Issuu on Google+

Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Silvia Ribot Lida Driva Dimitra Bra


Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Silvia Ribot Lida Driva Dimitra Bra


Booklet Layout and Cover Design by Silvia Ribot

External Source Images Drawings By The Team (Authorship in Figures List) Name. Surname.

Text Authorship


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014/2015

Architectural Association School of Architecture London, UK.

Directors JosĂŠ Alfredo RamĂ­rez Eduardo Rico

Studio Master Clara Oloriz

Seminars Staff Douglas Spencer Tom Smith

Technical Tutors Gustavo Romanillos Vincenzo Reale Giancarlo Torpiano


ABSTRACT

The main objective of this project is to perceive the river as a “living� mechanism that through avulsion processes can create productive grounds for territorial, social and environmental formations. This can be generated along an ever changing system of water management, exploiting the potentials of flooding. The development pressure that is imposed to riparian landscapes due to their potential in agricultural productivity is directly reflected in the water management policies that rule each territory. Could a new water management policy be a territorial praxis that, by challenging the natural river dynamics, would create a resilient yet productive ground for social and morphological prosperity of the landscape? The project sets off from a European scale reflecting the centralised vision of water management and then focuses in the case of Spain in the riparian territories of Navarre, which are recently suffering from development pressure due to the industrialization and mechanization of agriculture. The ongoing canal project in the area generates a conflict between traditional farmers and large industrial corporations, as it contributes to monoculture and bigger ownership plot concentrations eliminating the small scale agricultural and traditional irrigation methods. The specific site conditions such as the seasonal movement of temporary workers according to the labour demand, the difficulty of dealing with flooding and the fact that local quality products are unique in this region, while Spain seeks for regions that could offer high-quality products create an interesting framework. The productive and hydrological dynamics in terms of social formations of this particular territory are intersected with the specific geomorphological qualities that allow the formation of political entities, Micro Flooding Units, driven from the generated avulsions. The aforementioned intersection and the eagerness of fabricating a productive dynamic landscape is followed by a set of interventions guidelines, with which we structure our proposal. The essence of time is a crucial parameter throughout the whole project as our interventions are placed by taking into account seasonal flooding events and the reaction of nature. Our proposal is an alternative towards a new approach on the landform. This approach is closely associated with the small scale labour approach, in an effort to invert the organisation of land from large agricultural crops to smaller ones with the formation of islands within these Micro Flooding Units. The importance of this arrangement is the actual shifting of power from a global to a local level. The global management refers to the construction of large scale engineering projects that depend on the government involvement compared to an application of techniques that are controlled from smaller initiatives of farmers or villages constituting these Micro Flooding Units. This set of techniques manipulates the river by utilising it and at the same time respecting its fluvial abilities. These compensation processes would result into controlling flooding and simultaneously create a more dynamic and effective ground for social,economic and infrastructural management. The actualisation of this management shapes the manufactured territories by revealing the spatial qualities that we create in order to explore scenarios of materialisation, that lead to different implications.This emerging approach could be further applied to other areas of Europe as well, with similar guidelines by disclosing the importance of the local and unique character of the current area.


Fig. 1 Colorado River The landscapes that emerge where the human and physical dynamics intersect. Colorado River and its anastomosing channels surrounded by the irrigated agriculture in the nearby lands.


Contents


River Dynamics

Human Dynamics


INTRODUCTION

Part 1: River Dynamics: Policies of ControlEUROPEAN SCALE Approaches Towards River Dynamics

SPAIN River and Human Dynamics: Flood pulse Anastomosing rivers Water management: History Resource approach Ecosystem approach

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .2 River Narew Poland


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

River and Human Dynamics

EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

The project is framed under the concern of how water management poliNAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

cies affected the way in which territories are configured and organised leading to different social, productive and spatial structures. A main issue of interest is the negotiation that occurs between human and river dynamics according to the responses to water management through history. Water, that once was an affluent natural resource, has started to become a more valuable commodity since the last century. This has led to different ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS water management policies throughout the years, from the extreme modernization of water to various projects that were connected with a more sustainable framework. This development led to a new era in water management that was characterised as the resource approach. Policies have been focused in maximizing the control of the river through dams, canals, reservoirs and resulting in a mechanization and industrialization of agriculture. The resource approach, the overexploitance of the fluvial abilities INTERVENTION STRATEGIES for economic benefits has already failed causing powerful rivers in Europe to weaken. This proven recognition of environmental disaster demonstrated the last years a shifting tendency from a resource approach to an ecosystem approach. This shifting was visible in a series of restoration projects across the rivers of Europe. By exploring the alternatives of hard IMPLICATIONS engineering and often destructive interventions on fluvial landscapes, we started studying and examining other emerging approaches, focusing on the enhancement of the natural potentials of rivers. Having as an origin the flood pulse concept* under which the dynamic interactions in the transitions between water and land are studied and the DEPLOYMENT notion that flooding is a symptom of healthy rivers, we explored the behaviour of rivers after several flooding events. The main implication was the widening of the fertile area, and thus the ecological advantages of a riparian landscape, respecting the ability of an ecosystem to self-maintain SPATIAL QUALITIES and be beneficial yet more resilient. *The flood pulse concept will be explained further within this chapter.

12 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


“Thanks to periodic influxes of nutrients to the fields from incoming river water, [...] the same field systems have remained in use for many centuries, without the gradual loss in productivity that results from decreasing soil fertility and rising soil salinity.� Brian Fagan

Fig. 2 Anastomosing Rivers

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 13


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

River and Human Dynamics

EUROPEAN SCALE

Fig. 3 Flood Pulse Concept

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The dynamic interactions in the transitions between water and land are studied under the flood pulse concept, which describes the movement, distribution and quality of water in river ecosystems. Contrary to what has been traditionally thought, flooding events are not catastrophic, but the most biologically productive feature of a river ecosystem, so flooding are a symptom of healthy rivers. Through this phenomena flooding events spread sediments along the riparian lands, making them suitable for agriculture production. Hence, rivers flooding, do not only bring water to irrigate fields, but also nutrients that enable the productive cycle to go on without exhausting the land.

14 // Fluvial Pulsing Territories


Fig. 4 Triggered Anastomisng Rivers

Non-controlled rivers in floodplains, anastomosing rivers, thanks to this phenomena tend to avulse after several flooding events, generating a landform of interweaved channels that irrigate and bring nutrients to the riparian landscapes. An anastomosing river is composed of two or more interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins.1 An Avulsion is the diversion of a river and the formation of a new channel, that naturally widens the fertile area, and thus the ecological advantages of a riparian landscape. This productive landscapes have always attracted humans to settle in this lands. Thus this territories suffer a development pressure due to the potential that they offer for agriculture production that is directly reflected in the water management policies that rule each territory.

1 Makaske´s definition of anastomosing rivers.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 15


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

Water management: Hisotrical approach

EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 3 Hohokam Irrigation

The Hohokam lived near the perennial Satl River between 450 and 1500 C.E. Their ability to get adapted to a desolate environment as this one is outstanding. They developed their agriculture and water management from one generation to the next. They built vas canals networks up to twenty-two miles long and irrigated large tracts of arid land up to twenty-eight thousands hectares in extent, all of this without the elaborate panoply of state government or highly centralised management.1 1 S.K. Fish and P. R. Fish, eds., The Hohokam Millenium, 2007.

16 // Fluvial Pulsing Territories


“Hohokam canals flow outward from the Salt River like the tentacles of a giant octopus. They bifurcate and bifurcate again, once full of gently flowing water transported for a mile after mile by the forces of gravity.� Brian Fagan.

Fig. 4 Hohokam Irrigation Plan

Traditionally humans have used water in a sustainable way, developing systems to divert river and take advantage of the seasonal flooding to irrigate their lands. In ancient times water was a finite resource, often scarce and unreliable, thus it was so precious that in many cultures it was considered a sacred. Many civilizations evolved through the knowledge acquired through water, their villages were structured around this elements, and social life occured in the surroundings. An intense relationship, sometimes difficult to separate one from another that framed every day live of human beings. Gravity, water flows downslope, this was the main principle old cultures worked with. This has been maintained over all civilizations until the industrial revolution, where mechanical advances happened and human felt they could control water timings.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 17


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

Water management: Resource approach

EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS Fig. 5 Taum Sauk Reservoir, U.S.

Fig. 6 Cahora Bassa Dam and Reservoir, Africa

“Ultimately, the dam had a deep consciousness of its place in the world! It was well aware of the fact that it was a fatal entity, a dividing presence. That’s why it showed itself off the way it did that night in front of the engineer’s eye.” S.Plaskovitis, The Dam, 1961.

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

Fig. 7 Arizona Canal

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES The channelization of rivers, the construction of dams and reservoirs, the draining of wetlands for the sake of a more controlled water resource management and of a more profitable agricultural production were activities that became very common during the mid of the twentieth century. Meanwhile, a lot of questions, that had to do with the influence of the fertility of the soil, the sediment transportation, the effect of hydropower operations, the repercussions of

18 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

the constructions of reservoirs in the water quality, attempted to doubt the consequences of these hard engineering interventions, were generated. In the end of the 1990s after considerable thoughts upon these speculations the environmental and ecological impact of these hard-engineering and large scale interventions was conceived much more harmful than beneficial. L.Driva. Technical Essay.


“A new technological era had dawned [...], which allowed governments to reshape entire landscapes and transport water over distances and mountain ranges as never before. � Brian Fagan

Fig.8 California Aqueduct

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 19


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

Water management: Resource approach

EUROPEAN SCALE This development led to a new era in water management: the resource approach. Policies have been focused in maximizing the control of the river through dams, canals, etc. and resulting in a mechanization and industrialization of SPAIN agriculture.

In the last decades Europe has organised the water management policies according to a basin structure (fig. 5), creating in this sense the River Basins Districts. Decisions are taken at this scale, and in many cases includes several countries, as it is the example of the Danube Basin.

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 9 Map of National and International River Basin Districts

20 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

This scale of decision-making goes parallel with the type of projects that have been implemented, large scale projects that ended up being mega infrastructural projects, that diminsh the effects of them in the local scale.


Fig. 10 River catchments affected by flooding

Fig. 11 Flood Damage Potential

Lately, according to the global awareness of environmental issues, first world countries have experimented a shift in this paradigm, coming close to an Ecosystem approach. In fact in 2000 the European Union set the European Water Framework that guides all the water management policies that are implemented in Europe. As an example of this shif in the paradigm are several cartographies that Europe has been developing in the last years. As can be seen in fig. 10, 11 and 12, there is a growing interest in mapping things such as potential flood damage, basins affected by flooding, water bodies at risk, etc. All this maps, start to give us a hint about what are the concerns of the European Union in water management in the recent years.

Fig. 12 Surface Water Bodies Not at Risk

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 21


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

Water management: Ecosystem approach

EUROPEAN SCALE

The appearance of environmentalism and the ecological movement was very critical to modernity’s Promethean’s project1 and obliged the nature/society relation to reexamine the political and academic agenda. 1 The second phaseSPAIN of Promethean’s project of Modernity, as Maria Kaika identifies, lasted from the late ninetieth century to the first three quarters of the twentieth century and was a period of large-scale construction of infrastructure networks.

This had a direct effect to water management policies, as the vast manipulation of water that affected the health of the rivers was followed by the emergence of a European framework by the European Union in 2001 that guides all the water management policies that are implemented in Europe and reflects a shifting from a resource approach to an ecosystem approach.

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 13 Restoration Projects

22 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.


The river restoration projects that have happened across Europe and some government design plans such as Room for the River in the Netherlands reflect this change to the ecosystem approach and also depict the importance of giving the river more space to develop and to flood, thus they take into account the flood pulse concept. The fact that the flooding of a river is considered as a catastrophic event and there is a tendency of brutally controlling it, is against the concept of the flood pulse , which is the most important aspect and the most biologically productive feature of a river’s ecosystem. The projects that will be analysed further are Room for the River, Reform, the Manual of river restoration techniques by River Restoration centre and the Bameo programme in rivers Aisne and Meuse.

Room for the River (in Dutch: Planologische Kernbeslissing Ruimte voor de Rivier)is a government design plan intended to address flood protection, master landscaping and the improve-

ment of environmental conditions in the areas surrounding Holland’s rivers. The implementation of Room for the River started in 2007, by restoring the river’s natural flood plain in places where it is least harmful in order to protect those areas that need to be defended. Marshy riverine landscapes will be restored to serve once again as natural ‘water storage’ sponges and provide biodiversity and aesthetic and recreational values. Some of the techniques that are applied in Room for the River are: deepening the summer bed, relocating or strengthening a dyke, use of a high-water channel for discharge, lowering of floodplains and lowering groynes, depoldering, removing obstacles and use of lakes for temporary water storage. (fig.6) This shifting is also visible in a series of restoration projects across the rivers of Europe. These projects were engaged in removing all the hard-engineering techniques that happened in the past and restore the river to its natural condition, to the extent that this was possible. Reform (Restoring rivers for effective catchment management) is a 4 year large integrated

research project bringing together 25 partners from 14 countries that makes the effort to reach the ecological objectives for rivers as they have been set by the EU Water Framework Directive. It has been focusing in rehabilitating the fluvial territories by using existing tools and developing new ones to increase the success and cost-effectiveness of restoration measures and procedures to monitor the biological responses to hydromorphological changes with greater precision and sensitivity. (fig.5) One characteristic example of Reform is the restoration of river Skjern in Denmark, that was the largest single restoration project in Northern Europe. The river was restored from 1999-2002, as it was channelized in 1960 and the wetlands in the floodplain were drained. The intervention consisted of recreating the wetland and the lake, removing the barriers and re-meandering the main river and tributaries. The restoration resulted in improving the water quality and recreating water habitat that was beneficial for the natural environment of the valley. L.Driva. Technical Essay.

Fig. 14 Room for the River, Techniques

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 23


INTRODUCTION Approaches Towards River Dynamcis

Policies of Control

EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig.13 Red Lake River Corridor, Enhancement Project

24 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


By exploring the alternatives of hard engineering and often destructive interventions on fluvial landscapes, we started studying and examining other emerging approaches, focusing on the enhancement of the natural potentials of rivers. New water framework protocol, room for the river and other projects create both theoritical and practical databases towards a new water culture; One respecting the ability of an ecosystem to self maintain and be beneficial yet more resilient. Although these projects have positive consequences especially in the environmental sector as they take into account the flood pulse and have a deeper understanding of the fluvial geomorphology, we could argue that by making the effort to strongly oppose to the past excessive engineering river control they are ending in being quite linear in their application. By that, it is clear that all the consequences of these restoration projects seem to be within an ecological frame and linked to a healthier natural environment, but there are no other implications that are simultaneously engaged with this important, of course, ecological restoration. These implications could be related with a more productive approach, like for example, in which extent these river restorations have affected the agricultural production. In this terms, in which the projects that are being implemented under the EWF do not cover the productive aspect of fluvial ecosystems, we find our research could be implemented to try to generate a new set of guidelines that could respond to this “productive ecosystem approach�. We consider that this territories have the potential to generate powerful economies, as a form of negotiation between human and river dynamics.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 25


INTRODUCTION

EUROPEAN SCALE

Part 1: River Dynamics: Policies of Control SPAIN European Atlas of River Control

Atlas

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Cases

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 European Cartography


INTRODUCTION

European Atlas of River Control EUROPEAN SCALE

Atlas

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

Through this chapter we would like to explore the territories that the INTERVENTION STRATEGIES aforementioned policies have generated across Europe. Firstly in a broader sense, trying to unveil hidden relationship in a European Cartography of river control, and secondly through several examples that could help us identify which are the common elements among them and the IMPLICATIONS specifities of each location. As it has been previously stated, the main point that this cartography is trying to comvey is about water management projects under a centralised basin structure , and the level of control that rivers suffer in Europe. In the same direction, there is a clear relationship between the develDEPLOYMENT opment of agriculture and the intensity of the floodpulse in each river, diminished by ever more controlled landscapes At the same time, it helped us identify potential case studies for our research.

SPATIAL QUALITIES

28 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .2 European Atlas

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 29


INTRODUCTION

European Atlas of River Control EUROPEAN SCALE

Atlas

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

30 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 31


INTRODUCTION

European Atlas of River Control EUROPEAN SCALE

Cases

SPAIN Fig. 3 Narew River, Poland

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The Narew river, a tributary of the Vistula River, is located in Northeast Poland and is a typical case of river, in which development pressure has been exerted from 1960 to 1980, where a series of hydrotechnological works have been carried out. A dam constructed in 1963 that followed the formation of a reservoir in order to ensure water availability aiming to increase the agricultural production in the rural areas. Narew River was of anastomosing character along entire length of this stretch before these regulations. In the end of the 1990s along with the shifting of the water management approach, a restoration project started among the buffer zone of Narew National Park with a special consideration of hydrological conditions and integrated program of economic development. Agriculture Surface in Poland: 18.727.000 Ha, 60% Type of farming: Grain production mainly Management policites: Control projects untill the 80s, now under an ecosystem approach with renaturalising projects in Narew National Park.

32 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 4 Le Gard River, France

The Gard (or Gardon) is a river in southern France. It is the namesake of the department of Gard. Several of its tributaries are also called Gardon.It is 133 kilometres (83 mi) long, including its longest tributary “Gardon de Saint-Jean”. It rises in the Cévennes mountain range and flows into the Rhône River (right-side tributary) at Comps, north of Beaucaire, across from Vallabrègues. Traditionally, viticulture was the dominant activity in the foothills and coastal plains; the wine produced, however, was not of high quality. Since the mid-20th century, however, irrigation has aided diversification and production. Fewer vineyards now exist, but better quality wines are produced. Fruits and vegetables (including apples, peaches, and tomatoes) are now cultivated widely. Agriculture Surface in France: 29.000.000 Ha, 54% Type of farming: Sugar beets, wine and cereals. Management policites: After extreme flooding, the are is under several flood control projects.

Fig .2 European Atlas

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 33


INTRODUCTION

European Atlas of River Control EUROPEAN SCALE

Cases

SPAIN Fig. 4 Savio River, Italy

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The Savio River is situated in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. In Savio River, the oldest dam in Italy which is still, in service was built about 1450, which shows this need of controlling the river and the floodplain since medieval years. The River has preserved its natural course and its high-water bed is one of the few original landscapes left unchanged in the area around Cesena, which is an important agricultural centre. Agriculture Surface in Italy: 8.479.000 Ha, 48% Type of farming: Vegetables, wine and grain. Management policites: Due to its location close to the Savio River Reserve.

34 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 6 Arga River, Spain

The Arga is a river of Navarre, in Spain, and is a tributary of the Aragón River, itself a tributary of the river Ebro. The Arga was known as the river Runa in antiquity. Situated in the north-east of Spain, the river stretches some 145 kilometres (90 mi) and has a basin of 2,759 square kilometres (1,065 sq mi), of which 2,652 square kilometres (1,024 sq mi) is in Navarre and the remaining 107 square kilometres (41 sq mi) is near Arakil. The source of the river is to the north of the village Esteríbar, near the border with France, and it empties into the Aragón River near Funes. The river is dammed in the Eugui reservoir near Esteríbar; the dam principally serves the needs of Pamplona’s metropolitan area, the largest city on the Arga. Agriculture Surface in Spain: 20.000.000 Ha, 40% Type of farming: Vegetables, wine and citrics. Management policites: Ongoing irrigation projects that include dams and canals.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 35


INTRODUCTION

EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

Part 1: River Dynamics: Policies of Control

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Spain Case Study

Traditional Cultural Landscape

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

Dictatorship Vision Responses and Social Movements

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 European Cartography


EUROPEAN SCALE

Spain Case Study SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES We are gong to focus in Spain as a study case, as we consider an important case, due to his history of agriculture and water management. In this IMPLICATIONS sense, we would like to cover in this chapter the Spanish history of water management, as we understand it as an extreme example of what has happend, in this terms, worlwide. Spain has always been an agriculture producing country throughout all

DEPLOYMENT its history, from Arabic times, to nowadays. Along its territory foot prints of traditional Arabic irrigation systems can be found, consisting of little weirs, and ditches bringing water to the river nearby lands. However, in Franco´s dictatorship a new vision of centralised power in SPATIAL QUALITIES

managing water arose. There were a serious of projects aiming to connect all the basins in Spain, moving water from the richer ones, to the more water scarce ones, constructing a whole entity in water management. Most of this projects were developed leaving a landscape full of dams, reservoirs and canals. In the late years of the dictatorship several social movement were claiming for a shift in the way decisions were being taken and against this large scale projects. This ideas were finally materialised in the foundation New Water Culture, that will be the seed that would lately inform the EWFM.

38 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


“The irrigation is part and parcel of a constantly changing, highly flexible agricultural environment.. ” Brian Fagan

Fig.1 Acequia de Pitres. Fuente: “El Manual del Acequiero”

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 39


EUROPEAN SCALE

Spain Case Study SPAIN Traditional Cultural Landscape

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Fig. 2 Arabic Ancient Ditches

Arabs brought the technology of diverting water to Spain during their occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. A full IMPLICATIONS system consisting in ditches, weirs, and watermills. In many regions of Spain they continue to provide a primary source of water for farming. Ditches are gravity chutes, similar in concept to flumes, the majority are open excavated ones.

Fig. 3 Social Aspect of Water Infrastructures.

For years the ditch banks have been used as routes, converting the ditches in linear elements that organised the territory and urban space. There are several researchs1 claiming that the fields irrigated by acequias provide vital ecosystems and economic base services to the regions

Fig. 4 Social gatherings around infrastructural elements.

in which they are located. They promote soil conservation and formation, provide terrestrial wildlife habitat and movement corridors. They also encourage the manteinance of a strong land and water ethic and sense of place, among other ecological and economic base values.

1 Rio Grande Bioregions Project.

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 5 Arabic water diversion elements.

Arabic irrigation systems used different technologies in order to divert water from the river to the nearby lands to water their crops. Depending on the surrounding topography they will use one or another. One of the basic technologies that they developed and that can be found along spanish landscape is the watermill. This simple, but effective

Fig. 6 Arabic techniques for diverting water.

element manages to elevate the water from a lower to higher point without any pumpin, just with the energu of the water. As can be seen in fig. 5 and 6, the water reached the upper levels and from there it was distributed by gravity.

40 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Fig. 7 Water Diversion.

Another technique they developed were about weirs. A small obstacle was placed interrupting the course of the river, water will accumulate behind it, raising the water level, and creating a small reservoir. Taking advantage of the gained height a canal was constructed to again divert water by gravity to the nearby lands.


“For thousands of years, channels, furrows, check dam, and terraces have helped define the close relationship between people, their land and water. � Brian Fagan

Fig.8 Womens doing laundry in a water infrastructural element.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 41


EUROPEAN SCALE

Spain Case Study SPAIN Dictatorship Vision

“Not a drop of water should reach the ocean RIPARIAN without paying itsNAVARRE obligatory tribute to the earth.” Cortes Generales, (Spanish parliament), 1912

ARGA AND ARAGÓN

This quote mentioned in Erik Swyngedouw’s

TERRITORIES book Liquid Power demonstrates how water

management in Spain started becoming crucial in the beginning of the twentieth century and the extent in which modernization and development of water was intertwined with the social, political and economic processes. During an unstable period from the twentieth century into the RIVERS twenty-first, through the Franco dictatorship to

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .2 Spanish Dicatorship Water Management Plans.

42 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

the liberal democracy, the waterscapes of Spain were altered with large-scale projects that ranged from dam construction to irrigation to desalinization. A new vision of centralised power in managing water emerged. The series of projects intend to connect all the basins in Spain (Fig. 2), moving water from the richer ones, to the more water scarce ones, constructing a whole entity in water management. L.Driva, Technical Essay.


EUROPEAN SCALE

Spain Case Study SPAIN Responses and Social Movements

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Fig.9 Spanish demonstrations against Ebro´s transfer.

IMPLICATIONS

Fig.10 Spanish demonstrations against Tajo´s transfer.

DEPLOYMENT During this period more than six hundred dams were constructed, cities and industries watered, hydroelectricity expanded and millions of hectares of land irrigated . This tendency of engineering and mechanization with expansion of dams and reservoirs, is extremely visible in the case of SPATIALthe QUALITIES Spain, but has also been applied in a large number of European countries. In the late years of the dictatorship several social movement were claiming for a shift in the way decisions were being taken and against this large scale projects. This ideas were finally materialised in the foundation New Water Culture, that will be the seed that would lately inform the EWFM.

Fig.11 New Water Culture Foundation.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 43


EUROPEAN SCALE

SPAIN

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Part 2: Site Conditions ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS Navarre Riparian Territories

History: Traditional Irrigation Territorial Foramtions Canal Project Conflicts Implications

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 Key Drawing.


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS Inside Spain we are going to study the riparian territories of the North of Spain specially the region of Navarre, who is recently suffering a development pressure due to the industrialization and mechanization of agriculture. As we saw previously, although rural areas of Spain consist one of the DEPLOYMENT now more intensive and managed productive territories, it has long traditional formations, that consist of flood irrigation, smaller plots and small scale agriculture, as it is the case of Navarre. The new tendency, implies a shift in power in terms of socio-economic SPATIAL QUALITIES conflicts. As spain cannot compete with other markets1 there is a severe economical crisis for the ever diminishing small scale traditional farming. However, in terms of quality, its proved that small scale agricultural production can potentially lead to more yield. We seek opportunities for a niche market that could accept a type of agricultural production focusing on quality rather than quantity of exports and supports small scale agricultural movements and cooperatives. Along with this given context, there is an ongoing project in the Area, aiming to bring water from the pyrenees to the riparian lands, designed under the old logic of “resource approach”, and enhancing the shift to industrialization and mechanization. As we found out there are several conflicts, and controversy around this project, being most of the villages affected, against it, as it will be further explained.

1 Juan Jesús Corzina, local farmer of Olite, Navarre.

46 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


“We have stopped something that they were trying to sell as the future and the era of modernity, now we know that is a lie, but we should work. on an alternative.” Consuelo Ochoa.

Fig.1 Aerial Image, Arga and Aragón River

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 47


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

History: Traditional Irrigation

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

Fig. 2 Traditional ditches in Navarre riparian territories.

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 3 Traditional dicth in Marcilla.

Flood irrigation is an ancient method of irrigating crops. It was the first form of irrigation used by humans when they started cultivating crops and is still likely to be dominant in 2030. It does not require the operation and maintenance of sophisticated hydraulic equipment, which is high-cost, so it is more suitable for small-scale farming. It is often stated that flood irrigation uses twice as much water as center pivots and linear equipment to irrigate the same amount of land to grow the same amount of food. Although flood irrigation is considered less water efficient than the mechanised irrigation systems such as pivots and sprinklers, the truth is that it is not. This due to the fact that in the case of sprinklers and pivots, a significant amount of water is evaporated.

48 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Subsequently, the water is transferred and the nutrients do not remain in the soil. On the contrary, in the case of flood irrigation the evaporation rate is smaller and the water that is not used returns to the water table, reducing in this way the amount of water loss. It is also clear, that flood irrigation refers to a more ecological approach concerning water management compared to mechanised irrigation that is connected with a more controlled one. The water is delivered to the field by ditch, pipe or some other means and flows over the ground through the crop.The water is usually applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity, when fields are organized in different levels. L.Driva Technical Essay


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Territorial Formations

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .2 Territorial Formations

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 49


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Canal Project

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 4 Itoiz Dam

Fig. 5 Navarre Canal

50 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Canal Project

Itoiz Reservoir and Dam

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

Arga River

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Ega River

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES Aragón River Ebro River

Fig .3 Canal Project

The ongoing Canal Project of Navarre, built buy the public company INTIASA is aiming to bring water to the riparian landscapes of Navarre from the pyrenees. For this purpose they have built a reservoir and a dam (fig. 4 Itoiz Dam) in the pyrenees and a Canal that runs 160 km until it reaches the area to be irrigated.

This Canal has been planed in two phases, being the first one already built (fig. 5), and not having the expected results, as local farmer told us.1

Anyway, and against all odds, they are going on with the second phase which is the one that is going to irrigate the lands of the Ega, Arga and Aragón river.

1 Juan Jesús Corzina, local farmer from Olite, Navarre.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 51


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Canal Project: Conflicts

ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT Fig. 6 Articles from a local newspaper (Diario de Navarra).

SPATIAL QUALITIES As it has been said before, this project is quite controversic in the area. The main problems are that having installed all this expensive equipment to irrigate the lands, the project is not taking into account the river, thus not dealing with the flooding. This unveils the danger of economic catastrophy, whilst the land is already exhausted from the heavy infrastructure. The multiple implications concerning this strategic and highly questionable activity consist subject of conflict between the small scale, traditional farmers and the large industrial corporations.

Economical and environmental assesments indicate strong faults in the ampliation of the first phase of this construction, clearly demonstrating the beneficial model created towards the large scale producers. Environmental disaster, shift from variation of crops to monoculture, disproportional profits compared to the equipment cost and lack of quality production, are only few of the consequences of the canal. The conflicts and disputes between the villagers on one hand and corporations, government and the construction company on the other lead to an aggressive dead end.

Labor gets replaced by machinery, farmers that learned for generations with traditional irrigation techniques that respect the spatial conditions of the landscape and the quality of the floodplain, are all now threatened with degration. The project symbolizes a broadened growing tendency towards more mechanized and cost bleeding agriculture. It also contributes to the emergence of monoculture in traditional agriculture lands.

Fig. 7 Article extracted from Ura (New Water Culture platform in Navarre).

52 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AGAINST

Fig .4 Canal Project Conflicts

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 53


SPAIN

Navarre Riparian Territories

NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Canal Project: Implications

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS 2003

2015

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .5 Plot Divison Comparison in Arga and Aragón Rivers

One of the main consequences of the mechanization of agriculture ist that in order to mantain the revenues at the same level the agricultural fields need to be of a considerable size (around 10 Ha). This consequences have already left their footprint in the area, as can be seen in fig. 5. This figure is showing how the plot size has dramatically increased, changing completely the landscape of the riparian territories between the rivers Arga and Aragón. The most startling thing about this process is the speed with which it has happened, twelve years. However, local and national governments seem to be in the direction of enhancing this landscape shifting patterns, as there is an existing directive in Spain, which states that every irrigation project that is to be implemented inside the national territory, needs to go along with a plot concentration, being the minimum size of it 5 Ha.

In this terms, the Canal Project of Navarre, has the plan to concentrate every plot that is to have the connection to the future irrigation infrastructure. Of course this decision fails to read the existing social conditions, as small scale agricultural owners are left with the only chance of selling their lands to bigger corporations. This small scale owners, mainly in their 60s are unable to cope with the mortgage they will be forced to get in order to pay for the cost of the installation. More over, due to market forces, the type of products to which this mega infrastructure leads is to grain products. As the market price of any other crop will not be enough to cover the demands in the equipment investment. Hence, the area is doomed to monoculture (fig. 6), and

54 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

consequently, labor and water demand start to be totally unbalanced, having extreme peaks in specific moments of the year. In a broader sense, all this strategic development lead to large scale productive structures, based on exportations to try to cover the costs. Anyway, as farmers from the area diagnosed, Spain cannot compete in a market of quantity with South America or Asia, as in this countries the productive costs are much lower and the land availability much higher.1 Spain should try to open a market that is based on quality products, and for this sense, the small scale harvesting, its proved to have increased yields. In the next chapter all this productive dynamics will be analysed in further detail. 1 Juan Jesús Corzina, local farmer from Navarre.


Influence of Canalization in the Agricultural Industry.

Influence of River Dynamics in the Agricultural Industry

Fig .6 Effects of Canalization in Local Economies

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 55


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

Part 2: Site Conditions INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Morphology of Water Politics

SOCIAL FORMATIONS IMPLICATIONS Shifting Territories: Productive Dynamics Hydrological Dynamics

DEPLOYMENT GEOMORPHOLOGY Anastomosing Rivers: Classification Definition Formation Study Area: Flooding

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 Key Drawing


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Shifting Territories

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Zooming into a closer area, the rivers Arga and Aragon form a shifting territory, in which the conflict between the traditional and mechanised agriculture and the difficulty of dealing with flooding is extremely visible, seeking for solutions. The viability and interests of the canal have implications that affect not only the bigger picture of Navarre’s riparian territories, but also this smaller part of the riparian landscape, the three villages that surround it and the everyday life of the local residents. The economic growth of the surrounding villages, Marcilla, Funes, Peralta and Villafranca, has been connected with small scale agricultural production and farmers learned for generations to use the traditional irrigation techniques that respect the spatial conditions of the floodplain and the quality of the flooding. The shifting of this territory is also obvious during the different seasons as it transforms due to the migration of temporary workers in the area. The new emerging situation that arises from the canal implementation threatens the already vulnerable relations that exits in the area in terms of labour, productivity and social conditions, as it will be explained in this chapter.

58 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


“They live with and manage water, in a complex melding of practical agriculture and social behaviour that epitomizes the complexities of the human relationship with a priceless resource.� Brian Fagan

Fig.1 Temporary worker harvesting wine grapes.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 59


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGÓN SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Productive Dynamics

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

60 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 2 Seasonal Calendar

As the specific area is extremely rich in the diversity of crops that are cultivated which is menaced due to the canal implementation, we created a classification of those crops and some others that could be introduced to this landscape according to different parameters, during the four seasons. Referring to the afore stated argument of quality as opposed to quantity, it is interesting to point out that there are local products that are cultivated in this area such as red peppers and asparagus, which are unique in this region of Spain. As it is shown in Fig.2, this calendar presents a categorisation of crops according to their water need, resilience to flooding and drought, soil and sun demands and most importantly according to the labour that each crop requires. The three main procedures of the agricultural activity that are associated with labour are seeding, harvesting and processing that occur during different months of the year.

It is apparent from the calendar that the labour demand is higher in autumn and summer, then spring and finally winter. The relations between the actual water availability, the procedures of labour and the average crops water need create an interesting chart that help us interpret those relations through time and start thinking of alternative solutions.

All this knowledge gained from our research, functioned as a way of perceiving in depth the productive dynamics of this landscape and their interconnection with the water dynamics, which are going to be depicted in the social formations index.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 61


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Productive Dynamics

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 2 Red pepper festival in Lodosa.

Fig. 2 White asparragus processing

Fig. 4 Temporary worker harvesting wine grapes.

The productive dynamics in terms of labour are formed by the temporary workers that come to work in this specific area of Navarre. They mainly come from Jaen, a city in south-central Spain and secondarily from North African countries and most of the times they stay in abandoned or occupied places. The lack of infrastructures that can support this large number of workers that migrate for months away from their settlements is an issue that has an effect on the area and on the people as well. Temporary workers tend to work mostly in the crops that require a lot of working

62 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

hands such as asparragus, red peppers and vineyards. They work mostly in the seeding and harvesting processes, but they can work in the processing as well. The diagrams in Fig.3 show the possible crops rotation and activation of the villages during the stay of the workers. The unactivated landscape displays diverse forms of activation and relating connections and networks appear according to the current crop that is cultivated. This variation is relevant to the different type of crops that have distinct requirements and generates the need of infrastructural networks and facilities for a functional productive process.


Fig .3 Crops Rotation and Activation

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 63


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Productive Dynamics

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES Fig. 5 Temporary worker harvesting wine grapes..

Timing and specially seasons, are an essential part of our project as the landform is transformed according to them. Every season and each month has a different effect on the area that is connected with human labour (fig.5, 6 and 7 showing human labour in the agricultural field of Navarre).

Fig. 6 Temporary worker in harvesting season.

The human labour demand according to the agricultural activities of seeding, harvesting and processing is represented in the first chart of Fig.4. Different peaks are observed in all the procedures with the harvesting and processing being strongly connected. This is reasonable as the seeding procedure need a certain amount of time to develop, whereas after the harvesting of the corps the processing needs to happen shortly.

Fig. 7 Vineyards fields.

64 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

The following chart of fig. 4 is a graphical translation of the main information of the calendar. The natural conditions of the landform such as the sun and water flow of the river that change monthly are combined with the water availability of the crops and the human labour in an attempt to interrelate all these elements.


Fig .4 Seasonal Chart

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 65


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Productive and Hydrological Dynamics

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .5 Social Formations Diagram

Following the previous analysis, the social formation of the landscape is characterised by productive and hydrological dynamics. In terms of the productive dynamics, as it is depicted in Fig.6 there is a lack of balance that is illustrated with the peaks as the majority of crops are harvested or processed mostly through summer and autumn. This results in high labour peaks during these periods compared to extremely low labour demand in winter. This situation creates an unstable condition to the temporary workers that migrate in order to work in that area, contributing to their replacement by machinery and reinforcing the tendency of monoculture. This unbalanced situation is also visible in the hydrological dynamics as well, as there are again peaks and dips in water availability and water demand. For instance, in the current situation, crops that are resilient to flooding are planted near crops that are not resilient at all, and this organisation results in the complete destruction of some crops when a flooding event occurs without considering the benefits of the flooding irrigation It is also remarkable that during the dry months, the labour demand is really high combined with a very low water availability, resulting into instable relations. This social analysis set the foundation for starting examining different possibilities by redistributing agricultural land and changing the existing relations in order to create a more resilient landscape with quality products.

66 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .6 Social Formations Index

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 67


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGÓN SOCIAL FORMATIONS: Productive and Hydrological Dynamics

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

68 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 69


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

ARGA AND ARAGÓN RIVERS

Part 2: Site Conditions INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Morphology of Water Politics

SOCIAL FORMATIONS IMPLICATIONS Shifting Territories: Productive Dynamics Hydrological Dynamics

DEPLOYMENT GEOMORPHOLOGY Anastomosing Rivers: Classification Definition Formation Study Area: Flooding

70 // Fluvial Pulsing Territories

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 Key Drawing

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 71


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N GEOMORPHOLOGY: Anastomosing Rivers

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Given this social tissue, we would like to study the flood pulse dynamics and geomorphology of this riparian territory that will allow us to develop a set of guidelines, with which we could intervene to transform the productive dynamics of the territory. As this river is under flood pulse dynamics the geomorphological research was centred in describing the nature of meandric - rivers along with the flooding in the area. It was interesting to find out the timings, amount of water, extension, etc. to find out what problems, and opportunities we are facing exactly. For this purpose we have been working with river simulation models to depict the flooding scenario.

72 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .2

River Narew, Poland

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 73


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGÓN GEOMORPHOLOGY: Anastomosing Rivers, Classification

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 3 River Classifitcation, Rosgen 1994

74 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


River classification has always been a controversical filed of study. There are mainly two aspects in river classification, the in-channel processes and the extra-channel processes. Commonly, river are classified according to innerprocesses, as can be seen in Fig. 3 Rosgen classification (1994). The main parameters for this type of classification, are slope and sinuosity.

However, as Makaske1 suggests, this type of classification gives us a biased knowledge about rivers, as the extra-channel processes are as important as the inner ones.

1 Bart Makaske, Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products. 2000.

Fig. 4 Avulsion Process

Avulsiosn are primarly driven by aggradation of the channel belt and/or loss of channel capacity by in-channel deposition. Both processed are favoured by low floodplain gradient. An avulsion is the abandonment of a part or the whole of a channel belt by a stream in favour of a new course, (Fig. 4).

In the same way the avulsions can take different forms along the course, according to the way they bifurcate and flow downstream. (Fig. 6) If the at the same point of the river, several avulsions occur it will be a nodal avulsion.

As it can bee seen in the Local Avulsion case, it suggests a different pattern of water management and organisation for irrigated lands. This pattern could generate a new set of Micro Flooding Units1 along the riparian lands of rivers in floodplains. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

Random avulsions will happen if they start at different points along the river belt.

Avulsion can happen in different ways, as can be seen in Fig. 5, it can be a full avulsion provoking the river to change channel, a partial avulsion in which the river bifurcates and starts flowing in two channels and finally a failed avulsion, in which the new channel is not consolidated.

Nodal Avulsion

Fig. 5 Type of Avulsions

Local avulsions, bifurcate at one point and flows separately through a specific length to come back to the river.

Random Avulsion

1 The term Micro Flooding Unit will be explained in further chapters

Local Avulsion

Fig. 6 Type of Avulsions along course.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 75


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N GEOMORPHOLOGY: Anastomosing Rivers, Formation

INTERVENTION Traces of the river

STRATEGIES Flow Velocity

Erosion / Deposition

Cross Sections

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 7 Meandric Geomorphology

Rivers are systems that balance water flow and sediment transportation in a dynamic equilibrium. Through processes such as erosion and deposition the channel morphology suffers

Natural Levee

alterations that the river tends to readjust in order to maintain its main characteristics such as width, profile and patterns to reach its former balance. As the river erodes in one location, it

Partial Avulsion

Full Avulsion

Fig. 8 Avulsion Processes

76 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

deposits in another to achieve its equilibrium. For this reason, disciplines that deal with rivers, such as geomorphology, needed a tool to be able to predict its dynamic behaviour. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.


Traditionally, this fluvial ecosystems have been studied through observation performed either in the field or in laboratories, but this techniques have their limitations. Mainly, the time frame in which this evolution happens, over centuries or millennia, this fact makes some issues remain unresolved1 (Coulthard, 2012). As a response to this, in the last two decades different simulation models have emerged. This models try to abstract and simplify the processes that occur along the river systems that aim to depict the aspects that provoke the changes in river dynamics and morphology. Being a numerical model, the system is controlled and can be studied in an abstract way. The numerical models that arise to comprehend the river systems had different purposes that make them more or less suitable for the aim of the study. Landscape evolution models (LEMs) cover entire drainage basins with no so many detail; alluvial architecture models can give us the detail of the sedimentary facies, losing flow characteristics; and computational fluid dynamic models have the restriction of having a given channel form. (Coulthard, 2012).

1 Coulthard and Van de Wiel explain in further detail the scope of numerical models to simulate river systems.

For this project the numerical model that is going to be used is inside the LEMs, and in particular CAESAR-Lisflood software. The main reason for having chosen CAESAR is the ability that the software has to combine catchment simulations with detailed ones. CAESAR is a two dimensional flow and sediment transport model. It can simulate morphological changes in river catchments or reaches, on a flood by flood basis, over periods up to several thousands of years2. This software was developed by Tom Coulthard in 2000. The first aim of CAESAR was to understand the relation between climate and/or land cover changes and how fluvial systems had a geomorphic response to them. For this research a “catchment mode” was developed so as the behaviour of a whole basin could be understood3.

While working with the catchment mode, it appeared that the basic model could also predict erosion and deposition in river reaches, which led to the development of the “reach mode”. In this mode, water is input at a specific point over a given DEM. Water flows over the surface and the software simulates processes of erosion and deposition. This finding allows the model to predict the river dynamics with higher resolution. The software has continued evolving from 2005 onwards embodying other processes such as lateral erosion, slope processes and shear stress.

In order to understand how this processes really happen in a given example, and how different parameters such as amount of water flow, grainsize of the soil, vegetation and slope processes could influence the formation of this avulsion, a first experiment is carried. The first experiment done with the program was to test what will be the outputs of erosion/deposition in a simple meandering river. (Fig. 9)

2 Description in http://www.coulthard. org.uk/CAESAR.html. Additional information about purposes, requirements and findings can be also found in the website. 3 River Swale study, (Coult2hard and Macklin, 2001)

In this simple test the main behaviours of a meandric river is depicted, it can be observed the areas in which erosion and deposition takes place. The location of this phenomena will be useful to stablish the rules in which avulsion happens. The settings given to the programme where the ones by default. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

Water Flow

Erosion / Deposition Process

Fig. 9 Water Flow and Erosion / Deposition Processes Studies using CAESAR

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 77


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N GEOMORPHOLOGY: Study Area, Flooding

Summer Flooding

Spring Flooding

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Autumn Flooding

Winter Flooding

Fig. 10 Seasonal Flooding

As it has been stated before, this area is characterized because of being an extreme territory, having strong flooding events during the end of winter and autumn, and severe droughts in the summer months.

According to this, it becomes outstanding the need to analyse the flooding in the area, timings, amount of water, extension, etc. to find out what problems, and opportunities are we facing exactly.

78 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

For this purpose we have been working with river simulation models to depict the flooding scenario.


“Everything fits into a series of cycles, defined by a cylical calendar [...] a wheel within wheels view of time” Brian Fagan

Fig. 11 Flooding Area

This drawing is tryinyg to unveil the flooding extension in the area, having overlapped all the different seasonal flooding that occur in this territory. As it has been stated before, timing plays an important role in the development of the project as through it the spatial qualities of this territory change together with the social dynamics that try to adapt to this changing landscape. For that reason, this drawings are framed under a cosmological1 idea of time. 1 Idea based in the cosmographical diagrams and Mesoamerican Lienzos, extracted from “Maps Blossom in the Springtime of the State”, Denis Wood.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 79


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N GEOMORPHOLOGY: Study Area

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The geomorphological scenario performs as an outcome of a variety of factors: the examination of the possibility of avulsions of the rivers Arga and Aragon through a time cycle of three years, taking into account different flooding conditions and merging them with the actual form of the landscape qualities; slope, programmatic uses, urban settlemets. Experimenting with simulations, we investigated the river dynamics that are unveiled if we reconnect the main river with its old courses. By identifying the territorial possibilities for anostomosis, we can form the basis for the implementation of techniques, in order to reassure their maximum integration. In the next chapter the rules and potentials of triggered avulsions will be explored in detail, trying to build a set of guidelines with which an iternvention oould be carried out in a floodplain river. This cartography together with the social layer will create the ground for our proposal to be actualized with the specifity of the site, both social and geomorphological.

80 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .12 Geomorphology Panel

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 81


NAVARRE RIPARIAN TERRITORIES

Morphology of WaterRIVERS Politics ARGA AND ARAGÓN GEOMORPHOLOGY: Study Area

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

82 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 83


ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Part 3: Intervention Strategies IMPLICATIONS

Guidelines for River Diversion DEPLOYMENT Simulations: Simulations results Simulations abstraction

SPATIAL QUALITIES Guildeines: Specific Guidelines and Techniques Generic Guidelines and Implications


Fig .1 Key Drawing


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES The first goal of this chapter is to unveil the rules that make the avulsion processes happen. Once the rules have been set, we could start working on how this system could be developed and deployed on site, and which are the physical and spatial implications they have. For this purpose a set of Generic and Specific Guideines for River Diversion will be developed following the aforementioned rules. The methodology that will be followed will be simulation models and afterwards a process of abstraction of the output. Firstly, generic simulations in a meanderic river will be run, in order to gain the basic knowledge, and extract the main parameters that influence river avulsions, helping us develop a set of guidelines that will be lately implemented in a generic and specific case. Secondly, a site specific simulation study will be carried out to identify the possible paths the avulsions could follow. Finally, the guidelines, together with the avulsion paths will be applied to the site. At the same time a study of techniques such as cut an fill, inflatable weirs and pits will be carried out to understand how this avulsions could be artificially triggered.

86 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .2

Le Grand River, France

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 87


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Simulations IMPLICATIONS

1. Water input _ 500; Sediment _ Default; Slope _ Default 1. a

DEPLOYMENT

1. b

1. c Fig. 3a Simulations in Random Meandric River

SPATIAL QUALITIES

DEM Output

In a further and deeper analysis of this fluvial system different parameters started to be altered, the amount of water, in order to simulate a flooding event; the grainsize of the terrain, so as to understand in which type of soils the avulsion is more prompt to happen; and the slope rate. For rivers to avulse it exists the necessity of several flooding to occur, so as the erosion will increase, and the channel will end up consolidating a new one.

Slope Output

Water Flow Output

Subsequently, the simulation need to be run several times with the same settings, using as the input DEM for the next one the output DEM of the previous one. Hence the first studies would be done in sequences of three per group of defined parameters. As it has been stated above the experiments have been done shifting the parameters of amount of water (corresponding to a flooding event), grainsize of the soil, and slope rate. As it can be observed in Fig. 3a and 3b the results vary notably from one group of parameters to another. It is important to point out that just two examples of the several done are reflected here.

Erosiom / Deposition Output

88 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Thus the conclusions extracted are due to much more experiments that will be incorporated in the annex.


2. Water input _ 1500; Sediment _ Default; Slope _ Increased Rate 2. a

2. b

2. c

Fig. 3a Simulations in Random Meandric River

AMOUNT OF WATER When the amount of water increases the erosion consequently augments too, as more water flows and the velocity grows. On account of this phenomena the erosion becomes really significant in the outer part of the channel, creating new ones. In the other hand the amount of deposition inside the channel grows at the same time that decreases outside the channel. In the light of this, we could state that the stronger the flooding is the more possible is that the river avulses. SEDIMENTS As the grain size of the soil goes thinner, the phenomena of erosion becomes more evident, as the particles of the terrain are easily removable. At the same time the deposition decreases due to the light weight of the sediments carried by the river. Even if the low rate of deposition seems counterproductive for the avulsion process, it is not, because it is not allowing the river to deposit in the new channels that are being created. SLOPE RATE The steeper the slope is the less prompt is the river to avulse, as the water finds their way to break the natural levee. For this reason, rivers avulse easily with low slopes in flat, shallow and poorly drained floodplains.

DEM Output

Slope Output

Water Flow Output

Erosiom / Deposition Output

S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 89


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Simulations Abstraction IMPLICATIONS

Fig. 4 Abstraction of Simulation Images

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Having identified how the different parameters affect the geomorphology of a meandric river, just by observing the images that come out from the simulations, is time to try to stablish a set of rules that will guide the design project. With that purpose, and over a selection of key output images from the simulations, a job of abstraction needs to be done, in order to set up this catalogue of conditions. The first step is to discard the avulsions that occur according to different reasons, be it meanders cut off or casual reasons (depression of the terrain, etc.) Having differentiated the “pure� avulsions from the ones that are not, the abstraction can be started. With this in mind three different situations with different parameters are chosen, so as to maintain certain accuracy by comparing one to another. In this way if something strange appears it will be discarded, because the discord will be easily perceived. In each of the out puts several points of possible avulsions are identified and analysed in detail according to three main aspects: angle, water flow, and erosion / deposition processes. Thus, the aim is to identify the specific conditions in which an avulsion is more probable to occur. In this way we will develop a tool that parallel with the simulations model will help the research on how to trigger the avulsions, and where.

90 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 5 Set of Rules

ANGLE In each avulsion point the angle of the avulsion respect to the normal to the river at the exact point where the avulsion is happening it is measured. This dimension will give a hint on the range of angles in which rivers avulse. From the catalogue of angles that we have we can deduce that avulsions normally occur in a range of angles from 5ยบ to 45ยบ i. e, avulsions tend to be perpendicular to the main river channel. WATER FLOW The amount of water and the speed of it, is also a fact that needs to be taken into account. The more water it flows through a channel, the more probable is that the river avulses. In the same way, if the velocity of the water increases, it erodes easily the levees, breaking them and provoking the water to scape and consolidate a new channel. EROSION / DEPOSITION This geomorphological processes condition the capability to evolve in two different ways. In one hand, the deposition process that occur inside the river through time fills them, and at some point the river bed does not have enough room for the water to flow, so it ends up finding another route. On the other hand the lateral erosion that takes place in the outer part of the channel enhances the possibility of breaking the levee. As it has been observed, avulsions always occur to the side in which the erosion is happening, in other words in the outer part of the channel. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 91


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Simulations Abstraction IMPLICATIONS Once the software has been tested, finally several tests will be done in the study area, Arag贸n and Arga River in Navarre, Spain.

DEPLOYMENT This area is characterized because of being an extreme territory, having strong flooding events during the end of winter and autumn, and severe droughts in the summer months. It can be perceived in the geological map of the area, that SPATIAL QUALITIES this floodplain in the past has avulsed several times. Consequently the aim of the test will be to identify the points where this river will be more prompt to avulse and how much time would they take to consolidate.

Autumn

In order to achieve the desired results, a seasonal methodology has been followed due to the hydrological differences found in this territory. With that results the points in which the river will avulse have been identified together with the paths that they will follow. It should be highlighted at this point, that the bigger difficulty that has been found while working with the software is the abstraction of the outputs.

However, it has to be said that with further experience a way has been discovered. The software can be configured to give several outputs, after the model has been simulated. One of those is the water depth generated after the process of erosion.

The paths of the avulsions that have been identified are a bit too intuitive sometimes, as the programme does not provide and outcome of where the river has abandoned the channel.

S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

Winter

Summer

Fig. 6 Seasonal Avulsions Identified in the Area

92 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

By contouring this surface, the width and exact position of the avulsions is obtained.

Spring


Fig. 7 Avulsion Paths

Having identified the main avulsions that occur through the seasonal methodology, an abstraction of all of them is done in order to obtain a scenario of the possible avulsions. It should be highlighted that this abstraction could have been done in different ways obtaining different results, so lets remark that this is a possible scenario. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 93


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Site Guidelines IMPLICATIONS Fig. 8a Site Guidelines, Stage 1

DEPLOYMENT

To go deeper into how this avulsions really configure the SPATIAL QUALITIES territory and which techniques will be implemented to trigger them, we move closer to the local scale that we have previously studied. SITE GUIDELINES As can be seen in Fig. 7a, b and c, the avulsions will be artificially triggered by stages in order to let the following flooding events consolidate the new canals, and minimising both the investment, energy and labour need. In this way the proposal will be implemented in three stages, with a lapse of time of 3 years, creating secondary and tertiary avulsions when the main ones are consolidated. MICRO FLOODING UNITS As it has been stated before, this physical quality of this new landform implies a new political entity, becoming every avulsion a new Micro Flooding Unit, that will control the intervention, flux of water, and investment of each of the area, working each of them independently one from another. S. Ribot, Technical Essay.



Fig. 8b Site Guidelines, Stage 2

Fig. 8c Site Guidelines, Stage 3

94 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .9

Site Guidelines, Final Stage

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 95


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Techniques IMPLICATIONS Fig. 10 Techniques Diagram

DEPLOYMENT As it has been said before, the proposal will be developed through stages, shown in Fig. 9 a, b and c. Inside each stage, a serious of interventions are carried out in order to trigger the avulsions, as can be seen in Fig. 9.

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The first one will be an inflatable dam placed where the avulsion wants to be triggered. After this, the embaknment is lowered, in the outer part of the river where the avulsion is to happen. As a later stage the channel will be digged 0,50 meters deep in order to accelerate the process of consolidation. Finally a pit is excavated to hold water in a small reservoir that will serve the island in the dry months, and through actions of cut and fill the island topography will be raised to meet the requirements previously stablished. The water that flows into each avulsion is controlled by an inflatable weir which allows the system to adapt to the conditions and be modified from the needs at the local scale. At the same time, and next to it, a reservoir is constructed to hold water in flooding peaks and redistribute throughout the drought periods. All this small scale interventions are intending to build a more resilient landscape. The spatial organisation that arises from this generated landform, and how it is going to be constructed, it is going to be developed in a manual of operations in a closer scale.



96 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Fig. 10a Techniques, Stage 1




Fig. 10b Techniques, Stage 2



Fig. 10c Techniques, Stage 3

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 97


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Techniques IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

98 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 11 Catalogue of Techniques

The techniques briefly described in the previuos page can be further understood in this catalogue. The main purpose of this catalogue was to provide us with a broader knowledge of the techniques, from the time they take to consolidate, to conceptually what are they bringing into the project.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 99


Guidelines for River Diversion

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Generic Guidelines: Spatial Organisation IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Once the rules were set, we could start to work on how this system could be developed and deployed on site, and which are the physical and spatial implications that they had.

A triggered avulsions abandons the river belt at one point and flows separately through a given length to come back again to the river. This feature generates a different spatial and organisational structures over the territory, the Micro Flooding Unit..

100 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

As can be seen in fig. 12, in which the guidelines previously described are being applied. The territory has shifted into a new pattern of water management and river ecology (fig. 13), bringing the decision-making process back to the


Fig .12

Generic Guidelines, Arga River

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 101


Guidelines for River Diversion INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Implications: River Ecology IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

102 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .13

River Ecology

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 103


ARGA AND ARAGĂ“N RIVERS

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Part 3: Intervention Strategies IMPLICATIONS

Productive Actualiaztion Manual DEPLOYMENT Proposal Development by Stages Balancing Productive Dynamics Productive Networks Cartogenesis Territorial implications

104 // Fluvial Pulsing Territories

SPATIAL QUALITIES


Fig .1 Key Drawing


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

By observing the landscape and thinking of the possibilities the ground could give to the project, it is immediately clear that the relatively flat landscape can be an efficient ground for anastomosing procedures. Most importantly, the core factor of intervention would be a shifting, not only geomorphological, but also social and economic, for the agricultural community of Navarre. The project is about breaking into forms of resistance within an ailing territorial formation. The avulsions, happening inside the floodplain will give us a new spatial organisation, consisting of Micro Flooding Units. The experimentation through time, simulations of avulsions and classification of their probability, the geomorphological conditions and the social formations, all give us hints and contribute towards the soon to come design making process In this chapter the set of generic guidelines stablished in the previous section will be implemented on the specific site of the river Arga and Arag贸n. The intention is to see how a generic praxis could be actualized with specific site conditions, such as productive dynamics, urban nodes, infrastructural elements, etc.

106 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig.1 Arag贸n River, Navarre.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 107


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Proposal Deployment by Stages IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .2 Natural Avulsions Paths

This Productive Actualization Manual that we followed to structure and develop our proposal was based in working through time as mentioned before and by observing the reaction of nature to our specific artificial interventions. We did this as our purpose was not to create a big infrastructure intervention without being able to control it, or examine its results and its interaction with nature and also for economic reasons. The first stage after observing the natural paths (fig. 2) that avulsions could follow, was to abstract the simulations and chose a set of avulsions that will generate a specific new landform. It should be clarified at this point, that this scenario that we are working with it is one of the possible ones that could arose from the geomorphology of the site. Having identified a possible scenario, the avulsions are triggered with the techniques aforementioned and through three stages.

108 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


WINTER Water input _ 6000; Sediment _ Thin; Slope _ Default

AUTUMN Water input _ 4000; Sediment _ Thin; Slope _ Default

SPRING Water input _ 2000; Sediment _ Thin; Slope _ Default

SUMMER Water input _ 2000; Sediment _ Thin; Slope _ Default

Fig .3 Seasonal Simulations to Identify Avulsion Paths

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 109


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Proposal Deployment by Stages IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 4a Triggering Avulsions, Stage 1

In the three different stages the avulsions are triggered through the combinations of different techniques as it has been said before. In the site actualization this techniques are tested with the simulation models, to see how the river actually responds to them. This simulations are done considering the different flooding scenarios along the year (fig 4b, 5b and 6b) and runned three times, under the logic that they need this three years to consolidate.

Winter

Autumn

Spring

Fig. 4b Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 1

110 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Summer


Winter

Spring

Autumn

Summer

Fig. 5a Triggering Avulsions, Stage 2

Fig. 6a Triggering Avulsions, Stage 3

Fig. 5b Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 2

Winter

Spring

Autumn

Summer

Fig. 6b Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 3

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 111


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Proposal Deployment IMPLICATIONS

Fig. 7 Micro Flooding Units Division

DEPLOYMENT

Having developed the final scenari of avulsions the Micro Flooding Units can be defined. As it has been previuosly stated, this units are determined by the QUALITIES main SPATIAL avulsion abandoning the main chanel of the river and coming back to it. In this way six Flooding Management Unit are stablished in the area of intervention. This Micro Flooding Units will be further developed in the next chapter.

Fig. 8 Topography After Intervention

For the purpose of determining the topography of the new islands, we take into accound the resulting topography after all the avulsions are consolidated. In this sense, the topography will be raised in the point were it is naturally higher, with the criteria of fullfilling the productive parameters that will be further explained. In fig. 9 it can be seen the different areas that remain non-flooded throughout the different seasons. According to this topography, not all the level will have the same number of levels, going from a range of one to four.

Winter

Autumn

Spring

Fig. 9 Non - Flooded Areas by Seasons

112 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Summer


Fig. 10 Micro Flooding Units Organisation and Level Distribution

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 113


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Balancing Productive Dynamics IMPLICATIONS Fig. 11 Proposed Area of Crops and Labor Balance, Diagram

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The principal goal of the projects is to transform the landscape into a more resilient one, not only in terms of flood resilience, but also in the productive sense. The topography is going to be manufactured according to the resilience to flooding of the different crops that are going to be implemented in each island. So, for that reason, a new balanced in the crops surface needs to be achieved. The way in which this surface is redistributed is according to the demand of human labor each crop need, in the three stages. According to that, we come up with a better balanced crops distribution throughout the year as it can be seen in fig. 11. Of course, an equal balance is non sense to happen, so still some peaks happen in spring and summer.

Fig. 12 Calculation of Reservoirs Capacity

Having determined the surface of each type of crop, they are distributed along the different islands. With this information and the water need of each crop the reservoirs for each island are calculated. They are measured to be between 70 to 150 meters diameter, according to the specific needs of each island (fig. 12). They are designed to store and distribute water in the highest level of each of the islands. Given that the new manufactured territory within the river, we take as an example the Micro Flooding Unit, is divided in 7 islands. It is important to decide and design, according to the geospatial conditions we just created, the hierarchy and rules of programming distribution between the islands. D. Bra, Technical Essay.

114 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 13

Proposed Area of Crops and Labor Balance, Index

Having studied the benefits of flood irrigation it was really important to establish a strategy according to the types of crops that could be cultivated in the area of our intervention and study all the conditions that would make more suitable one type of crop from another. We studied different crops that are traditionally cultivated and are unique in this region of Spain, such as asparagus and red pepper and specified their water need, flood and drought resilience and soil and sun requirements. As we used flood irrigation as an irrigation technique, the difference in the levels was crucial, so as to irrigate by gravity following the contours. As can be seen in fig. 13, showing the final scenario of crops distribution, where all the previous stepps are being applied. L.Driva, Technical Essay

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 115


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Balancing Productive Dynamics IMPLICATIONS

Fig. 14 Seasonal Activation of Levels, Winter

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES Once the levels are defined in an abstract and numerical way, they need to be tested through the simulations in order to find out how much does each level of each island needs to be raised, and though the voulme of earth it will be required. The winter scenario will be the one that suffers the most intense flooding and because of this the areas that need to be secured and protected from them are the ones which will need the mos amount of earth.

Topography

Simulations

Fig. 15 Seasonal Activation of Levels, Autumn

Autumn is the season that suffers the second extreme flooding in this area, due to the heavy rains that occur in this part of the year. The same study need to be carried out, to achieve this area to be protected from this amount of water. The crops that are planted in this level are fruit trees, that are semi-resilient to flooding, but will be flooded just once, in extreme situations.

Topography

Simulations

116 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 16 Seasonal Activation of Levels, Spring

Spring flooding, caused by the ice and snow melt from the pyrenees are not as extreme as the winter or autumn ones, flooding just the nearby lands to the river. The crops that are cultivated in this second level mainly consist of vegetable sspecies, as their resilience to flooding is quite high. Moreover, the flooding in this level will occur when the demand of water for this crops is higher, i.e. during the seeding process.

Topography

Simulations

Topography

Simulations

Fig. 17 Seasonal Activation of Levels, Summer

The summer scenario will be the other extreme, a totally drought period, were the water is scarce, but coincident with the highest demands in water. For this purpose the reservoirs are being build to help irrigte this lands, retaining the water surpluse of the winter. In this sense the landscape is turning to be a more resilient one.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 117


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Productive Networks IMPLICATIONS Principal Connections

First Optimization

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 18 Transport Infrastructure Study

Fig. 19 Existing Drainage Patterns

After implementing the three stages of the artificial triggering of the avulsions, we started identifying how connections, infrastructure and facility networks could work. This network was intended to reinforce the arguemnt of the local agriculture and though the productive networks that arose. In this sense the productive system is organized having a principal island inside each Micro Flooding Unit, the rest of the islands of the unit, will work as satellites of the main one. As it can be seen in fig. 18 this hierarchy has a direct effect on how the infrastructural paths are implemented. As it can be imaigned, this infrastructure will be in the fourth level, protected from flooding. Thus, it is going to be designed following to basic principles. Firstly, minimizing the length of the connections (fig.18) and secondly, trying to respond as much as possible to the existing topography, i.e. the main lines of the existing drainage patterns (fig. 19) are going to be followed.

118 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Final Optimization


Optimization and Drainage Parameter

Final Negotiation

Fig. 20 Transport Infrastructure Actualisation According to Existing Drainage Patterns

Having determined the two aspects that will influence the design of the transport network, a negotiation occurs between both of them. In fig. 14 this two parameters are being overlapped and the negotiation finally is materialised. .

Fig. 21 Transport Infrastructure

The previous negotiation in between the principal criterias for the design of the transport infrastructure result in an adapted but efficient network. This network not only respects the topography and minimizes the cost, but also engages with the argument and the intentions of decentralisation and bringing the power to the local scale, creating a new hierarchy for productive networks.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 119


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Territorial Implications IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .25

Management and Organisation

Given this new ground of Micro Flooding Management Units, we would like to highlight the fact that small scale interventions give room for alternative ways of managing water, that could help construct more resilient and adaptable landscapes to an ever growing extreme hydrological conditions. Throughout our approach we seek to prove that, instead of using current methods of water management against natural procedures, or in spite of their existence, there could be an alternative; Agencies that derive from the cooperation with the natural element, instead of controlling nature we try to understand it and negotiate with it. In this sense, applying the productive actualization manual to a larger scale, we realize that this new system will enable a higher flexibility of water usage, and broader cooperation between upstream and downstream Micro Flooding Units. This cooperation may take the form of exhange of water surpluses, and benefiting from a water richer in nutrients due to the flooding irrigation implemented in each island.

120 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 121


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Cartogenesis IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

This Productive Actualization Manual that we followed to structure and develop our proposal was based in working through time as mentioned before and by observing the reaction of nature to our specific artificial interventions. We did this as our purpose was not to create a big infrastructure intervention without being able to control it, or examine its results and its interaction with nature and also for economic reasons. Slope, Seasonal water input and old channel paths that are now prone to create anastomosing patterns, all contribute to this new spatial symphony towards a more resilient yet productive landscape. In addition, there is the redesigning process and lastly the set up of new parameters of human labor and productive structures according to innovative territorial formations. In the next chapter one Micro Flooding Unit will be developed and analysed at a closer scale, to give light on how small scale interventions create different spatial qualities.

122 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Year 2015

Fig .22

Cartogenesis Stage 1

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 123


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Cartogenesis IMPLICATIONS Year 2018

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig .23

124 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Cartogenesis Stage 2


Year 2021

Fig .24

Cartogenesis Final Stage

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 125


Productive Actualization Manual INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Cartogenesis IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

126 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 127


INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

Part 3: Intervention Strategies

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Micro Flooding Unit Development

Time Evolution Spatial Organisation Irrigation System Activities Iteration


Fig .1

Key Drawing


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The spatial organisation of the Micro Flooding Unit is originated after the implementation of the proposal in a larger scale. This Micro Flooding Unit consists of seven islands with different levels, as they adapt to the specific topographic conditions. Respecting the different crops flood resilience, the crops are placed on the levels accordingly. It is interesting to compare the difference between the organisation of the 5 hectare rule that now applies and the spatial patterns of our plot system that is much smaller, leading to small-scale agriculture. The aforementioned techniques, the inflatable weirs and reservoirs can be controlled by one village or by an association of several farmers reflecting the shifting of power to the local scale. One of the main infrastructural elements of each of the islands is the reservoir which is situated in the highest level, in the points where the accumulation of water tends to be higher. The fourth level that never gets flooded is the one that hosts the public urban area of our intervention, unveils different spatial qualities and is going to be further explained in the following chapter.

130 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .2

Micro Flooding Units along Arga River.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 131


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT Time Evolution SPATIAL QUALITIES

Fig. 3 Micro Flooding Unit Formation

Weirs placement Based on the traces of the meander old paths, we decide to trigger the points the river is more likely to avulse. This is achieved by recognizing these locations and introducing inflatable dams to alter the river course. The positioning of the dams as well as the size both in width and height play crucial role for the success of the avulsion. Given that the main river course has a depth of 5 meters, whilst the avulsed paths are as deep as 2. We position the inflatable dam in angles between 30-60 degrees to the main river course, although the width is such designed, still allowing water to pass from one of its sides. This will create, after sequenced flooding events, erosion in the upper basin paths, allowing water to find its way in memorizing its old traces. After the triggered point of the avulsion has been consolidated, which according to the outcome of the simulations is estimated in 2-3 years, the inflatable dam can be deflated and removed to another location, or completely.

Simulations result

The beneficial features of this choice are based on the overall philosophy of the project, which respects and attempts to mimic the natural conditions. In an effort to avoid solid materials such as concrete, rock or clay which would disturb the flexibility yet stability that the inflatable weir has to offer. The idea of creating a temporary mask, as a tool for design with nature, fits well in this approach. Its light structure, flexible installation, the inexpensive equipment and the lack of maintenance costs make it an ideal and powerful tool in our catalogue of techniques.

Reservoirs placement

After the consolidation of each of the avulsions, the inflatable weir could be even carried away with a boat. Otherwise, it could form part of the permanent equipment used for the alteration of the existing topography around the river. D. Bra, Technical Essay

132 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 133


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT Spatial Organisation SPATIAL QUALITIES Topographic Simulations

Many different patterns and methods of excavation where used for the purpose of the channel opening. Except from digging the beginning of the old trace, the digging of 5- 10 meter width of pits was tested, however not with the same succesful results. The attempt to dig the whole avulsing channel was seen to be succesful in simulations, although unnecessary to use such a large constructive operation, since with smaller length of digging similar results could be achieved. In this project, the earth needed to fill in the flat topography in order to create the terraced islands was measured, to give a volume of soil needed

to be excavated according to the principles of the specific technique. For example, the amount of earth extracted for an avulsion having length 3.5km, would be 52.3dm3 in volume. The flood will help consolidate the avulsion. The earth gathered from the excavation of the avulsion paths, is used for the further filling in the topography in between avulsions. This procedure creates islands, divided by the opposite of the rule of 5 hectares in small crop farms. The technique for the creation of the islands is terracing, allowing levels to be created according to the water height of the seasonal floods. For example, level 0 is elevated +0.40

Flooding and Levels Ranges

Fig .4

134 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Levels and Flooding Study

meters, so that in spring, autumn and winter the water table is higher and flood-irrigated the rice fields that are planned to be planted. Second level is raised on +0.80 meters, causing flood to reach it only in spring and winter. Fruit trees are planted among ditches that divert the water in the crops. So on this cooperation between the engraving (irrigation ditches) and the shifting(islands) of the landscape, cut and fill technique is the key factor. The digging is usually 2-3 meters deep and 5 meters long, for the avulsions to happen. D. Bra, Technical Essay


The island formation and the distribution of the crops followed a specific strategy (fig. 5). Firstly, we took into consideration the actual island contours according to the results of the simulations in each of the seasons. Then we identified the run off analysis, the down slope axis and the main connections and started distinguishing the possible levels. The earth gathered from the excavation of the avulsion paths, was used for the further filling in the topography in between avulsions shaping the levels. The technique for the creation of the islands is terracing, allowing levels to be created according to the water height of the seasonal floods. The crops placed in each level were divided by inverting the rule of 5 hectares in small crop farms.

Actual テ行land Contours

Runoff Analysis

Down Slope Axis

Main Connections

Fig. 5 Island Formation

+ 0,40m

Height + 0,80

Height

+ 1,20

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 135


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT Irrigation System SPATIAL QUALITIES The design proess of the irrigation system was done through different models (fig. 6) that helped us understand how the levels could work, and the water could be distributed through gravity. Afterwards an abstraction process of this exploration models was done (fig. 7) coming up with different patterns that will be lately implemented in the Micro Flooding Unit.

Triangulated Pattern 1

Triangulated Pattern 2

Fig .6

Model Images

136 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Fig .7

Irrigation System Study


Fig. 8 Irrigation System Definition

We used the traditional irrigation technique and the principles of its overall organisation, which in this case is the circulation of water by gravity. We create four main canals that take water that is stored in the reservoir and distribute it to the smaller ditches along the different levels. The frequency of the use of the canal is connected with the seasonal timing of flooding. For instance, the canal in the fourth level is always active as it is never flooded and the canal in the first level is rarely used as it is flooded constantly. Furthermore, the canal in the first level is the one that carries most of the water and the one in the fourth level carries the less. This is due to the fact that the crops are placed according to their flooding resiliency starting from the first level, where we place the most resilient crop, rice.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 137


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT Activities Iteration SPATIAL QUALITIES

The activities in each of the islands vary according to the different seasons (fig. 9). The diversity of the activities and their classification into open, built and agricultural spaces originates from the need of creating a more balanced territory throughout the whole year. As we proceed through seasons, from winter to summer, the territory becomes more efficiently active and powerful.

Fig .9 Seasonal Activities Iteration

138 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .9 Seasonal Activities Iteration

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 139


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

The spatial organisation of the Micro Flooding Unit is originated after the implementation of the proposal in a larger scale. This Micro Flooding Unit consists of seven islands with different levels, as they adapt to the specific topographic conditions. Respecting the different crops’ flood resilience, the crops are placed on the levels accordingly. It is interesting to compare the difference between the organisation of the 5 hectare rule that now applies and the spatial patterns of our plot system that is much smaller, leading to small-scale agriculture. The aforementioned techniques, the inflatable weirs and reservoirs can be controlled by one village or by an association of several farmers reflecting the shifting of power to the local scale. One of the main infrastructural elements of each of the islands is the reservoir which is situated in the highest level, in the points where the accumulation of water tends to be higher. The fourth level that never gets flooded is the one that hosts the public urban area of our intervention, unveils different spatial qualities and is going to be further explained in the following chapter.

140 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .10

Manufactured Grounds

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 141


IMPLICATIONS

Micro Flooding Unit Development DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

142 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 143


IMPLICATIONS

DEPLOYMENT

SPATIAL QUALITIES

Part 3: Intervention Strategies Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity

Irrigation and Social Spaces


Fig .1

Key Drawing


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

In this chapter scenarios of the materialisation of infrastructure and programmatic facilities in the island are going to be explored. The development of the infrastructural elements will be carried out through a catalogue of water drivers that will guide the morphology of the different elements, such as ditches and reservoir. In the urban scale, the fourth leves is emphasized to epxlore its potential spatial qualities. As it has been seen along the project, the reservoir forms the most crucial infrastructural element. Now its not only infrastructural but also iconic in terms of programmatic distribution. It defines an urban surrounding and it creates a polarizationfrom recreation to productivity. We wanted to create a series of mixing programmatic facilites, buildingspathways//storage buildings-irrigation-crop terraces, all explored in a same language of terracing, from example, the storage of crops is, itself, constructed as part of the terraces. This was obtained from the paper model explorations. It is important to emphasize on the shifting of current social structure, as one of our main purposes through this strategy was to rebalance the labour.

146 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig. 2

Ditch: Model Exploration Image 1.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 147


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig .3

Ditch: Model Exploration Images 2 and 3.

148 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .4

Irrigation Networks

The reservoir, apart from being the most crucial infrastructural element, now gains another dimension; the symbolic. It is the key source of power within the island, because it is responsible for the irrigation of the agricultural crops, the main purpose of this island. The ditches that derive from the reservoir circulate water by gravity and connect with the irrigation lines of the previous levels, to bond the manufacturing of the grounds among the levels

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 149


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig. 5 Paper Models Exploration.

The intervention strategy was to form a system of terracing which would also provide suitable environment for cultivation, as well as urban comfort. The design of the terracing system was done through experimentation with paper folding, as can be seen in fig, 5. An abstraction of this models was done as it can be seen in fig.6a and 6b.

Fig .6a

150 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Paper Models Abstraction


Fig .6b

Paper Models Abstraction

The cylindrical shape of the reservoir is designed in such way, that 0.20 m of inside cylindrical terracing is supporting the structure, creating possible human activity, such as an ephemeral theatrical scene, or a seasonal public space. The duality of the programming is trying to create questions about the possibility of multi-usage of an operation equipment, or to raise dilemmas on if and how could a technical detail be inhabited. Materials considered for the reservoir would be primarly based in the same logic, movable and flexible, though in the end the shifting in the approach for the design purposes led the team to create long, concrete structures, the most solidinterventions within the altered topography.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 151


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig .7

152 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies

Urban Scale Axonometry.


Fig .8

Building Typologies and Level Plans

The importance on the shifting of current social structure, as one of our main purposes through this strategy was to rebalance the labour. To do so, we create a built environment that hosts worker in the island throughout the year.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 153


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

154 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .9

Catalogue of Water Drivers

This catalogue (fig. 9) is aiming to relfect a research that considers every element of the project as a water driver. According to the morphology of the drivers they are classified in concave or convex, being the first ones in charge of moving water throught the territory, and the second ones who divert the water to the concave. The purpose of the design of water elements is for them to integrate and change according to use in the landscape, that is to say to the different conditions through which they pass. According to this, the final expresion of the different water drivers is obtained through a lofting design process along the sections.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 155


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig. 10 Ditch Exploration

Focusing on the spatial qualities of the ditches, we study their implementation through the fourth and highest level. The ditches derive primary from the reservoir and form irrigation lines that connect with the ditches of the lower levels. However, by focusing on widening or minimizing the width of their path, from 0.45 meters to 3, we achieve a transformation on velocity and water energy. By designing these variations in each path, the ditch runs along the surface, irrigates when it needs by minimizing its path, and where it meets pathways, it widens, forming small fluid elements on the urban inhabitance. D. Bra, Technical Essay.

156 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .11

Ditch Model Exploration Image 4

The importance on the shifting of current social structure, as one of our main purposes through this strategy was to rebalance the labour. To do so, we create a built environment that hosts worker in the island throughout the year.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 157


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig .12

Ditch Model Abstraction

Focusing on the spatial qualities of the ditches, we study their implementation through the fourth and highest level. The purpose of the design of water elements is for them to integrate and change according to use in the landscape.

158 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .13

Ditch Plans

By designing these variations in each path, the ditch runs along the surface, irrigates when it needs by minimizing its path, and where it meets pathways, it widens, forming small fluid elements on the urban inhabitance.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 159


DEPLOYMENT

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity SPATIAL QUALITIES Irrigation and Social Spaces

Fig. 14 Reservoir Exploration

In the highest points, the reservoirs are implemented. Inserted deep into the ground, raised in a height of 5 meters, the reservoir will receive water from the flooding and gradually store it inside its cylindrical body. Many shapes and geometrical formations were tested for the use of water storage in the islands. Simulations and common sense show as the most efficient solution to be the implementation of reservoirs in the highest point of the fourth level, in height of 1.8 meters but as deep as 4 meters, to achieve full access to water from beneath the ground. The water will be distributed for irrigation either by pumping or by gravity, driven from holes inside the different levels to pipes, diverting stored water to croplands. The reservoir is tested to be filled in winter, and to be gradually resolved from water availability during summer. The cylindrical shape of the reservoir is designed in such way, that 0.20 m of inside cylindrical terracing is supporting the structure, creating possible human activity, such as an ephemeral theatrical scene, or a seasonal public space. D. Bra, Technical Essay.

160 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


Fig .15

Reservoir Model Exploration

The duality of the programming is trying to create questions about the possibility of multi-usage of an operation equipment, or to raise dilemmas on if and how could a technical detail be inhabited. Materials considered for the reservoir would be primarly based in the same logic, movable and flexible, though in the end the shifting in the approach for the design purposes led the team to create long, concrete structures, the most solid interventions within the altered topography. AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 161


NEW EUROPEAN WATER CARTOGRAPHY


Fig .1

New European Water Cartography.


164 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


EPILOGUE

This project reflects a multidisciplinary approach which covers a variety of tools such as research on the territorial and social formations and their interactions with geomorphological processes, use of simulations as a tool of a better understanding of fluvial geomorphological processes, investigation of a series of techniques that contribute to the constructive parts of the project and design implementation of a possible scenario. All these issues were explored in various scales, commencing from the larger scale and moving to the smaller one, offering different ways of organising the territory as well as finding ways to unveil its spatial qualities. Starting from a general interest in negotiating between river and human dynamics, that was followed from a deep understanding of the water management policies and the effect on the territorial configurations, we were able to investigate potentials that arouse from the development pressure exerted in those territories and also to propose alternatives. The most interesting part that creates a void for our praxis is that the politics of water management follow either a resource or an ecosystem approach without referring to productive landscapes, which can generate powerful economies. The creation of a set of guidelines that would respond to this new water management vision engaged with the notion of productivity is one of the main issues that addresses the Flooding Mechanisms: a new ground for water management policies project. The examination of the different scales led us to the realisation that small scale interventions give room for alternative ways of managing water, which could contribute to the construction of more resilient and adaptable landscapes to ever growing extreme hydrological conditions. As a response to this situation, we could suggest that these local forms of resistance arise trying to claim for more grounded policies. These new policies would set the foundation for the emergence of a diversity of projects that would reframe the actual social, economic, productive and spatial by enclosing the notion that innovations or modifications of current situations are triggered mainly from local agencies.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 165


APPENDIX


Appendix Generic Simulations

168 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 169


Appendix Generic Simulations

170 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 171


Appendix Simulations Abstraction

172 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 173


Appendix Avulsion Rules

174 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 175


Appendix Seasonal Simulations

176 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 177


Appendix Seasonal Simulations

178 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 179


Appendix Unit Formation

180 // Flooding Mechanisms: A New Ground for Water Management Policies


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014-15 // 181


Drawings PART 1: RIVER DYNAMICS: POLICIES OF CONTROL Approaches Towards River Dynamcis ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6

S. Ribot, European Cartography. S. Ribot, Edited Google image of River Narew, Poland. S. Ribot, Flood Pulse Concept. D. Bra, Triggered Anastomosing Rivers. L. Driva, Restoration Projects. L. Driva, Room for the River, Techniques.

^ 8c ^9 ^ 10 ^ 10a ^ 10b ^ 10c ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13

S. Ribot, Site Guidelines, Stage 3. S. Ribot, Site Guidelines, Final Stage. S. Ribot, Techniques Diagram. S. Ribot, Techniques, Stage 1. S. Ribot, Techniques, Stage 2. S. Ribot, Techniques, Stage 3. D. Bra, Catalogue of Techniques. S. Ribot, Generic Guidelines, Arga River. S. Ribot, River Ecology.

Productive Actualization Manual European Atlas of River Control ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6

S. Ribot, European Cartography. S. Ribot and L. Driva, European Atlas. S. Ribot, Narew River, Poland. S. Ribot, Le Gard River, France. S. Ribot, Savio River, Italy. S. Ribot, Arga River, Spain.

Spain Case Study ^1 ^2

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, Spanish Dicatorship Water Management Plans.

PART 2: SITE CONDITIONS Navarre Riparian Territories ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, Territorial Formations. S. Ribot, Canal Project. S. Ribot, Canal Project: Conflicts. S. Ribot, Plot Divison Comparison in Arga and Arag贸n Rivers D. Bra, Effects of Canalization in Local Economies

Morphology of Water Politics Social Formations ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. L. Driva, Seasonal Calendar S. Ribot, Crops Rotation and Activation L. Driva, Seasonal Chart. S. Ribot, Social Formations Diagram. S. Ribot, Social Formations Index.

Geomorphology ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6 ^7 ^8 ^9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, River Narew, Poland, edited Google Earth image. S. Ribot, Edited River Classification, Rosgen 1994. S. Ribot, Avulsion Processes. S. Ribot, Type of Avulsions. S. Ribot, Type of Avulsions along course,. S. Ribot, Meandric Geomorphology. S. Ribot, Avulsion Processes. S. Ribot, Water Flow and Erosion / Deposition Processes Studies, CAESAR. S. Ribot, Seasonal Flooding. S. Ribot, Flooding Area. S. Ribot and L. Driva, Geomorphology Panel.

PART 3: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Guidelines for River Diversion ^1 ^2 ^ 3a ^ 3b ^4 ^5 ^6 ^7 ^ 8a ^ 8b

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, Le Grand River, France, edited Google Earth image. S. Ribot, Simulations in Random Meandric River. S. Ribot, Simulations in Random Meandric River. S. Ribot, Abstraction of Simulation Images. S. Ribot, Set of Rules. S. Ribot, Seasonal Avulsions Identified in the Area. S. Ribot, Avulsion Paths. S. Ribot, Site Guidelines, Stage 1. S. Ribot, Site Guidelines, Stage 2.

^1 ^2 ^3 ^ 4a ^ 4b ^ 5a ^ 5b ^ 6a ^ 6b ^7 ^8 ^9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24 ^ 25

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. L. Driva, Natural Avulsions Paths. S. Ribot, Seasonal Simulations to Identify Avulsion Paths. L. Driva, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 1. S. Ribot, Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 1. L. Driva, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 2. S. Ribot, Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 2. L. Driva, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 3. S. Ribot, Seasonal Simulations, Triggering Avulsions, Stage 3. S. Ribot, Micro Flooding Units Division. S. Ribot, Topography After Intervention. S. Ribot, Non - Flooded Areas by Seasons. L. Driva, Micro Flooding Units Organisation and Level Distribution. L. Driva, Proposed Area of Crops and Labor Balance, Diagram. S. Ribot and L. Driva, Calculation of Reservoirs Capacity. L. Driva, Proposed Area of Crops and Labor Balance, Index. S. Ribot, Seasonal Activation of Levels, Winter S. Ribot, Seasonal Activation of Levels, Autumn. S. Ribot, Seasonal Activation of Levels, Spring. S. Ribot, Seasonal Activation of Levels, Summer. S. Ribot, Transport Infrastructure Study. L. Driva, Existing Drainage Patterns. S. Ribot, Transport Infrastructure Actualisation According to Existing Drainage Patterns. S. Ribot, Transport Infrastructure. S. Ribot, Cartogenesis Stage 1. S. Ribot, Cartogenesis Stage 2. S. Ribot, Cartogenesis Final Stage. S. Ribot, Managemnt and Organisation.

Micro Flooding Unit ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6 ^7 ^8 ^9 ^ 10

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, Micro Flooding Units along Arga River. D. Bra and S. Ribot, Micro Flooding Unit Formation. D. Bra, Levels and Flooding Study. D. Bra and S. Ribot, Island Formation. L. Driva, Model Images. L. Driva, Irrigation System Study L. Driva, Irrigation System Definition S. Ribot, Seasonal Activities Iteration L. Driva, Manufactured Grounds.

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6 ^7 ^8 ^9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15

S. Ribot, Key Drawing. S. Ribot, Ditch: Model Exploration Image 1. S. Ribot, Ditch: Model Exploration Images 2 and 3. D. Bra, Irrigation Networks. D. Bra, Paper Models Exploration. D. Bra, Paper Models Abstraction. D. Bra, Urban Scale Axonometry. D. Bra, Building Typologies and Level Plans. S. Ribot, Catalogue of Water Drivers. S. Ribot, Ditch Exploration. S. Ribot, Ditch Model Exploration Image 4. D. Bra, Ditch Model Abstraction. D. Bra, Ditch Plans. S. Ribot, Reservoir Exploration. S. Ribot, Reservoir Model Exploration.

New European Water Cartography ^1

S. Ribot, New European Water Cartogrpahy


Images PART 1: RIVER DYNAMICS: POLICIES OF CONTROL Approaches Towards River Dynamcis (1) <http://agdc.usgs.gov/data/usgs/water/metadata/colo_dem.html> (2) <http://mountainwhimsy.com/2011/05/> (3) <http://www.delange.org/PuebloGrande/PuebloGrande.htm> (4) <http://arizonaexperience.org/remember/hohokam-canals-prehistoric-engineering> (5) <http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/facts_figures/pdf/ River%20Basin%20Districts-2012.pdf> (6) <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/recurrence-of-floodevents-in-europe-between-1998-2002> (7) <http://biblio.central.ucv.ro/bib_web/bib_pdf/EU_books/0020.pdf> (8) <http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/urban-flooding-2014-impervious-surfaces > (9) <http://www.amusingplanet.com/2013/04/taum-sauk-hydroelectric-powerstation.html> (10) <http://coolgeography.co.uk/GCSE/AQA/Development_Gap/Cahora_Bassa/ Cahora_bassa.htm> (11) <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Arizona_Project#/media/ File:Arizona_cap_canal.jpg > (12) <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Kluft-Photo-Aerial-I205-California-AqueductImg_0038.jpg (13) <http://www.redlakerivercorridor.org/project.html>

Spain Case Study (1) http://granadablogs.com/gr-arquitectos/2011/11/21/el-manual-del-acequiero/ (2) http://lamiradadeladama.foroes.org/t771-fotos-antiguas-de-elche-moli-delreal (3) http://vi.sualize.us/tag/historia/ (4) http://www.yporquenounblog.com/2015_04_01_archive.html (5) http://clasev.net/v2/pluginfile.php/15811/mod_resource/content/0/UD_HISTORIA_UUDD_11_y_12_.pdf (6) http://servicios.laverdad.es/murcia_agua/cap8.3.htm (7) http://servicios.laverdad.es/murcia_agua/infografias10.htm (8) http://www.elche.me/etiqueta/acequia-de-marchena (9) http://www.cgtcatalunya.cat/spip.php?article1859#.VfwIp99VhBc (10) http://www.farodevigo.es/espana/2009/06/20/manifestacion-trasvase-tajosegura/340365.html (11) http://www.comunidadism.es/agenda/viii-congreso-iberico-sobre-gestion-yplanificacion-del-agua

PART 2: SITE CONDITIONS Navarre Riparian Territories (1) Clara Oloriz, Aerial Image, Arga and Arag贸n River, edited by S. Ribot. (2) http://www.revistadepatrimonio.es/revistas/numero14/concepto/estudios/ articulo.php (3) https://lemapaisajes.wordpress.com/2011/09/01/plan-especial-de-la-vega-degranada/ (4) http://www.iagua.es/noticias/agricultura/13/08/28/el-canal-de-navarra-producira-energia-renovable-con-la-quecubrir-un-65-del-consumo-actual-de-nava (5) http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/prensa/noticias/miguel-arias-ca%F1ete-elcanal-de-navarra-es-una-actuaci%F3nde-enorme-trascendencia-que-beneficiar%E1-a-varias-generaciones-/tcm7292908-16 (6) https://uranuevacultura.wordpress.com/ (7) https://uranuevacultura.wordpress.com/

Morphology of Water Politics Social Formations (1) http://www.picassomio.com/carlos-casu-bravo/79235.html (2)http://www.diariodenavarra.es/noticias/navarra/tierra_estella_ valdizarbe/2014/10/07/el_piquillo_dobla_cosecha_del_ano_ pasado_con_000_empleos_ligados_sector_177961_1006.html

(3) http://www.ayudaenaccion.org/contenidos/documentos/publicaciones/4277_25102007164535.pdf (4) http://trainingrey.es/content/la-vendimia (5) http://www.elquintopoder.cl/economia/temporeros-a-competir-con-lospobres-del-continente/ (6) http://www.abc.es/hemeroteca/dia-19-06-2013/pagina-9 (7) http://www.elcorreo.com/alava/20120330/local/consejo-regulador-calificaexcelente-201203301409.html


Bibliography PART 1: RIVER DYNAMICS: POLICIES OF CONTROL Approaches Towards River Dynamcis · Brian Fagan, Elixir: a history of water and humankind. · European Comission, European Water Framework Directive, 2000. · Karvonen Andrew, Politics of Urban Runoff: Nature, Technology, and the Sustain able City, MIT Press, 2011. · Loucks Daniel, Restoration of Degraded Rivers: Challenges, Issues and Experi ences, Kluwer Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, 1998. · Kaika Maria, City of flows: modernity, nature and the city, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York, 2005

Micro Flooding Unit · Elizabeth M.Shaw, Hydrology in Practice, August 2010. · Hubert Chanson, Hydraulics of Rubber Dam Overflow: A simple Design Approach, 1998 · D. B. kraatz and I. K. mahajan, Small Hydraulic Structure, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 1975.

Infrastructural Landscapes: Hydrology and Identity · Institution of Civil Engineers, Floods and Reservoir Safety, July 1996

European Atlas of River Control · European Comission, DG Environment, 2012.

Spain Case Study · Consejería de medio ambiente, Manual del acequiero. · Joan Corominas, Caracterización del regadío en España · Maite Martínez Aldaya et al, The water footprint of Spain · Erik Swyngedouw, Liquid Power: Contested Hydro-Modernities in TwentiethCentury Spain, Urban and Industrial Environments, MIT Press, 2015. · Fundación Nueva Cultura del Agua

PART 2: SITE CONDITIONS Navarre Riparian Territories · Ecoter, Study of Arga and Aragón rivers. · SITNA, technical maps of the area · INTIA, Documentación técnica del proyecto del Canal de Navarra. · INTIA, Estudio de impacto ambiental, mayo 2013. · COMUNIDAD GENERAL DE REGANTES DEL CANAL DE NAVARRA, Memoria 2013. · URA, press articles. · Gran Enciclopedia Navarra, Regadío · AnaGarcía Leal, Agrarian heritage in Vega de Granada: the river Dílar irrigation systems.

Morphology of Water Politics Social Formations · INE, Population census of affected towns. · CFN NAVARRA, agricultural data · LABORAL KUTXA, Economía Navarra, informe 2013. · GOBIERNO DE NAVARRA, Plan estratégico de la agricultura Navarra.

Geomorphology · Eva Lavooi, Origin of anastomosis, upper Columbia river, British Columbia, Canada. · Bart Makaske, Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products. 2000. · Rhine-Meuse Delta studies, Faculty of Geosciences Department of Physical Geog raphy, University Utrecht, Avulsions.

PART 3: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Guidelines for River Diversion · <http://www.coulthard.org.uk/CAESAR.html> · David Sauter, Landscape Construction. · Alberto Garrido, Water Policy in Spain, M Ramon Llamas 2009

Productive Actualization Manual · Charles Rickard, Rodney Day, Jeremy Purseglove, River Weirs – Good Practice Guide, University of Hertfordshire, October 2003.


SEMINARS Programme Brief · E. Castro, A. Ramírez, E. Rico, D. Spencer, Critical Territories: from academia to praxis. · Antoine Picon, Territory: architecture beyond environment, Architectural Design No 205, May/June 2010. · Stuart Elden, Land, Terrain and Territory, Progress in Human Geography No 34, April 2010.

The Idea of Landscape · Denis Cosgrove, The idea of Landscape. · Charles Waldheim, A reference manifesto.

The Agency of Mapping · James Corner, The Agency of Mapping.

Social Formations · Mike Davis, City of Quartz, Verso, 2006. · Denis Cosgrove, Venice, the Veneto and sixteenth-century landscape. · Mathew Gandy, The Paris Sewers and the Rationalization of Urban Space, Transac tions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1999). · Douglas Spencer, Nature is the Dummy, Grounding Metabolism, New Geographies 06, January 2015. · Jane Hutton, Reciprocal Landscapes: material portraits in New York City and else where, Journal of Landscape Architecture, 2013. · Erik Swyngedouw, Circulations and Metabolism: (Hybrid) Natures and (Cyborg) Cities. · George Simmel, The metropolis and mental life.

Cartography · Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, 1990. · Lynch Debord: About Two Psychogeographies · Denis Cosgrove, Carto-City: Mapping an Urban Space. · Denis Wood, Mapping, Chapter one, Map Blossom in the Springtime of the State. · Denis Wood, Rethinking the Power of Maps. the Guildford Press, 2010. · Antoine Picon, Nineteenth-Century Urban Cartography and the Scientific Ideal: The Case of Paris, Osiris, 2nd Series, Vol. 18, Science and the City (2003), pp. 135-149.


AA Landscape Urbanism 2014/2015

Architectural Association School of Architecture London, UK.

Silvia Ribot is a Spanish architect based in London. She studied architecture at the European University of Madrid, at the Architecture University of Sao Paulo and continued her postgraduate studies at the Architectural Association in the MA programme in Landscape Urbanism. She is passionate about territorial processes involving both the human and geographical dimensions of spaces across several scales, which makes her a never satisfied multidisciplinary learner.

Lida Driva is an architect based in London. She studied architecture at the Technical University of Crete and conitnued her postgraduate studies at the Architectural Association, where she is currently undertaking the MA programme in Landscape Urbanism. She is a scholar of the Architectural Association and of the Onassis Foundation for post-graduate studies. She has been engaged with the understanding of emergent territorial formations and is interested in the multidisciplinary approach of architecture and it multiple reflections on art.

Dimitra Bra is an architect based in London. She studied architecture at the University of Patras, moving forward as postgraduate studend in Landscape Urbanism studio of AA. Her work has been awarded and exhibited in Benaki Museum. She builds and â&#x20AC;&#x153;imaginaryâ&#x20AC;? toolbox of disciplines to reach a hybrid state between architecture and arts, which is just informed with the understanding of complex territorial formations and landscapes.


MA Landscape Urbanism 2014-/2015


Flooding mechanisms aa landscape urbanism s ribot l driva d bra