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ErP turns up the heat on NOx





Blackpool Council Leads Public Sector Towards Water SelfSupply

St Paul’s Cathedral relies on Priva UK BMS during major plant upgrade

Goodlight gives more light for less at Liverpool Street Station

Reducing water and waste water costs “It’s simple when you have the knowledge”

• Water Strategy • Water Audit • Water Procurement Tel: 01924 387 873

FRONT COVER STORY: ErP turns up the heat on NOx

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Scotland’s first Energy Strategy

Are the Big Six energy companies losing their grip on the market?


How the Public Sector Can Solve the Energy Efficiency puzzle


CHP ensures a healthy energy mix


THE Importance of Metering and Monitoring Energy Consumption


New PACE scheme & MCS certification make fuel cell boiler financially attractive


best on energy for exterior and interior applications REGISTRATION: Qualifying readers receive Energy Manager free of charge. The annual subscription rate is £80 in the UK, £95 for mainland Europe and £115 for the rest of the world. Single copies £10. Some manufacturers and suppliers have made a contribution toward the cost of reproducing some photographs in Energy Manager.

PAPER USED TO PRODUCE THIS MAGAZINE IS SOURCED FROM SUSTAINABLE FORESTS. Please Note: No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior permission from the publishers. The publishers do not accept any responsibility for, or necessarily agree with, any views expressed in articles, letters or supplied advertisements. All contents © Energy Manager Magazine 2018 ISSN 2057-5912 (Print) ISSN 2057-5920 (Online)






ur new energy strategy, ‘The Future of Energy in Scotland’, published on 20 December 2017, sets out the Scottish Government’s long-term vision for the future energy system in Scotland. The first publication of its kind, the strategy is intended to guide the decisions that the Scottish Government, working with partner organisations, will make over the coming decades. It describes the ways in which we will strengthen the development of local energy, protect and empower consumers, and support Scotland’s climate change ambitions while tackling poor energy provision. The strategy’s vision for 2050 is built around six priorities: •

Promote consumer engagement and protect consumers from excessive costs

Champion Scotland’s renewable energy potential, creating new jobs and supply chain opportunities

Improve the energy efficiency of Scotland’s homes, buildings, industrial processes and manufacturing

Continue to support investment and innovation across our oil and gas sector, including exploration, innovation, subsea engineering, decommissioning and carbon capture and storage Ensure homes and businesses can continue to depend on secure, resilient and flexible energy supplies Empower communities by supporting innovative local energy systems and networks

This strategy includes a range of actions that will create opportunities for both suppliers and consumers of energy. These include a £20 million Energy Investment Fund, which will build on the success of the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, and a £60 million Low Carbon Innovation Fund, to provide dedicated support for renewable and low carbon infrastructure over and above wider interventions to support innovation across the economy.


Scottish Government Business, Energy and Innovation Minister, Paul Wheelhouse MSP The strategy’s proposed 2030 ‘allenergy’ target to supply the equivalent of 50% of the energy for Scotland’s heat, transport and electricity consumption from renewable sources captures our ambition to adopt a system-wide approach. Our analysis underpinning the target shows that renewable electricity – which has already outperformed the interim 2015 target of 50% – could rise to over 140% of Scottish electricity consumption by 2030. Alongside the renewables target, we also announced a commitment to increase the productivity of energy use across the Scottish economy by 30% by 2030. The previous energy efficiency target was to reduce final demand for energy by 12% by 2020 (from a 2005-07 baseline). This target was achieved six years early, and final energy demand in 2015 was 15.4% lower than the baseline. However, reducing demand is only one part of our energy efficiency ambition. The new 2030 energy productivity target is about squeezing more out of every unit of energy consumed across the economy. Improved productivity will therefore help curb energy consumption without limiting growth – enabling Scotland to meet its ambitious emissions reduction targets whilst still growing the Scottish economy. Alongside improving the productivity of our energy system, we will also prioritise increasing the proportion of shared ownership within this system. Latest figures from the Energy Saving Trust show a 12% increase in the level of community and locally owned renewable energy capacity operating in Scotland, which now sits at more than 660MW. This trend is important, as putting energy into the hands of local communities will deliver lasting economic assets to communities across Scotland. Scotland has world class skills, expertise and knowledge, from the North Sea oil and gas industry to our academic institutions and smaller start-ups, to our cutting edge low carbon technology.


We are working hard to recognise and build on our achievements and on our capacity for innovation. It places consumers, and their interests, more firmly than ever at the heart of everything that we do. We are leading the way in promoting community and locally owned renewable energy – well ahead of the rest of the UK. This strategy will guide decisions of the Scottish Government over the coming decades, making sure that, within the scope of our devolved powers, good stewardship of Scotland’s energy sector.

BACKGROUND The Strategy can be found here: An open consultation was conducted at the beginning of the year which drew over 250 substantive responses. Those detailed responses, as well as feedback from the Scottish Energy Advisory Board and responses to further consultations on the onshore wind policy statement, local heat and energy efficiency strategies, regulation of district heating, and unconventional oil and gas, have helped shape, inform and influence the strategy. Energy Savings Trust figures can be found here: www.energysavingtrust.




rown Commercial Service (CCS) wanted to help customers gain better value for money by accessing lower billing and improved servicing. Since 1st April 2017, public sector business customers can now choose their water provider for retail services. CCS, in collaboration with public buying organisations; YPO, Eastern Shires Purchasing Organisation (ESPO), North East Procurement Organisation (NEPO), West Mercia Energy and The Energy Consortium (TEC), have put in place the first public sector water framework agreement to enable customers to access the market Recognising customers pay anything between 6-13% for retail water services, CCS wanted to help customers gain better value for money by accessing lower and transparent billing and improved servicing. CCS delivered the UK’s first aggregated further competition for water and wastewater services for public sector customers using our framework (RM3790), which enabled customers to switch supply as early as 1st January 2018. CCS leveraged the combined volumes to attract supplier competition and ran an EU procurement compliant eAuction and

sealed bid process. The CCS eAuction offered both monthly and quarterly billing options. CCS evaluated supplier responses against rigorous value and quality criteria, awarding to the most economically advantageous offer. The further competition, which took place in October 2017, brought together the water and wastewater services of 122 public sector customers, amounting to £40 million spend. The results of the competition were communicated to participating customers. The recommended suppliers for the monthly billing and quarterly billing options were Castlewater Ltd and Business Stream Ltd, respectively. By 31st December 2017, 34 customers, comprising central government departments, councils, NHS trusts, schools and colleges, had signed call off forms. These customers have achieved an average 4% reduction against the retail market average, with some customers achieving up to 10% reduction. In financial terms, this equates to between £100 and £10,000 saving per year depending on the size of the estate. All customers who participated in this further competition and who submit call off forms by 14th February will benefit from these great rates and other


framework benefits for the next 2 years and will have the option to extend by 1 year. All public sector customers are still able to access the framework via further competitions. Some of the benefits: • financial savings - on average customers have achieved a 4% reduction against the average retail margin from this competition (with some customers achieving up to 10% reduction) • personalised service - dedicated account manager • improved support and query management - dedicated customer service team • choice of billing format - consolidated billing, electronic billing and paper billing • governance - quality service provision with suppliers monitored against framework KPIs, regular reporting and meetings with CCS • Time and resource savings - from simplified procurement process and supplier rationalisation. If you would like to find out more about this framework, or join our next aggregation you can call 0345 410 2222.

The Comprehensive Metering plan solution

Call or email us for more information Metering, submetering, energy monitoring and rebilling Single-phase or three-phase, connected directly or to a CT Integrated communication: Ethernet, Modbus, M-Bus Advanced functions for displaying and recording




Oxford Sustainable Fuels to tackle plastic crisis by recycling waste into fuels The company is based on the work of Oxford academics who cracked the pyrolysis oil technology conundrum, allowing the transformation of plastic into transportation fuels.


xford University Innovation is launching Oxford Sustainable Fuels (OSF), a new spinout company founded on technology that can turn waste from plastic, tyres and biomass into high quality transportation fuels and chemicals. The rate of global plastic production has exploded in recent years, with the total amount of plastic produced annually now roughly the same as the entire weight of humanity. Today, less than 10% of plastic is recycled due to complexity of sorting, separating and cleaning for the recycling process. The mass of plastic waste continues to build at an alarming rate in the global environment, polluting our oceans and entering the food chain. OSF, underpinned by research conducted at the University, plans to reduce the environmental impact of plastics by providing a low energy process to convert it and other solid hydrocarbon waste material into high quality transportation fuels. As its starting point, the company will utilise pyrolysis, a technology that thermally decomposes plastics in absence of oxygen and transforms them into an oil-like substance known as pyrolysis oil. To date, pyrolysis oil itself has found few uses. However, Dr Tiancun Xiao, Prof Peter Edwards and Dr Zhaoxi Zhang from Oxford University’s Department of Inorganic Chemistry have discovered highly efficient methods to purify and upgrade this material to gasoline, diesel and jet fuels. OSF will capitalise on their technology by improving the commercial viability of pyrolysis as a waste management method, creating valuable products from material that would otherwise been disposed of through landfill and incineration, or end up polluting our oceans. Significantly for the fight against pollution, the OSF process is able to handle mixed plastic and thus negates the


need for sorting and separation, and will be complementary to current recycling methods in the effort to eliminate waste. The Oxford-based company, which was spun out from the University by Oxford University Innovation, the institution’s research commercialisation arm, has raised £1m in seed investment from the investment arm of GEM, a Shenzhen-based waste recycling firm. This seed investment will be used to develop and scale up the technology to a pre-pilot plant scale. The company plans to have begun deploying its technology against plastic waste within five years. Dr Tiancun Xiao, CEO of Oxford Sustainable Fuels, said: “It is our aim to become a key element of the circular economy by enabling the economic transformation of waste to valuable and needed products. To be a part of the solution in helping our global and local environment is a huge motivation for us. We believe this to be a key element in the fight against plastic in the oceans by turning waste into a valued raw material.” Professor Peter Edwards, Statutory Chair in Inorganic Chemistry and cofounder of OSF, stated: “What’s important


about OSF is that it is founded on new ways of thinking about plastic waste as a global resource for responsible recycling. My generation of chemists have spent their careers focussing on making plastics more efficiently, with better properties, but now we must turn our attention to dealing with the legacy of plastic waste material.” Dr Kaihua Xu, President of GEM, said: “The OSF team from Oxford have developed a pyrolysis oil upgrading technology that not only solves the problem of organic waste but also provides renewable energy for the future. We are delighted to have the opportunity to invest in this project and provide all possible support for development and promotion. GEM is an advocate and practitioner of circular economy in the world, Oxford University is the best University in the world. We firmly believe that the collaboration between China’s outstanding environmental protection enterprise GEM and the team from Oxford University will surely create positive chemistry and contribute to the development of the world’s green industries.” Email: gregg.




lackpool Council is set to become the first local authority to take the innovative step towards managing its own water supply following its application to Ofwat for a water and sewerage licence. If granted, this licence will enable Blackpool Council to buy water supply and wastewater services directly from United Utilities for its buildings and associated premises, but it will manage its own retail services for over 120 sites across the borough. It is estimated that the move will achieve cost savings of up to £194,000 over three years. In the first year alone, anticipated savings are in the region of £50,000, with the potential for further savings through additional cost and consumption efficiency projects. Cllr Fred Jackson, Cabinet Member Responsible for the Environment, said: “This is an exciting initiative and we are looking forward to the opportunities that a self-supply licence offers us in managing our water usage responsibly, efficiently and cost-effectively. “We are the first public sector

organisation to apply for this licence. There are many benefits such as reducing administration costs and cutting out the margin that goes to others in the supply chain. We will pay the price that retailers pay to the water company which will deliver significant savings. “The licence also gives us a voice as it offers certain rights such as voting rights which can help influence the future development of the water market and the water strategy of the wholesaler.” To facilitate the application, Blackpool Council has entered into a partnership agreement with self-supply specialists, Waterscan. Waterscan will take on retail functions, help deliver cost savings and efficiencies direct with the wholesaler, provide effective water consumption management and ensure compliance with relevant regulatory codes.

The company’s Managing Director, Neil Pendle, said: “We congratulate Blackpool Council on being the first public sector organisation to take a proactive approach to optimising efficiency in the open water market through its application to self-supply. We look forward to working closely with the council team to achieve its goals and to signal to other public sector bodies how they too could reduce their water footprint and costs.”

Raising heat network performance: Switch2 Energy publishes checklist and guide


ommunity heating specialist Switch2 Energy has published a free non-technical checklist and guide to help housing managers improve the efficiency of their heat networks and bring down costs for residents. “Older communal heating systems may not have been designed, commissioned and implemented to modern standards,” said Steve Coates, Head of Heat Networks for Switch2 Energy. “Our checklist is designed for use by housing managers with limited or no technical knowledge. It will enable them to conduct a simple walk-around site survey and start to discover weak points in system performance. “This could highlight issues that may be solved simply and inexpensively, such as lack of insulation on pipework, or inadequate temperature control in resident’s homes. The checklist is intended as a starting point, which

can be used alongside metering data, to help inform an energy efficiency improvement plan. There may be problems that are more difficult to diagnose and solve, requiring expert advice from heat scheme specialists and building services professionals.” He continued: “a basic survey would take a look at each area of the network (the plant room, distribution network, heating systems within individual homes). It would include steps such as observing the temperature changes of corridors and the level of insulation on bare pipework, as well as speaking with residents to make sure they understand how to use the system properly.” The guide explains the key reasons why community heating schemes do not perform optimally, which include: 1. Over-sized equipment and pipework, leading to inefficiency


Inadequate insulation, causing heat loss 3. Insufficient measurements and controls in place, which could be due to metering or Building Energy Management System, or both 4. Improper commissioning and balancing of heating systems within individual residences 5. Turning on and off the heat system Steve Coates added: “Even small efficiency improvements can make a big difference to heat scheme performance, helping to improve reliability, reduce heating costs for residents, and increase carbon savings. Switch2’s checklist guide is a positive and accessible way to start the process.” Further information:






hile global business leaders were gathering at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos to talk about energy and environmental challenges, a new study released by Schneider Electric, the leader in the digital transformation of energy and carbon management, and automation, reveals that most organisations feel prepared for a decentralised, decarbonised and digitised future, but many are not taking the necessary steps to integrate and advance their energy and sustainability pro-grams. This false sense of security can be attributed to the finding that most companies still take fairly conventional approaches to energy management and climate action. And the gaps in innovation are further complicated by limited coordination between procurement, operations and sustainability departments, as well as inefficient data collection and sharing. 81% of companies have made efficiency upgrades or plan to, but 30% or less are considering new energy opportunities such as microgrids and demand response According to the survey of almost 240 large corporations ($100 million in revenue or more) from around the globe, 85 percent of respondents said their company is taking action over the next three years to keep its carbon-reduction plans competitive with industry leaders. But the projects that have been initiated or are in development skew heavily toward energy,

water and waste conservation. Outside of renewables, few of the organisations represented are implementing more advanced strategies and technologies to manage energy and emissions. Key findings include: • Eighty-one percent of respondents have made energy efficiency upgrades or plan to within the next two years; 75 percent are working to reduce water consumption and waste. • Fifty-one percent have completed or are planning to pursue renewable energy projects. • Just 30 percent have implemented or are actively planning to use energy storage, microgrids or combined heat and power — or some mix of the technologies. • Only 23 percent have demand response strategies or plan to in the near term. A primary barrier to progress may be internal alignment. Sixty-one percent of respondents said their organisation’s energy and sustainability decisions are not well coordinated across relevant teams and departments, particularly true for consumer goods and industrial businesses. In addition, the same number of respondents said lack of collaboration is a challenge. Data management was cited as another obstacle for integrated energy and carbon management, with 45 percent of respondents stating that organisational

data is highly decentralised, handled at local or regional levels. And of the people who identified “insufficient tools/metrics for data sharing and project evaluation” as a challenge for working across departments, 65 percent manage data at the local, regional or national — not global — level. More than 50 percent of companies represented have initiated renewable energy projects or plan to do so within the next two years, with healthcare (64 percent) and consumer goods (58 percent) leading the way. Plus, the c-suite and corporate functions have a high degree of involvement in these and other sustainability-focused programs. Seventyfour percent said C-suite members review or approve renewables and sustainability initiatives, for instance, indicating this work is seen as a strategic priority. The study was conducted by GreenBiz Research to identify how businesses develop energy and environmental strategies, collect and share data, and coordinate across departments — a practice known as Active Energy Management. Participants included professionals responsible for energy and sustainability management, from C-suite and board members to individual contributors. Companies surveyed represent 11 primary segments, including consumer goods, energy/ utilities, finance, industrial, healthcare and technology. Results of any sample are subject to variation.

H2O Building Services lands a major framework agreement with an education provider


2O Building Services, the UK’s leading water audit and commercial water management consultancy, has been awarded a Framework Agreement for the Provision of water auditing services to the United Learning Trust, a consortium of public and private sector schools. The award was made on behalf of the United Learning Trust by Inspired Energy plc, the energy procurement partner to the framework, under the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) procurement procedure. Under the framework award, H2O Building Services will provide a range of water auditing and management services including leak detection, provision of


water saving devices, tariff optimisation, bill validation and benchmarking. “Not only was the bid from H2O Building Services economically advantageous”, says Jan Ashworth of Inspired Energy plc, “in our opinion it satisfied the quality criteria which we had given a high weighting.” For the last twenty years H2O Building Services has helped numerous public and private sector clients, from local authorities to retail and manufacturing, to save money on water. Assistance ranges from recovering refunds for historical incorrect tariff overcharging, detecting and repairing leaks and advising on water reduction measures. Now, with the implementation


of the 2014 Water Act, an increasing part of H2O Building Services’ business is advising clients on alternative water supplies. Visit https://www.h2obuildingservices. to find out how H2O Building Services can save your organisation water and money.




ith around 80% of the UK’s households (not to mention scores of businesses) powered by it, mainssupplied natural gas is an integral fuel to the UK’s energy mix. The result is continued high demand, and a busy, competitive market for both domestic and commercial mains gas.

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE BIG SIX? Historically, the lion’s share of this market (c.80-90%) has been dominated by a handful of large suppliers known as the Big Six: British Gas, EDF, EON, Npower, SSE and Scottish Power.

HOW IS THE ENERGY MARKET CHANGING? However, recent figures suggest that the popularity of these ‘heavyweights’ may be waning among UK energy users – so much so, that a record 163,000 customers were reported to have left the Big Six in favour of smaller suppliers in September 2017 alone. This movement coincided with British Gas hiking its electricity prices by 12.5% that same month. So far, it’s price rises like these that have helped the company and its five main competitors maintain healthy profit margins, even in spite of losing customers en masse. But although its profits may appear protected for now, the impact of the Big Six’s fall from grace is manifesting itself in a noticeable market shift: one that signals its monopoly could be set to shrink irreversibly. To contextualise, a huge 1.1 million customers switched away from the Big Six in the first three quarters of 2017 – up 18% on the same period the previous year. This trend is allowing smaller competitors to grow their market share to unprecedented levels. If the ‘Big Six exodus’ continues at a similar rate throughout 2018 and beyond, established (and growing) small suppliers are likely to continue to tighten their grip

on the market – along with new, dynamic challengers that are emerging all the time.

WHAT’S THE FLIPSIDE? Of course, there are two sides to every coin. Although 2017 has been a promising year for energy switching – a practice that has long been deemed the most effective way for customers to ensure they’re getting the best deal – some experts have voiced concerns that newly proposed energy legislation could put paid this trend. Prime Minister Theresa May recently announced plans to fix what she has hailed as a ‘broken market’ by introducing a proposed cap on energy bills. Likely to take effect in late 2018 or early 2019, this could last for five years. Although it may sound like good news for consumers, research director Robert Buckley at energy expert Cornwall Insight is among those who have reservations. Essentially, Buckley predicts that the price cap could lull consumers into a false sense of security, making them think that it’s ‘safe’ to stick with their current supplier and creating a slowdown in the switching trend. “I think there’s a real risk with any price cap that people who haven’t engaged with the market think that they’ll be OK not to,” he explained. That said, several of the small

suppliers themselves have welcomed the prospect of the cap, as their existing tariffs are already well below any upper limit likely to be set

WHAT HAVE THE CHALLENGERS GOT TO OFFER? For those homes and businesses that are willing to look beyond the Big Six, there is plenty to be gained from testing the water with a smaller challenger firm – and financial savings are just the beginning. Flogas Britain, for example, is a respected supplier with more than 30 years’ experience in the energy industry. As well as providing bespoke off-grid energy solutions such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it specialises in gas mains for businesses too.

WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? With so many influencing factors at play, it’s difficult to predict the future lay of the land for the energy market. Two things are for sure, though: firstly, consumers are starting to realise that their options aren’t limited to the Big Six, and secondly, smaller suppliers are responding with increasingly attractive alternative offerings.




HOW THE PUBLIC SECTOR CAN SOLVE THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PUZZLE Kalim Shadam, UK Energy Framework Manager, Honeywell Building Solutions


eing a sustainable organisation is a great reputational boost, and likely to gain greater respect from the public; however, the reality of implementing this is no easy task. Operating sustainably can mean any number of things, however, one method of finding sustainable energy solutions in particular is through a self-financing energy performance contract (EPC) that enables smart delivery of energy efficiency plans. With increasing pressure on capital and revenue budgets and large complex property portfolios, creating and delivering the benefits from EPC’s is far from straightforward. EPC’s are a viable alternative to traditional, resource-constrained energy efficiency works and provide a long term investment and delivery structure for energy efficiency projects.

DEFINING AN EPC FRAMEWORK The framework is a partnership between a third-party provider of funding and a customer, formed with the aim of optimising the energy efficiency of buildings and facilities. One of the biggest plus-points of EPC’s is that each call-off contract within the framework is standalone. This means that customers are afforded the flexibility to accommodate individual strategies, drivers and funding availability for each property portfolio. They then experience bespoke benefits for each public sector organisation. What’s more, an EPC contract guarantees the energy-conservation measures implemented will generate the required savings to pay for any changes identified and incorporated. Additionally, any savings from new policies and technology will continue to benefit the customer, irrespective of whether the EPC is continued or not.


These types of contracts are an approach that have been designed to help public sector organisations modify their buildings - by installing energy conservation measures to cut down on carbon emissions while simultaneously achieving guaranteed annual cost savings and potential profits. In the past, it has often been the case that EPC’s planned for the public sector by third-party providers have failed to bring about any real benefits. The reason for this is that the energy savings during the planning stages of a project have not materialised – leading to a huge waste in time, opportunity, and resources.

WHY SHOULD ENERGY EFFICIENCY NOW BE AT THE FOREFRONT OF BUSINESSES’ MINDS? At this moment in time, it is more important than ever that buildings do all they can to be as efficient as possible. The introduction of The 2015 Energy Efficiency Regulations mean that commercial properties with an EPC rating of less than ‘E’ in England and Wales cannot be granted a new lease after the 1st of April 2018. So following this change in regulation, it is in commercial properties’ best interests to ensure that sustainable energy use is treated with the warranted attention.

WHAT HAS PETERBOROUGH CITY COUNCIL DONE? The population of Peterborough currently stands at 183,000 and is projected to rise to 228,700 by 2026. Taking this into account, the council opted to set up a framework to facilitate the investment and development of renewable energy generation projects and energy efficiency initiatives. This was done with the goal of minimising running costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions ahead of the vast population growth forecast.


Peterborough’s council also regard energy efficiency in itself as a top priority, and wanted to ensure that its energy is utilised in an efficient and sustainable manner. The Council aims to do its part in reducing the impact of climate change and its personal contribution to its causes. Peterborough has a substantial property portfolio consisting of 24 schools, three swimming pools, a sports centre, a multi-storey car park, library, market and town hall. This portfolio needed a number of ongoing energy reviews to assess both usage and generation. Honeywell was selected as the Council’s partner for the EPC framework in 2013. Following the partnership, more than 200 reviews have been carried out on property including educational establishments, together with the council. This was done with the goal of finding opportunities to design and implement appropriate energy efficiency programmes, delivered through an EPC. The Peterborough City Council EPC framework is set up to allow a flexible funding solution using either public or private funding options. Usually in an EPC, a third party provides the funding. This has a number of benefits for a public sector body, such as Peterborough City Council. For example, they can use lower cost funding via the Public Works Loan Board (PWLB). Honeywell implemented appropriate energy efficiency plans that use EPC’s. These plans allow public sector bodies like Peterborough City Council to benefit immediately from significant improvements. At the same time, they can use future, guaranteed operational savings that reduce the requirements for maintenance and refurbishment. Working within the EUcompliant EPC framework eliminates the


costly, time-consuming procurement process authorities tend to face. Following a comprehensive engineering analysis of the current energy performance at Peterborough’s facilities, the results showed substantial change. The results helped the council to choose numerous energy conservation measures (ECM’s), including upgrades or replacements of building control platforms, air handling units, lighting systems, CHP’s and pool filtration systems. In total, the council invested £5 million, which led to 1659 tonnes of CO2 savings and £2 million net profit.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR If public sector organisations are looking to release operational capital for use elsewhere, decrease the impact of future energy price increases and carbon taxes, and stimulate growth

and career opportunities, then they have a potential solution in the form of optimising energy efficiency. Let’s look at one example of how this can work. Energy performance contracting can be particularly appealing for schools in the process of expanding. They could be building new classrooms for a growing number of students, a new sports hall or a new canteen. Not only will this be hugely expensive, but it will also hike up the school’s energy bill. It is in their best interests to have a solution in place that can ease the cost implications. It is also an appealing proposition for schools that are under pressure to do more with less, and have to make use of their existing assets. The money that would have been put towards utility bills can instead be redirected towards improving the school.

Peterborough City Council’s EPC framework is an EU compliant solution that other local authorities across the UK can embrace. It is an example of local councils taking a sensible, financially sustainable approach to energy conservation. And as the cost of energy bills continues to rise, new and innovative ways to create savings and generate income wherever possible must be found. https://






hile wholesale energy costs are affected by many unpredictable factors, making it difficult to forecast whether they will go up or down, it is far more certain that non-commodity costs will rise. David Oliver, a consultant at Inenco, discusses the increases that organisations can expect if they don’t take action to reduce their non-commodity costs, based on research that the company has recently carried out. Most UK businesses can expect to see their energy costs rise by 25 per cent by 2020 – and we know that non-commodity costs (the fixed price per kWh on a business energy bill) will make up a significant proportion of this increase. For example, in 2017/2018 alone, the Renewables Obligation (RO) Levy, the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) Levy, the Contracts for Difference (CfD) Levy and the Climate Change Levy (CCL), coupled with carbon floor costs, will add around £41/MWh (4.1p/KWh) to an energy bill*. Furthermore, we have recently calculated that UK organisations combined can expect to have paid an extra £7.42 billion on their energy costs by 2019 if they don’t take action to manage their consumption. The good news is that, while wholesale energy costs are beyond an organisation’s control, non-commodity cost rises can be mitigated through using energy management strategies. Investing in energy management can of course seem like a daunting task, especially if you don’t know whether the time and effort involved will really deliver savings, or which options will achieve the best outcome. So, to help organisations choose an appropriate course of action, we investigated the impact of continuing along the same path (inaction) versus implementing a range of measures to manage energy consumption, analysing data from a typical large retail park, a small retail store, a manufacturing site and an inner-city university. We calculated the energy costs rises these organisations would face over a three-year period (2017-2019) if they kept the same energy strategy or applied the following scenarios: 1) reduce overall * Excluding businesses in energy intensive industries 1 Based on a large retail park in the East Midlands, 3GWh annual consumption, HV, in CRC


consumption by 10 per cent, 2) shift 20 per cent of consumption from Red bands and distribute across Amber bands, 3) shift 50 per cent of consumption from Red bands and distribute across Amber bands and 4) implement an energy efficiency programme (aiming for a five per cent reduction year-on-year). In all cases, two of the scenarios had the most impact compared to inaction; shifting 50 per cent of consumption from Red bands and distributing across Amber bands, and implementing an energy efficiency programme. In the case of a large retail park1, implementing an energy efficiency programme would result in a rise of just £15,985, or nine per cent. If large retail parks don’t take action to mitigate noncommodity cost rises, they can expect an increase of 27 per cent, or £47,561. Meanwhile, for a small retail store2, shifting 50 per cent of consumption from Red bands and distributing across Amber bands would keep bill rises as low as £1,127, or two per cent, and putting an energy efficiency programme in place would result in a rise of £2,875, or four per cent. Failing to take action would result in a rise of 21 per cent, equating to £15,486. In the case of manufacturing3, executing an energy efficiency programme would see energy costs rising by 29 per cent, or £548,057. If manufacturers don’t take action to mitigate non-commodity cost rises, we estimate an increase of 51 per cent, or £950,057. For inner-city universities4, bill rises could be kept as low as £7,038 and £7,835, or three and four per cent, by shifting 50 per cent of consumption from Red bands and distributing it across Amber bands, and introducing an energy efficiency programme, respectively. Taking no action would result in a rise of 21 per cent, equating to £43,501. Combining the scenarios used in our calculations would maximise 2 Based on a small retail store in North Wales or Merseyside, 1GWh annual consumption, LV in CRC 3 Based on a manufacturer in Hampshire, 50GWh annual


the savings, especially as shifting consumption can earn organisations revenue through demand management schemes. However, the ability to do this will depend on the organisation; it’s not always practical, for example, to shift 20 per cent or 50 per cent consumption. Implementing an energy efficiency programme is an action that all organisations can take though, and it keeps cost rises low. With energy costs increasing, and continuing to rise well into the future, organisations will understandably be looking to mitigate the impact on their bottom line – and our research demonstrates that they cannot afford to stand still and carry on as before. Investing in an energy management strategy can pay dividends, with costs increasing by just two per cent in some cases. The first step a business or organisation should take is to review current use and projected energy costs, and to establish whether there is adequate internal resource available to successfully implement an energy management strategy. The second step may require engagement with external consultants to determine which solutions are most appropriate. Inenco’s Cost of Inaction report can be downloaded at www.inenco. com/the-cost-of-inaction. In addition, its interactive Non-Commodity Cost Dashboard can be used to calculate exposure to incremental non-commodity costs over the coming years. For further information please visit consumption, HV, in a CCA (so exempt from CRC) 4 Based on a university in the North East (Leeds or York), 3GWh annual consumption, LV in CRC




echnology is changing the face of building power management. Facility professionals now find themselves in an entirely new landscape: one that introduces greater efficiency, but also new and problematic obstacles. An optimised, efficient and well-maintained power management system is the ultimate goal. Yet, in order to achieve this, the role of the facility professional is being forced to adjust. Managing energy costs while driving sustainability and efficiency has become the greatest power management challenge facility professionals face today.

A FRESH CHALLENGE: THE MODERN BUILDING One of the biggest trends impacting power management in a facility is the expansion of complex electrical networks which include battery storage, solar and backup generation. Not long ago, every building was more or less designed in the same way, with a predictable structure from an electrical perspective, as the main source of power would come directly from the electrical utility. By contrast, today’s modern buildings are far more complex and, therefore, have hugely different energy consumption and energy management and re-distribution needs. It’s clear that today’s buildings cannot be managed in the same way. This adds a layer of complexity for facility managers,

as buildings are no longer only energy consumers, but energy producers as well. The modern facility manager must handle these two very different tasks in parallel.

THE EVOLVING FACILITY MANAGER Causing even more disruption to building power management is the new breed of facility manager. Engineers traditionally filled the position, and, in many cases, had been stationed in the same building for years. As this older generation retires, the modern facility manager is taking over. These new managers may not yet know the ins-andouts of a particular facility, but they will bring unique backgrounds and skill sets. Yet another change is that an increasing variety of facilities are viewing electricity as a critical resource. Facilities such as hospitals have always considered electricity as mission critical, as the loss of power can become a life-safety issue in these buildings. Now, however, even facilities like shopping malls are viewing electricity with the same magnitude. If the building loses power and stores have to close, that outage can drive customers to competitor stores and significantly impact the bottom line. In today’s highly competitive landscape, a setback like this can be ruinous and must be avoided by any means. These forces of change are causing facility managers to continuously

reassess how they run their buildings and processes to ensure they are running as efficiently as possible. As a result, they are increasingly reliant on system integrators and support teams to help optimise electrical equipment and energy performance, improve electrical system reliability, and manage energy costs. This also has a knock-on effect on the role of systems integrators, who now need to be fully briefed on the latest electrical and energy system technology in to deliver the best service. This can be a challenge for integrators who have spent years building their knowledge around a particular set of products and technologies. They must now quickly change direction and evolve to meet the needs of this new landscape.

OPTIMISING THE SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR In order to evolve to meet these new requirements, systems integrators should focus on the following key tactics. First of all, training is obviously integral. Systems integrators should conduct regular, specialised training on the most critical challenges facing building owners and facility managers and the solutions that can solve them. This will help to broaden their expertise, meaning they can offer their clients a greater range of products and solutions and help them stand out from the competition. Regular training also means that they will be able to keep up-to-date with ever-changing technology and processes. Networking should be another key focus for systems integrators. They should try to seek out an open network of fellow systems integrators to promote idea sharing and best practices implementation. With a built-in network of partners to work with, systems integrators can more easily take on collaborative projects that might otherwise be beyond their reach and open up new opportunities for growth. Finally, it is important that systems integrators gain access to the industry-leading technologies that will drive the future of intelligent buildings. It is also necessary to network with the highlyskilled people who can design, install, and support those solutions, to ensure this new technology is being implemented and used correctly. This new landscape means that no one can go it alone. In today’s modern buildings, the new facility manager needs a full range of technologies and a network of experts to optimise operational efficiency and the management of energy and electrical systems. It is now important for the facility manager to partner with a systems integrator, to constantly expand and share expertise. This will create the perfect partner ecosystem to tackle this challenging environment and overcome the obstacles presented by modern, intelligent buildings.






riva Blue ID S-Line and C-Line controls have been installed as part of a major BMS retrofit project at St Paul’s Cathedral in London. The installation, which was part of an overall plant room refurbishment, gives the cathedral complete control over its temperature requirements from radiators/ heating coils and the hot water system throughout the building. A new front-end based on Priva UK’s integrated, web-based TC Manager, which is accessible from any PC with internet access, ensures authorised staff can change preset temperatures or on/off times at the click of a button. St Paul’s Cathedral, London’s iconic 340 year old church realised that its plant room equipment was in need of replacement in order to improve energy efficiency, enhance reliability and meet high heating and hot water demands. The cathedral’s existing heating system consisted of three steel shell boilers fitted in the 1960s which received a burner upgrade in the 1980s. Equipment problems occurred frequently and were fixed until the boilers finally started leaking and could not be repaired anymore.


Although deciding that a replacement/ upgrade project would be the best course

• Priva Blue ID selected following similar project success at Westminster Abbey • Far greater ease-of-use thanks to Priva TC Manager web-based front end of action, an immediate issue came to light. The site’s 20-year-old control panel would not have the capability to adopt the new equipment being installed. St Paul’s wanted to replace its existing boilers, hot water system and ventilation plant, thus instigating the search for a suitable BMS. The appointed M&E contractor, Bunton M&E Services, had a good relationship with Electrical and Mechanical Controls Ltd (EMC) in Norwich, which in turn is an experienced Priva installation partner. Priva’s specialism in the heritage buildings sector has seen its technology installed at a number of high profile historic sites. “We worked together very successfully on a similar BMS upgrade project at Westminster Abbey,” explains Daniel Millard, Technical Operations Manager at EMC. “Here, we could show St Paul’s how Priva Blue ID had been used to transform outdated controls into a 21st century heating and ventilation

system at another of London’s most important religious and historic buildings.”


Priva Blue ID S-Line controls were duly selected for the main boiler room at St Paul’s where they now control four new Hamworthy Wessex ModuMax mk3 boilers and the primary boiler pumps, which together provide a total space heating output of up to 1,016kW. In fact, thanks to a turndown ratio of 20:1, the boilers can deliver any output from 50.8 to 1,016kW. This means that in periods of low heat demand, the boilers are not constantly cycling and wasting energy. The BMS is also being used to control supply and extract fans for the boiler room. In addition, there are two new hot water cylinders with two primary pumps and two desertification pumps, along with a secondary pump and controls, comprising a 1,000 litre domestic hot water system. “We have also used a Priva Blue ID

ENERGY MANAGEMENT BY THE BACK DOOR Michael Phelan, chief executive of Endeco Technologies, explains why energy management is rising up the boardroom agenda once again.


rexit notwithstanding, commodity energy prices are forecast to remain reasonably stable in Europe over the next couple of years, despite a projected global increase in energy costs. Of course, sometimes the unexpected happens, which can create temporary volatility in the markets. However, assuming there are no more major events and that we are able to maintain ‘frictionless’ trading across the bloc, we don’t expect any dramatic rises in the commodity costs of energy over the next few years. This said, the transition to more renewables in Europe’s energy mix will impact the overall energy system costs – and the customer’s bill. The speed at which renewable power has come down in price has surprised many people; the train has already left the station and the UK will undoubtedly continue


to pursue renewables as a growing part of its energy mix. The problems that need to be solved to enable more efficient deployment of renewables, such as energy storage, have already been addressed to some extent. The energy bill is made of more than just commodity prices. The non-commodity costs – or the third-party charges that are not for the electricity itself – are coming under increasing pressure. Additional network costs, environmental and social obligation costs will drive up the overall price of energy for the consumer. Perhaps as a result of pricing pressures on non-commodity costs, in our conversations with customers it’s apparent that energy management isn’t as high on the boardroom agenda as it once was. Instead, energy management is being superseded by an interest in


demand side response (DSR) revenues. In our view, demand-side response has become more important to businesses than energy management because it helps them to take control of the non-commodity side of energy prices; much like balancing costs, which continue to rise. An ever-increasing number of industrial and commercial energy users want to mitigate price rises by generating additional income through participation in balancing services. However, implementing DSR doesn’t mean having to ignore energy management – in fact quite the reverse. It’s necessary to add metering and control systems to customer assets to enable their use in frequency response and other load balancing schemes. For example, businesses that run motors as part of their plant tend to operate them either ‘on’ or ‘off’. By fitting a variable frequency

ENERGY MANAGEMENT C-Line controller in the Wren Suite for AHU control, which includes two heating coil pumps, supply fan, extract fan and controls,” says Mr Millard. “Similarly, control has been provided for the AHU in the cathedral’s visitor lavatories, where there are also two heating and frost coil pumps, a supply fan, double extract fans and controls. There are further extract fans in the staff lavatory, shop and mezzanine areas.”


In terms of the plant upgrade, Bunton M&E built everything off-site in five weeks to ensure minimal disruption. In total, the installation time on-site was condensed to just four weeks. Saving further time, it was possible to use the existing IT network (utilising Ethernet) to communicate between the main panel, Wren Suite and the BMS PC. The benefits of the revamp include increased reliability, and better scalability and flexibility for future modifications. Naturally, there are likely to be significant energy savings too, as a result of enhanced temperature control. Another advantage relates to heating speed. Heating a cathedral can take a long time due to its large space, but the speed of heat-up has improved greatly. Previously it would take a week to heat the cathedral from cold, but now it only takes a day. In addition, the heating runs 24/7 on weather compensation, which means a

drive to a motor, we allow its speed to be controlled to respond to the load, which saves energy as well as enabling them to participate in dynamic frequency response schemes. This approach ensures that energy efficiency becomes a very attractive ‘secondary benefit’ of any investment made in preparing for participating in balancing services. Businesses can make the most from their DSR investment and realise benefits from energy management if they have access to a full energy optimisation system and dashboard. The key to this approach is having deep expertise in understanding the customer’s energy assets, the complexity of their system, and experience in optimising a wide variety of assets. This approach – essentially enabling traditional energy management by a different route – can deliver significant energy savings. Looking back at the evolution of DSR helps us to see what’s coming in future. DSR platforms and models have evolved from the first-generation approach, which saw suppliers simply put a meter

small outdoor sensor is fitted to adjust heating controls according to outside temperature changes, thus providing more efficient operation of the system

ENHANCED FRONT END “Importantly, the new system offers greater ease-of-use through an improved front end that utilises Priva TC Manager,” says Mr Millard. “The benefit being that we can also gain remote access to the web interface to assist with any issues. Furthermore, St Paul’s can now move away from having a single, dedicated front end PC, as any PC with internet access should be able

in to enable DSR, subsequently adding the ability to control a generator. Today, technology and balancing models have become more sophisticated, allowing implementation of frequency response and dynamic frequency response, and more recently the ability to take advantage of battery technology to enable more flexible use of loads. DSR platforms must be able to support a variety of balancing schemes if they are to facilitate multiple revenue streams. DSR technology that can only support a single revenue stream such as STOR, capacity or FFR will soon become redundant. From a customer perspective, the most valuable platforms are those that enable them to future-proof their DSR strategies in an environment where the future is not always clear. In future, we see smart tariffing and the ability to trade options in the capacity markets becoming part and parcel of DSR, all of which will evolve to more heavily incorporate machine learning and robotic process automation (RPA), and eventually mature into

to use the front end, subject to authorisation.” Robin Bunton, Director at Bunton M&E Services, concurs: “The greatest benefit is ease-of-use; the front end is really simple to access. In addition, St Paul’s have vastly reduced their maintenance time/burden.” “It is possible for me to view the system with a web browser on my PC, from either our internal network or remotely,” states Tom Fletcher, Clerk of the Works at St Paul’s Cathedral. “It’s in such an easy format, which makes it simple to understand. What’s more, if I need to change anything, I just click a button on the screen. The system also means that EMC are able to log on remotely should I have any queries, which is very helpful.”

full, deep learning and cognitive computing systems. This increased level of sophistication and use of advanced technology will bring additional benefits to energy management. Integrating efficiency as part of the system that delivers a new income stream will bolster green credentials, whilst maintaining a strong business case for investment in a holistic energy platform. These trends are elevating the value of energy management and putting it firmly back on the boardroom table. Businesses are increasingly interested in embedding energy efficiency services by re-using data from the DSR meters and other installed hardware to optimise performance. Enhanced data analytics enable energy managers to quickly see where there are inefficiencies, and with this data, machine learning algorithms take the necessary steps to address the issues with lightning-fast precision. These extra efficiency benefits add to the returns on dynamic firm frequency response, ensuring a compelling financial case.




A new and advanced Energy Management System (EMS) from Vickers. Feature-packed, it’s designed to deliver accurate heating control with maximum efficiency; enabling commercial and industrial premises to gain control of their heating whilst reducing energy bills and CO2 emissions.

ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS UNCOVERED Chris Pearson at Vickers – the leading industrial heating control brand that forms part of Pilot Group Infrastructure.


ith energy conservation a hot topic of debate around the globe, the pressure on commercial and industrial premises in the UK to use it sparingly and as efficiently as possible continues to mount. The built environment has long been identified by government as a major contributor to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions - responsible for about 46% of UK emissions, with non-domestic buildings accounting for around 19%. Hence, it poses a major threat to the UK meeting its carbon reduction targets for 2020 and 2050. Whilst Building Regulations ensure


that new properties meet the latest energy efficiency standards, there’s a whole raft of legislative measures now in place to ensure commercial and industrial premises conserve energy too. Take the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard (MEES), for example, that currently tackles older commercial buildings. This requires Landlords to provide an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) upon the proposed letting of a property. However, from April 18th this year, should the EPC rating fall lower than band E, the Landlord will be prevented from leasing the property. With an estimated 20% of UK commercial property unable to meet this criteria, and with the possibility of MEES rising in the future, the work


that’s required to bring these buildings up to scratch will be colossal. Industrial buildings aren’t exempt from the legislative heat either; with a whole mix of co-operative, financial and market based measures in place to improve energy efficiency. The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) is just one example. This is a mandatory energy assessment scheme for larger UK organisations and their corporate groups that requires an ESOS assessment to be carried out every four years. This includes audits of the energy used by the building, as well as industrial processes and transport, to identify cost-effective energy saving measures. With an estimated 20% of a business’ energy costs due to wasted energy


The new Energy Management System (EMS) from Vickers. This shows how the Outstation is connected to both the Central Control Unit and the Digital Air Sensors. All data is securely backed up to the Cloud.

caused by inefficient equipment, there are huge opportunities to save money, especially for larger organisations. That’s where a simple investment in an Energy Management System (EMS) comes in. Designed to deliver accurate heating control with maximum efficiency, an EMS can make savings of up to 43% on energy bills - a sure fire way for both commercial and industrial premises to gain control of their heating, and reduce energy bills and CO2 emissions at the same time. Let’s take a closer look. A typical EMS works by monitoring, controlling and regulating the performance of a building’s heating system, ensuring that it’s always fully optimised and only using energy as and when required, which ultimately increases efficiency. Advanced self-learning programmes can cleverly help the system calculate the necessary burn time for individual heaters to achieve their target temperature, and can even detect how long each will take to cool down and switch off accordingly. The inclusion of an external sensor provides further

efficiencies by varying the internal target temperatures in response to prevailing weather conditions. Some manufacturing, storage, and retail sites often require different temperatures throughout different zones within the building. Chilled food may be stored in one area and curing products in another, whilst the office space will require a much more comfortable environment. Advanced systems can monitor and regulate temperatures throughout a building without the need for manual intervention, multiple systems, clock settings or extra equipment. A good EMS should also be compatible with the building’s lighting system. As well as presetting the times of lighting coming on and off, with the additional use of sensors the lighting can be activated only when the area is occupied. This is ideal for areas that aren’t used regularly. The best Energy Management Systems are those that are compatible with all makes of industrial heating systems and that work alongside varying types of heaters including;

warm air, radiant, air handlers, boilers and thermoliers. Some can even be fully integrated with existing building management systems such as Trend. Furthermore, an EMS can offer improved controls for multi stage boilers; thereby sharing the load to increase efficiency. It can even be interfaced with utility meters! Use of the system is usually foolproof and can be monitored from any location courtesy of cloud-based technology. In addition to viewing performance and energy usage, changes can be made from any internet enabled device; thereby providing the ultimate in control. It’s also possible to produce automated monthly reports to show the benefits gained from installing the EMS. With increasing legislative measures being levied on commercial and industrial premises to reduce energy consumption, there’s no time like the present to invest in an EMS or to upgrade to a more sophisticated version. With a typical payback period of just two to three years, it’s an investment that will yield substantial returns for years to come.




CHP ENSURES A HEALTHY ENERGY MIX ETW Energietechnik modernizes energy supply concept of the University of Göttingen and the University Medical School (UMG)


he basic supply of electricity and gas to the economy is one of the pillars of the Energy Industry Act. However, the safe and reliable supply of energy is even more essential in the medical sector. Both electricity and heat can save lives here. In order to ensure this security of supply in the future, the University of Göttingen (UMG) and the University of Göttingen have jointly initiated an innovative energy supply concept. The central component is a 4.5 megawatt CHP unit from ETW Energietechnik GmbH in Moers. A modern, decentralised energy and heat supply will bring production closer to consumers in the future. For this purpose, three large cogeneration units were implemented: one at the university hospital and two at the university.

50 PERCENT OF THE ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENT At the end of September 2017, the ‘heart’ of the new combined heat and power plant of UMG, a gas engine with generator, was delivered. A heavy-duty crane lifted the 53- ton unit into the new building. The engine and generator alone account for around one million euros. Since the end of 2017, the first of the three power plants has now been supplying about half of the electricity required and the basic heat requirement of the university hospital. The 4.5 megawatt cogeneration plant was developed and supplied by ETW Energietechnik, the Moers-based specialist for power plants. It contributes around 50 percent to the electricity requirements of the University Hospital Göttingen. The total efficiency of the energy utilisation, electricity and heat output, amounts to about 90 percent.

CONTRIBUTION TO CLIMATE PROTECTION The state of Lower Saxony will bear the costs of around 4.7 million euros from the August 2014 „Rehabilitation Programme for University Medicine of Lower Saxony“, but the investment will not only save energy costs; security of supply and the saving of 6,500 tons of carbon dioxide per year will also make an important contribution to climate protection.

SECURITY OF SUPPLY ELEMENTARY CORE COMPONENT Security of supply in particular is a key element of the new energy concept. The University Medical School Göttingen (UMG) as a


clinic of maximum care has an annual heat energy requirement of more than 33,000 private households. For this purpose, the waste heat from the engine and the hot exhaust gases are decoupled and used for their own use. UMG relies on a cogeneration plant for the generation of heat and electricity, which generates energy particularly efficiently with continuous heat output. It has a heat output of 4.75 megawatts and has a 33-meter-high chimney stack.

BASE LOAD OF HEAT SUPPLY Since January 2018, around half of the electricity required in the university hospital has been produced, thus covering the basic load of heat supply for the hospital. The heat is mainly used to heat the drinking water and for the room heating of the central hospital building. The energy-efficient plant technology of the CHP reduces the consumption of resources and reduces environmental pollution and emissions. „The new combined heat and power plant is thus an important contribution and a good example of the integration of biogas into sustainable and modern energy supply concepts“, summarizes Dr. Oliver Jende from the sales department of ETW


Energietechnik GmbH in Moers.

POWER GENERATION CLOSE TO MAIN CONSUMERS The two subfoundations University Medicine Göttingen (UMG) and the University of Göttingen coordinate their joint „energy policy“ and founded the Universitätsenergie Göttingen GmbH in 2009. Their goal: Both partners want to use the energy required for the foundation university efficiently, in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective manner. The core of the energy supply concept is to bring power generation close to the main consumers in order to minimise transmission losses. The UMG has an annual electricity requirement of about 57,000 MW-hours of electricity and about 100,000 MWhours of heat, the university of 50,000 MW-hours of electricity and 67,000 MW-hours of heat. In the UMG, electricity and heat are also used for central cooling production.




he average annual energy bill for UK businesses is just over £2,500, a cost that can be dramatically reduced by making a few small changes. For example, research has found that the simple act of switching off lights, computers, and heating when not in use, can result in a 10-20% reduction in annual energy consumption. Lighting in particular presents huge cost saving potential for businesses, especially for those that leave the lights on round-the-clock. It’s estimated that on average, lighting accounts for 20% of all energy used in commercial and industrial buildings each year, but that cost can be reduced significantly by replacing old, power-hungry bulbs with modern, energy efficient LEDs. LED bulbs offer energy savings of up to 90% in comparison to traditional incandescent or halogen bulbs, and up to 50% savings over fluorescent tubes. In addition to the improved energy efficiency, the lifespan of an LED bulb is approximately 50,000 hours (about five and a half years!), which is almost 50 times longer than many traditional bulbs. Consequently, LED bulbs don’t have to be changed as regularly, resulting in further savings through reduced maintenance costs, and less wastage. So what’s the catch? Put simply, LED bulbs are more expensive than most other bulbs, and this can deter many business owners, particularly when purchasing in large quantities. However, like with any good investment, the long-term gains far outweigh any short-term pains. In fact, an LED refit project can essentially be self-funding, if spread strategically over multiple stages: Savings made from phase one can be used to fund phase two, and so on. This process makes it possible for even small businesses to upgrade to LED, without a large one-off upfront payment. Of course, every business is different and there are many considerations to factor into savings calculations - including the cost of energy consumption in a particular area, the size and layout of the building, the number of light fittings and bulbs, and the length of time during which they will be illuminated - but whilst the upfront cost of these bulbs may be

a little higher, the extended lifespan will more than make up for the initial outlay.

LEDS AND OFFICE DESIGN LEDs may be lauded for their energy efficiency and cost-cutting capabilities, but the benefits don’t end there. Various studies have shown that LED lighting can play a vital role in creating a comfortable office environment, which can have a major impact on the perception, mood, and performance of employees. A study by Cornell University revealed that 24% of office workers point to eye strain and discomfort caused by poor lighting as a major factor in loss of work, resulting in a 2% loss of productivity per year for each individual (about one week of paid annual leave per employee). The study concluded that LED lighting has the potential to improve workplace productivity by up to 5%. Another advantage of LEDs is their flexibility. Because of their compact size, directional beam, and minimal heat output, LEDs are well suited for illuminating hard-to-reach areas in the workplace, such as small offices, meeting rooms, and dark corners. LEDs also have an impressive dimmable range, meaning light output can be adjusted right down to as little as 5 or 10 percent, giving business owners full control over their

lighting. Where widespread lighting is required, LEDs can be combined together in multiples and set at varying angles for greater coverage, giving them a distinct cosmetic advantage over traditional fluorescent light bulbs which rely heavily on inefficient reflectors and louvres. Whether looking to cut costs, gain greater control over lighting, improve employee productivity, or all of the above, LEDs can help. Switching to LEDs needn’t be difficult, but to ensure the multiple benefits of LED technology are realised, business owners interested in making the switch should first seek advice from experienced lighting experts. Lyco was established in 1995 and, by consistently exceeding customer expectations, has grown to become one of the UK’s leading lighting suppliers. For more information please visit




LIGHTING UP CITY STREETS WITH ‘SMART CITY’ TECHNOLOGY Ian Tyrer, Head of Sales - Energy Finance and Chris Wilkinson, Head of Sales for Healthcare and Public Sector for Siemens Financial Services in the UK



everal UK cities are looking to initiate smart projects and developments to improve the efficiency of local services, enhance sustainability and develop their competitiveness.1 Smart city initiatives improve the ‘livability’ of a city, helping to attract business and talent to support economic and business growth. A number of cities are now approaching smart transformation through a series of smaller smart projects that help to generate savings and effectively pay for the initial investment. These projects, costing a few thousand to a few million pounds, can offer highly dependable Return on Investment (ROI), helping to ease the continued pressure on public budgets. An example of one such ‘smart’ project is the installation of low energy street lighting to improve residents’ quality of life and reduce cities’ energy consumption. A growing number of cities across the world are taking the step to light up their streets with energy efficient LED street lights. LEDs are brighter than conventional light sources and so provide more safety and security in public spaces. They also have longer lifetimes and require less maintenance. Reduced energy consumption is also an important factor. Brighton and Hove City Council is set to save more than £200,000 a year and reduce its energy and carbon footprint over the next three years by introducing new LED street lighting. A total of 20,000 lamp posts will be upgraded using smart technology that will allow the Council to control each individual post to allow more accurate switch on/switch off times throughout the city. In the future it is hoped that the new street lights will be amongst several improvements that will help transform Brighton and Hove into a hi-tech ‘smart city’ by extending the use of smart technology into areas such as city-wide Wi-Fi, number plate recognition and air quality monitoring. 2

Glasgow is taking the street lighting one step further by trialling ‘intelligent street lighting’ through its Future Cities initiative. The system includes energy efficient LED lighting and real time data feeds that will allow the manual brightening of lighting when required. The system will also help to monitor street disturbances with real time CCTV and community safety response. In addition, movement sensors, to monitor footfall and traffic flow, will generate important data to aid city planning. Air pollution monitoring furthermore will be integrated into the lighting network to help with planning and pollution reduction. A limited Wi-Fi service for use by city services and citizens will also be included.3 Clearly, there are numerous benefits to implementing LED streetlights. Investing in such equipment, however, requires financial resources that may be beyond the reach of city council public budgets. Councils are facing cuts in central government funding of 6.7% between 2016 and 2020, which comes on top of an overall 30% reduction between 2010 and 2015. 4 Local authorities are therefore looking to other forms of finance to help them invest in new equipment including technology to enable the implementation of low energy street lighting. The reality is that cities need to access a blend of public and private sector finance to accelerate their smart initiatives in a timely way and benefit from the resulting savings, efficiency, quality and citizen service improvements as quickly as possible. A diverse range of funding sources allows a city to make the full range of desired technology investments – using a combination of public and private sector finance – in a

1 For example: Bristol, http://www-file.huawei. com/~/media/CORPORATE/PDF/News/ Huawei_Smart_Cities_Report_FINAL.pdf?la=en 2, Future bright for super smart street lighting, December 2016, https://www. future-bright-super-smart-street-lighting 3 Future City Glasgow – intelligent street lighting, http://futurecity.glasgow.


timely fashion. Different financiers can be sourced for the different types of technology investment. The sooner the smart investments are implemented, the quicker the savings (or revenues, or inward investments) begin to accrue. A recent report, SmartStart (2016)5, identifies a number of potential Smart City initiatives – including low energy street lighting - that can be financed by using funds from the private sector and have the potential to generate savings that effectively pay for the investment. The report estimates that as much as € 6.21 billion (£5.28 billion) could be available in funding from the private sector in the UK for these small-scale initiatives. Many of these projects effectively unlock more finance availability for cities from financiers that intimately understand how such smart city technology applications work and the benefits they produce. Tailored, all-encompassing financing packages tend to be offered by specialist financiers who have an in-depth understanding of energy-efficient technology and its applications. Specialist finance providers understand the importance of implementing new equipment and new technology to generate revenue and cut operational expenses, and can therefore provide customised financing solutions that deliver energy savings and lower expenses, for instance, flexing the financing period to suit cash flow. This contrasts with the standard financing terms usually available from generalist financiers. Low energy street lighting is just one example of a small-scale smart city development that can help reduce councils’ energy consumption and enhance safety for city residents. The budget has to be available, however, to implement the system in the first place. As their public funding continues to be cut, many councils are recognising the important role that the private sector can play to help them fulfil their ‘smart’ ambitions. uk/en/home/products/financing.html 4 BBC News, Council Cuts: Who will cushion the blow? 3 March 2016 http://www. 5 Siemens Financial Services, SmartStart, Summer 2016




ED Eco Lights, the award winning UK LED lighting manufacturer, has announced that Network Rail has fitted its Goodlight LED lighting into all 18 platforms and the concourse at London’s Liverpool Street Station, Britain’s third-busiest station with over 66 million passengers annually. Passengers and staff are benefitting from higher, better quality lighting and at the same time Network Rail is seeing a significant saving in electricity costs and a reduction in its carbon footprint. Adam Thackeray, Works Delivery Manager for Network Rail, commented, “We decided to move to LED lighting to reduce our carbon output, reduce costs in terms of power consumption


and to improve the lighting level and quality in public areas of the station. The opportunity to reduce costs for lamp replacement by moving from a two year to a five year cycle was also a significant consideration. LED lighting will also increase the efficiency of emergency lighting, reducing the load on the battery/generators and reduce the temperature signatures of lighting and heat related failures.” The Goodlight LED lamps can easily be retro-fitted into the existing fittings, allowing the relamping to proceed with little disruption. Over 3,500 lights were replaced by two teams of two operatives. They worked from two scissor lifts on a permanent night shift during the five hour window offered by station


closing hours over a six month period. Some commuters shared Tweets about the improvement and many of the staff that work at the station expressed appreciation for the improved station environment. Liverpool Street Station is seeing both an increase in light levels and a reduction in energy demand following the relamping with Goodlight LED. The station has measured an increase in Lux levels on the platforms and concourse, from approximately 75 Lux with the old lighting to 210 Lux with Goodlight. At the same time there has been a temperature drop of approximately 40 degrees centigrade at the exterior of the globe fixtures, which should improve reliability as well as efficiency. During the


replacement of the concourse lighting in particular, maintenance teams noticed that there was a lot of the discolouration around the lamps and reflectors caused by heat produced by the old fluorescent lamps and control gear. This illustrates both the amount of waste heat generated and the issues it was causing. The energy saving from the new lights is over 800,000 kWh per year from the platform globe fixtures alone. Adam Thackeray estimates that the new LED lighting uses about half the energy of the old lights, and will pay for itself in just 12-18 months.






here are proven business benefits to putting in place metering and monitoring of energy consumption. According to the Carbon Trust, typically, 20% of a business’ annual energy costs are wasted through the use of energy inefficient equipment. A British Gas survey of several thousand smart meters showed that 46% of SME total electricity use is out of hours between 6pm and 8am, and other sources claim many


industrial installations are seeing a 50% reduction in efficiency from heat loss due to poor or missing pipe lagging. It is also the case that up to 60% of an offices heat is lost through the fabric of the building. With these statistics in mind, monitoring power and energy usage in a facility or installation can often identify hidden issues that affect both operational and environmental quality, can pinpoint the reason for higher


than desired energy costs, and can reveal the causes of more frequent equipment repair and replacement. The energy delivered to any industrial or commercial facility is generally considered to be in the form of electricity and gas, and statistics show in commercial and other tertiary environments in Western Europe this is often broken down into the following shares.

The objective of this would be to quantify the most economical sources of energy, set the energy policy of the business to improve its energy performance, and to calculate the return on investment The objective of thisexpenses. would be to quantify the most economical sources of energy, set the energy of any incurred

policy of the business to improve its energy performance, and to calculate the return on investment MONITORING & METERING of any incurred expenses. Installation, equipment, machinery, …

Knowledge of energy consumption

Knowledge of energy consumption

Installation, equipment, machinery, … Energy use

Energy supply

Energy use

Improved energy performance

Improved energy performance

Monitoring and controlling the consumption of energy generally consists of two important stages, the energy audit and a metering plan. And the implementation of these represent the first steps Energy supply along the path to improving the energy performance of an organisation. Fig. 1

Monitoring and controlling the consumption of energy generally consists of two important stages, the energy audit and a metering plan. And the implementation of these represent the first steps along the path to improving the energy performance of an organisation.

Fig. 2

The energy audit provides a detailed insight into energy consumption, and highlights improvements • Heating (50%) consumption being where the primary incurred expenses. (See Fig. 1) in• energy and production efficiency. energy is, for example, converted Lighting (25%) Monitoring and controlling the into steam via a boiler to supply

consumption of energy generally

• metering Hot water production (10%) for every organisation, is essential to measure and compare consumption The plan, specific processes such as dryers, ovens, etc. consists of two important stages, the • Cooling Air Conditioning over time. It involves the (5% implementation of metering measurement equipment calculate the Energy usage can and also be defined energy auditto and a metering plan. • Permanent auxiliaries as permanent, intermittent, specific And the implementation of these EPI (Energy Performance Index) and consumption.

(pumps and fans) (10%) and significant. For the industrial represent the first steps along the path sectors, significant energy use (SEU) is improving the energy performance The importance of evaluating energy The analysis of all of this data makes it possible to validate, or invalidate, thetosaving actions particularly important in an ISO50001 of an organisation. (See Fig. 2) use led to the creation of BREEAM undertaken, and to keep an optimised level of energy performance over the long term. approach, as the primary stage of the (Building Research Establishment The energy audit provides a detailed energy review requires the body to Environmental Assessment Method), insight into energy consumption, identify its significant energy uses. first published by BRE in 1990, which and highlights improvements in is now the world’s longest established Significant energy is defined as energy and production efficiency. method of assessing, rating, and energy use representing a significant The metering plan, specific for every certifying the sustainability of buildings. share of energy consumption and / organisation, is essential to measure or offering considerable potential for In industry, there are generally and compare consumption over improving energy performance. several types of energy use. Energy time. It involves the implementation used by manufacturing processes, Understanding the significant energy of metering and measurement such as sterilisation, curing, electrolysis, use in a facility gives an opportunity equipment to calculate the EPI (Energy etc., or for use throughout the facility, to question the upstream volume Performance Index) and consumption. including the production of compressed and nature of energy at its point The analysis of all of this data makes air, or steam, heating or cooling, as well of delivery, as well as downstream it possible to validate, or invalidate, as motorised systems and lighting. energy performance of facilities, the saving actions undertaken, and equipment, systems, and processes. Industrial energy consumption to keep an optimised level of energy can also be considered as direct or The objective of this would be performance over the long term. indirect. Direct energy consumption to quantify the most economical involving the use of energy in the form sources of energy, set the energy in which it is provided, natural gas to policy of the business to improve its supply an oven, electricity for motors energy performance, and to calculate or electrolysis, and indirect energy the return on investment of any

The energy audit provides a detailed insight into energy consumption, and highlights improvements in energy and production efficiency. The metering plan, specific for every organisation, is essential to measure and compare consumption over time. It involves the implementation of metering and measurement equipment to calculate the EPI (Energy Performance Index) and consumption. The analysis of all of this data makes it possible to validate, or invalidate, the saving actions undertaken, and to keep an optimised level of energy performance over the long term.




HONEYWELL PROFILES NEXT GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY METERING TECHNOLOGY AT DISTRIBUTECH Alpha® 4 electricity meter provides utilities with powerful data that allows for better prediction of peak usage and detection of power outages and electricity theft


oneywell has announced that it is demonstrating the next generation of its electricity metering technology, the Alpha® 4 meter, at DistribuTECH®. The advanced Alpha 4 platform delivers the latest in metering technology, providing utilities greater flexibility, enhanced security and the ability to integrate future grid capabilities. The Alpha 4’s increased support for high-resolution metrology data, when combined with advanced analytics, enables new insights that can help predict peak usage and detect power outages and losses such as electricity diversion. The Alpha 4 follows in Honeywell’s tradition of providing innovative, high-performance metering products to electricity, gas and water utilities. It is available for both residential as well as commercial and industrial applications using point-to-point or Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)


communications. With its advanced capabilities, the new smart meter will facilitate a stronger smart grid infrastructure, enabling more efficient power distribution for utilities. “The Alpha 4 meter leverages Honeywell’s legacy of metering and innovation to provide excellent metrology processing, market-leading memory capabilities, and a variety of other features,” said Gary Bennett, vice president and general manager of Smart Energy Electricity Americas, Honeywell Process Solutions. “All these capabilities help utilities accomplish their goal of delivering safe, reliable and accurate service to their customers.” In addition to operational advancements, the Alpha 4 also increases support for consumer-facing applications. By offering improved granularity into consumption patterns, the Alpha 4 can help utilities and their customers better understand how they


can reduce energy use and costs. Key features of the Alpha 4 include a powerful processor, which provides rich data, reduces latency and offers utilities more channels. This enables the simultaneous measurement of a greater number of electrical instrumentation values, generating detailed data that can be turned into enhanced customer experiences. Thanks to expanded memory, the meter can store up to 365 days of data, and its flexible communications capability allows it to integrate any third-party communications modules. Additional features of the Alpha 4 include Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) compatibility, aligned with the movement of wide area network (WAN), local area network (LAN), and Home Area Network (HAN) devices to this authentication protocol. The meter also offers American National Standard Institute (ANSI) C12.22 security standard compatibility, supporting the most advanced security protocol standard available today. Furthermore, it has a strong power supply with the ability to support today’s more powerful radio communications. Visit www.honeywellsmartgrid. com for more information


NEW PACE SCHEME AND MCS CERTIFICATION MAKE VIESSMANN’S FUEL CELL BOILER FINANCIALLY ATTRACTIVE Big price reduction and feed-in-tariff eligibility for world’s first fuel cell heat and power system


he Viessmann Vitovalor 300P fuel cell boiler has been reduced in price from £18,000 to £9,990, largely as a result of Viessmann’s participation in the new European PACE project. It has also gained MCS certification, entitling owners to claim approximately £6,000 over 10 years from the UK government’s feed-in-tariff. The 45 per cent price reduction makes the world’s first mass-produced fuel cell boiler as affordable as a heat pump, but it has the additional benefit of producing electricity as well as domestic heat. To generate heat and electricity within a single household, the Vitovalor 300-P comprises a fuel cell unit, peak load boiler, and hot water tank in a single visual unit which requires just 0.65 square metres of floor space. Combining the production of heat and power makes energy savings of up to 36 percent compared to separate heat and power generation and reduces CO2 emissions by more than 30 per cent compared to a conventional heating boiler. The Vitovalor’s PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell, which converts gas to hydrogen for its energy source, generates as much power as 30 square metres of photovoltaic cells. Generating up to 15 kWh of electricity per day, it is perfect for owners of plug-in electric cars. Own-generated electricity typically costs about one-third of electricity from the grid, and under the feed-in-tariff users can also claim 13.6 pence for every kWh of power they generate. Its 1 kW per hour thermal output is enough to meet most of the heat demand in modern one- and two-

family homes as the unit is designed to run for 20 hours per day, charging the heating water buffer and hot water cylinder. On occasions when more heat is required, for example on particularly cold days or if a lot of hot water is used in a short period, the gas condensing boiler switches on automatically. The Vitovalor 300-P is as quick and easy to install as any Viessmann wallmounted gas boiler, with hydraulics, buffer and DHW cylinder integrated into the system. As with any gas condensing boiler, all that’s needed is one power supply and one gas supply, with the usual connections for flow and return and for hot and cold water. All components are well-proven, including the Panasonic fuel cell, which is already in use in over 100,000 installations in Japan. Viessmann marketing director Darren McMahon commented: “The Vitovalor 300-P is one of the most efficient heating systems available today and its future-proof technology offers independence from rising electricity prices. Low carbon emissions make this technology desirable for environmental reasons, and now it makes even better sense for financial reasons too. There is no better time than this to be involved in

fuel cell mCHP and we therefore expect to see a natural increase in interest from heating engineers and architects.” Viessmann is a member of a consortium of manufacturers participating in the PACE project (Pathway to a Competitive European Fuel Cell micro-cogeneration), which was announced in October 2017. With €90 million of funding from the EU and European industry, PACE aims to bring fuel cell micro-cogeneration technology closer to mass market affordability and to establish Europe as a global leader in the technology. PACE is designed to facilitate the installation of at least 2,500 fuel cell micro-cogeneration units in Europe between now and 2021, and to encourage the manufacture of at least 10,000 units per year after 2020. Drivingup manufacturing volumes should bring economies of scale which further reduce product costs, establishing fuel cell microcogeneration as a standard technology. Previous grant schemes have helped encourage the installation of more than 1,500 units in Europe’s most advanced market, Germany, and more than 200,000 units in Japan.




ERP TURNS UP THE HEAT ON NOX Tighter regulations for NOx emissions from space heating are on their way in 2018 as the next phase of Ecodesign requirements comes into effect under the Energy-related Products Directive. Chris Meir, Sales Director at Remeha, looks at the implications for energy managers and refurbishment projects.


overnment figures attributing around 45% of UK energy consumption and over 30% of greenhouse gas emissions to space heating alone point to the huge scope for efficiency gains in existing buildings. Heating has already fallen back into the spotlight following the publication of the government’s Clean Growth Strategy. New legislation in 2018 from the European Union’s Energy-related Products Directive (ErP) will further encourage focus on heating performance. From 26 September 2018, Ecodesign requirements under ErP will enforce maximum NOX emissions of 56mg/kWh for gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) boilers and 120mg/kWh for oil-fired boilers. The regulations, which apply to new space heaters (including boilers) up to and including 400kW on both new build and replacement projects, follow the more stringent ErP efficiency standards introduced in September 2015. With EU legislation still applying in the UK until its formal departure date, and the government consulting on improving building efficiency, this new regulation is worth noting when planning boiler replacements.

MIND THE NOX The EU aims to phase out the installation of less efficient equipment across Europe by establishing minimum performance standards for new equipment. It predicts a 20% reduction in energy consumption and emissions when replacing older equipment with ErP-compliant products that will help achieve its 2020 targets.


Dorset County Council has halved gas usage at slashed NOx emissions Ferndown First School since installing high efficiency ultra-low NOx Remeha Gas 220 Ace boilers

Why the attention on NOX ? The mandatory levels coincide with the growing scrutiny of NOX following worldwide recognition of the health dangers posed by air pollution. And while road traffic is a major contributor to outdoor pollution, non-domestic buildings – and their heating – also typically emit NOX. So reducing NOX emissions from heating is an important step towards achieving cleaner air.

FUTURE-PROOF SOLUTION For energy managers, the good news is that manufacturers have been continuously innovating to produce affordable, future-


proofed low NOX heating solutions that meet the new challenges. When it comes to boilers, condensing boilers remain the most efficient of all boiler technologies – around 11% more efficient than non-condensing boilers. With some condensing boilers now in their fourth or fifth generation and capable of achieving near maximum efficiencies, this is a proven, cost-effective solution to high performance heating. In terms of NOX , again condensing boilers are ahead of the game. With ultra-low emissions at or below 40mg/ kWh, the latest models are futureproofed to ErP 2018 NOX levels. At the same time, they meet the EU standard

BOILERS & BURNERS EN15502 Pt 1 2015 Class 6 for NOX and are eligible for maximum BREEAM credits, helping contribute to a higher environmental building rating. Certain models are also certified for operation on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), providing a viable solution for organisations off the gas grid looking to switch to a more sustainable fuel source.

REDUCED BILLS, REDUCED CARBON FOOTPRINT With many public sector buildings relying on boilers for their space heating, what impact will ErP have on energy managers? For new build and refurbishment projects, the focus will be on installing only ErP-compliant, high efficiency, low NOX heating solutions. The next consideration should be to replace any ageing or inefficient boilers in older buildings with ultralow NOX condensing boilers, and add controls. The Carbon Trust supports this view, highlighting boiler replacement as a key way to cut heating costs. At the same, condensing boilers achieve more reliable heating, helping generate the more comfortable environment increasingly connected with improved occupant wellbeing, and ultimately greater productivity.

MAXIMISING EFFICIENCY WITH MANUFACTURER SUPPORT When installing condensing boilers, however, it is always advisable to seek support from the manufacturer, particularly on refurbishment projects moving away from non-condensing boilers. While the switch should be seamless, arranging a site visit from an experienced manufacturer to survey the existing boiler plant will help identify any potential future challenges – and the most appropriate solutions. Using their in-depth knowledge of their products, manufacturers can also advise on how best to maximise the performance of the condensing boilers within the existing heating system. This might involve rebalancing the radiator circuits and adding weather compensation control, for example, thereby allowing the boilers to fully condense and optimise their efficiencies. Sharing the heat load over multiple condensing boilers in a cascade arrangement is another approach to more efficient, reliable heating that also results in easier maintenance and servicing, cutting operational costs. Again manufacturers can advise on the

6 Remeha Gas 610 Eco Pro boilers were specified at the Old Bailey to meet the City of London's key requirements for improved energy performance and reduced building emissions

best configuration for the individual project. Manufacturers can also provide information on additional design factors that should be factored into the schedule and budget, including flueing and condensate arrangements. Or in the case of offgrid properties, it might be necessary to consider a change of fuel source to LPG.

PLANNING AHEAD These considerations are particularly relevant where several properties are involved, each served by a number of boilers. In such scenarios, implementing a rolling change programme is a practical means of ensuring a smooth changeover. With a planned, staged replacement programme there is adequate time to design and budget for the most appropriate solution that will maximise energy and cost savings. And as the phased replacements can be carried out in a live environment, this approach also minimises any disruption to the day-to-day operation of the building.

ERP – ARE YOU READY? ErP 2018 is coming. It may be a

Remeha Gas 310 and 610 Eco Pro boilers serving Oldham Civic Centre Complex are delivering energy savings of around 25% for the Council and an associated drop in emissions

legislative driver for change, but if it results in more comfortable, productive living and work environments, lower energy bills and cleaner air, everyone’s a winner. Fortunately, with today’s advanced, high efficiency, ultra-low NOx condensing boilers the tighter requirements of ErP and its considerable benefits are entirely achievable. And with the support of their manufacturers, energy managers could help make the huge potential for energy savings and emissions reduction in the UK’s existing building stock into a reality. Tel: 0118 978 3434 Email:






he all-new gas-fired, vertical spiral-rib tubeless steam boiler from Fulton, the VSRT, is the first range to emerge from the company’s new ‘PURE Technology’ approach, an initiative that has resulted in a worldfirst design that is durable, long-lasting and boasts the highest efficiencies and ultra-low NOX emissions as standard. By adopting a systems-engineering approach to design and implementing PURE Technology – the result of a cleanslate design approach that combines new people with new skills bringing a new approach to the design and optimisation of heat transfer solutions – Fulton’s VSRT radically challenges the heat transfer and mechanical design principles of traditional steam boilers. It is also claimed by the company to be the most radical change to vertical steam boiler design since Fulton pioneered the vertical tubeless boiler in 1949 and, for the right application, a worthy successor to the company’s renowned J Series. Commenting for Fulton, sales and marketing manager Leigh Bryan says: “To meet ever-more stringent industry and environmental standards, our PURE Technology approach looks to enhance heat transfer, provide classleading efficiencies, improve steam quality and reduce NOX emissions. So rather than improve existing products to achieve these goals, PURE Technology


radically challenges conventional boiler design by engineering solutions that are fitfor-purpose and applications.” With over 15 patents pending in three continents, the VSRT’s spiral-rib heat exchanger is a world first. It attains industry-leading heat transfer rates thanks to its unique spiral design, which achieves low stack temperatures by passing the flue gases through a spiral-wound heat exchanger that is fully immersed in water. “This all-new spiral-rib design benefits from an extended heat transfer path and dual-direction heat flow, with the spiral annulus designed and optimised to create high heat transfer rates.” says Leigh. “This optimises heat transfer to create a longer-lasting boiler that we believe will beat the competition in every category of durability!” The ground-breaking spiral rib heat exchanger design not only allows Fulton to improve boiler efficiency but, with virtually zero thermal stress, a thick walled construction and featuring vertical tubeless design architecture, the VSRT is one of the most durable steam boilers available. It features a fully water-backed pressure vessel, which is wrapped in high-density insulation to achieve minimal thermal losses and low outer surface temperatures. The tubeless design has also enabled Fulton to create a compact boiler with minimal footprint. No refractory also means significantly lower weight (compared to traditional vertical steam boilers) for ease of installation. Ultra-low NOX emissions of less than 20ppm are achieved thanks to the VSRT’s combustion technology, which features a modulating burner and furnace that have been purposely-designed as a single component and fully-matched with the VSRT in mind. This has helped Fulton to achieve up to 10:1 turndown capabilities and industry-leading performance of >82.5% gross thermal efficiency and 99.75% steam quality


at 8 bar. When correctly sized for applications, the exceptionally high turndown will result in savings above and beyond those gained from the stated efficiencies. With features including a tubeless design, no internal refractory and revolutionary cyclonic air filtration, the VSRT is extremely easy to maintain and operate. For applications where contaminated air can reduce boiler uptime – such as laundry and dry cleaning – the VSRT’s cyclonic air filter effectively separates debris and damaging particles from the combustion air and, because it won’t clog over time, eliminates the need for replacement filters. Maintenance is further improved compared to other vertical boilers thanks to the VSRT’s industrial control platform and easy access to the pressure vessel. The VSRT is currently available with outputs from 160 to 960 kg/h, complies with the City of London Air Quality Strategy and anticipated MCPD regulations, is constructed to BS EN 12953 and CE marked to PED. Its pressure vessel and burner are backed by a five year guarantee as standard. For further information on the VSRT Series, call Fulton on 0117 972 3322.



With the Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCPD) now European law, Kevin Houlden, Industrial and Commercial Specialist at Calor, advises on the steps that operators can take to upgrade their existing boiler plant.


he MCPD became European law on 19th December 2017, setting emissions limit values (ELVs) to reduce levels of harmful sulphur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and particulates in exhaust gases from all combustion plant rated between 1 MW and 50 MW thermal input. All new plants that are first operated after 20 December 2018 must be registered with the Competent Authority and comply with new ELVs from that date. However, currently only five of the 43 Air Quality Zones in the UK meet the requirements for NOx emissions levels laid out in the directive, with slow progress forecast over the next twenty years. The MCPD rules also allow the Competent Authority to change these limits because of poor local air quality should they choose to do so, meaning the finished regulation in the UK is still to be determined, particularly in relation to further restricting emissions in areas that do not meet certain air quality requirements (Directive 2008/50/EC). For existing heavy fuel oil-fired boilers in particular, it is clear that this fuel source cannot meet future ELVs. As a result, operators considering upgrading or switching their boiler plant in order to ensure compliance with the MCPD need to consider carefully the long-term implications if these ELVs are reduced even further in the future.

FUEL CHOICE The change is expected to affect around 150,000 medium combustion plants across Europe, of which 17,000 are located in the UK, using systems such as boilers, turbines and electricity generators.

In addition, there are around 250,000 businesses located off the mains gas network in the UK. This means that there are a significant number of operators who will face the additional challenge of choosing the cleanest, most economicallyviable energy solution when their boiler needs replacing. The ELVs set in the MCPD will have to be applied from 20 December 2018 for new plants and by 2025 or 2030 for existing plants, depending on their size. With the average lifespan of a commercial boiler between 10-15 years, it pays to think carefully now about new capital equipment investment, to ensure that any boiler plant specified will be capable of meeting the new standard. Unfortunately, heavy-fuel oil installations will not meet the new ELVs for SO2 or particulates without abatement. This may make some operators more cautious about investing in oil-fired technologies.

comparison to some oil types, with LNG being the cleanest burning of all fossil fuels available off-grid, offering a further step change in carbon reductions. These clean burning properties also enable improved boiler efficiencies, which can exceed 90 per cent as well as reduced maintenance, both of which contribute to long term reduction in operational costs. One success story is C&D Foods, a premium dry pet food manufacturer, which has saved in excess of £50,000 and more than halved its CO2 emissions since converting its boiler fuel from oil to LPG from Calor.



Switching to liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can enable operators to ensure their installation meets the demands of the MCPD. Both fuels already meet standards for SO2 and NOX and particulate emissions as well as offering reduced CO2 output, with margin to handle some tightening of ELVs in the future. Burning gas emits less CO2 in

LNG and LPG offer a cost-effective energy supply with cleaner-burning, lower carbon outputs to oil. With a mature market of boiler and burner technologies readily available, the fuels are ready and able to meet the challenging emissions limits of the MCPD – if and when they change in the future. For more information on Calor, please visit business or call 0800 121 7827.






ince Jan 1 2018, firms have been able to work on auditing their energy usage for ESOS Phase 2. But what has the legacy of Phase 1 been? Has anything changed? And do companies realise they should actually make the recommendations ESOS provides on energy efficiency?

ESOS PHASE 1: THE LEGACY ESOS is the Government’s corporate energy efficiency scheme. It forces private sector firms above a certain size to audit their energy usage on a four-yearly basis, and provides recommendations on how they could improve energy efficiency. Overall, Phase 1 of the scheme was not without its challenges. For a start, The Carbon Trust advises that around 2,800 organisations had to tell the Environment Agency, the scheme’s regulator, that they would be late in reporting compliance, and a number were ultimately fined. Further, of the energy audits conducted for Phase 1, just 16% of participants were fully compliant. Three-quarters of audited participants needed to undertake remedial actions in order to become compliant. That may not be a fault of ESOS though, in fact, it may simply prove the scheme is doing good, as some companies had to change their energy reporting in order to make the grade. Firms which tried to duck under the radar were relatively limited; 500 organisations qualified for ESOS in the first phase but did not engage with the scheme. This has resulted in over 300 enforcement notifications sent out to date. Perhaps most interesting is whether firms are actually making the energy efficiency improvements recommended in reports. The sense is that many firms took a tick-box approach; to date, those who’ve fully embraced the energy


recommendations, installing new efficiency equipment and hence reaping the rewards, have been rather limited. Which brings us onto the next point, has anything changed for Phase 2?

ESOS PHASE 2: HAS ANYTHING BEEN ALTERED? Save the new compliance dates, and a few minutiae in the ESOS texts, absolutely nothing has changed in the ESOS rules for Phase 2. For many, this is a disappointment; there were calls for more steps to make acting upon the energy efficiency opportunities derived from ESOS audits mandatory. But for now, firms must only report on their energy usage; not improve upon it. Stating the obvious, firms must document their energy usage once again in Phase 2; compliance for Phase 1 won’t cut the mustard. However, the Government is still analysing and consulting on changes to a new overall Carbon Reporting Framework. There is every possibility that ESOS will be extended into another, future phase, replacing all other corporate reporting elements, and potentially making firms act upon the energy efficiency opportunities.

Further, if firms want to report on ESOS using internal staff, they need time to do the work. And firms who want to report through ISO 50001, and aren’t yet certified to that standard, need to realise it takes time to get there. Most importantly, the sooner UK PLC acts on ESOS Phase 2, the more rapidly we can hasten our transition to lower carbon and more profitable business. The Carbon Trust estimates that from Phase 1 energy-saving opportunity assessments, making cost-effective improvements could usually cut energy costs in buildings, transport fleets and industrial processes by about 20%, on a typical spend of £1.8 million. This translates into average annual savings of £360,000, with far more being possible in certain industry sectors. That’s big money; and companies should take expert advice to help with any energy-efficiency requirements they would like to make when their reporting is done. If there is any doubt, companies can check whether they are affected by ESOS; if they meet the following criteria, they must comply: a.

The company employs at least 250 people


It has an annual turnover in excess of €50 million and a balance sheet in excess of €43 million


However, most public sector bodies are excluded, but other organisations that receive some public funding, such as universities, may qualify.

SO WHAT SHOULD FIRMS DO ABOUT ESOS PHASE 2? First and foremost, comply. The requirements are 12 months of energy data, estate wide, across electricity, fuels, transport, buildings, plant and process. The 12 months of data must include the compliance date of 31 December 2018, so firms should start now. There are good reasons to do so. Last time round there was a real bottleneck; external auditors were overloaded and hiked prices at the last minute pre-deadline.


For further information on ESOS compliance contact Energys Group or call on 01403 786 212

adjust temperature


Monitor heating, lighting, water and wellbeing Central management - with local control control temperature

(for electrical OR wet systems)

monitor sound levels

detect faulty or failing fittings

monitor lux levels

sense humidity

detect occupancy/ absence

apply proportional control

[integrated PIR]

detect open windows

Email alerts monitor hot water temperature

The new Prefectirus CU3 is packed with features that distinguish it from a simple thermostat AND a complex building energy management system (BEMS). Its algorithms cleverly learn the environmental conditions for individual rooms; how much heat is required; the time it takes to reach temperature; dissipation rates; and, lighting, sound and humidity levels – the software then balances comfort and energy use for the benefit of both students and energy managers.

Accommodation managers can be alerted to issues that require maintenance, provide compliance with regulations to support the wellbeing of students and be confident of optimum energy efficiency as heat is only used when needed - without ever setting foot in a room. Students are able to control the comfort of their environment, safe in the knowledge that they cannot waste energy by leaving the heat on high when they go out or if windows are opened.

Prefectirus – just what student accommodation needs from a BEMS. To find out more about Prefectirus visit or call 01787 320 604




innai’s Infinity range of A-rated continuous flow gas fired water heaters which includes models specifically designed for domestic/light commercial use guarantees the highest efficiencies and lowest running costs at consistent temperatures 24/7 compared with any method of hot water delivery. The Rinnai Infinity range of continuous flow – sometimes referred to as ‘tankless’ - water heating units are being specified more and more often for domestic properties, cafes, pubs, restaurants, offices, shops, hairdressers, commercial units, caravan parks and leisure facilities as installers and end users become aware of their energy saving benefits. The reason for the increase in uptake is that continuous flow heater systems are proven to be more energy efficient than storage systems and as such are increasingly becoming the experts’ preferred method of hot water provision. The word is out that the Rinnai units easily cater for projects that need high volumes of water at intermittent times of day delivered at accurate temperatures to ensure user comfort and safety. They are also easy to operate and simple to install and maintain. Rinnai’s Infinity multipoint 16i water heater, for example, eliminates the problem of sudden changes in water temperature, resulting in cold

showers or scalding hot baths – the water temperature you set is the water temperature you get. So, if somebody is happily showering at 42°C and a tap is turned on to draw a bath elsewhere in the property, the temperature does not vary, and there is no chance of either user running out of hot water. The Rinnai Infinity 16i interior model measures 675 x 370 x 139mm and weighs in at 18kg. The room sealed unit has a temperature range of 35°C to 60°C with direct electronic ignition. Gas consumption ranges between 4.7kW-34.9kW for Natural Gas and 4.9kW-36.8kW when using propane. Hot water delivery flow is an impressive 16ltr max flow and 2.4 ltr/min minimum flow. Nominal operation pressure is 1-7 bar and it uses a 230V AC 50Hz 1ph power supply with an electrical consumption of 68W. Meanwhile, where an external installation is required, the Rinnai Infinity 17e external multipoint water heater offers greater flexibility at the design stage and offers a viable solution where flue runs are problematic or internal space is not available. Capable of flow rates of up to 510 litres per hour at a 50°C rise, the 17e is suitable for multiple applications and can be specified for use with Natural Gas or propane.

The 17e has full frost protection and is available with a range of external ancillary items, including pipe cover box – and security cage where necessary. The Infinity 11i interior unit differs from the 16i as it weighs 2kg less at 16kg and consumes 6.10kW21.60kW of Natural Gas and has an 11 metre maximum flow. For more information on the RINNAI product range visit



een to protect all its HVAC equipment from airborne debris and to maintain its efficiency, the Central Middlesex Hospital sought a solution for all its 28 locations adjacent to London’s A40. RABScreen, the external air intake screen specialists, together with distributor GVS Filtration and their client Bouygues put forward a successful bid in a competitive tender and the team then subsequently fully surveyed all the hospital locations. As a hospital project, much of the work had to be completed at weekends, and there were several problems which needed to be addressed: ten of the supply ducts were drawing air from high level louvres; access required scaffolding which would make on-going maintenance


very difficult; and internal duct access was also difficult. The hospital maintenance team was looking for a mesh screen that could be inserted into existing ductwork then simply withdrawn for future maintenance. For RABScreen director Richard Betts, with his 25 years’ experience in the building services industry, this was not a problem. By working with one of its partner companies, AJM Ventilation, an exceptional ductwork installer, the team were able to modify the ductwork to receive new filter boxes. The RABScreen


solution was installed within the supply filter box to make screen insertion easier. Now the local airborne debris created by London’s A40 and the surrounding industrial area is kept away from the disposable filters increasing their lifespan by as much as 60%. This front line protection allowed the introduction of the highly efficient GVS BACTICELL which sits behind the RABScreen’s mesh material, the GVS BACTICELL improves efficiency and copes with high pressure differentials between changes. These BACTICELL screens will reduce replacement costs dramatically with the next filter change not expected until August 2019.




innai, the UK leader in hot water heating units and systems for all commercial and residential sites, has announced that it is holding its price for the second year in succession - in the face of reports that some other manufacturers are increasing prices by almost 5%. Two other manufacturers are reportedly ghosting through price rises of between 3 - 4.5%. “We see no justification whatsoever to submit price increases and seek to stabilise market prices for our customers. We offer what we believe is a first-class product proposition of energy efficiency, economic cost in use, limitless hot water on demand where you only pay for the fuel you use to heat the water, completely compliant with all existing or pending UK and EU legislation”, says Rinnai Managing Director Tony Gittings. The Rinnai natural gas or LPG water heaters guarantee a limitless supply of accurately temperature controlled safe and useable hot water. The Rinnai range delivers energy saving performance and low greenhouse emissions through new low NOX burner technology. All units and systems can be installed as stand-alone or manifolded to provide unlimited hot water for the largest of all commercial sites such as big hotels, busy gyms, high rise offices etc. Water temperature is and can be pre-set through easy-to-use built in digital controls, eliminating the risk of scalding. The newly updated Rinnai Infinity range is designed for use directly off the mains, with no need for large, ungainly and energy inefficient storage vessels. Rinnai Heavy Duty water heaters are high efficiency gas continuous flow water heaters with outputs up to 69kW. Incoming water temperatures of up to 60°C are accepted, making the HD50i suitable for secondary return systems. Water can be delivered at high volume with minimum gas consumption. All models have full electronic ignition with no pilot light and operate on demand only, consuming no gas when not in use. All Rinnai internal HDC condensing continuous flow water heaters, are room-sealed, power flue appliances, while the external weatherproof models have forced exhaust which enables them to be compact, saving both floor and wall space.

Rinnai’s unique condensing technology incorporates two heat exchangers to achieve optimum water heating generated from every cubic metre of Natural Gas or LPG. The condensing process delivers up to 95% thermal efficiency, which translates to significant energy savings when compared to standard on-demand water heaters or conventional stored systems. Rinnai Gas Hot Water Storage Pack represents the best value-formoney solution on the market today with everything delivered direct to site in one complete package The pack consists of up to five heavy duty water heaters with an equal number of flue kits (for internal heaters) or an equal number of pipe cover boxes (for external models) and sufficient valve packs. Also included is one hot water storage vessel (stainless steel 300L, 500L or 800L glass lined steel) along with necessary valves and one primary pump with valves and one unvented kit. Add to this an expansion vessel of either 50L or 80L capacity, two drain cocks, one tundish, a temperature and

pressure relief valve along with a control thermostat, an overheat thermostat and the kit is complete. Common header flue systems are also available to further stream line the installation. Typical applications for the commercial ranges include cafés, children’s nurseries, factories and offices, laundries with top loader machines, hotels and restaurants, sports clubs, shower blocks in caravan parks – and many more. Rinnai continuous flow hot water systems deliver on all levels in a cost effective and practical manner. Easy to install and operate the units provide a flexible and energy efficient solution for domestic applications and for all sectors of business and industry. For more information on the RINNAI product range visit



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Energy Manager February 2018