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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES «Productive activation - moving from unidimentional agrarian past to multidimentional future»

Landscape Urbanism 2011-2012

Igna naci na c o López | Olga Mikhaleva 1

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES I gnacio Lopez Olga Mikhaleva

Architectural Association School of Architecture London 2011-2012


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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


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INTRODUCTION


LANDSCAPE URBANISM Contemporary social and environmental conditions pose

The programme operates by synthesizing the dynamic

significant challenge to normative design practices,

and temporal forces that shape the contemporary urban

evolving out of an increasing scarcity of resources and

landscape

consequent shifts in economic, political and material

potentials of materials developed through abstract

processes. Landscape Urbanism sets out to develop new models of practice that directly engage with these new conditions and the ways in which they continuously reconfigure the city.

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RE-ACTIVATED RE-A ACT CTIVA ATED PR PRODUCTIVE ROD ODU UC CTTIIVE VE U URBANSCAPES RB SC RB RBANSC CAP APES ES ES

systems.1

with the generative

and organizational


RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES The project aims to re-activate physically, economically and socially an obsolete Chinese agrarian landscape by exploring the urban potentials of combining traditional integrative agriculture processes with the new food production technologies, by that challenging the social and environmental issues resulting from China’s unstoppable rapid urbanization phenomena.

AA LANDSCAPE LAND LA NDSC ND SCA SC APE U AP UR URBANISM RBA ANI N SM S 20 2 2011 2011-2012 011 1-201 201 012

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“If we are to make cities really sustainable, we need to rethink not just their physical form, but the way they are fed.“ Carolyn Steel “Hungry City“, 2008 10

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


CITY & FOOD PRODUCTION Food Urbanism - potentials and historical precedents INTRODUCTION

The project has been developed with respect to the modern

the way cities are growing, since part of rural land must

food production system, where agricultural production is

be then allocated for hosting people who are looking for

driven further from urban consumers, food is produced in

an opportunity in the urban environment. Although the

a distant land and then imported globally. It largely affects

modernisation makes the agriculture more productive, this

developing countries with high population growth including

change in the land use makes it more and more difficult for

China, making them more and more dependent on food

farmers to obtain benefits from their work, especially if the

imports.

global economy permits the subsidized importation of food production surpluses from other countries. The fact that

According to UN World Urbanization Prospects, in the past

many cities in the world are not fed locally anymore tells us

40 years the global population has grown by 80% and in

how unefficient the global food production system is.

nearly 50 years urban population will reach about 70 % of the global (World Population Prospects, 2006). This dramatic

“The food we eat today is driven not by local cultures, but

shift from rural to urban areas can cause a great number

by economies of scale, and those economies apply to

of environmental and social problems that the world may

every stage of the food supply chain. In order to feature

face in the coming decades. One of them is the food

in the urban diet nowadays, produce not only has to be

crisis, while the urbanization process in China involves a big

bigger, better and breastier than ever before; it also has

decrease of agricultural land.

to be capable of withstanding the rigours of a global distribution system the aim of which is to deliver fewer

Global decrease of arable land caused by development

and fewer products to more and more of us - that’s how

of new cities is only one of possible urbanization post

economies of scale work.�

effects. Environmental degradation, rapid increase in

(Steel C., 2009)

urban poverty and urban food insecurity complement the list of emerging challenges. As an unstoppable process, this migration affects

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THE IMPACT OF FOOD PRODUCTION ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS In the modern society the concepts of urban environment

livestock of which wastes are applied to the gardens;

and countryside are proposed to be detached and more

garden wastes are fed to the livestock.�

opposed to one another. But in fact some of the features

(Mougeot Luc J.A.,1994)

we consider as urban infrastructures were nothing more than tools managing the flows of agricultural outputs. By

Thus the location and organization of cities were limited

itself, the ability to produce food on-site is what allowed

by transport logistics. And then with the appearance of

our ancestors to stop their nomadic lifestyle and settle

more advanced transportation systems and the ability to

down, so urban settlements owe their appearance to the

transport products over long distances, the agricultural

development of agriculture (Steel C., 2009). Traditionally

belts which framed the urban settlements were released

cities were attached to their hinterland, and food

and the cities and their footprint began to grow rapidly.

production had to take place close to cities due to lack of

In the process of expansion the separation from the areas

development of transportation and storage systems.

feeding the city and the urban form grew gradually. And now in the global context these two dimensions become

China has a long history of integration of food production

even more separated.

in the city as part of urban ecology. Traditionally Chinese cities have been known to mix agricultural activities within

So the general development and growth of cities create a

the urban setting. “In China, ancient household urban

gap, not only physical, but also mental, between agriculture

gardening has provided the seed for the development

and the urban environment that has become wider and

of urban farming in yards which later, with the support

wider in contemporary cities. Considering the urban history

of planning, grew into full-scale urban agriculture as an

of humanity, it is significant how recent the divorce of food

integral function of urban spatial economies. In northern

production from urban economies is. (Mougeot Luc J.A.,

China the Siheyuan is a traditional residential compound

1994)

with rooms built around a courtyard. Plants are grown in the latter which supply starch, fruits, herbs, flowers and

Then how can we rethink the way city is organized and

medicines; often with small

operated with this confrontation between urban growth and the amount of land required to support the population?

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Howard E., Garden City

Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City

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INDUSTRIAL CITY VS. PRODUCTIVE CITY 20TH CENTURY UTOPIAN PROPOSALS The strong industrialisation process that China’s agriculture

What Howard proposed and called a «Town-Country

economy is undergoing, in addition to the unprecedented

Magnet» was intended to combine the benefits of town

process of rapid urbanisation, has been upsetting the fragile

and country life, so that the citizens would have the

balance between the urban and the food production for

advantages of urban life never being detached from

the last 40 years, resulting into several environmental and

the countryside. Once the population number had been

social problems.

reached, a sattelite city would be founded nearby, and connected with a previous one by the railway, and this

In the 20th century criticism of industrial cities created the

process would be repeated afterwards (Howard E., 1965).

need for an alternative model of development. This has led to emergence of new urban models that tried to synthesize

However, the way how the system grows probably was

food production within the city layout. This question of how

one of the main reasons why his ideas were widely

to bring food production in the city has always teetered

misinterpretended as a justification for suburban sprawl.

between being more utopian but with the idea to inspire a

In fact, he argued for a «cluster of cities» which would

vision of better society, set within real conditions.

include a larger Central city with a population of 58, 000 (Howard E., 1965). Anyway, the project was halted at the

One of the most well known projects was Ebenezer Howard’s

implementation stage when Howard was suspended from

Garden City of To-morrow, presented as a socialist utopia.

it: the inability to find sufficient financing as well as the need

The concept represented a network of small, independent,

for a land reform didn’t allow to implement his ideas.

self-sufficient city-states connected by the railway, where each city state would be approximately 6000 acres (2430

Another world-known project that aimed to attach

ha) of which only 1000 acres would be built, leaving the

ubanisation to its productive land was Broadacre City

rest for food production. All the land was owned by the

by Frank Lloyd Wright. The place called «Usonia» was

community with the direct collective profits. The population

defined as a horizontal paradise, or, accoding to Wight «an

maximum was 30,000 where 2,000 of them would work in

indigenous organic model for North American settlement

food production.

across the essentially boudless

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CONTEMPORARY PROPOSALS plain of cultivated landscape», where each resident had

Anyway, since the 20th century reflections on how to

a full acre to live and cultivate the food. This patchwork

combine food production and urban environment have

of one-acre plots was to be connected by a network of

not ended. On the contrary, the current situation with

highways. The Usonians were expected to grow at least

the unsustainability of food production and food security

some of their food while their efford would be supplemented

makes it clear that this issue requires a new conceptual

by specialist farmers, who would take food «fresh every

approach.

hour» to roadside markets (Steel C., 2009). The ability to use emergent technologies has created a Like Wright’s horizontal paradise, German architect Ludwig

number of projects which integrate food production with

Hilberseimer’s model called “the New City” was a low-

the urban layout and architectural form. So, the focus from

density horizontally spread regional system composed of

spatial exploration has moved to technological innovation.

settlement units surrounded by food production areas,

Currently the use of new technologies allows to reconsider

connected by a highway system (Hilberseimer, L. K., 1949).

the issue of integration of food production in the urban

However, unlike Wright’s proposal, the Regional pattern

environment. First, it forced to reconsider not only the

was much more adaptive. And it was designed with a

technology being used for food production but also the

response to environment, topographical, hydrological and

architectural form they require: for example, aeroponics,

wind patterns, which can be understood as an attempt of

hydroponics, unlike traditional farming, don’t require big

more flexible approach.

open spaces to host food production.

And even if these projects were utopian, they have show

It was proved by a large number of projects of vertical

very clearly what is wrong in the world today and what

farms which have emerged in recent years. Like Dr.

issues need to be addressed to the urban civilization.

Despommer from Columbia University who proposed a project of 150 vertical farms able to feed New York City, as well as produce energy and water for self-sustainability (Camberlain L., 2007). Wastewater is treated and all waste is used as fertilizer for the production.

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Vertical farms

MVRDV, Pig City

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CONCLUSION Sustainable design and controlled interior environment

In view of the fact that Chinese cities will not stop expanding

allows to grow not only fruit and vegetables, but even

along the territory in future, there is a clear demand for

poultry and pigs.

new strategic approaches combining spatially urban environments and agriculture in a more productive and

Another project taking care of contemporary livestock

integral way. Furthermore, the use of new technologies

farming is MVRDV’s Pig City. It proposes to build it in the

and techniques in food production must be taken into

extremum and concentrate all pig farming into highly

consideration in order to address issues of food security,

productive towers, which in theory allows to dramatically

environmental, energy inefficiencies and aesthetic effects.

reduce the land required for production (De Vries N., 2010).

In a case like Beijing and surrounding area, where the

The intenal space of these towers will be able not only to

sprawl resulting from the rapid urbanisation process has

host livestock farming but also to grow vegetables to feed

been dismantling rural villages for the last decades, the

them, reducing transportation needs.

design strategies must be focused both in the city and the countryside: either inserting food production into the existing

It would seem eco cities could answer the same questions,

fabric or using the rural villages as centers for researching

but they focus mainly on greenwash technologies. Often,

and testing new techniques of food production on site.

if the aspect of food production was considered in the project at the stage of implementation, it was excluded on

It might be worth to look again at that fact that “The idea

grounds of high costs.

that humanity can have a mutually beneficial relationship with the biological world is the foundation of the 4000 year-

Projects implemented only on the basis of new technologies

old tradition of Chinese agriculture. Without a fundamental

can be very costly and labor intensive and don’t answer

understanding

the question of how local population can be integrated

nutrient flows that enrich the soil and bring new growth,

into this environment. Thus the need for a transition model

without a keen appreciation for the many ways in which

that can combine local food production and technology

human participation in the landscape can support life,

in an urban environment is evident.

Chinese civilization would not have survived.”

of

the

regenerative,

cradle-to-cradle

(McDonough, W. and Braungart, M., 2003)

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


In our project, we want to connect contextual approach with urbanism that takes into account the environmental characteristics of the environment and the merits of urbanization through the introduction of new technologies, which can implement an adaptive model of the territory. So, the aim of the project is to use the food production process as fuel for re-activation of the existing landscape and a medium to generate a specific urban environment. The project considers food production as an integral part of a city infrastructure, and integrates it into urban ecology.

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GLOBAL CONTEXT CHINESE REALITY & DYNAMICS In the last decades years China experienced the biggest urban transformation in the history and it’s still getting underway. According to the UN prognosis by year 2050 about 60 percent of the population will live in cities. China is the most high speed developed country in the world. Chinese economic boom and such speed urbanization produces new cities at such a rate extremely changing the landscape and surrounding ecology.

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SITE LOCATION FRAMEWORK - SHUNYI Beijing metropolitan area one of the most important zones

Bejing, next to Beijing Capital Airport and its location d

in this process.

efines it one of the key knots in eastern development belt

With the idea to develop 14 cities around Beijing included

forcing a rapid urbanization of this area.

in the two main development belts as a part of Bohai

“Beijing General City Planning (2004-2020)� defines the

Economic Rim and Beijing Capital International Airport as

Shunyi New City as an important knot for the eastern

an important logistics node. Shunyi is one of the key cities

developing belt. The city is obliged to develop new airport

in 30 km north-east from Beijing. The researched area is

logistics.

located on the North Plane of China just in 30 km from

This position of the site in relation to the capital and major road directions determines it for rapid urban development

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT AGRARIAN

ECONOMY

+

AIRPORT

URBAN

PRESSURE Shunyi economy traditionally based on the agricultural

East District characterized by segregation of all functions

production in the past now gradual degradated as a

around it.

result of not being able to adapt to current realities. And

While 75% of local population still involved in agricultural

farmland from being resource of food production become

production. So there is a clear demand for improvements

a source for rapid urbanization.

of this sector of the economy in order to start produce

On other hand the airport city creates great urban pressure

highly competitive products.

on peri urban conditions of Shunyi

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SITE ISSUES

SHUNYI DISTRICT drivers

BEIJING CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES

CHINA'S CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT

1980-....

RAPID URBANISATION PROCESS effects

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES LACK OF WATER

DRAMATIC LANDUSE CHANGES INCREASE

SOCIAL ISSUES SOCIAL ZONING

URBANLAND INDUSTRY

FARMERS URBANITES TOURISTS

DECREASE

ECONOMIC SYSTEM CHANGE 1st INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE 2nd INDUSTRY ENERGY WATER SUPPLY

FARMLAND RURAL RESIDENTIAL

MONOFUNCTIONAL VILLAGES NO FACILITIES

MANUFACTURING CONSTRUCTION 3rd INDUSTRY TOURISM SERVICES COMMUNICATION TRANSPORT

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PRODUCTS OF RAPID URBANIZATION

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26 RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES VILLAGES

VILLAGES

149.000

FARMERS

VILLAGES

14%

STUDY SITE

FARMERS

SHUNYI MASTERPLAN

106,8 km2

417.000

11%

MASTERPLAN

FARMERS

DISTRICT

SHUNYI DISTRICT

369,9 km2

1.000.000

10%

1.023,4 km2

COMPONENTS MASTERPLAN PHASE II


FUTURE VISION OF SHUNYI The future vision of Shunyi East District ignores the specific

According to proposed masterplan of Shunyi East Disrict

features of this area being developed mainly as an

more than 50 villages going to be demolished and about

accommodation of expats from Beijing. Which together

160 thousand of people going to be moved out from their

with a decrease of arable land leaving existing population

places to new proposal towns Beixiaoyingzhen and Back

without any work opportunities. This type of organization

Eengbocun.

makes current farmers from more than 400 villages being migrant workers.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PROBLEM In these conditions traditional agrarian economy of Shunyi, together with the urban pressure from the airport and the process of rapid urbanization in China and as a result contemporary Chinese masterplanning, leave no possibility for the future development for local population, forcing current farmers from more than 400 villages become migrant workers.

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TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE KNOW-HOW + AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE + PRIVATE & PUBLIC INVESTMENTS = PHYSICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RE-ACTIVATION

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PROPOSAL The aim of the project is to re-activate the region of SHUNYI and reboot current agrarian economy by creating system of different enterprises based on a combination of the airport infrastructure, new technologies in food production and existing agriculture know-how of SHUNYI. The project use the food production process as a fuel for re-activation and a medium to generate new urban environment. The aim of the project is not to return to agrarian society or solve the global problem of the food production in the world, but to explore how local food production processes supported by new technologies can shape the city, capable to improve social, economic and environmental conditions in SHUNYI.

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Part I RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES PROJECT STRATEGY


RE-ACTIVATION PROCESS * “Re-activation - restoration the ability to function or effectiveness of smth.“ What we are proposing is a system based model for urban re-activation of the area and urban growth which considers food production as integral part of this process.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


RE-ACTIVATION DOMAINS

PHYSICAL

RE-ACTIVATION PROCESS

ECONOMIC SOCIAL

The way the project address re-activation is based on three

And socially it’s a generation integrative loops of horizontal

main domains: economical re-activation – new proposed

and vertical relationships between different social groups.

economic model of the region based on the territorial

In this way local population can become an active part

productive clusters being able to attract new investments

of the community, where farmers, researchers and new

and enhance overall income of the area.

inhabitants can benefit from this integration.

Physically it works as a new productive infrastructure, transforming obsolete agrarian landscape of Shinyi into a productive one. Together with generating new urban environment.

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ECONOMIC RE-ACTIVATION

Current economy model is characterized by segregation of functions around the airport city. So the aim is to to use airport as trigger to reboot current agrarian economy by creating network of different

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INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS: - HIGH GLOBAL CONNECTIVITY (AIRPORT) - CHEAP LAND

enterprises related to food production. Where a proximity

- SUBSIDIES FROM GOVERNMENT

to the airport can be used as an advantage to attract

- BIG SALES MARKET

investments in Shunyi (East District).

- FUTURE INNOVATION AND SHARING INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


ECONOMIC LOOP Proposed model in a local scale allows to generate an

production, providing benefits for the local population. In

economic loop. Based on diversification of the agrarian

this way farmers involving in a food production process

economy by introducing in food production process new

will not just release their surpluses on the local market but

components of research and innovation, services it allows

because the system allows to process and distribute on site

to increase the whole profits of

and in this way to generate highly competitive products, to interact with a wholesale market and global export.

CURRENT SHUNYI EAST DISTRICT ECONOMY LOCAL CONSUMPTION

FARMER

FOOD PRODUCTION

LOCAL MARKET

PRIMARY ECONOMY SECTOR

$ PROPOSED ECONOMY MODEL RESEARCH

SERVICES

QUATERNARY ECONOMY

TERTIARY ECONOMY SECTOR

SECTOR LOCAL CONSUMPTION

FARMER

FOOD PRODUCTION

PROCESSING

PRIMARY ECONOMY SECTOR

SECONDARY ECONOMY SECTOR

DISTRIBUTION WHOLESALE MARKET

EXPORT AIRPORT

$$$

60 M

2H

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TERRITORIAL RE-ACTIVATION

A C T I VA TI O N POI NT * * Activation point is a proposed physical urban unit of reactivation process, which operates in vacant land between existing urban fabric

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


ACTIVATION POINT ADJACENT NODAL SYSTEM

ORGANIZATIONAL PARAMETERS

Spatially territorial re-activation model works as a nodal

LINKING VILLAGES

system starting its intervention from space between existing urban units creating local center of enterprises and introducing new functions related to the food production

CENTER CREATION

process. This concept allows local people from existing villages being involved in the process and able to achieve all proposed

INFRASTRUCTURE CONNECTION

benefits. Within the introduction of new development and infrastructure it’s possible to have gradual change in the GOODS COLLECTION

urban landscape.

PROCESSING

According to conditions different functions can be

PRODUCTION CHAIN

applied in this spatial model. The system of local centers –

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

activation points - accommodates production, processing

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION

and process of distribution of goods and flexible respond to

(INTER) NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION

WATER CORRIDOR

existing infrastructure and the characteristics of the site. In this way our system produce neighborhood scale urban tissues, which contain adequate productive surface area

PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION

to supply the local population. INFRASTRUCTURAL CORRIDOR

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION & TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION


ACTIVATION POINTS

LOCATION AND CONNECTIVITY

GOODS COLLECTION

ORGANIZATIONAL PARAMETERS

PROCESSING

PRODUCTION CHAIN

LINKING VILLAGES

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION

CENTER CREATION

(INTER) NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION

WATER CORRIDOR

PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION

INFRASTRUCTURE CONNECTION

INFRASTRUCTURAL CORRIDOR

The concept of

adjacent nodal system is based on

activation points, local centres which operate in the vacant voids between existing build up areas. These proposed nodes organise the site provide certain intensity in specific areas, while the system itself allows them to adapt to existing conditions.

So the strategy was implemented on site: first according to distances and available space for activation between villages possible Activation Points were allocated and then connected to the main infrastructure corridors. By that generating poly centric system of re-activation.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


XIWU XIW W JICUN JICUN

BEIXIAOYINGZHEN BE EIXIA AOYINGZ ZHE

DONGFUCUN D DONG DO DON GFU N BACK LIWICUN BAC BA ACK LIW L WI WICU ICU XIFUCUN IIFUC CU

LEGEND

SHUNYI SHUN YI NEW EW W CITY WANG ANG QUCUN A Q

ACTIVATION POINTS MAIN JUNCTIONS

HAOJIA T UA A UN HOUHAOJIA TUANCUN AN NGT XIJIANGTON CUN

RADIUS 5 MIN (500 M)

URBAN CORRIDOR VILLAGE CONNECTIONS GROWTH POINTS 1000

NAN NCA AIZH NANCAIZHEN

500

ACK FENGBOCUN FENG F GBO OCU UN BACK

250 100

SHUNYI SH HUNYI UNYI CHAOBAI RIVER

50

500

N

1000

2000


TERRITORIAL RE-ACTIVATION

FOOD PRODUCTION AREAS LANDUSE VON THUNEN MODEL

ACTIVATION POINT

SUPER-INTENSIVE INTENSIVE SEMI-EXTENSIVE EXTENSIVE

RULES FOR ACTIVATION POINTS AREA

R 1KM

100%

PRODUCTIVITY

R 1KM

60%

PRODUCTIVITY

R 1KM

50%

PRODUCTIVITY

>50%

PRODUCTIVITY

R 1KM

R

1,5

KM

ANGLE < 45 DEG

100%

PRODUCTIVITY

100%

PRODUCTIVITY

These nodes incorporate various programs of food production providing maximum productivity according to possible area.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES R1100.0 .00 0


R12 12 25.00 00

DONGFUCUN XIFUCUN

LEGEND SHUNYI NEW CITY WANG QUCUN

ACTIVATION POINTS R220 00 R220.00 0

RADIUS 5 MIN (500 M)

XIJIANGTON CUN

ACTIVATION POINT RELATED AREA VILLAGE CONNECTIONS INFRASTRUCTURAL CORRIDOR MAIN CONNECTIONS NANCAIZHEN

R250.00 50.00 00 0

EXISTING VILLAGES R600.0 00 0 0

BACK CK FENGBOCUN

R850.00 0.00 0

50

SHUNYI CHAOBAI RIVER

500

1000

2000


TERRITORIAL RE-ACTIVATION FARMLAND PATTERN

SHORTEST PATH

CONNECTIVITY LEVEL = 1

EXISTING STRUCTURE

CONNECTIVITY LEVEL = 2

IMPROVED MOBILITY

CONNECTIVITY LEVEL = 3

MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY

Territorial framework for activation is based on the infrastructure connections from activation points to the main infrastructure corridors. Then we generate infrastructural mesh based on the connectivity between nodes and different infrastructural lines.

The territory was restructured based on the farmland pattern providing more connectivity through existing network. This rule allows to create an entirely new infrastructure for the application of our system while providing full interoperability with the existing one.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


DONGFUCUN

LEGEND SHUNYI NEW CITY WANG QUCUN

ACTIVATION POINTS RADIUS 5 MIN (500 M)

XIJIANGTON CUN

ACTIVATION POINT RELATED AREA INFRASTRUCTURAL CORRIDOR MAIN CONNECTIONS INFRASTRUCTURAL MESH EXISTING VILLAGES BACK FENGBOCUN

50

SHUNYI CHAOBAI RIVER

500

1000

2000


ENVIRONMENTAL RE-ACTIVATION

To support the production system and to generate environmental reactivation we set up the water treatment process. Existing waterlines served as a guidelines for structuring the site for water treatment process. Using the branching rule allows water to move through natural gravity following natural decrease of terrain from north to the south. Each point collects the grey water from itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s catchment area. Wetland patches in turn were created in relation to amount of water that can be treated. After the cleansing process water provides to irrigation system were its being recycled.

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RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES R1100.0 .00 0


GW 731656 L ST 2x350 m3

GW 1 885 388 L ST 2x500, 450 m3 GW 820 789 L ST 2x400 m3

GW 711 471 L ST 2x350 m3

GW 722 027 L ST 2x400 m3

GW 752 295 L ST 400, 300 m3

GW 717 595 L ST 300, 400 m3

GW 1 042 826 L ST 500, 350 m3

BEIXIAOYINGZHEN

GW 597 844 L ST 500 m3

R100.00 0 R120.00 0

DONGFUCUN BACK LIWICUN

GW 1 308 636 L ST 400, 500 m3

XIFUCUN GW 772 027 L ST 350, 400 m3

GW 1 938 913 L ST 3x500 m3

GW 596 030 L ST 500 m3

GW 1 796 256 L ST 2x400, 500 m3

SHUNYI NEW CITY

GW 1 037 383 L ST 350, 500 m3

WANG QUCUN GW 349 725 L ST 350 m3

LEGEND

GW 320 922 L

GW 524 134 L ST 500 m3

ACTIVATION POINTS

GW 664 462 L

HOUHAOJIA TUANCUN GW 389 188 L ST 350 m3

GW 321 829 L ST 300 m3

EXISTING CANALS

GW 716 914 L ST 400, 300 m3

XIJIANGTON CUN GW 380 116 L ST 350 m3

GW 591 494 L ST 500 m3

AQUACULTURE AREAS IRRIGATION CANALS

GW 166 017 L ST 200 m3

GW 639 122 L ST 500 m3

GW 808 542 L ST 400, 300 m3

WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

200 m3 300 m3

GW 540 918 L ST 500 m3

GW 540 918 L ST 500 m3

SEPTIC TANKS

350 m3 GW 794 026 L ST 400, 350 m3

GW 1 163 937 L ST 500, 450 m3

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

400 m3 450 m3 500 m3

CATCHMENT AREAS

NANCAIZHEN

PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

GW 1 353 542 L ST 3x500 m3

ST 500 m3 GW 1 893 522 L ST 2x 500, 450 m3

50 GW 1 417 046 L ST 2x400, 450 m3

GW 697 410 L ST 400, 300 m3

SHUNYI CHAOBAI RIVER GW 669 286 L ST 500 m3

500

1000

2000


TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION

The overall territorial organization combines both linear and radial structures. The system of linear bands that have a certain intensity in the local centers- activation points, provides maximum efficiency for the production process. These stripes respond to the infrastructure enabling the linearity of work in both directions.

However, a more continuos linear directions go along the existing canals serving the process of water movement and water treatment.

50

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


BEIXIAOYINGZHEN

DONGFUCUN BACK LIWICUN XIFUCUN

SHUNYI NEW CITY WANG QUCUN

HOUHAOJIA TUANCUN

LEGEND XIJIANGTON CUN

ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS AQUACULTURE AREAS IRRIGATION CANALS WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM SEPTIC TANKS CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

NANCAIZHEN

CATCHMENT AREAS

BACK FENGBOCUN

PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

SHUNYI

50 CHAOBAI RIVER

500

1000

2000


AXONOMETRIC VIEW

AQUACULTURE AREAS WETLANDS

The overall view of the framework which is being composed from different infrastructural layers

ACTIVATION POINTS

52

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PRODUCTIVE GREEN AREAS

WATER NETWORK

BUILD UP AREAS

TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION

INFRASTRUCTURE CORRIDORS

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

53


RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT


PROGRAMMATIC DIFFERENTIATION SOIL INDEXING

In order to set up the food production process potential in productivity according to the soil conditions on the site were analyzed. Selecting from these areas with the most best conditions for production. This is going to be the basis for location of the productive nodes.

56

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES R1100. 0.0 .00 0


BEIXIAOYINGZHEN HE EN R10 00 0 0 0.0 .00 0 00 0

DONGFUCUN

SHUNYI NEW CITY WANG QUCUN

R15 R1 150.00 50 00 0

LEGEND

XIJIANGTON CUN

SOIL CONDITIONS

FERTILIZATION OF SOIL HIGH

R600.0 00 0

LOW

BACK FENGBOCUN

50

SHUNYI CHAOBAI RIVER ER

500

1000

2000


PROGRAMMATIC DIFFERENTIATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROXIMITY

In the analysis of the Activation points proximity to main infrastructural corridors primary secondary and tertiary nodes can be identified. According to this rule primary nodes can serve as a basis for main logistics centres to support the food production process of distribution of goods.

A logistics center is a facility related to logistical operations. As a basis logistics center include warehouse, freight forwarder, or a repair depot.

58

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


BEIXIAOYINGZHEN BE EIXIAO OYIN NGZ ZH HEN HE EN

DONGFUCUN DON NGF

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS

SHUNYI NEW W CITY

MAIN JUNCTIONS RADIUS 5 MIN (500 M) XIJIANGTON CUN

URBAN CORRIDOR HIERARCHY OF NODES PROXIMITY 1 PROXIMITY 2 PROXIMITY 3 BAC AC CK FENGBOCUN BACK

LOGISTIC NODES

50

SHUNYI SHUNY YI CHAOBAI RIVER

500

1000

2000


TERRITORIAL PRODUCTIVE CLUSTERS

Cluster form of production is considered to be the best for new technologies and investments. So in order to develop our system related to food production economically efficient TPC being developed. This way of organization allows to include the local agricultural knowledge and generate the close loop between researchers and farmers. Based on the concept of Territorial Productive Clusters

specific functions of the Activation

points being identified. Which are all together generate the network system between productive enterprises, research and logistic. By that improving the overall income and welfare of the region.

60

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES R1100.0 .00 0


RULES FOR TPC E5

M4

XIWU JICUN

- GEOGRAPHICAL PROXIMITY - TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS

CLUSTER 7 FOOD PRODUCTION, PUBLIC SERVICES & RESEARCH IN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND HORTICULTURAL FIELD CROPS, HIGH VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCTION

- SAME SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS - INNOVATIVE COMPONENT

P5 BEIXIAOYINGZHEN

R1

R 0.00 R10 R100 0.00 0. 00 0

DONGFUCUN

XIFUCUN

P1 CLUSTER 5

SHUNYI NEW CITY

CLUSTER 6

FOOD PRODUCTION & RESEARCH IN GRAIN BASED CROPPED SYSTEMS AND INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT

E4

FOOD PRODUCTION, LOGISTIC & RESEARCH IN BIOMEDICAL CROPS

M1 WANG QUCUN

CLUSTER 4

FOOD PRODUCTION & PUBLIC SERVICES

L1 P3 E2

XIJIANGTON CUN

P7

L2

LEGEND

CLUSTER 3 E1 P8

CLUSTER 1 FOOD PRODUCTION & RESEARCH IN WATER MANAGEMENT, AQUACULTURE, FOOD SAFETY, SUSTAINABILITY IN FARMING

PRODUCTIVE RECREATIONAL

L4 L3

NANCAIZHEN

EDUCATION (RESEARCH) LOGISTICS

R600.0 00 0

BACK FENGBOCUN

M5

P4 MULTIFUNCTIONAL

M2

SHUNYI

CLUSTER 2 LOGISTIC, PUBLIC SERVICES

50

CHAOBAI RIVER

500

1000

2000


PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION

So all these nodes will have a mixed land use with different emphasis in terms of percentage, which allows us to develop a different characteristics each of them. The table represent the functional distribution within the are related to the node and specific proximities according to different functions.

62

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES R1100.0 .00 0


M4

E3 XIWU U JJIC JICUN CU UN

P5

R1 AO OYINGZHEN N BEIXIAOYINGZHEN

00 0.00 0 0

P5 R100 00 0.00 00 0

R125.00 12 25.00 0

R 2 R12 20.00 0.00 00 0

P1

DONGFUCUN DON NGF

P6 P2

LEGEND M1

SHUNYI NEW W CITY

M3

ACTIVATION POINTS MAIN JUNCTIONS

P3

R15 R1 R15 50.00 50 .0 00 00

URBAN CORRIDOR HOUHAOJIA TUANCUN

L2

PRODUCTIVE AREA

XIJIANGTON CUN

RESIDENTIAL

P8

M5

FOOD PRODUCTION RESEARCH EDUCATIONAL

E1

P8

LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION

R1 150.0 150.00 0.00 0.0 00 0 0

BUSINESS

L3

SERVICES

P4

COMMERCIAL CULTURAL

M2

TOURISM R600.00 R600.0 00 0

AC ACK CK FENGBOCUN FEN NG GBOC N G BACK

R850.00 50.00 0

L4

PRODUCTIVE RECREATIONAL EDUCATIONAL/ RESEARCH LOGISTIC

SHUNYI SHUNY YI

MULTIFUNCTIONAL CHAOBAI RIVER

50

500

1000

2000


MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT

P1 L1

0

M1

1

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

0-5 YEARS

5-10 YEARS

10-15 YEARS

L3 M2

L2 E1

2

3

4

P2 E2

L4

5

6

P3

7

P4 M4

M3

8

9

P5

10

EXTENSIVE + SEMI-EXTENSIVE FOOD PRODUCTION

TENSIVE +

SUPER-INTENSIVE FOOD PRODUCTION FREE SPACE NEW DEVELOPMENT AGRO-INDUSTRY

VILLAGES

The implementation of the Masterplan phasing is based on the development of Territorial Productive Clusters representing in which way activation of the territory should happen. Each Phase of development takes around 5 years to be implemented. The growth of the system starts from primary logistic nodes next to the main infrastructure corridor. Then research and productive nodes. Generating the system of productive enterprises, research and logistic. The Masterplan proposal of re-activation of the territory in 20 years. Which can be considered one of the possible scenarios of the system implementation, because according to different existing conditions the way the system will perform may vary.

64

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

E3

11

P6 R1

12

P7

13

M5 P8

14

15


AA LANDSCAPE AA LLA AND DSCAP A E URBA U UR URBANISM R ANI N SM 2011 2011-2012 11-2 11 20 01 12

65


Part II RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES MATERIAL ORGANIZATION


PRODUCTIVE RE-ACTIVATION The project use the food production as a fuel for re-activation

It allows to incorporate existing infrastructure and labor as

and as a medium to generate new urban environment.

well as provide work opportunities and economic benefits

The project aim is to enhance agricultural production by

to the local population.

reconnecting traditional waste-nutriens cycle which was

The production chain adjacencies may vary according

lost with the industrial farming and create urban ecology

to the technology being used. The system creates loop

that provides for residence of Shunyi a system of local multi-

relationship between the process of production, nature

scalar distributed food production. Proposed system aims

environment and social infrastructure. The system works

to connect all adjacencies of food production process as

not only on the production itself, but operating like sort

production processing and distribution in a local scale. The

of catalyst which affects urban environment and create

model is based on food production process and specific

specific conditions for potentially new forms of urbanization

adjacencies, which

can emerge.

work within the food production

chain.

68

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


FOOD PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES The following figures represent the specific requirements

Which in turn is being released in the form of the phasing

different food production techniques in land and water

development. Where each phase improves productivity

recourses as well as their main parameter- productivity. By

while reducing amount of land and water consumption.

comparison of these data allows to choose the particular strategy of implementation.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

69


PRODUCTIVE COMPENSATION METHOD

Different productive technologies allow us to interact with

In such a way productivity can be not only preserved but also

the landscape at various levels with different performativity.

increased with the introduction of productive component

It allow to develop a strategy of productive compensation.

within the building.

It based on the methodology that if the productive land is being build, a productive component should be maintained.

70

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PRODUCTIVE LAND USE STRATEGY

System finds its resolution in spatial terms, allowing to

Thus, this system will allow the city to grow steadily with

restructure land uses. By introducing different programs on

providing sufficient necessary functions, social infrastructure

the time basis allows the gradual application revealing the

and public facilities. The idea of Ecological optimum will be

potential for new development on the released territory. It

maintain as a population density would be the one which

establish new spatial relationships between the participants

can be supported by the food production.

of the process allowing new forms of urbanism can take place. The urban growth will occur with the gradual introduction of the intensive production process.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

71


PRODUCTIVE GROUND MORPHOLOGY CANALS a= 15-25 m

b= 1,5-3 m

L= 30-45 deg. PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM (AQUACULTURE) SEMI-INTENSIVE

TYPICAL SECTION AQUACULTURE PONDS

a

a= min 15, max 60

ACCESS ROAD

AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES OPEN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

A

TYPE

TYPE

a

B

TYPE

a= min 15, max 20 TYPE A1

SINGLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE B1

a

STORAGE+LOGISTIC

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM (OPEN GREENHOUSES) EXTENCIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

B1

a= min 15, max 20

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

TYPE A2

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TYPICAL SECTION DOUBLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

WATER FEED CANAL

A1

TYPICAL SECTION OPEN GREENHOUSE

a a= min 15, max 60

URBAN FARM (GREENHOUSES) SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPE B2

a= min 15, max 20

a= min 15, max 20

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

GREENHOUSE + LIVESTOCK HOUSE

TYPE A1

TYPE A2 PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TYPICAL SECTION GREENHOUSE + LIVESTOCK HOUSE

a

TYPE B1

URBAN FARM (LIVESTOCK HOUSES) SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPE B2

a= min 15, max 20

a= min 15, max 30

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

72

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


GROUND OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES

In order to set up a system of productive intensification performances of existing agriculture techniques were explored. These techniques shows the potentials of groundworks for re-activation of the landscape. The common rule is a creation a system of ground dykes by cut and fill operation. This method unifies all ground operations can be held on site to generate productive patterns - as canals, wetlands, aquaculture ponds, ground green houses and livestock houses.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

73


PRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUE PERFORMANCE Processes of transformation of the ground to host specific food production techniques (crops, aquaculture, livestock).. Instead of generating a collage of patterns, the intention is to create a continuos and morphing geometry that provides

PHASE 01

PHASE 02

IRRIGATION

WIND PROTECTION

continuity and facilitates the interaction between “plots”, by that encouraging integral agriculture methods. The pattern ends up opening to the urban environment by modifying its boundaries and making the plot accesible and porous.

GROUNDWORKS

a1

a2

b1

b2

c1

c2

d1

d2

The adjacent shape analysis shows how the deformation processes undergo by the plot provides spatial difference and diversity.

SECTION ANALYSIS

>10%

5%

SLOPE ANALYSIS

0%

+1.50

0.00

HEIGHT ANALYSIS

74

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

-3.00


PHASE 03

PHASE 04

MONO-TECHNIQUES

MULTI-TECHNIQUES

PHASE 05 URBAN CONNECTIVITY

a3

a4

b3

b4

c3

c4

d3

d4

a5

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

75


ACTIVATION OF PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE

Exploration of productive ground techniques describe the ability in transformation of the landscape. Through phasing intensification not only productivity increase, but the whole performance of the system. These reveal the potential of productive landscape generate an urbanscape.

76

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


New urbanscape, which emerge, as a part of exploration of techniques is able to utilize productive groundworks, generating urban environment deeply grounded with the productivity of the space.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

77


RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES ACTIVATION POINT DEVELOPMENT


PRODUCTIVE METABOLIC ACTIVATION

ACTIVATION POINT DEVELOPMENT GENERATION OF NEW CENTRE VILLAGE RE-ACTIVATION - CONNECTIONS - PRODUCTIVE BUFFER LANDSCAPE RE-ACTIVATION - NEW PRODUCTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE ENVIRONMENTAL RE-ACTIVATION - WATER TREATMENT PROCESS + IRRIGATION SYSTEM PRODUCTIVE INTENSIFICATION - NEW URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Activation point is self-regulated proposed physical urban

Activation point operates as a system of different inputs and

unit of reactivation process.

outputs where the core serves as a «flow manager». Flows

The development of the node is based on different movements

and flow circulation. Activation point start

being developed from the center, re-activating villages providing new connections, environmental re-activation,

between villages and the center of the node, goods flows from productive areas etc. Central core act as a multi

that’s include water treatment process and generation

layered system as a public center, logistic underground hub

of irrigation system, followed by productive intensification,

for export of goods and as a market for local distribution.

which in turn serves as a basis for urban development.

80

and dynamics are related to different movements: people

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


ACTIVATION POINT DIAGRAM OUTPUT

EXPORT AIRPORT

INPUT

CONNECTION TO ACTIVATION POINT

INFRASTRUCTURE

OUTPUT

PRODUCTION LOCAL SCALE

PRODUCTION LOCAL SCALE

PRODUCTION INPUT

PRODUCTION

INPUT

EXPORT

INPUT

EXPORT

CONNECTION TO ACTIVATION POINT

LOGISTIC HUB

VILLAGE MARKET INPUT

PRODUCTION EXPORT INPUT

VILLAGE

ACTIVATION

CONNECTION TO ACTIVATION POINT

POINT

PUBLIC CENTRE

PRODUCTION INPUT EXPORT

PRODUCTION LOCAL SCALE

PRODUCTION LOCAL SCALE

INPUT

CONNECTION TO ACTIVATION POINT

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

81


VILLAGE RE-ACTIVATION

GENERATION OF NEW CONNECTIONS BETWEEN VILLAGES CREATING SYSTEM OF LINEAR PUBLIC SPACES

ACCESS POINTS

TO THE CENTRE OF THE NODE

a a- max 100m min 50m

LOCATION OF ACCESS POINTS

GENERATION OF NEW CONNECTIONS

URBAN VILLAGE POPULATION 1381 DWELLINGS - 96 UNITS PEOPLE/DWELLING 14

Village re-activation is based on the generation of new connections between the existing villages through the center of the node. Existing access points to the villages serves as a starting points for new connections.

82

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

ACTIVE CORRIDORS


NANCAIZHEN NCAIZHEN CAIZ ZH HEN

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS MAIN INFRASTRUCTURE CORRIDOR CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN VILLAGES

EXISTING VILLAGES PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

50

500

1000


LANDSCAPE RE-ACTIVATION

GENERATION OF NEW PRODUCTIVE PATTERN BASED ON PRODUCTION FLOWS, INFRASTRUCTURES

GENERATION OF PRODUCTIVE BUFFER AROUND VILLAGES

SIZES RELATED TO AGRICULTURAL PLOTS

a TO THE CENTRE OF THE NODE

VEHICLE CIRCULATION

b

a- max 200m min 100m b- max 300m min 200m

84

URBAN VILLAGE POPULATION 1381 DWELLINGS - 96 UNITS PEOPLE/DWELLING 14

5 min walk

PRODUCTIVE SURFACE NEEDED

14 Ha

EXTENSIVE PRODUCTIVE COMPONENET 100 M2 FEED 1 PERSON

Landscape re-activation happen with generation of new

Next to the villages productive buffer is being generated,

productive pattern. In this way new productive infrastructure

which main purpose is to create productive surface enough

is being generated. Productive plots are related to standard

to support the local population from the villages and also

agricultural sizes with 100-200 m distance.

as a protection area.

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


NANCAIZHEN

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS PRODUCTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCTIVE BUFFER

EXISTING VILLAGES PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

50

500

1000


ENVIRONMENTAL RE-ACTIVATION

VILLAGE CATCHMENT AREA

GREY WATER TREATMENT PROCESS COLLECTION OF GREY WATER FROM URBAN VILLAGES HYBRID SYSTEM OF MECHANICAL TREATMENT AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

GW 348 040 L ST 300 m3

GENERATION OF NEW IRRIGATION CANALS LINES OF IRRIGATION FOLLOW THE CENTRE AXIS OF THE PLOT FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION PRIMARY TREATMENT (SEPTIC TANK)

BUFFER AREA FOR WETLANDS 20 m

CREATING CLOSE LOOP SYSTEM

SECONDARY TREATMENT (TREATMENT PLANT)

WATER CIRCULATION

a= 15-25 m b= 1,5-3 m angle= 30-45 deg. CANALS

TERTIARY TREATMENT (CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS)

a b

In order to support the productive system water treatment process being integrated. So the grey water is being collected from the existing villages treated in three stages, and then through the system of constructed wetlands returning back to the system where it being used for irrigation.

86

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


GW 63 639 3 122 L ST 500 0 m3

GW 5 54 540 4 918 8L ST 500 m3 0m

GW 1 163 937 L ST 500, 450 m3

GW 348 040 L G ST 300 m3 NANCAIZHEN GW G 313 13 210 L 13 ST 3 300 m3

GW 353 666 L ST 300 m3

GW 516 196 L ST 500 m3

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS AQUACULTURE AREAS

GW W 697 410 L ST S 400, 300 m3

IRRIGATION LINES CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

EXISTING VILLAGES PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

50

500

1000


PRODUCTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE LOCATION OF PRODUCTIVE TYPOLOGY AND PROCESSING POINTS INDEXING OF PRODUCTIVE FLOWS TO THE CENTRE OF THE NODE

LOGISTIC HUB

GENERATION OF CROSS CONNECTIONS ACCORDING TO THE FLOW INDEXING EVERY 500-600 m

MARKET URBAN FARM 5 MIN

TO THE CENTRE OF THE NODE URBAN FARM 5 MIN

PROCESSING UNITS URBAN FARM 5 MIN

URBAN FARM 5 MIN

PRODUCTIVE AREAS URBAN FARM 5 MIN

The drawing represents a system of productive open spaces. The system of production processing and distribution of goods being identified by productive flows towards the centre of node.

88

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

PRODUCTIVE CIRCULATION TO THE CENTRE OF THE NODE


NANCAIZHEN CAIZ CAIZHEN ZH HEN

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS IRRIGATION LINES PRODUCTIVE AREAS PROCESSING UNITS PRODUCTIVE FLOWS

EXISTING VILLAGES PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

50

500

1000


PRODUCTIVE INTENSIFICATION

INTEGRAL FOOD PRODUCTION SYSTEM

INHABITANTS GREY WATER

CROP PRODUCTION CROP RESIDUES BY-PRODUCTS

RUMINANTS TREATMENT

LIVESTOCK NON-RUMINANTS NUTRIENTS

WATER PLANTS

AQUACULTURE Detailed analysis of soil conditions allows to select four main areas which can be used for different types of intensive production patterns. Areas next to the canal potentially can be used for aquaculture, general productive for crops production with a system of greenhouses. The adjacent areas can be used for aquaculture and crops and for livestock. This integral way of food production allows not only to increase the productivity but also work as an efficient way of management nutrients, water reuse and waste.

90

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

SALES


NANCAIZHEN

[A] [C]

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS EXISTING CANALS IRRIGATION LINES MAIN ROADS SECONDARY ROADS

[ A+B ]

PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

[A] [B] [ A+B ] [C] EXISTING VILLAGES

[B]

50

500

1000


PRODUCTIVE PLOT

TYPOLOGICAL CONDITIONS - URBAN RULES

PLOT SUBDIVISION GENERATION OF SYSTEM OF PLOTS SIZES RELATED TO MIN PRODUCTIVE PLOT 1 Ha - 4 Ha

a

b

S = 1Ha - 4Ha a- max- 200m min- 100m b- max- 300m min - 100m

CONDITION

A

A

FUNCTIONAL HUB

URBAN CORE ZONE

CONDITION

B

B

URBAN HIGH DENSITY

URBAN CENTER ZONE

CONDITION

C

C

URBAN MEDIUM DENSITY

GENERAL URBAN ZONE

CONDITION

D

D

URBAN LOW DENSITY

SUBURBAN ZONE

CONDITION

E

E

HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE

PRODUCTIVE ZONE

The generation of system of plots is based on the standard sizes of minimum productive area of 1-4 ha. Density is one of the key metric used for generation of new urban environment. Density distribution is based on a gradual radial increase from the periphery to the center on the node which allows to have gradual transition between landscape, existing villages and new urban development.

92

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


NANCAIZHEN

LEGEND ACTIVATION POINTS MAIN ROADS SECONDARY ROADS PLOT SUBDIVISION URBAN CONDITIONS

A B C D E

EXISTING VILLAGES

50

500

PRODUCTIVE SOIL CONDITIONS

1000


ACTIVATION POINT MASTERPLAN GUIDELINES The Activation point masterplan guidelines are based on the development of productive patterns through which way activation of the territory should happen. The growth of the system starts from the centre of the node, following by the development of the productive pattern. Later on generating the system of productive enterprises, research and logistic.

94

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


AA LANDSCAPE E UR URBA URBANISM BANISM ISM 20 2 2011-2012 11 1-2 -201 012 2

95 5


Part III RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES PRODUCTIVE URBAN ENVIRONMNENT


PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES The emergent typology being treated as a part of

In this way productive techniques being applied, allow then

exploration of productive techniques. Thus being able

to generate and urban transformation from the productive

to utilize productive groundworks as a part of landscape

landscape to productive urbanscapes.

intensification and generate new urban environment deeply grounded into the productivity of the space.

Productive urbanscape - a clash between productivity and urbanity, public space structure, identity, people experience and social ecology. 98

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PARAMETERS FOR TYPOLOGY

- GROUND RULES

- URBAN RULES

- PRODUCTIVE RULES

d - RELATED TO THE HIGHT

DENSITY, AMOUNT OF PUBLIC SPACE h - according to different urban conditions l - min 4 m

CHANGES TO PREVENT SHADING

c <15 - courtyard typology

ORIENTATION, PRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES

TOPOGRAPHY, PREPARATION FOR DEVELOPMENT

SOUTH ORIENATTION

DYKE PARAMETERS

1/3 OF VOLUME GALZING

b - min 20 deg., max 45 deg b - min 1,5 m, max 2,5 m c - min 15 m, max 17m

l

N

WIND ROSE

N

WINTER

W

10

o

20

o

30

o

40

o

50

o

E

E

W

SUN ELEVATION 12 00 JUNE 21 89

o

60 o 70 o 80

SUN ELEVATION 12 00 DEC 21

SUMMER

45

h

S S

STEREOGRAPHIC SUNPATH DIAGRAM

d

d b

b

b a c

a

a c

TRANSFORMATIONS

c

Productive typology being generated by a system of

In this way one of the most critical requirements for

parameters which combine both urban requirements of

productivity is to maximise the solar exposure for production.

density and high limitations and productive requirements.

That parameter is controlled by the angle of surface with the east south orientation. Then building height rules control

As they act as a part of productive groundwork utilization

angle in order to minimise the shadow areas.

their sizes are deeply related to initial productive pattern, where the urban rules going to control the maximum size of the building.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

99


PRODUCTIVE TYPOLOGY TYPO A PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

1-2 STOREY

RESIDENCE GARDEN

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

DENSITY: USES: PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

60 p/Ha RESIDENTIAL EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL

TYPO B

2-4 STOREY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

MID BLOCK ALLEY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN

TYPO C

4-6 STOREY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

110 p/Ha

USES:

RESIDENTIAL + PARKING+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

DENSITY:

250 p/Ha

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

COURTYARD

STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

TYPO D

DENSITY:

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

DENSITY:

275 p/Ha

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

6-10 STOREY STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE FACADE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

INTENSIVE, SUPER-INTENSIVE

SUPER-INSTENSIVE PRODUCTION LOGISTIC

According to the set of parameters different typos were

single family house with a productive residence garden, to

generated. Hybrid typology being treated together with the

2-4 storey mid block house with the productive courtyard.

productive component support the urban development.

Then 4-6 and 6-10 blocks starts to have public services

So related to main urban densities typology differentiates

and productive component in the podium. The high rise

from the low density

typology also included a logistic underground system for goods distribution.

100

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


TYPOLOGY CATALOGUE TYPO B1

2-4 STOREY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

MID BLOCK ALLEY

TYPO A1

1-2 STOREY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

RESIDENCE GARDEN

DENSITY: USES: PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

60 p/Ha RESIDENTIAL EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

DENSITY:

110 p/Ha

USES:

RESIDENTIAL + PARKING+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

DENSITY:

110 p/Ha

RESIDENTIAL

TYPO A2

TYPO B2

1-2 STOREY

2-4 STOREY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE ROOF

MID BLOCK ALLEY

DENSITY: USES: PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

60 p/Ha RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

USES:

RESIDENTIAL + PARKING + SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

DENSITY:

110 p/Ha

RESIDENTIAL

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TYPO A3

TYPO B3

1-2 STOREY

2-4 STOREY

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

GREENHOUSE

60 p/Ha RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPO D1

6-10 STOREY SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

275 p/Ha

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

TYPO C1

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE FACADE SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

GREENHOUSE

STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

GREENHOUSE

MID BLOCK ALLEY

DENSITY: USES: PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

4-6 STOREY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

DENSITY:

250 p/Ha

DENSITY:

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

INTENSIVE, SUPER-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPO D2

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

6-10 STOREY

PRODUCTIVE FACADE

STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

TYPO C2

4-6 STOREY STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

COURTYARD

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

DENSITY:

250 p/Ha

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPO D3

6-10 STOREY STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

DENSITY:

275 p/Ha

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

INTENSIVE, SUPER-INTENSIVE

275 p/Ha

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE FACADE

TYPO C3

4-6 STOREY STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

DENSITY:

250 p/Ha

DENSITY:

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

USES:

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

INTENSIVE, SUPER-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE PROGRAM:

EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

SUPER-INSTENSIVE PRODUCTION LOGISTIC

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PRODUCTIVE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

The primary challenge to keep agriculture and good

The following comparison represent amount of productive

production areas in urban environment on a commercial

surface with different techniques and open public space

scale is definitely the space. As food production requires

needed according to different densities. So taking into

a certain scale and minimum yields which is specific

account relationships between techniques possibility and

according to the crop and the content.

amount of people can be feed from the minimum productive surface certain limits of density being introduced.

OPEN SPACE/ BUILD SPACE

FOOD REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO TECHNIQUES

1-2 STOREY SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

60 P/Ha

2-4 STOREY MID BLOCK ALLEY

110 P/Ha

4-6 STOREY STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

250 P/Ha

6-10 STOREY STACKED FLATS, PODIUM GARAGE

275 P/Ha

OPEN SPACE

102

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

EXTENSIVE

SEMI-INTENSIVE

INTENSIVE SUPER - INTENSIVE


PRODUCTIVE PRIVATE - PUBLIC SPACE STRATEGY

AGRICULTURE FIELD (PRODUCTION)

PRODUCTIVE PRODUCTIVE

PRIVATE - PRODUCTIVE- VISIBLE

TERRACE ORCHARDS OPENFIELD EXTENSIVE CROPS

PUBLIC - PRODUCTIVE - NOT VISIBLE

OPEN COMMUNITY GARDENS

VISIBLE

COMMUNITY GARDENS

VISIBLE

PUBLIC

PUBLIC

PUBLIC - PRODUCTIVE - VISIBLE

GARDEN (ESTHETICS)

LANDSCAPE PRODUCTIVE CORRIDORS

PARK-STREETS (RELATIONS)

PUBLIC - NON PRODUCTIVE - VISIBLE

PLAYFIELDS

In order to allow the food production exist in urban environment the strategy is to propose the clash between traditional concepts of public spaces and productive space.

Productive space scan be classified as public, semi-public, communal (semi-private), or private based on the scale and typology. These public and communal productive areas embedded i urban fabric will host a social mixed spaces for residents.

PRODUCTIVE PRIVATE - PUBLIC SPACE DEFINITION PRIVATE SPACE:

SEMI-PRIVATE SPACE:

PRIVATE OUTDOOR AREAS THAT ARE NOT DIRECTLY IN CONTACT WITH THE PUBLIC OR SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE

PRIVATE OUTDOOR AREAS THAT ARE DIRECTLY IN CONTACT WITH THE PUBLIC OR SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE

- TERRACES

- TERRACES

- BALCONIES

- BALCONIES LOWER FLOORS

- FRONT GARDENS

- FRONT & BACK GARDENS

WITHOUT VISUAL CONTACT WITH THE PUBLIC SPACE

LOWER FLOORS

WITH VISUAL CONTACT WITH THE PUBLIC SPACE

- SPACES AROUND PRIVATE ENTRANCES

SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE:

PUBLIC SPACE:

AREAS & FUNCTIONS ACCESSIBLE TO THE SAME GROUP OF USERS, RESIDENTS

AREAS AND FUNCTIONS ACCESSIBLE TO EVERYONE

- RESIDENTIAL COURTYARDS

- STREETS, BOULEVARDS

- AREAS FOR PLAYING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES

- SQUARES, PLAZAS - AREAS FOR PLAYING AND SPORT ACTIVITIES

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PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE CATALOGUE For the strategy implementation typology of different

The main criteria is the minimum continuous size to

productive spaces being generated in order to meet

be profitable. These parameters going to control the

a certain requirements in productivity. These types of

performance of the system within the urban environment.

productive spaces hieracharased according to certain parameters like size, accessibility, capacity and ownership.

RESIDENCE GARDEN

COMMUNITY GARDEN

NEIGHBOURHOOD FARM

URBAN FARM

INSTITUTION

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE

USER / PRODUCER INDEPENDENT USER LOCAL PRODUCERS INSTITUTION

LOCATION / SCALE

300 m2

SIZE OF PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PARAMETERS AMOUNT OF USERS / STUFF UTILITIES/ INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDED AMOUNT OF COMMUNITY SERVICES PUBLIC USAGE

DISTRIBUTION / MARKET SELF CONSUMPTION MARKET DISTRIBUTION

NEW INHABITANT FARMER

FOOD PRODUCTION AREA UTILITIES/INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNITY SERVICES PUBLIC USAGE %

104

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

2000 m2 (0,2 Ha)

4000 m2 (0,4 Ha) - 14140 m2 (1,4 Ha)

MORE THAN 14140 m2 (1,4 Ha) MORE THAN 2000 m2 (0,2 Ha)

MORE THAN 2000 m2 (0,2 Ha)


PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT

ORGANISATION LAYOUT & CIRCULATION RESIDENCE GARDEN

COMMUNITY GARDEN

PRODUCTIVE INSTITUTION

VEHICULAR MOVEMENT

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE

NEIGHBOURHOOD FARM

URBAN FARM

ACCESS POINT ACCESS POINT ACCESS POINT ACCESS POINT

ACCESS POINT ACCESS POINT

FACILITIES

FACILITIES

ACCESS POINT

MARKET

FACILITIES FACILITIES

ACCESS POINT

ACCESS POINT

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SOCIAL PROCESS AND LAND MANAGEMENT

LAND MANAGEMNET STRATEGY 50%

GENERAL PRODUCTIVE (BIG SCALE PRODUCTION) GOVERNMENT/ COMPANIES

STAKEHOLDERS

SOCIAL GROUPS

GOVERNMENT/ COMPANIES

FARMERS

DEVELOPER

RESEARCHERS

COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY

INDIVIDUAL

INDIVIDUAL

30%

FARMERS

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPER

15%

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE AREAS COMMUNITY

5%

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE AREAS (GARDEN) INDIVIDUAL

These open productive spaces will have different land

The inhabitants will have both benefits of these hybrid

management as well as accessibility. And the local

conditions living in the urban environment and productive

population going to be included in the new productive

landscapes which are woven into urban fabric.

process at the all levels. This will generate a beneficial integrative relationships between different users and social groups. The system open productive spaces will become a place with a social mixed program, where people meet and goods

SOCIO-ECONOMIC LOOP AGRICULTURAL KNOW-HOW

JOBS/ SERVICES

are produced and exchanged. These hybrid spaces going to benefit from this accessibly being deeply integrated in

RESEARCHERS + FARMERS + NEW INHABITANTS

the urban environment. They going to serve as medium to provide a clash between different social groups including researchers, new residents and local farmers.

106

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

INNOVATION

FOOD SUPPLY


GENERATION OF OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

PRODUCTIVE PATTERN

GROUND OPERATION

WIND BREAK + PUBLIC SPACE

According to activation of the landscape strategy that is proposed a transitional model

of intensification starts

happen in phases . So productive landscape can be transformed as a part of system of open spaces.

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PRODUCTIVE URBAN ENVIRONMENT 1-2 STOREY

LOW DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE

+

RESIDENTIAL

TYPO A3

TYPO A2

TYPO A3

RESIDENTIAL

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

NEIGHBOURHOOD FARM EXTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE EXTENSIVE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

+

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

2-4 STOREY

LOW DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

MID BLOCK ALLEY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TERRACE EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE

+

RESIDENTIAL

TYPO B3 RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

+

108

TYPO B1 PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE EXTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


4-6 STOREY STACKED FLATS, TOWNHOUSES

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE INTENSIVE

MEDIUM DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

+ TYPO 小2

TYPO 小3 RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE EXTENSIVE URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

+

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

6-10 STOREY

STORAGE+LOGISTIC

GREENHOUSE INTENSIVE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

HIGH DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

PRODUCTIVE FACADE SUPER-INTENSIVE

STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

GREENHOUSE INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL+ PARKING + COMMERCIAL+ SERVICES

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE FACADE SUPER-INTENSIVE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

COMMERCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES

+ TYPO D1

TYPO D2 SUPER-INSTENSIVE PRODUCTION LOGISTIC

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

SUPER-INSTENSIVE PRODUCTION LOGISTIC

OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

+

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE EXTENSIVE

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

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GROUND MORHOLOGY PROLIFERATION

Instead of relying on the generic flexibility of a standard agriculture field, the proposal aims to explore the urban potentials of certain traditional Chinese food production techniques, namely aquaculture and greenhouses. Cut and fill processes are a common strategy for both techniques, either for the generation of ponds and canals, or for the upand-down landscape necessary to protect the crops from the wind and keep them under controlled temperatures in Winter. How can we take advantage of this language and transform them into a living environment?

110

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

111


GROUND MORHOLOGY PROLIFERATION

112

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


Once the agriculture pattern has been updated to facilitate accesibility to interact with the urban environment, new processes of ground transformation start to take place. Used as flexible guidelines, the agriculture lines provide a playground to generate spatial diversity and richness. Applying different building typologies on the pattern will generate a wide range of unexpected spaces that can be the basis for a real productive and social built environment.

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113


TYPO

A

LOW DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

1-2 STOREY

AXONOMETRY

SINGLE FAMILY DETACHED

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

114

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


LOW DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY LAYERED VIEW

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE ACCESS ROAD

RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

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TYPO

B

MEDIUM DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

2-4 STOREY

AXONOMETRY

MID BLOCK ALLEY

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

116

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


MEDIUM DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY LAYERED VIEW

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TERRACE EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE ACCESS ROAD

STORAGE+LOGISTIC

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE EXTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

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TYPO

HIGH DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

6-10 STOREY

AXONOMETRY

STACKED FLATS, PODIUM

PLAZA OPEN SPACE SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PUBLI PU PUBL PUB P UBLI UB UBL U BLI BL LIC PRO PR P PRODUCTIVE RO R ODU DUCT D DUC UCT U C IVE V SP S SPACE PA ACE AC CE C

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

118

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


HIGH DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY LAYERED VIEW

SERVICES RESEARCH, BUSINESS

SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

ROOFROP GREENHOSES SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

STORAGE+LOGISTIC BRIDGES PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

PLAZA OPEN PUBLIC SPACE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

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PRODUCTIVE TYPOLOGY PROLIFERATION

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COURTYARD EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

RESIDENCE GARDEN EXTENSIVE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDEN EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

LOW DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

120

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


SEMI-PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

ROOFROP GREENHOSES SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

PRODUCTIVE STREETSCAPE EXTENSIVE

PLAZA OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

SEMI-PRIVATE PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TERRACE EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

MEDIUM DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

HIGH DENSITY URBAN TYPOLOGY

BRIDGES PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

STORAGE+LOGISTIC

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

AQUACULTURE FARM EXTENSIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

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1 122 22 2 2

RE-ACTIVATED R RE E-A ACT CTIV IVATTED D PR PRODUCTIVE P ROD ODUC CTI TIVE VE U URBANSCAPES RBAN RB BA AN NSSC C CAPE ES ES


PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPE - HIGH DENSITY

AA A A LANDSCAPE LANDS LA NDS ND SC C CAP AP A PE UR URBANISM RBA BANI NISM SM 20 2 2011-2012 011 11-2 -20 01 1 12 2

1 123 23 23


124 2

RE-ACTIVATED R RE-A E-A ACT C IV IVAT ATED ED PRODUCTIVE V U VE URBANSCAPES RBAN RB BAN NSC SCAP AP A PES E


PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPE - LOW DENSITY

AA LANDSCAPE LA AND DSC S AP APE PE UR URBANISM RBA ANI N SM 20 2011-2012 011 1 -201 012 12

1 125 2 25


EPILOGUE


NETWORKS AND URBANISM “Food is all about networks.” (Steele, 2011) 0. INTRODUCTION

1. THE ANTHROPOCENE

The way Carolyn Steele concludes her book “Hungry City” is a perfect synthesis of two critical topics covered in this

It’s undeniable how mobility and transportation have

project: food production and connectivity systems. As stated

irreversibly influence our world since the Industrial Revolution

in the beginning, the project aims to re-activate physically,

took place two centuries ago. The major transportation

economically and socially an obsolete Chinese agrarian

breakthroughs made the traditional medieval cities to

landscape by exploring the urban potentials of traditional

explode and expand without control swallowing the

and contemporary agriculture processes, patterns and

countryside and somehow upsetting the balance between

techniques. Considering the complexitiy, efficiency and

the urban and nature. Understanding the reasons and

performance of food production networks nowadays, it’s

consequences of such processes will allow us to rethink the

not difficult to understand how well designed such a system

way we occupy the territory. “By locating the structures and

should be if the aim is to merge two (formerly compatible)

hotspots of human activity, by acknowledging the extent of

concepts such as cities and agriculture.

our footprints and our facilities, perhaps we will glimpse the limits of our world and the importance of redefining what it

First, the prologue “Food Urbanism” serves as a clear

means to live in and on it.” (Globaia, 2012)

introduction of how the modern food production system

128

affects socialy and economicaly, and therefore spatialy our

According to geology studies, we are about to enter into

cities. Second, this epilogue aims to clarify the importance

a new period of time, the Anthropocene, which for the first

of network design as a critical, and yet not fully explored,

time in history is not related to natural geological processes,

basis for contemporary urbanism. Such an approach is

but to the influence of humankind. “A period marked by a

doubly relevant today. On the one hand, the unstoppable

regime change in the activity of industrial societies which

urbanization process the world has been facing since the

began at the turn of the nineteenth century and which

past century clearly demands rethinking how the urban

has caused global disruptions in the Earth System on a

environment is designed and planned. On the other

scale unprecedented in human history: climate change,

hand, contemporary computer aided design tools have

biodiversity loss, pollution of the sea, land and air, resources

revolutionized every field related to the design of cities:

depredation, land cover denudation, radical transformation

sociology, mobility, economy, construction... In such a short

of the ecumene, among others. These changes command

time computers have proved to be a fundamental tool,

a major realignment of our consciousness and worldviews,

the potential of which is just starting to be appreciate.

and call for different ways to inhabit the Earth.”

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


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130

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


2. URBANISM NOWADAYS Specially after these last decades of rapid urbanization

Since the cost–benefits of civil engineering services

process in Europe first and then in China, the reputation

represent less than 1 percent of the life cycle cost of a

of urbanism is under question. It’s hard to understand how

project, it is rather difficult to contest the economic value

such a complex field, could be applied in such a careless

of these services where they are viewed as an investment.

manner. Countryside has been considered a “tabula

However central this logic may be, its foundation also

rasa” worth occupying with the most generic, flexible

relies on the isolation of variables and the exclusion of less

and supposedly efficient network system, in order to be

quantifiable and more

filled in the shortest possible time. Pierre Belanger gives

complex

some clues regarding this topic that are worth taking into

externalization of dynamic forces.” (Belanger, 2011)

information

through

reductionism

and

consideration. On the other hand, new approaches to urbanism have “Through the hegemony of efficiency and scientific

appeared

recently

offering

an

integrative

solution

positivism, civil engineering has become central to the

to design, such as Landscape Urbanism. If not truly

design of urban environments as the premier design service

specialized, it’s important how these approaches consider

discipline. How it attained this

networks and infrastructures as part of the solution. Charles

unwavering status is remarkable, given how very little

Waldheim explaines how part of the incoherencies of the

attention the profession or its parent associations have

contemporary city are based on the conflicts between the

given to social conditions, political ideologies, or theoretical

static and the dynamic, and how the (modern and post-

discourses. Its relative absence of manifestos alone is both

modern) architecture has demonstrated its incapacity to

surprising and suspect. Compared with other fields of

solve these situations

design such as architecture and urban design or the social

(Waldheim, 2006).

sciences and regional planning that are arguably over-

The generation of a non-imposing urbanism/architecture

theorized, civil engineering has made leaps and bounds by

more related to mobility, circulation, fluidity, nature and

literally operating without theory. In the absence of critical

landscape, able to negotiate with the context in a delicate

discourse, quantitative logic and numerical precision

manner, but without missing potential, might be a strategy

have become the foundations for achieving accuracy,

worth exploring.

efficiency, and safety.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

131


3. URBANISM AS A SCIENCE It’s remarkable how architects refused long time ago (nearly

Regarding such a complex field, with so many agents and so

40 years) to a scientific approach to design and have

much information as urbanism, computers have proved to

been embracing the idea of art and poetics, forgetting

be a reliable tool, able to organize and efficiently manage

about the real problematics of our profession. Instead of

data, thus generating new possibilities in the design of

dealing with the idea of the city as whole and its issues,

cities. For instance, the relatively new science branch of the

architects have mainly cared about finding plots to expose

fractals, developed by Benoit Mandelbroit is one the best

their critical vision of life. In the meantime, as Belanger

examples of how a scientific approach can successfully

explained, engineers have replaced us as the main agents

inform urbanism. One of the main features of fractal

in the development of our cities. However, the interest of

geometries is their self-similarity structure, which means

architects on science is changing again, but difficult to say

that the way they get organized or grow tends to repeat

if the result will worth it.

endlessly irrespectively of the scale we consider to analyze them. So, any property, condition or feature founded in

132

“Today’s designers seem to love using new ideas coming

a certain domain of a fractal could be extrapolated and

from science. They embrace them as analogies, metaphors,

used to simulate a foresee the performance of the whole

and in a few cases, tools to generate startling new

structure. Michael Batty and Paul Longley made clear the

designs. But metaphors about the complexity of the city

relationship between the urban environment and fractal

and its adaptive structures are not the same thing as the

geometries in their book “Fractal Cities: A geometry of

actual complexity of the city. [...] The topics of urbanism,

Form” (1994).

architecture,

design,

“This book presents an initial attempt to apply fractal

sustainability, and complexity in science are all tightly

geometry to cities. In fact, we go beyond this and argue

interrelated. Humans “design” with much the same aim

that cities are fractal in form, and that much of our pre-

toward which nature “designs” — both aim to increase the

existing urban theory is a theory of the fractal city. [...] In

complexity of a system so that it works “better”.” (Mehaffiy

terms of theory, we show here that the architect’s physical

and Salingaros, 2012)

determinism concerning the city can be captured and

One of the main reasons for this renovated interest relies on

elaborated in terms of fractals while the geographer’s

the nowadays technology democratization and how the

concern for the economic theory of location is entirely

computers have definitely changed the way we design.

consistent with the use of fractal ideas.

product

design,

environmental

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


We live in an era when physical determinism is still

5. CONCLUSION

disreputable as architects and city planners seek to minimize the impact of designs which manifestly interfere

Probably, urbanism is not ALL ABOUT networks, but starting to

with the social and economic fabric of cities in countless

shift from the traditional zoning approach to a topological

unanticipated and undesirable ways. But physical form

one, would be the basis for better infrastructures, better

does determine the quality of life in cities. We see fractal

cities and a better upcoming Anthropocene. Going back

geometry as providing a new hope for understanding the

to science again, “better” in this sense means, in words of

power of determinism, as well as new methods for enabling

Mehaffiy and Salingaros “more stable, more diverse, and

the synthesis of urban density with central place theory, new

more capable of maintaining an organized state — like the

ways of visualizing the impact of human decision-making

health of an organism. We learn from the structures and

on cities, and perhaps most of all, new goals for achieving

processes by which nature designs, so that we can also

the good society through manipulating and planning city

create and sustain these more organized states.” (Mehaffiy

form.” (Batty & Longley, 1994)

and Salingaros, 2012)

It’s also remarkable how computers encourage a certain

Networks irrigate the territory, they not also connect but

reductionism in our approach to urbanism. Digital tools

also organize and that’s why their influence in the future

tend to ask for simple information, that they can help us to

of our cities is so critical. Moreover, due to the increasing

sort and relate afterwards. So, where traditional planners

complexity of urbanism nowadays, it’s also fundamental for

and designers see streets and buildings, computers (and

a good design to take into account all the data available,

the people who follow this logic) recognize points and lines,

and networks are itself a source of endless information

nodes and connection (Allen, 1999). Geometry is going to

about the way we live. Considering this, urbanism is about

be replaced by topology.

economic, social, environmental and spatial balance, and

“The typical network topology, so clearly different from the

network thinking, which critically supports all these features

zoning approach of orthodox urbanism [...] establishes a

has been excluded from the equation for too long. It’s our

relationship, a maximum connection; if possible a direct

responsability as designers and architects, to merge it with

and multiple connection between points in a space,

design again.

independent of their location and across barriers and borders. In this way, the network makes urban space accessible and stimulates decentralizations.” (Dupuy, 2008)

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

133


Basing the urban development not only in traditional techniques, but laso in a rooted identity, will help local community to cope with the drammatic transformation from agricultural past to the new urban one.

134

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

135


APPENDICES TECHNICAL REPORT


PRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES

PRODUCTION INTENSITY AND POPULATION

PRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUE

PEOPLE/ FED 100 M2

EXTENSIVE

1

SEMI-INTENSIVE

3

INTENSIVE

5

SUPER - INTENSIVE

10

AREA M2

The project aims to set up integrative transition model based

The following figures represents the data comparison of

on intensification of production techniques.

number of people can be feed from productive surface from extensive â&#x20AC;&#x201C; conventional farming, semi-intensive -

In order to embody food production in urban environment

ground greenhouses production, intensive hydroponic and

there is a need to study requirements to feed the

aquaponic systems, and superintesive aeroponic ones.

population.

138

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


PARAMETERS COMPARISON

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

139


INTEGRATIVE FOOD PRODUCTION

INHABITANTS GREY WATER

CROP PRODUCTION CROP RESIDUES BY-PRODUCTS

RUMINANTS TREATMENT

LIVESTOCK NON-RUMINANTS

SALES

NUTRIENTS

WATER PLANTS

AQUACULTURE Project aimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s to set up an integrative food production

Biological, technical and chemical methods are balanced

system that being able to produce high quality food and

carefully taking into account the protection of the

other products by using natural resources and regulating

environment, profitability and social requirements.

mechanisms to replace polluting inputs and to secure

The project emphasise the importance of effective

sustainable farming.

intensification of production systems and the transformation

Emphasis is placed on a holistic systems approach involving

of production especially at the level of small-scale

the entire farm as the basic unit, on the central role of agro-

producers, and to recognize the economic and social

ecosystems, on balanced nutrient cycles.

dimensions related to use of appropriate technology

The preservation and improvement of soil fertility and of a

(labour, land tenure, access to resources, inputs and

diversified environment are essential components.

services and knowledge systems of the range of farmers and actors).

140

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


NUTRIENT CYCLE An integrative production process able to generate a balance nutrient cycle. Which mean a movement and exchange of organic matter back into the production. The process is regulated by food, water and energy system. These systems are interconnected are interconnected where matter and energy flows and is exchanged as organisms feed, digest, and recycled.

ORGANIC PRODUCTS TO LOCAL MARKET

FOOD SYSTEM

ORGANIC MEAT AND POULTRY TO LOCAL MARKET

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION

CLEAN H20

FROM VILLAGES AND URBAN AREAS

NUTRIENTS WASTE H2O

NUTRIENTS WASTE H2O

BIOMASS

WATER SYSTEM

WASTEWATER SUPPLY

NUTRIENTS WASTE H2O

NUTRIENTS NUTRIENTS

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION

WASTE H2O

WATER TREATMENT

NUTRIENTS & GRIT CONSENTRATION

CLEAN H20 FISH FOOD

GREEN POWER, HEAT, COOL

ORGANIC AQUATIC PRODCUTS LOCAL MARKET

NUTRIENTS FOR FERTILIZATION CLEAN H2O REUSE

SOLAR ENERGY

BIOFUELS

WASTE FROM \MUNICIPAL AND SOURCES

ENERGY SYSTEM

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

141


GROUND OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES

142

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


TECHNIQUES CATALOGUE CANALS a= 15-25 m

b= 1,5-3 m

L= 30-45 deg. PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM (AQUACULTURE) SEMI-INTENSIVE

TYPICAL SECTION AQUACULTURE PONDS

a

a= min 15, max 60

ACCESS ROAD

AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES OPEN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

A

TYPE

TYPE

a

B

TYPE

a= min 15, max 20 TYPE A1

SINGLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE B1

a

STORAGE+LOGISTIC

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

URBAN FARM (OPEN GREENHOUSES) EXTENCIVE, SEMI-INTENSIVE

B1

a= min 15, max 20

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

TYPE A2

PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TYPICAL SECTION DOUBLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

WATER FEED CANAL

A1

TYPICAL SECTION OPEN GREENHOUSE

a a= min 15, max 60

URBAN FARM (GREENHOUSES) SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPE B2

a= min 15, max 20

a= min 15, max 20

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

GREENHOUSE + LIVESTOCK HOUSE

TYPE A1

TYPE A2 PUBLIC PRODUCTIVE SPACE

TYPICAL SECTION GREENHOUSE + LIVESTOCK HOUSE

a

TYPE B1

a= min 15, max 20

URBAN FARM (LIVESTOCK HOUSES) SEMI-INTENSIVE, INTENSIVE

TYPE B2

a= min 15, max 30

a

ACCESS ROAD STORAGE+LOGISTIC

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

143


GROUND GREENHOUSES

Ground greenhouse is a typical Chinese agriculture

In order to generate a controlled climate open greenhouse

technique is based on the of ground dykes or walls from the

can be enclosed by a temporary structure or glass cover.

north side of the plot, which works for the wind protection.

So itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s able to provide whole year production. Comparing to a yield in the open greenhouse, which are about 30 to 35 kg, m2 a greenhouse can produce 70-80 kg m2.

144

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES


GREENHOUSE PARAMETERS

RULES FOR GREENHOUSE STEREOGRAPHIC SUNPATH DIAGRAM

WIND ROSE

Latitude 40 N

GREENHOUSE ORIENATATION N

N

N 10

o

20

o

30

o

40

o

50

o

15

WINTER

SUN ELEVATION 12 00 JUNE 21 89

30

20

o

o

o

20

o

60 o 70 o 80

W

E

W

E

E

W 20

o

SUMMER

SUN ELEVATION 12 00 DEC 21

o

30

o

45

S

20

S

AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES OPEN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

GREENHOUSES

W

o

S

15

o

E

A

OPEN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

B

40

SINGLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

A1

SINGLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

A2

SINGLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

A3

DOUBLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

B1

DOUBLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

B2

DOUBLE SPAN GREENHOUSE

TYPE

B3

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

145


AQUACULTURE PRODUCTIVE PROCESS FINGERLING

REARING POND SYSTEM MARKETABLE FISH

FRY/ FINGERLING

NURSERY+ REARING POND SYSTEM

AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION CYCLE 34 WEEKS from nursery to harvest

FINGERLINGS

QUARANTINE 2 WEEKS

NURSERY 3-4 WEEKS

AQUACULTURE PROCESS Aquaculture is a process of production aquatic organisms

GROW-OUT STAGE 1 7 WEEKS GROW-OUT STAGE 2 10 WEEKS

DISTRIBUTION

in a water body. There are various technologies of this process, which, in turn, have a different spatial organization and labor intensity. Based on the existing infrastructure

GROW-OUT STAGE 3 10 WEEKS

HARVESTING POND 1 WEEK

PROCESSING

COLLECTION

on the territory there is a possibility to increase system performance by application of higher technological production.

Wastewater aquaculture is a productive wastewater treatment, reused instead of disposed of.

TYPES OF AQUACULTURE TECHNIQUES TYPE

AERATION

FEEDING

YIELDS KG/1000 SQ.M

COSTS

EXTENSIVE

NO

NO

<500

$

SEMI-EXTENSIVE

YES

NO

500-2500

$$

INTENSIVE

YES

YES

2500-10 000

$$$$

SUPER-INTENSIVE

YES

YES

10 000+

$$$$$+

of growth of aquatic organisms, ending a harvesting area for the finished product.

146

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

YIELD

COMPONENT PRODUCTIVITY

YIELD

CURRENT SITUATION

YIELD

PROPOSAL

URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC FACILITIES

INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE SYPER-INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

SEMI-INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

are Nursery Pond and Transition Pond, followed by stages

EXTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

three stages of growth. The first elements of the system

INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE SYPER-INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

wastewater. It works as a linear organization, divided into

EXTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

or several water bodies, is charged with nutrient rich

SEMI-INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE

A constructed aquatic ecosystem, consisting of one


SALVAGE ZONE FROM CANAL 20-25 M DAM SIZE 10-15 M

NP TYPE

THE RATIO OF THE AREA PPS IS 1:2:4 OR 1:3

40.00

NURSERY POND

SIZES

20.00

:9

35.00

RULES FOR PARAMETRISING

30. 00

AQUACULTURE POND SYSTEM

TRANSITION POND

PPS1 - X

TP TYPE

50 .0 0

PPS2 - 2X-4X

REARING POND

PPS3 - 3X-9X

RP TYPE

TP- 1/2X NP- 1/3X

PRODUCTION PROCESS STAGES

7 5. 00

8 7. 50

10 0. 00

AQUACULTURE RESERVOIR 500-50 000 SQ.M

PARAMETERS

CP - 1/2X

P PS TYPE

PRODUCTION PROCESS STAGE 1

NP

P PS1 TYPE

PRODUCTION PROCESS STAGE 2

NP PPS1 x

P PS2 TYPE

T YPE

SIZE (SQ. M)

DEPTH (M)

AMOUNT

% TOTAL

NP TYPE

500 -10 000

1-1,5

1-3

1-4%

TP TYPE

1000 -20 000

1,5-2

1-2

6-9%

RP TYPE

10 000- 50 000

2,5-3

3-6

80%

1,5-2

1-5

1%

1,5-2

1-2

10%

CP

TP PPS2 2x

SUPPORT STRUCTURES + WAREHOUSE

PPS3 4x

TP

CP NP

PRODUCTION PROCESS STAGE3 P PS3 TYPE

FEEDING POND (OPTIONAL) PPS1 x

FP TYPE

FP TYPE

PPS3 9x

PPS2 3x

CATCHING (HARVESTING) POND

CP TYPE

CP TYPE

1000

500 -10 000

CANALS SECTIONS DIFFERENT CANAL PROFILES CAN BE USED FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES ANGLE OF CANAL SECTION AFFECTS WATER VELOSITY IN THE BODY OF CANAL

CANAL 60 DEG

CANAL 75 DEG

CANAL 30 DEG

CANAL 45 DEG

SCREEN CONSTRUCTION DYKE RAISED GATE

MAIN DIKE

MAIN CANAL

1:

1

1

1:

1

WATER OUTFLOW

1:

Canal dike

DRAIN PIPE

1:

1

1:

1

1

1

Berm 1:

1

1:

Berm ground level

1:

Berm

Canal dike

Canal bed

Pond bottom

SCREEN CONSTRUCTION

SECONDARY/ TRETIARY DIKE SECONDARY/ TRETIARY CANAL

DRAIN PIPE

250

1: 1

GROOVES FOR BOARDS

1

1

CONCRETE WALLS DRAIN PIPE

Canal dike Pond bottom

1: 1

1:

1: 1

Canal dike ground level

1:

1:

1

Pond bottom

1000

CONCRETE BASE

500

Canal bed

250

1000

250

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

147


WATER TREATMENT WATER USAGE DIAGRAM

BATH 9%

SHOWER 21%

TOILET 28%

AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER

BLACK WATER 33%

FAUCETS 12%

TOILET LEAKS 5%

DISHWASHER 3% CLOTHES WASHER 22%

TYPES OF WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES TYPE

ENERGY

LAND REQUIREMENTS

COSTS

NATURAL

$

SEMI-NATURAL

$$

MECHANICAL

$$$+

WATER TREATMENT DIAGRAM

RECYCLED WATER CLASS B

STORM WATER WATER TREATMENT GREY WATER

PRIMARY TREATMENT

GREY WATER 67%

SECONDARY TREATMENT

TRETIARY TREATMENT

OPEN FIELD AGRICULTURAL AND LANDSCAPE REUSE

DISCHARGE

SCREENING RECYCLED WATER CLASS A GRIT REMOVAL

FILTRATION

INDIRECT PORTABLE DRINKING USE INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC REUSE

AGRICULTURAL REUSE

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS Domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of

AQUACULTURAL REUSE

removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage. Sewage treatment generally involves three

148

stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.

provide a high degree of biological secondary tertiary

Constructed wetlands is a method of biological treatment

treatment.

includes surface

can be released into the aquaculture system and the

flow or subsurface flow, horizontal or vertical flow

recycled again

RE-ACTIVATED PRODUCTIVE URBANSCAPES

After water is treated within the system it


WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS PRIMARY TREATMENT

PIPES INCLINE:

SEPTIC TANK ST TYPE

FOR COLLECTION GREY WATER - 2% MIN. SLOPE FROM SEPTIC TANK TO WETLAND SYTEM - 0,5% MIN. SLOPE FOR WATER RECHARGE - 0,5% MIN. SLOPE

SEDIMENTATION POND SP TYPE

BUFFER ZONE FROM ROAD 20 M SIDES FOR WETLANDS RATIO 2:1 PARALLEL TREATMENT SYSTEM

SUBSUFRASE WETLAND SFW TYPE

SIZES

RULES FOR PARAMETRISING

WATER TREATMENT RESERVOIR 500-1000 SQ. METERS

GREY WATER TANK 100-500 SQ.M

PARAMETERS

ST - X/2,5

SECONDARY TREATMENT

FREE SURFACE WETLAND FSW TYPE

HF - 1,5 X FP - 0,75 X

HORIZONTAL FLOW WETLAND HF TYPE ST - X/2,5

VERTICAL FLOW WETLAND VF TYPE

TRETIARY TREATMENT

HF - 1,5 X

TOTAL TREATMENT

TYPE

SIZE (SQ. M)

DEPTH (M)

AMOUNT

ST TYPE

100-500

2

1

10%

SP TYPE

1000-10 000

2-2,5

1-2

5-10%

SSW TYPE

500-1000

0,5-1

5-6

40-50%

FSW TYPE

500-1000

1,5-2

4-5

30%

HF TYPE

500-1000

0,5-1

5-6

50%

VF TYPE

500-1000

1,5-2

4-5

30%

FP TYPE

1000-10 000

2-2,5

1-2

5%

VF - X

FP - 0,75 X

FILTRATION POND FP -TYPE

VF - X

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS The constructed ecosystem reflects processes of the

路 system design: natural systems (ponds), artificial

natural environment. It allows wastewater to be recycled

systems with incorporation of technological elements.

and added to the system back. It can be optimized

By introducing the modular system its possible to set up

along several dimensions, allowing different degrees of

the treatment process according to the amount of water

intensity.

needs to be treated and available area within a high

路 community-design: poly culture, modular organization

performativity as a public space.

路 human interference with a system

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011-2012

149


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photos/get/2827/taking_a_break_in_central_park

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p.73 Image retrieved from http://www.stone-circles.org.uk/

p. 139 Image retrieved from http://grantjkidney.com/how-

stone/danesdyke.htm

hydroponics-aeroponics-can-easily-end-world-hunger/

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p. 142 Image retrieved from http://bd.nl/nieuws/tilburgstad/tilburg-haalt-landbouw-de-stad-in-1.158155

p. 142 Image retrieved from http://productive-garden. com/topics/uncategorized/page/2/

p. 142 Image retrieved from http://urbdp598.wordpress. com/author/cbajuk/

p. 142 Image retrieved from http://www.foodshedplanet. com/2009_04_01_archive.html

p. 142 Image retrieved from http://www.stone-circles.org. uk/stone/danesdyke.htm

p. 144 Image retrieved from http://www.ruralworld.com. au/properties/ballina06/?PHPSESSID=15c255384ffe1f9ce7e 5ad

p. 144 Image retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/ T4470E/t4470e0c.htm

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AA Landscape Urbanism 2011-12 re-activated productive urbanscapes