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Oath of the Horatii David (1785)

Souvenir de Mortefontaine Corot (1864)

Humanities Honors 2010 Catalog of Gallery Projects

Jean-Antoine Watteau: French Rococo Painter Isabel Aharonian Pg. 6

Table of Contents

Jacques Louis David: The Pioneer of Neoclassical Art Con Avgoustopoulos Pg. 11

“The Most Humble Romantic Painter”: Theodore Gericault Raphael Kokkinos Pg. 16

Eugene Delacroix Afrodite Paloumbis Pg. 21

Camille Jean Baptiste Corot: Barbizon School of Landscape Irene Tzelalis Pg. 25


New Dignity of the Common People: Jean Francois Millet Ye Won Kim Pg. 31

Edouard Manet: A Painter from Realism to Impressionism Soo Yeon Kim Pg. 37

Paul Cezanne: Impressionist and Founder of Cubism Chris Monopolis Pg.44

Edgar Degas Katarina Richter-Lund Pg. 49

Claude Monet Samantha Strader Pg. 54


Pierre Auguste Renoir Evi Sotiropoulos Pg. 60

Romanticism in Bronze and Marble: Auguste Rodin Rachel Todd Pg. 64

Paul Gauguin Niko Kazekeas Pg. 71

Vincent Willem Van Gogh Do Won Kim Pg. 79

Matisse Natalie Sarianides Pg. 84

Pablo Picasso Dimitri Tsioumas Pg. 91


Forward On the following pages the Humanities Honors students have captured three hundred years of art, from Rococo to Cubism. Our projects detail the lives and careers of sixteen artists, beginning with Watteau in the early eighteenth century and ending with Pablo Picasso in the mid-twentieth century. Hopefully we have successfully captured and connected these varied artists and their respective styles — it is only through connections that history is made. Enjoy! Rachel Todd, Editor

Compiled and Edited by Rachel Todd and Dmitri Tsioumas 5

Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721): French Rococo Painter By Isabel Aharonian Jean-Antoine Watteau was born in the Flemish town of Valenciennes on October 10th, 1864. He showed interest in painting at a very young age and was trained by a local painter Jacques-Albert Gérin for years. Not having much to learn from him he moved to Paris in 1702. He fast found work at the Pont Notre-Dame, making copies of popular paintings inspired by the Flemish and Dutch style. It was during these years that Watteau formed his characteristic sketch like method. In 1703 Watteau became assistant of painter Claude Gillot, who’s work represented the complete opposite of Louis XIV's reign. In Gillot’s studio Watteau studied characters of the commedia dell'arte, which eventually became one of Watteau’s life long passions. Watteau then moved on to the workshop of Claude Audran III, an interior decorator (he decorated the Palais du Luxembourg, where Watteau was able to study the masterpieces of other artists.) The painting to the left is named Gilles Pierrot (1721). Inspired by the commedia dell’arte, Watteau has painted himself portrayed in clown costume surrounded by entertainers. He seems to be in his own world disconnected from the others. He expresses a mixed emotion as his eyes are facing down, but his body posture is open. All light is focused on him emphasizing on the silky costume expressed by light and shadow. In 1709, he tried to win the prix de Rome. Being rejected he tried to again in 1712. At this stage Watteau was so good that the acad6

emy offered him a full membership at the academy instead of the oneyear stay in Rome. In 1717 he became a full member of the French royal academy. His reception piece was the Embarkation to Cythera (1717).

The Embarkation of Cythera is inspired from the Island of Cythera (Aphrodite), the island of love. The painting consists of cherubs, which are a very common rococo trait. On the right side there is a statue of Aphrodite, which symbolizes worship. All the human figures are dressed in beautiful silks, emphasizing on their class. It is interesting that Watteau portrayed the elite life, but his buyers were bourgeois. Gathering in a Park (1716) expresses a calm feeling with a very little movement. It shows the aristocratic life through the delicate folds, the shine and softness of the silk. The light is coming from the middle, creating aerial perspective as well as linear perspective. Like the previous in the image, he used 7

low saturated colors and has a dainty use of line. Diana bathing (1721) was one of his last works. The palette is very similar to the one of his past works, but the subject matter has shifted. There is still the sense of pleasure, but it doesn’t hold the typical irrational state of mind that his characters usually held. Watteau’s skill here is expressed in his portrayal of the foot seen through the shimmering water. There are buildings in the background and interestingly there lies a bow and arrow next to her, which is a manly characteristic. The bow and arrow could also refer to the cherubs and love. Jean Antoine Watteau died July 18, 1721 at the age of 37 on the high point of his career. It is said that the last days of his life Watteau was mute and semi conscious, but he held one to a paint brush painting imaginary objects into the air until he died. Watteau’s work holds all the rococo properties, for example most of his paintings are pastoral and portray a calm, but playful sense. Most figures are aristocratic; as they are dressed in expensive silks, which the viewer sees by the techniques that Watteau expresses folds, and the softness of the cloth through light and shadow. He has a very dainty use of line, which is very well expressed in the Embarkation to Cythera and Gathering in a Park. Watteau portrays everything always leaving something out to be questioned. His work is also very much inspired by old myths and the theme of love.


The Nymph and the Satyre (1715-1716)

The Nymph and satyr differ greatly from the other pieces because Watteau portrays a much darker and unpleasant side. It is almost as if the girl is in her heavenly pleasant destination, but he is invading her vision. The colors are lowly saturated and ones emphasis is brought upon the beauty of the body, as the contrast of her skin differs greatly to the rest of the painting. Again this irrational state is a trait of Rococo. There are buildings in the background. The image doesn’t hold clear and crisp line, in stead it hold smooth and curving lines. The piece is mysterious and there is something questionable behind it.


Works Cited 1. "Jean-Antoine Watteau Biography." Jean-Antoine Watteau - The Complete Works. Web. 8 May 2010. <http://www.jean-antoin>. 2. "Jean-Antoine Watteau." Mark Harden's Artchive. Web. 8 May 2010. <>. 3. "WebMuseum: Watteau, Jean-Antoine." - Travel and the Outdoors. Web. 7 May 2010. < watteau/>.


Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) The Pioneer of Neoclassical Art A Gallery Project By Constantine Avgoustopoulos Jacques Louis David was a very influential artist of the Neoclassical period. He was a revolutionary in art as was Napoleon in the French revolution. His reaction to Rococo is the same reaction of the French to the monarchy. He despised the rococo style and so he developed a new style which would express a much more serious classical style. What interesting about him is that he was a very passionate supporter of the revolution during the age of reason, which is certainly the reason he is a predominant figure of the enlightenment. He has several very famous works of art that were made by him, Including The Tennis Court Oath, The Death of Marat, one of his very own self portraits, and The Oath of the Horatii. His style features a very serious classical style, there is a lot of restrain and order in his works. Everything is clear and balanced. Nearly all of his paintings featured themes such as heroism and nobility even his very own self portrait Self Portrait (1794)

This is a perfect example of Davidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s style of painting; you can see here everything is very clear. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all about being completely static and very serious; he gave himself a very noble and heroic appearance


Tennis Court Oath (1789)

This is a painting of a real historical event that happened during the first days of the French revolution. The oath was a pledge of 576 signatories of the national assembly all but one member signed the oath which can be seen in the lower center of the painting with one man sitting down not taking part in anything. What had happened was in the morning of June 20th the door to their chamber was locked and guarded. So the national assembly made an improvised oath in a real tennis court. It is one of the influential paintings of the French revolution showing the French citizens to rebel against the monarch. This has significant them of Nobility which supports the subject matter that is being shown here. As we see there is defiantly a sense of balance here as the national assembly is equally spread out. This is a complete opposite to the rococo style where things look very clear. What is interesting here is that all of the members are very excited and are getting up ready to rebel it has a very loyal and revolutionary theme to it.


Death of Marat (1793)

This is a painting of a man by the name of Jean-Paul Marat, which is another depiction of the French Revolution. Marat was a friend of David who was diagnosed with a skin disease which forced him to spend a lot of time in the bath tub. He wrote for a newspaper, but his view of the revolution was that violence was the only solution to success. Ironically however a woman who was also pro revolution believed that there should be no bloodshed. These opposing views drove the woman to kill the man. The painting itself is very sharp and orderly and you can see the use of light and shadow to give the painting volume. Although Marat is very much dead there is still a heroic theme in this painting that David wanted to show. Since he was writing in a revolutionary newspaper and he believed in the Revolution itself he was considered a hero. This scene shows that heroism, it has a sort of grace to it.


Oath of Horatii (1785)

This is one of the most famous paintings done by David; it is probably one of the most representative paintings of neoclassical art. It is the subject matter of the sons of Horatius swearing that they will defend Rome and the family until the death. The Subject appealed to David since it is an act of heroism. The 3 men have a very symbolic stance all of them with a gaze and outstretched arms representing patriotism. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s classical in a sense that the men and father have no expression as well as the fact that it is a very clear and well planned painting. The light and shadow is all very sharp giving them volume. The way that David wants to emphasize the subject matter is by making the light directly hit them while keeping the background rather dark. There is a very sensible balance in the painting, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all very harmonious and spaced out; the painting is full. The painting itself is very rigid; we can see the way the brothers are compared to the straightness of the columns in the background. The quality of the painting is very clear not like the Rococo style where the brush strokes are clearly visible


Works Cited Bertman, Sandra L. "Death of Marat." Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database. New York University, 12 Feb. 2002. Web. 31 May 2010. < action=view&annid=10364>. Crow, Thomas, and Francois De Vergnette. "The Oath of the Horatii Jacques-Louis David (Paris, 1748-Brussels, 1825) Paintings | Louvre Museum." Louvre. Web. 31 May 2010. <http:// CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225718&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt _id=10134198673225718&FOLDERfolder_id=985272369650081 5&bmLocale=en>. "The Death of Marat - Jacques-Louis David." Boston College. Web. 31 May 2010. < neocl_dav_marat.html>. Kreis, Steven. "The Oath of the Tennis Court (June 20, 1789)." The History Guide -- Main. 2001. Web. 31 May 2010. <http://>. "The Oath of the Horatii, - Jacques-Louis David." Boston College. Web. 31 May 2010. < art/neocl_dav_oath.html>. "The Tennis Court Oath." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 31 May 2010. < tennis_court_oath.shtml>.


Theodore Géricault (1792-1824): The most humble Romantic painter By Raphael Kokkinos Jean Luis Andre Théodore Géricault was born on September 26th 1791 and died in 1824 in Rouen, Normandy, France. He was a very talented and influential French artist, painter and also lithographer, known mainly for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings like the Madwoman etc. He was one of the pioneers of the Romantic Movement and was considered to be an early example of Transgressive art. Géricault was educated by Carle Vernet and Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, that really recognized his talent. Géricault decided to study at the Louvre. He copied from paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Titian, Diego Velázquez, and Rembrandt from the years 1810 to 1815. His first major work was The Charging Chasseur which revealed the influence of the style of Rubens and an interest in the depiction of contemporary subject matter. In the following years, Géricault produced a series of small studies of horses and cavalrymen, since he was very interested in horses. Gericault painted with all the verve of the Romantic style and had a major influence on the younger Eugene Delacroix, the later leader of French Romanticism.

This is a painting called Grey Dappled horse. Its a very characteristic theme by Gericault, not at all unexpected, because he liked horses a lot, painting them but also riding, watching races with them etc. Sometimes, Gericault even did «portraits» of horses. I am assuming that maybe this painting might a study for the painting The Charging Chasseur.


This is a painting called The Charging Chasseur. Gericault did this painting in 1812. Its one of his most famous painting, combining all of the things he is famous for, for example his passion and interest for horses, his addition of small details that made his paintings more intriguing, exotic and interesting, like the leopard skin on the back of his horse, and of course a very strong Romantic element, coming from the subject matter, that is depicting an obviously important and powerful officer that clearly had a very high position in the imperial guard, sitting on his horse proud and strong, ÂŤsupervisingÂť the battle. This sketch is called Episode from Napoleonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Retreat from Russia. It was painted by Gericault at 1812. Once again it has a horse, and it portrays Romanticism, since it has soldiers, but in my opinion it is quite an unusual portrayal of Romanticism, since it shows French soldiers being defeated, wounded, tired, and while they are retreating. So its not a typical Romantic theme portraying heroes or important people, but it shows soldiers, which in a way can be considered heroes, even if they are retreating. This is a painting that is called The woman with Gambling Mania, painted by Gericault for five years (1819-1824). This is a 17

perfect example of Gericault's research and studies from real people, often troubled or crazy people. His aim through these studies was to understand human emotions, since he believed that a humans face reflects their emotions. Gericault generally did a lot of studies from life, studying their postures, proportions, expressions, lights and shadows, etc.

This is Madwoman, another example of Gericault's studies of unstable people. Its one of his most famous paintings as well, and was done in 1822. Gericault painted her in a mental institute that had all kinds of weird, crazy people, and focused on her expression and the emotions that it depicts. And its true, that he succeeded very much in portraying insanity, her expression is very extreme, but yet very realistic.

This is Gericault's most famous and renowned painting, The Raft of the Medusa. It was painted between 1818 until 1819, but even 18

though this is quite a short period for an artist like Gericault to create a masterpiece, it actually did not take him so little. I am saying that because Gericault did research for this particular piece for a very long time before he started it. Also he did many studies, even with color, and many of them were actually small masterpieces themselves, as you can see here. Gericault visited morgues, to study the expressions of the dead people, he visited hospitals to study the expressions of people that were about to die, and generally he did many sketches and studies for different compositions before he actually even started working on it.

This painting is about the surviving crew of the ship ÂŤMedusaÂť that sank, so the people that survived stayed in a raft for a very long time, until they were rescued finally by another ship, but still, some of them did not make it. It shows the exact moment when they have just spotted the ship in the horizon, an some of them, ecstatic are trying to attract attention at the ship, while some others, that have not seen the ship yet, are standing there, deprived of all hope. Also we see some dead, or ready to die people that Gericault did his studies at morgues and hospitals for. This painting has a strong Romantic theme, since its portraying people that struggled against all odds for days, and did not give up, even though they could have, and were finally rewarded for their patience and courage. An interesting fact is that The Raft of the Medusa, is the only one of his paintings that Gericault considers finished pieces. 19

The composition of the painting is also very interesting, since it has two pyramid shapes, the sail and the humans on the right and also it has an interesting use of light and shadow, with the light being exaggerated and focusing at the figures.

Works Cited: Art of Europe. Web. <> Harden, Mark. “Artchive” Mark Haden’s Artchive. Web. <http://>. Questia Online Library. Web. <>.


Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) By Afrodite Paloumbis

A French Romantic artist, he followed Impressionist and Symbolist movement. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic. Delacroix was influenced deeply by his friend Theodore Gericault, Delacroix was also inspired by Byron. "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible."

The Massacres of Scio(1824):

This painting betrays on similar close scrutiny something of the effect on him of Constableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Haywain. It used to be said that the sky of the Massacres was influenced by English pictures and so it may have been.


The Women of Algiers(1834): Delacroix had the idea of great modern painting wrought out of colour taking the whole of romance, the colours of their dresses and the way they stand with all these jewelleries is itself an irresistibly magnetic subject matter. We can see how Delacroix turning figure lines in Matisse's imagination indeed accumulated in glamour that was hardly his own.

Liberty Leading the People(1830): This painting has caused a disturbance. It is an allegorical figure of liberty as a halfd r a p e d woman wearing the wearing the traditional Phrygian cap of liberty and holding a gun in one hand and the tricolor in the other. Liberty is not a woman; she is an abstract force. is meant to celebrate the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king.


The Death of Sardanapalus(1827-28):

This painting gave Delacroix a chance to depict in a remote place and time the sort of physical and emotional violence that so fascinated many painters of this age. Delacroix depicted the last moments of Sardanapalus, who watches as all his treasures, horses, and concubines are brought together to be burned with him in a defiant act of self-immolation. Delacroix was influenced by the artist Gericault and his painting Raft of Medusa, the pale bodies and the murdered women are some spots that remind us Gericaultâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s painting.


Orphan girl at the cemetery(1823):

It is considered a masterpiece in its own right. This painting gives a spirit in the air of sorrow and fearfulness. The background depicts her melancholy. All the characteristics and methods that are used in the painting are combined to emphasize a sense of loss, of unreachable hope and her isolation. For Delacroix, colors were the most important ingredients for his paintings. Because of this artistic taste and belief, he did not have the patience to create facsimiles of classical statues. He chose the use of colorful hues and exotic themes for his paintings, drawing inspiration from other inspirational places, resulting in works described as glossy and abundant with movement.

Works Cited Pictures from Google images. The main sources were the books, Romantic Period (library) and the book, Romanticism by David Blaney


Camille Jean Baptiste Corot (1796-1875): Barbizon School of Landscape By Irene Tzelalis

Transitional art historic period: emphasis on classical tradition to the Romantic worship of nature. The Bridge at Narni (1827)

The Bridge of Narni, one of Corot’s paintings, was created in 1827, and was part of the artist’s first phase of art. Camille Corot’s first phase of art focused on clarity and sharpness. Therefore, the majority of his paintings were buildings and bridges. He enjoyed sketching buildings that were filled with lines, and used an intense amount of light and shadow to give his creations volume. This is a perfect example of the classicism values, because there is clarity in the composition of the painting, while its’ subject matter has no hint of emotion. Corot painted exactly what he saw.


Souvenir de Mortefontaine (1864) Corot’s second phase continued with an appreciation of nature and landscapes. He moved and lived near the edge of the Fontainebleau forest so he could sketch and work solely with nature. In this painting, Souvenir de Mortefontaine, which was painted in 1864, notice the lack of architecture. This was Corot’s attempt to experiment with romantic aspects, and combining human figures interacting with nature. This is a great painting because of a newly introduced artistic technique; the misty – looking veil upon the entire painting is a result of “paintbrush smears”. The smeared oil paints give the painting the blurry effect. The Bridge of Mantes (1868 – 1870) The Bridge of Mantes was created in 1868. This painting belongs in the transitioning second phase of Corot’s artistic temperament because it is a beautiful combination of near – romantic subject matter in a neo – classical composition. Corot studied the light, the color, the angles and the symmetry of the bridge, to see how 26

they all interact with nature. He was trying to preserve classical aspects in a new romantic way. Though transitioning well into the romantic aspect of his paintings, the architecture is still clear, precise, and quite prominent. . The Belfry of Douai (1871) The Belfry of Douai, created in 1871, was one of Camille Corotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s masterpieces. He managed to capture a still life of an aspect of every day life. It is lacking the usual nature aspect that Corot liked to paint. At this point in his life, Corot had officially become a romantic painter; he enjoyed painting pictures with architecture, for he liked maintaining classical aspects of painting. As his artistic career was nearing itsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; end, Camille Corot started working with perspective, having his work trail off. In this particular painting, the uses indefinite lines, light and shadow to give his buildings much more volume than they have on their own.


The Woman in Blue (1874)

Created in 1874, only one year before Camille Corotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death, The Woman in Blue, is one of the only full â&#x20AC;&#x201C; scaled portraits he created. The composition of this painting is relatively simple; the girl is placed in the middle of the vertical canvas, surrounded by the household objects of that room. It looks like she is leaning on a red cushion upon a wooden table, with a fan hanging from her left hand. On the background wall, two paintings are hanging at approximately the level of her head. Both paintings are blurry, but look like they depict scenes from nature. The subject matter of this painting, the girl, has a pensive look on her face, and her body language gives off an air of closure. She looks insecure, from the way she places her left hand by 28

her chest, and thoughtful, from the way her right hand is leaning on her chin. The color palette Corot used is very similar to other paintings of his; however, the use of so much blue is a revolutionary aspect. The bright blue dress is of low saturation but extremely high value, which clashes with the yellow and brownish hues of the floor and background walls. The blue dress makes the girl stand out in what would otherwise be a very boring painting. The girl herself is very voluptuous and curvy, therefore giving the painting an extra whiff of the needed volume. Camille Jean Baptiste Corot belonged to the Barbizon school of landscape painters, like Courbet and Millet. He was not poor, like his Barbizon contemporaries, and was able to afford giving them financial assistance. His mother was a successful hairdresser and when she died, she left him a great fortune. At first, he started off in business, and after inheriting such an income, he decided to change careers and pursue a career as a painter. Though the classical tradition was the most major part of Corotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s influence, the several trips that were taken to Italy were also influential. If an observer carefully looks at his paintings, it is obvious to see that the most beautiful landscapes are portrayed from France and Italy. He also studied the female subjects, but usually dressed them in exotic but beautiful costumes. The paintings of the above catalog are listed in chronological order of their creation. This way, it is easy to see the influences of his paintingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; subject matter and technique. In conclusion, Camille Jean Baptiste Corot is renowned for creating a new style, a transitional style filled with techniques that allowed him to keep classical elements and combine them with other to create absolute romantic paintings. These paintings, give off the air of a new art historic period.


Works Cited "The Belfry of Douai by Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot - Artilim." Artilim Paintings Gallery. Web. 3 May 2010. < artist/corot-jean-baptiste-camille/the-belfry-of-douai.aspx>. "The Bridge at Mantes - Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot -" Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot - The Complete Works. Web. 3 May 2010. <>. "The Bridge at Narni - Corot Art Print, Canvas." Fine Art Prints on Demand - Giclee Prints on Canvas or Paper. Web. 3 May 2010. < bridge_at_narni.htm>. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot - The Complete Works. Web. 3 May 2010. <>. "Lady in Blue Reproduction by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot -" Mark Harden's Artchive. Web. 3 May 2010. <http:// Lady-in-Blue.html>. Mid-1850s, The. "Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 3 May 2010. <>. "Souvenir De Mortefontaine by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot -" Art in the - An Introduction to Art History. Web. 3 May 2010. < paintings/Jean-Baptiste-Camille_Corot/Souvenir-deMortefontaine/>.


Jean Francois Millet (1814~1875): New Dignity of the Common People By Ye Won Kim 19th Century painters, who were both the romantic and classicist, neglected the contemporary subject matters. A group of landscape and figure painters settled near the village of Barbizon and begun to paint scenes of peasant’s life; it was their way of showing heroism. One of the painters, who were also the new light to the common people, was Jean Francois Millet. Jean Francois Millet’s “The Angelus” (1859)

Millet drew the everyday life of peasant’s life and focused on the scene later in day (darker), and they are shadowed; silhouetted. Angelus is referred to the ringing of the church bell. The peasants are standing monumentally; head bowed as if they are giving formal prayer. The scene was very common in hard working peasant’s life. 31

This painting was loved only by the lower class. Jean Francois Millet’s “Spring” (1870)

In this oil painting, Millet illustrated all four seasons at Barbizon. Contrast to the darker sky that looks like it is about to rain, there is light on the ground showing the fine harvest and a rainbow. Jean Francois Millet Jean Francois Millet was a French painter in 19th Century. He was born into a peasant family which gave an impact on his works; as he was passed working in his father’s field, he was familiar with the lower classes daily lives. This influenced him to mainly focus on painting the scenes of peasants’ life. In 1837, he left his village and joined the Ecole des BeauxArts where he hated it. Then he decided to study at the Parisian studio of the famous artist, Delaroche by copying masterpieces such as: portraits, biblical illustrations, pastoral scenes, and signboards in the Louvre. In 1839, he was rejected by the Salon Academy. However, in 1847, he was admitted with his painting “Oedipus” and in 1848, his painting “Winnower” was bought by the government. He was influenced by, according to Delaroche, the 32

“Grandfather of impressionism”; John Constable. Constable went out into the countryside to paint nature as seen, not as imagined. Millet retired to the village of Barbizon and painted landscapes in the open air and also painted nature as seen. He had a great memory, and could remember to draw even the small details. Moreover, he did more than just landscapes; he also focused on figure studies that were at work. Nonetheless, Millet’s paintings were criticized for using common people as subject matters. “Peasants were generally seen as comic yokels.” (Gombrich E.H. The Story of Art. London:Phaidon Press Limited, 1950.) For the most part, the figures were not wearing clothes, but drapery that was very striking. However, it was reconsidered and was accepted by high classes in 1950’s and 60’s for he showed nobility in the humblest lives. Furthermore, as Millet was influenced by Constable, Millet also influenced other painters. One good example is Van Gogh. He was influenced by Millet’s social message and wanted to express the same by becoming a painter himself. Barbizon School (1830~1870) The Barbizon school was found by the artists who were influenced by Romanticism movements that began late 18th and continued on into the 19th Century. It was an artists’ colony where poor artists came to paint landscapes in the open air (not in studio). Unlike in neo-classic period, the artists started to focus on realism such as: worship of nature, everyday life scenes, and landscapes rather than dramatic events that has heroism themes. The founders of the Barbizon school are: John Constable, Camille Jean Baptiste Corot, Theodore Rousseau, Gustave Courbet and Jean Francois Millet. Millet concentrated on landscapes as well as figures but most of all, peasants. He showed the lives of farmers and glorified their hard works. Contrast to Courbet as well as other artists, who took part in the revolutionary activities and chose to draw these subject matters for political reasons, Millet was only interested in the land and the everyday life in the countryside. His major masterpieces were “The Gleaners” (1857) and “The Angelus” (1859).


Jean Francois Milletâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Gleanersâ&#x20AC;? (1857)

In this oil painting, there is no specific drama or story told, but only three peasant women in a field. Gleaners are poor women gathering what's left after the rich owners of the field finished harvesting. The owners and their laborers are seen in the back of the painting. It does not show any kind of beauty but rather ugliness. Millet also did not paint their faces to emphasize their anonymity and marginalized position. Their bowed bodies are representative of their every day hard work. Moreover, there are some kinds of rhythms in the curve (movement). This gives the feeling of slow, heavy and seriousness. He also emphasized the square and solid feelings. When Millet first presented this painting at the Salon, an art 34

exhibition, it was also shocking and was criticized by the upper and the middle class at the time; they saw it as a movement of Socialism. It depicted the lowest ranks of rural society, but at the same time, Millet glorified the lower class.

Works Cited: “THE ANGELUS by Jean Francois Millet 1814-1875.” Garden of Praise. < images/angelus4.jpg&imgrefurl=> 27 March. 2010 “Art History: Barbizon School: (1830 - 1870).” World Wide Arts Resources absolutearts. com. < barbizon_school.html> 10 Mar. 2010 Gombrich E.H. The Story of Art. London:Phaidon Press Limited, 1950 Jsseo43. “Jean Francois Millet (1814-1875), French Painter. Realism.” 아름다운 미술관 (Korean) < 3Farticleid=1822. 12 Mar. 2010 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. “The Barbizon School: French Painters of Nature.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. <> 5 Mar. 2010 “Natasha’s blog assignment on jean francois millet.” Joanna Rees Photography. <> 27 March. 2010 Points of view: Capturing the 19th Century at the British Library.” 19th Century Post. August 2009. < 35

imgurl=,% 2520Spring> 28 March. 2010 Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Barbizon school.â&#x20AC;? Wikipedia. <> 30 Apr. 2010 Classnotes from Humanities class.


Edouard Manet (1832-1883): A Painter from Realism to Impressionism By Soo Yeon Kim Manet was a French painter who had advantageous background. Born in elegant, high-class family in Paris, France, he never had to worry about selling his paintings to earn livings; he lived wherever he wanted, and did whatever he wanted to do. This sufficiency in his life enabled him to paint with his free will instead of painting what he was told to paint. Manet first started studying art in the studio of Thomas Couture until 1856. During his trip around Europe after studies at the studio, he was deeply influenced by Velazques(15991660) and Goya(17461828). Especially, “it is no wonder Velazques’ Triumph of Bacchus excited the admiration Velazques, Diego. Triumph of Bacchus (1629). of Manet in the nineGreatest inspiration of Manet teenth century” (Hartt, 730). Velazques’ Caravaggesque realism inspired Manet with its “brilliant brushwork” to the extent that it remained in Manet’s art work forever. Also, Velazques enjoyed drawing moments that are like snap shots from daily life rather than some moments that are completely random and irrelevant to current life; this was another aspect Manet was influenced by. The artist in his time who influenced him was Courbet (1819-1877). Overall, smooth lines, smooth brushwork, and realistic paintings had great impact on 37

Manetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work in the beginning of his art work.

Manet, Edouard. Music in the Tuileries (1862). Early Work with his most distinguishing aspect in painting

Officially starting his career as an artist, he first drew paintings that portrayed his life as a Parisian. One of the first paintings he drew was Absinthe Drinker (1858) and Old Musician (1862), emphasizing dark side of Paris and humans. His painting Music in the Tuileries (1862), which was painted also in his early age, shows his unique technique to draw like a flat surface. In this painting, it is clear that the background that is far off and the objects that are close to the viewers are both painted with the same skill. Because it was common to paint distant objects vague or light, his skill was very controversial. This skill was unprecedented and therefore was considered unacceptable by some and was the skill that made him distinctive. Also, Manet enjoyed drawing paintings based on snapshots-like subject matters, inspired by both Velazques and Degas (1834-1917). Especially Degas was the master in capturing the most natural and intimate moments of people and drawing the exact moment with expressing utmost impressive emotions with colors. The next painting Manet drew shows the snapshot-like side of his painting; moreover, this painting was famous with its controversial subject matter, which he treated 38

with high regard in his paintings. This painting is called Luncheon on the Grass, painted in 1863. Manet painted this panting, aiming to be accepted by the Salon, the most respectful art gallery in Paris. The subject matter of the painting was very shocking to Parisian society. This painting shows two typical but naked female Manet, Edouard. Luncheon on the Grass (1863) Parisians among two men who are fully Ambitious, but failed painting of Manet clothed, which was unacceptable subject matter for French audience. Ambitious, Manet once again attempts to get accepted by the Salon with different painting which brought even bigger issue to art society. The painting Manet completed in the same year as Luncheon on the Grass and waited two Edouard Manet, Olympia (1863) more years to be One of the most Controversial Paintings in History accepted by the Salon to face historical criticism was legendary Olympia (1863). Now resting in Musee 39

d’Orsay, Olympia once was the most rebellious painting that outraged audience too much to the extent the Salon hired two guards next to the painting to protect the painting, and pregnant women were told to avoid seeing this painting. This painting was one of the masterpieces of Manet’s, inspired by Titian (1488-1576)’s Venus of Urbino. Titian was Italian painter. Manet drew Olympia, influenced by Venus in this painting’s pose. However, Manet Titian, Venus of Urbino (1538) did not use the subject matter oft his Inspiration for Olympia painting, which is Greek myth. It is most likely that the expression of Venus in the painting and classical painting skills that are shown in the painting intrigued Manet. The Salon considered accepting this painting for long; it took two years for the Salon staff to finally decide to display this painting in 1865. The Salon’s worry about the public’s criticism was exact. The public was enraged by the painting which was beyond Manet’s intentions. The public questioned the content of the painting as well as the model of it. Why Olympia? Olympia was, first of all, unacceptable with its subject matter. The woman in the painting is Victorine Meurent, a model chosen for courtesan for the painting. Courtesan is the name for prostitutes who especially serve those of high class and large fortune. Such courtesan in the painting with a black maid offering a bouquet of flowers, most probably from one of the customers, with a black cat gazing at them at the right corner was more than innovative to be rebellious. Olympia. cat detail


The main reason why the audience was furious was the expression Olympia is wearing in the painting. In art work, a female nude was used as a symbol of sacred female figure, such as Venus, goddess of love. However, what Olympia is showing is neither sacredness nor love. It was her honesty in her position as a prostitute. It was as if she was mocking the viewers with her naked, flat body. It was as if she is mocking the viewers with who she is – like she knows what they want and what they are. She is mocking them by being in low class and naked and accepting and being bold instead of being pathetic or emotional by the truth of her state. The way Olympia was painted was also a hot issue. Manet’s unique technique to paint objects very flatly Edouard Manet, Olympia face detail backfired in Olympia. By painting Expressionless flatly, it gave impression on people that the courtesan in the painting is very bold and also flat. Almost no shade on her body and face and “vigorous” brushwork makes her look even more lifeless. It is as if she is accepting her fate as a courtesan as it is so openly, it gives uncomfortable feelings to the viewers. From 1870s, Manet’s style changes greatly. He gives up on his trademark flat-style and starts developing new style with bright, brilliant palette with “broken brushwork.” It is interesting to see the background of his change in style. Manet, at first, mocked Monet for his unpopular paintings. Nevertheless, Manet changed his style and adopted Monet’s style with bright, lively coloring with rough brush strokes. Monet’s work was mainly on “the moment of experience in light” (Hartt, 844). This was the point where Manet became real Impressionist. Manet’s masterpiece as an Impressionist is undoubtedly A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres, painted in 1881 to 1882. In this painting, a lot of lights and shadows are shown. The bright color of fruits, light, and bot41

Edouad Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres (1881-2) Manetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work as an Impressionist

tles are evident compared to his old paintings. Unlike his early paintings, there is an evident sense of distance between objects in this painting. One of the greatest differences between his works is, â&#x20AC;&#x153;in his early works Manet had modernized the subject. Manet in the 1870s had dissolved the objectâ&#x20AC;? (Hartt, 847). Manet was a controversial painter with many problematic paintings including Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia. Regardless, he was one of the most influential painters in 19th century who was a realistic painter and an Impressionist. He was the beginner of the Impressionist who influenced typical Impressionists such as Monet, whom Manet was influenced by as well. His effect on art history will last forever, as a bold, challenging, and distinctive Impressionist.


Works Cited "Culture Shock: The TV Series and Beyond: The Shock of the Nude: Manet's Olympia." PBS. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. "Edouard Manet and His Influence - NGA." National Gallery of Art. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. Hartt, Fredrick. Art. Print. MacDonald, Lisa. "Edouard Manet." Mark Harden's Artchive. 1999. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. Manet, Edouard. Music in the Tuileries. 1862. National Gallery, London, England. The Artchive. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. Olympia. 1863-65. Musee D'Orsay, Paris, France. Culture Shock. Ford Foundation & PBS, 26 Jan. 2000. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. Titian. Venus of Urbino. 1538. Uffizi, Florence. Clairreilly's Webblog. Web. 9 May 2010. <>. Velazques, Diego. Image Result for Http://รกzquez Diego/The Drinker (The Triumph of Bacchus)-1024x768-24172.jpg. 1629. Museo Del Prado, Madrid. Web. 9 May 2010. <>.


Paul Cezanne (1839-1906): Post-Impressionist and Forerunner of Cubism By Chris Monopolis Paul Cezanne was a pivotal figure in modern art. He was a distinguished Impressionist who had significant prowess in landscapes and portraits, and eventually became one of the founders of Cubism, thanks to his admiration of shape and surface, rather than perspective. He was a recluse who lived almost solely for his work, indeed dying while in his studio, working. His efforts are of great value, as they have helped bring art into its cubist phase at the beginning of the 20th century, a vital inspiration for modern art. The Artist's father (c. 1866), is a relatively early work in Cezanne's career as a painter. It is of his father, who reads the paper quite intently. He is portrayed as quite stern and gruff, wearing mainly black, and having his eyes almost closed while his brow is probably furrowed, as the eyebrow shape seems to tell us. Although a somewhat serious painting, it is also somewhat sensitive , as Cezanne's father pays no attention to his surroundings, including a painting in the background which is presumably Cezanne's, which makes it seem that Cezanne's father did not really appreciate his talent in painting. There are some Impressionist characteristics in it, such as variation of light and simple subject matter, which may have been the influence of his friend Camille Pissarro, who he met in the mid 1860's.


Apples and Biscuits (1879-82) is a still-life, a style of painting that Cezanne is quite famous for. Its simple subject matter allowed him to experiment with line form and color, which would enable him to pursue Cubist works in the future, due to his knowledge of the aforementioned aesthetic elements. This still-life, along with various landscapes, portraits, and cubist works indicates that Cezanne was in incredibly skilled painter, creating impressive works in many different areas of painting.

La Barque de Baigneurs (1890) is another landscape of Cezanne's, although here some of the subject matter is imagined, such as the bathers, due to the lack of models at his time. The painting was intended for the decoration of Victor Chocquet's new manor, a collector whose commissions kept Cezanne out of poverty. The painting itself is quite unusual for Cezanne, as it is his only decorative work, as well as his only work exhibiting bathers to feature a sea.


Mont SainteVictoire above the road of le Tholonet (1885-87), is a landscape of Cezanne's that is another experiment with light and color. There is great variance in color, flitting from a distinct yellow to a light blue, or a pale green, and many others. This painting is a significant step on Cezanne's journey of style, as he expands even further with his experiments in color. He is also beginning to incorporate more geometric shapes into his paintings, although they are not so obvious as they appear in later works. Rocky Landscape at Aix (1887) is one of the earliest examples of Cubist art, and of Cezanne's cubist phase. He used more simple, geometric shapes during this portion of his voyage of style, as well as more faded hues. It is a painting of one of his favorite landscapes, one that he repeated frequently, as he did for the Mont Sainte-Victoire above. These paintings and reproductions of them also show Cezanne's shy nature, as he was not much for public spectacle, which became even more pronounced as he aged; living to paint and becoming absorbed by it, almost a total recluse. 46

Bibemus Quarry (1895), is a more advanced cubist work by Cezanne. Here his experimentation with color and light from previous paintings is more evident, and more adventurous than the Rocky Landscape at Aix. The figures are also more angular than the Rocky Landscape. This painting is actually a blend of Impressionist and Cubist styles, as it is a bright landscape a la Impressionism, however the geometric figures and more simplistic interpretation of the surrounding countryside is more characteristic of Cubism. There is also no concept of depth in this painting, a characteristic that Cezanne was not particularly interested in, preferring a two-dimensional representation of the subject matter that could be interpreted abstractly, rather than a three-dimensional, realistic piece. The subject matter itself is of a quarry with its various hollows and vegetation portrayed. These objects are not heavily detailed especially, however they all factor in on the overall detail of the painting. The harder geometric shapes and lack of depth add to the general abstract nature of the painting. The shapes are further emphasized by the shadows cast by the various pieces of rock, which, like their creators, are also quite blocky. Line is somewhat solid, but still derived from light, wide brushstrokes similar to the Impressionist method. Color is of large contrast, the three dominant ones 47

being blue, green and orange, of the sky, vegetation and stone respectively. The painting is quite complex, due to its lack of depth, yet its abundance of subject matter and use of shadow. It communicates intricacies of shape because of this lack of depth, as the surfaces of the objects are more important and visible throughout, rather than only in the foreground. The bright light that enters from the upper left and spreads throughout the painting makes it quite a pleasant view, a tranquil image. This work and those similar to it heralded the start of a new age in painting, Cubism.

Works Cited

• Hoog, Michael. Cezanne The First Modern Painter. London: Thames and Hudson, 1989. Print. •

"La Barque Et Les Baigneurs." Musée De L'Orangerie. Web. 10

May 2010. < page_id19088_u1l2.htm>. Pioch, Nicolas. "Cezanne, Paul." Webmuseum, Paris., 19 Sept. 2002. Web. 11 May 2010. < paint/auth/cezanne/>.


Edgar Degas (1834-1917) By Katarina Richter-Lunn The Realist - The French painter, draughtsman, and sculpture Edgar Degas was one of the main founders of the Impressionist school, but preferred to regard himself as a realist saying “no art was ever less spontaneous than mine. Inspiration, spontaneity, temperament are unknown to me” . He was mainly known for his representation of dancers, which was present in over half of his work. His subjects led him to paint indoors and he was inspired mainly from memory. His interest was movement and light and the way they impacted his subjects. What intrigued Degas the most about these dancers, was the movement that they created which gave him the possibility to explore unusual perspectives. After depicting the same subject over and over again, he became immersed with the movement and ways in which he would depict the form. All individual characteristics of the ballerinas vanished.

“Danseuse Bleues” (1893) by Edgar Degas

- We see this concentration in his piece ” Danseuses bleues “ (1875 ) where the movement and light is a predominant part of this piece. We can hardly see the detail in the faces of the ballerinas closest to us. As we get further away, the less identifiable they become. The dappled light that dominates the painting, as well as the line which creates movement 49

was what he wanted to portray the most. He said in an interview with F. Thiebault -Sisson for Le Temps, “ What matters to me is to express nature in all its aspects, movement in its exact truth... “. Here the light emphasizes the curves of their backs and arms, while the shadow on their faces takes away the importance of their features.

- Originally having started out with the ambition to be a historical painter, Degas knew a great deal about classical art, and trained vigorously on that clear and new aspect. Eventually he detached from this to become something very new. He transformed and created a whole new aspect of art, which he called realism, but was seen by other as a phase of impressionism. It was seen as this because of the way Degas was fascinated with the depiction of movement, including the movement of a spectator's eyes during a random glance in a performance.

“Fin D’arabesque” by Edgar Degas (1877)


Almost three fourths of Degas paintings depict women bathing. He enjoyed painting models in his studio, as well as extracting them from his memory. The delicate movement of the female body grew, and is what led him from painting the delicate movements of dancers, to the delicacy of the movements that came from washing. He also was able to solve the problem artist had been having of fitting the body into a circular form.

“Le Tub” By Edgar Degas (1886) Pastels on Cardboard

- Degas would also venture into portraits at times, but was more known to portray psychological complexity and depictions of human isolation. In “Madame Jeantaud au miroir ” he was more concerned in with taking an unusual perspective so the human isolation is less dominant. He seems to be playing with the viewer and the young women via her gaze. This creates a complex interplay through the mirror which represents the world of reality and world of illusion. This gives the picture a certain dynamism, which is also enhanced by the contrast of the rapidly brushed black and the doodles painted with precision. Here Degas has offered a transition between realist and synthetic painting which led him to more experimentation of different points of view of the same object, as well as his work with sculpture. 51

“ Petite Danseuse de quatorze ans” By Edgar Degas (1921- 1931) Bronze, tutu in tuile, satin bow, base in wood,

-He then proceeded to work with sculpture, in which he discovered that he no longer had to consider a background and could be left completely alone with the movement of the body from all angles. This led him to many experiments with different ballet postures. We see that the same concentration of form rather than detail is present in his sculptures, emphasizing the muscles tones and strength needed to hold the positions, rather than the facial expressions or detail or clothes. He progressed at great speed in the goal of understanding movement better. He began with many studies towards the goal in creating “ The Little Dancer, Aged Fourteen” ( 1921-1931 ). This was by far the most detailed piece created yet. We see in the face, the smoothness of the texture and the real clothing that she wears. Being the most realistic of his sculptures, originally with real, hair, clothes, and ballet slippers, “The little dancer, aged fourteen “ was the only sculpture exhibited in his lifetime, but was greatly loved by the public. “ You will achieve truth only through modeling, because sculpture is an art which puts the artist under an obligation to neglect none of the essentials”. ( Edgar Degas )


-Later on, Degas progressed even further in the movement of his sculptures by getting rid of the smoothness that we see in the little dancer. He would no longer smooth away the dabs of wax or clay, or the marks made my his finders or his tools, which led him to create a texture full of movement. This progress is also evident in his later paintings, where he would no longer complete his pieces, leaving them with a certain “ unfinished” or rough look to them. This was created by his bold brush strokes and vivid colors. This exploration of movement and light kept on progressing until he died in 1917, in the same place were his exciting exploration all started, Paris, France.

“ Danseuse regardant la plante de son pied droit” by Edgar Degas (1921- 1931), Bronze Statue

Bibliography Edgar Degas. 2010. Deagas Exhibition, Athens, Greece. “ Edgar Degas Quotes”. Web. 11 May 2010. <>. Impressionist Collection. 2010. Musee D’Orsay, Paris, France. “Musee D’Orsay”. Web. 11 May 2010. <>.


Claude Monet (1840-1926) By Samantha Strader WOMEN IN THE GARDEN (1866-67, Oil on Canvas, 100 1/2” x 80 1/4”, The Louvre, Paris) [Seitz 50]

Women in the Garden is one of Monet’s first color plates. This was noted of being done “on the spot of nature [in the garden of a house he had rented at Ville d’ Avray” (Seitz 50) The significance of this is the way he captured the moment including the shadows from the other models (particularly the women on the far left’s shadow upon the women on the ground), and the blue reflection of her white dress on her face. Also, Monet didn’t want to touch the “foliage background” (Seitz 50) when the sun did not shine. This is also one of his most clear paintings.


THE RIVER (1868, Oil on Canvas, 32” x 39 1/2 ”, The Art Institute of ChicagoPotter Palmer Collection) [Seitz 56] When looking at this painting, everything is completely flat (compared to other works he has done). The River is one of Monet’s first impression art works. The woman, which is probably Camille (his wife), has little detail opposed to the boat, to which he gives greater emphasis. We can also see Monet giving “a structural role to reflections” (Seitz 56) on water from the buildings. Geometric detail is shown, too. WESTMINSTER BRIDGE (1871, Oil on Canvas, 18 ½ x 28 1/2 ” The National Gallery, London, Bequeathed by Lord Astor of Hever) a.k.a. THE THAMES BELOW WESTMINSTER [Seitz 64]


The main importance of Monet’s Westminster Bridge is the elegance it holds. This painting is “one of the finest records of Monet’s wartime stay in England” (Seitz 64). With the background being a warm, misty, atmospheric variation of red, violet, and green hues, the buildings contrast in a cool blue, but still very light and dense. A few distant tugs in the background form a silhouette on top of the ripples of waves in the water. A calm serenity of quiet and peace concludes the theme. This was painted on the Embankment, close to the site of Thames. WILD POPPIES (1873, Oil on Canvas, 19 5/8 x 25 1/2”, The Louvre, Paris) [Seitz 70]

“Delicately brushed and [with] thinly painted tones” (Seitz 70), is the structure of Monet’s Wild Poppies. Though this painting is relatively flat in detail, the brightly abstract poppies bring out the overall happy feeling to the given emotion. With Camille and six year old Jean taking a walk in the sunny meadow, they bring tranquility. Speaking of this, 1875 was a rather tranquil time for Monet and Camille; “it was the happiest since the carefree days at Chailly” (Seitz 70).


WATER LILIES (1918, Oil on Canvas, 59 ½ x 79”, Orangerie Museum) [Seitz 126]

Monet’s Water Lilies are perhaps one of his most known works. After the death of his second wife, Claude refused to paint. Later, he had a talk with Clemenceau who persuaded him to work on his proposed project. These large water lily works are on four different canvases, but each of the same lake of flowers. Monet’s idea was to capture the look of the lake at the four separate times of the day: sunrise (dawn), earlymid day, late-mid day, and sunset. Interesting as it is, you can differentiate between the times not only based upon the colors shown in the particular painting, but by the look of the water lily. At night, the flowers close as the sun goes down. At dawn, the flowers are still closed from the night, but we can tell it is morning from the colors (hues of blue and green). As the day progresses on, the water lilies are fully opened and the background is a light blue from the sky. Heading into late-midday into sunset, once again the flowers close, getting ready for the night. Claude Monet noticed these changes as he was studying the lake before 57

painting it. He also moved around the water to different positions. Getting into the artistic characteristics of this painting, the elements are quite unique. For subject matter, we see tall grasses, mostly coming out of the water or at the edge creating a line between the lake and land. Water lilies take up space around the pond, and are sporadically placed for composition. Every space has some type of color or detail. For the most part, flat describes the volume for all objects besides the flowers themselves; many are full and round. Though you see some darker stroked lines, color is what creates the objects. Smudgy and unclear sums up what you can see for both texture and line, but nonetheless very contained and done in a nice, brush-stroked way. There isn’t too much visible texture shown, but since the colors aren’t as solid and orderly (meaning contained and not mixed with other hues), an allusion of softness is created. Depending on which painting of the four you are looking at, the colors vary. Dawn is created by darker blues and greens, with smears of light yellow mixed in. Early to mid day shows lighter blues with white-peach colored lilies scattered around. This painting is the lighter one of all. The third art piece contains a slighter darker blue from the previous one with the flowers leaning more towards a yellow hue; the sun is starting to fall. And finally, the colors for sunset are a beautiful yellow-orangey color with hints of blues and greens. All paintings from Monet’s Water Lilies are different and absolutely gorgeous in their own ways. SUNFLOWERS (1881, Oil on Canvas, 39 3/4, x 32”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) [Seitz 88] Following the Death of Camille, Monet went through a time period using “still life” as his subject matter. Fruits, flowers, and pheasants became the main topics, but above all, Sunflowers was his most extraordinary. The leaves remain contained in a curvy shape, like “tongues of flame[s]” (Seitz 88). A lot of emotion was put into this painting; one element of Sunflowers that shows this is the vibrant hue of gold laid upon the curling petals of the flowers. 58

Works Cited: Sources for Information: "Claude Monet." Famous Painter. 7 Nov. 2002. Web. 10 May 2010. <>. Monet, Claude, and William Chapin. Seitz. Claude Monet. Text by William C. Seitz. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1960. Print. Sources for Pictures: (note- these websites were chosen upon quality of pictures and closeness of color to original painting; all photos can be found in Seitzâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Monet as well [second source under category above]) Monet, Claude.Sunflowers. Digital Image. Web. <>. Monet, Claude. The River. Digital image. Web. Web. <>. Monet, Claude. Water Lilies. Digital image. Amanda-Clearcreek Art Department 2008-2009. Shaydon Ramey. Web. <>. Monet, Claude. Westminister Bridge. Digital image. ArtOffer. Web. < de-Monet-Bauten-Kirchen-Landschaft-See-Meer-ModerneImpressionismus.jpg>. Monet, Claude. Wild Poppies. Digital image. ArtGraphicA. Web. < .jpg>. Monet, Claude. Women in the Garden. Digital image. PaintingAll Art Gallery. Web. <>.


Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) By Evi Sotiropoulos Pierre Auguste Renoir was born on February 25, 1841 and died on December 3, 1919. He is a French artist, which was one of the leading painters of Impressionism. His paintings are known for their very light and highly saturated colours, and he usually focused on people as subjects. Little Miss Romaine Lacaux, 1864

In this painting we see Renoir’s main area of concentration. Most of his paintings are portraits of women, usually with a “flowery” background. His style of art is impressionistic. This painting is impressionist in the sense that in the background there’s the same textures and painting techniques as impressionism, however there’s detail in the subject matter and there’s smooth texture. The painting techniques would include short, thick strokes of paint which are used to quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details.


Woman of Algiers, 1870

In this painting we see Renoirâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s young girlfriend Lise, as themodel for his painting Woman of Algiers, influenced by Delacroixâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Women of Algiers. Renoirâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s style in this painting has changed, and unlike his other work, here we see how he started to use a lot more color, and much more detail. In all of his other paintings, he would use thick strokes of paint, in straight small lines, but here it seems as if he is trying to pay close attention to the detail of the painting, rather than the composition.

The Promenade, 1870 Renoir painted this painting during the Great Decade of Impressionism. This was during the years 1872 up until 1883. This painting has a lot of features of impressionism, especially the painting techniques, and the colours. If you pay close attention you will be able to notice how Renoir has blended hues in a way that they are still be able to be clearly identified.


Nude in the Sunlight, about 1875/76

Renoir only painted all of the elements of real life that he saw. In this wonderful painting, we start to see that as the years go by, Renoir’s style starts to change and he is becoming a more Realist Impressionist. The colours of this painting are a lot brighter than previous pieces of work. The lines are not clear at all, which makes you wonder where each part of the body ends. The way that Renoir has used his paint in this painting is much different from before. He slightly mixes the colours together, and hues of green, brown, yellow and a bit of blue to show the shadows in the person’s body.

The Bathers, 1887 During his sick and old days, Renoir never gave up painting. At the end of the 1880’s he started to work together with Cézanne and Berthe Morisot. His style in painting didn’t change as much, but mostly went back to how it had been in the beginning. His lines are very strong, and the detail on every element of the painting is exact, with not that many colours being shown.



at the Piano, 1892

The predominant subject matter of this painting is two girls playing the piano. One, possibly teaching the other. The colours that are presented in this painting are hues of brown, yellow, red, white and a touch of blue. There is not that much shadow shown, which makes it seem like it is in the daylight and no sun is hitting inside that room. The composition of this painting is made in a way so that the two girls are right in the middle to catch your eye first. The lines in this painting are not that sharp which makes the colours all blend in together. This painting doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really connect that much with all the characteristics of impressionism. The strokes of paint are not that thick, and are better blended in together. The colours are applied side by side but blended slightly together.


Auguste Rodin (1841-1917): Romanticism in Bronze and Marble By Rachel Todd

The Hotel Birôn, once the home of Rodin: currently housing the Musée de Rodin in Paris.

Auguste Rodin was born into a conservative Christian family on November 12 1840. In his early years, Rodin worked in decorative sculpture to develop his talent. He briefly joined the Brothers of the Holy Sacrament in 1862 but was encouraged to leave and pursue his talent. Rodin then began working in the workshops of Albert Carrier-Belluse. During this time, Rodin met his long-time mistress and muse, Rose Beuret, a working class woman with whom he had a son. In the 1870’s, Rodin began working on his own, inspired by the sculpture of Michelangelo. However, his work was initially rejected because it was too lifelike. Thus, Rodin began working in the 64

Sévres Ceramic works. However, Rodin was too individualistic to enjoy working in such a large works and he soon left and began work on The

The Gates of Hell was Rodin’s longest standing project: he began work in 1882 and finally completed the casting in 1926, after his own death. Rodin was greatly influenced by Dante, in particular his Divine Comedy. The Gates of Hell is based off of Dante’s Inferno while simultaneously representing Rodin’s internal conflict. This sculpture represents Rodin’s debut into the artistic community. The commission of The Gates of Hell became Rodin’s invitation into the known – no longer would he have to work underneath someone else. Because of the immense size (6m tall by 4.35m wide) of The Gates of Hell, many of Rodin’s freestanding sculptures were taken from The Gates of Hell, including The Kiss and The Thinker.


The Thinker was completed in 1882, just as Rodin began work on The Gates of Hell. However, it was originally a tiny sculpture – Rodin preferred working with sculptures he could easily mold with his hands. To this extent, Rodin was primarily a modeler who chose to work with clay, leaving the casting to his assistants. However, The Thinker was enlarged and was displayed in front of the Pantheon, where it was considered a symbol of socialism.

The Burghers of Calais (1895) is a grouping of sculptures which shows Rodin’s commitment to individuality. The Burghers were men who scarified themselves to save Calais during the 100 Year War (about 1347). They went as a group, unified through their purpose; however, Rodin chose to depict the men with distinct individualities. These distinct individualities are most clearly expressed in the faces of the men – Rodin was very skilled in busts and the emotion of the human face. In fact, he was considered by many to be primarily a bust-maker rather than a monumental sculptor. However, his busts were commissioned by private individuals (George Bernard Shaw and Georges Clemenceau) – some of Rodin’s best works were commissioned by himself. 66

Le Baiser (The Kiss 1882) was originally on The Gates of Hell but Rodin chose to enlarge the scene in marble. The Kiss was inspired by Dante’s Divine Comedy and represents the forbidden love between Francesca de Rimini and her brotherin-law Paolo Malatesta. According the Divine Comedy, their kiss sentenced them to eternal Hell. The Kiss was an immediate success. Perhaps The Kiss is an allusion to Rodin’s own forbidden love with his muse/mistress/ student Camille Claudel. Camille came into Rodin’s life as an ambitious young woman sculptor, and in her own right she was a good artist. Camille was not only learning technique from Rodin but she also became his right hand, in both life and art. However, she could never cope with being in Rodin’s shadow as well as the love triangle between Rodin, Rose, and herself, and ended up being institutionalized in 1913. In many ways, this was caused by Rodin’s love – Camille was sentenced by a forbidden love to her own hell.

Le Secret (1909) is a marble work depicting Rodin’s careful attention to detail. The nails and veins are carefully sculpted as to give the most realistic hands possible. Le Secret also reveals another technique of Rodin’s. Rodin frequently left rough marble surrounding his works as if to suggest that they were always within the marble. Le Secret is no exception – the hands seem to rise out of the rough marble.


Rodin was also a painter as well as a sculptor. This pastoral scene is an example of Rodin’s painting. Even by just this painting, it is easy to see how Rodin is considered a Romantic artist – this work shows heavy influence from Constable, with the muted greens and the glorification of nature.

The Crouching Woman (1906-1908) is another example of Rodin’s bronze work. This figure is done on a small scale and thus differs from his monumental works. The Crouching Woman also shows the passion and emotion Rodin was able to inject into his work through posture and movement – even though the sculpture is solid, the curves of the woman give it a sense of fluidity.


Balzac Balzac (1898) was Rodin’s masterpiece. He called it the only thing he was ever completely satisfied with because “nothing sums up so profoundly what I believe to be the inner secret of my art” (Laurent). Rodin was commissioned to sculpt a likeness of the famous medieval philosopher in 1891 and spent many years researching his subject. He found that Balzac was not a very monumental man; rather, he was a smug, portly man who enjoyed writing in his bathrobe. Rodin then set upon creating a sculpture of Balzac. However, he knew he could not publicly display a naked figure of the man, even though that was what he originally intending to do. So Rodin created several naked casts of Balzac and then draped a wet plaster cloak over one of them. This would best preserve the curves of the real body. Rodin also tried to preserve the smugness of Balzac’s personality in his face. Although he succeeded in the smaller sculpture below, the final product managed to lose some of this. When Balzac was unveiled in 1898 it was hated by the critics who even dared to call it “antipatriotic” because “the spirit of France cannot exist within this Germanic larva, this beer-filled object at the Salon” (Laurent). Rodin was affected by this rejection but much like Balzac himself, spurred the critics and went on. Rodin was heavily influenced by the middle ages, not only through the writings of Dante and Balzac but also through the Gothic architecture. Because of his religious upbringing, Rodin spent a lot of time in churches and became very familiar with medieval sculpture. This is evident in the elongated figure of Balzac, which bears incredible resemblances to the sculptures on Chartres Cathedral and other Gothic cathedrals. Naked Balzac with Folded Arms was one 69

of the many draft sculptures Rodin sculpted. This particular one is impressive in how Rodin was able to express emotion through muscle tone and posture. Even though Balzac’s face is not very clear, his self confidence is immediately evident from his posture. In his later life, Rodin moved out of the Hotel Birôn and settled in a villa in Meudon France (1893). He became an avid art collector and his collection posses many Greek and Egyptian antiquities as well as works by Van Gogh, Monet, and Renoir. Rodin lived out his days sketching oriental dancers; many of his sketches continued to be influenced by Dante’s Divine Comedy.

Works Cited "Auguste Rodin - 19th Century French Sculptor." Bronze Sculpture from the 19th and 20th Century – Bronze Gallery. 2008. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. < sculptors/artist.cfm?sculptorID=47>. Laurent, Monique. Rodin. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and, 1990. Print. Musee Rodin. Rodin Museum Visit: English. Paris: Musee Rodin. Print. Praeger, Fredrick A. The Praeger Picture Encyclopedia of Art. New York: Praeger, 1958. Print. "Welcome." Musée Rodin. Web. 08 May 2010. < welcome.htm>. Photographs by Rachel Todd


Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903) By Niko Kazekeas 19th century Post-Impressionist artist Paul Gauguin was a one of the leading Post-Impressionist artists whose ideals, painting and sculptures shaped the style to come. He was not only a painter but a sculptor, printmaker, ceramist and writer. His unique use of color and mixes of colors paved the way towards the modern style of art and colors called the synthetist style. At the same time his inherent meaning of the subject matter of paintings, under the influence of the colonialists, led to the revival of primitivism and the return of the pastoral. Gauguin was born in Paris, France but later on moved with his family (1851) to Peru. Through this voyage his father, Clovis died, leaving Gauguin with his mother and sister to fend for themselves, so they decided to live in Peru for four years with Gauguin’s uncle and family. This later on influenced him as we will see in his work and subject matter. When Gauguin reached the age of seven he returned with his family to France where they moved to Orleans. From there on he lived with his grandfather and excelled in his studies, served in several places for his military purposes and in 1873 he got married for the first time to Mette-Sophie Gad. They had five children. In his early art career we see several paintings that are influenced by his two “mentors” at a young age with whom he painted, Camille Pissarro and occasionally Paul Cézanne.In 1887 Paul moved to Panama where he worked and lived with his friend. There he suffered from dysentery and marsh fever. At that period of time he created approximately twelve works of art. Around the area where he traveled he came into contact with a small group of Indian immigrants which in turn influenced his art regarding symbols in his paintings. Later on we see how Paul was influenced by European, African and Asian art which he saw and interpreted through exhibitions, as he was also invited to participate on one of the exhibitions around 1889. Some of his works at this time are shown below: This painting, one of the first ones we see from Paul Gauguin is called the Portrait of Madame (1880-1881). The painting as is shown has very low saturation hues. We can tell by the style of the painting that Paul Gauguin was at the start of his career as the painting represents a sense of solitude, loneliness and some could argue depression. This painting was made during the period where Paul Gauguin was painting with Camille Pissarro and occasionally Paul Cézanne while he was also 71

taking part in and observing the Impressionist exhibitions. This shows how he was influenced by that style and how Pissarro and CĂŠzanne influenced him towards their styles of art at the beginning of Gauguinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career. This, of course, changed.

Two more examples of paintings at that period of time show this influence of other artist of this time were:

Garden in Vaugirard, or the Painter's Family in the Garden in Rue Carcel, (1881)

Still-Life with Fruit and Lemons, c. (1880's) 72

This painting is called Les Alyscamps, Arles 1888. The painting can be found in Paris in the Musee d'Orsay. As we can see in this painting the colors are really vivid and the lines are slightly more clear. The high saturation red and green combined with low saturation blue makes it easy and pleasant to the eye. We see as a subject matter something that looks like a small house/temple in the back on the hill while three people are walking on a road away from that place. The colors are mixed between them and there is an implied line where the painting seems to be divided vertically and that is found at the edge of the river right next to the people. Furthermore we see how the influence of the time has played a great role in this painting as the style doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t remind us of his original paintings that were less vivid in colors and, one could say, more blurry. This painting is influenced by the time where Gauguin was found painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists. Some of the paintings of this middle period represent the influence of Cezanne on his style. We can see how Gauguin is developing as a painter.

The Swineherd, Brittany, (1888)


Vision after the Sermon (Jacobs fight with the angel), (1888)

Night Café at Arles, (Mme Ginoux), (1888)

Still-Life with Japanese Woodcut, (1889) Later on in his career Paul Gauguin was influenced by folk art and Japanese prints, Gauguin evolved towards Cloisonnism. This style of painting uses flat areas of color and bold outlines, which are reminiscent of the medieval cloisonné enameling technique. This was shown right after by the painting in which the colors and lines didn’t have equal roles of importance. This painting is called the “The Yellow Christ” (1889), often also cited as a quintessential Cloisonnist work. What this painting displays is a sense of Cloisonnist style where the color and images are shown to be separated by heavy a black line which is unlike previous paintings by Paul Gauguin. Furthermore there is a sense of gradation of the colors in the painting and the hue is really high which reminds us of a post74

renaissance painting style that Gauguin adopted. He was also influenced by Japanese painting and folk art.

As Gauguin grew frustrated by the non-recognition in France, he left from there. He went to the Panama Canal and then on to Mataiea Village in Tahiti where he painted "Fatata te Miti" ("By the Sea"), "Ia Orana Maria" (Ave Maria) and other depictions of Tahitian life. Later on he moved to Punanauia in 1897, where he painted â&#x20AC;&#x153;Where do we come from?â&#x20AC;? and only went back to France to paint in Port-Aven. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?

(1897, oil on canvas) This painting portrays the return to the primitive style of art that always fascinated Gauguin and is the style that he returned at after all the phases he went through. We can see how the saturation is low again and there are no lines that separate exactly each image in the painting. The subject matter again is partially nude figures, a statue that looks like 75

a shrine. No intense colors are shown and all the colors are cold rather than warm. This gives a sense of sadness and mysticism. A different way of life is portrayed in subject matter. Simplified design and an emotional use of color distinguish the works of his Brittany period, such as The Yellow Christ and Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (Glasgow). In Tahiti and the Marquesas his already distinctive style took on a more exotic color. The White Horse (Louvre), Riders on the Shore (Niarchos Collection), and many Tahitian figure groups show his feeling for a primal simplicity of design combined with color of ‘unsurpassed liberty’. The painting that fascinated me the most because of the beauty portrayed through this animal was called “The White Horse” (1898). This painting was characterized by critics as one of Gauguin’s greatest pieces of work. What as most liked about this painting is the use of pure colors. This painting was what Paul Gauguin called his “SynthetistSymbolic” style. What was meant by this was that he made a painting that combined images and ideas, while it is not meant represent real life situations. This painting was also said to be executed less than a year after a suicide attempt, while the effects of syphilis were causing him mental problems. The white horse was an important symbol of purification and kindness but the fact that it seems wild it gives a sense of freedom. The colors are vivid but not at all realistic. Due to the symbolism of the horse and the combination of subject matter, the painting exudes a sense of hope, prosperity, freedom and life! What draws the viewer into this painting is the fact that the focus of attention is the main subject matter, the horse. The horse is not white, but a blend of blue and yellow like a reflection of the exotic surroundings. Furthermore the use of light and shadow is really interesting since there is no way to tell where the light comes from, excluding a possible ray from the top left corner of the painting where the man is on the other horse. There are no clear lines, only block of color. 76

The expressive content of this painting made it my choice to analyze it a bit more than others. Some of Gauguinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s other paintings that were not mentioned or shown that are well known are shown below with title and date respectively: Paul Gauguin died on May 8, 1903. This great artist made a difference in post-impressionism and brought back the ideal of primitive art, as well as the return of the pastoral. Finally his use of color led to the Synthetism that is shown in modern-art.

Works Cited: Cachin, Françoise, and Paul Gauguin. Gauguin the Quest for Paradise. London. Thames and Hudson, 1992. Print. Google Images and online sources ref. Paul Gauguin


"Gauguin, Paul - Hutchinson Encyclopedia Article about Gauguin, Paul." Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Web. 28 May 2010. <, Paul>. Gauguin, Paul, and Christoph Becker. Paul Gauguin: Tahiti. Ostfildern-Ruit [Germany: G. Hatje, 1998. Print. "Impressionism - Biography of Paul Gauguin." L'ImpressionnismeEt Les PeintresImpressionnistes. Web. 28 May 2010. <>. Lemonedes, Heather, Paul Gauguin, Belinda Thomson, AgnieszkaJuszczak, Chris Stolwijk, and Moyna Stanton. Paul Gauguin: the Breakthrough into Modernity. Ostfildern: HatjeCantz, 2009. Print. "Paul Gauguin." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 28 May 2010. <>. Paul Gauguin | Post-Impressionist Artist." Lucidcafé Interactive Café and Information Resource. Web. 28 May 2010. <>. "WebMuseum: Gauguin, (Eugène-Henri-) Paul." - Travel and the Outdoors. Web. 28 May 2010. <>.


Vincent Willem Van Gogh (1853-1890) By Do Won Kim Vincent Willem van Gogh was born at Zundert, Netherlands in 30 March 1853 and died in 29 July 1890. He is a Dutch and famous for post-impressionist painter and influencing on twentieth century art for its vivid colors and emotional impact. Post-impressionism was a French art movement in early Modernism. Post-impressionist uses vivid colors, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes and real-life subject matter. Van Gogh was a son of a pastor which brought up in a religious and cultured atmosphere due to this; he was highly emotional and lacked self-confidence. At age of 16, Van Gogh started to work for the art dealer Goupil & Co., however it did not go well. In 1880, for a brief period he took painting lessons from Anton Mauve at The Hague, from here he was influenced from Hague School of painting for use of light and in the looseness of his brush strokes but his use of colors which he favored use of dark tones set him apart from his teacher. In 1886, Van Gogh went back to Paris, met Pissarro, Monet, and Gauguin and was influenced on use of light and color also paintings on peasants and rural scenes as well as painted in the short brushstrokes of the Impressionists. It was a period where he also learned the technique known as pointillism, where it became mark on Van Goghâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own style. Van Gogh collected Japanese art eagerly, he admired its bright colors, use of canvas space and the role lines played in the picture, and later on this art collection influenced him strongly because he made some painting in Japanese style. In 1888, Van Gogh went to Arles, Bouches-du-Rh, France. From here he was impressed with the local landscape. The only painting he sold during his lifetime, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Red Vineyardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was created in 1888. Van Gogh suffered from a mental breakdown which made him cut off part of his left ear. He suffered from depression, and in 1889 with his own decision he entered the psychiatric center at Monastery Saint-Paul de Mausole in 79

France. From here, the clinic and its garden became his main subject. On July 27, 1888, at the age of 37, van Gogh shot himself in the chest and died two days later. He was buried at the cemetery of Auvers-surOise, and his brother Theo who was unable to come to terms with his brother’s death died 6 months later and was buried next to him. After his death, few decades later, his works are exhibited in Paris 1901, Amsterdam 1905, Cologne 1912, New York 1913 and Berlin 1914.

Vincent van Gogh’s Art Gallery From between November of 1881 to July of 1890, Vincent van Gogh painted almost 900 paintings.

‘The Potato Eaters’ was painted by Vincent van Gogh in April 1885 while in Nuenen, Netherlands. It is now housed in the Van Gogh Museum of Amsterdam. Dimension is 82 cm x 114 cm which is quite a big painting. Many people consider this art as Van Gogh’s first great work of art. It is considered the best of his art because when it was painted, Van Gogh had only recently started painting and had not yet mastered the techniques that would later make him famous. Van Gogh‘s goal was to paint human figures that did not appear to be awkward, but rather existing naturally. The painting is quite detailed. First of all, we 80

could see a rafter boards in the back of the piece, soft gentle lines forming a window in the darkness, the picture frame hung on a darkened wall, the larger platter of potatoes and the boney fingers stretched out to obtain them, the woman pouring a brew similar to coffee, the large rectangular column behind the table that seems to hold the building up the weathered edges of the table.

The painting above is ‘Sunflowers’ painted in 1888 with oil on canvas. Its dimension is 92.1 cm x 73 cm which is quite a big painting. The colors are vibrant and express emotions typically associated with the life of sunflowers. Through this painting we could realized that he tried to show in all angles of the spectrum of life and in turn reaching a deeper understanding of how all living things are tied together. Van Gogh began painting sunflowers after he left Holland for France. Van Gogh’s paintings of sunflowers have altered mankind’s perspective of art and life. The burst of lovely yellow draws our attention and captivates us with its simplistic beauty. Although it was often duplicated by other painters, it was never reach the pure power of Van Gogh’s original. 81

This painting is “The Starry Night” finished in 1889, a year before his suicide. Its dimension is 73.7 cm x 92.1 cm which is also a big painting and it is now placed in Museum of Modern Art, New York City. The

painting “The Starry Night” is one of the most well known images in modern culture. From the painting we can see a night sky filled with swirling clouds, stars shinning with their own luminescence, and a bright moon. This scene makes use feel comfortable and at ease. This sky keeps the viewer’s eyes moving about the panting, makes us follow the curves and creates a visual dot to dot. The center point of the town is the tall church, reigning largely over the smaller buildings. To the left of the painting, there is a massive dark structure, probably a clump of trees, which is magnificent compared to other objects in the painting. The curving lines on the sky create the sensation of depth in the painting. A year earlier, Van Gogh painted another starry sky picture called “Starry Night Over the Rhone”, but the painting “The Starry Night” was controversial because it was not realistic enough. Van Gogh is considered the godfather of Expressionism.


Works Cited Chuck Ayoub. “Vincent van Gogh Biography”. 2005. <http://>. May 20, 2010. Van Gogh, Vincent. The Bedroom at Arles. Digital image. Web. 11 June 2010. <>.

“Vincent Van Gogh Gallery the art information resource”. <http://>. May 21, 2010.


Matisse (1869-1954) By Natalie Sarianides Henri-Ă&#x2030;mile-BenoĂŽt Matisse was born on 31st December 1869 and died 3rd November 1954. He was a French artist, a painter, printmaker, and sculptor. He also made drawings and collages. His training was done in the Academie Julian, William Adolphe Bouguereau, and Gustave Moreau. Matisse was known for his use of color and the way he made everything look abstract and unique. Matisse is regarded, along with Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, as one of the three seminal artists of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. The movement of his works were Fauvism and Modernism. Fauvism means that any of a group of French artists of the early 20th century whose works are characterized chiefly by using vivid colors in immediate juxtaposition and contours usually in marked contrast to the color of the area defined. Modernism means modern character, tendencies, or Photo of Henri Matisse by Carl Van Vechten, 1933. values; adherence to or sympathy with what is modern. Matisse was influenced by many artists for example John Peter Russell, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Signac. Not only he was influenced by other artist but many later artists were influenced by Herni Matisse himself for example Hans Hofmann, David Hockney, and Tom WesselHe was born in Le Cateau-Cambresis, Nord, France and grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandoi, Picardie, France. He studied law in Le CateauCambresis in Paris before starting to paint. He started painting in 1889 at around the age of 20. iHe started because his mother brought him art supplies. You will see below some of his early paintings he did and also the dates of them.


Blue Pot and Lemon 1897 oil on canvas...39 x 46.5 cm Located at State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Vase, Bottle and Fruit 1906 oil on canvas...73 x 92 cm Located at State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Dishes and Fruit 1901 Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt 1906

oil on canvas...51 x 61.5 cm Located at State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia


When Matisse decided to go back to France to study Art in 1891 at the Academie Julian, his father, was very disappointed in him. His main focus as an artist was to paint still-life and landscapes as you have seen above and will also see later on. He used a style called Flemish. In order for his skills in painting to get better he would copy other artist paintings in which he admired and that would make him learn better after 3-4 times of copying.

In 1905, Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Sal on d'Automne.

Woman with a Hat 1905 oil on canvas...79.4 x 59.7 cm Located at San Francisco Museum of Art


Les Toits De Collioure 1905 oil on canvas In the collection of the Hermitage Museum.

Pablo Picasso and Matisse were very good friends from 1904. Many people viewed their art and saw that they had many similarities but also differences like Matisse drew and painted from nature while Picasso was much more inclined to work from his imagination.

The Dessert: Harmony in Red (The Red Room) 1908 oil on canvas Pablo Picasso Dora Maar Au Chat 1941

In the collection of the Hermitage Museum.


A complete analysis of the painting The Snail by Henri Matisse.

The Snail 1953 L'Escargot Gouache 2864 x 2870 mm Glowing Frame: The central design is surrounded by a continuous band of glowing orange. It frames the work and refers back to one of Matisse's earliest subjects: a view through a window onto a sunlit landscape. White Space: He leaves a bare patch of white canvas, often at the edges of flat areas of color, in order to allow color to â&#x20AC;&#x153;breatheâ&#x20AC;? and reach their full visual potential. New Colors: 19th century scientific developments produced many bright new pigments and dyes. Matisse's generation was among the first to have such colors available as artist's materials, premixed and relatively cheap. These innovations made his first bold color experiments possible. 88

Black Contrast: The black shape is an essential piece of the overall design and mood. If you take the black piece out of this painting the intensity of color and strength of the design disappears. Color Relationships: Matisse uses color harmonies and color contrasts. These, with the upward movements of the shapes, give a cheerful and uplifting mood. The colors are also evocative of the sea, sky, fruits, pine trees, foliage, sand and sunlight of the South of France. Vibrant Color: The intensity of the color relationships expresses Matisse's lifelong intellectual and emotional excitement at the boldness and success of his experiments. This painting is the final act of an artistic journey that started half a century earlier. Spiral Shape: There is no literal depiction of a snail, but the central shape above the blue are arranged to form a spiral representing that snail's shell.

Bibliography: Internet: 8px-Henri_matisse.jpg

89 sethesnailslideshowimage.jpg,-Henri(French,-1869-1954)_1537.html m=search&back=1274791

Books: Great Artists Explained by Robert Cumming Copyright 1998, 2007 Matisse The Sensuality of Colour-Thames and Hudson/New Horizons By: Xavier Girard


Pablo Picasso (1881- 1973) By Dimitri Tsioumas

Art Historical Period: Modern Periods: Picasso in his Youth (18811901) showed skill in academic draftsmanship. He spent time in the Prado, studying the work of masters like Velázquez and El Greco. Picasso soon withdrew from the academy and began to explore the contemporary art scene and took interest and was influenced by Spanish contemporary artists. Other artist who as well influenced Picassos work from his youth was, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, and Pierre Bonnard. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.8] Two unique periods in the time of Picasso’s work were during his 20’s the Blue and Rose periods. Picassos Blue Period (1901) came about after his friend Carlos Casagemas committed suicide in February 1901 in a Parisian café after being rejected by a girl he loved. The loss of Picasso’s friend devastated him, and in the summer of that year is when his blue period began. As the title of this period in Picasso’s work goes, he painted blue and pessimistic scenes. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.15] The Rose Period (c.1904) was Picasso’s last major period before he moved onto cubism. As for how Picasso came to his Rose 91

Period, he had decided to move to Paris for a fourth time, this time to the artistic Parisian suburb of Montmartre rue Ravignan. It was here that Picasso met a woman named Fernande Olivier, and it is around this time that Picasso began to use pink coloring in his works. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.18] Though before Cubism took form Picasso spent some time studying African and Iberian sculptures, of which inspired the Spanish painter to style natural forms into ridged geometrical pattern and deformation. This African/ Iberian Influence can be found in Picasso’s painting “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” (1907), that is consider to be the starting point of Picasso’s transition to Cubism. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.37] Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the founders of the cubist movement. Cubism (c.1909) as a movement owes its thanks to the principles it adopted, of “treating nature in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, the cone”, overall in the geometric way of Paul Cezanne. While it was Paul Cezanne whose principles influenced cubism, it was Braque that gave cubism its syntax which would lead to its name. But it was Picasso “whose volcanic genius undoubtedly transformed cubism into the irresistible force it became for over half a century.” [Modern Art Second Edition Hunter and Jacobus]

Painting / Sculpture/ Architecture

After his experimentation with Cubism from c.1909 – 1917 and after the First World War, Picasso went into a classicalism period (1918). While Picasso did not stick to the classicalist idea of the perfection of form he worked within classical subject matters. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.51] Picasso during his Later Works (c.1918-1973) he went his own way with styles, experimenting and reusing characteristics of pervious styles of his and others. Continued with classical subject matters, and now painted political subject matters. Including Picasso shows more studying connection in his work, from his favorite masters of painting, Velázquez, El Greco, etc.


Youth First Communion, 1895/96 •

Done during his teen years this painting is a great example of the great skills that Picasso had in traditional style painting and draftsmanship shown through the clear and define line used

The color scheme is balanced with low values in the top left and high value colors in the bottom right area, even emphasizing the main focuses of the subject matter with high value which and high saturation of red

Blue Period The Tragedy, 1903 •

In this painting Picasso has displayed the whole image in various values of blue, which is of course typical in the time of Picasso’s blue period

As well as the subject matter of a family without intimacy and lifeless. Fitting the general theme of the Blue period genre of loneliness/ absents of love


Rose Period The Acrobat's Family with a Monkey, 1905 •

The use of red or slight pink used in this painting is common of Picasso’s rose period. Where he has moved away from pessimistic scenes. •

Instead there is a very serene theme and Picasso had a reoccurring use of carnival folk subject matter in his rose period.

African/ Iberian Influence Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907 •

Made during the time in which Picasso had been studying African and Iberian Sculpture, with their archaic forms inspired him to simplify things to geometrical forms


Cubism Left Portrait of Ambrosie Vollard, 1910 •

Forms treated in terms of shapes, and many views are depicted at angles and are not uniform. Right Harlequin, 1915 •

Forms treated in terms of shapes

Classicalism Period

Femmes 'a la fontaine, 1921 •

While the form of the women seated is not to the ideals of classicalism. It is the content of the subject matter that is of classical style in this painting

Subject matter of women and gathered around a well wearing classical style clothing, depicted in a matter of “nothing to excess”.


Later works Las Meninas- (after Velázquez), 1957

This painting by Picasso is one of his later works. It is the study of old masters work (Velázquez).

In addition, Picasso has gone about arranging this image in a way similar to cubism but not completely. Formal Analysis

In 1951 when Picasso painted Massacre in Korea, he did so in “Protest at the American Invasion” of Korea. [Picasso, Ingo F. Walther pg.93] One of several political themed paintings by Picasso, most famous of which is Guernica. Picasso in his later works has an occurrence of similar work or style from other master artist. Massacre in Korea is as well a representation of work from another master artist “Francisco Goya”. Seen here in Goya’s “The third of May”, 1808 which is as well a political painting and also is the base setting arrangement of Picassos painting. In which the setting is in two sections with the solid standing 96

group of soldiers on the right and a group of women and children on the left. As what can be understood from the title, the group of women and children are the victims of the American invasion. They stand framed by the two points from the ridge behind them. The Americans being the group of soldiers wearing knight’s gear has confronted the group of terrified and unarmed women and children who compared to the knights are little to no match in size and armory, thus Picasso is mocking war. The knights are definitely the dominant force of movement in this painting even thought they have strong stance it is the horizontal line of their weaponry that creates the movement. A movement that emphasize the group of women and children on the left; who also have movement to their group with the children reaching to their mothers, one looks as if he/she has trip. But over all while their movement shown might not be dominant in the painting, they are the most emphasized, not only the framing ridge behind and the movement of line from the knight’s weaponry. In addition it is the higher in value coloring the group of women and children are displayed in as compared to the lower in value knights. The same characteristic can also be seen in “The Third of May” in which a man to be fired upon his in a white shirt. It is in the “Massacre in Korea” that Picasso shows three of the qualities of his later work, showing unique variation of his own style, use of a work from a master, and a painting of political subject matter displaying the idiocy and sadness of war. 97

Bibliography • [Modern Art Second Edition ture Hunter and Jacobus] •

Painting / Sculpture/ Architec-

[Picasso, Ingo F. Walther]


Blue Water Lilies Monet

Bibemus Quarry Cezanne 99

Humanities Gallery Projects 2010  

Humanities Gallery Projects 2010; Students in the Humanities & Arts Division, ACS Athens

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