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AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 Msc / MArch Architectural Association School of Architecture London, UK Directors Jose Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Studio Master Clara Oloriz History & Theory Tutor Douglas Spencer Technical Tutors Gustavo Romanillos Giancarlo Torpiano Vincenzo Reale Machining Landscapes Tutor Tom Smith

Submitted By Msc: Shiqi Deng Menglei Zhong

Sep 2016 MArch team member Kai Fan will continue developing this project


6 //


ABSTRACT

Global Shipping traffic has increased steadily in the last decades causing great transformations in coastal areas. Among the most affected are estuarine territories such as the Ems river estuary in the Wadden Sea. Here, maintenance work of shipping canal needs constant dredging of sand to keep navigation channels unobstructed. These dredging works cause side-effects such as the increase of tidal range and frequent flooding’s in local coastal cities while the relocation of existing ports and specialised global trade produced shrinkage of nearby cities.

Our project ‘Dredging Artifice’ looks at ways in which dredged sand and its relocation along the estuarine territory can be repurposed to accommodate and design the relocation of port activities in line with existing wet and marsh lands. Through the manipulation of tidal energy, a geomorphological re-arrangement of dredged material produces a designed archipelago, on an existing intertidal zone, which over time can produced a territory that can benefit from its exposure to tidal ranges and the constant dynamism, physical and social of Estuarine Landscapes brought by global trade and side effects.

EMS ESTUARY LOW TIDE Photo by S.Deng

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Contents 01

Global Marine Trading Development

02

The North Sea Estuarine Dreding Altas

011

Chapter introductionC

019

hapter introduction

012

Global marine trading

020 Estuarine dreding Altas

014

Growing shipping routes

022 Estuarine social features

015

Vessel size evolution

016

Port cities urbanization

024 Dreding condtion of main estuaries 026 Estuarine geomorphology

017

Increasing dreding activities

effectis to the 028 Dredging estuarine mechanism 030 Dreding event in North sea

06

EMS Estuary Design Strategy

07

Estuarine Dynamic Design Prototype

075

Chapter introduction

083 Chapter introduction

076

Project Proposal

084 Three layer of tidal range

078

Shipyard shifting strategy

085 Hard structure formation

080

Intertidal area condtion

Simulation of erosion and 086 deposition

081

Barrier island inspiration

092 Simulation conclusion 093 Hard structure combination type 094 Potential landscape function

8 // Dredging Artifice in Estuarine Territories


03

Estuarine Port City Relationship Study

04

Wadden Sea Estuaries Context

05

EMS Estuary Territory Formation

033 Chapter introduction

043 Chapter introduction

051 Chapter introduction

034 Port movement in Rotterdam London Bilbao

044 Three estuaries in Wadden sea

052 Voice from EMS

040 Side effects of port moving

046 Wadden sea on-going projects 047 Projects in EMS estuary 048 EMS estuary features

054 Growing economy 056 EMS estuary Shipbuilding industry 058 EMS river dreding analysis

041 Port and City : relationship study

060 Deteriorate envrionment 062 Shrinking city 066 Geomorphology condtion

08

EMS Islands Intertidal Zone Evolution

09

EMS Islands Reactivated City

099 Chapter introduction

123 Chapter introduction

100 Intertidal zone evaluation

124 Reactivated relationship of city and port activities

102 Technique and construction 108 Planning urban function

128 EMS islands sections 134 Dredging artifice - Conclusion

110 Technique reports

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10 // Dredging Artifice in Estuarine Territories


01 Global marine trading Growing shipping routes Vessel size evolution Port cities urbanization Increasing dreding activities

GLOBAL MARINE TRADING DEVELOPMENT The project began with observing great transport developments, which have greatly altered people's way of living on this planet. With vehicles people are capable of traveling from one town to another within several hours; with giant cargos, trading across borders gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products. However, advanced transport is beneficial to the human in many aspects but also brings some uncontrollable consequences at the same time. For instance, international trade has increased rapidly, since it's economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. This may lead to significant development of port cities along coastlines and estuaries. Meanwhile, as the scale of cargos has grown larger and larger, they affect navigation channels and sea basin in order to be released to the ocean. Relatively, these ever deepening and widening channels could alter hydrological conditions and then landscapes nearby and dredging issues as well.

Nowadays, massive dredging work frequently happened almost in every river, and carries a lot of issues not only from social aspect, but also from environmental aspect. People have to do a lot of dredging work in order to follow the global trend of growing ship routes, ship size and port city, especially after 1960s, when the suction dredger had been widely used. With the global trading keep developing, higher intensity dredging work is going to happen.

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GROWING GLOBAL MARINE TRADING The world economic grows rapidly and world GDP keep expanding every year, even though there is some slightly underperformed part because of a number of setbacks constraining economic activity in developing regions. Global trade, as the main way for each country to perform their economic development, is emphasized by every country by presenting a lot of strategies. Improving the efficiency of transportation can be regarded as an essential of promoting international trading. And at the same time, over 80 percent international trade are performed by marine transportation. The global total loaded amount of seaborne trade increased from 2605 millions of tons in 1970 to 9548 millions of tons in 2013, about five times’ growth. Of these shipments, dry cargo (major and minor dry commodities carried in bulk, general cargo, breakbulk and 12 // Global Marine Trading Development

containerized trade) accounted for the largest share.

GLOBAL SHIPPING ROUTE Image altered by S.Deng

Wi t h t h e g r o w i n g d e m a n d o f m a r i n e transportation, more new ship routes have to be planned; ship size has to be expanded; the port city has to be expanded as well to be capable for large size’s ship. These changes will cause much more dredging work. Now, dredging work is a common task that almost every port city is facing. A Huge amount of dredging work not only requires a high cost but also cause a lot of environmental problems.

GROWING MARINE TRADING Fig.1


Fig.1-a

Fig.1-d

Fig.1-b

Fig.1-c

Fig.1-e

Fig.1-f

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GROWING SHIPPING ROUTES Development of marine trade will definitely lead to three trends. The first one is ship lines’ increasing. People have to build more ship route for more ships passing through to maintain the growing daily transport. From the left map, we can imagine how busy it is in the North Sea. But with the high demand of sea transportation, ship line will keep increase. Not only caused a lot of dredging work, in the meanwhile, ship lines’ building will also create some environmental issues like sea pollution or destruction of wildlife.

Fig.3

THE NORTH SEA SHIPPING MAP Fig. 2 GROWING SHIPPING ROUTES Fig.3 - 5

Fig.4

14 // Global Marine Trading Development

Fig.5


INCREASING VESSEL SIZE

Fig.6

The second trend that marine trade caused is the growing size of the vessel. Like other vehicle’s development, huge vessels are designed to contain more goods during the transportation. In order to maintain the daily transport of all vessels, rivers have to be deepening and widening. By tracing this linkage, we can understand why dredging work is in that high demand, especially in a port city. Rivers’ deepening that large vessel caused will aggravate flooding problem in the port city, and also damage local nature environment.

INCREASING SHIP SIZE DIAGRAM Image redrawn by K.Fan HUGE VESSELS AT THE PORTS Fig.6 - 7

Fig.7

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INCREASING PORT CITY The third trend that will happen is port cities’ expanding. Port city is the main point when to perform international trade. Port city’s expanding is not only because of local economic growth but also for providing a better room for large vessels. The development of port city, as well, will lead to a large dredging work. In a word, the high-speed growing of marine trade will accelerate the increasing ship route and ship size, and the expanding of port city. All of this trend will cause much dredging work, which does harm to local environment. This is one of the most urgent marine issues that the whole world is facing.

Fig.9

CITY EXPANDING MAP Fig. 8 LARGE PORT CITY Fig.9 - 11

Fig.10

16 // Global Marine Trading Development

Fig.11


ESTUARINE DREDGING CONDITION

Fig.13

Maintenance dredging and capital dredging are the two major type of dredging work. The work due to growing ship size and growing ship routes mainly belongs to maintenance dredging, including not only the construction of new shipping channel, but also the maintenance job of existing channel. In the meantime, the dredging work due to construction of new port or port expansion called as capital dredging. Massive maintenance dredging and capital dredging has been a potential threat to many port cities’ environmental condition. For the huge dredging work, issues like tidal flooding and saline intrusion are more easily happened near high dredging cities. And from social aspects, the ownership of dredged sediment and dumping site of the sediment carries a lot of conflicts between countries.

DREDGING NEWS IN THE PORT Fig. 12 DREDGING ISSUE NEWS Fig.13 - 14

Fig.14

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18 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


02 Estuarine dreding Altas Estuarine social features Dreding condtion of main estuaries Estuarine geomorphology Dredging effectis to the estuarine mechanism Dreding event in North sea

THE NORTH SEA ESTUARINE DREDGING ATLAS “America’s oceans and coasts are priceless assets. Indispensable to life itself, they also contribute significantly to our prosperity and overall quality of life. Too often, however, we take these gifts for granted, underestimating their value and ignoring our impact on them.� (An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century: Final Report of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, Recognizing Ocean Assets and Challenges, page 1.) We explored our interests in relation to the North Sea, a territory which contains numerous political territories and boundaries. Dredging work happened in the North Sea mainly focus at the ports in the estuaries, which shows in the North Sea atlas. The dredging volume in those estuaries is unbelievably huge, especially for the estuaries in Belgium and Germany, and mainly for maintenance dredging.

And from the dredging statistics of main estuaries in the North Sea, we can tell this phenomenon by those numbers. Larger port cities normally require more dredging work, but even for the small port cities, the maintenance dredging volume every year is still shocking. From geomorphological aspects, as the interchange spot of river flow and tidal current, fresh water and salty water, estuaries are more easily to form unique terrain, which can be featured from tides, sediment and habitats. Just because of those three features, damages caused by massive dredging work are much more severe in the estuaries than in the rivers like tidal flooding, saline intrusion, high sediment concentration and disturbed habitats. Now, in the North Sea, almost all the estuaries are facing those environmental issues, and we cannot deny the effects that dredging activities accelerate.

From social aspects, as economic center, tourism center and transport center, estuaries have higher demand of dredging activities.

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20 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


EMS ESTUARY LOW TIDE Photo by S.Deng

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THE NORTH SEA TRADING MAP Drawn by M.zhong

22 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


ESTUARINE SOCIAL FEATURE ECONOMIC CENTER Estuaries are always considered as the economic center of costal countries, and it provide us great space for fishery farming. In America, over 75% trading fish are cultivated in estuarine habitats and the profit that fish catching carried is about $4.3 billion per year to the local economy. Except for the fishery production, some other activities like energy industry and shipbuilding industry are also boosting local economy. As the economic center, port cities in the estuary need a lot capital dredging work including port construction and expansion.

BUSY PORT AREA Fig.15

RECREATION CENTER Estuaries are also important tourism center. As the transition part of river and ocean, estuaries tends to attract people for its special terrain. In many estuarine cities, millions of people visit estuaries every year for boating, swimming, watching birds or other wildlife. Those activities not only accelerate the city renewal, but also carry large demand of marine transport, both of which come with huge dredging work. For some other potential relations, the flourish of estuarine tourism stimulates local economy, and also promotes the development of shipping transportation. So the tourism activities in estuarine cities affect local dredging conditions in many ways. PORT TOURISM CENTER Fig.16

TRANSPORT CENTER Many estuaries, especially for the one with large ports, are essential transport center to costal countries and international trading. For the large quantity of seafood produced from those estuaries, and for some other products transport from inland area will convey through one or more estuaries on a large cargo vessel before it reached market. The busy transportation activities in those estuaries require huge maintenance dredging work. They have to keep a certain depth of those shipping channels and the depth is keep growing for the growing size of vessels. PORT ACTIVITIES Fig.17

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ESTUARINE DREDGING CONDITION Dredging activities in the North Sea are centralized in the estuaries with a certain amount every year. The chart below shows the dredging statistics of major estuaries in the North Sea including the number of ports, dredging volume per year, dredging type, dredging sites and dumping sites. For the average amount, estuaries in Netherlands have the highest dredging volume every year. For example, about

24 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas

12,255,334 tons of sediment will be dredged in the Scheldt estuary and about 10,444,186 tons in the Haringvliet estuary. In the meanwhile, since the dredging activities mostly concentrated in the port, the estuaries with more ports tends to generate more dredged sediment, such as Humber estuary with 2,008,585 tons volume in 3 ports.

DREDGING WORK IN THE RIVER Fig. 18

THE NORTH SEA DREDGING VOLUME Drawn by M.Zhong


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THE NORTH SEA DREDGING SITES Drawn by M.Zhong

26 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


ESTUARINE GEO FEATURE TIDAL PHENOMENON Tide in the estuary can be divided into semidiurnal tide and diurnal tide, which refers to two times and one time high and low tides every day. Between the interchange zone of river and ocean, estuaries are under the influence of both river feature and marine feature like tide, wave, sea water, as well as river flow, river sediment. With the routine periodic tide in the estuary, water movement in here will form a circulation, and this will carries some benefits like tidal energy, fishery resources, but there are also some issues like tidal flooding. ESTUARINE TIDE MECHANISM Drawn by K.Fan

SEDIMENT CIRCULATION Sediment circulation is another feature of the estuaries. Sediment flow from upstream to the estuary and part of them will deposit in the estuary for the transition between freshwater and saline water. In the meanwhile, periotic tidal current will push the outer sediment back to the estuary. With the river flow and tidal current, sediment will gradually deposit in the estuary. So the estuary with high sediment concentration will be more easily to form marshland. SEDIMENT CIRCULATION Drawn by K.Fan

UNIQUE HABITAT With the flow of both saline water and fresh water, high level of nutrients will be carried to the estuary along with the water and sediment, which provide the a productive natural habitats for the estuary. Those habitats in the estuary are valued commercially, recreationally and culturally. Many wildlife including birds, fish and some other insects depend on estuarine eco-system for a living. ESTUARINE HABITATS Drawn by K.Fan

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ESTUARINE MECHANISM

RIVER DEEPEN MECHANISM Drawn by M.Zhong

DREDGING WORK AND GEOMORPHOLOGY For the feature of tidal current, almost all the estuaries are facing the threat of tidal flooding. Dredging work due to river deepening will accelerate the happening of tidal flooding. Before river deepening, river bank is capable to defend the original tidal energy.

INCREASING TIDAL RANGE Drawn by M.Zhong

COASTAL HIGH TIDE Fig. 19

SALINE WATER INTRUSION Fig. 20

TIDAL DISASTER After deepening, the height difference between estuarine bed and sea level become larger than before, which means tidal range get higher and more tidal energy will be introduced into the estuary. With the higher tidal energy introduced in, some environment issues like tidal flooding and saline intrusion happens more frequently. For the cities in the estuary, dikes collapse might happen due to the strong tidal energy. In the meantime, higher tidal energy will bring more saline water into the estuary, which will definitely leads to the proportion of salt water in the estuary. When the higher salinity water flows into the inland farmland, crops will be largely affected. Thus we can see increased water salinity because of higher tidal range does harm to local farmland.

28 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


ESTUARINE SEDIMENT CIRCULATION Drawn by M.Zhong

SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION Sediment flow downstream along the river and pushed back by tidal current, which form a circle in the estuary. After dredging in the inner estuary and dumping in the outer area, in the one hand, higher tidal energy will carry more sediment into the estuary, and in the other hand, dumped sediment with an unstable base is more easily to be shifted. With high dredging work, sediment concentration in the estuary will become much higher.

Sediment shift and deposit condition varied by different type of sediment, which means the formation of marshland or intertidal flat is different. So in the estuary with much proportion of marshland, high dredging work will affect its formation. Human activities’ effects can totally change an area

TIDAL FLAT IN EMS ESTUARY Photo taken by S.Deng

HABITATS DISASTER Fig. 21 - 22

DESTROY HABITATS High dredging work caused by river deepening and widening will damage the habitats in the estuary. As we mentioned before, the special geomorphology condition in the estuary provide wildlife wonderful habitats to stay. But the ecosystem in the estuary is very fragile, and easily to be ruined by some little climate change. The dredging work will affect the habitats of the estuary in three ways, including water pollution, tidal energy and tidal flooding. Some birds, fishes or other wildlife tends to live in freshwater area, but high sediment concentration caused by the dredging work keep disturbing their habitats. Besides that, water pollution caused by the vessels also affects the living condition of wildlife. Staying in the environment with high sediment and oil pollution, wildlife will gradually die or migrate out. So it is undoubtable that dredging work should account for the reduction of wildlife in the estuary.

The marshland behind barrier islands or in the bay is the perfect area for wildlife for its peaceful surrounding. So the habitats in the estuary can be easily affected by the increased tidal energy. The former stable ecosystem will be different for the change of water movement. Which means, increased tidal energy is the second reason why dredging work damages estuarine habitat.

Fig.21

As we explained that dredging work accelerate the issue of tidal flooding, which affect not only human, but also wildlife in here. In many coastal wetlands, animals suffered from tidal flooding as man do. Thus, high dredging work is an urgent problem that we should deal with to be beneficial for both human and wildlife.

Fig.22

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ESTUARINE MECHANISM

FLOODING ISSUE MAP Drawn by M.Zhong

30 // The North Sea Dredging Atlas


Fig.24

Fig.23

FLOODING IN THE ESTUARIES Fig.25

Flooding issue has been the top problem concerned by all people. For the coastal cities, tidal flooding is the main worry to their daily life. Over the past a hundred years, due to global climate change, the sea level has increased for about 18cm. In the North Sea, sea level rise in a rate of 10 to 12 cm every a hundred years. And in the meantime, land subsidence happen in the coastal line in the North Sea in a rate of 2 to 8cm every a hundred years. What makes the condition worse, high dredging work happened in the estuaries of the North Sea increased the tidal range, with a rate of 19cm every a hundred years between 1965 and 2001. So for the cities in the estuary of the North Sea, tidal flooding will definitely be the threat in the future because of sea level rising, land subsidence and tidal range increasing. Now, there are already many estuarine cities facing flooding issues, like London, Edinburgh, Northern France and river Ems.

Instead of keep adding the height of dikes, to prevent flooding, we have to reduce the damages of human activities. If we keep dredging without considering the consequence, more flooding disaster like the news shows will occur.

LONDON FLOODING NEWS Fig. 23 FLOODING NEWS Fig. 24 - 26

Fig.26

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32 // Estuarine Port - City Relationship Study


03 Port movement in Rotterdam London Bilbao Side effects of port moving Port and City : relationship study

ESTUARINE PORT CITY RELATIONSHIP STUDY Realising the damages and high cost that dredging work carried to the estuary, an increasing number of cities gradually move the inner port to the outer estuary to reduce the dredging work and maintain the developing marine trading. To learn the method that some estuaries did to deal with the dredging issue, we did three cases’ study in Rotterdam, London and Bilbao. Rotterdam, London and Bilbao all are the economic center around them and famous for its port industry. Besides, they have another thing in common, which is port moving. They all gradually move the port from city center to the outer coastal line. By doing so, dredging work and river deepening job will be reduced, and after obtaining more water space and more closing to the marine channel, the port activities will be more centralized and more efficient.

But this ‘perfect’ solution also brings many social issues to the estuarine cities. Too separated from city center, the port gradually developed into a district with centralized management. But just because of the separation and the widely use of container shipping, many issues like labour surplus, drug dealing happens more frequently. In the meantime, city center without main port, will be more filled with ground transportation, which accelerate traffic jam issue.

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34 // Estuarine Port - City Relationship Study


CASE STUDY ROTTERDAM ROTTERDAM AS ECONOMIC CENTER Fig. 27

The port of Rotterdam is the biggest port in Europe because of its perfect location. With an area of around 26,080 acres, Rotterdam port provides jobs for about 180,000 people. As one of the busiest port in the world, Rotterdam port now is said to be the eleventh largest container port.

ROTTERDAM PORT MOVEMENT Drawn by M.Zhong

separated location, centralized management is performed in the port, which boosts local economic condition. But with the transfer from human labour to mechanical management to maintain the busy marine trading in here, many workers in here lost their jobs. A strike in 2016 was held to fight against the arrangement.

From 13th to 18th century, port of Rotterdam was located in the city center. After seven times’ major movement, now, the port of Rotterdam is moved to the outer estuary, with bigger and bigger port size. Now, the most active part of Rotterdam port is way too far from the city center. For its

HISTORICAL ROTTERDAM PORT Fig. 28 - 30

Fig.28

Fig.29

Fig.30

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36 // Estuarine Port - City Relationship Study


London Docks 1799 - 1815

Surrey Commercial Dock 1696 - 1969

West India & Millwall Docks 1802

Royal Vic & Albert & KGV Docks

- 1980 & 1868 - 1980

1921 - 2012

Tilbury Docks 1886 - Now

CASE STUDY LONDON HISTORICAL LONDON PORT MAP Fig. 31

London Tilbury port has always been one of the busiest ports along the coast line in the North Sea since 18th century, which is located in the Thames estuary. Before 18th century, port of London went through a series of moving from city center to the estuary. London Dock near Tower Bridge which was considered to be the port closest to London city center, became one of the busiest part in London city after its construction in 1799. But because of the developing of Surrey Commercial Dock, London Dock was gradually abandoned and closed in 1815. After the Surrey Commercial Dock working period from 1696 to 1969, West India and Millwall Dock in the Isle of Dogs

LONDON PORT MOVEMENT Drawn by M.Zhong

HISTORIAL LONDON PORT Fig. 32 - 34

Fig.32

Fig.33

began in charge of the major shipping activities in London, which were used form 1868 to 1980. Later, Royal Vic and Albert and KGV Docks became the transport center in London since 1921. Tilbury Dock is the port center in London now, and with the development in here, KGV Docks was gradually eliminated and closed in 2012. From the example of Rotterdam port, we can predict that Tilbury is not the end of port moving plan in London.

Fig.34

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38 // Estuarine Port - City Relationship Study


Outer Harbour

Portugalete Dock

Abando dock

CASE STUDY BILBAO HISTORICAL BILBAO PORT Fig. 35

The port of Bilbao, which is in the Bilbao Abra bay, is one of the biggest economic and transport center in the northern Spain, with a distance of about 15 km to the west of Bilbao. Similar to Rotterdam and London, Bilbao also experienced several stages of port moving but without that complicated shifting process.

BILBAO PORT MOVEMENT Drawn by M.Zhong

distance to Bilbao city center, the port of Bilbao is facing a lot of social issues because of the separation. A new relationship between port and city need to be carried.

The Bilbao estuary became the port center since 19th century after steel and shipbuilding industry gathered in here. With the developed industry in here and lots of marine trading attached with that, the port in Bilbao estuary became the biggest port in Spain by 1900. Because of the keep growing industry condition, the port of Bilbao is keep expanding. 15 km’s

HISTORICAL BILBAO PORT Fig. 36 - 38

Fig.36

Fig.37

Fig.38

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CONFLICTS ANALYSIS

ISOLATED FROM CITY Three major conflicts were found in Rotterdam, London and Bilbao during the port moving process. The first conflict is isolation problem in port area. With the developing of container shipping and prised away from city texture, the port area turns an area full of machine.

THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM Fig. 39

UNSTABLE SOCIAL STRUCTURE Because of the single use for marine trading, the social structure in port area becomes very weak. Every little economic issue might lead to the death of the port, which means if the trading in here collapse, the whole area will collapse.

CHURCHILL PORT NEWS Fig. 40

LABOUR SURPLUS With the developing of container port, labour is not that needed in the port since machine can finish the same job more efficient and cost less. Many workers lost their job because of this port innovation, and Rotterdam port strike shows us the real conflict inside the port development.

STRIKE IN ROTTERDAM PORT Fig. 41

40 // Estuarine Port - City Relationship Study


PORY - CITY RELATION

PORT - CITY RELATION Drawn by M.Zhong

PORT - CITY DISTANCE Image redrawn by M.Zhong

City

Port

- 19th Primitive Port/ City 19th - early 20th Expanding Port/ City

mid20th - late 20th Modern Industrial Port/ City

1960s - 1980s Retreat from the Waterfront

1980s - 1990s Redevelopment of Waterfront

“It signals the devastation of port and ship labour, the dislocation of transport and production centres in new spatiotemporal fixes, the separation of harbour from the social life of the city, dematerialisation, as well as a kind of radical opacity or invisibility that comes to affect commerce and industry alike.” (Alberto Toscano& Jeffery Kinkle, 2008) From the case study of Rotterdam, London and Bilbao, we realise the potential risk of their city structure. For the current relationship between port and city, they are too isolated. Both port and city has their own transport center, daily function and attraction. Except for the goods transportation, there seems no much relation between port and city. For example, Isle of Dogs used to be the main port in London, but with the port activities moving to outer estuary, it gradually transformed into a business center. So, now, there is no major port activity in London city. The long distance cut the connection

between city’s function and port activities. As we proposed, a new relationship between port and city need to be carried out. Instead of a single function port, this area should include more possibilities and has more connection with city from views, daily use, transportation, attractions and environment. For example, with a closer distance to the ocean, the port area is potential to be a tourism center and nature reserve area. So the port will provide recreation zone and great scenery zone, while the city will provide hotels and residential buildings for the tourists. So, with more possibilities of port use, the connection inside port and city can be tighter in different ways.

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42 // Wadden Sea Esuaries Context


04 Three estuaries in Wadden sea Wadden sea on-going projects Projects in EMS estuary EMS estuary features

WADDEN SEA ESTUARIES CONTEXT Instead of dealing the dredging issue by completely engineering strategy, our project also reveal the social formation of local cities to generate some ideas more relevant to people’s daily life. Social formation is a complex of concrete economic, political, and ideological relations. It can affect an area's spatial configuration significantly. So we studied the industrial networks, transportation shipping routes and migration situation for our site to understand the connections between social structure and land script. After the field trip study in April, we gathered some information by the interview with local people. Barely used constructions, complains about living condition and almost empty city centre all showed us its conflicts. Bad living environment due to huge dredging work and gas extraction keep forcing local people migrate out of the city.

For estuarine cities, they will be affected by both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water, which provide an amazing landscape in here. The Ems-Dollard estuary has constantly changed over the past centuries both from man-made and natural influences. On the time scale of thousands of years, sea level rise has created the estuary and dynamically changed its boundaries. Those natural and anthropogenic changes to the surface area of the Ems altered the flow patterns of water, the tidal characteristics, and the patterns of sediment deposition and erosion.

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Ems Estuary

44 // Wadden Sea Esuaries Context

Weser Estuary Bremerhaven

Rustersiel

Harlesiel

Bensersiel

Emden

Delfzijl

Eemshaven


EMS ESTUARY The Ems Estuary is one of the major estuaries in the Wadden Sea. It is situated on the ambiguous border between the Netherlands and Germany. Due to that, the management of the system is agreed to be carried out jointly by both countries. (Martin J. Baptist & Catharina J.M. Philippart 2015)

WESER ESTUARY The Weser is in Germany, and it starts at the confluence of the Werra and Fulda River close to the city of Hannoversch Munden. The Weser Estuary is one of the most regulated rivers in Europe. It connects the harbour of Bremen with the Southern North Sea and is used by ocean-going ships .(Claudia Wienberg 2003)

ELBE ESTUARY

Stade

The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Germany. It rises in the Krkonose Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia, then Germany and flowing into the North Sea. The Elbe is the artery of the metropolitan region of Hamburg and functions as an important federal waterway.

Brunsbuttel

Cuxhaven

WADDEN SEA

Elbe Estuary

THREE ESTUARY MAP IN WADDEN SEA Drawn by M.Zhong

ESTUARIES IN WADDEN SEA Photo by S.Deng

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 45


ON-GOING PROJECTS ELBE ESTUARY In order to deal with the environmental issues in the Elbe estuary, some on-going projects are going to undertake in the future or are already performing. The Hamburg Port Authority and the Federal Administration for Waterways and Navigation have developed an action plan for the sustainable development of the Elbe estuary. The plan outlines three milestones which are adequate for the restoration of the estuary and the safeguarding of seaward access to the port. This concept is based on: Hydraulic engineering measures to dissipate the incoming tidal energy at the mouth of the estuaryďźŒestablishment of shallow water areas, sediment management optimizationThe plan was presented in 2008 and is constantly further developed. Additionally, an integrated management plan for Natura 2000 areas was finished in 2012. (HPA 2013)

Fig.42

PROJECTS IN ELBE ESTUARY Fig.42 - 44

Fig.43

Fig.44

WESER ESTUARY For the on-going projects in the Weser estuary, there are a number of working groups dealing with the implementation of management measures relating to Natura 2000 and the Water Framework Directive, and various institutions from the Bundesländer of Bremen and Lower Saxony are involved.

Fig.45

Also, an integrated management plan for the Weser estuary was development trying to harmonize the different uses of the estuary, in conjunction with the requirements of Natura 2000 and the Water Framework Directive. (HPA 2013)

PROJECT IN WESER ESTUARY Fig.45 - 46 Fig.46

46 // Wadden Sea Esuaries Context


Fig.47

Fig.48

Fig.49

Fig.50

EMS ESTUARY For the conflicts in the Ems estuary, because of a lot of dredging work in here, the Ems estuary is facing many environmental issues, such as high turbidity and fluid mud, constructed estuary, tidal asymmetry and high velocity, sharp freshsalt water transition as well as pollution.

PROJECTS IN EMS ESTUARY Fig.47 - 50

For the on-going projects in the Ems estuary, there is a long dredging history the Ems caused by river deepening and widening for shipping channel maintenance. In order to provide larger and larger ships access to three ports and a shipyard, the tidal channels in the Ems estuary have been substantially deepened by dredging over the past decades. By 2009, even though the local government has realised that river deepening does harm to local environment, there still are some plans for river deepening since some shipyards are keep building larger size ships. But for now, major shipyard, like Meyer-Werft in Papenburg is planning to stop

large vessels’ building. So maybe in the near future, dredging work of river deepening will be decreased. In the meantime, Ems estuary is planning to build a new crossing using HDD( Horizontal Directional Drilling) and lower the existing pipeline. This movement will definitely cause a lot of dredging work, and may cause huge pollution problem. What’s more, a port waste plan is going to be operated in Ems estuary. This will include designing a waste reporting form, dispose waste in one of the ports with proper facilities and charge when arrived at Delfzijl or Emshaven.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 47


EMS ISSUE

SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION The Wadden Sea is highly protected area in Ems estuary. And this area is protected by Natura 2000 with diverse wildlife. Mudflat between Barrier Island and Ems estuary make Ems estuary more special than other estuaries. What’s also special is the barrier island in front of Ems estuary. Dynamic is the major feature of the barrier an island, which means the barrier island is keep moving from east to west. Erosion happens on the east side of island, and sediments accumulate in the west side. Also, Dollard area created by flooding is a nature space for wildlife.

MARSHLAND IN EMS ESTUARY Drawn by S.Deng

BOOMING MARINE TRADING The Wadden Sea is highly protected area in Ems estuary. And this area is protected by Natura 2000 with diverse wildlife. Mudflat between Barrier Island and Ems estuary make Ems estuary more special than other estuaries. What’s also special is the barrier island in front of Ems estuary. Dynamic is the major feature of the barrier an island, which means the barrier island is keep moving from east to west. Erosion happens on the east side of island, and sediments accumulate in the west side. Also, Dollard area created by flooding is a nature space for wildlife. SHIP BUILDING FACTORIES Drawn by S.Deng

BOUNDARY CONFLICT Boundary issue happens in the Ems estuary since the system is situated on the border between the Netherlands and Germany but the exact borderline within the area is disputed. Due to that, the management of the system is agreed to be carried out jointly by both countries. For maritime affairs, this has been agreed in the Ems-Dollard Treaty of 1960

COUNTRY BORDER IN EMS ESTUARY Drawn by S.Deng EMS ESTUARY Photo by S.Deng

48 // Wadden Sea Esuaries Context


AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 49


50 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


05

EMS ESTUARY TERRITORY FORMATION

Voice from EMS

Our project focuses on the amazing landscape in the Wadden Sea, which is located in the area between the Wadden barrier islands and the northern coast line of Netherlands. Large proportion of marshland and a chain of barrier islands is the main character of the Wadden Sea. And in the meantime, high sediment concentration linked to local dredging work attracts us to study more about here.

Growing economy EMS estuary Shipbuilding industry EMS river dreding analysis Deteriorate envrionment Shrinking city Geomorphology condtion

those barrier islands are gradually eroded by the tidal energy, which means the barrier island won’t be that effective in tidal energy blocking. Thus, under the influence of nature process and human activities, the Wadden Sea is facing the risk of environment disaster.

The barrier island in front of the Wadden Sea protect the coast line from the damage of tidal energy, and provide a large area of marshland behind for wildlife living. But because of the high dredging work in the estuaries of the Wadden Sea, sediment concentration become much more higher than before, and also affect the habitats in the estuary. What is more,

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 51


LOCAL VOICE Drawn by S.Deng

52 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


LOCAL VOICE

1.

2.

“ I’m from Meedehuizen, a small town near Delfzijl. My husband and I drive to here this morning for tourism. Sunset in here is amazing. For me, the main problem in Delfzijl is the government hasn’t done enough to promote local tourism. There are many spaces they can do to make this city attractive.”

“ I have been worked in here for just half a year, and I’m planning to move out by next year. Delfzijl is a comfortable city. But young people in this city keep moving out. So for most of the time, the bar has no customer. Even though some there are several old guy will gather here for a chat. I have to move out for a fortune.”

“ We are urbanist from Amsterdam. We are here to enjoy the scenery of Dollard. This land is reclaimed by a human, and it’s amazing! We have done some research about the flooding problem in here, and government concerns a lot about it. We don’t want this amazing scenery destroyed.” 6.

7.

“ I’m from Bellingwolde. Dollard is a very famous for various wildlife and spectacular view in here. I drive to here every day for selling coffee to tourist. Many people tend to come here for photography, and even some foreigners will come here for the scenery.”

“ I was born in here. Delfzijl is a small but sweet city. Almost everyone here knows each other. But frequent earthquake makes a lot of people move out. So now, I feel kind of lonely in here. The gas extraction work is almost in an end now, so hope the earthquake will end too.” 3.

8.

“ I have been living here for whole my life. Delfzijl is so quiet and peaceful. I like walking in here every day with my dog. As I know, many people moved out by concerning flooding risks. Even though there are a lot of dikes and dams to protect us, Delfzijl is still at a high risk of flooding. 4.

“ We are in middle school in Delfzijl. After graduating from high school, we are planning to go to the colleges in some big city, since there is no college in Delfzijl. But we might not come back for a work. This city is not that attractive to us, and maybe it will be if there are some big shopping mall.” 9.

“ This is my world, with vast land and abundant food. It’s a paradise for me and my whole family. But sometimes my home will be destroyed by flooding, makes me so sad. I hope we can have a peaceful land without disaster someday.” 5.

“ I’ m a student from Groningen. I’ m doing a part time job in this supermarket as a seller. It’s my first time been here. Delfzijl is not an energetic city. Gas extraction work stopping make a lot of people lost their job, and earthquake problem keeps happening. It’s a pity that a port city with such a good location hasn’t been developed as other cities. “

10.

“ We a r e a c o u p l e f r o m Pappenburg, which is famous for Mayer Werft Shipyard in here. This factory offers a lot of jobs to local people. We heard about some news that there is a lot of dredging work created by ship building. So, Mayer Werft factory is planning to stop building big ships lately to decrease the damage they have done to the local environment.”

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 53


54 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


INCREASING ECONOMY The Economy_Goods_Transportation_Routes mapping on the left shows the main routes the products were transported from the factories, industries to the port cities. The size and colour of each circle on the map represent the size and usage of these port cities. In Ems estuary area, the harbors with industrial parks nearby are mainly used to transport the products to the world, and the orange circle stands for the proportion of cargo vessels. Generally speaking, this mapping shows the economy developing tendency in Ems estuary under the increasing global trading and ship channels background: Sea port cities with industrial factories are playing more significant roles, attracting more investments, and planning more space for the larger vessels which can lead the local economy increasing together.

DELFZIJL INDYSTRIAL PARK Image redrawn by S.Deng

EMPLOYMENT SITUATION

CONTAINER PORT Fig. 51

The mechanization of farming and industrialization caused a large labour redundancy and massive unemployment. For example, in Delfzijl, the containerization of modern harbor requires a small amount of high educated and well trained employee to control and adjust the machine rather than a large amount of human labour. Which is one of the reasons why the city is shrinking, 25% of the people leaving Delfzijl because they are unable to find a suitable job (Gemeente Delfzjil,2009). Even through the economy itself is increasing, it doesn’t provide more jobs for local residence, and Delfzijl as a small city located at the boundary of the country doesn’t provide high education and training opportunities. For the teenagers, after they gradurate from high school, they were attracted by the big city which can provide good qualitiy of education and better living environment such as Groningen and Amsterderdam, and will not move back to Delfzijl.

MECHANIZATION Image redrawn by S.Deng

12000

GROWING VESSEL AMOUNT

10000

8000

With the rapid development of the economy in Ems estuary, the total amount of the vessels is also increasing. The diagram on the left shows the type and the amount of vessels in Delfzijl. With the more frequent port activities, the Ems estuary is facing the problem ofmore and more dredging work.

6000

4000

2000

0 Container

1980 102

1985 152

1990 234

1995 371

2000 598

2005 969

2006 1076

2007 1193

2008 1249

2009 1127

2010 1280

2011 1393

2012 1445

2013 1524

Other cargo Five bulks Oil and gas

1123 608 1871

819 900 1755

1031 988 1755

1125 1105 2050

1928 1295 2163

2009 1709 2422

2112 1814 2698

2141 1953 2747

2173 2065 2742

2004 2085 2642

2022 2335 2772

2112 2486 2794

2169 2742 2841

2260 2920 2844

EMS ESTUARY ECONOMY Drawn by S.Deng

VESSEL AMOUNT IN DEFZIJL Image redrawn by S.Deng

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 55


SHIP BUILDING INDUSTRY

MEYER WERFT The big ship is the main purpose for local people to deepen the river. By tracing the shipbuilding history, we can tell the influence that shipyard caused to the Ems. MEYER WERFT was the first compact shipyard in Europe and is one of the most advanced shipyards in the world. The two construction halls together with the modern production facilities and the concept of short distances make the shipyard so successful. The second construction hall was extended by 120 meters in 2008 so that the yard can continue to build ever larger ships.

MEYER WERFT SHIPYARD Fig. 52 SHIP SIZE EVOLUTION Image redrawn by M.Zhong

56 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


Before 1960s

1960 - 1980

1980 - 2002

2002 - Now

DREDGING HISTORY Ems estuary has a long dredging history. Before 1960, dredging amount keeps in an average. But after new dredger being put into use, which is suction dredger, dredging efficiency improved largely, and has a tendency to keep growing.

Emden-Borkum channel:8km-53km

Emden Harbour Expanding Emshaven Harbour Developed in 1960, opened in 1973 Emden - Papenburg (0.5-1 M/y): 1984/1985 5.7 m deepening 1991 6.3 m deepening 1993 6.8 m deepening 1994/1995 7.3 m deepening

HUGE SHIP IN EMS ESTUARY Fig. 53

DREDGING HISTORY IN EMS Drawn by M.Zhong

SHIP SIZE CHANGE Fig. 54

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 57


58 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


DREDGING MAP IN EMS ESTUARY Drawn by S.Deng INCREASING DREDGING VOLUME Image Redrawn by M.Zhong

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 59


FLOODING SCENARIO The high dredging work caused by local growing marine trading brings a lot of environmental issues to the estuary. Because of human activities in Ems estuary, especially shipping channel deepening project, the tidal range gets larger than before. Tidal flooding is the main issue due to higher tidal range, growing sea level and river deepening leads to a higher tidal range. In past 100 years, global sea level has risen about 18 cm. Over the next century, estimates for global sea level rise vary from 9 cm to 88 cm. Along the German coast from 1855-1990, the mean tidal level increased at a rate of 15 cm/century. More recently, the rate of mean tidal level change has increased slightly to about 19 cm/century between 1965 and 2001. In the Ems estuary, the mean sea level rise has remained constant at about 10-12 cm/100 years since 1901. Subsidence of the ground along the North Sea Coast between 2 cm/century to 8 cm/century and distortion of the tide due to intertidal mudflats make the MTL difficult to compare directly to global sea level trends.(Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. de Swart 2006) Also, between 1855 and 1990, the mean tidal

60 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation

range increased by 13 cm/century. However, over the past 40 years the tidal range along the German coast and barrier islands has dramatically increased. Between 1965 and 2001, the mean tidal range increased at a rate of 51 cm/100 year. (Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. de Swart 2006) After knowing those statistics, we made a prediction at Ems area. In 100 years, if we do not take any measurement in here, flooding plain area might be almost twice then.

FLOODING PLAIN SCENARIO Drawn by M.Zhong

FLOODED CITY Fig. 55


AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 61


62 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


FLOODING SCENARIO The demographic mapping on the left represents the population change and the migration tendency in Ems territory. Although the economy is increasing, it also cause the many negative effect to the environment. As the larger size of the vessels are being built at the upper stream, the growing amount of dredging work are causing the tidal flooding and other environment issues. People live in the estuarine cities are preferring to move to other bigger cities which are safer and can provide better infrastructure. In addition, the increasing economy is not providing enough job opportunities due to the mechanization. Thus, the population is decreasing even the economy is growing fast. The population is still

Fig.56

decreasing. But move to other city is not the solution for the majority people who choose to stay with their hometown, they stand out to against the huge vessels to save the Ems, but the thing is the shipyard are providing them jobs.

EMS ESTUARY MIGRATION Drawn by S.Deng

From our perception, saving the Ems is not simply stop building the huge vessels, the sediment from the dreding work can also be other possible solution to the question.

SAVE THE EMS Fig.56 - 59

Fig.57

Fig.58

Fig.59

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 63


DELFZIJL CITY CENTER Photo by S. Deng

64 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 65


66 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


GEOMORPHOLOGY CONDITION

TERRITORIAL INFORMATION

Ems estuary region includes port cities both in the Netherlands and Germany, and Delfzijl is one of these cities which has the typical problems. Delfzijl, as the fifth largest port city in Nether-lands, is located in the Northeastern part of Groningen province. Since the medieval times, Delfzijl has been the main sea port of Groningen and agriculture has been the mainstay of the Northern economy until the end of 19th c entury. However, the mechanization of farming and industrialization caused a large labour redundancy and massive unemployment in Delfzijl. For example, the containerization of modern harbor requires a small amount of high educated and well trained employee to control and adjust the machine rather than a large amount of human labour(Fig 42 & 43). Which is one of the reasons why the city is shrinking, 25% of the people leaving Delfzijl because they are unable to find a suitable job (Gemeente Delfzjil,2009). Even through the economy itself is increasing, it doesn’t provide more jobs for local residence, and Delfzijl as a small city located at the boundary of the country doesn’t provide high education and training

opportunities. For the teenagers, after they gradurate from high school, they were attracted by the big city which can provide good qualitiy of education and better living environment such as Groningen and Amsterderdam, and will not move back to Delfzijl.

GEOMORPHOLOGY FORMATION Drawn by K.Fan

GEOMORPHOLOGY HISTORY IN EMS Drawn by K.Fan SITE CONDITION IN EMS Photo by S.Deng

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 67


68 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


Gulf

Gulf

Initial Condition

Gulf

Bay

A’

A’

A

A

A

Bay

Gulf

A’

Gulf

Bay

A’

A

Storm/ Hurricane in Gulf

Erosion in Bay

Gulf

Bay

A

Bay

A’

Gulf

A

A’

Gulf

Bay

A

A’

Gulf

Bay

A

A’

Bay

Bay

A

A’

Post-Storm Recovery Gulf

Bay

Gulf

Bay

Gulf

Bay

Long-term Evolution A

Gulf

A

A’

Bay

A

Gulf

A’

A

A’

A

Bay

A’

Gulf

A’

A

Bay

A’

BARRIER ISLANDS

BARRIER ISLAND EVOLUTION Drawn by M.Zhong

SEDIMENT DYNAMIC CONDITION Drawn by K.Fan

Ems estuary region includes port cities both in the Netherlands and Germany, and Delfzijl is one of these cities which has the typical problems. Delfzijl, as the fifth largest port city in Nether-lands, is located in the Northeastern part of Groningen province. Since the medieval times, Delfzijl has been the main sea port of Groningen and agriculture has been the mainstay of the Northern economy until the end of 19th c entury. However, the mechanization of farming and industrialization caused a large labour redundancy and massive unemployment in Delfzijl. For example, the containerization of modern harbor requires a small amount of high educated and well trained employee to control and adjust the machine rather than a large

amount of human labour(Fig 42 & 43). Which is one of the reasons why the city is shrinking, 25% of the people leaving Delfzijl because they are unable to find a suitable job (Gemeente Delfzjil,2009). Even through the economy itself is increasing, it doesn’t provide more jobs for local residence, and Delfzijl as a small city located at the boundary of the country doesn’t provide high education and training opportunities. For the teenagers, after they gradurate from high school, they were attracted by the big city which can provide good qualitiy of education and better living environment such as Groningen and Amsterderdam, and will not move back to Delfzijl.

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 69


70 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


TIDAL FLAT Ems estuary region includes port cities both in the Netherlands and Germany, and Delfzijl is one of these cities which has the typical problems. Delfzijl, as the fifth largest port city in Nether-lands, is located in the Northeastern part of Groningen province. Since the medieval times, Delfzijl has been the main sea port of Groningen and agriculture has been the mainstay of the Northern economy until the end of 19th c entury. However, the mechanization of farming and industrialization caused a large labour redundancy and massive unemployment in Delfzijl. For example, the containerization of modern harbor requires a small amount of high educated and well trained employee to control and adjust the machine rather than a large amount of human labour(Fig 42 & 43). Which is one of the reasons why the city is shrinking, 25% of the people leaving Delfzijl because they are unable to find a suitable job (Gemeente Delfzjil,2009). Even through the economy itself is increasing, it doesn’t provide more jobs for local residence,

and Delfzijl as a small city located at the boundary of the country doesn’t provide high education and training opportunities. For the teenagers, after they gradurate from high school, they were attracted by the big city which can provide good qualitiy of education and better living environment such as Groningen and Amsterderdam, and will not move back to Delfzijl.

INTERTIDAL PLAIN IN EMS Drawn by K.Fan INTERTIDAL SECTIONS Drawn by K.Fan

TIDAL FLAT IN EMS Photo by S.Deng

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 71


72 // Ems Estuary Territory Formation


DISCUSSION WITH URBANIST Photo by S.Deng

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 73


74 // Ems Estuary Design Strategy


06

EMS ESTUARY DESIGN STRATEGY

Project Proposal

The proposal of our project includes large scale strategy and small scale strategy. As we studied, the shipyards and ports in the upstream is the main reason causes such huge dredging work. Thus, inspired by the case study in Rotterdam, London and Bilbao, we would like to move the main ports and Meyer Werft to the outer estuary, which is our large scale proposal.

Shipyard shifting strategy Intertidal area condtion Barrier island inspiration

advantage of nature process to catch sediment and get an area with multiple terrains, which can be used for multiple functions. In this chapter, we introduced our proposal from large scale to small scale, and explained the reasons and inspirations of what we did.

In the meantime, inspired by the barrier island in the Wadden Sea and Blue Dune Project in America that protect the coast line from tidal energy and storm damage, we would like to make use of tidal current and sediment circulation in the estuary to form a series of island, which is our small scale proposal. After those cases’ study, we aware that more land use should be attached to our site. So, with the construction of hard structures in the intertidal flat of the estuary, we can take

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 75


Juist

Norden Borkum

Greetsiel

Eemshaven

Emden

Dollart Delfzijl

The Netherlands Germany

Leer

Groningen

Papenburg

PROPOSAL MAP Drawn by S.Deng

76 // Ems Estuary Design Strategy


GEOMORPHOLOGY CONDITION

SHIPYARD MOVING For our large scale proposal, as the main reason that causes huge dredging work in Ems River, Meyer Werft shipyard will be encouraged to move out. In one side, the shipyard is facing the pressure of local environmental organizations for disturbing local environment and need more space for future development, in another side, the dredging work in Ems River has reached its limit. So gradually move the large shipbuilding order to the estuary would be a good solution for both local economy and environment.

PORT IN THE OUTER ESTUARY Fig. 60

ISLADNDS GENERATING Inspired by the barrier islands in front of Ems estuary, we decided to build hard structure in the estuary and use nature process to form a series of marshland. With the function like barrier islands, the marshland can not only reduce the tidal energy that dredging work has caused, but also provide the space for future use like port, shipyard and nature reserve. With the construction of barrier islands, sediment will gradually accumulate behind those structures. And after the ground processing, the marshland can be turned for different land use. 'BLUE DUNE' PROJECT PLAN Fig.61

SEDIMENT PROCESSING In Ems estuary, sediment will be dredged from the shipping channel, and most of the dredged sediment will be dumped in the outer estuary. There are four existing dumping site in Ems estuary, and it cannot be changed due to the political restriction. So, in our project, we will increase the use of the dumping site that outer than our hard structure. Thus, with more sediment resources in the tidal direction, larger area of marshland will formed in our site.

DREDGING IN THE ESTUARY Fig.62

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 77


MOVING PHASES To move the shipyard from Papenburg in the upstream of Ems River to the Ems estuary, it is unrealistic to finish in one time. Thus, to decide the process of shipyard moving, we studied the process of shipbuilding and the layout of shipyard. Normally, the ship building process will be divided into preparation, sub-assembly, assembly, fabrication, erection, berth, and afloat. After cutting and forming, the plates and sections will be built into panels and then combined together. So, after the islands’ forming, for the shipyard moving, we will start building assembly covering hall for joining of blocks on berth. In the third stage, we will extend the assembly hall for the medium size cruise building. Then we will build prefabricate block factory for large size ship assembling, and at last, more room will be built to assemble large size ship and prefabricate blocks for large ship size. So in this way, we can move the shipyard for large ship building to estuary by 5 stages.

PORT MOVING MAP Drawn by S.Deng PORT MOVING PROCESS Drawn by S.Deng

Papenburgh Papenburh Labor Prefabricate block Assembly work Dreding work

Delfzijl Stage 1 Dumping the sediment to the site Build up islands

Marterial flow

Labor Prefabricate block Assembly work Dreding work

Stage 12 Build the assembly Covering Hall

Assembly work Dreding work Marterial flow

Assembly work Dreding work Marterial flow

78 // Ems Estuary Design Strategy

Prefabricate block Assembly work Dreding work

Prefabricate block

Dreding work Marterial flow

Labor

Stage 14 Build prefabricate block fatory Assemble large size ship

Labor Prefabricate block

Labor

Assembly work

Extend the assembly hall Assembly medium size cruise ship

Labor Prefabricate block

Dreding work

Labor

Stage 13

Assembly work

Marterial flow

Assembly work

Marterial flow

Labor

Dreding work

Prefabricate block

Marterial flow

Marterial flow

Prefabricate block

Labor

Prefabricate block Assembly work Dreding work Marterial flow

Labor

Stage 15 Assemble large size ship Prefabricate block for large size ship

Prefabricate block Assembly work Dreding work Marterial flow


Production Process Plates, Sections

1985

3 Ships a year

Yearly Work

1990

32600 gt

Preparation

Outfit items

Sub-Assembly

Outfit items

Assembly

Outfit items

Fabrication

Outfit items

Erection/Berth

Outfit items

Basin/Afloat

Cutting Forming Marking

of plates/sections

of plates/sections into panels

combination of panels

combination of assemblies into blocks/units

joining of blocks on berth

280m covering hall

46800 gt

2001

92000 gt

2008

384m covering hall

122000 gt 504m covering hall

Meyer Wherft

2015 2016

163000 gt

Employees

2017

Sail Out

2018

2020

Material Flow

164600 gt

167800 gt

2019

12 hours inching the ship +Measurement+Conduct

5,150 Employees 39 Years old in average 163500 gt Most worked for a long time in families Offering internship training

183200 gt

Stock yard

122000 gt

Plate & Section Shops

Cross Handling

TBuffer Storage

Sub Assembly Assembly Cross Handling

Buffer Storage

Crane Building Berth

Layout Factors Ship Types Space Required Space Available Amount of Mechanisation Materials Handling Construction Methods

SHIPBUILDING PROCESS Not only the moving timetable of shipyard should follow ship building process, the layout of shipyard should also follow the ship building process. After the preparation work of plates and section in the cross handling and storage room, which including cutting, forming and marking, those plates and sections will be sent to sub-assembly room for making into panels. Then, the outfit items will go through assembly room for the combination of panels. Later, those outcomes will be sent to another cross handling and buffer storage room for the joining of blocks on berth. So the layout of shipyard

should include and follow the order of cross handling and storage room, sub-assembly room, assembly room as well as cross handling and buffer storage room.

SHIP BUILDING PROCESS Drawn by M.Zhong

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 79


ISLANDS BUILDING As we mentioned, the geomorphology condition in the Ems estuary is very special. As a transition part of saline water and freshwater and with high sediment concentration, ems estuary owns a large area of intertidal flat near the fast channel. Since we are going to build hard structures in the estuary to catch sediment as our small scale proposal, this intertidal flat would be a great site for the structures. With a higher bed, the island would be easier to form. By building a series of islands in front, tidal energy will be reduced layer by layer. So instead

80 // Ems Estuary Design Strategy

of keep heightening the dikes, building those islands would be a more sustainable way to protect the cities.

TIDAL FLAT IN EMS ESTUARY Drawn by K.Fan


'BLUE DUNE' PROJECT The idea of building island performed like barrier islands was inspired by Blue Dune Project in America. Blue Dune Project explored a new way to protect coastal line by building offshore dunes, which actually also called barrier island. Those dunes can be an essential protection line to the eastern coast after it being built by defending the storms, wind and hurricane. To define the relation between inland, beach, island and ocean, this project team tied them together from the perspective of economy, society, politics and environment. Similarly, in our project, to prevent the social conflicts happened in Rotterdam, London and Bilbao, a variety of connection should be built between island and Delfzijl.

'BLUE DUNE' PROJECT PLAN Fig. 63 PROJECT TECHNIQUES Drawn by K.Fan

COASTAL FUTURE PLAN Fig. 64

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 81


82 // Estuarine Dynamic Design Prototype


07 Chapter introduction Three layer of tidal range Hard structure formation Simulation of erosion and deposition Simulation conclusion Hard structure combination type Potential landscape function

ESTUARINE DYNAMIC DESIGN PROTOTYPE For the small scale construction, we are going to build the hard structure in the intertidal area in the estuary by take advantages of tidal current and sediment circulation. To understand he sediment catching process of those hard structure, we did a series of simulation to test how the different length, angle, and arrangement can influence the deposition and erosion in estuarine territory.

are generating a diverse landscape which can be used for different purposes and mixed functions.

Extracting from the simulation, we provide 4 combinations to manipulate the tide energy. These 4 options are rearranging the deposition and erosion between each other so we have the tide force to form our island and dredge the channel and creek. Thus, with these different arrangements, we

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HIGH TIDE

LOW TIDE

MIDDLE TIDE

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SIMULATION PREPARATION

In order to imitate the function of the Wadden sea barrier island, we did a series of simulation to study the sediment circulation in Ems estuary. More specifically, the intertidal mud flat located near the Deflzijl. The tide in the EMS estuary is dominated by the semi-diurnal lunar tide and has a mean period of 12h25min, and the tidal curve is asymmetric. For the intertidal zone in Delfzijl, the average period of the flood is 5h45min, which is 55 min shorter than the ebb period. So the flood current are stronger than the ebb current. And the sediment dumped at the outer estuary were transported back with the tide and will block the upper stream again. So the intertidal zone area is in the center of this dynamic change.

layer which is closest to the fast channel, the tide range is 6m and to last layer, the tide will be reduced to 2m. This was also considered in the situation we are simulating.

STRUCTURE TYPES Drawn by K.Fan

There are two things we want to study to optimize the potential of nature process, the erosion and the deposition. Because we are shifting the port activities and the shipyard building, we want to use the tide erosion to dredge the channel. And For the deposition it will help us to form the island. And the corner shape structure was selected cause from a group of shape experiment as it is easier to manipulate the erosion and deposition area with different shape arrangement.

Considering the tide change in a day and in a year, we are using the Caeser-listflood to do the simulation with the data collected from the “tidal Flat Estuaries : Simulation and Analysis of the Ems Estuary� written by J.Baretta and P. As we proposed, the sediment will accumulated in the intertidal area to form layers of island, so the tide range will also be different. From the TIDAL ZONING Drawn by K.Fan

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SIMULATIONS

SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 0째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

1.2m

Structure angle: 45째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

1.6m

Structure angle: 60째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

2.0m

Structure angle: 75째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

2.5m

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SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

3.0m

Structure angle: 105째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

3.2m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

3.0m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 800m

1.3m

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SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 200m

3.2m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 1200m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

3.0m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

3.2m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 4m-6m Creek distance: 400m

2.5m

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SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m Soft sediment edge

2.5m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m hard sediment edge

3.2m

Structure angle: 0째 Structure length:600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

1.8m

Structure angle: 30째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.7m

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SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 60째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.5m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.8m

Structure angle: 120째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

1.0m

Structure angle: 60째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

1.0m

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SIMULATION Drawn by S.Deng

Structure angle: 60째 Structure length: 300m, 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.5m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 300m, 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.6m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 1200m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.7m

Structure angle: 90째 Structure length: 600m Tidal range: 2m-4m

0.8m

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ISLANDS FORMATION CATALOGUE

SIMULATION CONCLUSION

After the simulation of the tide in Ems intertidal area, we find that the sediment will start to accumulate behind the hard structure from the end. With the tide flood and ebb, the area behind the hard structure will be gradually transformed to an island. (The sediment will be consolidated by the vegetation and compaction technique which will be introduced in next chapter). In this case we are catching the sediment dumped from upper stream with the nature process and corner shape intervention to form the island. For the erosion, if we arrange two corner shape 92 // Estuarine Dynamic Design Prototype

structure toward each other, the water velocity will be higher in the middle between the two bars. So the higher speed water will take out the sediment and this can be potentially used for the ship channel.

CONCLUSION Drawn by S.Deng


COMBINATION TYPE

According to the result of simulation. We finally come up with the 4 combinations of hard structure. The table on the right page abstracts how the 4 option will perform and form the islands’ shape through years. And the following pages are explaining each option in details. For example in the 1st option in high tidal range, it will form a continued island which is suitable for the dense building, so it will potentially be the industrial and residential area. And the 2nd option will let the tide dredging the sediment so it can be the port location. Then in this one

in medium tidal range, it will form a small tidal creek. And the last one we will have the larger proportion of the creek and marshland especially in the lower tidal range, so it can be potential nature reserve site.

STRUCTURE COMBINATION Drawn by M.Zhong

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CATALOGUE Drawn by M.Zhong

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CATALOGUE Drawn by M.Zhong

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CATALOGUE Drawn by M.Zhong

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CATALOGUE Drawn by M.Zhong

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08 Intertidal zone evaluation Technique and construction Planning urban function Technique reports

EMS ISLANDS INTERTIDAL ZONE EVOLUTION In this chapter, we mainly focus on the application of the different hard structures. And in order to apply the catalogue on our site, we evaluated the intertidal zone considering the distance to the existing network, distance to the shipping channel, different land use and population density to find out in which part it will have higher value for the different functions. As we proposed our islands are going to be built layer by layers, so the tide energy is also changing with the islands through time. Two technique reports in this chapter will explain the detail of the hard structure and how we are going to consolidate the sediment with vegetation and further compaction work.

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LAND EVALUATION

VALUE PROCESS Drawn by K.Fan POTENTIAL LANDUSE Drawn by M.Zhong

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And then in order to apply the catalogue on our site, we made this land evaluation. We consider the distance to the existing network, the shipping channel, different land use and

population density to find out in which part it will have higher value for the different functions.

LAND VALUE Drawn by M.Zhong

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CONSTRUCTING PHASES Drawn by S.Deng

STAGE 1 5YEARS Drawn by S.Deng

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STAGE 2 10YEARS Drawn by S.Deng

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STAGE 3 15YEARS Drawn by S.Deng

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STRUCTURE APPLICATION

2Y

2Y

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6Y 8Y

2Y

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4Y

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6Y 8Y

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2Y

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STRUCTURE ANGLE Drawn by S.Deng

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Ems Islands Islands Intertidal Intertidal Zone Zone Evolution Evolution 110 //Ems


BORKUM ISLAND PROTECTION Photo by S.Deng

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REFERENCE LIST Designbuild-network.com. (2016). Sand-filled geotube containment structures were used for the island's perimeter and the shoreline and foreshore protection systems. - Image Design Build Network. [online] Available at: http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/ amwaj/amwaj2.html [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Mastin, B. and Lebster, G. (2006). Dewatering with Geotube® Containers; A Good Fit for a Midwest Wastewater Facility?. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2006(2), pp.1150-1160. Wöffler, T., Schüttrumpf, H., Arns, A., Von Eynatten, H., Häußling, R., Jensen, J. and Schindler, M. (2012). DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR SMALL ISLANDS IN THE WADDEN SEA USING A RISK-BASED APPROACH. Int. Conf. Coastal. Eng., 1(33). Porta, M., Grieco, G. and Merlini, A. (2016). Canale Geotube: apprendere, condividere e partecipare attraverso la realizzazione di contenuti video per le Geoscienze. ROL, 40, pp.67-70. Project Pelican. (2016). Site Visits Part II: Texas. [online] Available at: http:// projectpelican.weebly.com/blog/site-visits-partii-texas [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Sheehan, C. and Harrington, J. (2012). An environmental and economic analysis for geotube coastal structures retaining dredge material. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 61, pp.91-102. Tencate.com. (2016). TenCate Geotube® landing page | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www. tencate.com/amer/geosynthetics/TenCateGeotube-landing-page.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Tencate.com. (2016). Geotube® | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/amer/geosynthetics/ products/tencate-geotube/default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Tencate.com. (2016). Geotube® Marine Structures | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/ amer/geosynthetics/solutions/marine-structures/ default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Tencate.com. (2016). Shamrock Island, Texas | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/amer/ geosynthetics/solutions/marine-structures/ applications/wetlands-creation-wildlifehabitats/shamrock-island-texas/default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Wikipedia. (2016). Mudflat. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudflat [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. YouTube. (2016). TenCate Geotube® and GeoContainers protect people and their living environment. [online] Available at: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lgrkGpXHXk [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

FIGURE LIST Figure 1: Geotube Founction http://skemman.is/stream/ get/1946/21949/50376/1/Hreinsun_og_ n%C3%BDting_affallsvatns_%C3%BAr_ Silfutstj%C3%B6rnunni_hf.pdf Figure 2: Geotube Founction http://www.tencate.com/amer/geosynthetics/ TenCate-Geotube-landing-page.aspx Figure 3: Geotube Founction https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saemangeum Figure 4: Shamrock island aerial view http://projectpelican.weebly.com/blog/sitevisits-part-ii-texas Figure 5: Shamrock island aerial view h t t p : / / w w w. c h e n i e r e . c o m / s a f e t y - a n d environment/mitigation-process/ Figure 6: Shamrock island aerial view http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/wetland/ s_texas/texas.htm Figure 7: Shamrock island map http://www.mytopo.com/locations/index. cfm?fid=1346965 Figure 8: Geotube construction http://tpwd.texas.gov/fishboat/fish/didyouknow/ delehidecove.phtml

http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=pt slks&logNo=10022953675&redirect=Dlog&wi dgetTypeCall=true Figure 15: Geotube sediment filling http://www.tencate.com/apac/geosynthetics/ case-studies/hydraulic-marine/news-hm2.aspx Figure 16: Geotube dewatering http://www.tencate.com/emea/geosynthetics/ applications/civil-works/hydraulicconstructions/default.aspx Figure 17: EI Dorado royale map https://www.sunshine.co.uk/hotels/Now_Jade_ Riviera_Cancun_Hotel-16325.html Figure 18: Beach aerial view http://www.tencate.com/amer/geosynthetics/ solutions/marine-structures/applications/ breakwaters/el-dorado-royal-mexico/default. aspx Figure 19: Geotube structure underwater http://downloads.ntanet.it/public/Depliant_ SITO/Altro/Case_History-Lavori_Marini.pdf Figure 20: Outer breakwater http://downloads.ntanet.it/public/Depliant_ SITO/Altro/Case_History-Lavori_Marini.pdf Figure 21: Breakwater construction http://www.tencate.com/amer/Images/BRO_ coastalandmarine_tcm29-34404.pdf Figure 22: Geotube filling http://www.ummsgeotechnical.com/prod_ geotube.html Figure 23: Geotube installation http://www.tencate.com/txtures/winter-2013/ Safe-and-resilient-coasts-with-geosynthetics. aspx Figure 24: Offshore geotube http://www.beachhunter.net/upham-tubes.htm

Figure 9: Geotube construction h t t p : / / w w w. c a r i b b e a n g e o t e x t i l e s . c o m / geotextile-tubes-and-bags Figure 10: Incheon grand bridge http://www.macquarie.com/mgl/mkif/en/mkifassets/incheon-grand-bridge Figure 11: Incheon grand bridge http://wikimapia.org/9382941/Incheon-GrandBridge Figure 12: Incheon grand bridge http://www.abc.net.au/tv/guide/abc2/201210/ programs/ZX1458A025D2012-10-15T193000. htm Figure 13: Geotube base section http://www.tencate.com/emea/geosynthetics/ default.aspx Figure 14: Construction aerial view

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Fig.4

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120 // Ems Islands Intertidal Zone Evolution


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122 // Ems Islands : Reactivated City


090 Reactivated relationship of city and port activities EMS islands sections Dredging artifice - Conclusion

EMS ISLANDS REACTIVATED CITY This chapter introduces the plan of our site in later stage and analysis the relationship inside the different land use. With the three layers islands, we are providing a multi-functions system according to the different landscape we get. And trying to merge the port activities and the human activites again. From the five section, we cut from the typical part from our project to show the transitions from the Port to people’s daily life, showing the connections between different land use.

this relationship. So in our project, we want to relink the city and port, so that we can bring back the active to these port cities while it is developing.

In genernal, the port cities, historically speaking, have a very strong link between the people’s life and the port activities. However, with the sharply increasing maraine trading, nowadays the expending port like rotterdan London and bilbao are cutting off

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124 // Ems Islands : Reactivated City


A

C A' D C'

D'

CARTOGENESIS PART 1 Drawn by M.Zhong

CARTOGENESIS Drawn by M.Zhong

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B

B'

CARTOGENESIS PART 2 Drawn by M.Zhong

126 // Ems Islands : Reactivated City


E

E'

CARTOGENESIS PART 3 Drawn by M.Zhong

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SITE SECTIONS

SECTION A A' Drawn by S.Deng

SECTION B B' Drawn by S.Deng

128 // Ems Islands : Reactivated City


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SECTION C C' Drawn by S.Deng

SECTION D D' Drawn by S.Deng

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There 5 sections are showing the transition of function in the EMS islands. From the 1st layer island, we have the largest tidal range to help us to form the shape and we are having highest land here. This part in the section EE’ has been used for the high dense and heavy building – residential block and factories. With the combination of our intervention, there is a tidal creek formed in the in the middle which is the leisure port. From the port and factories, to the tidal creek leisure port and park. We are relinking the city and people’s daily life again based on the features of landscape.

SECTION E E' Drawn by S.Deng

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CONCLUSION

Our project ‘dredging artifice’ focuses on the increasing dredging work under the rapid development of global marine trading in estuary territories. Because of the huge vessels, these port cities located at the estuary are keep dredging and deepening the river. However, the dredging work is causing many environmental issues which are threatening the local residence and habitat. To minimize the dredging work at the upper stream, cities like London, Bilbao, and Rotterdam are gradually shift the port to the estuary. This port expanding strategy solves the environment issues of dredging work, but also cuts down the linkages between ports and cities. Therefore, in Ems estuary, we look at the potential of the dredged sediments for the city and port expanding without cutting off their relationship. According to the simulation of the estuarine natural dynamic, we are providing a multifunctional island prototype generated by the dredged sediment and tide force, which is located on an intertidal zone near Delfzijl. In the new Ems islands, the transition from the port to the city, to the nature was combined with the features of the landscape. In the meantime, these series of islands are also operating as the barrier island protecting the hinterland. So in the inter tidal zone in delfzijl, over time it can produced a territory that can benefit from its exposure to tidal ranges and the constant dynamism, physical and social of Estuarine Landscapes brought by global trade and side effects. Which also emphases the link between city and port. The project will be developed with more detailed architectural design by MArch team member in next step.

To be continued...

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REFERENCE LIST Claudia Wienberg. “The Impact of Dredge Spoil Dumping on Costal Morphodynamics Monitored by Highresolution Acoustic Measuring Instruments.” Bremen, August 2003. COMMISSIE WOONPROBLEMATIEK DELFZIJL ,“Verder bouwen aan een beter Delfzijl, Eindadvies”. 2001 Gemeente Delfzijl “Krimpen en Groeien in Delfzijl”, 2009, Delfzijl. http://www.delfzijl.nl/index.php?&simaction =content&mediumid=1&onderdeel=bri&stuk id=14839 Groningen seaports, “Nautical Directory & Harbour Tariffs”,2016, http://www.groningenseaports.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=AX8G hJktHMU%3d&tabid=2226&language=nl-NL HPA. “TIDE, Tidal River Development – Elbe, Germany.” November 2013. http://www.tideproject.eu/index.php5?node_id=Elbe;61&lang_ id=1 HPA. “ T I D E , Ti d a l R i v e r D e v e l o p m e n t – Weser, Germany.” November 2013. http:// www.tide-project.eu/index.php5?node_ id=Weser;68&lang_id=1 Lucas Amin, “Shell and Exxon's €5bn problem: gas drilling that sets off earthquakes and wrecks homes”, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/ environment/2015/oct/10/shell-exxon-gasdrilling-sets-off-earthquakes-wrecks-homes Martin J. Baptist & Catharina J.M. Philippart. “Monitoring The Ems Estuary; towards a bilateral integrated monitoring programme.” February 2015. Martijn Ubink, (2007),“Urban planning in shrinking cities, A comparative study between Delfzijl (the Netherlands) and Selb (Germany)”, European Master in Urban Comparative Studies, Mastin, B. and Lebster, G. (2006). Dewatering with Geotube® Containers; A Good Fit for a TNO, “Binnenhaven Delfzijl, Case beschrijving ten behoeve van studie Economische Belang Nederlandse Binnenhavens, Studie in opdracht van de Nederlandse Vereniging van Binnenhavens” July 2004 Temmerman,S. (2007) Vegetation causes

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channel erosion in a tidal landscape, http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/35/7/631. full.pdf+html Wöffler, T., Schüttrumpf, H., Arns, A., Von Eynatten, H., Häußling, R., Jensen, J. and Schindler, M. (2012). DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR SMALL ISLANDS IN THE WADDEN SEA USING A RISK-BASED APPROACH. Int. Conf. Coastal. Eng., 1(33).


BIBLIOGRAPHY Baretta,J; Ruardij,P. (1988) Tidal Flat Estuaries : Simulation and Analysis of the Ems Estuary, Springer-Verlag,

Sheehan, C. and Harrington, J. (2012). An environmental and economic analysis for geotube coastal structures retaining dredge material. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 61, pp.91-102.

COASTAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR SMALL ISLANDS IN THE WADDEN SEA USING A RISK-BASED APPROACH. Int. Conf. Coastal. Eng., 1(33).

Designbuild-network.com. (2016). Sand-filled geotube containment structures were used for the island's perimeter and the shoreline and foreshore protection systems. - Image -

Stefan A. Talke, Huib E. de Swart (2006), “Hydrodynamics and Morphology in the Ems/Dollard Estuary: Review of Models, Measurements, Scientific Literature, and the Effects of Changing Conditions.” University of Utrecht, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU)

YouTube. (2016). TenCate Geotube® and GeoContainers protect people and their living environment. [online] Available at: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lgrkGpXHXk [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Design Build Network.,[online] Available at: http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/ amwaj/amwaj2.html [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Keller, (2016), Deep Vibro Techniques, http:// www.kellerholding.com/deep-vibro-techniques. html

Stephen,W.; Spencer, M. and Ernest, D. (1992) Shoreline Erosion Control Using Marsh Vegetation and Low-Cost Structures, http://www.seagrant.umaine.edu/files/chg/ BroomeNCshoreline_erosion.pdf

Martijn Ubink, (2007),“Urban planning in shrinking cities, A comparative study between Delfzijl (the Netherlands) and Selb (Germany)”, European Master in Urban Comparative Studies,

Tencate.com. (2016). TenCate Geotube® landing page | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/ amer/geosynthetics/TenCate-Geotube-landingpage.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Mastin, B. and Lebster, G. (2006). Dewatering with Geotube® Containers; A Good Fit for a

Tencate.com. (2016). Geotube® | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/amer/geosynthetics/ products/tencate-geotube/default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Meyer Werft GmbH. (2013),“ Innovation & Technology; Shipbuilding in Papenburg, Meyer Werft.” January M i d w e s t Wa s t e w a t e r F a c i l i t y ( 2 0 0 6 ) , . Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2006(2), pp.1150-1160. Oswalt, P. & Reiniets, T. eds.. “Atlas of shrinking cities, Ostfi ldern: HatjeCantz.”,2006,

Porta, M., Grieco, G. and Merlini, A. (2016). Canale Geotube: apprendere, condividere e partecipare attraverso la realizzazione di contenuti video per le Geoscienze. ROL, 40, pp.67-70. Prof Dr Victor N de Jonge DSc, (2010) “Governance & Management Aspects of the Ems estuary.”

Tencate.com. (2016). Geotube® Marine Structures | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/ amer/geosynthetics/solutions/marine-structures/ default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Tencate.com. (2016). Shamrock Island, Texas | Royal Ten Cate Divisions AMER. [online] Available at: http://www.tencate.com/amer/ geosynthetics/solutions/marine-structures/ applications/wetlands-creation-wildlife-habitats/ shamrock-island-texas/default.aspx [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016]. Temmerman,S. (2007) Vegetation causes channel erosion in a tidal landscape, http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/35/7/631. full.pdf+html

Project Pelican. (2016). Site Visits Part II: Texas. [online] Available at: http:// projectpelican.weebly.com/blog/site-visits-partii-texas [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Wikipedia. (2016). Mudflat. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudflat [Accessed 19 Sep. 2016].

Robert Stam, (2011),“Strategy for Shrinkage: the development of a strategy to accommodate and stabilize shrinkage in Delfzijl”, TUDelft,

Wöffler, T., Schüttrumpf, H., Arns, A., Von Eynatten, H., Häußling, R., Jensen, J. and Schindler, M. (2012). DEVELOPMENT OF

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 137


FIGURE LIST Figure 1-a: Growing Marine Trading http://www.portstrategy.com/news101/world/ europe/figures-show-rotterdam-attractive-forbusiness Figure 1-b: Growing Marine Trading http://www.hellenicshippingnews.com/port-ofthe-month-bilbao-spain/ Figure 1-c: Growing Marine Trading http://www.fndiving.com/locations/port-ofrotterdam Figure 1-d: Growing Marine Trading http://theloadstar.co.uk/coolstar/rotterdam-coolport-plans-in-disarray-after-kloosterboer-backsout/ Figure 1-e: Growing Marine Trading http://timecaptures.com/portfolio-item/techstuff/ Figure 1-f: Growing Marine Trading http://www.businessreviewaustralia.com/ finance/1623/Chevron-project-in-Australiaclears-big-hurdle Figure 2: The North Sea Shipping Map http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ article-2636152/Watch-worlds-ships-sailplanets-oceans-REAL-TIME-Interactive-mapreveals-crowded-routes-taken-worlds-vessels. html Figure 3: Growing Shipping Routes h t t p s : / / w w w. s e c . g o v / A r c h i v e s / e d g a r / d a t a / 1 5 7 8 4 5 3 / 0 0 0 11 9 3 1 2 5 1 3 4 4 2 1 7 5 / d609534d424b4.htm Figure 4: Growing Shipping Routes https://lockerdome.com/6411052418074945/67 99215791845140 Figure 5: Growing Shipping Routes http://tampabayfreight.com/ Figure 6: Huge Vessel at the Ports https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_Zaandam Figure 7: Huge Vessel at the Ports http://www.beyondships.com/RCI-NOS-Profile. html Figure 8: City Expanding Map http://inframanage.com/urbanization-19502050-economist-magazine-interactive-timelineinfrastructure-management-perspective/ Figure 9: Large Port City http://en.protothema.gr/port-of-piraeus-topscargo-traffic-for-2009-2013-term/ Figure 10: Large Port City http://www.building.co.uk/taking-it-from-thetop/3048264.article Figure 11: Large Port City http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/london-air-stunningaerial-photos-by-jason-hawkes-1433487

138 //

Figure 12: Dredging News in the Port http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/ category/news/dredging-news/ Figure 13: Dredging Issue News http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/ category/news/dredging-news/ Figure 14: Dredging Issue News https://www.dredgingtoday.com/tag/wodcon/ Figure 15: Busy Port Area http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/med-cruise. html Figure 16: Port Tourism Center http://veryturkey.com/destination-info/fethiye/ karagozler-fethiye Figure 17: Port Activities http://cdmsmith.com/en/Insights/Features/ Sustaining-a-Thriving-Port-City.aspx Figure 18: Dredging Work in the River https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_dredge Figure 19: Coastal High Tide http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/ coastal-city-flooding-could-cost-more-than600bn-a-year-8773359.html

boatingjpg Figure 31: Historical London Port map h t t p : / / m o o d e m a p c o l l e c t o r. b l o g s p o t . co.uk/2011/02/port-of-london-1964.html Figure 32: Historical London Port http://www.allwidewallpapers.com/canarywharf-2012/Y2FuYXJ5LXdoYXJmLTIwMTI/ Figure 33: Historical London Port http://www.som.com/projects/canary_wharf_ master_plan Figure 34: Historical London Port http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/london-air-stunningaerial-photos-by-jason-hawkes-1433487 Figure 35: Historical Bilbao Port http://www.bilbaoport.eus/en/the-port-authority/ photography/history/ Figure 36: Historical Bilbao Port http://www.bilbaoport.eus/en/the-port-authority/ photography/history/ Figure 37: Historical Bilbao Port https://sestao.wordpress.com/2012/01/14/ calendario-2012-puerto-de-bilbao/

Figure 20: Saline Water Intrusion http://wrkf.org/term/coastal-erosion#stream/0

Figure 38: Historical Bilbao Port http://www.ikgo.nl/activiteiten/verslagen/ bezoek-maasvlakte-2-en-ss-rotterdam/

Figure 21: Habitats Disaster http://www.alloutdoor.com/2016/01/12/ mississippi-river-flooding-halts-deer-hunts/

Figure 39: The Port of Rotterdam http://www.portstrategy.com/news101/world/ americas/la-lb-congestion-proves-costly

Figure 22: Habitats Disaster

Figure 40: Churchill Port News https://flipboard.com/topic/churchill

http://alex-school.moy.su/photo/2-2 Figure 23: London Flooding News http://metro.co.uk/2016/02/14/heavy-rain-andhigh-tides-cause-flooding-in-london-5681055/ Figure 24: Flooding News http://www.hulldailymail.co.uk/live-floodingeast-hull/story-29098019-detail/story.html Figure 25: Flooding News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotlandedinburgh-east-fife-14085088 Figure 26: Flooding News http://www.chichester.co.uk/news/floodwarning-issued-for-river-ems-1-5865553 Figure 27: Rotterdam as Economic Center https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotterdam Figure 28: Historical Rotterdam Port http://alchetron.com/Rotterdam-9821-W Figure 29: Historical Rotterdam Port https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotterdam Figure 30: Historical Rotterdam Port https://www.portofrotterdam.com/en/files/totalrotterdam-erasmus-port-authority-pleasure-

Figure 41: Strike in Rotterdam Port https://www.todayonline.com/world/europe/ first-strike-13-years-rotterdam-port-report Figure 42: Projects in Elbe Estuary http://www.eagm.eu/ringtrac-sand-columnssupport-the-140ha-land-reclamation/ Figure 43: Projects in Elbe Estuary http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-4215 Figure 44: Projects in Elbe Estuary http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-4215 Figure 45: Projects in Weser Estuary http://www.osp-urbanelandschaften.de/ Tidepark-Kreetsand.549.0.html Figure 46: Projects in Weser Estuary http://c2i-prep.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/chapitre4-les-rouages-dinternet-et-des.html Figure 47: Projects in Ems Estuary http://www.netcategory.net/first-time-cruiserscruise-deals-and-last-minute-cruises.html


Figure 48: Projects in Ems Estuary https://chemicalparks.eu/parks/chemicalcluster-delfzijl Figure 49: Projects in Ems Estuary https://www.fotolia.com/id/98856308 Figure 50: Projects in Ems Estuary https://www.wired.com/2014/09/conveyancequantum-of-the-seas/ Figure 51: Container Port http://www.portstrategy.com/news101/portoperations/cargo-handling/servicing_future_ needs Figure 52: Meyer Werft Shiyard http://www.worldcruise-network.com/features/ feature118462/feature118462-2.html Figure 53: Huge Ship in Ems Estuary https://www.htw-dresden.de/fileadmin/userfiles/ geo/papers/Lehmann_Koop08.pdf Figure 54: Ship Size Change http://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irishnews/the-battle-to-control-flooding-on-theriver-shannon-1.2471791 Figure 55: Flooded City http://www.wattenrat.de/tag/disney-dream/ Figure 56: Save the Ems h t t p : / / w w w. w a t t e n r a t . d e / 2 0 1 0 / 11 / 0 8 / kreuzfahrtschiff-disney-dream-ein-albtraum-furdie-ems/ Figure 57: Save the Ems http://www.rettet-die-ems.de/ Figure 58: Save the Ems http://www.rettet-die-ems.de/startseite/presse/ Figure 59: Save the Ems https://fd.nl/cookiewall?target=http s%3A%2F%2Ffd.nl%2Feconomiepolitiek%2F1093262%2Fveiligheid-voorop-bijgaswinning Figure 60: Port in the Outer Estuary http://en.portnews.ru/news/159119/ Figure 61: ‘Blue Dune’ Project Plan http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/2645 Figure 62: Dredging in the Esuary https://www.dredgingtoday.com/2013/05/29/ amcs-time-to-get-to-bottom-of-dredgingimpacts-australia/ Figure 63: ‘Blue Dune’ Project Plan http://www.rebuildbydesign.org/project/ wxywest-8-final-proposal/ Figure 64: Coastal Future Plan http://www.rebuildbydesign.org/project/ wxywest-8-final-proposal/

AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-2017 // 139


Dredging Artifice in Estuarine Territories  

AALU 2015-2015 MSc Students Shiqi Deng and Menglei Zhong with Input from Kai Fan develop an alternative approach to dredging and managing se...

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