the CCGS Vibrodensifier Vessel, Offshore Supply Vibrodensifier Vessel, Tugboat Water Temping Station ssel, Merchantoperated Whale Wood Poles er Sprayer by the Canadian Coast Guard; 457 Bone the CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent , the largest WOODEN POSTS icebreaker and flagship of the Canadian 148 Coast Guard; the MV Arctic , classified as an icebreaking cargo ship; and the CCGS Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Ic Vessel, Ferry Terry Fox . A ground improvement process that Vessel, Iceberg Tourist Vessel, Iceberg Water Vessel, iceb Vessel, Ferry densifies soils by rearranging loose Offshore Supply Vibrodensifier Vessel, Tugboat VESSEL, sand grains into a denser array through Made of driftwood and sometimes used le Bone WoodMERCHANT Poles dike construction as structuralWood members in traditional Inuit Water417 Temping Stationvibration. DuringWhale Bone at the Poles ter Sprayer Diavik Diamond Mine, in NT, the method summer shelters. They were joined into was employed for fill placement, to a conical tent frame and covered with reduce porosity and improve strength of animal hides, and guarded carefully due the fill used for bentonite slurry. to their scarcity.

It was designed mping Station contact with ice. Whale Bone to Water Sprayer

Vessel, Merchant

Primarily used for cargo and passengers. Vessel, Offshore Supply Vessel, Merchant A ship is encouraged to report all WATER SPRAYER to the International emping Stationiceberg sightingsWhale Bone Ice Wood276 Poles Patrol, and is crucial to the detection and measurement of icebergs as well as calculating their routes. To ensure safety, it also receives estimates of iceberg positions from the Iceberg Analysis and Prediction System. A large diesel truck that prepares and repairsWater ice roads Sprayer by flooding the surface. It is equipped with heated pump boxes,

Water Sprayer

Water Temping Station

Vessel, Offshore Supply

Vessel,

Vibrodens

Vessel, Tugboat

Water Temping Station

Whal

Whale Bone

MANY NORTHS

Wood Pol

471


Many Norths  

Many Norths: Spatial Practice in a Polar Territory charts the unique spatial realities of Canada’s Arctic region, an immense territory popul...

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