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Reclaiming Agrarian Sandscapes Inverting the Impact of a Tourism Economy

Rimjhim Chauhan Majedeh Sayyedi Tao Sun


Reclaiming Agrarian Sandscapes Inverting the Impact of a Tourism Economy

Rimjhim Chauhan Tao Sun Majedeh Sayyedi

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION

MArch Landscape Urbanism 2016 | 2018


AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2016/18 ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE LONDON, UK PROJECT TEAM RIMJHIM CHAUHAN MAJEDEH SAYYEDI TAO SUN DIRECTORS ALFREDO RAMIREZ EDUARDO RICO STUDIO MASTER CLARA OLORIZ HISTORY & THEORY TUTOR DOUGLAS SPENCER TECHNICAL TUTORS GUSTAVO ROMANILLOS GIANCARLO TORPIANO VINCENZO REALE JANUARY 2018 NOTE This Booklet is a compilation of the research, analysis and interventions towards the thesis project of the MArch Landscape Urbanism 2016/18 programme. We are grateful for the guidance and expertise of all our tutors, and highly appreciate the support of our fellow students, friends and family. We also like to thank Eva Crespo and Pedro Hernandez of Escuela Universitaria de Turismo de Lanzarote, Ascensión Robayna of SAT el Jable, Aquilino Miguélez López of Cabildo de Lanzarote, Carlos, our gracious host, and the kind residents of Lanzarote for assisting us during our field trip. All external graphics have been duly referenced and for original work, due credit is given within notes indicating which team member(s) were responsible for the deliverable. Cover and Typesetting by R.Chauhan.


CONTENTS Abstract

Research and Design Methodology Forewords The Insular Landscape • The Dilemma of Island Tourism Land Degradation in Islands • Agrotourism as a Strategy

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Canarias Atlas: Insularity and Resource Dependency

atlas

The Concept of an Archipelagic Metacommunity Canarias: A Profile Economy and Resource Dependency Domino Effects of Tourism Landscapes of Lanzarote Agrotourism

18

Concurrence and Conflicts of Tourism and Agrarianism

social formations

Site Visit: Itinerary Evolution of Tourism and Transport Devolution of Agricultural Sector Agricultural Abandonment Politics of land and territory: La Ley del Suelo Demographics of land and territory Stakeholders of the Jable Corridor : Testimonials Visibility and Agrotourism Potential of the Jable Corridor Agrotourism Proposal : Beyond Visitors Precedents for Agrestic Management Negotiations of Land

30

Aeolian Sand Processes

geomorphology

Formation of El Paso de Jable Timescales: Famara Wind Simulations Wind Velocity Analysis Behaviour of Sand in Saltation

54

• Technical Section: Traditional Subsistence Agriculture • Crop Plantation Patterns Territorial Formations : Velocity Belts Co-operative Sand Circulation

Sand Flow through Fields Sand Simulations : Generative Band Development Sequence grounds

manufactured

Choreographies of Aeolian Processes

• Technical Section: Sand Simulation: Logic and Scales of Operation •

86

Choreography of Sand Dynamics of Sand Rotation Negotiation of Sand Manufactured Grounds

Territorial Actors: Sand Channelling Strategies Infrastructure Prototypes Physical Sand Simulations Synergies of Sand and Architecture Cooperative Sandscape

grounds

manufactured

Shifting Sands

106

cartogenesis

Extrapolated Sandscapes, Emergent Agrotourism Adaptive Development: Reducing Food Insecurity Lanzarote: Prototype for Global Policy Adaptation

126

Epilogue 134

Appendices 134

References 146

List of Figures 149


Abstract ........................................................... We tend to view islands as insular, self-contained units with segregated ecological and social trajectories; but with advancement of time and technology, the increased presence of colonists, visitors, and most recently, tourists, has significantly altered the island biogeography, ecology and economy. In our study, we intervene within the Canarias Archipelago, studying the implications of this islander-visitor interaction, and its remote landscape influences. The insularity and fragmentation of the Canarias islands affects the transportation of people and merchandise, and its status as a remote territory indicates the complicated relation to the main centres of production and consumption. Moreover, the same factors have created conditions for broad ecological and cultural diversity, characterized by endemic species, landscapes, and ecosystems recognized universally and the core attraction for tourists. With these unique geomorphological conditions, these islands tend to have fragile ecosystems as well as complicated trade mechanisms. Historically, the Canarias were an economy based solely on fishing and farming, with inhabitants having developed remarkable irrigation and agricultural techniques that sustained the land and its people. However, the increasingly tourism-based economy has led to abandonment of these resource-replenishing activities, triggering undesirable effects such as desertification and an increased dependency on imports, of both resource and user. We explore these mechanisms within the archipelago which have finally begun to trigger major land policy chnages with La Ley del Suelo, already threatening to alter sensitive landscapes such as the Paso del Jable, underlining the need for a revised framework of resource management, whether it be of land as a commodity or sand as a geological material. With the increasing call for self-reliance of energy and resource among island communities, it becomes progressively imperative to establish sustainable linkages between different spatial scales as well as between different sectors of tourism and agriculture which are in constant conflict in Lanzarote. These can be linked through Agrotourism, which is playing an increasingly important role in the diversification of the agriculture, farming and tourism regions. There is therefore, an increasing need for economic development of rural areas and reappraisal of agriculture, which is closely connected to tourism. In our role as architects, we attempt to deal with this via a combination of approaches of policy, landscape and architectural paradigms on a multi-scalar level, as well as interwoven sand mechanisms and negotiations within existing local policy frameworks, aiming at encouraging and incentivising regrowth of native agricultural and socio-economic activities within the hinterlands in order to enable and counterbalance the expected growth of eco-tourism within the archipelago. Thus a paradigm of degisn policies and linkages is fabricated, which can be extrapolated critically throughout the landscape as well as other global sites with similar conflicts and conditions. ........................................................... Fig. Sands of El Paso de Jable Photo by R.Chauhan


Project Methodology

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The Insular Landscape An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water, and a grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago. Island life exhibits several features of special interest. A long-established sea barrier results in marked differences between the animal life and vegetation even of adjacent islands. Oceanic islands are usually colonized by only a few animal forms, and are often covered with abundant vegetation, but the plant variety is relatively limited. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018) This special geographical situation and their natural and cultural heritage make them unique for visitors, but at the same time, confront them with a number of challenges and vulnerabilities.

insularity and ultraperiphicity It is in the nature of islands to be insulated from the rest of the globe, both physically and culturally. Due to physical remoteness, some islands, particularly those within the European Union (EU), are called Ultra-peripheral Regions. These regions share certain common characteristics, such as their remoteness from the major supplying centres, their scanty resources, their island status or isolated location and consequent fragmentation of markets. Due to the nature of their insularity, they face several issues such as: • Remoteness, insularity, and small size: double remoteness (archipelagos) and insularity connote a geographical structure with special economic and social attributes of which the two most prominent relate to size and access. By the very nature of these characteristics many costs, such as transport costs, are high in comparison with those on the European mainland, this being true for imports, exports and local food and nonfood products. This also has implications for pressure on resources and limited economic diversity within the island. • Difficult topography and climate: in many cases the topography of the land and dense forest cover - or, in contrast, parched soils caused by environmental and water availability problems - are unconducive to high agricultural yields. A tropical climate is favourable to certain crops but makes it difficult to grow other crops such as vegetables on account of a higher incidence of pests. Climate hazards are much higher than in Europe, as demonstrated variously by recurrent hurricanes, drought, excessive rains, and volcanic hazards.

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• Historical economic dependence on the narrow range of goods produced: Economies of the OR still depend on a small number of products, including agricultural products that were developed as commodities for export in the early 20th Century or even before (sugar cane, bananas, etc.)(Beck, 2016).


Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the impact of ultraperiphicity on the development of islands. (Lopez and Garcia, 2006). This is a major concern in our study area as well, as it defines the characteristics shaping the economy of the island and give hints to the existing social mechanisms, such as strong tourism assets, challenges for trading, and vulnerability to climate change.

“Who possesses this landscape? The man who bought it or I who am possessed by it? False questions, for this landscape is masterless and intractable in any terms that are human.” -’Norman Mac Caig, in ‘A Man in Assynt’, 1971

In fact, one of the major triggers for our research was the building concerns regarding highly dependent island economies and their vulnerability to climate change and land degradation.

Fig.b Portolan Chart of the Archipelago (carte_fleurieu,_1772)

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The Dilemma of Island Tourism It is known that Small Island Developing States [SIDS] tend to depend on tourism more than larger states do (Ellul, 1999; McElroy and Olazarri, 1997; Liu and Jenkins, 1995; Hein, 1990 and UNCTAD, 1990). The reason for this could be associated with the comparative advantage that islands tend to have in tourismrelated activities. The natural attractions and climates of many small islands gives them a competitive edge in tourism activities. For this reason, many governments of SIDS give tourism top priority, and attempt to maximise their island’s tourism potential by further developing the industry through promotion campaigns, building of hotels and other tourist facilities, and enhancing their air and sea links with other countries. (Manning, 2016) However, tourism has proven to be a doubleedged sword. Tourism impacts key ecosystems because the focus of its activities is often concentrated on the most sensitive sites. Tourists visit because of the reefs, the beaches, the unique cultures and ecosystems. The effects of tourism are disproportionately concentrated on these sites and dependent upon them being sustained. Without suitable planning and management, tourism can be the agent for destruction of the resources on which it depends. In many regions, mismanagement has led to land degradation due to With proper management, tourism is a sector with a strong capacity for transforming fragile environments for the better as well. It can be utilised as an opportunity to diversify limited economic activities and employment in the islands, and also divert tourist attention towards the cultural landscapes in rustic areas. This is discussed in the next section, where we explore how a different form of cultural and ecotourism may subvert these challenges tourism creates.

Fig.c The Tourism of Sun, Sand, Beaches

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“Tourism has now reached that inevitable point where it begins to destroy the beauty it is in search of.� -The Sunday Telegraph, 13th Nov. 1977

Fig.d Island Economies by Machado, 2002

Fig.e Comic by Robert Weber, The New Yorker, August 8, 1994

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Land Degradation in Islands Desertification is the result of the action of a set of processes that cause the decline of biological potential of a territory and its productivity. It is basically based on the negative impact of human activities in geographical areas under arid conditions. Thus, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defined in Article 1 this process as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities� (UNCCD 1994). Islands, especially those in the Mediterrainian sea are very susceptible to land degradation and desertification, rooting especially in the tourist trends. The following is a possible Scenario for Canary Islands depending on whether they chose to work towards sustainability in their development plans.

Fig.f Sands of El Paso de Jable

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DESERT SCENARIO

Non- Sustainable Agricultural Practices Economy

Land Productivity Decrease Tourism Decrease

Society

Increased Unemployed rates

Expansion of Desert areas

Increased amount of mixed waste

GDP Decreases

Failed 2020 Strategy

Deficit living conditions

Deficit Environmental Habits Lack of Recycling and Reuse

Environment

Governance

Lack of Sustainable Planning Degradation of Aquifers

Non-renewable energy

Technology Non enviro-friendly Infrastructure

Extreme Climate Conditions

Climate Change

Economic Recovery

Fig.g Desert Scenario on Canary Islands

Fig.h Desertification and Land Degradation in Islands

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Agrotourism as a strategy The Unesco MaB Programme (1971) poses the following relevant question: How can we find an equilibrium between human necessities and biosphere maintenance? One way to maintain equilibrium in ecosystems is to conserve its wealth of crop-plant species. On every continent, farmers have developed a wealth of crop-plant species and varieties. They have adapted plants to meet ever-changing breeding objectives - for new sites and climatic conditions, for different purposes, and to suit individual preferences. This is especially true in islands, where crops have adapted to often harsh, insular conditions and, where small-scale, diverse cultural landscapes have emerged, with distinct forms of management. Recently though, this trend has been reversed: diversity has been diminishing while specialized agriculture is dominated by monocultures and uniformity, which are seen to be an asset for exotic food exports. But in the process, valuable genetic characteristics are lost, for example high fertility or robustness, disease or pest resistance. The most effective way to put a stop to the genetic erosion is to keep old varieties and breeds in use. However, farmers must be given incentives for in situ conservation: Agrotourism is a way of doing so. Agrotourism is the form of tourism which capitalizes on rural culture as a tourist attraction. If the attractions on offer to tourists contribute to improving the income of the regional population, agrotourism can promote regional development. However, to ensure that it also helps to conserve diversity, the rural population itself must have recognized agrobiodiversity as valuable and worthy of protection. While rural tourism is a more generic term, Agrotourism refers to specific sets of leisure activities organised by farmers to cater for visitors (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture 1992). These tourist services are regarded as a complement to the main source of income, so the infrastructures, which are commonly associated in regional networks, clearly belong to the primary sector (Canary Islands Government 1989).

Fig.i The Agrotourist Experience

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An advantage of this approach is that rural areas are already popular destinations for holidays and excursions, as they give a glimpse of how past generations lived and worked. Typical regional crops and local breeds become a particular attraction for tourists. This generates additional income for farmers and contributes to the conservation and development of the whole region.

“[...] farmers must be given incentives for in situ conservation: Agrotourism is a way of doing so.� - Agrotourism and agricultural diversity, Kasparek, M. (n.d.), [GIZ]

The opportunity of enjoying a maintained, rural environment and culture at an attractive price appeals to a large market, including families, couples and seniors. The customers of this type of tourism, who usually travel with their family, tend to be educated and of predominantly urban origin (Hall and Jenkins 1998). They respect the local customs and often gather information in advance about the places they plan to visit. Users of Agrotourism services want to avoid mass tourism. Instead, they are interested in maximum contact with nature and in warm relationships with other people. They are environmentally aware and demand natural products, including healthier food. By engaging in Agrotourism, the island remains engaged in agrestic activities that go hand in hand with the biosphere conservation, and even links itself to a gastronomic subculture. This way, an equilibrium between human necessities and biosphere maintenance is achievable.

Fig.j. UNESCO MaB Concept

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Insularity and Resource Dependency Atlas of Agrotrade, Capital and Tourism in the Canarias

The climate and geographic location of Canary Islands have determined the economic growth model used in the Canarias throughout their history, a model that is supported by three pillars: a food production economy based on exports, a service economy tied to international commerce, and a favourable institutional framework that has eliminated every roadblock to those outside ties (MacĂ­as, 2001). We attempt to depict the extent of this growing trend through the Canarias Atlas of Insularity & Resource Dependency, where we represent the agrotrade relations of the archipelago within the global market through imports and exports, movement of capital, and the influx of tourists from the European Union. Through the data, we can see that the volume of food imports is almost 5 times that of export, and exhibits increasing trends: the percentage of food products entering the islands from the EU rose from 92.18% in 2006 to 96.31% in 2014. Local food production decreased tremendously in the 1960s, unable to compete with the price of imported foods. With agriculture no longer being a viable sector of the local economy, traditional farmlands are abandoned, creating unforeseen regional landscape influences. The agricultural subsector dealing with food production for local consumption is in fatigue, as evident from the farmland abandonment represented within the map, revealing the disturbing extent of the repercussions of this imbalance on the local landscape. The strategic interest of food security is particularly relevant in the context of the higher vulnerability of small insular economies (United Nations, 1998) Since the island economy is primarily based on tourism and trade relations, the high amount of resource dependency is evident and indicates the urgent need for increased self-reliance in the age of globalisation. These observations from the atlas helped illustrate the larger scope that governs the socio-economic scenario within the archipelago, and acted as a platform for further in-depth research into the socio-cultural landscape at the microlevel. Fig.1.1 The Canarias Atlas of Insularity & Resource Dependency Cartography by R. Chauhan , T. Sun & M. Sayyedi


ATLAS OF INSULARITY & RESOURCE DEPENDENCY


“Who does not love islands? To be surrounded by the sea, lapped by the tide and shaded by palm trees and sandy outcrops of rocks and grass. How lovely! And to be safe behind moat which separates us from our neighbours. Who does not feel comforted by the security of an island home?� Muhlhausler and Stratford, 1999, p.216

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The concept of archipelagic metacommunity Any discourse about the archipelago must be carried out through a careful analysis of a multitude of social, economic, political and cultural aspects that are incorporated and interlinked through a development model(see fig.). This can be surmised as a development model for the Archipelagic metacommunity. It can be defined as a set of interacting communities which are interlinked by virtue of their exchange of multiple, potentially interacting species and resources. The concept stems from the field of community ecology, which is primarily concerned with patterns of species distribution, abundance and interactions. (Wilson 1992) The basic axioms for community patterns based on species dynamics in the ecological framework can also apply to the linkages between different spatial scales within the island economy. Logically, these consist of spatial dynamics, community dynamics (interactions or the emergent properties arising from them within communities), and the interaction of spatial and community dynamics such as those that affect the economy and make up the socio-cultural scenario. The specific aspects of the situation (as seen in fig.) in the Canaries are related to the effects of insularity and their reliance on tourism. The remoteness of the primary food sources, with food imported from the European mainland, and the fragmentation of the archipelago into seven insular markets of widely varying sizes condition the food supply through transportation and transformation costs.

Moreover, the so-called “double insularity” affects the structure of a regional market in terms of having products produced on all seven islands. Despite the complementarities among the insular products, stemming from the islands’ different climatological and edaphological conditions, the inter-island transportation matrix for local foods is very underdeveloped. This leads us to study the Causality Diagram of the Canary Islands. There are five main feedback loops marked in the diagram, three reinforcing and two balancing. On one side, there are three positive loops, which represent the technological development in the field of Tourism and Agriculture and on the other side, two negative loops that consider environmental preservation. (Kljajić et al, 2002) The proper balance between the loops should result in sustainable development of the region.

Fig.1.2. Causality Diagram showing the parameters of the Archipelagic metacommunity Source: (Kljajić et al, 2002)

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Canarias: A Profile The Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands is an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean, 115 km North West of Morocco, some 1 200 km away from the Iberian coast. This archipelago is made up of several islands, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, La Palma, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, Gomera, and Hierro. The total surface area of the islands is 7 447 km2, equivalent to 1.4% of the surface area of Spain (EC 2015). The region is of volcanic origin and 21% of its territory is above 1 000 m of altitude; 67.1% of the surface area is classified as rural. The Canarias Archipelago is unique because zonal geographical factors such as the proximity of the African continent and the trade winds, as well as regional factors such as the diverse relief of the islands and their orientation relative to trade winds in any given same island, give rise to a large number of climatic conditions.

The geomorphological features of these islands, caused by repeated volcanic activity, the passage of time, low rainfall and agriculture, and the lack of water in their underground aquifers, resulting from the permeability of the volcanic material, have historically limited human settlement. Because of this, their inhabitants have created original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although crop yields have generally been low and food crises frequent, leading to constant emigration in the past. As regards environment, biodiversity and protected areas, the natural heritage of the Canary Islands is vast, being both rich in endemics and very diverse. Its conservation and management represents a priority for the region. Under the different categories of Natural Protected Spaces (Red Canarias de Espacios Naturales Protegidos) there are 146 protected areas with a total surface of 319 577 hectares.

Fig. 1.3. Map showing the location of the canary Islands .

Macroclimate The Canarias Archipelago is located less than 100km off the west coast of the African continent, and is characterised by mild climate due to the oceanic influence which alters the proper latitudinal climatic situation.

up with cyclonic activity, the northern slopes get higher precipitation than the southern slopes. Thus, there is a distinct and appreciable difference between the northern and southern slopes of the islands in terms of precipitation.

During most of the year, the islands are under the influence of north-east marine trade winds. In winters however, cyclonic influence creates unstable conditions. Sparse precipitation is brought by these westerly cyclones occasionally following southern tracks and breaking the trade wind air layer over the islands. On the orographically higher western islands, this kind of rainfall is supplemented by humidity from rising trade wind air. Since these winds mix

Due to their age, the eastern Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Feurteventura are the most denuded by erosion and have the lowest elevation, barely reaching 800 m in the highest ancient massifs of Jandía, despite recent volcanism. The islands thus lie below the cloud forming zones, leading to a low precipitation(135-147mm/ yr) and higher aridity (see fig). Thus, aridity increases from west to east and north to south within the archipelago. The lack of rainfall

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has limited socioeconomic development and population growth in the most arid areas of the region and on the two easternmost islands of the archipelago, particularly prior to the 1970s (García Rodríguez & Zapata Hernández, 1992).


Arid Semi-Arid Dry Subhumid Moist Subhumid Humid

The Relevance of Insularity The islands are part of a classification called Outermost Regions (OR) that are geographically very distant from the European continent but form an integral part of the European Union (EU). There are three most important consequences of insularity of relevance here.: The economic effects of insularity are the result of combining the size and disconnection of insular systems. The size, measured using economic (GDP), demographic (population) and geographic (size) variables, usually assumes that islands are small in comparison to mainland economic systems. (Goodenau and Nuez Yanez, 2013)

The second dimension of the effects of insularity involves the connectivity the island maintains with the outside. While ‘classical’ analyses of insularity rely on concepts such as ‘remoteness’ and ‘periphery’, weighing the distance from the mainland as a drawback (disconnection) and a cause of higher supply prices, more recent analyses highlight the connectivity provided by maritime routes (see King, 2009:63 on ‘nodal islands’).

Fig. 1.5. Map classifying aridity in the Canary Islands according to the Thornthwaite aridity index. Original Image: Tejedor et al. (2013) Reproduced by R. Chauhan

Fig1.4. System of winds around the 3 types of islands in the Canarias Original Image: Huetz de lemps (1969) Reproduced by R. Chauhan & T. Sun

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Economy and Resource Dependency TERTIARY SECTOR : TOURISM The volume of tourists in the Canary Islands has made the tourism business the most important determinant for their economic development. In fact, tourism accounts for at least 50% of the GDP (80% according to some authors) of the islands. Under such premises, the study of tourism and a knowledge of the factors influence by tourism becomes very important. Furthermore, tourism activity effects go far beyond economics impacts and is important at a social, cultural and environmental level. The annual tourist/resident ratio is 6.7:1. Additionally, this inflow of tourism arriving at such an insular destination will certainly have important environmental effects. Demand is fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the year, probably because one of the most important motivations of tourists is weather, and the weather is quite uniform through the year. Canary Islands inbound tourism market is diverse, with arrivals from United Kingdom and Germany dominating the market. In fact, international arrivals are highly concentrated. As depicted earlier in the Atlas, 90% of the arrivals are generated in six European countries:

Fig.1.6 Tourism, Trade and Transport in the archipelago T. Sun

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UK (40%), Germany (27%), Holland (5%), Sweden (4.7%), Ireland (3.8%) and Norway (2.9%). In the beginning, Germany was the most important market of origin of visitors. However, after 1997, arrivals from the United Kingdom surpass the number of arrivals from Germany. Tourist attractions are very diverse in the islands. Visitors can enjoy not just the weather and beaches, but also a great variety of natural areas. CONSTRUCTION SECTOR: Construction, which is very closely linked to the development of tourism, is the second largest sector, accounting for 9.2% of GDP in 2010. It has therefore maintained its relevance despite the major slump in the sector brought about by the current economic crisis. The collapse in domestic consumption and the decline in tourism due to the crisis have combined to burst the real estate bubble in Spain in general and in the Canary Islands in particular.

The deterioration in building has contributed strongly to the sharp increase in the region’s traditionally already very high unemployment. According to the most recent data published, regional unemployment represented 28.5% of the labour force in the first quarter of 2011. The high demographic growth of the Canary Islands also contributes to this structural unemployment and explains why youth unemployment is twice the EU average. SECONDARY SECTOR: AGROTRADE Trade in agricultural and food products is particularly relevant for the Canary Islands due to their insular nature and poor capacity to guarantee supplies to the resident or seasonal population. Meanwhile, the already mentioned duality of agricultural production in the archipelago is reflected in trade relations: traditional export sectors coexist with others geared towards domestic consumption which are subject to strong external competition because of the special tax and trade arrangements in place for the Canaries.


Finally, the archipelago’s significant agricultural imports are further processed by a substantial part of the agri-food industry in the Canary Islands. As a result, the agricultural and food trade balance is heavily in deficit. Most agri-food trade is with mainland Spain. The percentage of food products entering the islands from the EU rose from 92.18% in 2006 to 96.31% in 2014. Agri-food exports are responsible for 21% of total exports, clear evidence of the dynamism of an agriculture which, accounts for a mere 1.3% of regional GDP. Fruit (including bananas) is the leading sector in external sales. This is followed by fisheries products, manufactured tobacco and vegetables. In line with the Canaries’ strong specialisation in fresh fruit and vegetables, the major agricultural exports are bananas, tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers. Virtually all fruit goes to Spain, due to the traditional trade flows established with the national reserve for bananas. In the remaining tariff headings, mainland Spain occupies the leading position in Canary Islands export agriculture.

Agricultural and food imports are equivalent to 20.2% of external trade. The leading import heading covers meat and fish preparations, mostly from Spain. These are followed by meats, beverages and dairy products. The volume of food imports is almost 5 times that of export, and exhibits increasing trends: Local food production thus languishes and low level of food self-sufficiency in the Canaries is generating increasing social concerns (Bermúdez, 2007; González and Santana, 2007; Redondo, 2010).

The stagnation, if not reduction, in the volume of food produced in the archipelago is the result of a set of factors in which political action/ inaction plays a very important role. Despite the existence of numerous reports written by or for various public organisations, little has been done in their wake to halt or reverse the situation.


Domino Effects of Tourism Many destination islands vary greatly in their socio-economic performance and their level of international visitor arrivals, but many demonstrate a high level of dependence on tourism in terms of exports and contribution to GDP. As can be seen in our Atlas, this trend is also true for the Canarias Archipelago, the most concerning aspect being a high agro-foods dependency upon the EU, and almost 5 times more import than export/ domestic production.

The effects of this resource dependency can be summarised in the following trends.

With tourism, the coasts began being used mainly for tourism and leisure activities, and the agriculture was either relegated to the mainland, or abandoned entirely. This is most visible in the NE-most island, Lanzarote.

40000000

Tourists

30000000 20000000 10000000 0 1960

1965

1975

1985

1995

2005

2015

Tourist Demand Evolution

% of total

150 100 50 0 1985

1995

2000

Food exports

2005

2010

2015

2010

2015

Food imports

Fig.1.7. Resultant trends of Tourism and effect on Agrofoods industry Source: Gobierno de Canarias

% of total

20 15 10 5 0 1985

1995

2000

Agrarian GVA/Total GVA

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2005

Agrarian Jobs/Total Jobs


Site For Further Study For the next level of research, the island of Lanzarote has been chosen to be studied in detail, primarily because of the following aspects: 1. High tourism-based industry: history of recent shift form primary to tertiary sector 2. High amount of agricultural abandonment 3. High susceptibility to land degradation due to a combination of macroclimatic and microclimatic factors. 4. Multitude of landscapes and agricultural potential 5. Status as Biosphere Reserve 6. Coherent landscape, planning and architectural models in PIOT , by Cesar Manrique 7. Similar proportion of its GDP and contribution to Population as compared to the other islands

Fig.1.8. 1997 Model for valuation of the Insular System of Lanzarote Source: Lopez, 2006

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Landscapes of Lanzarote Lanzarote is an arid volcanic island and despite the small area, it has very diverse landscapes, which includes long sandy beaches, cliffs, deserts, and volcanoes and an equally potential for plant growth, resulting in various agroscapes.

Nebkas of El Jable

In addition to several landscapes of unique endemic vegetation, there are two major agricultural landscapes in Lanzarote. They are the vineyards of La Geria, a Lanzarote DO wine region, which is a major tourist attraction and a protected area and the Paso del Jable Sandscapes which is where most of the abandoned agricultural fields are located due to the loss of traditional cultivation techniques and knowledge. But, with so much pressure of residents and tourists in Lanzarote, there are several concerns and conflicts regarding the sustainability of the current land and tourism development practices.

Timanfaya Volcanic National Park

Enarenados in La Geria

Salt Pans of Janubio

Northern Vegas: Gavias

Barrancos of Guinate

Jable of San Bartolome

Within these landscapes there is already a potential of developing ecotourism and rural tourisms around it, and there is ample evidence of tourist interest for them.

Fig.1.9. Different Landscapes of Lanzarote

But even though there are tourists coming to these places, there are also conflicts associated with these interactions. The objectives of these cultural, agricultural and natural landscapes are often completely different than those of the tourism industry. Therefore, conflict arises when their projects clash or interfere with each other. There is a need for the development of a management which integrates all the sectors: tourism and the sector of agriculture, environment, and ecology.

Teguise Valley

Llanos de Hondura

M. Sayyedi, & T. Sun

Artifical Enarenados

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Agrotourism As discussed previously, Agrotourism is playing an ever increasing role in the diversification of the agriculture, farming and tourism sectors, and the same is true for Lanzarote Island as well. (Lopez and Garcia, 2006) The precedent set by the success of agricultural landscape of La Geria gives credence to the concept and paves the way for possible future scenarios for other potential agricultural monuments such as in the Jable. There should be more attention focused on the economic development of rural areas and to the reappraisal of agriculture. Agrotourism is a significant factor that can diversify, transform and improve the competitiveness and quality of farms. While rural tourism is a more generic term, Agrotourism refers to specific sets of leisure activities organised by farmers to cater for visitors (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture 1992). These tourist services are regarded as a complement to the main source of income, so the infrastructures, which are commonly associated in regional networks, clearly belong to the primary sector (Canary Islands Government 1989), yet will be keeping in compliance with the Law of the Land, whenever it gets implemented.

As mentioned in the foreword, customers of this type of tourism, tend to be educated and of predominantly urban origin (Hall and Jenkins 1998). They respect the local customs and often gather information in advance about the places they plan to visit. They are are environmentally aware and interested in maximum contact with nature and in warm relationships with other people. This fact helps ease those of a wary mind, that these agricultural lands are on rustic soils in biosphere reserves and must be done keeping in mind, the delicate balance between utilisation and overexploitation. The Unesco MaB Programme (1971) supports schemes of sustainable development experiment in complex socio-economic areas such as those in the Lanzarote and Menorca biosphere reserves.

can appreciate the work that is done in our lands. It would appear that 58.7% would like to participate in the project of agrotourism, while 37.4% would not be interested in this topic. The producers who are interested in participating in this project amount to 68.8%. In the next chapter, we will discuss in detail the economics in play in the island of Lanzarote and how, with certain diversions in the current social formations, there can exist a mechanism that would fully realise the potential of agrotourism in highly productive ways.

In a survey of cultivators in Lanzarote, done by MercaLanzarote and the Island Council of Lanzarote, within the Plan of Tourism Dynamization, respondents were asked if they would like to be involved in developing a project that consists of the realization of tourist visits to farms / farms, in order that the visitors

Fig.1.10. Analysis of inbound tourism Source: Lopez and Garcia 2006

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Concurrence and Conflicts of Tourism and Agrarianism Socio-economic Polemics and Networks The objective of this Social Formations panel and related investigations was to identify the major tourist hubs and routes on the island and do a network analysis based on the number of tourists in each major city. These routes were cross-referenced with major tourist destinations and the routes in between these places was interpolated to get a overlaying network of tourism. The next step was to superimpose this network on a known network of crop production and collection centres. With a focus on the areas of most abandonment, that is the Paso del Jable region, the abandoned plots were connected to the most proximate production centres to calculate distance and viability to create a more direct integration between the tourism and agricultural sectors. A visibility analysis of the vegas was also performed to see the potential of attracting tourists from surrounding tourist centres and lookout points. We found that though the visibility of the landscape was high, there existed no facilities or activities that would actually motivate people to visit the landscape. The goal of the project then becomes to alter the dynamics of the landscape in order to allow and foster interest in the site, both from the government and visitors. This is an initial step towards the discussion and formulation of proposals to counter the increasing negative repercussions of the tourism industry. This paves the way for any spatial or landscape intervention that we propose in the region to be accessible to the tourism sector once achieved. We intend to incorporate the existing tourism tendency towards the primary sector for a mutually beneficial co-existence instead of completely denouncing the merits of the industry, and due to several reasons, as discussed in the chapter, Agrotourism has been adopted as a strategy to enable this.

Fig.2.1 Social Formations Panel Cartography by R. Chauhan , M. Sayyedi & T. Sun


ARTICULATION OF AGRARIAN AND TOURIST NETWORKS SOCIAL FORMATIONS OF A CANARIAN ISLAND

“The landscape is not a use, nor is the act of preserving it.”


Overview Tourism is an essential part of the economy of the Canary Islands, which are a Spanish archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres (62 miles) west of Morocco. Seven main islands and six islets make up the Canary Islands. Islands such as the Canarias are a top destination for millions of tourists each year. Their special geographical situation and their natural and cultural heritage richness make them unique for visitors, but at the same time, factors such as insularity, land scarcity and resource dependency, confront them with a number of challenges and vulnerabilities. Many destination islands vary greatly in their socio-economic performance and their level of international visitor arrivals, but many demonstrate a high level of dependence on tourism in terms of exports and contribution to GDP. As can be seen in our Atlas, this trend is also true for the Canarias Archipelago, the most concerning aspect being a high agro-foods dependency upon the EU, and almost 5 times more import than export/ domestic production. With tourism, the coasts began being used mainly for tourism and leisure activities, and the agriculture was either relegated to the mainland, or abandoned entirely. This is most visible in the NEmost island, Lanzarote.

Now there has already been a lot of landscape alteration due to tourism interests in the coasts, and this law allows such activities in the hinterland as well, which has led to a lot of protests and conflict over the law and the future of the territory, especially in Lanzarote. Various stakeholders from the agroindustry, such as farmers, landowners, co-operatives, and people who are invested in the balance of the system such as ecologists of the biosphere reserve have major concerns. Everyone has a stake in the game and they will all get affected by the adoption of the law. There have been a few insertion projects organized by the Cabildo (municipality) of Lanzarote whose aim was to assign unemployed families to abandoned agricultural fields and give them the knowledge of the traditional cultivation techniques used in the Jable region. The aim of our project is to propose a negotiation between the law of the land and the currently dormant agroscape that would enable both the stakeholders and the environment to benefit from incoming tourism, instead of succumbing to its pressure. We propose to do this by mobilising a CPO process in which negotiations of land and sand occur between stakeholders to create new socio-economic linkages that allow the land to become more productive and trigger revitalisation for the agrotourist circuit.

The islands experienced an economic boost in the 1960s due to infrastructural development and directed efforts towards increasing tourism within the archipelago. This had the effect of a growing service sector, but also meant the unfortunate decline of the agricultural and fishing industry that had long been the staple economies of the islands. Over the years, this has had an extensive and visible effect on the landscape of the islands, mainly in the form of agricultural abandonment. Visible in the archipelago as the brown shaded areas. But, with so much pressure of residents and tourists on Lanzarote, there are several concerns and conflicts regarding the sustainability of the current land and tourism development practices. To accommodate the rapidly growing tourism, there was a recent policy proposal in the Canarias, called La ley del Suelo, or law of the land, which opens the door to tourist accommodation on rustic soils. It allows the authorization of complementary tourist, leisure, industrial or sports uses on previously protected agricultural and rustic soils.

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Fig.2.2. Social Formative Networks Tourism and effect on Agrofoods industry T.Sun, R.Chauhan


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Site Visit Site: Lanzarote Island Duration: 10 Days During 25th March to 4th April in 2017 we visited Lanzarote in order to establish a connection with the local communities and experts within the fields of geomorphology, sociology, politics and agriculture. The people we met and the field trip we had provided us with a significantly more rounded understanding of farm in Jable area and influence from government and organisation. We visited several organizations and local people in Lanzarote especially in Jable region. Within interviews with them, we asked many questions about the agriculture and policies from different people within the tourism, agriculture, ecology and economy sectors, and got drastically different answers according to their positions and professions. In addition, we travelled to many active and abandoned fields and took photos and samples of different types of soils and crops. This process of intellectual discourse and debate leads us to propose some schemes that would serve to integrate the primary and tertiary sectors of the economy more cohesively, and coherently. Day 1 We travelled to the city of Soo and took long walks to the Jable fields. There are still some active farmlands and abandoned ones around the town. Day 2 We visited Museo Agricola El Patio in Tiagua and the Cesar Manrique Foundation in Tahiche to know more about the history of crops and agriculture in Lanzarote. Day 3 Interview with Ascension Robayna, an economist who runs an organization called SAT El Jable Organization in Arrcife. This organization is a group of Jable farmers in Lanzarote whose goal is to bring back Jable farming in Lanzarote. The interview was very useful where we obtained information about the details of the technique of Jable cultivation, the reasons why it has reduced and the role of tourism in its abandonment.

Fig.2.3. Field Trip Route map T. Sun

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Day 4 Dr. MiguĂŠlez Lopez is the Biosphere Reserve Representative of the Cabildo of Lanzarote. We had a short interview with him and asked some questions relating to the government and organization. During this interview, we gave a list of our questions regarding Jable cultivation, in which Mr Lopez sent the answers after a couple of days. Also, he helped us in getting copies of books related to Lanzarote, and one specifically edited by himself regarding agriculture in the island.

Day 6 (contd.) We also visited the Tourism University in Lanzarote and met Eva Crespo who is working in this school and knew many organizations and people who are related to agriculture in the government. She also introduced us to Prof. Pedro Hernandez. He invited us to have a field trip with tourism bachelor students to Haria, Costa Teguise, and Puerto del Carmen. He also took us to the school library where we found many useful books about agriculture history and architecture types in Lanzarote.

Day 5 Calos is a local farmer in San Bartolome who also runs some tourism house renting in Playa Honda. He helped us with translation and information of farmland in Jable. We asked Carlos to answer our questions regarding Jable cultivations and role of tourism and a farmer’s opinion of reviving abandoned agriculture fields. He also told us about some local warehouses and the Agroindutrial compound.

Day 7 We visited the Jable fields in San Bartolome with Carlos. During this site visit, we stopped by a farm where farmers were working as a family business and asked them to show us how the Jable technique works. We had a talk about the agricultural technique in detail and took a long video of potato and sweet potato seeding and processing. Also, we saw farmers using a donkey for tilling the land and talked to them about land abandonment.

We visited the local cheese and potato chips warehouse. This warehouse had mainly cheese products but this was where the farmers were gathering potatoes from the fields to be taken to the factory where they will be cooked, packaged, and sent to the market. We met a woman working in the cheese warehouse who told us about the chips factory and how the farms around the warehouse grew potatoes that were gathered and sent to the factory. In addition we went to the Timanfaya National park to see the landscape of volcanos. Day 6 The chips processing factory is in Tias. We arrived at the cheese warehouse where a man was there to pick up potatoes and showed us around the factory. We saw the process of making and packaging chips and asked him many questions about how their products will be sent to other countries.

Day 8 We visited other types of landscapes in Lanzarote. We took a guided tour of the vineyard landscape, and watched as the farmers were cleaning out the dried shrubs, and took soil samples.


Day 9 We took a bus to travel around this island and during the trip, Prof. Pedro Hernandez introduced history, plants and other useful information of these areas. Ana Maria Gomariz Rodrigo is one of the assistants in the school, she accompanied us along the trip and told us different usage and planting methods of different crops. Then we went to San Bartolome for soil sample collection. Day 10 Tania Acuna Gonzalez works in Agro Lanzarote office which is in Granja Agricola. She gave us some books of agriculture and found one people who works in Jable agriculture for us. We keep touch with him and got many useful information of local people and farms. Later, we had gone to Tahiche, Famara, and Soo to take panoramic views of the Jable regions in these three areas. We took pictures of the sand and tried to find out the origin and different types of sand. HARIA

SOO

TEGUISE TIAGUA

Chips factory

Museo Agricola El Patio

National Park

TAHICHE

Escuela Universitaria de Turismo de Lanzarote

Cesar Manrique Foundation AgroLanzarote

SAN BARTOLOME Cheese factory

COASTAL TEGUISE

Vineyard ARRECIFE PLAYA HONDA

Lanzarote Government

PUERTO DEL CARMEN

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36 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Social Formations


Evolution of tourism and transport The site visit led us to analyse the economy of the island in greater detail and see what changes the growing tourism sector has triggered. Tourism has been the primary sector of Lanzarote since serious tourism on Lanzarote picked up in the early 1980s, with the introduction of the ‘package holidays’ in the late seventies. Until then and despite the tourism boom of the 1960s on other islands of the archipelago, tourism development on Lanzarote had been very slow. By that time, the local government started to put an emphasis on improving basic infrastructures, such as the extension of the airport runway to allow for international flights.1974, the island boasted 2,000 hotel beds, receiving around 9,500 guests. This figure continuously increased, until – only a few years later – it had already reached more than 90,000 tourists per year, mainly coming from Scandinavia and the Benelux. (Lanzarote, 2017) Tourism has lead to a concentration of resources in the service industry and an increase in revenue from raw material exports, which divert resources away from industrial and agricultural sectors to the tourism industry and the service sector. This has lead to a deterioration in conditions in the manufacturing and agricultural sectors, sending them into a decline. The GDP is mainly dependent on the number of tourists that arrive to the islands each year. Increased income causes additional investments in the tourism infrastructure. This has negatively affected the environmental attractiveness, which negatively influences the number of tourists. The improved preservation of the environment results in the increase of environmental attractiveness and consequently in growing interest from potential tourists. Regional Attractiveness depends on the acreage of Tourist Resorts and Protected Land. In our case there should be equilibrium between the Protected Land by which the tourists are mostly attracted and the Tourist Resorts, which have to be provided in order to accommodate the tourists. The development of a tourism network has led to the evolution of the road network as well as the expansion of the urban areas, as seen in Fig. 2.5. The fully articulated tourism network can be seen in fig. 2.4, where it is superimposed over each other, in order as: • • • •

Crop Movement Network Hotels to Tourist Spots Prts to Tourist Spots, and Ports to hotels

Now let us have a look at the impacts of this growth and connectivity on the agricultural sector of the island. Fig.2.4. Superimposition of Tourism and Trade Routes : (top to bottom) hotels, tourism destinations and crop networks

Fig.2.5. Evolution of roads due to demand of tourism networks

Fig.2.6. Tourism sub-model describing inflence factors

T.Sun

Source: (Kljajić et al, 2002)

T.Sun

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Devolution of the Agricultural Sector Agriculture is the traditional economic branch in the Canary Islands. The crops are produced for domestic as well as for the export market. The land is fertile but the region is exposed to aridness. The main crops are potatoes, wine, tomatoes, and tobacco. Fishing is also an important activity. Agriculture in general offers a small contribution to the GDP however the impact of agriculture on the environment and natural resources is rather significant. The principal feature of agriculture in Lanzarote is lack of water and land suitable for cultivation. The latter represents a mere 7.6% of the total area, which is why the hectarage of arable land in the Canary Islands is the most expensive in Spain. Such production factor constraints are nevertheless offset by certain climatic advantages which allow subsistence farming to take place. In addition to the statistical averages, however, agriculture in the Canary Islands is characterised by its dual nature: a highly specialised export agriculture subsector (fruit, vegetables, plants and flowers) coexists with an agriculture geared towards domestic supply (wine, livestock products) which plays an important social and environmental role. These crops had a great development in Canary Islands in general, and in Lanzarote in particular, when they began to look for alternative crops to cereals, which are beginning to be imported from After the approval of the free ports in 1852, there was greater consumption of potatoes and sweet potatoes in the diet. The greatest boom of the potato was obtained in the decade of the fifties, that is to say after the civil war, precisely due to the conditions of selfsufficiency imposed by the Autarkic period. In the 1970s there was a second period of relative importance in terms of production. On this

38 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Social Formations

occasion the reason was due to the demand of the United Kingdom, since it is a product quoted by the immigrants who arrived in this country. The current situation presents a different picture. This remarkable reduction of the cultivated area is related to the phenomenon of disaggregation that the island suffers at the moment. In fact, the rise of tourism and services has led to significant transfers of labour towards these sectors of activity, which has made it impossible to maintain agriculture and other activities of the primary sector on the island. In the same way, this phenomenon has led to the emergence of new modes of cultivation such as the workers’ system - campesino or timely agriculture. The cultivation of the mille is maintained thanks to the sale of gofio and mille pifias in fresh, both for stews and for consumption with ribs or roasts. Potatoes on the other hand continue to have a high relative importance, since they are a fundamental part of the deit of the Canary. The cochineal has been reduced to the payments of Mala and Guatiza in the northeast of Lanzarote. Finally the sweet potato is also of less importance than in the past. In short, Lanzarote’s agriculture is experiencing a deep crisis that is affecting the morphology of the agricultural areas of the island. This has a notable environmental and landscape impact, as we will try to demonstrate in the next section of this paper, because with the abandonment of agriculture, a whole series of rural infrastructures such as gavias, nateros or bebos, traveseros and chains, terraces, sandblasts, and even the culture of jable exploitation are affected .

These consequences are not only of an economic nature. Related to the loss of activity and production, but also of an ecological and landscape nature, since such spaces fulfill other social functions, such as being a place to visit tourists. In other words, with the disappearance of agrarian landscapes, tourism also loses one of the spaces for contemplation.

Fig.2.7 Traditional methods of agriculture in Lanzarote Fig.2.8 Environmental submodel chart flow of agriculture and tourism. Source: (Kljajić et al, 2002)


Agricultural Abandonment At one time, the export agriculture allowed for an influx of the currencies and alongside that agriculture there was always another intended to ensure the local population’s supply of staple products. But with improvements in international maritime transport, came tourism and trade opportunities that increased the economic growth of the archipelago. As a result, agrosector became limited to those areas of the islands with little or no market access or practiced by the growing numbers of parttime farmers who use it to supplement incomes obtained from other economic activities (Sans, 1977 and 1981). While the agricultural sector was very important with regard to the region’s economy in the past, the situation has changed greatly. In 1960 the contribution of agriculture to GDP was 32%, a percentage which has since plummeted to 1.55% in 2013 (CES Canarias 2014). The surface area that can be cultivated is limited; only 7.6% of the region (55 060 ha) is suitable for agricultural activities (INE 2015). These islands have 14 416 agricultural holdings, which are generally small, with an average 4 ha of area. The domestic food supply of the region is generally satisfied by these smaller holdings which mostly produce fruit and vegetables, wine and livestock. Local suppliers experience strong competition from imported goods as a result of the positive economic advantages the region provides for imported goods, SSA included. The

agricultural sector employed 23 200 people (1st quarter 2015), which corresponds to 3% of the total workforce of the region (EC 2015). The percentage of food products entering the islands from the EU rose from 92.18% in 2006 to 96.31% in 2014. One hundred thousand ha of agricultural soils have been abandoned during the last 50 years. Most of this surface was cropped under traditional, conservative practices towards soil and water resources, whereby it contributes to worsen the global trend. Intense water erosion (32.6%), wind erosion (56% of the studied field plots), soil crusting (45.6%) and/or compaction (31%) processes have taken place in these areas. (Rodriguez et al., 2006) The Jable is also a space in regression, since the cultivation of the sweet potatoes, melons and sandals have experienced a remarkable decrease in this area. This has made possible other types of uses such as extensive livestock and clandestine extractions of sand for construction. As can be deduced from the above, the state of abandonment has contributed to the loss of ecological and landscape values ​​in this area. The vegas of Guatiza and Fena, formerly notable cereal and mille producers, have been largely abandoned and the “dust” or land of the gavias has been used for the making of new sandblasts, and even as a firm for the

filling of a New insular road, for example the new variant of Tahfche to Mala. Other valleys such as those of Harfa or valleys like that of Temisa and Tenemuime, only maintain crops in sandblasted houses. Instead, the gavias, nateros, and chains have been totally abandoned. Finally, the landscape of the cochineal between Mala and Guatiza is also in deterioration, for despite attempts to preserve this interesting and historic landscape, there is no obvious economic profitability for The grain dye, farmers are increasingly showing a minor interest to continue with the crop. This agricultural abandonment leads to deterioration of the Biosphere Reserve as well, but the government is now trying to exacerbate the issue with certain land policy proposals that would not only encourage even more landowners to abandon the fields, but let give them over for tourist development as well. The land pressure implications of this are enormous, and would lead to the same thing that happened during the unplanned infrastructure to develop on the coasts, (see overleaf) to happen in the agricultural, rustic soils as well.

Fig.2.9 News Articles showing land abandonment in the Canary islands. M. Sayyedi

Fig.2.10 Island-wise Abandonment

Coast Cultivated Coast Abandoned Mainland Cultivated Mainland Abandoned

El Hierro

La Palma

La Gomera

Tenerife

Gran Canaria

Fuerteventura

Lanzarote

Canarias Archipelago

0

5

10

15

(Coastland and Mainland)

20

Proportion of Cultivated and Abandoned Farmland

25

30

R.Chauhan

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Impact of Tourism on Coastal Landscapes

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Fig.2.11. VAlue Addittion Process R. Chauhan

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The Politics of Land and Territory Conflicts, Polemics and Frictions

an objective in all its new dimensions: mobility, energy efficiency, landscape conservation and climate change. It aims to simplify, rationalise and update the administrative decision making on the territory with the ultimate aim of making land use more flexible to be developed or renewed and on the other hand, to protect valuable soils. It proposes to replace the Revised Text of the Territory Law of 2000, the Ordinance Guidelines (2003) and the Harmonisation and Simplification Act(2014).

been conjectures by Save Canarias, a new platform raised in protest of the ALSC, that the new law favours only entrepreneurs and that it will be highly detrimental to small land owners. It goes on to say that it encourages rural and rustic soils be used for activities such as sports, leisure and scientific purposes.

As of February 2017, the Government maintains that the Law favours self-sufficiency in the archipelago. Roman Rodriguez, from the Nueva Canarias body state that the opening of possibility of tourist activities on rustic land is a risk for the continuity of agricultural activity and opens it for colonisation. There have been a few peaceful protests in Lanzarote regarding the Land Law and its consideration.

(Anteproyecto de Ley lo de Canarias, 2016)

The President of the Biosfera Reserve Office within the Cabildo said he was worried about the possibility that new law (ALSC) would allow new hotels or tourist apartment in agriculture areas. They believe that the principles of the law clash with the reasons for which Lanzarote was declared a Biosphere Reserve. In the newspaper nowadays it is said that final ALSC will permit new tourist lodging if each PIOT (Insular Plan) allows them. It could be possible in Lanzarote, depending on the political balance each moment. But, in fact, today we have extra pressure because web platforms such as Airbnb, transform each house in potential tourist lodgings.

The Anteproyecto de Ley lo de Canarias seeks to reform and address sustainable development as

The Archipelago is divided on the possible ramifications of the proposed law. There have

There are various opposing and clashing opinions and policies in terms of the handling of rural land and the advent of tourism and trade industries that the economy is now based on. During our visit, we were able to establish contact with the local communities and experts within the fields of geomorphology, sociology, politics and agriculture. This process provided us with a significant understanding of farming in Jable area and the influence from government and organisation. We visited several organizations and local people in Lanzarote especially in Jable region. Within interviews with them, we asked many questions of the agriculture and policies from different kinds of people and got totally different answers according to their positions and works. In addition we travelled to many fields and took photos of different types of soils and crops. This process of intellectual discourse and debate leads us to propose some schemes that would serve to integrate the primary and tertiary sectors of the economy more cohesively and coherently.

Law of the land

42 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Social Formations

The Platform against the Law of the Canary Soil states that the law is trying to reactivate the real estate bubble and adopting it will affect the model of sustainability.

Fig.2.11. Protests in Lanzarote against the Law of the Land


“The Land Law opens the door to tourist accommodation on rustic soils.” It incorporates the authorization of complementary tourist, leisure, industrial or sports uses on previously protected agricultural and rustic soils, which would trigger an enormous pressure on the land. - Santiago Pérez, Canarias Ahora, 22/11/2016

“Planning urbanism is abandoned, replaced by Project urbanism.” It prioritizes the realization of any type of project without taking into account the territory, the natural environment or the management plans for the land in which it is intended to locate. Román Rodríguez, Canarias Ahora, 05/11/2016

“It gives the sensation that after filling the coast of the islands, now it is time to colonize midlands and peaks.” …(with)”any other (activity) that generates income complementary to the agrarian” ... and will only need municipal license to implement them. The purpose, as justified in the law itself, is to generate “complementary income” to the main activity, basically agriculture and livestock. - Mas Palomas News, 07/12/2016

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The Demographics of Land and Territory The implications of the Land Law would be very pronounced in the Paso del Jable region due to its high agricultural abandonment and other issues such as a demographic that cannot work. At any given time, there are more tourists in Lanzarote than citizens of right, and even among the residents, there are three types of population compositions according to the sizes and locations of towns. Coastal towns such as Arrecife and Costa Teguise have the most of the tourist population staying in hotels and airbnb. Residents who are between 30-50 years old are more willing to find a job related to tourism in coastal areas as they can earn more money and enjoy a better quality of life as well. Urban areas have more composition of families in generation. People over sixty are less than ten percentage in these areas. Rural areas have the most typical population composition as there are more old people and young generations left in small towns especially in Jable area, almost taking half of the population. This is visible in the social formations panel as well(see fig), with the smaller, rural tons having a more dependent age group. This problem of the scales being skewed towards Dependent age groups and an aging population in rural, agricultural towns is

concerning. Like much of the rest of Europe, Lanzarote is experiencing aging, with the percentage of elderly people growing from 7.3% in 1991 to 9.7% in 2011. Similarly, the percentage of youth declined over the same time period to 24.4% from 16.4%. Many young people went out of Canary Islands even Spain to seek job opportunities with higher salaries. Rural Migration and the shift of workforce from the primary sector to the tertiary sector in search of jobs, is a major contributor to this current trend. However, jobs in the tourism sector aren’t as plentiful as they seem, either. The level of Unemployment in Spain is the highest in EU which is matched in the European Union only by Greece. And in Spain, Canary Islands are reported to hold the highest level of unemployment and the greatest loss of social benefits nationwide because of the effect of the crisis.

unemployment population has increased from 2000 to 2010 especially after 2007. 2010 has had the highest unemployment rate in Lanzarote, the duration of which caused many families to remain unemployed in the long term. As the number of new families experiencing unemployment increase, social services have become overwhelmed. Non-governmental organizations have therefore increasingly had to respond to basic needs by establishing food distribution systems. After 2010, unemployment is decreasing gradually thanks to the efforts made by the government organizations. But it still remains a thorn in the socio-economics framework of Lanzarote. This is a vicious cycle in which only the elderly can work on the fields, as a result of which, abandoned farmlands keep increasing.

The fact that the Canary Islands is particularly dependent upon the construction and tourism industries means that the crisis hit harder than in other Spanish regions - and Lanzarote is such a typical island among them. It is reported that in 2016, 39.7% of population had taken part in tourism in Lanzarote. In recent years, the

Unemployment rates in Lanzarote(2000-2017)

40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00%

Fig.2.12 Social Formations of the Jable Hinterland

20.00% 15.00%

T.Sun, R.Chauhan, M. Sayyedi

10.00%

Fig.2.13. Unemployment in Lanzarote

5.00% 0.00% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

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SOCIAL FORMATIONS OF THE HINTERLAND Untapped Potentials of the Jab;e corridor

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Stakeholders of the Jable region testimonials

Farmers “A portion of locally produced batatas are collected and taken to storage plant and then sent to Tias to make Batatitos snacks.”

Stakeholders “I haven’t worked in this field for almost 12 years because our family has other farmland and it’s really tough to look after all our lands.”

“We are organising Jable farmers into a cooperative society to help get them subsidies and government aid ”

“We are sowing the fresh batch of batatas this season...our whole family has come to help plant the potatoes.”

“We don’t grow potatos in northern part of the region is because the quality is good but the quantity is not good as before...”

Agro Agencies

Carlos Farmland Owner, Tourism sector

“The government does not have any special insertion projects here... they have not contacted us... it would be good...”

“...This idea of getting tourists to Jable like they go to La Geria will help bring the farmers back to the land. ” “They need to see this beautiful way of agriculture without the (sic) water...” “I have some lands in the Jable in San Batolome but I also work in tourism...we all have other jobs because the money from the farm is not enough...it is not good. ” A worker in cheese and chips factory

A young farmer using donkey for field clearing in San Bartolome

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A family batata farmers in San Bartolome

“Those organizations working in Jable know little of our farmers!”

Ascension Robayna Director, SAT El Jable Organization


Scholars

Government officials

“It would be tremendously beneficial if the agrotourism can be brought into the landscape of El Jable. ”

“The Jable region has really nice landscape... ”“Our President was worried about the possibility that new law (ALSC) would allow new hotels or tourist apartment in agriculture areas.” “In Lanzarote the problem used to be the lack of the specific project, or the weakness of the proposal respect other economic, political or social agents.”

“Actually we don’t have projects in Jable...but I think this is a good idea to call for the back to farmlands in that area. ”

Dr. Aquilino Miguélez López Biosphere Reserve Representative, Cabildo

Tania Acuna Gonzalez Agricultural Technical Engineer, AgroLanzarote, Cabildo

“We are currently working with organizations and the government about island tourism...”

Eva Crespo Director, EUTL

Prof. Pedro Hernandez Professor, EUTL

Ana Maria Gomariz Rodrigo Teaching Assistant, EUTL

“The landscape in this island has changed a lot since 1970s because of the development of tourism.”

“There used to be a lot of export to UK and France in 19th century, but now there is more import than export...”

“Now you can see there are still different types of soils in different regions and farmers grow totally different crops like Aloe, cereals and grapes.”

“Sands are used to make beaches in hotels. All the beaches in Costal Teguise are made of sand from the northern part.”

“We are in contact with some farmers in Jable and they do have knowledge in techniques. I think it will help the project in Jable...”

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Visibility and the Agrotourism Potentials of the Jable corridor As we can see from the secondary Social Formation Panel, there is a high visibility from the 14 major local tourist spots into this area, (yellow gradient). The colour shows different levels of visibility, dark ones have the highest visibility from these tourist spots. It means that Jable area can be seen from most of tourism spots near it especially those at the top of volcanoes or hills. However, as most of it is abandoned, there’s not much to attract people from afar, and motivate them to actually visit it. This is because of an older demographic of the local towns, as well as the disinterest of the government to invest on an activity that it doesn’t consider an asset. But the Jable area is just as attractive as the other landscape in Lanzarote. It is just underutilised due to the issues that it struggles with, which affects so many people across different industries (see below).

48 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Social Formations

There are several potentials of the Jable area, which can be tapped in various ways. First of all, its activation can provide many jobs for people especially those unemployed ones which can help the construction and crop plantation. Secondly, it do help to increase the production of Jable crops to feed local people as well as to grow the export to other islands or nationwide. Thirdly, it can be an attractive landscape also as Le Geria to motivate tourists to actually visit it, this will also be benefit to the economy of agrotourism. We propose to reclaim the land back into agricultural production though a tripartite system that uses the existing tourism, changing land policies and the geomorphology of the sandscape.


The Agrotourism Proposal : Beyond Visitors For our proposal to work, we have to deal with the issue of the absent work force. We propose to do this by generating an agrotourism economy similar to the one that exists in the La Geria, but with the tourists being much more engaged with the land. Agrotourism is becoming increasingly interactive, with several existing models around the world. Even the island’s tourists are expressing eagerness towards it due to the popular gastronomic subculture in Lanzarote. Our agrotourism model includes these agrotourists as the primary workforce for the agricultural production through a system that allows them to engage in an indigenous agricultural technique.

Due to the tourism industry, there is a workforce shift from the agricultural sector towards the tertiary sector, yet there is high unemployment on the island. The cabildo has recently began insertion projects to place these unemployed people in the fields to trigger more production. We use this model in our proposal as well, by including them in our labour workforce requirements. The next section lists out all the policies and ventures that the cabildo has carried out in efforts towards rejuvenating local production. Our proposal will be using them towards the same.

There is a consistent flow of tourists to Lanzarote throughout the year due to its mild climate, which removes most irregularities in labour supply. The rest of the demand is to be met by the unemployment sector.

“Our agritourism model includes these agrotourists as the primary workforce for the agricultural production through a system that allows them to engage in an indigenous agricultural technique.�

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Precedents for Agrestic Management Land Banks: Activist Mapping One of the proposals is the creation of a new bank of agricultural land that has been abandoned and is suitable for cultivation with the aim of reducing the risk of landscape and environmental degradation, as well as to boost the creation of jobs. Lack of time, knowledge and economic profitability mean that many land owners in agricultural production abandon their land. Therefore, this initiative could facilitate contact between owners of plots suitable for agricultural and those interested in cultivating the land. Similar to the Cabildo Insertion project, this proposal would be feasible because of the economic benefits it generates and employment opportunities. The Provincial Council provides the material resources for the promotion of land banks such as panels and workshops and brochures and posters, and enables provincial information points to attend citizen consultations, as well as informing through the web. In a survey of cultivators in Lanzarote, the necessity for land banks and the respondent’s willingness to participate was recorded. Approximately 75% of respondents do not know what a land bank consists of. However, once the term is explained, 74.8% consider its creation very important, while 8.6% consider it little or nothing necessary. Younger producers are more willing to rent land to work on. The Producers over 30 and under 64, are the most interested in leasing their farms. Those Producers over the age of 65 are the least interested.

Insertion Projects The cabildo insertion projects seek to give employment opportunities to the unemployed by introducing them to the agricultural sector where there is a shortage of workforce. These people are trained in the techniques and their abilities can be used for the better of the farms. This arrangement is beneficial both for the primary sector as well as the economy overall as it helps reduce the unemployment rates in the island.

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much needed quite needed little bit needed no needed NS/NC

no to lend / lease land to give me/rent land 第四季度


Co-operative Farming and Subsidies Crop Group

Potato (Papa)

Cereals, Pulses and Pastures

Cultivations (Ha)

Number of Subplots

40.6

184.01

Cultivations on Jable (Ha)

188

714

0.84

39.98

4.7 10.1 As mentioned before, for landowners with the denominated status of ‘active farmer’, it is worth considering a sharing system of crop production where hectares of land may be combined to achieve a minimum benchmark of certain hectarage required to be eligible for agricultural aid and subsidies under the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

By this method, several plots of lands can be combined to grow a certain volume of produce with added workforce from all benefactors and this pooling of resources would eliminate many economic hurdles. Some initiation has been done in this direction by the SAT el Jable as they have formed a co-op of jable farmers who gain by having a common platform for conflict resolution and aid.

Subsidies

Beneficiaries:

• Aid per hectare for the • cultivation of table Growers who grow papa potatoes • • To be a producer of fodder crops: wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, buckwheat, Aid to producers of • peas, broad beans, lupines, certain fodder crops veal, alfalfa, Sudan grass, ray grass, tagasaste and other fodder crops. 2.4 3.2

4.7

3.2 2.4

Requirements

Area

Basic Aid

Photocopies of the DNI. SIGPAC Land ownership Bank-owned document Active Farmer denomination

1 ha

950 euros / ha.

To be considered an "active farmer". at least SIGPACLand ownership 0.3 That in the case of annual hectares crop products, their cycle per takes place between the request. months of October 2015 and September 2016.

Max: 300 euros per hectare.

much needed quite needed little bit much needed needed no needed quite needed NS/NC little bit needed no needed

10.1

79.7

NS/NC 79.7 Fig.6.4. Subsidies and combination of agricultural plots into a block so as to improve sand circulation. T.Sun

51.9% of the respondents receive some type of aid or subsidy, compared to 48.1% that do not receive them. Only some 2.9% of the producers surveyed have any type of insurance. When asked if they consider it necessary to create an agricultural / livestock cooperative on the island? The creation of an agricultural / livestock cooperative on the island is considered to be very Needed by 79.7% of the respondents. Only 7.9% consider it little or nothing necessary.

Training of Young Farmers The training of agricultural producers is necessary to implement techniques on their farms, to update knowledge and to train in work. Therefore, this block was oriented to know what were the demands in Agricultural producers surveyed, in order to define the lines of action of the Insular Service Agrarian in the field of training. The topics of training that show a greater interest are: control and treatment of Pests and diseases, pruning of fruit trees, ecological agriculture, soil and irrigation, Cultivation and accreditation as a phytosanitary manipulator.

In the results obtained from the surveys, 42.6% of respondents were from 45 and 64 years, while 37% are over 65 years. Arrecife and Teguise are the Municipalities where farmers and older farmers are concentrated. In this way, you can To point out that there is little involvement of young people in the local agricultural sector. This can be seen because only 1% of young people surveyed (18 to 29 years old) work on the farms.

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Negotiations of Land As architects, landscape architects and planners, our role is to envision how these potentials can be achieved, and how the design of a tourism system, integrated and engaged with the territory can materialise. This involves envisioning those who will be affected by the project, what decisions will they have to make for this to be possible, and what relationships will be forged during the process? Thus, the generation of this landscape would involve multiple criteria in order to accommodate the conflicting needs and concerns of various stakeholders such as landowners, farmers, ecologists and tourism management. Moreover, due to hierarchical distribution of land within families, there i a high fragmentation of land, which makes it unsuitable for many purposes. So, the primary objective of the project would be to reparcelise land into more profitable bits. While it may not have been economically viable for a farmer to sustain the project, the integration of the tourism circuit within the agrarian activities creates an incentive for farmers to experiment with land uses and allow innovation in agrotechniques.

Fig.2.14. The Land Negotiation Process R.Chauhan

52 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Social Formations

So, for these to occur, we must establish certain principles, that need to be implemented at the macro scale, for the system to function at a micro scale. These are as follows: 1. “The land rights differ vastly from the sand rights within the active landscape.” 2. “To negotiate the sanduse and the landuse, the land ownership must respond to the landscape.” 3. “The fields are first grouped into bands of crops according to their position within the velocity-depth spectrum.” 4. “Small segments of landuse would have to be allocated to the sand caches.” 5. “For fields within the buffer of a cache, the sand becomes a desirable public resource, therefore an assemblage of stakeholders surfaces.” 6. “These plots of land would have a hierarchy of association with the sand cache which leads to the stakeholders having varying degrees of association as well.”

So, the plots of land get grouped into units that makes it easier to plan the urban planning project. The scale of this unit is determined within one of our core proposals: the sand cache, which would be detailed in further chapters. All the stakeholders within such an assemblage would have to negotiate the infrastructure, socio-economic contributions, seasonal crop productions, and sand distribution. For each stakeholder, there is a categorising of previous roles, and recording of characteristics of land ownership, current status and value as a human resource. The next step is to determine the options that a stakeholder has in the process of reallocation of land, according to parameters such as land use, infrastructure, and equivalence of hectarage and infrastructure as per projective economic prospects, and for them to accept their future roles. Over all, two major negotiations occur - once with the project team for this Compulsory Parcellment Order (CPO) reparcelisation for swapping land to control field sizes, and then, the next phase would have to be a negotiation between different farmers to form a cooperative.


The core of this discourse is sand and its distribution with the directionality of the winds. This occurs between stakeholders and farmers resulting from the first phase of dialogue. It deals with the negotiation of sand and the right to use it as a resource for production amongst farmers, farmstay managers and tourism managers.

“...the integration of the tourism circuit within the agrarian activities creates an incentive for farmers to experiment with land uses and allow innovation in agrotechniques.�

This would be elaborated within the chapter of Manufactured Grounds, once we establish the mechanics of aeolian movement within the site.

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«[…] vienen unos vientos, que yo ni me acuerdo de ’llos tampoco; pues, dicen que esta isla […] anunció un sabio, que a esta isla la atravesaría un río, y es verdad que la atraviesa, pero fue…, era de viento. El viento dicen que viene de allá del moro, de Sara, de los desiertos de Sara, que atraviesan, y va y sale de aquí a Lanzarote y Fuerteventura y […] Canaria, y de Canaria, pa’ mi gusto, llega al Brasil, porque cuando avisté al Brasil, la primera vez que yo avisté al Brasil no era sino un…, jable, jable también como aquí, y en Buenos Aires hay jable, morretas de jable también, igual como aquí y el jable pa’ mi gusto está en todo el mundo». - Señor Rafael Duarte, Tinajo. (Morales et al, 2017)

Aeolian Sand Processes Geomorphological Processes in El Paso de Jable

The Paso del Jable is comprised of several vegas dammed by younger volcanic activity and topped by layers of Saharan dust and marine sands that are constantly blown inland by northeastern trade winds creating a landscape of singular beauty, as depicted in the Territorial Formation panel. This cartography attempts to articulate the geomorphological processes of wind movement and sand deposition, that create this semidesert zone. A wind vector field indicates the direction of the resultant of the u and v vectors of the dominant trade winds and the direction in which they make initial contact with the foredunes of the northwestern Famara coastline. This vector is then used to simulate “sand currents” which seek to approximate the path of the sand particles as they travel further into the corridor. These directional wind currents also divide the terrain into a spectrum of velocity-depth bands, where deposition creates differing thicknesses of the top sandy layer (jondas and pelonas), leading to a variety of jable croplands, whose status is depicted in the drawing. This process is also governed by geographical barriers such as the volcanoes (such as in Soo) and human settlements (Famara) which substantially alter or negate the path of the wind and consequentially, the sand particles. This has been shown later in the sectional representation as well, which portrays these barriers and resultant soil profile. The density of sand currents gives an indication of the resulting thickness of jable layer, formed by the deposition of the heavy sand particles due to the interaction of two or more currents. This determines the most viable agricultural sites and makes up a large part of the final site selection. In the following pages, we detail out these processes in the macro- and micro-scales.

Fig.3.1 Geomorphology Panel Cartography by R. Chauhan & M. Sayyedi Section by T. Sun and R. Chauhan


AEOLIAN SAND MOVEMENT Geomorphology of the Jable Corridor


Overview Paso del Jable, has very interesting geomorphological features, and is the core of our project intervention. It is a narrow stretch of land where marine sand deposits are blown by trade winds from one end of the island to another, creating a sand corridor which is formed by the movement of marine sands from one end of the island to the other, forming a sandy corridor right in the middle of all the black volcanic soils. In this chapter, we will see the results of wind simulations done on the Jable region which will result in a velocity spectrum of the site showing high, medium, and low wind speeds in the colours red, yellow, and green. This simulation helps us understand the different sand depths which occur within each velocity band due to the wind speed, and the sand depths help us know which crops will be grown within each velocity band. These velocity bands are further divided using the topography contours and these help divide the landscape into manageable units for farmers and land owners. Each velocity band in return will be divided into smaller section which are determined by the results of the sand simulations which will be discussed later in more detail. The red band having the highest wind speed results in the lowest sand depth which is used for crops such as watermelons, melons, zucchini, and pumpkins. The yellow band has a medium wind velocity with a higher sand depth than the red band which is used for crops such as potatoes and yams which need a lot of sand. The green band has the lowest wind speed with the thickest layer of sand which is used for crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, rye, and yams.

56 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Geomorphology

Fig.3.2. Aerial Orthophoto of the Jable Corridor Source: Gobierno de Caildo: Graphos Database


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Fig.3.3. (overleaf ) NASA Image of Saharan dust blown over the Canarias by the NE trade winds and the Calima winds R. Chauhan

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Formation of Paso del Jable The Jable Passage is located in the island’s center (see fig), with area of about 110 km2 including populations of Soo, Muñique, Famara and Urbanización Los Noruegos. It then continues to Teguise and San Bartolome and extends upto the opposite end of the island as well. It is a large semi-desert plain of wind-blown sands covering ancient volcanic materials. This mantle has been washed away and deposited during the Quaternary period and remains fully active. This layer of sand is organogenic, given its marine origin and has covered the area during the different climatic stages of the Pleistocene, and is mostly stabilised. Given its geomorphological characteristics, surface drainage is not hierarchical. At the end of the 16th century (1592) Torriani (1959), in his Descripción de las Islas Canarias, in addition to recording its existence, made a few considerations about its origin: “From the north to the south, beginning from Famara, they pass through mounds of sand, which (like the Libyan sands) are carried by the north wind.” At the time of locating the different towns and places of the island (Caballero, 1991): “... where they call the mouth of Famara, here runs, and from here, thus traversing to the south, a riacha of white sands that agitated from the winds, make continuous of his course and form a faxa that, by its figure Long and narrow ...“ An 1830 map of El ​​ Jable (see fig.) shows a great expansion that the sands had experienced since the year 1800, the damages that their advance had caused, as well as certain measures aimed at mitigating such damages. De Leon

60 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Geomorphology

and Robayna (1989) relate this expansion to the exploitation of the barrillera plants, very intense in Lanzarote during the first decades of this century (Hernández and Rodríguez, 1995). The obtaining of the barilla stone, a commercial product from the combustion of the abovementioned barrillera plants, also caused a strong pressure on the vegetation of the island, affecting in the area that consists of the sands. Madoz (1986), notes the damage done two decades earlier: “... its valley and the same place where these people were, are now covered with jable and this was the cause of their depopulation.” It is clear, then, that the expansion of the sands of El Jable at the beginning of the 19th century reached villages and areas of cultivation hitherto free of them. At the end of the eighteenth century, Viera (1982), in his Dictionary of Natural History of the Canary Islands, “the white, shifting sand, composed of fragments of shells ...” quotes “the famous and inconstant jable of Lanzarote”. Fig.3.4. 1830 Map of El Jable, drawn by the priest of San Bartolome, Baltasar Perdomo unedited, (Hernández-Pacheco, 1909) Fig.3.5 Location of the Canary Islands off Northwest Africa. Dust-bearing winds are indicated by transparent arrows.

I

R. Chauhan

Fig.3.6. Sectional profile of the Jable region and the corresponding landuses. R. Chauhan & T. Sun

II Saharan air layer (SAL)


Saharan Dust Deposition The Canary Islands are situated at the northern fringe of the recent Saharan dust plume towards the Atlantic, and annually receive dust derived from the Sahara (Coudé-Gaussen et al., 1987; Criado and Dorta, 2003; Menéndez et al., 2007). Saharan dust deposited in the Canary Islands consists mainly of clay and silt. Saharan dust is transported towards the Canary Islands mainly through two different pathways. During winter, dust is entrained by so-called “Calima” winds, low-level continental African trade winds (Harmattan) deflected towards the northwest by Atlantic cyclones (Criado and Dorta, 2003). During summer, dust is transported to latitudes north of the Canary Islands by the northern branch of the high altitude Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Here, the material brought at high altitude that sinks into the lower atmosphere is finally transported towards the islands via the northeast trade winds (Koopmann, 1981; Bozzano et al., 2002). Lanzarote, the northeasternmost of the Canary Islands, has several old valleys dammed by younger volcanic activity during the Quaternary (locally called vegas). In these valleys, local volcanic material as well as Saharan dust have been trapped, forming stacked deposits with total thicknesses of up to 50 m, in places outcropped by local population. As seen in the adjoining figure, he SAL splits off Northwest Africa into a western and a hookshaped northern part, the latter influencing the Canary Islands. The way of Calima winds is differentiated between that of Calima arriving in the North Canary Basin (I) and that arriving in Lanzarote (II). This sediment deposition, along with other marine sands forms the unique El Paso de Jable landscape on Lanzarote island. Fig.3.8. (overleaf ) Incoming windblown sand settles over the vast El Jable vegas, with the Risco de Famara in the background

Fig.3.7. Section showing the soil profile at Teguise in the jable region Image altered by R. Chauhan

Photo by R. Chauhan

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1955

The boundaries of this corridor have been controlled in the past by sets of volcanic cones that are scattered in the southern sector of the central area on one side and the southernmost section of Risco de Famara, on the other. (Carmen Romero, 2003). The presence of this sand corridor completely conditions the organization of the landscape in this area, leaving the imprint of the agriculture reduced to jable crops, especially watermelons and melons, although there are also aloes in the vicinity of Teguise.

Barchan Dunes

1990

Cultivated Area

Timescales of Famara

As evident, the geomorphological dynamics of the unit are still subject to wind and overcast, with very active zones of dunes (Caleta de Famara) and other more stabilized regions inland. In most of El Jable the mantles and dune formations remain active. The landscape of the unit can still be altered by the proliferation of motorized sports and illegal removal of largescale quantities of sand for construction, as seen in Soo and Muñique.

Because of its high interest for steppe birds, a sector of El Jable is protected under the community figure of ZEPA. El Jable is the habitat of at least three species of birds included in the National Catalogue of Threatened Species: the Canarian Hubara (Chlamydotis undulata), classified as “endangered”, the Saharan Corridor (Cursorius cursor), cataloged within the Category ‘susceptible to alteration of their habitat’ and the Alcaravan (Burrhinus oedicnemus), classified as ‘of special interest’ (García and Rodríguez, 1998).

2017

2007

The figure on the left shows the timescale of coastal evolution in response to human activity in terms of infrastructure development, removal of sands for construction and sand dune stabilisation techniques. The current limits of jable extension correspond to human activity since the areas occupied by the sands are losing extension due to the advance of jable crops (Tinajo-La Santa, Mozaga, Soo).

Fig 3.9. Timescale of Famara Beach showing Coastal Evolution 19552017(top to bottom) Fig.3.10. Active Barchan Dunes and Nebkas in the same area of Famara Beach as year 1955 Photo by R. Chauhan

64 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Geomorphology


Fig.1.3. Oil Fields in California State Fig.1.4. Cross section of an onshore Oil Rig


Wind Simulation Catalogue Grid Parameters: Size: 15500m x 15500m Number of Nodes: X=100 Y=100 Z=40 Minimum spacing between nodes: X=110m, Y=110m Standard Height: 50m Center Longitude: -13.62173194 Center Latitude: 29.04830399

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Rotation: 0°, 25°,30°,45°,60° Spatial Reference: WGS 1984 UTM Zone 28N Simulation Parameters: Power Index: 6.0 Standard Height: 50m Inflow Direction: 0°, 25°,30°,45°,60° Standard wind speed: 10 m/s Inflow wind speed: 10 m/s


Wind Velocity Analysis The formation of the Jable corridor has two major territorial actors: wind and sand. For studying the effect of the former, two different software were used to perform large scale wind simulations in our project, namely Autodesk Flow Design, and GIS Airflow Analyst. The first software was used to simulate the whole Jable region in Lanzarote where the results gave us different bands of velocity in the colours red, yellow, and green which represent wind velocities of high, medium, and low speed. This is a key element to the design of our bands because with wind velocities come different sand depths which help us know the kind of crop being grown in that specific area. The red bands with the highest wind velocity have the lowest sand depths where crops such as watermelon, melon, zucchini, and pumpkins are grown. The yellow band has a thicker layer of land where

potatoes and yams are grown. Finally the green band has the thickest layer of sand due to the low wind velocity where crops such as tomatoes, rye, potatoes and yams are grown. The GIS Airflow simulations, as shown on the left were wind simulations done at different wind directions of 0°, 25°,30°,45°,60° at an average wind speed of 10 m/s. These were studied to gauge the effect of the seasonal directionality of the predominant trade winds, as seen in the wind roses on the right, which show the wind direction for each month of a typical year. These vectors have an impact on the design of the velocity bands for the crops and the orientation of the fields, which further relates to the seasonality of the seeding and harvesting of the plants.

Fig.3.11. Wind Simulation Catalogue (top to bottom) M.Sayyedi

Fig.3.12. Flow Design Wind Simulations and Wind Roses M.Sayyedi, R.Chauhan

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Behavior of sand in saltation (Mangimeli, 2007)

Individual sand grains are moved under the force of the wind in three distinct ways: saltation, suspension, and surface creep. The primary method of sand movement is Saltation. As wind moves over a sand deposit, it is able to pick up grains from the surface and give them a forward momentum, but the weight of the sand grains soon bring the grains back to the surface. (Bagnold, 1941). Saltation of sand grains along the surface accounts for about 75% of all sand movement by wind. However, due to the fact that sand grains average about two thousand times the weight of the atmosphere, not all winds will move sand. Wind speeds must reach what Bagnold (1941) calls a “fluid threshold”, defined as the wind speed necessary for sand to start saltating under the direct pressure of the wind. (Bagnold, 1941; Sharp, 1963). Saltating sand grains usually stay close to the surface. In his wind tunnel experiments, Bagnold (1941) found the average height of windblown sand to be about ten centimeters, although both height and speed of saltating grains increased with wind speed. At Kelso dunes, a fifteen-year study indicated that 90% of saltating grains moved within 64 centimeters of the surface, with maximum sand-blast effect at 23 centimeters (Sharp and Saunders, 1978). Two primary factors are necessary for the accumulation of sand into sand sheets and dunes: 1) an adequate supply of sand, and 2) winds strong enough and persistent enough to move the sand (McKee, 1979). If these two conditions are met, large quantities of sand can

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December

Direction

be transported hundreds and even thousands of miles. What makes sand accumulate into piles rather than spread out evenly over an area? In general, sand will tend to accumulate any place “where a sufficient reduction of wind energy exists along the direction of sand drift in an active extensive system” (Fryberger and Ahlbrandt, 1979, p. 454). Any obstacle, such as a building or a stand of vegetation, can force sand accumulation by lowering wind speeds and creating a “sand shadow” to the lee of the obstacle. Any small depression in an otherwise flat surface can fill with sand due to lower wind velocity within the depression (Cooke and Warren, 1973). Large areas of persistent wind deceleration, such as a basin or the base of a plateau, can spawn the creation of large ergs. (Fryberger and Ahlbrandt, 1979; Cooke and Warren, 1973). Obstacles, however, are not needed for sand accumulation. According to Bagnold (1941, p.6), sand “alone of all artificial solids (has) the power of self-accumulation.” This selfaccumulation results from two processes: 1) the differential speed of saltating sand over sandy versus non-sandy surfaces, and 2) the drag effect of saltating sand grains on wind velocity.

68 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Geomorphology

R. Chauhan

Fig.3.14. Formation of Sand forms during Saltation, Sand Accumukation Strategies

In effect, increasing wind velocity also increases saltation and saltation drag, but strong winds tend to favor sand accumulation in areas already sand-covered (Bagnold, 1941).

Images altered by R. Chauhan

In the next section, we will discuss how crops grow in these sand sheets, and how the geological soil profiles are used for agroproduction.

Wind Speed (m/s) 18 18 16 20 30 40 40 40 20 16 18 14

Fig.3.13. Chart showing wind vector data and how sand particles are affected

Vertical Height (m) 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64

sin θ

θ

Horizontal Range R (m)

0.196 0.196 0.221 0.177 0.118 0.0885 0.0885 0.0885 0.177 0.221 0.196 0.252

11°20' 11°20' 12°50' 10°10' 6°50' 5° 5° 5° 10°10' 12°50' 11°20' 14°40'

12.5m 12.5m 11.03m 14.09m 20.06m 28.3m 28.3m 28.3m 14.09m 11.03m 12.5m 9.6m


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=

Technical Section 1: Traditional Subsistence Cultivation

The traditional balance between the two agricultural subsectors collapsed in 1960s as improvements in international maritime transport led to lower freight costs, and merchants in the Canaries opted to buy food from the outside, not only because it was cheaper, but because they could control the entire distribution process and thereby increase their profits. Agricultural production for local consumption thus started to languish, since it was unable to compete with the price of imported foods, being limited to those areas of the islands with little or no market access or practiced by the growing numbers of part-time farmers who use it to supplement incomes obtained from other economic activities (Sans, 1977 and 1981). Though the break from the primary sector is understandable, the soaring unemployment, land degradation and loss of vernacular agrarian knowledge are only some of the multiple reasons that an interventional rearrangement of the Island’s socio-economic calendar be carried out. Different climates, geographies and soils require the adaptation of local food systems, and many traditional food patterns in island areas are related to this adaptation. (Goodenau and Nuez Yanez, 2013) In the case of Lanzarote, this has evolved into various aridity farming techniques owing to its unique climate and geomorphology. One of these indigenous farming techniques is the Jable dry-farming that utilises the protective layer of wind-blown marine sands to capture moisture within the underlying mother soil. Depending on the humidity and thickness of this jable layer, a number of crops ranging from dry grains to fleshy fruits and vegetables are cultivated within this arid sand corridor.

Fig.3.15. Production Dynamics Panel T.Sun & R. Chauhan

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=

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Traditional Subsistence Cultivation Different climates, geographies and soils require the adaptation of local food systems, and many traditional food patterns in island areas are related to this adaptation. (Goodenau and Nuez Yanez, 2013) In the case of Lanzarote, farmers used the lapilli from volcanic eruptions to create enarenados, or used jable deposited on the beach of Famara and scattered by the wind through the interior of the island. These technique covered croplands with these materials, which preserved the moisture from the rain and dew, and thereby improved crop yields or simply saved them from drought (Rodríguez Brito, 1986). These agricultural practices in arid areas have led to the creation of farming systems of remarkable originality that take advantage of local materials, as in other dry areas in the world, and serve a double function: firstly, to harness scarce water resources, and secondly, to contribute to soil conservation, especially on slopes. This laborious farming technique, akin to gardening and requiring abundant manpower on the small farms, made considerable agricultural productivity possible in traditional self subsistence crops. This held true even in the case of water-intensive crops, like corn or sweet potatoes, despite dwindling and irregular rainfall on the island. Moreover, the sand substantially improves water conservation in the soil because of its influence on two main processes – infiltration and evaporation – thus optimizing scarce rainwater. According to the experiments at the University of La Laguna, the moisture content of the soil covered by pyroclasts is three times higher than that of soil that is bare on the upper layers (Tejedor et al., 2013, p. 81). The moisture retention in the jable is even higher, due to its albedo effect of white sands, and ability to reflect much of the solar radiation. Both these agricultural systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the development of tourism in the 1970s. This gradually improved the living standards of the population, but at the same time led to the progressive decline of old farming practices, which produced little and had to compete with cheap imported produce. Yet, these ancient farming systems have left behind an important heritage, which has been put to use in recent times for its environmental and scenic value. These systems have become a major tourist attraction, particularly in Lanzarote, and have been central to the two islands being listed as biosphere reserves by UNESCO.

The Jabillo and the Mother Soil Under the superficial layer of sand - of approximately half a meter of thickness - a brown soil that, although still sandy, showed, as can be observed, which consists a certain percentage of clay. Under 20 cm of sands is a sandy-loam soil with a percentage of clay of 17.7%. The town of Soo and its outliers appear to have the presence of such markedly sandy sites, which in depth show layers with a higher percentage of clay. This soil supports many of the current plantations of potatoes. Its texture, much grittier than the reddish soils with clayey horizon has motivated them to receive denominations derived from the term jable as jablillo or jablito. Meanwhile, to refer to reddish soils, farmers add to the term mother, common to name the soil that will give sustenance to the plants.

(a)

We have therefore, under the sands of El Jable a parent soil capable of generating harvests of sweet potatoes today and, according to older farmers, grains in the past.

Tilling/ Mounding The sand is tilled in a direction that is perpendicular tot he direction of the N-NE trade winds in order to better control the spread of sand over the plot of land. A headland or turnrow created for farm equipment is kept at the edges of the field with rows run perpendicular to the lay of the field and are usually two, three or four times the width of the implement used for planting the field(see fig.). Sowing periods consist of drawing on the furrow sands before the first rains take place and sowing the seeds. The winds are later in charge of erasing the trace of the furrows and covering them. Farmers referred to this way of planting fallow or fallow in relation to the traditional fallow, also before the rains received in the island.

Boring Holes The planting of these plants in jable requires the opening, by shovel, of a hole till the mother soil, whose depth was defined by the thickness of the sand layer on the ground. Once opened, some manure was deposited in the hole to act as organic fertiliser, and the hole was covered and planted on the surface.

(b)


Jable: Microterritorial Configuration Wind Barriers

Directional Tillage

Prepared Field

In El Jable, the damage caused by the scourge of the wind on the plants has been mitigated in different ways. The branch of freshly planted batatas has traditionally been protected with a heap of sand and a few stones, those of tomatoes have been driven at ground level, also with stones. However, it has been the placement of bards perpendicular to the winds in the plots to the extent that is the most important technique, due to their workability, effectiveness and impact on the environment. To prevent wind progression of sand from the crops, small windbreaks of straw or rye, called bards are used. The location of these bardos or vegetal barriers facing the dominant wind also prevented the running of the sands, which were accumulated around them. Once the harvest was made, the bards were removed, and the wind was charged with spreading the jablito on the plot: “... here we are accustomed to put grass to shelter, for the jablito and everything is burned under the bard, then if when you remove the bard to land, the jablito gets into the groove. That is a credit, that is very good [...]”.

Barding

Placement of stalks

The benefit that the accumulation of these sands produces on the plots is due to the greater isolation that they give to the underlying soil, which, as we have seen, is the one who gives sustenance to the crops. This isolation results in a greater availability of water in the soil and therefore in an improvement of its agricultural capacity. Hence, there is great interest shown traditionally by the farmers of El Jable towards the fresh jable: “... thanks to the wind in the field, the wind is a mine because it goes away where it has and putting where there is little, that’s why the old people said:” it is good that there is wind, because it removes where it is loaded and throws it ‘ Where it is. After these lands were harvested, the fresh jable [...] came in.” Another technique aimed at retaining the sands was to leave the stubble of the rye over the ground, once the ears were harvested. In this way, it was the very remains of the harvest that now held the sands carried by the wind. In the jable of San Bartolomé, there also exists the phenomena of aesthetic impoverishment of the plots due to the introduction of plastic elements, boxes, bottles and wheels that acts as Bards.

Boring holes

Sand Layer

Fig.3.16. Cross-section of a Mature Jable Field containing batatas and melones

Parent soil (17% Clay)

Fig.3.17. Jable Field Preparation Process R.Chauhan, T.Sun

Fig.3.18. The Seeding and Growth of a tuber crop in the traditional Jable technique R.Chauhan, T.Sun

(c)

(d)

(e)


Agroproductive Dynamics Seasonal Calendar of jable crops

Depending on the humidity and thickness of this jable layer, a number of crops ranging from dry grains to fleshy fruits and vegetables are cultivated within this arid sand corridor. The above chart summarises the parameters required for all crops possible to cultivate in the Jable technique. It also details the three stages of crop production (seeding, harvesting, processing) and the intensity of labour needed during each month. As can be surmised from the chart, some crops need next to no additional irrigation and can be rainfed, while others rely on drip irrigation. 74 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Technical Section

Key A

Soil Acidity

S

Soil Salinity

S

Seeding

H

Harvesting

P

Processing


Fig.3.19. Traditional Agricultural Calendar T.Sun

The primary crops that can be easily cultivated in the Jable using the traditional methods are papas, batatas, onions, peas, tomatoes, lentils, chickpeas, cereals, watermelons and melons. The correlations and concurrences between the labour and organic requirements of the farm leads to a more coherent understanding of the agrarian landscape, to a suitable combination of crop and site, and lets us work the functioning of the farm into the social dynamics of the island. AA Landscape Urbanism // 75


Crop diversity in the Jable Agriculture in El Jable, apparently uniform, hides, as we have seen, many nuances; Some derived from the historical evolution of the region, others related to the very nature and dynamics of the sands. In this sense, it is necessary to remember that the plain and uniform appearance of El Jable hides old forms of the landscape and that these will also influence the agricultural activity of this area of the island. From an agronomic point of view, farmers make multiple distinctions within El Jable. One of the most frequently transmitted to us is the one that differentiates the lands according to the thickness of the layer of sand that covers the soil that sustains the crop. These have been popularly named as jondas; where the soil is under a considerable thickness of sand and pelonas, which is less thickness of Jable. Between the two categories are those lands that have a “regular jable body” or a “regular height”.

Jondas

The jondas land has traditionally been devoted mainly to the cultivation of squashes and tomatoes and to a lesser extent watermelons, melons and sweet potatoes. The Lands of Goime are suitable for sweet potatoes, watermelons, and tomatoes. As for the lower parts such as San Bartolome, that sand is suitable for the crops mentioned above as well. The sowing of cereals in these jonda lands barely took place, coinciding all the references obtained on this aspect in pointing out the rye (“that is a brave plant”) as the only grain capable of progressing in these lands.

Pelonas

The Pelonas “peeled lands”, however, welcomed a greater diversity of crops. Those where the scarce jable cover was attached to a soil of low fertility were mainly devoted to wheat and barley. The Jable lands are not cultivated every year. If the land is cultivated this year, then the next year it is left empty and sown so that the windblown sand stays on the land for the next year cultivations. When the underlying soil responded, peeled lands, in addition to wheat and barley, could accommodate plantations of sweet potatoes, chickpeas, peas, watermelons, potatoes (“the potato must have a real mother”) and occasionally millo. Both the potatoes and the millo required the previous manure of the land. The planting of the chickpeas could be carried out in fields previously dedicated to the sweet potato (“on the batatas chickpeas were thrown”), thus taking place a succession of crops within the same campaign, an unusual circumstance in the agriculture of the island:

//End of Technical Section.

Fig.3.20. Different sand depths in Jable R.Chauhan

Fig.3.21. Crop diversity: (t to b) (a) Rows of mature batata plants undergoing drip irrigation, between intermittent bards of rye stalks in Tahiche; (b) Sandias Cultivation on the sandy slopes of Teguise; (c) Wheat grain cultuvation at Soo. Photos by T.Sun, R.Chauhan

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Crop plantation patterns: grids for study Lanzarote has a long history of crop plantation along the whole island especially in Jable area. It is going to be the cultivation techniques that farmers impart knowledge to several generations without the support of government and groups. Young farmers need to learn how to plant these crops in the fields from their parents, which means they don’t have any guides from books or websites. Each of these crops has their own plantation frames and a set calendar which needs to be put in crop rotation in order to let the soil replenish. According to different crop and soil types, farmers use different plantation methods in different places of Lanzarote. Usually crops are planted in square grids with different lengths, widths and heights. Zucchini are especially placed in triangle grids. Potatoes and yams are

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placed on mounds of sand in grids. Due to the same amount of water, some crops are planted together to have more space or more production. For example, pumpkin can be planted with watermelons in the gap between each row to save space for farming. It also will change the crop plantation when farmers use different irrigating method. Crops which only need rainfalls need more space between the rows. These plantation frames are used in our crop catalogue as well, for simulating the effects on sand flow at a macro scale. Fig.3.22. Crop Plantatiion Frames R. Chauhan


mall Scale Techniques Bards

Batatas

Watermelons

Melons

Zucchini

Peas

Pumpkin

1 x 1.5m

1.2 x 1.5m 1.2 x 1.2 x 0.9m Trigrid 3 x 3m, Rainfed

1 x 1.5m

1.2 x 1.5m 1.2 x 1.2 x 0.9m Trigrid 2 x 2.5m, Irrigated

Chickpeas/Lentils

20 x 25 cm

20 x 45 cm, Peas x Chickpeas

10 x 45 cm

Corn

40 x 70

15 x 35 cm

0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9m Trigrid 2 x 2.5m, Rainfed Pumpkin x Watermelons

1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2m Trigrid Don't Combo with: N2-recharging crops

Chickpeas/Lentils

10 x 45 cm

Corn

Strawberries

40 x 70 cm

Batatas

30 x 50 cm

Watermelons

Potatoes

cull duplicate points

Combo with: Watermelons, Melons

Combo with: Lentils, chickpeas Add support

Onions

Tomatoes

Aloe Vera

60 x 60 cm, typically

40 x 60 cm

Melons

Zucchini

30 x 50 cm; 60, 40 deg mound

15 x 35 cm

1 x 1.5m

Pumpkin

15 x 15 cm

Peas

Cover with Picon

Asparagus

0.70 x 1.2m, irrigated

Chickpeas/Lentils

Corn

1 x 1m, Type A 1.2 x 1.5m

1.2 x 1.2 x 0.9m Trigrid

3 x 3m, Rainfed

20 x 25 cm

10 x 45 cm

20 x 45 cm, Peas x Chickpeas

15 x 35 cm

40

1 x 0.75m, Type B 1 x 1.5m

Cover with Picon

1.2 x 1.5m

1.2 x 1.2 x 0.9m Trigrid

2 x 2.5m, Irrigated

0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9m Trigrid

2 x 2.5m, Rainfed Pumpkin x Watermelons

1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2m Trigrid

Don't Combo with: N2-recharging crops

cull duplicate points

Combo with: Watermelons, Melons

AA Landscape Urbanism // 81 Combo with: Lentils, chickpeas Add support

Cover with Picon


Territorial Formation : velocity belts As discussed previously, the velocity depth spectrum as a result of the simulation gives rise to a sand depth-wind velocity spectrum of the site showing high, medium, and low wind speeds in the colours red, yellow, and green. This simulation helps us understand the different sand depths which occur within each velocity band due to the wind speed, and the sand depths further help us know which crops will be grown within each velocity band.

Fig.3.23. Superimposition of Velocity Depth Spectrum showing landscape variation R. Chauhan, M.Sayyedi,


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84 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Agroproductive Dynamics


Co-operative Sand Circulation Farmers have adapted their agricultural practices at El Jable to the seasonal presence of ​​steady north and northeast winds. In addition to counting on them to cover newly sown seeds, they have developed different techniques aimed at the use of the fine sands (jablito, jable volón or jablillo) that such winds circulate. Such exploitation is perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of agriculture in Lanzarote, because gaining benefits from a hostile phenomenon such as the circulation of sands on farmland is less unusual. Chamorro (1951), author of the Plan of Irrigation and Industrialization of the Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, certainly surprised by the agricultural practices developed in this sense commented: “[The sand] is captured by the wind itself from the beach, placing walls perpendicular to its direction. The distribution of sand among the farmers is carried out following the same rules as if it were water. That is to say, that there is a real community of sand irrigators”. Not all plots in El Jable require new sand inputs all the time; Some, having the soils under a layer of great thickness needed rather the opposite. The farmers work to solve this situation by working the lands so that this accumulation does not take place and the sand took its course. This means that the wind barriers are not installed in those farms and the sand travels from the plot onwards to the next plot. A schematic of this logic can be seen in the adjoining figure where the connections between plots shows the approximate trajectory of the sand as it travels from field to field. Today El Jable is mostly mounded, and with rampant farm abandonment, so farmers warn that there is less circulation of sands, as these are fixed by vegetation and weeds. They try to retain the sand in their plots, now with other procedures, as the obstacle results from spreading on the surface of the terrain a layer of rock or drift or other material. In this way, the loss of sand from the plot is also avoided. This method of Sand Irrigation is what we propose to carry forward as a solution, dipping into traditional notions of sand circulations. We focus on this scale, and will be using the fields right to the south of the town of Soo,as our prototypical intervention area, as illustrated in the adjoining figure.

Fig.3.24. Cooperative Sand Circulations R.Chauhan, T,Sun

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Choreography of Aeolian Processes Possible Interventions and Proposals The directionality of winds and particular sand responses mean that the development of any activity, whether tourism or agrarian, would need to be rooted in these aeolian behaviors. Therefore, in our Manufactured Grounds Panel, we seek to define the sequential development of productive belts , as well as the agrotourism infrastructure of Farmstays and Interpretation centre, to arise from a choreography of sand flowing though the fields. Through an experimental span of 3 years, with different crops being seeded in successive months, a full agroproductive calendar is formulated, fuelled by labour from 2 different sector, namely, tourism, and unemployment. Specialised landscapes such as Sand caches are also designed, to improve agroproductivity and enhance the aesthetics of the landscape and attract attention. The social dimensions of the landscape get defined quantitatively by the crop arrangements, and there exists a Negotiation of Sand as a resource. Here arises a combinatorial permutation of land parcels that arises from sand rotation, which is directional in nature, and is complemented and supplemented by the sand cache system. There are different socioeconomic linkages being born between farmers, tourists, landowners, the Cabildo, and ecologists, all trigerred through the development and use of the agro-productive sandscapes.

Fig. 4.1. Cartogenesis Panel Cartography by: R. Chauhan, M. Sayyedi & T.Sun


CHOREOGRAPHY OF AEOLIAN  PROCESSES Manufactured Grounds


Overview The belts that we saw within the velocity- depth spectrum have varying thicknesses of sand deposition, in which different crops can grow. Sand flows inland with the prevailing winds, and gets deposited in bands of different sand depths, which have special local names: Jondas and Pelonas. Jondas is the sand at the north of the Jable corridor, and covers the phase 1 area of the project, whereas Pelonas is where the sand gets mixed with the volcanic soil and is found in the region of Tinajo, which is developed the phase 2 of the project. In the Jondas area, the wind velocity spectrum shows the three different bands, each of them having different sand depths which are used for different crops. Each of these crops has their own plantation frames and a set calendar which needs to be put in crop rotation in order to let the soil replenish. Different tests in size, distance, and groupings lead to a variety of grids suitable for different Jable crops. These distances and heights were used as obstacles in the sand simulations in order to see the different sand accumulations in site. These accumulate sand at a small scale and serve as obstacles and create furrows in the area beyond, resulting in the spatial reconfiguration of the landscape. So here is where our task begins. We started by studying the physiology of the land and from that, devise socio-economic mechanisms that would revive and sustain the agrarian landscapes. Fresh Jable carried by the winds is a great resource to the farmers and its distribution is carried out following the same rules as if it were water. There is a real Community of Sand Irrigators that regulates the sand within the landscape. They use rows of bards within regular distances between their crops to (a) collect sand, and to (b) stop its movement towards the crop rows. This stabilizes the amount of sand within the plot of sown fields. Once harvest is done, the bards are removed and the sand accumulated within them is blown into the plot by the winds. To this concept of sand flow, we introduce a new system of sand corridors that function the same way as a memory cache. The sand cache would provide storage and access to sand as a resource, which can get routinely accessed by the farmers as a reserve of fresh Jable, or as means to discharge excess sand from fields and return it into the system. The sand caches are, therefore, designed to be long, narrow, and bound by crops on either side, such that, in accordance with the Venturi-Bernoulli effect, the velocity of the wind passing through the sand caches increases and can carry more sand through saltation. Thus, the generation of a recharging landscape such as sand caches would involve multiple criteria in order to accommodate the conflicting needs and concerns of various stakeholders such as landowners, farmers, ecologists and tourism management.

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The choreography of winds, and a system of crop and sand rotation generates a sandscape that has clear productive value. Now, in this development, there is a system of infrastructure such as storages, accommodation, pathways and farmsteads, the quantitative data for which arises from the labour requirements and production rates of the crops. This also relates to the seasonality of the crops and sand supply towards the fields that are active in that specific season. Thus, the generation of this landscape would involve multiple criteria in order to accommodate the conflicting needs and concerns of various stakeholders such as landowners, farmers, ecologists and tourism management. Our agrotourism model includes these agrotourists as the primary workforce for the agricultural production through a system that allows them to engage in an indigenous agricultural technique. Therefore, we develop socioeconomic linkages that would entail tourists and unemployed people working to generate and sustain the landscape as per the tourist peaks, the stakeholders can then respond by capitalizing the resulting territory as a haven for tourists to come and engage on the production itself. The concept of sand rotation has a seasonal way of functioning. For instance, two agricultural fields below a sand cache cannot be active at the same time. So during one season one field will be active and will receive the sand needed for the production. The next season that same field will be in active where the field below will be recieving the sand it needs for the crops. This activation works multiple times within the whole landscape which generates an agroproductive calendar specific to the sandscape. in response to this seasonality the construction and use of the infrastructure such as farmstays and storage are put into rotation as well, which we discuss in the next chapter.


Fig.4.2. Sand Circulation in Fields R. Chauhan

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Sand Flow Through Fields The crops mentioned previously, the crops are cultivated with their own unique plantation grids, especially so because of the rainfed nature of the cultivation. These frames when seen in section, appear as extrusions which serve as obstacles to the wind and collect sand in the grid for the purpose of ‘irrigation’. These when abstracted, form the basis of simulation, and appear to show a form of sheet flow of sand within the fields, which we then apply on a macro-scale to gauge the effect on the band development.

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Fig.4.3. Plantation Extrusion Catalogue R. Chauhan

Key A

Soil Acidity

S

Soil Salinity

S

Seeding

H

Harvesting

P

Processing

Fig.5.2. Traditional Agricultural Calendar T.Sun

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Sand Simulations Crops such as pumpkins, zucchini, watermelons and melons can be planted with less sand as their stems and fruits should grow above sand soil and can survive in high wind speed, so they can be planted in high velocity band (red band). As mentioned in the technical section one that different crops are planted in different patterns of grids, Each of these crops has their own plantation frames, so, to determine how these would affect sand flow at a large scale, we abstract these frames and simulate the results.

and this is where we placed the next crop which needs more sand, like melons. Similar principles are applied in the yellow and green bands as well, and the following page shows a summary of the sequence of the band development, as generated from the choreographies of wind and sand, which will be explained in the next section.

Beginning with the NE red band, we did sand simulations defining the first belt of crops, which are pumpkins. Now in the simulation, we see that the obstacle creates a shadow area where sand flow is less. We used this shadow to delineate the area for crops like zucchini which need less sand depth. The next belt formation is where sand begins to accumulate more again,

Fig.4.4. Sand Simulation Logic R.Chauhan

Fig.4.5. Simulations of the Red Band Development M.Sayyedi

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Band Development Simulation Catalogue

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Generative Band Development Sequence

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Surface Grid

Pumpkin Cultiv

Zucchini Cultiva

Melons Cultivat

Watermelons Cu

Proposed Infrast

Surface Grid Surface Grid

Farmstead/Storage Farmstead/Storage

Pumpkin Cultivation Pumpkin Cultivation

Radial Reach Analysis Radial Reach Analysis

Zucchini Cultivation Zucchini Cultivation

Red Red Band Band

Melons Cultivation Melons Cultivation

Contour Lines Contour Lines

Watermelon Cultivation Watermelons Cultivation

Proposed Roads Proposal Roads

Proposal Infrastructure Proposed Infrastructure

Existing Roads Existing Roads

Surface Gr

Potato - F

Potato - Se

Rye Cultiv

Yams - See

Yams - See

Surface Grid Surface Grid Surface Grid Potato - February Seeding Potato-February Seeding Potato - February Seeding Potato - September Seeding

Red Band Band Cultivation Red Farmstead/Storage Red Band Cultivation Farmstead/Storage Farmstead/Storage Yellow Band Yellow Band

Potato-September Seeding Potato - September Seeding Rye Cultivation Rye Cultivation Rye Cultivation Yams - Seeding Phase 1 Phase 1 Yams-Seeding

Yellow Band Contour Lines Contour Lines Contour Lines Proposal Roads Proposed Roads

Yams - Seeding Phase 1

Proposed Roads

Yams - Seeding Yams-Seeding Yams - Seeding Phase 2

Existing Roads Existing Roads Existing Roads

Surface Potato/ Interpr Rye Cu Tomato Waterm Yellow

Surface SurfaceGrid Grid Potato/Yam Potato/YamCultivation Cultivation Interpretation InterpretationCentre Centre Rye RyeCultivation Cultivation Tomato TomatoCultivation Cultivation Watermelon WatermelonCultivation Cultivation Yellow YellowBand BandInfrastructure Cultivation

Red Red Band BandCultivation Cultivation Farmstead/Storage Farmstead/Storage Green Green Band Band Contour ContourLines Lines ProposedRoads Roads Proposed Existing ExistingRoads Roads

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Technical Section 2 : Sand Simulation: Logic and Scales of Operation

The sand simulations have been used in our analysis on several scales of operation, depending on the level we are focussing on. The following section tries to interpret the sand simulation python script as a tool to simulation sand movement process in the field, which has been used in our project to accumulate the sand among the fields in time. The result of this simulation provided a guide for developing our Manufactured Grounds proposal. Sand movement produces shadow and sand accumulation which are dunes, providing a considerable amount of construction on the Jable area. So, several experiments are shown to how this python script can be applied to real project to analysis the dynamic band development in a geomorphological way. This section is to provide methodologies as the references for simulating natural sand with different objects acting as obstacles in python. According to this, we can develop an alternative sand circulation system that combines simulation with real situations and conclude some land policies that allow the shape of bands, band development, for large-scale intervention design and farmstay for architecture design to some extent.

Fig.4.7. Simulations and sand shadows M.Sayyedi

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Logic of Sand Simulation The python code sand simulation’s logic is based on Brad Werner’s methodology (1995). In Werner’s model, a dune field is represented by a grid of square cells, each containing a stack of slabs representing the height of sand at that cell. a cell is in a wind shadow if a stack on cells upwind of it would cast a shadow upon more than half of the top of the stack on that cell. when the lighting is 15 degrees (approximating the extent of the recirculation cell downwind of a slip face.) (Elder, 2009) This code offers the possibility to input three dimensional models from rhino as obstacles which affects the results of the simulation and it provides accurate adjustments of different parameters such as the steps of avalanche of sand.

15 °

After the analysis of the base, the script will generate a .pkl file which contains the data of the surface and the obstacles. Fig.4.8. Obstacles shadow model

Surface:

M. Sayyedi

The tool starts the simulation from analysing the base surface. Different kinds of topography affect the result of the behaviour of sand.

Obstacle:

The obstacle can be a poly surface, NURBS surface or polygons. It is the key element which affects the sand accumulation results.

Supercounter:

This is the amount of saltation steps the script will run within each simulation. In order for the simulation to run, the code requires a surface and buildings that are used as obstacles in the site . The code creates a loop of the surface and takes anything above the z axis to be as sediment. So every time the simulation runs from south to north, it loops back pushing each pixel forward and whenever it reaches an obstacle the pixels stop forming sand accumulation and as soon as it reaches the end of the surface, it loops back to the beginning and runs the same process again.

Constraints:

There are a few constraints on the code such as the wind speed and direction. The direction of wind comes from the south side of the surface so the surface needs to be rotated accordingly depending on the specific site. Another constraint is the height of the obstacles which need to be at a certain height in order for the script to work. This is the reason for the section showing the heights of each crop field and farmstays that were used on the simulations.

Fig.4.9. Pthon Script M. Sayyedi

Fig.4.16. Rhino Model M. Sayyedi

98 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : Technical Section


Scales of Operation The code was used in the project within three scales; the first scale was at the extent of the phase one of the project which is around 60 hectares. This scale of simulations was used to see how sand moves within the breaks between the crop bands which function as sand caches and reservoirs of sand. This can be found in chapter six of the booklet. The second scale of simulations were done based on the wind simulations which gave us the different velocity bands of red, yellow, and green. We used the sand script to see how sand moved across each velocity band and the divisions within each band was the result of the sand simulations. Each band gives different results due to the fact that each band has a different wind speed resulting in different sand depths which helps us figure out which crop is being grown in each band due to the sand thickness. The third scale was simulating the farmstay scale which is the smallest scale of simulations in our project. The aim of the simulations done in this scale was different than other scales. Along the fact that we used the simulations to study the behaviour of sand, we also used it at another scale to see small scale sand movement where we used architectural elements (walls) as obstacles in order to make sand behave as an architectural element. This way the architectural part of the project is mainly about generating dynamic sand formations in a certain way for aesthetic purposes. // End

Legend Wind Simulation of Jable Region Wind Simulations of Phase 1 site (different angles) Sand Simulations of Phase1 Red Velocity Band Sand Simulations Yellow Velocity Band Sand Simulations Green Velocity Band Sand Simulations Farmstay Scale Sand Simulations

Fig.4.11. Different grids for simulations T. Sun

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Choreographies of sand Continuing the process of band development, within the yellow band we did simulations with the belts we got from red band simulation, we use the sand accumulated area to plant crops which need more sand depth such as strawberries, yams and potatoes. After yellow band, we did simulations with potatoes and yams belts to get sand accumulation for tomatoes which need the most sand depth in Jable area. Potatoes and yams are planted in small mounds of sand after the red band, what we call yellow band or medium velocity band. They are the main crops in Jable area. According to crop schedule, potatoes have two circulation seasons in one year , seeding in September to December or February to March. Wind directions and speed will also change in different seasons. We divide yellow band into four parts to allow different crop circulations to happen in different seasons with different crops. Each band has different directions of belts because of wind directions. This planting method also allows soil to restore nutrition in half a year and be ready for the next circulation season.

Now these resultant band formations are too vast to be managed efficiently, so they need to be interrupted in order to keep them at a manageable size. Secondly, as sand flow is restricted in the belts when they are cultivated, there need to be some areas which would provide faster sand flow to the downwind areas in case all the belts upwind are being actively cultivated. For this, we create specialised landscapes such as Sand Caches In this development, there is also a system of infrastructure such as storages, accommodation, pathways and farmsteads, which are defined quantitatively by the labour requirements of each crop, thus the farmstays each have a brief designed around the specific properties of the crop within its management. Strawberries are planted along these farmstays as they need more care and maintenance. Rye belts are acting as bards along yellow band especially when it comes to the edges of each band. Similarly, Tomatoes need protects from sand mounds from wind so they are planted in low wind velocity band which we also called green band in the wind simulation. Yams and potatoes can also be planted in green band after tomato band to make more production.

“The development of the sandscape occurs in a sequential manner where a choreography of winds leads sand across the terrain, The variations are captured within the landscape by the generation of productive belts of crops and the simultaneous development of infrastructures such as farmstays which allows agrotoursists and visitors to experience the phenomenon on several tangible scales.�

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Fig.4.12. Sequential Choreography leading to generation of productive sandscape R. Chauhan


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Circulation with u wind vector Circulation with v wind vector

Dynamics of Sand Rotation The flow of sand within the landscape happens according to the prevailing winds, which lead to a network of sand circulations as seen in the graphic. When juxtaposed with a similar seasonality of crops and the crop rotation that takes place to replenish the soil, it results in a nightmare to manage on a macroscale, even more so on a microscale. We get an extra dimension of complexity, because the sand itself is a material that is dynamic and gets ‘rotated’ constantly. But the beauty of this landscape lies in this complexity, which is why it needs to be highlighted in order to exhibit it as an aesthetic element for the visitors.

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Negotiations of Sand It was discussed in the Land Negotiation Process previously, how a second negotiation would be needed amongst the remaining stakeholders to form a Sand Cooperative. This process deals with the negotiation of sand and the right to use it as a resource for production amongst farmers, farmstay managers and tourism managers. There is a need to establish the workings of certain principles that need to be implemented at the macro scale, for the sand caches to function at a micro scale. We propose a system where the land rights differ vastly from the sand rights within the active landscape.

These labour-intensive countermeasures may be streamlined by introducing engineered sand corridors within the landscape that allow natural and free movement and accumulation of sand. The resultant system of sand dunes would then function as per the same principles as a memory cache, which enables faster data storage and access by storing instances of programs and data routinely accessed by the processor. The sand cache would provide storage and access to sand as a resource, which can get routinely accessed by the farmers as a reserve of fresh jable, or as means to discharge excess sand from fields and return it into the system. It would reduce the average cost, time, and energy spent by farmers who would otherwise have to access the natural wind-blown sand across the span of their plots. Instead of waiting for the sand to be blown in or out of the field, they can directly access the sand cache that readily stores and transports aeolian sediments.

For that, we take the concept of crop rotation that we now know about, and instead of rotating crops, we devise a form of sand rotation where the fields activate according to a set of negotiations of crop calendars and sand volume, in order to let the sand and the soil get replenished with nutrients in the dormant period. So there’s a combinatorial permutation of land parcels that arises from this sand rotation, which is directional in nature, and is complemented and supplemented by the sand cache system.

This dynamic corridor thus functions as a sand cache and transports aeolian sediments to the further end of the corridor, where it further nourishes the leeward areas and generates a recharging mechanism at a larger scale, similar to the more localised phenomenon that occurs within the barded plots. In addition to improving agricultural capacity, these sand caches would also become interesting physical features worth visiting for the tourists, thus giving rise to a landscape with great prospects for agrotourism.

The Negotiation

The sand caches need to be placed (a) at regular intervals for access, and (b) according to the underlying topography, due to the physics involved. Thus, for the surrounding landowners, small segments of landuse would have to be allocated to the sand caches. Now, for the fields within the buffer of a particular cache, the sand becomes a desirable resource, so the concerned stakeholders of that particular become the unit that forms the assemblage that is discussed in the Land Negotiation Process. The Negotiations of Sand would then trigger formations of Cooperative Units and open a dialogue regarding several matters such as (a) creation of local access routes to the sand cache, (b) scheduling of an agroproductive calendar to ensure that the sand cache is filled and discharged at a sustainable rate, etc. These negotiations would automatically give rise to a system of activation and rehabilitation that have an obvious, visible effect on the landscape of the sand ‘cooperative’, as well as the belt in which the cultivation is taking place.

Storage in Dune Formations

Data

Generation of Sand Caches

At any given time, while some plots need fresh layers of sand for the cultivation to occur, some, have their mother soils buried under a jable layer of great thickness, and need rather the opposite. The farmers traditionally try to solve this by working the lands so that this accumulation does not take place or by placing bards and disseminating them to avoid ravages in established crops.

Flow through Accelerated movement

Data Transfer in Memory Cache

Sand Transfer in a Sand Cache

“There’s a combinatorial permutation of land parcels that arises from this sand rotation, which is directional in nature, and is complemented and supplemented by the sand cache system.”

Fig.4.13. Land Parcelling for Sand Rotation R. Chauhan

Fig.4.14. Sand Cache System T.Sun

Fig.4.15. El Jable with sand circulation networks

“The idea of sand caches relies on the creation of uncultivated corridors between crops, that would allow freer movement and accumulation of sand. The sand cache would function on the same principles as a memory cache, and serve a reserve of fresh jable, or as means to discharge excess sand from fields and return it into the system.”

T.Sun, M,Sayyedi

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Manufactured Grounds

Fig.4.15. Social Dimension of the Sandscape: Labour Fulfillment data R. Chauhan

Fig.4.16. Manufactured Agroproductive and Agrotouristic Sandscape R. Chauhan

Hence, we visualise how the choreography of winds, and a system of crop and sand rotation generates a sandscape that has clear productive value, and elements that would appeal to visitors and rejuvenate the landscape, thereby creating new touristic activities as per the Land Law, but in a much more contained manner, and keeping with the essence of the agrestic soils as well. The social dimension of the resultant landscape is defined by the stakeholders such as landowners, farmers, ecologists and the tourism industry that is now linked to the territory. There are now two types of agrotourist that can be catered. Those,

who merely wish to visit the landscape, and those who would actively participate in the cultivation and agroproduction. Thus, the labour demand is met by the Agrotourist scheme, where they are the primary workforce for the agricultural production through a system that allows them to engage in an indigenous agricultural technique. There is a consistent flow of tourists to Lanzarote throughout the year due to its mild climate, which removes most irregularities in labour supply. The rest of the demand is to be met by the unemployment sector via the labour insertion projects..

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Shifting Sands Synergies of Sand and Architecture In our Microterritorial Manufactured Grounds Panel, the small-scale results of the sandscape generation become more prominent. With the mobilisation of such a large area of land, it is necessary to focus on human-level landscapes, where the visitors would be able to experience the phenomenon at a tangible scale. Such areas - Farmstays, for the ones that wish to engage in the production, and Interpretation Centre for those who merely wish to interact with it, are to be subjected to more detailed interventions with aim to blend the living and the working landscapes with the dynamic properties of sand. Due to the capriciousness of wind movement at smaller scales, this configuration of sand movement is only one of the many possible with different wind directions. Rather than letting it dissuade us, we weave this unpredictability into our design as well, where we create open-floor plans and flexible areas whose function would keep changing according to the shifting sands. We can see here how this creates a dynamic landscape, whose beauty lies in the shifting sands and embodies how the structure and the inhabitants interact with the outdoor landscape.

Fig. 5.1. Manufactured Grounds Panel Cartography by: M. Sayyedi, R. Chauhan


SHIFTING SANDS : Synergies of Sand and Architecture


Overview One of the major reasons there is no tourism is that the unkempt landscape does not inspire awe among the visitors, so the question is how to get people fascinated with this sand. And that is how we can make a difference as designers The development of the crop band divisions leads to the micro scales, which will be directly interacted with by the touriststhe visible, aesthetically developed areas such as Farmstays and Interpretations. We use these areas to translate the utility of the landscape and convey its complex beauty into tangible means.

The next step is to add architectural elements such as walls using the grid obtained, to manipulate the small-scale sand movement at the site. This was done in three steps of adding and removing walls to get the desired sand formation for the tourists to enjoy. The walls help create sand landscapes and will act as a basis for the architectural development. These sandforms begin to interact with the building as planting, interior elements and ‘sandcases’ which connects them into a cohesive unit. This design process can be understood through the models depicted in the chapter.

It is important to understand the uniqueness of each velocity band because they will have a direct impact on the location of the farmstays, and the simulations being done on the specific sites. For example, the first farmstay site is located between the red and the yellow band which gives the tourists an experience of two different landscapes. In the red area, strawberries are cultivated because of the intense care it needs and the lower part which falls into the yellow band will be used for sturdier crops such as potatoes.

These processes create a dynamic landscape, whose beauty lies in the shifting sands and embodies how the structure and the inhabitants interact with the outdoor landscape. Now it remains for the various farmstays and the crop bands to be connected with circulation, which is managed through new proposed roads as discussed in the previous chapter.

Furthermore, there are more than one type of sand formation happening at this scale. The foundational sand forms are the longitudinal dunes of sand, formed by placing temporary or vegetative obstacles at the northern, windward end of the site. The results of this simulation gives us the planting grid which will be used for the strawberries (on terraces) and potatoes (cubic mounds on leeward side) which is explained in more detail within the chapter.

All Simulations in this chapter by M.Sayyedi, T.Sun

Microterritorial Interventions create a dynamic landscape, whose beauty lies in the shifting sands and embodies how the structure and the inhabitants interact with the outdoor landscape.

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Territorial Actors Starting with the macro scale of the project, focusing on the Phase 1 site located near the city of Soo, the site of the farmstays were chosen in order to give the tourists an experience of two types of landscapes which are the areas where two velocity bands merge together, such as the red and the yellow band. This part of simulation experiments was taking generic movement of sand movement in microscales of application. Now for these areas, simulations are at a much smaller scale than the one we used for the cropbands. Here, we test sand movement around groups of objects such as vegetation, with variations in size, arrangement and volumes (see fig. 1-5 on right, full catalogue in appendix A). It can tell us how the sand will be stopped by different obstacles and what patterns the simulation can get. It give us an opportunity to think about the logic behind sand movement and later get more ideas of other choices. The actual design process starts by running sand simulations in this area to see how the sand moves within the two bands since the bands have a different wind velocity causing the sand to have a different behaviour within each band. The first step was to add obstacles at the north of the site to see how sand accumulates. The results gave vertical piles of sand accumulation below each obstacle. The next section provides the catalogue of experiments fro developing this intervention.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Fig.5.2. Generic San Simulations M.Sayyedi

Fig.5.3 Territorial Actors R. Chauhan

5.

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Sand Channelling Simulation Catalogue

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Sand Channelling Simulation Catalogue

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Infrastructure Prototypes Using these simulation results, we extracted the contours of the simulation surface and made an abstraction of the sand mounds by running a medial axis analysis which led to the planting grid to be used in the site. The distances and dimensions of the grid relates to the planting grids of the crops being grown in these bands. The area which falls in the red band will be used for strawberries which is convenient because it needs a lot of maintenance which is why its near the farmstays and the yellow band will be used for potatoes. The next step was to place some walls within the planting grid based on the length and width of the farmstays and mainly the walls are meant to act as obstacles to stop and collect the sand , in order for the sand to become an architectural element within the buildings. The following sections illustrate the prototypical configurations we explored in order to do further small-scale sand accumulation tests.

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Fig.5.4. Axonometric Prototype of the Design Morphology M.Sayyedi


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Infrastructure Prototype Catalogue

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Type A: Iterations: 20 Take walls from media Axis and run simulation with walls Let sand go through walls and accumulate dunes along the walls Build farmstay buildings among walls Let sand go through open space in buildings Type B: Iterations: 20 Take walls from media Axis and run simulation with walls Let sand go through walls and accumulate dunes along the walls Build farmstay buildings among walls Let sand go through open space in buildings

Planting Grid derived from the medial axis analysis of the initial sand simulations

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Infrastructure Prototype Catalogue (contd)

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10.0

40.6

43.6

6.8

8.1

14.3

Type C: Iterations: 20 Take walls from media Axis and run simulation with walls Let sand go through walls and accumulate dunes Build farmstay buildings among walls Let sand go through open space in buildings Type D: Iterations: 20 Take walls from media Axis and run simulation with walls Let sand go through walls and accumulate dunes along the walls Build farmstay buildings among walls Let sand go through open space in buildings

Planting Grid derived from the medial axis analysis of the initial sand simulations

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Physical sand simulations

Iteration 1

Iteration 10

Iteration 20


Iteration 1

Iteration 10

Iteration 20


Synergies of Sand and Architecture The drawing on the left shows the plan view of the farmstay design where the focus is on showing the change in the dune paths being formed by the positioning of the walls as obstacles in order for the sand to accumulate in a certain way. The black and red lines are showing the sand movement within three iterations of simulations. The black walls are the initial obstacles placed in the site, then comes the grey walls and finally the interior walls to help keep the sand within the interior spaces where they function as interior sand pits for decoration. Due to the location of the farmstays near the dunes, some of the areas of the residences are embedded into them in the lines of Berm Architecture. In these cases, the external dunes function as ‘Sandcases’ to reach the roofs of these structures. The rest of the materials and construction techniques mirror the urban design guidelines within the PIOT.

A well-designed farmstay should have rooms for living, and warehouses for crop storage and machinery storage for storing tools. We take the house as centre of farmstay, while machinery storage is in the first buffer zone and crop storage is in the second zone. There are four zones around each farmstay house and each zone is 100ft wide as circle. Each limit determines the size of manageable field areas within the range of the farmstay. Farmstay buildings and yards are designed to attract more foreign tourists who are interested in living in Jable fields and taking part in farming. There are two types of farmstay buildings designed for different usages. One is a single building furnished with large shared kitchen, dining room, living room, recreation and six bedrooms and it is just like a group home. This type of farmstay is designed for those tourists who want to stay in the fields for several days

to experience the planting (no more than one month). The other kind of farmstay building is a group of six small houses furnished with kitchen, living room, dining room, toilet and bedroom. These farmstays are for tourists who want to stay for a long time and get engaged in the whole plantation. Farmstay houses are placed on the edges of crop bands for farmers to stay in contact with their crops. And also to reduce the damage of buildings from sand movement, these buildings are shaped along the contours lines. Fig.5.5. Dune Transition in Plan M.Sayyedi

Fig.5.6. Sections showing Design Morphology R.Chauhan, M.Sayyedi

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Mapping Shifting Sands Fig.5.7. Shifting Sand and their synergy with Architecture R.Chauhan, M.Sayyedi

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Cooperative Sandscapes Sand is an essential natural resource in El Paso de Jable. Thus, the generation of a recharging landscape of sand caches, specialised sandforms areas for farmstays and recreational facilities, would involve multiple criteria in order to accommodate the conflicting needs and concerns of various stakeholders such as landowners, farmers, ecologists and tourism management.

While it may not have been economically viable for a farmer to sustain the project, the integration of the tourism circuit within the agrarian activities creates an incentive for farmers to experiment with land uses and allow innovation in agrotechniques.

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Fig.5.8. Linkage Diagram of Socioeconomic Scenario T.Sun, R.Chauhan, M.Sayyedi


There are different socioeconomic linkages that are getting generated between farmers, tourists, landowners, the Cabildo, and ecologists, all through the development and use of the agroproductive sandscapes. The several micro scale operations weave together to form a cohesive macro scale configuration with productive interdisciplinary linkages. These linkages include:

• the movement of sand, from the sand caches towards the fields and into the farmstay areas. • the flow of tourists, labour and farmers, back and forth from the interpretation center, to the farmstays and the farms.

• and, the flow of crops from the fields to the storage units, the farmstays and the city of Soo for production supply.

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Extrapolated Sandscapes, Emergent Agrotourism Possible Interventions and Proposals As the details of the microterritorial formation become clearer, we begin to envisage a scenario where the sandscape concept might form a prototype for how sand triggers cooperative assemblages across the jable terrain in a phased timeline rooted in agroproductive calendars. Therefore, we develop a Cartogenesis of the Jable Corridor, that projects how the concept of agrotourism would propagate strategically over parts of the landscape where similar, if not the same, trends are noticeable. Such sites have previously been studied in the Social Formations, and the establishment of the aeolian sediment management strategies would be following the geomorphological and socio-economic policies developed in this design project. It must be acknowledged that the study area prototype has its own unique character due to sand profile, stakeholdership, connectivity and visibility from tourist spots. The mechanism of sand cache and the resulting negotiation of land and sand would happen in a different manner every time, which is why it was important to have elements of community participation and territorial decision-making. This would let stakeholders be actively associated with the process, and help maintain interest in the territory, and would allow the charter to be adapted in the rest of the sites as per their unique social and territorial circumstances.

Fig. 6.1. Cartogenesis Panel Cartography by: T.Sun, R. Chauhan & M. Sayyedi


EXTRAPOLATED SANDSCAPES, EMERGENT AGROTOURISM Projected Cartogenesis: 2050 Scenario


Emergent sandscapes

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Sand Caches

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Adaptive development : reducing food insecurity For propagation throughout the landscape, there are 4 phases for this kind of sandscape to emerge. Chronologically, they would seek to achieve production for fulfilling the demand of certain crops for larger territories. So, through the timescale of the intervention, after the initial three years, this program of band development is replicated throughout the Jable corridor in a phased manner to achieve market and consumption goals at Soo, Teguise, and Lanzarote level, granting increased self-sufficiency, domestic production and a more efficient and balanced tourism flow within the territory. This would be especially successful with the thriving gastronomic culture within the archipelago. Each group of fields of one phase takes approx. 3- 5 years. It takes thirty years in total for all the phases to cultivate particular kinds of crops according to wind velocity bands, in both Jondas and Pelonas regions. Phase 1 is the scale of Soo area, which has an area of 60 hectares of ‘arable’ sand. The crops planted here are intended to feed 602 residents living in Soo and more potential tourists who will be attracted by this amazing agricultural landscape and will visit these fields. These crops will also be sent to the local restaurants for tourists. We are supposed to have 500 to 1500 tourists attracted per day in each month and the total tourists in one year are 283500 in total. To feed these much people, we will need production of potatoes and yams for up to 41600 kilograms every year. Phase 2 is the scale of Teguise region. In this phase, crops are not only planted for feeding residents and tourists, but also will supply to restaurants in Jable area. There are 21724 residents living in Teguise region. To feed them and tourists who will visit Jable area, we need at least 1390336 kilograms of potatoes and yams. There is also a specific part of phase 2 in Jable area which is located in the Pelonas region, where crops such as peas, grains, lentils and onions can grow. Phase 3 is the scale of Lanzarote. There are at least three groups of fields in this phase which are located not far away from phase 1 near Soo. This phase will be designed for tourists especially. To feed all the tourists in Lanzarote every year and all the inhabitants living in the island, there are 2375.7 hectares of fields in total. Crops such as strawberries and aloe can also be made into other products and can be sold locally to tourists.

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Phase 4 is the scale of Canarias archipelago. The goal is to decrease food dependency, not mitigate it. Therefore, we are currently only looking to initiate export to the rest of Canarias, not fulfil all the demand. Therefore, in this phase, rather than mobilising more agroproduction, the motive is to expand into processing centres. In this phase, products of crops such as chips or crispy sweet potatoes will be exported to other islands as well which will make profits for the local market and increase job opportunities as well. All phases of fields are connected to their nearest towns for storage and selling. The blue lines in the map shows how tourists will flow from airport ,hotels and tourist spots to these fields. There are four tourist spots in blue which are chosen to be the view points for sandscape. Tourists can have an amazing aerial view of Jable fields on the top view points and then visit these fields and enjoy delicious products. The red lines show how local farmers and unemployed people who will act as farmers and construction workers will flow to these phases of fields. They can choose the nearest fields from towns where they live in. Tourists who want to stay in the fields in a while and take part in seeding, harvesting and taking care of crops can go to each farmstead in each field to enjoy their farmer life. As a result, the production of crops in each belt (red, yellow and green belts) will have a balanced activation and fallow period.


Lanzarote : a prototype for global policy adaptation “[…] vienen unos vientos, que yo ni me acuerdo de ’llos tampoco; pues, dicen que esta isla […] anunció un sabio, que a esta isla la atravesaría un río, y es verdad que la atraviesa, pero fue…, era de viento. El viento dicen que viene de allá del moro, de Sara, de los desiertos de Sara, que atraviesan, y va y sale de aquí a Lanzarote y Fuerteventura y […] Canaria, y de Canaria, pa’ mi gusto, llega al Brasil, porque cuando avisté al Brasil, la primera vez que yo avisté al Brasil no era sino un…, jable, jable también como aquí, y en Buenos Aires hay jable, morretas de jable también, igual como aquí y el jable pa’ mi gusto está en todo el mundo.”

Thus, there are various sites where projects like ours can become a precedent for management of wind and sand. These may be small-islands states such as Pantalleria and Fuerteventura with a history of indigenous subsistence agricultures, or areas with coastal sands such as Western Mexico and Paulino Neves in Brasil, forming a nexus of landscapes that fall within the same charter of aeolian sediment management. The schema of design policies developed within this project create such essential linkages between different sectors of agriculture, tourism and industries into a comprehensive network. The idea is how these design policies can be extrapolated critically in sites around the world where similar socio-political conflicts exist.

Fig.6.2. Atlas with possible way forward locations R. Chauhan

This testimony by Señor Rafael Duarte, a jable farmer from Tinajo tells a story of how he marvels at the omnipresence of sand. He witnesses it within the Moor, and the deserts of the Sahara, from where it is carried by the winds to crosses the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura like a river from one end to the other. He then talks of how he encounters it across the ocean in Brasil and Argentina as well, where the coasts again harbour these vegas of jable.

Fig.4.6. Section showing the soil profile at Teguise in the jable region Image altered by R. Chauhan

Fig.4.7. (overleaf ) Incoming windblown sand settles over the vast El Jable vegas, with the Risco de Famara in the background Photo by R. Chauhan

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Epilogue Through the use of cartographic studies, site analysis, computational simulations, physical models and theoretical research, we as architects and designers have the privilege of being able to bring something new to the table, and offer our unique skill-sets to propose design and policy solutions to real-world territorial conflicts and issues. With a focus on Insular territories, taking Lanzarote and the Canary Islands as ground zero, we embarked on such a quest to study and analyse the impact of land pressure, resource dependency and insularity on the territory and social formations. We found that Tourism, while an essential part of the economy of the Canary Islands, has over the years begun to take a toll on the limited resources and territory. The archipelago has now become embroiled in territorial polemics that seriously undermine the cultural and ecological ideals of the Insular Plans (PIOT) on which it is founded. This brings to light the dichotomy within the ideologies of the islanders, wherein they look at territory in its two forms as envisaged by Elden, on one hand is the government that sees the territory as land, a commodity, and on the other are farmers, which see it as terrain, a geological material. (Elden, 2010) Our proposal was to marry these two ideologies and reclaim the disputed land back into agricultural production though a tripartite system that uses the existing tourism, changing land policies and the geomorphology of the sandscape. We studied the physiology of the land and from that, devised socioeconomic mechanisms that revive and sustain the agrarian landscapes and allows the stakeholders to respond by capitalising the resulting agroproductive system as a haven for tourists to come and engage in the production itself. Destination islands vary greatly in their socio-economic performance and their level of international visitor arrivals, but many demonstrate a high level of dependence on tourism in terms of exports and contribution to GDP, and have similar conflicts as witnessed in the Canarias. Perhaps, proposals like this can form a prototype in sites globally, for management of territorial actors such as wind and sediment, and their essence can be critically extrapolated such that they integrate economic sectors such as agriculture and tourism within sustainable bounds.

Fig. 7.1. Cultivation in Paso del Jable Photography by: Ascensiรณn Robayna

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Appendices A. Wind Simulations Catalogue B. Generic Sand Simulations Catalogue C. Crop Grid Sand Simulations Catalogue D. Sand Cache Simulation Catalogue References List of figures

Fig.3.1 Cabildo de Lanzarote


Appendix A : Generic Sand Simulation Catalogue This part of simulation experiments was taking generic movement of sand movement. It can tell us how the sand will be stopped by different obstacles and what patterns the simulation can get. It give us an opportunity to think about the logic behind sand movement and later get more ideas of other choices.

1.

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2.


3.

4.

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Appendix B : Crop Grid Sand Simulation Catalogue These simulations explain how sand moves in sheet flow in response to different crops grids. It can tell us what the crop grids simulation look like at a microscale, and how we can use this at the macro band development scale..

Pumpkin

Watermelon

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Pumpkin- watermelon

Tomato

Zucchini


These simulations explain how sand moves in sheet flow in response to rotated crop grids. These affect the orientation of the grids at the macro band development scale, and also help determine their relative positions and how they merge into each other.

0 deg

15 deg

30 deg

45 deg

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Appendix C : Sand Cache Simulation Catalogue

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

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Iteration 4

Iteration 5


Sand cache 1

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 2

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 3

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 4

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

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Sand Cache Simulation Catalogue

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

(contd)

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Iteration 4

Iteration 5

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Sand cache 5

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 6

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 7

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

Sand cache 8

Iteration 6

Iteration 7

Iteration 8

Iteration 9

Iteration 10

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Appendix D : Generic Farmstay Simulation Catalogue These simulations explain how sand accumulates with farmstay buildings as obstacles. After 20 iterations of simulation, we take the sand dunes from this simulation, and abstract medial axes, as well as the contours, which become the basis for the planting grids and the infrastructure. With walls and grids as obstacles placed in different configurations, we run the simulation 20 more times.

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The resulting simulations show small-scale sand trajectories as sand piles which accumulate between the intitial dunes. These are interspersed with the plantings for potato or strawberry grids among buildings.


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References AArévalo, J., Tejedor, M., Jiménez, C., Reyes-Betancort, J. and Díaz, F. (2016). Plant species composition and richness in abandoned agricultural terraces vs. natural soils on Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Journal of Arid Environments, [online] 124, pp.165-171. Available at: http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0140196315300367 [Accessed 5 Feb. 2017]. Bagnold, R. (1971). The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Available at: https://www. researchgate.net/publication/249823226_Bagnold_RA_1941_The_physics_of_blown_sand_ and_desert_dunes_London_Methuen [Accessed 17 Jan. 2017]. Beck, M. (2016). Evaluation of measures for agriculture carried out for the outermost regions (POSEI) and the smaller Aegean islands. 1st ed. [ebook] Luxembourg: European Union. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/ agriculture/files/evaluation/market-and-income-reports/2016/outermost-regions-smaller-aegean-islands/exec-sum_en.pdf [Accessed 17 Jan. 2017]. Cabrera, A. (2012). An Implicit Plan Landscape, Art and Lanzarote’s Tourism Development (1960-1974). 1st ed. [ebook] Barcelona. Available at: http://www.arajournal.net/html/ ang/arajournoftouriresea32_animpliplanlandsartandlanzatouridevel19601.html [Accessed 14 Feb. 2017]. Cact Lanzarote (2017). César Manrique: Estética y Turismo. [online] Available at: http://www. cactlanzarote.com/cesar-manrique-estetica-turismo/ [Accessed 22 Feb. 2017]. Climate Atlas of the Archipelagos of the Canary Islands, Madiera and the Azores. (2012). 1st ed. [ebook] Aemet. Available at: https://www.ipma. pt/export/sites/ipma/bin/docs/publicacoes/ atlas.clima.ilhas.iberico.2011.pdf [Accessed 6 Feb. 2017]. Concepcion, D. (1999). Biodiversidad: Dossier Lanzarote. 1st ed. [ebook] Cabildo De Lanzarote. Available at: http://www.datosdelanzarote.com/ itemDetalles.asp?idFamilia=24&idItem=1975 [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Corral Quintana, S. and Legna Verna, C. (2015). Dealing with desertification in the Canary Islands: a strategic planning methodology for complex problematiques. 1st ed. [ebook] La Laguna: Research Gate. Available at: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/280841026_ Dealing_with_desertification_in_the_Canary_ Islands_a_strategic_planning_methodology_ for_complex_problematiques [Accessed 9 Jan. 2017]. Diario de Avisos (2016). They give a municipal orchard of almost 2,000 meters to eight unemployed. [online] Available at: http://www. diariodeavisos.com/2013/02/ceden-huerto-municipal-casi-2-000-metros-ocho-desempleados/ [Accessed 5 Mar. 2017]. 146 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : End Matter

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Lopex Arredondo, R. and Maria, J. (2012). Sostenibilidad y turismo en la isla de Lanzarote. 1st ed. [ebook] Universidad de Granada. Available at: http://www.publicacionescajamar.es/pdf/ publicaciones-periodicas/cuaderno-interdisciplinar-de-desarrollo-sostenible-cuides/9/9-447. pdf [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017]. Lopez, A. (2006). Sustainability Measurement and Modelling at Local Scale: Islands & MaB (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserves, Expreriences from Lanarote. - ICSMM 2006. 1st ed. [ebook] Arrecife: Cabildo de Lanzarote. Available at: http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/Uploads/ doc/20070410110924466.pdf [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017]. Manning, E. (2016). The Challenge of Sustainable Tourism in Small Island Developing States (SIDS). [online] Canadian Association for the Club of Rome (CACOR). Available at: http://

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References Vaz, T., Nijkamp, P. and Rastoin, J. (2009). Agri-environmental policy in the European Union. 1st ed. Farnham, England: Ashgate, pp.145-168 von Suchodoletz, H., Oberhansli, H., Faust, D., Fuchs, M., Blanchet, C., Goldhammer, T. and Zoller, L. (2009). The evolution of Saharan dust input on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) -- influenced by human activity in the Northwest Sahara during the early Holocene?. The Holocene, [online] 20(2), pp.169-179. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/ abs/10.1177/0959683609350385 [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017]. Survey pages 51-52: Resultados Generales de la encuesta a productores agricolas y ganaderos de Lanzarote. (2011). 1st ed. [ebook] Agro Lanzarote. Available at: http://www.datosdelanzarote. c o m / Up l o a d s / d o c / E n c u e s t a - a - p r o d u c tores-agr%C3%ADcolas-y-ganaderos-de-Lanzarote-201302221306394602._informe_resultados_encuestas_productores.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 2017]. Website Links: http://www.aguaslanzarote.com/PHIL/docs/ A1%20Mem%20Inform%20PHIL%202014. pdf http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/Uploads/ doc/20130910101222473.pdf http://visor.grafcan.es/visorweb/#

148 // Reviving Agrarian Sandscapes : End Matter


List of Figures Forewords: :

Chapter 2 :

Chapter 3 :

Fig b. archipel_iles_canaries_-_histoire_004_ (carte_fleurieu,_1772) [image] Available at: https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/ view/all/what/Nautical+Charts/where/Canary+Islands?showAll=who&sort=Pub_List_ No_InitialSort%2CPub_Date%2CPub_List_ No%2CSeries_No

Fig 2.6. Kljajic, M., A. Legna Verna, C., Skraba, A. and Peternel, J. (2002). Tourism sub-model describing inflence factors [image] Available at: http://www.systemdynamics.org/conferences/2003/proceed/PAPERS/189.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 2017].

Fig. 3.2. Aerial Orthophoto of Jable Corridor : Google Images, IDE Canarias Visor Portal [image] Available at: http://visor.grafcan.es/visorweb/#

Fig c. nexttriptourism (2010). [image] Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/3276369 41612031086/. Fig d. Machado, A. (2002). Organization of tourism and sustainability [text in Spanish]. [image] pp. 99107 in: Jornadas Técnicas sobre el Avance de las Directrices de Ordenación del Turismo de Canarias.– Universidad de La Laguna. Fig e. The New Yorker (1994). Nowadays, most of our income is from tourism. [image] Available at: https://www.art.com/products/ p15063663692-sa-i6853108/robert-webernowadays-most-of-our-income-is-from-tourism-new-yorker-cartoon.htm?UPI=PGRU8J0&PODConfigID=8736197 [Accessed 2 Jan. 2018]. Fig g. Corral et al. (2015). Representing the temporal interconnections of the Desert Scenario [image] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280841026 Fig i. Photograph by Ascensión Robayna of SAT el Jable Fig j. Photograph by Ascensión Robayna of SAT el Jable Chapter 1 : Fig 1.2. Kljajic, M., A. Legna Verna, C., Skraba, A. and Peternel, J. (2002). Causality Loop Diagram [image] Available at: http://www.systemdynamics.org/conferences/2003/proceed/ PAPERS/189.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 2017]. Fig 1.7. Graphs developed from statistical data. [image] Available at: http:www.datosdelanzrote. com/ [Accessed 23 May 2017]. Fig 1.8. Lopez, A. (2006). Variables of Lanzarote’s Insular System 1997 [image] Available at: http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/Uploads/doc/20070410110924466.pdf [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017]. Fig 1.10. Lopez, A. (2006). Variables of Lanzarote’s Insular System 1997 [image] Available at: http://www.cabildodelanzarote.com/Uploads/doc/20070410110924466.pdf [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017].

Fig 2.7. Martín Hormiga, A. (1995). Lanzarote: antes de César. 1st ed. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Idea. Fig 2.8. Kljajic, M., A. Legna Verna, C., Skraba, A. and Peternel, J. (2002). Simulation Model of the Canary Islands for Public Decision Support – Preliminary Results. 1st ed. [image] La Laguna: Government of the Canary Islands. Available at: http://www.systemdynamics.org/ conferences/2003/proceed/PAPERS/189.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 2017]. pgs 28-29: Herrera García, A., Quintana Andrés, P., Sabaté Bel, F. and Santos Guerra, A. (2015). Arquitectura y paisaje: La arquitectura tradicional en el medio rural de Canarias. 1st ed. Rincones del Atlantico. Fig 2.11 - News Articles of Soil Law Protests: Eldiario (2016). Concentración en Gran Canaria contra la Ley del Suelo: “La tierra no es una mercancía”. [online] Available at: http://www. eldiario.es/canariasahora/politica/Concentracion-Gran-Canaria-Ley-Suelo_0_577092569. html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. Europa Press (2017). Claman contra la Ley del Suelo rodeando el Parlamento canario. [online] Available at: http://diariodeavisos. elespanol.com/2017/01/cientos-de-personas-rodean-el-parlamento-canario-para-tumbar-la-ley-del-suelo/ [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017]. Lusarreta, I. (2016). “Si dijimos no al petróleo, debemos dar un no al modelo que plantea la Ley del Suelo”. La Voz. [online] Available at: http:// www.lavozdelanzarote.com/articulo/politica/ dijimos-no-petroleo-debemos-dar-no-modeloplantea-ley-suelo/20160617081939107823. html [Accessed 3 Mar. 2017]. Perez, S. (2016). La Ley del Suelo y los pequeños propietarios. Canarias Ahora. [online] Available at: http://www.eldiario.es/canariasahora/canariasopina/Ley-Suelo-pequenos-propietarios_6_583101737.html [Accessed 17 Mar. 2017].

Fig. 3.4. Hernández-Pacheco, E. (1909). Estudio geológico de Lanzarote y de las Isletas Canarias. Memorias de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural tomo VI, memoria 4ª: 107335. Fig. 3.5, 3.7. von Suchodoletz, H., Oberhansli, H., Faust, D., Fuchs, M., Blanchet, C., Goldhammer, T. and Zoller, L. (2009). The evolution of Saharan dust input on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) -- influenced by human activity in the Northwest Sahara during the early Holocene?. The Holocene, Fig. 3.9. 1955-2017 Orthophotos: : Google Images, IDE Canarias Visor Portal. [image] Available at: http://visor.grafcan.es/visorweb/# Fig. 3.14. Behavior of Sand in Saltation. [image] Originals available at: Kok, J.F. et al. (2012). The physics of windblown sand and dust. Rep. Prog. Phys. [image] Available at:https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/ papers/1201/1201.4353.pdf. Crawford, O. (2015). Deserts & Aeolian Processes [image] Available at: http://slideplayer. com/slide/7485544/ Pinterest (2006). Wind Break Diagram [image] Available at: https://i.pinimg.com/736x/ d0/31/8f/d0318f0309ab5904acbf279f4b86e269--temperature-weather-herb-gardening.jpg Epilogue : Fig 7.1. Photograph by Ascensión Robayna of SAT el Jable All other illustrations and images by authors.

Rodriguez, R. (2017). La ley del suelo divide a la sociedad canaria. Canarias Ahora. [online] Available at: http://www.eldiario.es/canariasahora/canariasopina/ley-suelo-divide-sociedad-canaria_6_577152291.html [Accessed 19 Mar. 2017].

AA Landscape Urbanism // 149


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Reclaiming agrarian sandscapes aa landscape urbanism master in architecture 2018  

Reclaiming agrarian sandscapes is a Landscape Urbanism project by Rimjhim Chauhan, Sun Tao and Majedeh Sayyedi. The project explore Lanzarot...

Reclaiming agrarian sandscapes aa landscape urbanism master in architecture 2018  

Reclaiming agrarian sandscapes is a Landscape Urbanism project by Rimjhim Chauhan, Sun Tao and Majedeh Sayyedi. The project explore Lanzarot...