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Co-OPERATIVE Wet-LAND AALU 2015-16 M.Sc Yanwen. Wu | Congyue. Wang M.Arch Yan. Sun


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AA LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 2015/16 ARCHITECTURAL ASSOSIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE LONDON, UK DIRECTORS ALFREDO RAMIREZ EDUARDO RICO STUDIO MASTER CLARA OLORIZ HISTORY & THEORY TUTOR DOUGLAS SPENCER TECHNICAL TUTORS GUSTAVO ROMANILLOS GIANCARLO TORPIANO VINCENZO REALE MACHINING LANDSCAPE TUTOR TOM SMITH SUBMITTED BY CONGYUE. WANG YANWEN. WU YAN. SUN FINAL PORTFOLIO SEPTEMBER, 2016


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Co-Operative Wet-Land

CONTENTS

AALU

ABSTRACT Baltic Sea is one of the largest dead zone in the world caused by eutrophication. This phenomenon has produced marine environmental deterioration resulting in poor living condition and economic loss for local inhabitants and small farmers. Our site, Gdansk, located in the downstream of the largest river in Poland - Vistula River, is an example of this overfertilisation of agricultural land favoring large land owners, agricultural producers, and monocultures. In this context, our project aims to design a strategy that uses the geomorphological features of the Vistula river – an elevated river above sea level, coupled with existing cooperative farmer’s organizations to propose new and alternative forms of territorial configurations and policies. Through the design of strategic discharge points of water and sediments along the river, our proposal creates wetlands to filter the nutrients from upper-streams, reuses sediments to reclaimed lands and above all proposed designed tools and techniques to shape agricultural and other land use patterns. The designs aim to empowered local farmer’s cooperatives to explore the potential of their unique local production and the insertion of new and compatible land uses over time.

Vistula River Bank photo by Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | ABSTRACT

8-11

12-29

30-39

40-65

Introduction of Dead Zone On a Worldwide Scale

Macro-Evironment Deterioration of Baltic Sea

Regional Condition and Reciprocal Landscape of Poland

Territorial Formation and Analysis of Vistula Flooding Pan

66-73

74-101

102-109

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Techinical Report 1 Sediment Harvest Technique

Manufactured Landscape & Wetland Mechnism

Techinical Report 2 Micro Cell Constrcuting Method

Co-op Wet-land Mechanism Application & Feedback


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Co-Operative Wet-Land

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AALU

Introduction of Dead Zone on a Worldwide Scale Source 1: Excess nutrients from Urbanization.

Source 2: Excess nutrients from sewage outfall.

Source 3: Excess nutrients from agriculture.

Source 4: Excess nutrients from powerplants.

Figure 2-5

Figure 6

Baltic Sea: Satellite spies vast algal bloom in Baltic Sea Baltic Sea is suffered seriously by eutrophication. Pollution from the densely population catchment area, agriculture, tourism along the coasts and maritime transport. Large amounts of nutrients and hazardous substances have been discharged to the Baltic Sea every year. Many organization has been established for face the pollution issues. HELCOM( Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission- Helsinki Commission) is the governing body of the Convention on the protection of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea.

Gulf of Mexico:

Dead zones are often caused by the decay of algae during algal blooms, like this one off the coast of Gulf of Mexico. This Gulf is the river mouth of Mississippi, which is the drains of the vast agricultural land of US.(" Breadbasket of America")There has extremely high loads of nutrients are released into there each year. The algal blooms threat many wild lives which are living in the fields.

Dead Zone Global Distribution Figure 1

Dead zones are low-oxygen areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, They can be caused by an increase in chemical nutrients( particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) in the water, Which was known as EUTROPHICATION. (Wikipedia, 2016) The Eutrophication come from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in the bottom and near-bottom water. These situations mostly occur near inhabited coastlines, where aquatic lives are most concentrated. Due to the eutrophication, the deep water is so low in dissolved oxygen that sea creatures can't survive. From NASA Earth Observatory, it reported 146 dead Co-Operative Wet-Land | Introduction of Dead Zone

zones in the world's oceans where marine life could not be supported due to depleted oxygen levels. From Figure1.1, the red circles show the locations and area of global dead zones. The dead zones have appeared in coastal water of Baltic Sea, South America, Black Sea and China, Japan, etc. Which cause lots of ecological, environmental and social problems.

China & Japan: Origin of Giant Bloom Discovered

A "green tide" Swamped the shores of Qingdao in June 2008. The international media and scientists suggested that excess nutrients ( eutrophication) in coastal caused the algal bloom. The bloom occurred was the growth of aquaculture in this region has been so rapid.

Dead Zone Size ( km2) 0.1 1

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Population Density ( Person/km2) 1

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Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


Sea Surface Temperature Anotamy Figure 9 | Adjusted by C. Wang


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Co-Operative Wet-Land

Pollution Source in Baltic Sea Catchment

AALU

Macro-Environment Deteriorartion of Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea Eutrophication Analysis Baltic is one of the largest dead zone in the world caused by eutrophication, leading to biodiversity decrease in nature and poor living condition as well as massive economic loss in society. Now the dead zone is still growing at a rapid speed, affecting a massive area of Baltic basin. The rapidly deteriorating situation in Baltic has raised the attention of the neighboring counties. Their nationals' livelihood is closely related to the environment level and water quality of Baltic. Nevertheless, the unbalanced national developments made this problem tougher to be negotiated. The developed countries in western Baltic suffer most from the eutrophication, and eager to have that solved. The

developing countries, however, are the main source of the pollution but they are not capable of taking the responsibility of the nutrient and they cannot simply stop the local pillar industry. The conflict between these two groups forces them to establish several organizations which could help reduce collisions and face the problem as a whole. In this chapter, we are going to visualizing those issue above and try to make it clearer to see the main problem in the Baltic catchment area.

Pollution Source in Baltic Catchment Y. Wu

Nearly 15 million people live within a 10 km distance from the Baltic coast. These people are the main victims of the environmental deterioration in Baltic. But intensive human activity in the larger Baltic catchment is found to be the main reason for nutrient pollution. The pollution from the upper stream will flow along the run-off and finally cause the horrible consequences downstream.

Runoff Along FarmLands

Runoff Along Industries

River Mouth

Tourism

Fishery

Aquaculture

Water/Food Security

Agriculture

Industry

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Household

Other

High Density Agriculture Activity

High Density Agriculture Activity

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Macro-Environment Deteriorartion


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BALTIC NUTRIENT SOURCES

Baltic Nutrient Sources Y. Wu

The Baltic Sea consists of 15 bays, including the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the Bay of Gdansk (Wikipedia. 2016). The continental sea is relatively enclosed,shallow elevated and has little connection to the Atlantic Ocean. Given to its unique submarine condition and little water exchange, the contaminant trapped in the baltic sea is highly difficult to be removed from the waterbody. Thus tracing back to where the pollutants originate could be helpful to take this issue under control. As we can see from the chart, all the pollution can be simply classified to two different sorts: diffuse landbased pollution and land based point-source pollution.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Baltic Nutrient sources

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Landbased Nutrient Source C. Wang

Marine Nutrient Sources C. Wang

The majority of pollution sources are a thousand miles away from the river mouth, which means the people who suffer from this unpleasant consequence essentially has nothing to do with the generation of pollutants.

Apart from the pollution from Baltic catchment, heavy marine activity worsens the circumstance in Baltic Sea. Every day, there are thousands of ships navigating in the sea area, leaking a large amount of fossil fuel and casting enormous marine litter which threatens the aqua-ecosystem.

ARTIFICIAL NUTRIENT SOURCES LANDBASED NUTRIENT SOURCE

MARINE NUTRIENT SOURCE The water from agricultural land, rural households, wastewater treatment plant carries the largest portion of nutrients (mainly Nitrogen and Phosphorus) to the Baltic Sea. Among all these elements, agriculture shared the largest percentage. The polluted water from a surface flow and underground runoff can be defined as diffused pollution whose source cannot be easily located.

Co-Operative Wet-Land |

artificial nutrient sources

According to an environmental report from Helcom, pointsource pollution from household and wastewater plant can be easily and targetedly solved by building wastewater treatment. So the real challenge lies within the non-pointed pollution from inland.

Figure 10

According to the statistics, there are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea.Those ports handle more than 50,000 tons of cargo annually. (Wikipedia, 2016) Although the environment in Baltic is worrying, every nation along the Baltic Sea, especially the western countries, are still managed to construct more ports and expend the existing ones, trying to take the control of marine transportation in

this area. As a result, the frequent dredging and dumping activities accelerate the diffuse speed of soil pollution to the waterbody.

Figure 11

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Baltic Deterioration C. Wang

Driven by a surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sea, eutrophication can provide sufficient nutrient to marine plants. Nutrient over-enrichment causes elevated levels of algal and plant growth, increased turbidity, oxygen depletion, changes in species composition and nuisance blooms of algae.

BALTIC DETERIORATION CONSEQUENCE ALGAL BLOOM

Figure 12

"Baltic Sea is now home to seven of the of the world's ten largest marine dead zones areas where the sea's oxygen has been used up by seabed bacteria that decompose the raining mass of dead algae". (National Geographic, 2010)

Algal bloom is the most typical feature of the eutrophication.In summer, the sufficient nutrient and warm water give a perfect living condition to algae growth. According to the latest HELCOM assessment on eutrophication, in 2007-2011 almost the entire open Baltic Sea was assessed as being eutrophied and only the open Bothnian Bay was assessed as being unaffected by eutrophication.

Floating on the surface, algae also isolated the water from the atmosphere and the sunlight, which are two important elements to marine wildlife, therefore lead to the death of marine animals.

Figure 13

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Biodiversity Decrease C. Wang

Economic Loss in Fishery Industry Y. Wu

Deterioration of the status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea Catchment, as manifested by the decline of communities and key species, is critical because it diminishes the resilience or buffering capacity against large-scale shifts in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and increases the risk for escalating deterioration of the environment. (Pawlak and Paulomaki, 2016)

The decrease in nature value result in the massive loss in economy. Both fish industry and aquaculture are heavily affected due to poor marine status.

BALTIC DETERIORATION CONSEQUENCE

BALTIC DETERIORATION CONSEQUENCE

BIODIVERSITY DECREASE

ECONOMIC LOSS Despite of the summer, eutrophication is not very visible in another season because most hazardous substances are dissolvable, making the problem easily been ignored. However, the balance of the marine ecosystem is on the edge of collapse and many species are decreased in a dramatic speed. There are currently 59 species that are considered as threatened or

Co-Operative Wet-Land | BALTIC DETERIORATION CONSEQUENCE

declining in the Baltic Sea. The largest single group of threatened or declining species is fish and lampreys, which includes 23 species. (Helcom.fi., 2016)

Figure 14

Trying to mend the economic loss, coastal inhabitant turns to more intensive fishing work, most of which are illegal and exceeding the tolerance of marine ecosystem. Along with the abuse of fertilizer in the fish farm, the economy activity and biogeocenose are trapped in a vicious spiral.

loss, a high coherence is found between them. In a word, human has generated too much pollutant because of economy purpose. In the end, however, we have to suffer the economic loss caused by deterioration.

When comparing the atlas of the eutrophication and that of economic

Figure 15

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL CONNECTION Baltic is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in Europe. It is bordered by 9 countries: Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, northeastern Germany, and eastern Denmark and its numerous islands.

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CONTROVERSY RESULT FROM CONSIQUENTIAL LANDSCAPE

Among all the victims in Baltic, Denmark and Germany are the three countries suffered the most. Fishery as the pillar industry, Finland was also affected badly by the eutrophication. When the economy was affected, the western baltic countries started to trace back the pollution sources and then found that most pollution was from the eastern coastal area.

After that, western Baltic countries began to censure that the pollution from eastern countries like Russia and Poland is turning the Baltic into "a bowl of green soap" and asked them to take measures to remit this situation.

economy domain lies in agriculture and industry which are located in the upper stream. Moreover, the cost of nutrient abatement is too high when considering it is not profitable to local .

However, these relatively "developing" eastern countries suffered little from Baltic pollution because of their mainly

News from Authoritative Press Collected by Y. Wu

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Nutrient Runoff in Baltic Catchment C. Wang

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | International Social Connection

The main conflict lies between the Eastern Baltic and the Western Baltic. From the news, we can see that Russia and Poland are the two countries who are always blamed for being the arch-criminals of the Baltic eutrophication.

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FORMATION OF INTERBALTIC ORGANISATIONS

Finland

Russia Sweden Estonia

Latvia Denmark Lithuania

German

ORGANIC FARM CONSTRUCTION

HELCOM Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission Contracting Parties: Denmark, Estonia, European Union, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden

Total Waterborne Phosphorus

Diffuse load 45% Total point source load 20%

EUSBSR The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland NDEP Northern Dimension Environmental Contracting Baltic Parties: European, Russia, Norway, Iceland ICES Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic Contracting Baltic Parties: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden

Transboundary load 9% Unspecified river load 10%

Total Waterborne Phosphorus

Diffuse load 45% Total point source load 20%

Total Waterborne Nitrogen Load

Total point source load 12%

Diffuse load 45%

Transboundary load 8%

Transboundary load 9% Unspecified river load 10%

Natural background 16%

Natural background 16%

Unspecified river load 16%

Natural background 19%

Total Waterborne Nitrogen 1.Precision Farming and Load Optimised Irrigation

As discusses in the previous pages, Diffuse load sources of pollutant45% are mainly coming from land-based origins. Since the proportion of total pointTransboundary source load are only 18%, and can load 8% easily be removed by building waster waterUnspecified treatments, we are not going Natural river load background to discuss the pollutions generated 16% 19% by industrial and household (Baltic Deal, 2016). Total point source load 12%

Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is much more complicated than decreasing discharges from point sources and will involve several measures. Due to retention in soils, groundwater, and inland surface waters, a reduction of nitrogen or phosphorus in local

discharges will result in much less reduction to the Baltic Sea. According to Table 4-3 retention in surface waters are up to 55% for nitrogen and 40% for phosphorus (Helcom, 2016). Therefore helping the farmers who live the upstream of Baltic rivers is an urgent measurement of the nutrient reduction. Taking this as a starting point, Baltic Region Organizations begin to carry out the concept of Organic Farm which could be able to reduce the amount of pesticide using tremendously. However, this kind of measurement is not working well on the farmland from developing countries.

Waterborne Nutrient Load C. Wang

Figure 19-20

Poland FISHING LIMITATON With loads of conflicts, every measure adapted to the Baltic Sea will affect all the nations in the catchment. Thus the environmental problem in this area is quite thought to be deal with. Each country with the different develop status has different opinions and limited ability towards the pollution issue. In order to protect their own rights and to

fulfill their political demands, several multi-national organizations are established to help negotiate the collective problem. These are 4 main Baltic Region Organizations, HELCOM, EUSBSR, NDEP and ICES, which are concentrate on environmental issues in this area. These organizations

are the governing body of the "Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area" usually known as the Helsinki Convention, signed by all of the countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and by the EU (Wikipedia, 2016). But as we can see from the different members of those orgnazations, west

crew of this region is playing a much active role on the regional issue than the east party.

MANAGEMENT MEASURE After the born of those organazations, several mangement measures are proposed by scientists. We can generally categorize them to three aspects.

INLAND

MARINE

COASTAL

1.Fishery Regulation

2.Pirate Fishing

3.Dumped Fish

The European Commission provides a system of management of the fisheries in the Baltic Sea. These regulations define the management targets, technical measures for limiting fishing effort and a number of specific provisions on control and enforcement. But it is impossible to fulfill all the demands of the countries in this region (Helcom.fi., 2016). According to a scientific amount of fishing limitation, several countries fishery industry will be restricted. In order to balance the developing pace between different countries, European Commission intended to give more amount to developing countries, and that generated some skirmish between countries.

In 2005, ICES estimated the catches of cod in the eastern Baltic Sea were 38% above the official limitation. These catches that were not reported to the authorities and hence are missing from the official landing statistics. The illegal catch is a heavy burden on an already depleted stock and renders it almost impossible for fisheries scientists to produce reasonable stock estimates.

The fishermen working in the Baltic region have to comply with the limitation that set by EU. In order to make sure that the amount of fish that they caught are smaller than the limitation, they dump the less profitable fishes back to Baltic so that they are able to maximize the profit got form the goods.

COASTAL PROTECTED AREA Interbaltic Organizations C. Wang

Figure 16-18

Organic Farm Construction

Fishing Limitaton

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Formation of INTERbALTIC ORGANISATIONs

1.Ntural Wetland Conservation

2.Artificial Buffers

Protecting wetlands from development and agriculture can maintain a healthy environment for wildlife, and make it harder for nutrient runoff.

Creating and maintaining natural buffers, between farmland, development and marine. It can help filter out excess nitrogen and phosphorus before reaching the sea. (Helcom, 2016)

However, the coastal measurements cost much and can only protect a very limited area. It is not realistic to apply such constructions along the whole coastline of Baltic.

Coastal Protected Area Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


An Unfair Fishery Quote Made by EU Figure 21


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REGIONAL CONFLICT

It seems that all Baltic countries are in a harmony and are tring to solve the problem together. But the actual situation behind is far too complex than its appearance because of the resource scramble and regional competition.

CONFLICT BETWEEN WESTERN & EASTERN BALTIC After analysis the various approach of official organization, we can see that an entire system of management has already been set up towards the Baltic issue, which can provide a lot reference to our later study. But we also realize that the Baltic issue is too complex to be solved by simply setting up some regulations. There are many ecological and social problems interwave with each other, making eutrophication more than just an environmental problem. Therefore, to solve the eutrophication problem, we need to find the further reason behind the emission of nutrient and then optimize the Baltic marine environment and provide the local people a proper living standard at the same time.

The western Baltic generated less diffused nutrient because agriculture is not a major industry in these countries. However, in fact, they have transferred their domestic agriculture to eastern Baltic. Therefore the farming pollution problem are transferred to eastern at the same time. When the eastern countries joined the European Union, Eu members are allowed to purchase the farmland from the local farmer and the government. By the establishment of multinational companies, western countries organize many large farmlands in east and equip them with high-tech farming machines. And the products are finally export to west in a low price to support their domestic consumption. As a matter of fact, a big share of nutrient is actually generated by westerners themselves. At that time, some eastern countries are just in the turning from commu-

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Regional conflict

nization to capitalization, the local agriculture structure was still in the process of exploration so is highly restricted and can not compete with the multinational company. Most local farms are in small size and the individual farmers are not able to achieve mechanized farming. In order to achieve high yield, some of them turns to use more fertilizer and so pollute more. Others would rather sell their land directly to western companies, which is not a wise measure as well. In a word, the eastern Baltic region is actually the victim whose agriculture industry are in great limitation and they are forced to take the responsibility of nutrient emission.

Figure 22

Historical Map of Europe Figure 23

Taking all these elements together, we can see that the eastern Baltic are under huge pressure either in a local economy, in pollution and in regional relationships. Among all the eastern countries, Poland produces the largest amount of inland nutrient and so is often in the center of the regional conflict. So we zoom into the Poland to develop a further study. Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Co-Operative Wet-Land

Agriculture Distrubution in Poland

AALU

Regional Condition and Reciprocal Landscape of Poland

Social Formation & Consequential Landscape When zooming into Poland, more detailed conflicts have been revealed. A large portion of the pollutants running to the Baltic Sea is generated in Poland, and this has brought up an endless debate among the Baltic countries. Intend to protect the countries that suffering from the nutrient, EU has released a list of regulations of environmental protection, and that has limited the development of Poland. Besides the environmental issues, Poland was also historically squeezed between Germany and Russia. Germany tries to maintain domination over Poland and the Baltic by the stopping all the big ships in German harbors and controlling the land-based transportation. If Polish are trying to reverse the condition, a tough competition will be seen.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Regional Condition and Reciprocal Landscape

Within the national scale, polish people are also facing a serious problem. As a third of the population are working as farmers, they have generated too many pollutants to the Vistula and then to the Baltic. The abuse of fertilizer is a prevalent problem in Poland. This could be an important reason to explain Baltic eutrophication. But the responsibilities should not be taken only by the local farmers, the western country, and the upstream farmers should also be blamed since this phenomenon is triggered by their actions. Hence we have to deal with this problem in a consequential point of view.

Agriculture Distribution in Poland C. Wang

Runoff Along FarmLands

Runoff Along Industries

River Mouth

Profits Distribution

Farming Area

High Density Agriculture Activity

High Density Agriculture Activity


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AGRICULTURAL COMPETITION

F I N L A N D 2004

2004

TRANSPORTATION COMPETITION & DREDGING SITE

2016 Located in the center of Europe and south of the Baltic Sea, Poland is one of the most populous and largest St Petersburg countries in the Baltic Sea region, and particularly in its drainage basin. Half of the inhabitants in the Baltic Sea Region live in Poland.

Helsinki

For now Gdansk, the harbor city in the northern of Poland has the most potential being a next biggest port in Baltic Region, replacing the land based transport, and to stimulate the Moscow economy for the whole country.

Tallinn Stockholm

S W E D E N

However due to the serious flooding issue in Vistula Delta. Poland government has already done a lot of work to protect the urban instruction from being flooded. Especially some railroad in the flooding pan. It is really a good time point of Zaverezhye developing a second transportation system. Smolensk

L A T V I A Riga

L I T H U A N I A Newcastle After the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, the ownership of the farmland shifted from common to private. Therefore the agriculture in Poland was mainly depended on family farms before it joined the European Union, and more than 92% of the farmland were less than 15 hectares.

When Poland became a member of EU, other countries in Europe are allowed to participate in the trade of farmland. So the western Baltic countries start to set up some multinational farming company to replace their domestic farming. In consequence, local farmers in Poland suffers poverty because they can not compete with the mechanized farming company.

Copenhagen

Vilnius

Minsk

Before the expansion of Gdansk Port, Germany is the dominator of a marine network within Baltic Sea. At Krasnoye that time, transportation system of the whole country was mainly based on a railway, air, and roads. Products were transported to Germany firstly by big vessels and then distributed to Gdansk through Warsaw. In this process, the cost of transportation will be highly increased. Suzernka

B E L A R U S

Hull

Amsterdam

Berlin

Warsaw Poznan

After joining the European Union, the government tried to reverse this situation. So the marine transportation system has been incredibly developed. Now Gdansk port is capable of stopping the big vessel and much further expansion plans hav been put forward.

Brest

Harwich

Moreover, the local farmer is forbidden to produce proceed food production because theLondon EU regulation raises the hygiene standard so the Polish farmer can only sell the raw material at a low price. In the end, many Polish choose to quit farming an sell the land to the multinational company and result in a higher land price, making it more difficult for the locals to enlarge their farmland and transfer to mechanized farming.

Hoek

Brussels

G E R M A N Y Berlin

P O L A N D

Kiev Yagodyn

Polish Agricultural Structure Shift Process Y. Sun

U K R A I N E International Competition within Baltic Area C. Wang

Frankfurt Co-Operative Wet-Land | Agricultural Competition

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School

Paris


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COOPERATIVE FORMATION TIME LINE

Poland is famous for its homemade food products, such as sausages, hams, dairy products, and other things made from fruit or crops. Their farmers used to sell this goods directly at local markets to make a living, especially for those smallholders, handmade product is part of their lifestyle, and it suits their way of living.

50 years ago the agricultural farmland in Poland still belonged to farmers. As Farnam quoted in his report, "The Wanderer", a smallholder said: "The Communists tried to force us off of our land in the 1950s, and they failed. We are staying. This is the only life we know, and it suits us fine. Who are those politicians to say our farm is too poor. (Iric Farnam, 2002)

1950

1980

Stall selling food at the Christmas Market on the main square in Krakow, Poland on 7 December. Krakow's old city centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its main square, called Rynek Glowny, is the largest medieval town square in Europe. (Rudolf Abraham, 2003)

When Poland joined the EU on 1 May 2004, it became legal for citizens from surrounding EU countries to buy real estate in the country. However, permits were still required to allow nonPolish nationals to purchase either agricultural or forest land across the majority of the country, a law extending for twelve years from the date of Polans's EU accession. (Chris Fitch, 2015)

Joanna Bojczewska, a baker said: "It's appalling that the small-scale farmers cannot process foods on their farms without going through these arduous regulations. People want access to handmade food, crafted with time and care, not factory-made products. The government should act to support this kind of production and not inhibit it as it seems to be doing." (IPPC, 2014)

One Polish farmers' union press, called Solidarity, release stated: "We demand the introduction of legislation that will protect Polish land from exploitation by foreign capital! Agricultural land can not be sold to commercial companies. It's part of Polish territory. Once sold it will be lost." (Solidarity farmers' union, 2015)

2003

2004

2014

2015

As well as their concerns about foreign purchases of Polish land, there are several other key demands flagged up by the farmers. These are: to legalise direct sales of farm produce, making it easier for small farmers to compete with larger organisations, to extend inheritance laws to include land under lease as a fully legal form of land use in Poland. (Chris Fitch, 2015)

The question for Polish people now is whether joining the EU gets them more benefit or punishment. And they start to question the EU, "It's not Poland which has a problem with the EC, it's the EC which has the problem" said by the Prime Minister of Poland, Beata Szydlo. In order to heal Warsaw, we must find a alternative way to treat this problem rather than use the politic sanction as the ultimate weapon.

Polish Agricultural Evolution News Figure 24-31

The farmers living in Poland are fighting to save their livelihood and way of life. After the 1980s, an organization called Solidarity was established in Poland. At first, they are simply a group of farmers trying to protect their own rights, then it stared to spread to the whole country. And now the solidarians has held several national protests against the bad decisions for farmers made by their own government. Apparently, the "Land-Grabbing" activities from the western developed countries are one of their main targets as well (Radio Poland, 2014).

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Cooperative Formation Time Line

Polish farmers protest ‘Land-Grabbing’ Figure 32-33

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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CONSEQUENTIAL CONNECTION WITHIN VISTULA BASIN More than 60% of Polish farmland located in the basin of Vistula. And this is the reason why the Vistula is found to be the most polluted river in Baltic catchment. The nutrients produced by the upper stream farmland flows along the Vistula runoff and then affects the downstream area and even further countries around the Baltic catchment. So this delta can be a place where all nutrients get together and give us an opportunity to deal with the problem.

Consequential Connection within VIstula Basin C. Wang

Population of Residence

1,500,000 pp 1,500,000 pp 1,500,000 pp 1,500,000 pp Nutrient Load at Outlet

3,000,000 kg/year 2,500,000 kg/year 1,500,000 kg/year 500,000 kg/year

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Consequential Connection Within Vistula Basin


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A Serious Landbased Pollution Happened Near Warsaw Figure 34

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Consequential Connection within VIstula Basin

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Co-Operative Wet-Land

AALU

Hydrology System and Artificial Facilities in Vistula Delta

Territorial Formation and Analysis of Vistula Flooding Pan

Vistula Delta Geomorphology & Hydrology System Being the connection between the upper stream and Baltic, Vistula Delta takes all the pollutant from the surface flow of the river. Once the nutrient was released to Baltic, the chemical substance will immediately diffuse in the entire Baltic. Therefore, the nutrient should be filtered before the clash of Vistula River and Baltic Sea. That means the best place for pollutant treatment is within Vistula Delta.

After the study of Vistula River's unique landform, we composed with a proposal that the polluted water could be diverted from the river course and then, using the sediment brought by it to form a wetland area on the relatively lower area. The nutrient in the waterbody will be treated before it runs to the sea, and the local hydrology system will get a chance to be developed.

When we start to study the geometry feature of the Vistula Delta, we find that this area has a unique hydrology system. The average elevation is lower than the sea level, thus a lot of finance are engaged in against the flooding and storm issues. A lot of artificial facilities has been built in this region, and these could be part of the designed strategy to help manipulate the territory and deal with the nutrient runoff issue.

Having the strategy in mind, we did some simulations in different scales to test the feasibility of this idea. And also keep digging the potential of the site.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Territorial Formation and Analysis

Hydrology System and Artificial Facilities in Vistula Delta Y. Sun | Y. Wu | C. Wang River

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GEOMORPHOLOGY OF VISTULA DELTA

EVOLOTION OF DELTA FORMATION

EVOLUTION OF VISTULA ESTUARY OUTLETS

The natural succession of Vistula is relatively gentle but is continuous for a long time. In 890AC, there was only a small delta with no spit. Many run-offs from the Vistula flowed directly to the Baltic Sea, brought along a large amount of sediment. With the wave and tidal running against the river, these two forces making sediment kept accumulating and result in the constant growth of river delta and the formation of the Vistula Lagoon.

There are three estuaries along the coast line of Vistula delta, all of them are the branch from the artery of Vistula river. The Vistula is the largest river in Poland with abundant resources. Gdansk, a vital port city of Poland, was born and developing along the river. However, the Vistula can also be a dangerous element to the sprawling city. So, in 1840, when a serious flood hit the downstream and split a second river mouth, the local people changed the way of an artery from the city center to the urban area. But with the enlarge of the city and the expansion of the port, flooding can still be a problem to Gdansk. Fifty years later, the Polish opened a third river mouth and construct several sluice gates to keep the operation of the port and to guarantee the security of the city meanwhile.

Nevertheless, the delta elevation is still below the sea level and the riverbed so this area can be seen as a huge flooding pan threaten by the Vistula and Baltic Sea.

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LAND FORMATION From the 14th century, a spit began to grow under the effect of river and tidal. One hundred years later by 1700, the spit was finished and a lagoon formed along the coast. Since then the Vistula of Gdansk became the only river artery. After a flood in 1840, an additional branch formed called the "DeadVistula" (Wikipedia, 2016). The increased water discharge made the delta

expand, and the flood also caused the accumulation of substantial amounts of load on the Dead Vistula foreland (Cyberski and Kawinska, 1995). In the beginning of the 20th century, a third estuary was opened by Polish so that the river could flow straightly to Baltic, reducing the risk of the flooding problem in Gdansk.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Geomorphology of Vistula Delta

Evolution of Vistula Delta Y. Wu

Evolution of 4 Estuary Area of Vistula Y.Wu

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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GEOMORPHOLOGY OF VISTULA DELTA

Vistula River Mouth Figure 35

The mouth of the Vistula, a keep-shifting sandy area.

Riverbed Sediment of Vistula Figure 36

Banks and riverbed of Vistula river near it's estuary during dry summer spel.

ESTUARY OF VISTULA RIVER Vistula river carries a huge amount of sediment, after the construction of the second artificial river mouth completed, the sand helps it formed an external delta. In order to keep the proper depth of river bed , a lot of maintenance is required in this area. The polish has built a lot of infrastructure, designed to focus on keeping the river bank well-shaped and to ensure the deposit (river's sands and materials) will not affect the daily river transportation and the riverine traffic.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Geomorphology of Vistula Delta

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


046

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GEOMORPHOLOGY OF VISTULA DELTA

GEOMORPHOLOGY OF VISTULA DELTA

Natural River Mouth: Gdsnsk, an important port city in Poland

The 1st Artificial River Mouth: Dead Vistula, a nature resort for bird reservation

(1840)

The 2nd Artificial River Mouth: Swibna, The latest artery of Vistula (1895)

HIGHLY ENGINEERED INFRUSTRCUTURES AGAINST FLOODING ISSUE 1. The Gdansk Port is now located in the first river mouth, making it fully concrete. The port is an important hub for domestic import and export. It keeps expansion during last decades and contributes a lot to the local economy. 2. The flow speed in Dead Vistula decrease significantly after the opening of Swibna in 1985, and then a tiny lagoon appeared. This area is in the outskirt of Gdansk city so a natural scenery could be kept, the local people made it a resort for bird reservation and a thin dam was constructed to protect the resort from flooding issue.

3.A giant sluice gate has been built in the joint between Dead Vistula and Swibna estuary to control the river flow to the port and city center. In addition, along with the river bank. a series of dams was used to protect the low elevated farmland in Vistula catchment.

HYDROLOGY SYSTEM

The initial river mouth was formed during a long natural progress. The second river mouth was opened in 1840 because of a severe flood and then constructed by human. As the expansion of the city and the Gdansk port, a third river mouth was made in 1895 to protect the city as well as the port.

Evolution of Vistula River Mouths Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Geomorphology of Vistula Delta

Figure 37-39

Apart from the levee along the bank, many other constructions have been built to dewatering the farmland and cope with the problem of hydrology system. There is a complete ditch system combined with irrigation function. All ditched are well connected and will finally reach the pumping station. So basically the Vistula Delta is highly engineered. Pump Station Sights Photo by Y. Wu

Flooding Against Facilities Figure 40-41

Sights of Vistula River Mouths Photo by Y. Wu

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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HYDROLOGY SYSTEM OF VISTULA CATCHMENT

Currently, the geological situation is most of the site are under the sea level. As we could see from the figure, except the boundary between sea and land. (The Pine and Silver Birch forest were planted for stabilizing sand and reducing the wind.)

Forest Bounday between Sea and Inland Photo by Y. Wu

All the nutrients from upstream cultivated farmland flow through all these drainage systems and run into Baltic Sea finally. Vistula river has three river mouths and Vistula lagoon to link with Baltic Sea.

Artificial

Nutrients Run-off from Upstream Y. Sun

Natural

Gdansk coastal area like basin where to suffer from the underground salt water and flooding. So many projects have been established for defending these issues. They have a hydrology system for this situation. Firstly, they use pumping station draw out the water and then pumping water back to sea by existing riverways and other linked drainage works and artificial dikes. The system includes artificial riverways and natural riverways.

Natural River

Artificial Dike Artificial Canal

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Vistula River

Hydrology System of Gdansk Y. Sun

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Hydrology system of vistula catchment

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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INITIAL PROPOSAL

Wetland Terrance in Mississippi River Delta Figure 40

Considering all the conditions, we would like to combine the nutrient problem with the flooding issue. Firstly, the flood is introduced to create a remedial wetland system in order to deal with the nutrient problem. And then with the sediment accumulation and nutrient decrease, the landform will be reshaped, going from a remedial solution to a self-cleaning agricultural mechanism that empowers the local farmers through cooperative association.

Co-Operative Wet-Land |

initial proposal

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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Firstly, a position guideline should been put forward. Apparently, the residential area is of higher land value and a buffer area should be reserved for urban expansion. In addition, the intensive human activity would reduce the efficience of water treatment. So transportation network and property plots are taken as the negative elements.

The area which is close to the ditch system and pumping station is more suitable for the deployment because the hydrology governing system can be a part of the wetland which can help to make the project safer and more controllable.

When all layers are put together, an overlapping map can be a primary guideline for the site selection. The dark blue area should be the proper place for wetland construction. Apply the wetland here will minimize the adverse effect on urban development. Moreover, the pumping station and ditch system can be fully used in the wetland operation.

Site Analysis of Vistula Fen Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Wetland Constructing Conditions

Land Value of Vistula Fen Y. Wu

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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VISTULA FLOODING PATTERN This picture shows a flooding that happened on the upstream of Vistula River, and that has partially or thoroughly destroyed several towns and villages including Gorzyce, Sokolniki, and Trzesn in addition to large numbers of agricultural fields (NASA, 2010).

After decided to construct an artificial wetland in Vistula Delta, we did some simulation by CEASAR to study the potential damage to the existing villages and residential area that brought by the diverted water.

In order to avoid the uncontrollable damage coming with the diverted water, we have to study the flooding pattern that happens on this specific landform of Vistula Delta.

As the following map shows, during the most severe flooding attack, approximately 22,000 residents of 19 villages will be affected by the river discharge.

Mikoszewo

Jantar

Population 710 Area 6.8 km2 Euro € 3,000,000

Koszwaly

Population 710 Area 7.2 km2 Euro € 1,200,000

Population 940 Area 3.7 km2 Euro € 1,550,000

Stegna

Population 4000 Area 0.7 km2 Euro € 70,000

Przemyslaw Population 310 Area 3.2 km2 Euro € 360,000

Cedry Maie

Population 927 Area 17.8 km2 Euro € 2,270,000

Niedzwiedzica

Nowa Koecielnica

Population 242 Area 7.4 km2 Euro € 1,790,000

Population 296 Area 11.2 km2 Euro € 1,920,000

Leszkowy

Nowy Dwor Gdansk

Population 273 Area 22.7 km2 Euro € 2,700,000

Population 10083 Area 10.2 km2 Euro € 1,070,000

Gniazdowo

Ostaszewo

Nowa Cerkiew

Brzozki

Borety

Palczewo

Population 262 Area 4.7 km2 Euro € 850,000 Flooding Simulation of Vistula Flooding Pan C. Wang

Aerial Sight of Flooding Damage in Upstream Vistula Figure 41

Population 1017 Area 5.4 km2 Euro € 2,590,000

Population 462 Area 6.2 km2 Euro € 1,300,000

Jeziernik

Population 306 Area 2.2 km2 Euro € 450,000

Population 160 Area 7.9 km2 Euro € 3,200,000

Population 182 Area 6.2 km2 Euro € 600,000

Population 331 Area 9.7 km2 Euro € 1,200,000

Pordenowo

Population 130 Area 12.0 km2 Euro € 1,100,000

Lisewo Malborskie Population 973 Area 0.7 km2 Euro € 90,000

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Vistula flooding pattern

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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VISTULA FLOODING PATTERN

Flooding Pan Test

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THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT WATER VOLUME The different water volume will be an important element of flooding control. Initially, the damages of flood happened in this site vary according to the season and amount of water. So we did a simulation to observe how large the area will be inundated by the flooding, and the damage it will cause.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Vistula flooding pattern

The Polish people had been suffering from the problem for centries, then they managed to build a series of artificial flooding control facilities, the dams, canals to keep the wild Vistula in its proper position. The maps on the right page show what happened after the local build the pump station and dams.

Flooding Simulation of Vistula Flooding Pan C. Wang

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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DAM BREAKING POSITION TEST

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These six candidates are relatively more suitable for diverting water from the river course with a lower economic loss. And before building the tunnel and sluice gate on the dam, we still have to study how the different combination of dam breaking position will influence the water footprint on the Vistula flooding pan, and try to combine the information of the land value so as to make the final decision of releasing the polluted water from the Vistula River.

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Dam breaking position test

Simulation of Dam Breaking Position C. Wang

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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ARTIFICIAL DIKE ALONG THE VISTULA Dam along The Vistula Bank Photoed by Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Simulation

For the purpose of against flooding issues happened in this area, Polish people had built a 20-kilometer-long dam along the Vistula River's bank. The photo above shows the summer water volume which is during a dry season.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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WETLAND UNIT DEFINITION Under the guidance of the previous simulation and site analysis, three main wetland unit will be taken place on the Vistula Delta. In consideration of the minimum economic loss and easily controllable of water discharge, and efficient water filtering ability. Each unit will have a complete hydrology system connecting the dam breaking position with the existing pump station to ensure the amount diverted water can be easily controlled. And then we decided to go for further study in the cell located on the southeast side of the flooding pan, because of a good combination of the complex landform condition and people who living in this area.

The Second River Mouth 1840

The Third River Mouth 1840

Channel The Dead Vistula

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Breaking Position III After identified the potential candidates, we started to study the connection and influence of dam breaking positions. With back and forth negotiations of the different combination, we decided to break the dam at position 4, 8 and 12. Finally, the footprint of water generated a shape like the above map shows. And we decide to construct three main unit of the wetland under the guidance of the simulation and site analysis.

Simulation of Wetland Unit Definition C. Wang

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The essential components of a river wetland cell should Wetland Unit Definition C. Wang

be the water input tunnel, the pumping station and the relatively isolated flooding cell.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | WEtland unit definition

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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For instance, Unit 1 located in the most upper stream position that means this spot have most sufficient water sources to construct the largest wetland system and dispose of the pollution remediation. Additionally, the 5 existing villages would be engaged in further intensive agricultural production on the reclaimed farmland.

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For the large scale, the three units have the different context which could influence their potential function, such as Agriculture, Natural Reservation, and Tourism. We try to arrange their function orientations as suitable as possible and make them develop and improve local environmental efficiently.

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Potential function of units

v

1

land Tou Wet r i sm al ur

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Potential Function of Wetland Units Y. Sun

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


TECHNICAL REPORT 1

WETLAND REBIRTH PROJECT & SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015/2016 SUBMITTED BY CONGYUE WANG

ABSTRACT The following essay tries to explain the influence of sediment carried by Vistula River on forming its unique hydrology system and geomorphological characteristics on the delta. This kind of landform can be generally understood as Bay and Estuary that under serious threat of sea and riverine flooding. The role of this report for our project is to provide a range of case studies of wetland construction methods and sediment management techniques that could be applied in this kind of area. The upcoming examples will give a wide variety of wetland restoration and treatment of siltation in terms of the scale and landform. Some of the projects are related to shoreline flooding, others are focusing on riverine-based issues. Because of the entangled hydrology system existing on our site, a good combination of this two aspect will be helpful of putting up together the further strategies. And these projects has been introduced with varying degrees of human interventions, some of them might be highly engineered, others might only engage with subtle differentiation. Through the projects that selected for this report we can start to build up a series of strategies that have potential benefits for our own project in Vistula Delta, Poland. We have proposed to rebirth part of the delta as natural marshland aiming at nutrient runoff treatment, and to construct a productive wetland that will be beneficial for the local farmers by introducing a new agricultural structure in the meantime. Reshaping the landscape to a wetland in this region will be a key element of guiding the following process of cooperative establishment. Hence we need to fully understand the wetland construction process and means of sediment management. Based on this knowledge the connection between the terrain and the people living on it could be better negotiated.

Vistula River Bed during the Dry Season Figure 1

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Technical report 1

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


Sonoma Baylands Wetland Restoration Project

The Mississippi River Delta Basin

Location: California, USA Project Timeframe: 1960s to now Project Area: 2,590,000 m2 Sediment Amount: 5,180,000 m3 Project Cost: Unknown Technique Used: Storm-Surge Barrier

Location: Louisiana, USA Project Timeframe: 1960 to now Project Area: 249,488,698 m2 Sediment Amount: Unknown Project Cost: $ 428,720,000 Technique Used: Water Diversion, Terracing and sediment trapping

Among all the wetland restoration projects, unlike other world-class natural areas, Sonoma Baylands signaled a turning point in Bay restoration efforts.1 The project has successfully built a connection between industry, government and Bay environmentalists. The emerging conflict between region's riverine transportation and environment protection has been ceased by this project to a certain extent.

The Mississippi River Delta basin is located south and west of Louisiana, bounded with the Mississippi River. Since 1932, the basin has lost more than 15 percent of its land area because of the maintenance of major navigation channels that used for transportation of oil and gas industry, commercial and recreational fishing (Lacoast.gov, 2016).

Sonoma Baylands is located beside the San Francisco Bay, the biggest estuary on the west coast of North America. It was once a tidal wetland but drained by the surrounding earthen dikes that built to protect this inter-tidal area. By 1960s, San Francisco Bay was being filled in at a rate of 5,180,000 square meters per year. Without the deposit fed by the tidal water, this wetland had subsided as much as ten to twelve feet below sea level (Lowe, 2016). The bay used to be surrounded by an almost unbroken chain of wetlands like Sonoma Baylands, but now only five percent of the original wetlands remain. Thus the restoration of the inter-tidal area requires the decisive action of breaching the dikes to allow tidewaters to return. And after the breaching the dam, the drained wetland would become permanent open water again. However, rather than revert to the vegetated marshes that before diking, there will be no plants until other interventions being applied on the site.

Figure 2 - San Francisco Bay Area Shoreline Areas Potentially Exposed to Sea Level Rise

Figure 3 - Aerial above Sonoma Baylands wetland restoration project in San Francisco bay at low tide using dredge spoils from the Port of Oakland.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Sonoma Baylands Wetland Restoration Project

With in the frame, it shows the River Diversion Machenism are forming new land

A strategy has been developed for this basin. It involves the study and development of a major uncontrolled diversion of the Mississippi River for the creation of a new delta while maintaining the navigation route in its present location and managing the retreat of the existing delta (The Bay Institution, 2016). When the water is diverted from the main riverbed, the sediment in the waterbody will from a new wetland, along with the area it runs. A sediment diversion project located at the west bay breached levee to allow the water and sediment feeding to the surrounding wetland and to simulate a natural land reclamation process. However, the researchers cannot assure how large of the reclaimed land will be, only an estimated number of 700,000,000 square meters has been given by the scholars from University of Minnesota (Paola, 2008). And this strategy still needs further development and feasibility test before wide application. At the meantime, a restoration technique known as terracing has been applied in this area. The engineers used the sediment from Mississippi River to rebuild the wetland in a new location. The dredged materials from the river are delivered to a shallow open pool, to build the terraces. The marsh terracing is not a newly developed sediment trapping method. As we can draw from the photos on the right, it is a very basic operation with a low requirement of technique. It has just been industrially ap-plied in the Mississippi River Delta and formed a breathtaking landscape seen from the sight above. The way of placing the terraced grids varies according to the different site conditions, current techniques and the pattern of local tidal currents and wind directions (Free Association Design, 2011). Those terraces will trap the sediment by slow down the flow velocity. On the one hand it helps to stop the land loss caused by the tidal attack, on the other hand, it could also introduce as an intervention of reinforcing the reclaimed land.

The engineers adopted a technique called Storm-Surge Barrier to slow down the water flow velocity (The Bay Institution, 2016). The diverted tidal water will gradually form a series of shallow open pools with the sediment, silt, and gravels brought by. In order to accelerate the marsh plant colonization process, a minimum bottom elevation must be achieved. The new paradigm of wetland restoration would use sediment dredged from nearby flood control channels as a construction material for the brackish marsh substrate. For this specific project, the dredged material from a channel deepening project at the Port of Oakland was transported to Sonoma Baylands so as to help to elevate the existing base height. Construction work of the Sonoma Baylands wetland restoration project was completed in 1996 and the project has been monitored closely over the years.

Figure 4 -

Figure 5 - Making a breach on the existing levee.

Figure 6 - Wetland terracing and sediment trapping technique

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


Restored Wetland at Sonoma Baylands Figure 7

Co-Operative Wet-Land | San Francisco Bay Area Shoreline Areas Potentially Exposed to Sea Level Rise

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


Flooded Farmland of Yangtze River Delta

CONCLUSION

Figure List

Location: Shanghai, China Project Timeframe: Constructed before 1920 Project Area: 809,371 Sediment Amount: Unknow Construction Cost: $ 240,000 Technique Used: Gravity Flow, Low-tech Methods

The projects reviewed in the previous pages has presented varies of examples from restoring a large area of drained marshland to establish a small wetland aiming at sediment management. This studies should be taken into consideration when we trying to develop a new wetland mechanism on the Vistula Delta. The common features shared between these projects and our site will guide us in the terms of different sediment harvest techniques applied in the low elevated area, followed by land use strategies after the sediment reclamation.

Figure 1 - Kowalczyk, A. (2016). Banks and riverbed of Vistula river.. [image] Available at: http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-13177613stock-footage-banks-and-riverbed-of-vistula-river-near-it-s-estuaryduring-dry-summer-spell-bird-s-eye-view.html?src=search/nQ_3uZ5WQ05FCEgyWucig:1:2/gg [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

When zoom in to our site, the Vistula River, an elevated river located in south end of the Baltic Sea, forms a wide non-tidal delta system of 2,320 km2. In this area, flood risk is the most significant threat casting upon the people who live in here. In order to fight against the water, Polish has built 2 artificial river outlets to release the flooding pressure. However, because of the upstream sediment retention and sediment aggradation, there still exist a potential risk of flooding issue. Also without the sediment fed by the river, the delta's altitude ranges from about 10 m, where the Vistula divides into two main streams, to 1.8 m in the northeast. The Vistula Delta is hardly possible to remain an above-sea-level altitude that could catch up with the pace of sea rising. The Polish had to build a 30-kilometer-long dike along the coastal area to prevent the sea water from intrusion. From which we can draw that balancing the sediment between upstream and downstream of Vistula River is a key management issue. And the project of Sonoma provides a real example of sediment balancing and wetland constructing. The storm-surge barrier could be used for flooding cell definition and sediment diversion. As for the Mississippi River Delta project, the sediment harvest technique could also be applied on our site. The terracing barriers help accelerate the velocity of land reclamation, and could enforce the reclaimed sediment at the same time. Finally, when it comes to the project in China, a possibility of transforming the shallow open water to a productive land use has been revealed.

Figure 3 - Aerial Archives, (2016). Aerial view above Sonoma Baylands wetland restoration project. [image] Available at: http://www.alamy.com/ stock-photo-aerial-view-above-sonoma-baylands-wetland-restorationproject-northern-13006885.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Back to our site of Gdansk, we will be given a great opportunity to compose a strategy for the local people and farmers by taking advantage of its unique hydrology system to establish a profitable landscape. And the cases above will build up a sound base for delivering an applicable strategy.

Figure 9 - Latremouille, M. (2016). Yangtze River Delta oblique aerial view, showing the varied land use and the seawall at the East China Sea, 2008.. [image] Available at: http://scenariojournal.com/article/yangtzeriver-delta-project/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

After reviewing the projects located by the seashores, I would also like to bring in some inland projects that represent a typical sediment management technique applied for another purpose rather than simply tidal attack protection. The way of Chinese people manipulating the water and the sediment is thoroughly different from the American style. The main purpose of land reclaiming in China is to increase the portion of available farmland among all the different land uses because of the food supplying pressure. Thus their way of sediment manipulation is distinct from those areas without the pressure in that respect. And this technique might be suitable for developing a sediment management strategy for Poland since both of them are countries heavily relying on agriculture. Before the industrialism, agriculture is the most powerful stimulus for land reclamation. Even in the post-industrial age, in the southern part of China, farmers still reclaimed paddy fields by enclosing an area with a stone wall on the sea shore near river mouth or river delta (Wikipedia, 2016). The Yangtze in China has been playing an important role in the agricultural society. The sediment carried in the waterbody has become a great eco-friendly method for fostering the soil fertility. Also, the floodwaters could be engaged to irrigate the rice fields, and simple gravity flow within each field allows the irrigation water to descend through a series of carefully managed terraces (Seavitt, 2013).

Figure 8 - Aerial above Sonoma Baylands wetland restoration project in San Francisco bay at low tide using dredge spoils from the Port of Oakland.

Yangtze River shared a great similarity with the Vistula, and the way of building paddy fields by enclosing open water area with stone wall and dike could be applied on our site. During the flooding period, rice could be temporarily cultivated as a compensation helping farmers get through this stage more smoothly.

Figure 2 - The Bay Institute, (2016). San Francisco Bay Area Shoreline Areas Potentially Exposed to Sea Level Rise. [image] Available at: http:// thebayinstitute.blob.core.windows.net/assets/SLR_Executive_Summary_ web.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Figure 4 - River Diversion Machenism are forming new land, (2016). [image] Available at: http://www.bbioo.com/news/20080222194204.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 5 - Radnovich, C. (2016). Crews breach a levee near Sonoma. [image] Available at: http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/ Ceremony-near-San-Pablo-Bay-marks-planned-rebirth-6589694. php#photo-8849625 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 6 - Free Association Design, (2016). Wetland terrace. [image] Available at: https://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/2011/02/23/ marsh-terracing-wetland-glyphs/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 7 - Sonoma Restored Wetland (2016). California. [online] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/ search/sonoma+wetland/@38.1186478,-122.4840065,1451m/ data=!3m1!1e3[Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 8 - NASA, (2016). Sediment load at the Yangtze River Delta.. [image] Available at: http://scenariojournal.com/article/yangtze-riverdelta-project/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Reference List Figure 9 - Yangtze River Delta oblique aerial view, showing the varied land use and the seawall at the East China Sea, 2008.

King, J. (2016). Ceremony near San Pablo Bay marks planned rebirth of wetlands. [online] SFGate. Available at: http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Ceremony-near-San-Pablo-Baymarks-planned-rebirth-6589694.php#photo-8849625 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Free Association Design. (2011). Marsh Terracing, Wetland Glyphs. [online] Available at: https://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/2011/02/23/marsh-terracing-wetland-glyphs/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Lowe, J. (2016). 1st ed. [ebook] San Francisco: The Bay Institute, pp.2, 4-6. Available at: http:// thebayinstitute.blob.core.windows.net/assets/SLR_Executive_Summary_web.pdf [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Lacoast.gov. (2016). The CWPPRA Legislation. [online] Available at: http://lacoast.gov/new/ About/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Seavitt, C. (2013). Yangtze River Delta Project. [online] Scenario Journal. Available at: http:// scenariojournal.com/article/yangtze-river-delta-project/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Flooded Farmland of Yangtze River Delta

Lacoast.gov. (2016). The Mississippi River Delta Basin. [online] Available at: http://lacoast. gov/new/About/Basin_data/mr/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

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Co-Operative Wet-Land

Cartogenesis

AALU

Manufactured Landscape & Wetland Mechanism

Co-Operative Wet-Land Construction

The project comes along with a time strategy. The landform and their function are changing constantly, making the mechanism with a high dynamic. The wetland will focus more on optimizing the water quality in the first few decades. With the sediment accumulation, the watered terrain will gradually reclaim to elevated land. That is the time when the wetland can transfer to a productive mechanism. The reclaimed area will be used back into the planting of local forms of production. So the profitable wetland can give a unique re-definition to local Polish agriculture.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Manufactured Landscape

By inserting a systematic cooperative association, this mechanism can finally help to empower the farmers and boost the local economy more than just solving the nutrient problem.

Cartogenesis of Wetland Unit Y. Wu

The construction of the wetland construction is separated into three steps: first 10 years, 10 to 30 years, 30 to 50 years. And the whole process of wetland remedial treatment and farmland reshaping will take around 70years according to

the calculation based on the amount of sediment. In each step, the wetland will be built along the water channel which connecting the water input point to the pumping station. As the sediment accumulation, some wetland will be elevated and

then the terrain function will transform from nutrient treatment to a self-cleaning agriculture mechanism.

Water Axis

Facilities

Pump Station

Sediment Amount 30,000 m3

Sediment Amount 70,000 m3

Sediment Amount 120,000 m3

Sediment Amount 180,000 m3

Transportation Route

Reclaimed Land

Water Depth 10 cm

Water Depth 20 cm

Water Depth 40 cm

Water Depth > 50 cm

Residential Arera


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CELL DEFINITION

Watershed Watershed

Water WaterFlow Flow Water input Pumping Station (Water Output) Medial Axis- Water Valley Medial Axis- Artificial Connection

Simulation of Medial Axis Formation Y. Sun

MEDIAL AXIS DIVISION

Road RoadSystem System

Cell CellDivision Division

Ditch DitchSystem System

MEDIAL AXIS

Before diverting the polluted water from Vistula, we are going to split the whole unit into several different micro cells so as to control the released water more efficiently.

The flow axis and ditch system are taken as positive effects to form the future aqueduct.

Micro Cell Definition Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | CELL DEFINITION

Water Flow

Road System

Ditch System

Cell Division

Medial Axis

Watershed

Water Flow

Road System

Ditch System

Cell Division

Medial Axis

Medial MedialAxis Axis

CELL BOUNDRY

And we take the high elevated elements such as watershed, transportation system and residential area as positive effects to build the wetland boundaries.

Watershed

We simulated the water flow process which starts from river levee break point to pumping station point. River water drops by gravity and flow along and fill the lower area and then form the dynamic boundary. Medial Axis could be tracked by the analysis of the water flow tendency.

Ideally, after the water release, the sediment brought by it will gradually fill these cells. And the reclaimed land could be transferred to some specific land uses regarding the shape that the siltation forms.

Finally, when the dam was breached, we got a watered area above. This area consists of 28 cells separated by network and geometry watershed. Each cell is relatively independent and been connected by the sluice gate. The water will flow along the ditch and eventually reach the pump station.

Micro Cell Definition Y. Wu

This area is now mainly used as farmland. Because of the poor agriculture operation, the yield of the farms has been in a low standard for a long time. That gives us a strong reason to reshaping the territory. Within the unit, there are several high elevated plots dwelled by local people, which will be reserved and protected by cell boundaries.

Unit Boundary on Site Figure 42 | Adjusted by Y. Wu

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SEDIMENT HARVEST TECHNIQUE

TIMELINE OF LAND RECLAIMATION

As for the technique that we are using in wetland constrction is called Marsh Terracing. It is a reclamation tactic used to restore wetland by converting shallow open pools into constructed arrays of marshland (Bmilligan, 2011). However, in our project, we are not going to use it as simple as a way of reforce the loose sediment, but also as a methods of controlling accumulating process and the future shape of reclaimed landshape.

accumulated within 5 years accumulated 5-10 years accumulated 10-30 years accumulated 30-50 years

And this photo shows a project located in Mississippi River Delta. Aiming at protect the shrinking and shifting delta

accumulated more than 50 years free-floating plants emersed plants terrestrial plants

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Sediment harvest technique

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Mississippi River Delta Figure 43

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These sections are showing the process of sediment accumulation process through years. And we are going to trap those sands by building a series of basic barriers along the already reclaimed land boundaries. And those barriers could be used as a base of transportation facility construction.

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And these are a typical simulation outcome of how the cells will be filled by siltation under the guide of intervention that inserted by us. The sediment will firstly accumulate in the back of a micro cell and gradually expand to the whole area. We area going to shift the land use along with the reclaiming process.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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BARRIER TYPES

After decided to take the wetland terrace as a method of sediment harvest, we still need to introduce some functions along with it. As has mentioned on the previous page, we are going to combine these constructions with different utilities. In general, there will be three types of barriers, a basic kind, a primary one and the largest one with sluice gate on it. Basic barriers will be used in shallow open water areas to maintain the shaped of already reclaimed lands. Primary Barriers are responsible for composing a transportation network to connect the reclaimed land with the existing road system. The largest barrier is actually the boundary of microcells, the width, and height of if will be wide and tall enough to ensure the safety of water management.

Mississippi River Delta Figure 44

BASIC BARRIER

BASIC BARRIER

The fist one is an array of basic barriers which are only responsible for sediment harvest and reenforcement process. And this kind of barrier has a potential to become the water filling system for the irrigation purpose. During this constructing stage, some engineering facilities could be applied at the same time.

PRIMARY BARRIER

PRIMARY BARRIER

The second kind of barrier is a primary one, combining with transportation facilities. Because of the solid material used in barrier construction, it is suitable for building the road and other facilities, so as to creat a network within the whole wetland unit.

SLUICE GATE BARRIER

SLUICE GATE

The last one is the largest barriers with sluice gate on it. And we are going to build it as cell boundaries to control the water flow between different cells. These sluice gates will divert the water and the sediment with it to some specific cells, hence the process of land reclamation could be predicted and controlled by the opening and shutting those gates.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Barrier Types

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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SIMULATION OF GUIDING DITCH SYSTEM The ditch system in Vistula Delta is well designed to dewater the whole flooding pan, and this ditch network is highly developed. In our case, we also find it has an influence of the sediment placing. The simulation below shows how the sediment deposit in an ideal flooding cell will be affected by the branch like ditches. Also after doing the simulation, we decided to take the ditch system into consideration, as an assistant of forming some specific shape of the land.

ow

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GDANSK EXISTING DITCH & DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Er

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Ditch Under Well Maintainence Figure 45

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Simulation of guiding ditch system

Simulation of Ditch Influence Y. Sun

Ditch Filled With Siltation Figure 46

The existing ditch system could be used a potential method of controlling the water flow direction. But with the time passing by, the ditch will also be filled with siltation. To maintain the control of water flow, the filled ditch needs to be deepen and widen in regular times. Also, sometimes, in order to divert the sediment to a designed position may require digging a new ditch connecting the water source with the sediment placing point.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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BARRIER RESTRICTION CRITERIA

Type 1 Year 70

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Barrier restriction criteria

Year 55 Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Simulation of Technique Application C. Wang

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The simulation on this page is trying Year 50 to tell the different pattern of barrier construction could generate varying Year 55 Deepen landforms. For example, the dot-and Widen shaped barrier will not trap the the Ditch sediment, but by slowing down the Year 60 water flow velocity, the sediment will deposit at the back of those Year 65 interventions, and forms a large integral land plot.

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Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Deepen and Widen the Ditch

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Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Simulation of Techinique Application C. Wang

Deepen and Widen the Ditch

The third and fourth types of simulation are trying to study how the stick-shaped barrier will trap the sediment before those skeletons. And in order to maintain the water flow and divert the sediment, a dredging work should be taken periodically. As mentioned in the previous page, the newly formed ditch will guide the sediment to the position that has a requirement for those sands, and then to form a specific shape of the plot.

Year 40 Year 45 Deepen and Widen the Ditch Year 50

Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Year 55 Year 60 Deepen and Widen the Ditch Year 65

Deepen and Widen the Ditch

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT HARVEST PATTERN

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Wetland Glyph Test_Sediment

Water input_2000 Sediment_Default Time_2500 days DEM_With Glyph Construction

Water input_2000 Sediment_Default Time_2500 days DEM_With Glyph Construction

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Water input_2000 Sediment_Default Time_2500 days DEM_With Glyph Construction

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In the small scale simulation, we are trying to study how the different barrier placing pattern affects the sediment accumulating process and the ultimate shape of the reclaimed land.

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In this page, we are trying to find out how the varying angle degrees generate the mutative form of land. And those different kinds of the pattern may suit for varying land uses.

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Simulation of Sediment Harvest Pattern C. Wang

The simulation patterns displayed on this page are trying to show how the landform will be affected by the density of barriers. And it turns out that, the higher the density, the more dispersed the reclaimed land will be. In order to generate a relatively huge plot for agricultural purpose, we might have to place those basic barriers in a specific density.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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AGRICULTURAL DEPLOYMENT & APPLICATION

TIMELINE OF COOPERATIVE ESTABLISHMENT

Floating Farm-vagetable

Partly Reclaimed-wetland crops Open Water Original Terain

10 Years

SEDIMENT HARVEST PLOT SIZE

Agricultural Production Vagetable

The different sizes of the reclaimed plots will be used as different kinds of farming techniques. Those plots that are larger than 15 hectors will be suitable for mechanical operation, and those relatively smaller plots might require more human works and could be engaged in producing some crops that need intensive care.

Wetland crops

Economic Revenue warehouse Cooperative Floating Investment Farm-vagetable

Partly Reclaimed-wetland crops Open Water Original Terain

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warehouse Vagetable

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Medium Scale Farmland Water Flows In

warehouse primary processing plant

Plot Size Criteria C. Wang

Floating Farm-vagetable

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Erosion Deposition

Vagetable

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Floating Farm-vagetable

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warehouse primary processing plant

CROP HARVEST ROUTE APPLICATION Vagetable

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Vagetable Floating Farm-vagetable

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Vagetable With the process of land reclamation, we are going to inset a new cooperative system to empower the local farmer as a long-term compensation.

Water In

Medium Scale Farmland

100m

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Wetland We are going to crops build the wetland Local Crops Truly in the beginning, the farmers in 4 phases, and part of the profit get will not get much from this in the previous phase will be used compensatory system, but with the as cooperative facility construction upgrading process, they will get an funds. opportunity to reverse the condition.

Cooperative The smallholders

will be able to shift the existing agricultural structure into a more competitive one. With the factories, the hygiene level of their products will be qualified enough.

6.12m

Water Out

warehouse

warehouse primary processing plant

Time Lapse of Cooperative Establishment Y. Wu

Water In

Small Scale Farmland

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Agricultural Deployment & Application

Aerial Photo of Plot Sizes Figure 47-49

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warehouse

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warehouse upgraded processing plant

warehouse upgraded processing plant

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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CATALOG OF WETLAND CLASSIFICATION In the large scale, the wetland will be constructed in 3 types. Mainly according to sediment amount and labor distribution.

Sediment Input

Where the cells located near to the sediment source and with higher natural value will be reclaimed as tourism wetland. Other quickly reclaimed cells located within 2 kilometers of primary roads are defined as farmland. The rest of the cells with no facilities and less sediment will gradually be transformed into a natural wetland.

100%

2-5%

So basically, the sediment will firstly fill the agricultural and tourism area.

Tourism Wetland

7% 100%

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Wetland Classification Y. Wu

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Catalog of Wetland Classification

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Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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FUNCTION ORIENTATION

CELL TYPE ONE - TOURISM WETLAND

Three orientation of wetland will be constructed in different timelapse and generated different influence to the site. Moreover, the function of wetland can transfer from one to another in the process of land manufacture. In general, the project will gradually shift from a wetland system into a profitable mechanism.

SEMI-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL WETLAND For the tourism wetland, we are going to construct some isolated islands and a winding-shape of bank so as to offer the visitor several different landscapes.

TOURISM Tourism will be constructed near the dam breaking position with much sediment, which means the construction will be finished at very first so that the tourism can be an approach of financial compensation to local inhabitants and can also provide capital for the following construction.

Rendering of Agricultural Wetland Y. Wu

Tourism Wetland

AGRICULTURE Agriculture can be the primary industry of local economy and this trend will be kept. With the transform of the terrain, different vagetation strategy will be applied. In the end, the farmland will interweave with wetland, so the nutrient produced by farm can be instantly filtered by wetland.

Time Lapse of Wetland Generating Process Y. Wu | C. Wang

NATURE RESERVE The nature wetland have two function. Some cells aim at deal with the nutrient problem, while other cells which are away from farmland can provide a cozy place for local wildlife. Most wetland can filter the pollutant once the cell is filled by water. As the sediment accmulation, some of them can be used as farmland and become productive.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Function Orientation

Sights of Landuse on Vistula Delta Photo by Y. Wu

As the evolution of simulation shows on the right, the constructed island will be conseutively formed by sediment. And the facilities such as tourism center and other supportive buildings will gradually constructed on the land that has finished reclaimation process. In order to offer the visitors a pleasant environment, the plantation stretagy will aim at providing a various and attractive plant total area ornamental 477.2ha average cell area 31.8ha communities.

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Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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CELL TYPE TWO - AGRICULTURAL WETLAND Agriculture Wetland Semi-intensive Farmland

Agriculture Wetland SEMI-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL WETLAND

INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL WETLAND

Extensive Farmland

In the agricultural area, the sediment will be formed into a more geometrical-shaped plots for the operating convenience. And in the first stage, the reclaimed land is not thick enough to grow wheats and ryes. So we are going to introduce a floating farm in blue areas showed in the bottom part of these page as a temporary compensation.

Year 10

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Rendering of Agricultural Wetland Y. Wu

The semi-intensive agricultural wetland will be applied in the area that could be quickly silted but in lack of labors. In this kind of agricultural area, the floating farm will not be applied. But, because of the large size of farming plot, it is suitable for the machenical operation process.

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total area 403.3ha

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average cell area 50.4ha total area 428.1ha Agriculture Wetland final landuse average cell area 53.5ha farm:water=15:1Farmland final landuse Extensive

Intensive Farmland

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Agriculture Wetland EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL WETLAND Semi-intensive Farmland

Time Lapse of Wetland Generating Process Y. Wu | C. Wang

The floating farm technique requires an intensive human work, it will only be applied in the cells that are close to villages, so that the farmers will get an easy access to the plots.

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With the time passing by, the land will finish reclaimation, and the shallow water area will be used producing rice also as a temporary total area 530.4ha average cell area 48.2ha final landuse farm:water=15:1

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Time Lapse of Wetland Generating Process Y. Wu | C. Wang

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Wheat

The extensive agricultural wetland is located at the back of the other two kind of agricultural wetlands. The amount of sediment are not enough to form the farming plot in the whole cell. Thus part of the cell will remain as open water area or shallow marshland. Some nutirent against plants will be cultivated in here to deal with the runoff that comes from the farmland total area within 428.1hathe unit.

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average cell area 53.5ha total area 403.3ha final landuse average cell area 50.4ha farm:water=2:1 final landuse farm:water=15:1

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Cell Type Two - Agricultural Wetland

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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AGRICULTURAL WETLAND DEVELOPMENT As we can see from the sections, in the beginning of the wetland contructing process, the reclaimed farmland are not big enough to cultivate profitable crops. Thus floating farms will be introduced as a compensary. The vegetables cultivated on it has a considerable profit, but also requires some basic construction and an intensive human work on it. But with the growing of reclaimed farmland size, a new cultivation structure will be applied. the rye will be the dominant species in this area. And the raw material will be gathered at the new cooperative facilities, such as warehouse, processing center, even the vodka factory and will be further processed. The more processed food being made within this area, the more profit will be brought to the local farmers. And with the land being reshaped by the force of water, the agricultural structure will be also shifted step by step.

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Rendering of Wetland Generating Process Y. Sun | Y. Wu

Section of Wetland Generating Process C. Wang

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Co-Operative Wet-Land | Agricultural Wetland Development

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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CELL TYPE THREE - NATURAL WETLAND Natural Wetland Intersection Wetland

NaturalWETLAND Wetland TREATMENT NATURAL

PRE-TREATMENT NATURAL WETLAND

Intersection Wetland

The last one is the natural wetland. Only some subtle interventions will take place in this type of wetland to make sure the water will flow in a zigzag way. And the nutrient will be done thoroughtly dissolved by the plants.

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Rendering of Agricultural Wetland Y. Wu

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The second type of the nature wetland system is the core step of water purify. In this cell the sediment will accumulate to interlaced island, which will make the water flows in a zigzag way. With the insertion of various vegetation, polluted water will be treated when they flows total area 749.3ha through the cell low-marsh and highaverage area 34.45ha total area 749.3ha Natural Wetland landuse marshfinal land. average cell area 34.45ha

Natural Wetland

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low marsh:high marsh=3:1 final landuse Nature Reserve

Sediment Pond

low marsh:high marsh=3:1

Natural Wetland RESERVED NATURAL WETLAND Nature Reserve

Time Lapse of Wetland Generating Process Y. Wu | C. Wang

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All nature wetland cells build up an entire wetland system. In the begaining of nature wetland, the sediment will formed several ponds. The ponds can filter big grains from the upper flow and also be a buffer zone between farming wetland and nature wetland. Both the speed and the amout of the water can be controllled in these cells. With the pre-treatment procedure, total area 193.6ha nutrient treatment average cell area efficient 32.3ha will raise final landuse remarkably.

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land:water=1.5:1

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Cell Type Three - Natural Wetland

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At the end of the nature wetland string, the reserved place for wildlifes will be build slowly by natual process. This area will be away from the human activity so it could be a safe place for wildlife inhabitant. There will be some isolated island in the middle of the cells, which may total area 408.7ha increase the cell variety habitats for average area of 51.1ha total area 408.7ha finalanimals. landuse different average cell area 51.1ha island:water=2:5

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CARTOGENESIS After apply the strategy in the whole area, it generated a landscape showed in the following map. The lighter green dots represent the land restored in the early phases and the darker ones are recently reclaimed area. After the process finished, the wetland can dissolve 1360 ton nutrient per year. And the farmers will get a new form of material producing. Phase ONE

The nutrient runoff coming from the upstrean and the dissolve process in the down stream flooding pan will generate a framework between the two remoted land. The material exchange and the ecological relations among them will bring the upstream cities part of the wetland construction. The local famers should not be the only group that taking responsibility for the long term shifting process (Hutton, 2013). Part of the fund of building the co-operative wet-land should be sponsored by the people who living upstream of Vistula, since most of the nutrient runoff are coming from their farmland. Furthermore, the western countried of Baltic catchment should also take part in this framework, considering of the ecological process of pollution is partially cause by their expansion of agricultural demands.

Barrier Construction 35%

Wetland Area Reclaimed Area Nutrient Treatment

835ha 307ha 553tons

Phase TWO Barrier Construction

Sediment Amount

Pump Station 30,000 m3 70,000 m3

Nutrient Treatment

Water Axis

1032ha 755tons

Phase THERE Barrier Construction

120,000 m

3

100%

3332ha

Wetland Area Reclaimed Area

180,000 m3

Site Ortophoto Figure 50

2438ha

Wetland Area Reclaimed Area

70%

Nutrient Treatment

1998ha 1360tons

Cartogenesis Y. Wu

Site Ortophoto Figure 50

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Cartogenesis

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


TECHNICAL REPORT 2

WATER MANAGEMENT CONSTRUCTION AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015/2016 SUBMITTED BY YANWEN WU

ABSTRACT The Co-operative Wet-land conception is based on a remedial wetland system. The polluted water will be diverted from artery to the lowland firstly. Then with the sediment accumulation, the wetland will be gradually filled, shifting to a new landform which could be used as the farmland and the construction land for cooperative. The project is located in the downstream of Vistula Delta, where the riverbed is relatively higher than the average elevation of this area. There is a dam built on the edge to protect the whole area from flooding. Therefore, when the dam along the Vistula River is broken in a certain position, the runoff will fill the land automatically by gravity. In addition, because the water will be the carrier of the sediment, so the flow distribution can dominate the time-lapse of land re-formation. In this case, the control of the water input, the limitation of the water speed and the allocation of surface flow are crucial to the project construction. The three cases cited in this report give us a variety of the water management measures. These projects were built in different periods cover from ancient China to modern Europe with unique techniques, giving many instructions in further project construction.

Local Hydrology Engineering - Sluice Gate Figure 1

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Technical Report 2

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


Dujiangyan Irrigation Mechanism

Dujiangyan is a most genius water engineering project of ancient China. It was originally built in the duration of 256 BC and 251BC. Although the construction has been built for more than two thousand years ago, it still perfectly serves the local people under several renovations, protecting them from flooding issue and providing the water resource for farming irrigation. With the continuous influence from the upper stream, the farmland in downstream is known as the best yield plain in China. At that time, the science and technology remained to be relatively undeveloped, there was no large-scale machinery and equipment to control water like we have today. But Dujiangyan Project managed to control the water flow just with some simple but clever techniques, fully reflecting the wisdom of ancient people and gives a great example to later generation. The project located in the middle of Min River and the entire mechanism is consist of two parts. The Head system focus on the division of Min River. While an irrigation network can distribute the water to individual farm plots.

Figure 2 - Fish Mouth Levee, one of the three major construction of Dujiangyan System.

In Flying Sand Weir, the water which exceeding the irrigation demand will be discharged outside the river. The Flying Sand Weir is actually a 240 meters weir in the middle of the embankment. The weir is 2 meters higher than riverbed and therefore is only used in rain season. It gives the water flow an exit to ensure that the plain located in downstream area of inner river wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t suffer from flooding problem. Moreover, the breach is facing the end of an arc-shaped channel, therefore the large grains can be filtered at the same time as a result of centrifugal force, avoiding the blocking of inner river.

There are three major structure in the Head System: the Fish Mouth Levee, the Flying Sand Weir and the Bottle-Neck Channel. The Fish Mouth Levee is the key construction for water division. Currently the Fish Mouth Levee is made of stone masonry and concrete, building into 80 meters long and 39.1 meters wide. Most part of the construction is beneath the surface of the river, making the levee looks like the dorsal fin of fishes. Actually, the function of Fish Mouth Levee is to divert the flow and balance the water amount, which is also pretty similar to a fin. It was been built in the centre-right of the Min River, dividing the river from 280 meters wide into an outer river (130 mater) and an inner river (150 meter). In drought season, only 40% water from upriver will flows to outer river and 60% will be taken to inner river and be used for irrigation. On contrary, during flood seasons, the water level will raise above the Fish Mouth Levee. Therefore, around 60% water flows directly to downstream while the rest is separated to inner river and then be taken to the Flying Sand Weir for the second treatment procedure.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Dujiangyan Irrigation Mechanism

The final structure of the Head System is the Bottle-Neck Channel, which is the entrance of the extensive irrigation system. Like the name, it is a bottle shaped channel with 20 meters width, which can cooperate with the Flying Sand Weir in order to control the input of the water and adjust the water speed. Thought the Bottle-Neck Channel, the water will finally be distributed by the irrigation network.

Figure 3 - The central sections of the Dujiangyan.

Nowadays, the Dujiangyan project waters over 600,000 hectares and it is still been upgraded gradually. Although the mechanism was initially designed for agriculture water supply only, it can also contribute to flooding control, water transportation, sediment control and other integrated utility.

Figure 4 - An airscape of Dujiangyan Irrigation System.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

The project in San Pablo Bay is an extreme case that can represent our basic conception towards the wetland construction. We hope that through a little amount of intervention, the nature can develop towards an direction which is positive to human being. To be specifically, in our project, ideally the motility of the nature have the possibility to be the leading force in the succession of wetland construction and land reclamation. The example of San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge has given a strong support to this idea.

Figure 7-1 - The Vistula Delta is actually a highly engineered area.

Figure 5 - Water gushes through a levee in Sonoma County, assisted by a few scoops from a mechanical excavator.

It took the experts more than 10 years for site study and strategy exploration, three more years for preparation work in situ before the water was finally introduced. After a two minutes dam breaking procedure, a super natural wetland construction project had been finished. “The mechanical excavator scooped aside a few buckets of dirt. Muddy water spurted and then flowed into the waiting basin. Now all that’s needed is time.”Although the whole process is dramatic because human seems did little in this project, however, there will be around 1,200 hectares wetland in the future, containing one third tidal marshland, one third uplands with grassland and a large area of seasonal wetlands. All the important works will be done natural succession.

Co-Operative Wet-Land | San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

Figure 7-2 - The Vistula Delta is actually a highly engineered area.

Our site location, the Vistula Delta is also highly engineered with a series of hydrology facilities. By analyzing the local hydrological engineering, we can learn some practical techniques which are adaptable to local.

At present, only 11 months after the initial human construction, a primary wetland has already been completed. The wetland now shelters many endangered species and has attracted a large amount of wildlife. In fact, this kind of wetland with little later stage intervention is not the first experiment in California. Several similar projects has proved that this is an feasible approach for wetland construction. This case tells us that nature itself can do a lot of things under the right instruction. With proper guides, the nature can demonstrate a powerful ability of self-healing.

Water Management within Vistula Delta

Figure 6 - The tidal water is gradually turning the terrain into wetland.

Firstly, there is a systematic ditch network which are mainly used for irrigation. The ditches are well connected with pumping stations so as to collect the water resource and dewater the delta plain. Each unit in our project contains a ditch layer with a pump station, which can be used as a base of water management system. Secondly, since the Vistula River is under fearful threaten of flooding. Several advanced sluice gates has been deployed along the branch of Vistula (called Dead Vistula), which connects the artery to Gdansk city Centre. The sluice gates stand at the intersection points between artery and Dead Vistula. Usually, the sluice gate is opened because of the requirement of water carriage. Gdansk port is a vital port for the domestic economy in Poland, and Dead Vistula is the closest linkage between the port and Vistula. In flooding season, nevertheless, an elevated river can be really dangerous. At this time, the sluice gates can be a reasonable way to control the runoff. Hence the gates will be closed temporarily to prevent the water flowing to urban area.

Figure 7-3 - The Vistula Delta is actually a highly engineered area.

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


CONCLUSION

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Conclusion

Figure List

Wikipedia. (2016). Dujiangyan irrigation system. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dujiangyan_irrigation_system [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Figure 1 - Yawned Wu, [image]

Travelchinatour.com. (2016). Dujiangyan Irrigation System - Sichuan Dujiangyan Irrigation Project. [online] Available at: http://www. travelchinatour.com/sichuan-china/dujiangyan-irrigation-system-2. html [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].

The cases study above presents a variety of techniques in river flow management, including dam breaking structure, water intake structure and distribution system. These projects provide practical supports to the realization of our project. Considering the site analysis of geomorphology and the proposed strategy, we are going to deploy a series of techniques along the time scenarios of wetland construction. The techniques will assist the implement of the mechanism and will have an influenced on the terrain re-shaping vice versa. The water management system of Co-operative Wet-land project will mainly organized by two parts. One is the water division and intake system at the input point, which can refer the Head Construction from Dujiangyan programme since the sizes of two rivers is close. Remarkable, a electronic sluice gate along with baffle piers should be placed in the dam breaking position to control the water volume and neutralise the supercritical flow considering the elevation difference between the riverbed and the wetland terrain. The first system will focus on a overall water control while the second part will be insert in the edge of each cell and stick to the inner flow shifting. The small scale system will be control by small sluice gates, by switching the gates on and off, the sediment brought by water will reclaimed based on the preset timeline and reshape the remedial wetland to a productive mechanism. In the long-term succession of land reshaping, the nature element is the basis for the entire project development and is the most critical element like the wetland refuge in San Pablo Bay.

Reference List

Mne.psu.edu. (2016). Hydraulic Jump through a Sluice Gate. [online] Available at: http://www.mne.psu.edu/casestudy/FluidMechanics/ CaseStudy03/casestudy.html#N1000A [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. King, J. (2015). Ceremony near San Pablo Bay marks planned rebirth of wetlands. [online] SFGate. Available at: http://www.sfgate.com/ bayarea/article/Ceremony-near-San-Pablo-Bay-marks-plannedrebirth-6589694.php#photo-8849587 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Sfbayjv.org. (2015). Sears Point Wetland Restoration Project on San Pablo Bay | San Francisco Bay Joint Venture. [online] Available at: http://www.sfbayjv.org/project-sears-point-wetland-restoration-sanpablo-bay.php [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Willmott, W. (1989). Dujiangyan: Irrigation and Society in Sichuan, China. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 22, pp.143-153. Dembinski, M. (2015). Hydrology - droughts, floods and sandbanks. [online] Jeziorki.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: http://jeziorki.blogspot. co.uk/2015/08/hydrology-droughts-floods-and-sandbanks.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Figure 2 - Aidiko, (2014). Fish Mouth Levee, one of the three major construction of Dujiangyan System.. [image] Available at: http://you.ctrip.com/travels/ qingchengshan143879/1712308.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 3 - Huowax, (2006). The central sections of the Dujiangyan.. [image]. Figure 4 - Dujiangyan Culture Communication Institute, (2016). An airscape of Dujiangyan Irrigation System.. [image] Available at: http://scdjy.wenming. cn/mtxs/201601/t20160119_2282957.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 5 - The Chronicle, (2015). Water gushes through a levee in Sonoma County, assisted by a few scoops from a mechanical excavator.. [image] Available at: http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/ Ceremony-near-San-Pablo-Bay-marks-plannedrebirth-6589694.php#photo-8849587 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 6 - Google Earth, [image] [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 7-1.2.3 - Yawned Wu, [image] Figure 8 - Yawned Wu, [image]

Figure 8 - The monitor center on the canal connecting Vistula and the dead one

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LOCAL NETWORK PROMOTION

Phase THREE

Phase ONE Vegs

Rapeseed Rice

Corn

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Open Water

This Network shows what happens in different wetland constructing phases.

With the time passing by, more land and more agricultural species will be add into this area.

In the first phase of wetland construction, the sowing structure of local agriculture will be shifted thoroughly.

And the profit getting from the floating farm could be used as facility upgrading.

Firstly only a small portion of land will be reclaimed. So only vegetables and rape seeds are suitable for planting on the site.

Phase FOUR

Phase TWO Vegs

Rapeseed Rice

Corn

Barley

Mixed Grains and Triticle

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Corn

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Mixed Grains and Triticle

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Farmland

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Vegs

Partly Reclaimed

Already Reclaimed

Open Water

We have to introduce a mechnism of floating farm as a temporary compensation in the first two stages. And this form of farming technique needs an intensive human work. Thus it will only be applied in the cells near to the villages.

Floating Farm

Partly Reclaimed

Already Reclaimed

Open Water

And we are going to shift a large portion of the original farmland into Rye cultivating area, because of the famous Rye vodka that produced in Poland. And the highly processed product will bring the local farmers more jobs and profit.

Network of Wetland Unit C. Wang

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Local Network Promotion

Landscape Urbanism 2015-2016 | AA School


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REGIONAL ECONOMY PROMOTION

COOPERATIVE OPERATION After the insertion of the cooperative association, the industrial structure will be optimized. Initially, the system can only be capable of dealing with limited material within the wetland. But later, with the continuous updating of the operative frame, the mechanism will be able to serve a larger area within Vistula catchment and may contribute to a re-definition of the local production.

The proceed products will be transit from situ to domestic market along the red line. Products in the southern unit can support the domestic consumption, while the west unit will act as an entrepot for the whole system, collecting goods from separated factories and transport them to the city center and Gdansk Port. As a result, Vistula Delta can get rid of the limitation of European Regulation and become more powerful in the agricultural competition with transnational companies.

When the entire system is finished and is activated, not only the environmental level but also the agricultural economy of the entire region will be upgraded to some extent. Depend on the complete transportation network, the cooperative will be able to proceed the production from nearby farmland and give more profit to farmers.

Cooperative Service Range Y. Wu

Goods Export Network Within Vistula Delta Y. Wu

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Regional Economy Promotion

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AALU

Epilogue

EPILOGUE Starting from the idea of dead zones, what we are trying to produce is a guideline for small farmers who living in this area to help them deal with the nutrient problem. And at the mean time to reverse this condition as a chance of manipulating the territory. So as to transform the intervention from the remedial point of view into a productive landscape. Although it will be a long period of time, the smallholders can use this designed guidelines to build this landscape which will be beneficial for them over a long period of time. In the duration of project development, our project has transferred from a remedial wetland to a productive landscape mechanism. This mechanism can be deem as a negotiated result between nature and economy. The turning in project direction expressed the progress in our understanding towards the environmental issue. Where there is a serious environmental problem, there must be an even serious contradiction behind. The methodology we learn from this programme is trying to find the root of a conflict and then remit or even reverse the situation by a series of landscape manufacture. Our programme will be continued by one of our teammate, Yan Sun. She will keep working on the cooperative mechanism and making our project into a more practical and logical system .

- THE END -

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Epilogue

Baltic Sea C. Wang


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APPENDIX

WORKS CITED

REFERENCE Baume, M. and Cienski, J. (2016). Brussels struggles with its Poland problem. [online] POLITICO. Available at: http://www.politico.eu/article/piscommission-human-rights-warsaw-europe-struggles-to-solve-its-polandproblem/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Brouwer, C. (1985). Introduction to irrigation. Rome: United Nations. Food and Agriculture Organization. Case, P. (2015). Farmers in Poland blockade roads over land grabbing Farmers Weekly. [online] Farmers Weekly. Available at: http://www.fwi. co.uk/news/farmers-in-poland-blockade-roads-over-land-grabbing.htm [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Enrd.ec.europa.eu. (2016). Cross-border Entrepreneurs Blekinge / WarmiaMazury - RDP PROJECTS - ENRD - European Commission. [online] Available at: http://enrd.ec.europa.eu/enrd-static/policy-in-action/rdp_view/ en/view_project_11021_en.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Ericsson, B. and Hallmans, B. (1994). Control of the nutrient pollution discharge from the Vistula River Basin in Poland. Desalination, 98(1-3), pp.185-197. Fitch, C., Dodds, K., Cole, L., Fitch, L. and Fitch, C. (2016). Polish farmers protest ‘land-grabbing’ - Geographical. [online] Geographical.co.uk. Available at: http://geographical.co.uk/people/development/item/788polish-farmers-protest-land-grabbing [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

APPENDIX CARTOGRAPHYS

APPENDIX VIDEO & WEBSITE

1. Atlas - Pollution Source in Baltic Catchment

1. Video_1: Poland Agriculture Structure Analysis

2. Geomorphology - Vistula Delta Territorial Formation

2. Video_2: Simulation of Flooding Damage on Vistula Delta

3. Cell Definition - Catalogue of Flooding Cell Simulation

3. Video _3: Simulation of Dam Breaking Position Test

4. Catalogue - Wetland Classification

4. Website: http://www.arcgis.com/ apps/MapJournal/index.html?ap pid=6b73a0ae076d4eacba859f9 ec3981964

5. Cartogenesis - Wetland Formation Process and Local Network Promotion

Co-Operative Wet-Land | Appendix

TEXT CREDITS Page 10 to 11 - Y. Sun Page 14 to 31 - Y. Wu Page 32 to 37 - C. Wang Page 38 to 49 - Y. Wu Page 50 - Y. Sun Page 52 to 55 - Y. Wu Page 56 to 65 - C. Wang Page 66 to 67 - Y. Sun Page 68 to 69 - Y. Wu Page 70 - C. Wang Page 71 - Y. Wu Page 90 to 93 - C. Wang Page 94 to 97 - Y. Wu Page 98 to 103 - C. Wang Page 112 to 113 - C. Wang Page 114 to 116 - Y. Wu

Poland-fish.com. (2016). Poland Fish. [online] Available at: http://www. poland-fish.com/?pageId=8 [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016]. The Land Workers' Alliance. (2014). Poland: Stop Criminalising Small Farmers. [online] Available at: http://landworkersalliance.org.uk/2014/02/ poland-stop-criminalising-small-farmers/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Sarich, C. (2015). Hundreds of Farmers Block Roads in Protest of Monsanto's GMO Crops. [online] Natural Society. Available at: http://naturalsociety. com/hundreds-of-farmers-block-roads-in-protest-of-monsantos-gmocrops/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Zaucha, J. and Boniecka, H. (2016). Study of Conditions of Spatial Development of Polish Sea Areas. Gdynia: National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, p.112. Cyberski, J. and Kawińska, M. (1995). Hydrography of Zulawy Wislane (Vistula Delta) and its changes over the historical period. 1st ed. [ebook] Gdansk: Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc., pp.153-154. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25736035 [Accessed 20 Apr. 2016]. Mojski, J. and Kawińska, M. (1995). Geology and evolution of the Vistula Delta and Vistula Bar. 1st ed. [ebook] Sopot: Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc., pp.146-148. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/ stable/25736034 [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016].

Helcom.fi. (2016). Inputs of nutrients - HELCOM. [online] Available at: http://helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/eutrophication/inputs-of-nutrients [Accessed 20 Apr. 2016].

Pawlak, J. and Paulomaki, H. (2016). Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea. 1st ed. Pruchnicki, J. (2016). Vistula River | river, Poland. [online] Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/place/Vistula-River [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016].

Hutton, J. (2016). Reciprocal lanscapes: material portraits in New York City and elsewhere. Journal of Landscape Architecture, pp.40-46.

Wikipedia. (2016). Vistula. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Vistula [Accessed 22 Apr. 2016].

Icppc.pl. (2016). Home page. [online] Available at: http://icppc.pl/index. php/en/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016].

Wikipedia. (2016). Ports of the Baltic Sea. [online] Available at: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ports_of_the_Baltic_Sea [Accessed 17 Sep. 2016].

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FIGURE LIST Figure 1 - "Dead Zone" NASA Earth Observatory.https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Dead_zone_(ecology) Figure 2 - Sources of Eutrophication. Photo Courtesy of Joanna Woerner, IAN image Library. Figure 3 - Sources of Eutrophication. Photo Courtesy of Adrian Jones, IAN image Library. Figure 4 - Sources of Eutrophication. Photo Courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Figure 5 - Sources of Eutrophication. Photo Courtesy of Adrian Jones, IAN image Library. Figure 6 - Satellite spies vast algal bloom in Baltic Sea, BBC science & environment news, 23 July 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scienceenvironment-10740097 Figure 7 - American Mississippi, Mark Conlin, Gettyimages. http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/ photo/american-alligator-alligator-highres-stock-photography/135624417 Figure 8 - Origin of Giant bloom discovered, Matt Walker, BBC Earth news. 6 May 2009. http://rs.resalliance.org/2008/06/30/ chinas-blue-green-olympics/ Figure 9 - Allen, J. and Observatory, E. (2016). Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly. [image] Available at: http:// earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view. php?id=6889 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 10 - Photo from HELCOM. Pollution and lack of oxygen are slowly killing the Baltic Sea. https://euobserver. com/regions/28270 Figure 11 - Photo by Gavin van Marle. 07/01/2015.The end of the world as we know it. http://theloadstar.co.uk/endworld-know/ Figure 12 - Essick, P. (2013). Un planeta fertilizado.24/04/2016. www. nationalgeographic.com.es. Available at: http://www.nationalgeographic.com.es/ ciencia/grandes-reportajes/un-planetafertilizado-2_7203 Figure 13 - NASA Goddard Space Flight Cente. Van Gogh from Space.July 13th, 2005. https://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File:Van_Gogh_from_Space.jpg Figure 14 - ALEXANDRU MICU.13/10/2015. CO2 in the atmosphere heralds imminent food Co-Operative Wet-Land | Figure List

chain collapse — and it’s gonna start in the oceans. http://www.zmescience. com/research/studies/climate-chemicalchanges-food-chain-collapse-92934/ Figure 15 - Fish Farm. http://www. istockphoto.com/gb/photos/fish-farm?s ort=best&excludenudity=true&mediaty pe=photography&phrase=fish%20farm Figure 16 - Photo by Linda Johansson. HELCOM. Agriculture. http://www. helcom.fi/action-areas/agriculture Figure 17 - Photo by OCEANA/Carlos Minguell. HELCOM. http://www. helcom.fi/action-areas/fisheries Figure 18 - Julia Nystrom Metsahallitus NHS. HELCOM. Marine protected areas. http://www.helcom.fi/actionareas/marine-protected-areas Figure 19 - Greenpeace. Prirate Fishing. http://www.greenpeace.org/ international/en/news/features/exposedpirates-bankrolled-by/ Figure 20 - Destructive Fishing Practices and Bycatch. 01/02/2016. https://interg ratedscienceoverfishingcom.wordpress. com/category/uncategorized/ Figure 21 - Kroet, C. (2016). Deal reached on 2015 fishing quotas. [image] Available at: http://www.politico.eu/ article/deal-reached-on-2015-fishingquotas/ [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 22 - Maritime Spatial Planning in Baltic Sea.http://www.partiseapate.eu/ workshops-2/ Figure 23 - Physical map of Europe. OLD LATVIAN MAPS. Latvian History. https://latvianhistory.com/oldlatvian-maps/ Figure 24 - Photo by Iwona Slojka. Cross-border Entrepreneurs Blekinge / Warmia-Mazury. European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development. http://enrd.ec.europa.eu/ enrd-static/policy-in-action/rdp_view/ en/view_project_11021_en.html Figure 25 - Photo by Rudolf Abraham. Polish food market.http:// rudolfabraham.photoshelter.com/ image/I0000k4UB8fDNvQQ Figure 26 - Photo by Michael Zhang. 05/11/2015. Landscapes Over the Past 100+ Years. http://petapixel. com/2015/11/05/then-and-nowphotos-of-norways-landscapes-overthe-past-100-years/ Figure 27 - Photo by Beata Stur. EU to

discuss Poland’s controversial mediacontrol law. 08/01/2016. https://www. neweurope.eu/article/eu-to-discusspolands-controversial-media-controllaw/ Figure 28 - Poland: Stop Criminalising Small Farmers. Land Workers Alliance. http://landworkersalliance.org.uk/tag/ illegal-food/ Figure 29/30 - Polish Farmers Blockade Motorways Across Country. http:// landworkersalliance.org.uk/2015/02/ polish-farmers-blockade-motorwaysacross-country/ Figure 31 - Photo by Herczeg Márk. Tens of thousands were mass demonstrations against Warsaw, the EU and the Polish government. 07/05/2016. http://444.hu/2016/05/07/tobb-10ezres-tomegtuntetes-volt-varsoban-alengyel-kormany-ellen-es-az-eu-mellett Figure 32/33 - Photo by PAP/Pawel Supernak. Farmers and trade unionists protest outside the Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday. 26/01/2014. Polish farmers protest land sales to foreigners. http://www.thenews.pl/1/12/ Artykul/163435,Polish-farmers-protestland-sales-to-foreigners Figure 34 - Along Vistula river in the southern part of Warsaw - water pollution. (2016). [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ fkwiatkowski/11914941284 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 35 - Reconstruction of the mouth of the Vistula. http://www. doraco.pl/hydrotechnical_structures/ reconstruction_of_the_mouth_of_the_ vistula/ Figure 36 - Dembinski, M. (2016). Vistula River's sandbanks appear. [image] Available at: http://jeziorki. blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/hydrologydroughts-floods-and-sandbanks.html [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016]. Figure 37/38/39 - Vistula River Outlets. (2016). Poland. [online]Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/[Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 40 - Gulf of Mexico. (2016). Louisiana. [online] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/ maps/@29.381716,-89.4694092,2267m/ data=!3m1!1e3[Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 41 - Photo by Ts.e. Flooding in Wisla(Vistula) in southeast. http:// learnlearn.net/Europa2/Tse.htm. http:// learnlearn.net/Europa2/Tse.htm

Figure 42 - Nowa Cerkiew. (2016). Louisiana. [online] Available at: https:// www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Nowa+ Cerkiew,+Poland/@54.1781857,18.8855 78,5390m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4 !1s0x46fd6808884c7e69:0xccbef7a507a7 176b!8m2!3d54.1781602!4d18.9030933[ Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 43 - Starks North Canal. (2016). Louisiana. [online] Available at: https:// www.google.co.uk/maps/@29.9938288,93.4532563,9553m/ data=!3m1!1e3[Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 44 - Terrace Construction. (2016). Louisiana. [online] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/ maps/@29.456892,-90.5297644,8021m/ data=!3m1!1e3 [Accessed 21 Sep. 2016] Figure 45/46 - Photo by Kroet, C. (2014). Deal reached on 2015 fishing quotas. [image] Available at: http:// www.politico.eu/article/deal-reachedon-2015-fishing-quotas/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016]. Figure 47/48/49 - Farm Plot Sizes. (2016). Poland. [online]Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/ Figure 50 - refer Figure 42


Potencial Site of Mechanism Applying Y. Wu


Landscape Urbanism 2015-16 Architectural Association School

Co-OPERATIVE Wet-LAND  

MSc Yanwen Wu and Conyue Wang with input from Yan Sun develop a strategy for redirecting nutrient rich sediments in Vistula River towards an...

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