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FOREVER AUR GENRATIVE CO-MINING LANDSCAPES

DIRECTORS Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico STUDIO MASTER Clara Oloriz HISTORY AND THEORY TUTOR Douglas Spencer TECHNICAL TUTOR Gustavo Romanillos Giancarlo Torpiano Vincenzo Reale STUDENTS MSc Hao-Wen Lin MArch Shreya Save

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, LONDON LANDSCAPE-URBANISM 2015-2017 SEPTEMBER 2016


CES OF GOLD HAS BEEN FOUND SMALL TRACES OF GOLD HAS BEEN FOUND THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS TREES IN THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS TREES

3 OLYPIC SIZE THE GOLD E

MILLIGRAMS MORE GOLD IS RECOVERABLE FROM 1 TON OF NEARLY ALL OF THE GOLD ON E BOMBARDED THE PLANT OVER 20 OUR BLOOD PERSONAL COMPUTERS THAN 17 TONS OF ORE

LY CONTAIN 1.34% GOLD OLYMPIC

GOLD METALS ONLY CONTAIN 1.34% GOLD

OM 1 TON OF 3 OLYPIC SIZE SWIMMING POOLS CAN HOLD ALL TONS OF ORE THE GOLD EVER MINED IN THE WORLD

N UPTO 0.2 MILLIGRAMS MOSTLY IN OUR BLOOD

NTO

GOLD

EARTHQUAKES

SMALL TRACES OF GOLD HA IN THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS

OVER 6 MILLIGRAM OF GOLD ARE LOST EVERY MORE GOLD IS YEAR FROM A WEDDING RING JUST BY WEARING IT PERSONAL COMP

THE WORLD’S LARGEST

GOLD BAR WEIGHS 250 KGS

OLYMPIC

GOLD METALS O

GOLD HAS BEEN DISCOVERED ON EVERY CONTINET ON EARTH GOLD IS

WEIGHS 250 KGS

MORE INDIAN HOUSEWIVES HOLD11% OF THE WORLD’S GOLD . THAT IS MORE NEARLY ALL OF NY PUT THAN THE RESERVES OF THE U.S., IMF, SWITZERLAND AND GERMANY PUT BOMBARDED TH ETHER. TOGETHER.

2 MILLIGRAMS N OUR BLOOD

OUR BODIES CONTAIN UPTO 0.2 MILLIGRAMS OF GOLD , MOSTLY IN OUR BLOOD

MORE GOLD IS RECOVERABLE PERSONAL COMPUTERS THAN 17

GOLD METALS ONLY CONTAIN 1.34% GOLD GOLD IS EDIBLE EARTHQUAKES TURN W IS EDIBLE EARTHQUAKES TURN WATER INTO GOLD OLYMPIC GOLD METALS ONLY CONTAIN

YMPIC

NTINET ON EARTH

THE WORLD’S OCEANS CONTAIN 20 MILLION TONS OF

BEEN FOUND OUR BODIES CONTAIN UPTO 0.2 MILLIGRAMS LYPTUS TREES OF GOLD , MOSTLY IN OUR BLOOD

EVERY RING IT

GOLD

EARTHQUAKE

NEARLY ALL OF THE GOLD ON EA BOMBARDED THE PLANT OVER 200 M

NEARLY ALL OF THE GOLD ON EARTH CAME FROM METEORITES THAT BOMBARDED THE PLANT OVER 200 MILLION YEARS AFTER IT FORMED.

MORE GOLD PERSONAL COM


E SWIMMING POOLS CAN HOLD ALL EVER MINED IN THE WORLD

EARTH CAME FROM METEORITES THAT 00 MILLION YEARS AFTER IT FORMED.

S TURN WATER INTO

GOLD

AS BEEN FOUND S TREES

RECOVERABLE FROM 1 TON OF PUTERS THAN 17 TONS OF ORE

ONLY CONTAIN 1.34% GOLD EDIBLE

F THE GOLD ON EARTH CAME FROM METEORITES THAT HE PLANT OVER 200 MILLION YEARS AFTER IT FORMED. FROM 1 TON OF TONS OF ORE

WATER INTO

ABSTRACT

GOLD

1.34% GOLD

ES TURN WATER INTO

GOLD

The value of Aur never falls and we will continue to mine it till it exhausts. Europe dwells on this know myth and has been in the limelight of gold mining as an attempt to fight the economic crisis. Gold mines generated employment opportunities and rises hope to live a rich life for the people of Europe. The Romans have been the first to extract gold from the earth in the Balkan and in the quest for gold they discovers the precious deposits in the Transylvanian region of Romania. Today, Rosia Montana sits on a 300 ton deposit of such metal fighting against the Canadian company that tries to extract it using the most sustainable mining process with high techniques to ensure least impact. This arose a social and political conflict among the the company and the locals that were against the gold mining project leaving the town divided and deserted.

RTH CAME FROM METEORITES THAT MILLION YEARS AFTER IT FORMED.

As mines close, they do not only bring to the surface the gold, but along with it leave behind a social and environmental legacy for generations to come, the tailing and a ghost town. This lead us to look into questions related to the management of tailings. The further we studies, new questions related to

IS RECOVERABLE FROM 1 TON OF MPUTERS THAN 17 TONS OF ORE

the changes in social demographics and politic of Rosia Montan were rose referring to how we can minimize the impact of an industry and reduce the drastic changes it reflects on the landscape. The most important was the question of the economic decline of the region in the post-mining scenario and it was concluded by the concept of introducing new economies with the use to the by products itself. This project shows how the better management of the by products of the mining activity can become a driving force to re-imagine the post-mining landscape as a co-mining landscape that forms a platform to generate alternative economies. But it was soon realized that the mining company cannot alone bring rise to a revolutionary method of tailing management that would generate multiple economies. Local and National authorities, Academics and experts and largely the local communities together with the mining company have to build a landscape that would prevent a destined ghost town.


CASE STUDY IN GREECE CASE STUDY IN BULGARIA THE BALKAN ATLAS

GOLD ATLAS CHAPTER 4

25

DAM FAILURES AND DISASTERS FOREVER MINE.MINE FOREVER WHAT IS LEFT BEHIND THE WASTE CALLED TAILINGS

TAILINGS CHAPTER 3

15

MINING TOWN TAILING DAM BILUT IN VALLEY GEAMANA RMGC, SUSTAINABLE MINE THE ROMAN GOLD CONTEXT EMPLOYMENT FLOW, SOCIAL FORMATION 1

CONTENTS

SURFACE MINING PROCESS MINING PROCESS AND BY-PRODUCTS TYPES OF MINING

GOLD MINING CHAPTER 2

9 CASEY RESEARCH EUROPEAN GOLD RUSH GLOBAL AFFAIRS OF GOLD

WORLD’S GOLD CHAPTER 1

3

ROSIA MONTANA CHAPTER 5

35

ROSIA MONTANA,ROMANIA


TECHNICAL REPORT ROAD ORGANISATION AND ORDER SECTIONAL LANDUSE CLASSIFICATION REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE FILTRATION PROCESS EMERGING ECONOMIES

CO-MINING LANDSCAPE CHAPTER 9

75

DIVIDED TOWN ORE MOVEMENT, GEOMORPHOLOGY 2 ORE MOVEMENT, GEOMORPHOLOGY 1

CONFLICTS CHAPTER 6

47

ALTERNATIVE TAILING MANAGEMENT PREDICTED DAM FAILURE

GHOST TOWN OR FLOODED TOWN CHAPTER 8

69

ROSIA MONTANA NEEDS THE MINES

METHODOLOGY SLOPE OF TOPOGRAPHY LANDUSE ALLOCATION IMPOUNDMENT SEQUENCING ZONAL CARTOGENESIS EVOLUTION TIMELINE

IMPOUNDMENT FABRICATION CHAPTER 10

99

REVIE THE HOME SOCIAL LIFE PEOPLE OF ROSIA MONTANA SITE VISIT RELOCATION MAP, SOCIAL FORMATION 2

DEMISE OF A TOWN CHAPTER 7

57


1 | World’s Gold


F O R E V E R

M I N E

There was once a man who worked on a submarine. He lived beneath the water for months, without a site of land, without a site of a normal life. He would drowned every single time with the submarine, in a thought…”If only i would have a reason to be on land forever, if only I would find someone who I could be with forever. I would quit this forsaken job and be able to breath the fresh air and soak in the sun that shines like gold.” But meeting the girl of his dream was far from reality. After months of being under the sea, he had very little confidence to go back to reality and even approach a girl at a bar. One time when he was back on land on the port of Constanta, he visited the local bar. Sitting alone, he drowned his fourth glass of Palinca, hope trickled down his face in form of tears. The dream of living on land slowly faded. Just when all seemed to be lost, he hear a beautiful woman’s voice that said “You shouldn’t worry much, it all works out in the end”. He hadn’t heard such comforting sweet voice in years. He looked around and in one glance he was love struck. He approached the women, a vision in red, he could not imagine someone so beautiful could care to talk to a stranger, more so a shabby stranger like him. He said “Thank you for your kind words of hope, it means a lot to me”, she said, “ It’s ok, everyone needs it from time to time. So what is it that was bothering you.” A year later…. She stood at the port of Constana, waiting to meet her lover, her submarine man. It had been a lovely day. The sun was about to set. The man walked to her, she walked to him… she went for a hug but as she leaped, he got down on one knee, held her hand and looked up with his eyes all teared up. Before she could take a breath, she saw it, a gold ring with engraving that said “forever mine”. He said “You have given me a reason today to quit this life on the submarine. You have given me new hope. Will you forever be mine”. “Yes” she said. And suddenly they were both inside a cube of grey fine particles. At a far off they saw the sun set in a cube of gold. And before they could grasp that moment they saw the gold cube melt and spread in the black sea, drowning the submarine the man had come from. They did not know what to make of the incidence, or more they did not want to know. The woman looked at the gold ring and then at the man... “I will forever cherish this moment, your love will be eternal.” The End

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CHAPTER 1 WORLD’S GOLD “Gold is the corpse of value,” says Goto Dengo. “Wealth that is stored up in gold is dead. It rots and stinks. True wealth is made every day by men getting up out of bed and going to work. By school children doing their lessons, improving their minds.” In his novel, “Cryptonomicon”, Neal Stephenson talks about the histories of nations and the private obsession of men. But before we go there we must realise first how gold is valued and exchanged globally. This chapter highlights the trade of gold and also focuses on the gold rush of the modern times.

3 | World’s Gold

Figure 1 Gold with Sphalerite, Quartz


“Gold is the corpse of value...” -Neal Stephenson

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Figure 2 World’s Gold Statistics Diagram S. Save

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION GOLD MINING COMPANY UNMINED AREA

5 | World’s Gold


GLOBAL AFFAIR OF GOLD Gold is a precious metal that has been mined since history has known. Almost all the gold on earth came from meteorites that bombarded the planet over 200 million years after it formed. Many cultures have been lured by the beauty and power of gold. Many stories have been told about this metal that date back to the ancient times. Gold was a symbol of riches and prestige, but in some cultures, gold was thought to have mystical powers. The thirst for gold began with the Romans. They were the first to mine gold. Since then man has been hunting and extracting gold, slowly changing the landscapes it sits within. Gold has more value than currency in the investment market, because of the fact the value of the precious metal never drops. And it does have its reasons for being so. Some people relate to this metal for its traditional values, its cultural symbolism. It has an impact on social life and well being of a society. Some others value gold for its tremendous properties. Hence it has been widely used to develop new technology. While others keep gold merely for investments. Whatever may be the reason to possess gold, it has been observed that many countries globally are involved in the trade of gold.

Figure on the left is a concentric chart that represents countries that are involved in gold trade. The map of the world sits in the centre of the chart. The rays emerging from what would be placed as the north pole represents a single country. The grey highlighted regions represent the countries that possess unmined gold deposits. The first ring represents the deposit of gold in million tons per year. The second holds the names of the countries. The third represents production of gold in million tons per year, also represented in form of circles. The smallest being lowest producer of gold and largest being the highest producer of gold. The fourth ring represents the consumption of gold in million tons per year, also represented in form of circles. The smallest being lowest consumer of gold and largest being the highest consumer of gold. The last ring represents the unemployment rate of each country also represented by triangles. The smallest triangle referring to the least number of unemployment and biggest representing the highest rate of unemployment. Lastly the yellow dots represent the location of the major gold companies in the world.

The intention behind creating a diagram of this nature was to realised the flow of gold and the politics involved with it. As we read this chart we realise that most of the consumers of gold do not hold any production numbers. Thus, all the gold from producing countries is traded with the consuming countries. According to number, China remains the largest producer as well as the largest consumer of gold. The next big producer of gold are the United States of America and Australia followed by Canada and Peru. It is surprising to see India being the second largest consumer of gold without any production numbers. Most of the world’s gold that is extracted from the producing countries seem to be flowing into India. In India the possession of gold represents a family’s wealth. Gold is mostly used for jewellery making and is symbolise one’s rich status. But the major extract from this diagram is the ratio between the deposits of gold and the unemployment rate of the countries. This observation narrows us down to the European countries. Europe is facing crisis since past many years. These conditions of desperation is the very reason why European countries have turned to mining so they can provide a source of employment.

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EUROPEAN GOLD RUSH After 200 million years of the formation of earth, it was bombarded by meteorites. These meteorites are the reason why there is gold on earth. Gold has been discovered on every continents on earth. In the world’s map above, a predicted country in each continent that is estimated to produce the largest amount of gold in the future is marked. Within Europe, many new projects for gold exploration have been introduced. The countries marked in a solid hatch in yellow are the countries that are currently engaged in gold exploration. The countries marked in the hatch in lighter yellow are countries that are being explored for gold projects in the coming future. From this we realise Romania hold 90% of Europe’s gold. These gold deposits are mainly located in Rosia Montana and Rovina region of Romania.

7 | World’s Gold

Figure 3 World’s Gold S. Save


BALTIC SHEILD

IBERIAN PYRITE BELT

Figure 4 Europe’s Gold H. Lin

Profiting from Europe’s new Gold Rush

-By Jeff Clark, Casey Research

“Mines employ a lot of people. The trend is reversing because of Europe’s sluggish economy and the real benefits of the increase in local jobs and the leap in tax revenue that mining projects bring.” “Seeing the benefits of the jobs, income-tax revenues, and all-around political advantages, a “Raw Materials Strategy” was initiated in 2008, then revised and updated in 2010, and again in 2011. The aim was to encourage sustainable supplies of raw materials from within the EU. It calls for policies in support of domestic mining. So far, so good…” “It’s positive, of course, that the political climate in Europe is at least in theory becoming more supportive of mining” “The gold mining sector in Europe represents 16,000 direct and indirect jobs as of 2009, and that is surely growing.”

CARPATHIAN ARC

“So for the gold, the tax, the jobs, and for more than a few political careers, mining is right up at the top of the political agenda. And despite the regulation stranglehold governments put on mining companies, they are still reopening abandoned mines and are exploring entirely new areas.” There are three main zones of metallogenic significance for gold in Europe: the Iberian Pyrite Belt; the Carpathian Arc; and the Baltic Shield. The Iberian Pyrite Belt crosses from Portugal through southern Spain. The Carpathian Arc stretches from the Czech Republic through Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, and into Turkey. The Baltic Shield traverses from western Russia through Finland, Sweden, and Norway. Other countries with operating gold mines are Greenland, France, Greece, Romania, Portugal, Slovakia, and the UK. The red dot in the figure above represent the gold mines in Europe.

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CHAPTER 2 GOLD MINING Mining is the greed of mankind. It’s an addiction to certain resources that people have now learnt not to live without. Gold being one such addiction, its mining is an inevitable affair. As we search for more and more gold, we also develop many types of mining methods to extract as much of this precious metal as we can. Mining is a lengthy process that can last for years. From the survey of determining the gold deposits to actually extracting the gold and making them into bullions that can be sold, the ore that is extracted undergoes many processes.

9 | Gold Mining

Figure 5 Mine Site


“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed.” -Mahatma Gandhi

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TYPES OF MINING By studying the techniques of mining, we realised two major mining methods that are divided according to the type of extraction, the surface mines and the sub-surface mines. The targets metal is also divided into two categories, placer deposits that consists of valuable minerals which is found in rivers, gravels, beach sand and unconsolidated materials, where the metal is found in veins, in layers or in mineral grains generally distributed throughout the mass of the actual rock. But long gone are the days when gold use to flow in rivers. We have got hold of every tiny speckle of gold that was easily accessible. Now we have no choice other than to dig, drill and explode mountains in order to possess gold. The new age mining techniques can be divided majority into two types, sub-surface and surface mines.

11 | Gold Mining

Sub-surface mines are mines that require the digging of tunnels to reach the ores that are buried in the earth’s surface. Shafts are created to reach these ore deposits and the ores and waste rocks are brought to the surface for processing disposal respectively. This type of mining can be further divided into various types depending on the access shaft type used. Drift mining utilizes horizontal access tunnels. Slope mining uses diagonally sloping access shafts. Shaft mining uses vertical access shafts. Sub-surface mining is usually a lengthier process and the percent of ore extracted is less compared to a surface mine. This method is adapted mostly where the ore concentration is high.

Figure 6 Under-Ground Mine


Figure 7 Surface Mine

Surface mining, is a type of mining that is done by removing the surface of the earth in order to reach the ore. It is a method in which the surface vegetations, dirts and sometimes even the bedrock is striped to reach the buried deposits. In order to strip the surface, various methods are used and these methods further divide the surface mining in the following types. Open-pit mining is a procedure of extracting rock from the earth’s surface by creating a pit in the ground. Quarrying is identical to open-pit mining except that it refers to sand, stone and clay. Strip-mining, which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore underneath. Mountaintop removal which involves taking the top of a mountain to reach the ore deposits at depth. This method is commonly used for coal mining. Landfill mining is a mining type that involves sites where landfills are excavated and processed.

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OPEN PIT & ORE

PRIMARY CRUSHER

BALL MILL

PREAERATION TANKS

PRE-LEACH THICKENER

COARSE ORE STOCKPILE

LEACH TANKS

Figure 9 Stage 1 H.Lin

SECONDARY CRUSHER

COARSE SCREEN

PRESSURE GRINDING ROLL

CYANIDE DETOXIFICATION

CIL TANKS

CARBON REGENERATION

TAILINGS DEPOSAL

Figure 10 Stage 2 H.Lin

DESORPTION

FINE ORE STOCKPILE

FINE SCREENS ELECTROWINNING CELL

SMELTING FURNACE

DORE

Figure 11 Stage 3 H.Lin

MINING PROCESS AND BY-PRODUCTS The main objective in any commercial mining operation is the exploitation of the mineral deposit at the lowest possible cost with a view of maximizing profits. The selection of physical design parameters and the scheduling of the ore and waste extraction program are complex engineering decisions of enormous economic significance. The planning of an open pit mine is, therefore, basically an exercise in economics, constrained by certain geologic and mining engineering aspects. As most of the gold deposits on earth now are depleting, the mining process adapted is surface mining. Hence, we study more in detail about surface mines. For extracting the ore by surface mining process, an excavation or cut is made on the ground.

13 | Gold Mining

Figure 8 Ore processing H.Lin


Figure 13 Exploding Site for Open-Pit Mining

Figure 14 Mine Benches

Figure 15 Mining Waste Photo by S.Save

Figure 16 Gold Bullions

SURFACE MINING PROCESS Figure 12 Journey of Ore S.Save

The process of making a cut is by exploding the surface with help of dynamites as seen in figure 13. After the surface has been exploded, benches are created in layers. The beaches grow deeper and wider as the mine expands. The geometry of the benches can be seen in figure 14. To expose and mine the ore, it is generally necessary to excavate and relocate large quantities of waste rocks. Next is the process of separating the ore from waste rocks. The ore is processed at various levels as seen in figure 8 above. What remains after this is the concentrated ore. Concentrated ore hold more gold than excavated ore. This concentrate is then needed to be processed in a smelting plant. Once the gold ore is brought into the smelter, it is melted down to a liquid. This liquid is then poured into casts and made into bullions. This is also done with second hand or recycled gold.

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CHAPTER 3 TAILINGS As we stay overwhelmed by the shine and glam of gold, we fail to see what it brings to the earth. Gold is not all that comes out of the mines. Mining causes consequences to the surface that cannot be rectified. In order to achieve desired concentrate from the run of a mine, various mechanical and chemical processes are used. These chemical processes give rise to various by products. Tailing are one such waste products of mining process.

15 | Tailings

Figure 17 Tailing pond


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EXPLORATION

Characterization

ASSESSMENT

Prediction

DESIGN

Planning for avoidance

CONSTRUCTION

Surface water control works Groundwater control Waste rock

Tailings

Special handling Segregation Encapsulation Layering Blending OPERATION

Open pit

Underground Workings

Figure 19 Management method of tailings modified by S.Save

Detoxification Compaction Amendment de-watering

Figure 18 Type of TMF S.Save

Re-mining Backfilling passivation Selective mining and avoidance Hydrodynamic controls Appropriate sitting of facility Co-disposal In-pit disposal Bactericides Alkaline materials Organic materials Dry cover

DECOMMISSION

Seal Water cover Flooding

POST-CLOSURE

Monitoring, maintenance, inspection Where required long term collection and treatment

THE WASTE CALLED TAILINGS Tailing consists of ground rocks and process effluents that are generated during processing. This process of product extraction is never 100% efficient, nor is it possible to reclaim all the reusable and expended processing reagents and chemicals. The unrecoverable and economic metals, minerals, chemicals, organics and process water discharged, normally as slurry, to a final storage area know as a Tailing management Facility (TMF) or Tailing Storage Facility (TSF). Not surprisingly the physical and chemical composition of tailings are their method of handling and storage are of great and growing concern. Tailings are stored in different forms depending on their nature as explained in figure 18. They can be majority classified under four categories. Surface storage of tailing, it’s the most common type of storing tailing on the surface of earth. In-pit storage is a type in which pits are created to especially store the tailings. Backfill tailings management type is when the tailings are stored in the underground mined out voids. And lastly, offshore type in which the tailings are let to flow into the sea on the shore.

17 | Tailings

Amongst these surface storage of tailings, Surface storage is the most effective method and hence its most commonly used. Under this type also there are various methods depending on the physical nature of the tailings. These various types can be better understood from figure 19.

of climate change that may affect the facility. Also when planning for the mining project one has to plan considering avoidance, to make sure least amount of tailings are produced. The construction must be made with consideration of the surface water flow and groundwater flow.

Tailings are a waste product that has no financial gain to a mine operator at that particular time. Not, surprising it is usually stored in the most cost effective way possible to meet regulations and site specific factors. Dams, embankments and other types of surface impoundments are by far the most common storage methods used today and remain the primary importance in tailings disposal planning.

During the operation of a tailing management facility, the nature of the waste and the elements of the waste are to be considered and handled carefully. Generally, tailing management facilities face the future of becoming a reclamation site, but before that too there is need for maintenance and monitoring to make sure the contents of the facility are in control.

It is very important to understand the prevention and mitigation of mine drainage. In the figure 20 we can see the overview of the best practice method. As mining activity is planned and calculated affair, so is the tailing management facility. From exploration stage to the construction stage, there are many factors to be considered, such as prediction of the quantity of waste produced. Designing for the facility must be done with taking into account the possibilities

Just like gold, tailings also stay on the surface of earth forever. Currently there are 3,500 tailing ponds on the planet.


Figure 20 Impoundment tailings

Figure 21 Dry Stack tailings

Figure 22 Valley Fill tailings

Figure 23 Thickened tailings

Figure 24 Paste tailings

Figure 25 Deposition tailings

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WHAT IS LEFT BEHIND As study more about the waste generated by mining gold, we start to relate information to the production of waste by countries in Europe. According to the Eurostat in 2012, waste generated by mining and quarrying activity in Romania is the highest amounting to approximately 200,000 kilograms tons per year. Followed by Bulgaria and Sweden amounting to 135,000 and 140,000 kilograms tons per year respectively. 1 ton of gold would require 200,000 tons of ore to be excavated. Two major waste materials produced during mining are the waste rocks and tailings, and other waste would be mine waters and mine drainage sludge. Over years people have been researching various uses of these materials. Waste rock is the coarse waste material and is highly permeable and shear strength. Due to these properties, it can be used a feed material for concrete. It can also be used for building dams and embankments for tailing facility. The above figure 27 summaries the use of tailings. Tailings are made of fine particles which also have

19 | Tailings

high water holding capacity. Because of its nature, tailings can be used for making concrete. If tailings are used in concrete making, sand dredging can be reduced to a considerable amount. According to the a study at the National Institute of Rock Mechanics, Kolar, India, some scientist have proven that tailings can be used to grow certain plants. Depending upon the organic material present in the tailings, different kinds of plants and trees can be grown like eucalyptus, tomato, bamboo, neem etc. (Roy, Gupta and A Renaldy, 2012) Tailings stored in dams are carried to the impoundments with water. The tailing dams are can be as high as 200m tall. Their construction is very important to make sure they can hold the tailings and restrain pressure from the water. Three different types of dam construction followed for a tailing management facility, various stages of construction of the dam and the filling of these impoundments are shown in figure 28. The tailings need to be dried out before adding a new

layer of top soil on them. Over years, these tailings dry out as seen in figure 30. Once they are completely dried, a layer of topsoil is added and this land can be replanted. In this way many tailing ponds are reclaimed. The process of reclamation over years is shown in figure 29.

Figure 26 Eurostat, 2012 modified by H.Lin Figure 27 Mining waste reuse H.Lin


Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Stage 6 Centre Line Dam

Slope Down Dam

Slope Up Dam

Figure 28 Dam construction and stages S.Save

Figure 29 Reclamation of tailing pond

Figure 30 Tailing drying stages modified by S.Save

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F O R E V E R

As observed in the background is a grid represents the amount of waste that would be generated to retrieve gold amounting to the yellow highlighted square. The love story at the beginning of this book may seem a bit absurd but when seen from statistical point of view it may make more sense. A ring is often used for proposal to express you love and the put forth the question to your loved one to be forever yours. In a way gold symbolizes eternal love. Since we know that for every ton of gold, 200,000 tons of ore needs to be extracted from mines. This means for a single gold ring, waste or tailings that can fit into a cube of 2.6 X 2.6 X 2.6 meter will be produced.

21 | Tailings

2.6 M

Figure 31 Gold ring-Forever Mine? H.Lin

2.6 M

Figure 32 Waste from one Gold Ring H.Lin

M I N E


M I N E

F O R E V E R

20 M

20 M

Figure 33 World’s Gold H.Lin

Figure 34 World’s Tailings in the Black Sea H.Lin

These tailing are stored on earth for years. Gold may never losses its value but it also leave behind waste that will never be lost. This notion provokes a doubt, is the gold the real representation of eternal love, of foreverness or is it the tailings that never die, decay or go away from the surface of earth. According to reports, all the gold ever extracted from earth, every coin, every crown, every speckle, can fit into a cube of 20 X 20 X 20 meters. That means, it would produce tailing which will cover almost a fourth of the black sea. The highlighted portion in the figure 34 represents the tailings that are right now present on this planet. Irrespective of the these facts and number, our greed for gold will forever grow and we will mine forever.


DAM FAILURES AND DISASTERS In the dam failure timeline, the disasters related to mining activity all over the world are shown. The Val Di Stava Dam collapse occurred on the 19th July,1985 in Italy, killing 268 people and destroying 63 building and 8 bridges. 180,000 cubic meters of toxic waste was spread over 4.2km. On 25th April, 1998, 3,500 hectares of agricultural land was destroyed in Los Frailes, Aznalcollar, Spain. 2010, Hungary faced 1 million cubic of waste flowing through the town of Ajka, killing 10 and injuring 150 on the 4th of October. The most important is the dam collapse at Baia Mare, Romania. In 2000, the tailing leaked in Dundee river, creating a cross country pollution. The pollution spread through Romania, Hungary, Serbia and back in Romania before entering the black sea. Baia Mare,

23 | Tailings

was the one of the processing centre for the gold ore from Rosia Montana. It took 10 years to recover the flora and fauna in this region. Tailing Dam collapses are more frequent since the 1900. The process of building impoundments for tailing is relative young. Due to this reason it is very difficult to predict the behaviour of these toxic lakes. Along with this the changing climatic conditions and unprecedented increase in rainfall are additional factors aiding the collapse risk. The collapse of dams has set fear in minds of people about the upcoming new mining projects.

Figure 35 Samarco’s Germano Tailings Basin


Figure 39 2010, Ajka Aluminium Dam Collapse

Figure 38 1998, Los Frailes Dam Collapse

Figure 37 1985, The Val di Stava Dam Collapse

Figure 36 Tailing Dam Failure Timeline S.Save

Figure 40 2000, Baia Mare Spill Figure 41 2000, Baia Mare Spill

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CHAPTER 4 BALKAN GOLD ATLAS The southeast Europe holds a region called the Balkan peninsula. This region is name after the mountain that stretch from the eastern border of Serbia to the Black sea. This region has a unique landscape and owns it cultural heritage to its territorial well-being. In this chapter we study the various minerals and the activity of extraction through a series of maps.

25 | Balkan Gold Atlas


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LOCATION MAP

BALKAN GOLD ATLAS The southeast region of Europe is rich in natural resources and the richness of the resources is due to the igneous nature of the rock. This region was the source of many minerals in the past. Due to the pollution control regulation, many of these mineral sources were restricted. The Balkan is particularly rich in one of the most desirable mineral, Gold. The current crisis is contributing to a steep increase in gold prices, which, in turn, renders gold mining investments more profitable. Thus, mining companies, using the ‘crisis’ as an excuse, are exerting pressure on government to further minimize the regulations on mining activities. In this atlas we attempt to highlight the regions where mining has been a dominating occupation and livelihood. After intense research about various areas and mining sites we have compiled the information in a graphic form to create a cartography. It is crucial to understand the use of elevation model that is incorporated in the atlas to realise where the mines sit. This helps us understand the location of the mines is in complete sync with mountainous regions. The map locates mine that are operating at the moment and the mines are projected to open in the near future due to the ‘crisis’. Each node is resized keeping in the significance of the particular mine. The mines are graded considering the nature of conflict, the landuse of the region, the environmental damage predicted and the social impact on the residents in the surrounding region. The map also grades each mine considering various type of conflicts that have been heard of due to the opening and operating of gold mines. The networks represent mine that have been run by or bought by foreign companies who intend to mine and possess the gold that the land has to offer. The conflicts and the existence of foreign companies is observed to be in sync. This issue is the reason for the major conflicts that are related to mining. The conflicts and the environmental impacts of the mines made us research into particular mines to understand the landscape consequences of gold mining in the Balkan region.

ATLAS PANEL

Base Drawing by H. Lin Information and labelling by S. Save

27 | Balkan Gold Atlas


BALKAN GOLD ATLAS AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-16 | 28


Figure 42 Case Study - Chelopech, Bulgaria H.Lin, S.Save

Bulgarians Protest Use of Cyanide Leaching By Michael Werbowski, World Press

/February 5th, 2006

CASE STUDY IN BULGARIA Exporting toxic pollution from Europe to Namibia by Genady Kondarev, Bulgarian campaigner

/ November 19, 2015

Dundee Abandons Cyanide Gold Mining in Bulgaria over ‘Public Concerns’

29 | Balkan Gold Atlas

/June, 21, 2010

From the atlas we have selected four sites that were studies more in detail to realise the real conflict and the process of mining at different sites in the Balkan region. The purpose of this study is to conclude a site where intervention is most needed. For better understanding we mapped the movement of the ore from the extraction stage to the smelting stage.

The Chelopech Mine is located in the centralwestern Bulgaria approximately 70 kilometres east of Sofia, the national capital on the southern flank of the Balkan Ranges. The Chelopech mines are underground mine that produce copper and gold. Since the mine opened in 1954, it have extracted 19.7 million tonnes of ore. The mine today is run by Dundee precious metal, a Canadian company. Prior to 1990, the sulphide-rich ore was smelted at Pridop smelter. But in 2010, Bulgaria banned the use of cyanide in the leaching process of gold smelting. The same year, Dundee bought a smelter in Namibia, Africa and the concentrated ore was transported by ship for smelting.

Dundee Precious Metals a Canadian company. The following is the list of their projects. Production mines: Chelopech, Bulgaria Kapan, Armenia Exploration: Serbia Project: Krumovgrad, Bulgaria Smelter: Tsumeb,Namibia

A similar project by Dundee is proposed at Ada Tepe, krumovgrad, in southeast Bulgaria. The company is still trying to open the mine here by tempting the locals with employment opportunities. The project is still under discussion with the Bulgarian authorities, while the local villagers are in conflict about the new proposed mine.


Figure 43 Case Study - Krumovgrad, Bulgaria H.Lin, S.Save

Plans for Gold Mine Divide Bulgarians by Dimiter Kenarov, The New York Times

/October, 31, 2011

“Our real treasure is not gold, but water� by Nick

/ December 17th, 2012

Dundee Precious Metals Expects Profits To Double By 2018

/November, 28, 2014

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Figure 44 Case Study - Skouries, Greece H.Lin, S.Save

Workers at Eldorado Gold Mine in Greece Stage Protest Over Closure Eldorado gold is also a Canadian company. The following is the list of their projects. Production mines in the balkan region: Stratoni, Greece Exploration mines in the balkan region: Skouries, Greece Olympias, Greece Perma Hill, Greece Certej, Romania

CASE STUDY IN GREECE The mines in Greece under Eldorado gold form a work triangle. The mine at Stratoni is an underground mine. While the other mines are still under exploration. Skouries will be an open-pit mine followed by an underground mine. Olympias will operate as an underground mine where as Perma hill will be an open pit exploration. The processing and waste management facilities for these mines will be shared. From the mapping of the ore movement, the TMF has been strategically placed in the centre all the projects. The projects from a functional triangle. 31 | Balkan Gold Atlas

by Reuters

/August 24, 2015

Rift Between Greek Environment Minister and Canadian Mining Company by Philip Chrysopoulos

Greek Miners Protest to Keep Open Eldorado Gold Mine by Alkis Konstantinidis, Reuters

/April 16, 2015

/ February 24, 2016


CASE STUDY IN ROMANIA Gabriel Resources Ltd. is a Canadian resource company focused on permitting and developing the Rosia Montana gold and silver project in Romania. The project is owned through Rosia Montana Gold Corporation (RMGC) in which Gabriel holds an 80.69% stake with the balance held by Romanian State. RMGC promised to build a world class mine that would provide 1000 and more jobs during the dark times of unemployment. Yet there rose conflicts that have been heard for years. These conflicts and the history of the town Town needed a deeper study and hence proved to be a potential site for intervention.

Figure 45 Case Study - Rosia Montana, Romania H.Lin, S.Save

78% of the Romanians Agree that the Rosia Montana Project Will Create New Jobs by MCostache, CNN iReport

/April 19, 2012

Romania’s Rosia Montana Mining Project could Negatively Impact More Than 20,000 Jobs in Farming, Tourism and Wood processing by Irina Popescu

/ October 9, 2013

Cyanide Pollution Fears: Thousands of Romanians Protest ‘Biggest in Europe’ Gold Mine

/September, 8, 2013

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33 | Rosia Montana


“From those days of yore, When this land so much blessed, And likewise cursed, And from the times when it was named Alburnus Maior That Herodotus himself once spoke about Well, times long past! The Dacians, and Romans, and Romanians And all those who sought shelter at this breast of a Romanian mother, Have been rummaging this viscera of the metal mountains… Looking for...Gold Gold, gold gold… In the underground Oh, Lord, Do help all these “explorers” to look for gold Not in the underground But up into the highest heights of the Romanian soul This soul, that from generations past into future ones, is guarding this backyard of Romania, Romanian land, from centuries to come, Into the ever of our evermore! Amen!” -Mircea Albulescu, Professor of theater, 14th December, 2010

Figure 46 Sitting in an Old Gallery Photo by Y.Cheng AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-16 | 34


CHAPTER 5 ROSIA MONTANA, ROMANIA The Balkan gold atlas formed bases for our site selection and we have concluded from the case study that Rosia Montana in Transylvania will be our study site. Romania owns its richness to the volcanic relief. It is because of this igneous rock formation that the land is filled with many precious minerals. Rosia Montana is one such region that sits on a mountain of gold. In this chapter, we did a background study of the mining history, along with the proposed gold project brought by a Canadian company on our site, Rosia Montana.

35 | Rosia Montana

Figure 47 Abandoned Cetate Mine Photo by H.Lin


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LOCATION MAP

EMPLOYMENT FLOW The social life around Rosia Montana was largely influenced by its base occupation, mining. Mining dominated the social life in and around the region. The location of surrounding towns around Rosia Montana has an important significance which holds root in the Roman time when the surrounding towns formed a fortification for the Gold mountain. These towns then developed as mining towns with a few exception of farming villages. The gold mountains ruled over the cultural roots except in few villages where people still practise farming. The mine at Cetate and Rosia Poieni employed many miners from bigger town like Abrud, Bucium, Campeini, Bistra, Musca and Gura RosieI. Crona, Tarina and Bunta remained farming villages. The drawing indicated the different towns and villages around Rosia Montana and the Rosia Poieni that are either directly or indirectly dependent on these mines. The arrows in different colours represent the movement of the employees that come to the mines and the plant for work on a daily bases. The green depicts the farmlands that be seen more dense in the villages that practise farming as a primary occupation. Rosia Montana and Abrud are the main supply for man force to the Cetate pit whereas Bucium and Rosia Montana population works at Rosia Poieni mining pit.

SOCIAL FORMATION PANEL Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save

37 | Rosia Montana


The Roman Gold Context The land is filled with many precious minerals in Romania, and there is indirect evidence dating back to the first half of the 3rd millennium before Christ. The gold richness of the Dacians is considered to be one of the reasons why Romans conquered Dacia. At the moment, the most controversial issues about pre-Roman mining activity in Rosia Montana refers to the underground mining in the the Dacian times. There is more concrete evidence of Romans mining in this region two-thousand-years ago. Some underground mines are constructed with the same techniques as they were up till the last centuries of the Dacian Kingdom. The mining operations in this area started new impetus as of the 13th century under the kings of Hungary. From the middle ages to the modern age, this region was home to people from various origins who came in hunt of gold. As a result this region developed a very particular cultural heritage.

39 | Rosia Montana

In the modern time, in 1573 as per records, a legal framework of mining laws was put in place. By 1940, when the communist party came in power, all the mines became property of the state and a state run mining operation was commissioned in Rosia Montana. A new page of the history of gold mining in Rosia Montana was tuned in 1970, when a surface mine was commissioned in the Cetate area by blowing up the famous Roman mining works that were historic monuments. By 1977, the biggest open pit copper exploration in Europe was started at Rosia Poieni, just about 30 kilometers away from Rosia Montana. Soon Rosia Montana sat between two open pits. Mining continued under the state till 2006. As Romania had plans to enter the European Union, the mining operations that did not meet the regulations for environment and pollution had to be closed.

Figure 48 Rosia Montana Miners


Figure 49 History Timeline of Rosia Montana by S.Save

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1

2

Waste Rock 2

“Gabriel understands that true sustainability is about building up a community’s capability and vitality over time. Gabriel has integrated the interests of the community and ecology in designing the Project and is determined to make Rosia Montana a model mining development. We are committed to sharing the economic and environmental benefits with a village and region that has been previously exploited for its gold but is now impoverished, polluted and overlooked.”

1

Tailing

Top Soil

Sustainable Mining The Rosia Montana concession area, which affects four of these villages, was subject to open pit mining by the state mining company, Minvest, until 2006 when state funded mining operations were required to close in the lead up to European Union accession. Following the closure of the mine with the loss of thousands of jobs, unemployment is reported to be 80% in the region. As a result of historical mining activities, abandoned waste dumps and tailings ponds scar this area leaving an environmental legacy with high levels of metals including zinc, iron, arsenic, lead and cadmium currently discharged, untreated, into local streams, soils and water. In addition, around 7 km of noncontinuous ancient mining works (galleries) have been identified from the 140km of underground workings, most of which date from modern times. The ancient workings were mostly destroyed by mining during the communist regime and those that survived were left abandoned and decaying and have remained so since the cessation of mining in 2006. Gabriel Resources Ltd. (“Gabriel”) is a Canadian TSX-listed (GBU.TSX) resource company focused on permitting and developing its world class Rosia Montana gold and silver project (the “Project”) in Romania. The Project is owned through Rosia

41 | Rosia Montana

Montana Gold Corporation S.A. (RMGC), in which Gabriel holds an 80.69% stake with the balance held by the Romanian State. Gabriel’s new mining plan proposes to preserve the area’s cultural heritage where possible whilst also treating the harmful effluents as part of its normal operating procedures. They intent to relocate and resettle some areas in town of Rosia Montana and carry on the process of mining in stages. The company plans to open 4 pits in total, Cetate, Carnic, JIg and Orlea. The four pits will be mined in two stages. Cetate and carnic during the first 9 years, whereas the pits from Orlea and Jig will be opened after the 9th year and the mining in Cetate will continue. Ore mining in the pits will be carried out for a total of 14 years. The closure of the pits and stockpiles will take place gradually, with Cetate stockpile for 5 years, the stockpiles and pit for Carnic for 9 years, and Orlea and Jog pits during 12-14 years. The company intends to operate in Rosia Montana for a total of 25 years out of which the mining activity will be for 16 years and rest of the years will be utilized for the treatment and reclamation of the pits. However, as most of the mining company comes to the end of the process of extraction, it often faces bankruptcy and do not have any finances left to reclaim the mining sites.

Figure 50 Cetate Mine Site Photo by S.Save

Figure 51 Project Plan by H.Lin Figure 52 RMGC Master Plan altered by H.Lin Figure 53 Reclamation Plan


Figure 54 Geamana Village 43 | Rosia Montana Photo by H. Lin


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Tailing Dam Built in Valley Rosia Poieni is the largest copper reserve in Romania and the second largest in Europe. Exploration at Rosia Poieni Copper mine began in 1977, under the state. The open pit formed is 800m in diameter and over 300m deep below the original ground level. In 1986, a dam was built in the Sesia Valley, to contain tailing. The valley was a home to a thousand households, the Geamana Village. The village was evacuated and the people compensated. Pipelines filled the valley with toxic waste of red and grey and slowly the history, heritage, the culture drowned. Today only the old bell tower of the church which once sat on a hill, rises from the lake as last remembrance. Near the vanished village of Geamana merely a few of the elderly remain, constantly moving uphill towards the huge copper mine that eats away at the ground and floods the valley with its chemical waste. Besides the pipelines, water also flows in the lake through a small stream. The locals call it the “Evil Water�, their cattle drink from this water and die. Those left behind stay and live the life have always known, growing their own fruits and vegetables, keeping cows and pigs and chicken. Without running water or heating. No supplies and no support. They stay because this is home to them, toxic or drowned and buried.

45 | Rosia Montana

These mine ate away homes, lives, even the dead. The church graveyard never relocated as promised and the ancestors of people of Geamana now buried on just in earth but in grey waste. The greed for minerals impacts the social life of people to an extent unimaginable. It doesn’t just leave behind scars but also destroys the feeling of belonging.

Figure 55 Geamana Old Church Photo by S.Save Figure 56 Rosia Poieni Open Pit Photo by H.Lin Figure 57 Old Town Geamana Figure 58 Geamana Residents


Mining Town

Figure 59 Mining Waste Photo by S.Save Figure 60 Cetate Open Pit Photo by H.Lin Figure 61 Rosia Montana Valley Figure 62 Rosia Montana Miners

Locals at Rosia Montana were also crop farmers and animal farmer. Nearly every household used to have a small land perimeter set aside for crop farming, some fruit trees and some livestock that could produce everyday food. Most craft in this area are connected to the basic business of the locals that is mining. Most people were also crop farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, wheelwrights, carries, stone workers. Apart from that, other craftsmen took up urban professions: tailors, shoemakers, butchers, confectioners. Since living standards we so high, the life of the local people would resemble more and more of urban dwellers. Some crafts were abandoned, since locals could buy all they needed in the fairs or even in their own markets. Some new habits were developed here: people would attend ball parties hosted by “Casina�, play billiards or games of chance, go to the cinema or restaurants. As a result of frequent contact with urban manner, habits and culture native to the community here vanished quickly. In a way these towns became more and more dependent on mining. The ore coming from Cetate would be processed initially at Gura Rosiei. As a result small tailing ponds were created near Gura Rosiei area which are now reclaimed and replanted. The concentrated ore from

gura rosiei then was transported to Baia Mare for smelting. Rosia Montana in its earlier days flourished as a village of the rich but it failed to see how its culture and nature was diminishing slowly over the years.

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CHAPTER 6 CONFLICTS The Canadian company plans to explore in Rosia Montana and fill the valley of Bunta with tailing, drowning the Bunta, Crona and Gura Rosiei, burying the heritage of the households that have existed since the Roman times. The conflict revolving around the gold mines at Rosia Montana played an important role while selecting our site. In order to understand the conflicts better, in the following chapter, we did a comparison map of the ore moment to track the benefits of the mining industry in this region to realise the difference between the international company and the state company’s working.

47 | Conflicts


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LOCATION MAP

ORE MOVEMENT - COMMUNIST In the process of extracting gold from a mountain various stages are involved and at every stage by products are generated. But all the by products originate from the same source: the mountain. In this drawing we are tracing the flow of the ore that once was a mountain. The mining work at the Cetate pit in the early days was run by a state company. The ore extracted from the mine would first give waste rock and stockpile. These by products are stored in the vicinity of the mine. The arrows that are closed to the origin depict this first stage of segregation of the mountain. Next the ore is carried to Gura Rosiei, where the ore is processed to achieve a concentrate. During this process tailing and waste water are generated. These by products are either disposed in the water or stocked at site in impoundments. The arrows running to void space in the drawings represent tailing ponds. The space is left purposely as a void to show that even if the tailings dry and the region is replanted, the waste does not go away. Lastly the Arrow going north is to show that the concentrated ore is carried to Baia Mare, for the process of smelting. Romania believed in overall development of the country and hence the processing of ore was a spread out affair. This way the whole nation should benefit from the gold that resided in the mountains of Rosia Montana.

GEOMORPHOLOGY PANEL Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save

49 | Conflicts


LOCATION MAP

ORE MOVEMENT - PRIVATIZED The process and size of mining projects affect the geomorphology to a great extent. As we can see the movement of the ore as compared to that of the old Cetate Pit is very different when the RMGC would be operating. Four pits would be exploited to extract gold under RMGC. The processing of the ore extracted will be on site. Hence the movement of ore is restricted to Rosia Montana region. This shows how a private sector company does not distribute the working or benefits with whole of Romania. This kind of operation also promoted one big tailing pond instead of smaller and multiple ponds. In the drawing, the outline of the mine is marked out along with the waste rock, stockpile and the tailing pond. Arrows represent the movement of the ore at various stages of gold processing. The volume of ore is represented with help of various intensities of the arrows. Since the proposed open pits are big and the company presidents to extract more gold, the amount of ore and waste are both multiplied in volume.

GEOMORPHOLOGY PANEL Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save

51 | Conflicts


53 | Conflicts


LONDON BERLIN BRUSSELS CHICAGO

As we read about the gold mines process and came across the incidence of the Copper mine at Rosia Poieni, we understand these conflicts better. The revolt against the Canadian company who wanted to reopen the mining work first started in the communist time spread like wildfire. There were regular protests on the streets, rallies, mob flashes, masked revolts and also marches in Bucharest and Cluj-Napoca. In Berlin and Brussels, mobs revolted against the use of cyanide gold mining outside the UNESCO headquarters. The issue reached Chicago when Romanians revolted outside the consulate during the visit of the Romanian prime minister. This was the largest civic movement in Romania since the revolution in 1989. But the situation at Rosia Montana was much different.

ABRUD

CLUJ NAPOCA ROSIA MONTANA BUCHAREST

Figure 63 International Conflict Map S. SAVE

Figure 64 Proposed Tailing Disposal site Photo by H.Lin Figure 65 Local Conflicts

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“A mistake repeated more than once is a decision� -Paulo Coelho

55 | Conflicts


Rosia Montana and Romania’s decade-long ‘gold war’ The Transylvania town of the Rosia Montana has been at the centre of a long-running debate in Romania. As politicians consider whether to give the green light to a large opencast gold mine in the region.

“My grandfather was a miner, my father was a miner, I also want to be a miner. If not for the mines we would have not been here today.” “Its our single opportunity to work”

Figure 66 Church in Corna Valley Photo by H. Lin Figure 67 Rosia Montana Banners Photo by H. Lin Figure 68 Save Rosia Montana Logo

The town now stood divided. With some people who desperately needs jobs, the mine opening was a bliss. “There is not much to do around here. We cannot make a livelihood picking berries” said a retired miner. On the other hand some concerned civilians realised the effects of cyanide leaching and held their roots against mining work. Geamana was a constant reminder of how social life is affected by making way for tailing ponds. Letting RMGC give a go ahead with their project would mean resettlement villages that come in between their plan of mining gold in this region. For example the Crona valley would be flooded with toxic waste. The figure on the left is an illustration of the church that would face the same future as the church at Geamana. Some people want to protect the cultural heritage and the Roman galleries that have roots in the history of Rosia Montana.

“If the project starts life would be over for me . I would lose my house, the graves of my parents, the church, and the heritage that belongs to all of us. The mining industry is very dirty, they will use tonnes of dynamite each day. Think of the noise, the toxicity - life here is going to be impossible.” “There is no compromise, I have found my place in a big family of anarchists, ecologists and anitmultinationalist. Civil society has grown-up we have gathered around a clear cause.”

According to RMGC, 95% of the locals want the project to begin and the town is plastered with brash yellow banners reminding any passer by that this was a mining town. The company made promises to invest the profits of the mine in preserving the town’s heritage and to turn it into a tourist attraction. But a large amount of the 200 year old Roman galleries would be destroyed due to the open-pit mines. The relocation plan of the villagers had already been implemented and new townships were built. After strong oppositions, the decision to stop mining activity at Rosia Montana was finalised in 2015. The RMGC was asked to stop all gold mining and Rosia Montana was now being considered as a potential UNESCO world heritage site. Now the Canadian company is suing the Romanian government for the gold they did not mine. Given the situation and rethinking of the conditions put forward by both the opposing party and the pro mining party, we decided to anticipate the opening of the mine and to study the effects of this scenario.

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CHAPTER 7 DEMISE OF A TOWN With the hope of finding information and meeting the residents to understand the situation of the mine, we planned a 7 days trip to Rosia Montana in April 2016. What we saw there was rather disturbing. Broken homes, and broken hope. As the company relocated most of the population, a handful stayed back and successfully protested, closing the mining activity by the company. The town was abandoned. The few who remain are mostly the few of the protesters who did not sell their and home.

57 | Demise of a Town

Figure 69 Rosia Montana Cave Photo by Y. Cheng


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LOCATION MAP

RELOCATION MAP In order to implement the plan to mine gold in Rosia Montana, the RMGC has to relocate people from the affected area of the project. To approach to a sensitive topic like relocation, the company is obliged to comply with the Romanian legislation and with the international instruments settings of responsible standards. In this social formation drawing, we are repenting the relocation map of villages. The footprint of the new mine is outlined in the drawing. As observed from the footprint, the villages that fall in the affected region are Crona, Bunta and Rosia Montana. The company initiated early consultations with the community and social impact assessment studies to ensure the resettlement action plan is based on a strategy mainly oriented towards making it a voluntary process. According to the resettlement strategy, the people were offered two basic options. One, they were compensated by the company and their houses and land was acquired or two, they could move to a new location where the company developed a township to settle them. The people from Rosia Montana where given an option to resettle in the new built settlement at Gura Rosiei or to move to Recea neighbourhood in Alba Lulia. But if the people had to work in the mine, they would opt to move to Bicuim. The Villages of Crona and Bunta, which are farming villages were given an option to move to Alba Lulia or Gura Rosiei. These kind of resettlements make be beneficial for the company but its impact on social life cannot be reported or depicted in drawings.

SOCIAL FORMATION PANEL Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save

59 | Demise of a Town


Old gold exploration cave

Tarina Tarn

Carnic Peak

The Cetate Pit

The church at Geamana

Drowning village at Geamana

2000 year old Roman Galleries

Eugen’s backyard exhibition

Old processing plant at Gura Rosiei

Crona Valley

Figure 70 Site Visit Plan H.Lin

SITE VISIT

7

1

8

10

9 5 11

4

2 3

6

The beautiful village that sits between the great mountains is suffering. The town is dying. The population has now reached a new low of just 400. With no economy to depend on, people live by on what they can grow in their backyard and rear animals. The company may have stopped the mining, but it left the town shattered. The locals explain various law that have been altered due to the corruption. Mining was not the cause of the revolt, the locals wanted jobs but the company’s functioning and methods are what they really were against.

Figure 71 Rosia Poieni Open Pit

61 | Demise of a Town


People of Rosia Montana

Zenu Cornea Ex-Miner

Misses Cornea’s Ex-Miner’s wife

“Gold has no value, the soul has value.” Zenu use to work as topographer in the Cetate mines when it was run under the state. The experience of being in mines have made him realise the pollutions and damage it causes. He believes that the gold should be left in earth where it is suppose to be.

“The most affected are the wives.” When the miner comes home with the dirty clothes, we wash them, all the toxic filled clothes affects the women who wash the clothes of the miner. Their house run on the pension from her husband. She sell milk to the villagers for some extra income.

Sorin Jurca Ex-Geologist

Misses Eugen David Farmer’s wife

Arpad Palfi Pap of Unitarian Church

“This is where I belong and I will not leave.” Sorin worked as a geologist in the state run mine in Rosia Montana. Now he is the vice president and the founding member of the Rosia Montana Cultural Foundation. He also makes delicious food for the tourist who visit his town and runs an information centre.

“As long as we have our land, we have power.” Eugen David is the president of Alburnus Maior, the Romanian NGO, that was most effective against the mining project. A simple farmer who gave their backyard is an art exhibition now and hence the mine cannot be excavated here anymore.

“One God” Father of the Unitarian church of Rosia Montana for 35 years, Pap has buried miners, prayed with their families and blessed homes, but he says the RMGC broke families and homes. Some Sunday mass is just with him and his lord. But he still keeps hope and will never abandon his church.

Calin Capros Protestor

Roman Gallery Guide Ex-Miner

Adrian Petri Casa Petri

Tica Darie Young spirit

Larisa Cherechianu New resident

“What will I tell my 7 year old son” Calin was in the front line during the protest against the mining company. He was approached by the company with money so he could leave his town and convince as many people as he can. Today Calin organised marathons and conducts treks and bike tours for tourist. He also repairs bikes for extra income.

“The first documented town in Romania.” The tour guide was an ex-miner that lives on pension from the old Cetate mines. He showed us the differences between the techniques used in ancient and modern gallery, and the tools miners used. Many people visit here in summer but for rest of the year, only students would come here for field trips.

“We don’t buy milk from the same people anymore.” Adi believes the town has great potential. His house is open to accommodate the visitors. But he is heartbroken to see the town people divided. He hope situation will improve if a new income sources is created in the town: tourism. Meanwhile Casa Petri is the only place you can stay when visiting Rosia Montana.

“I am going to be the Mayor of Rosia Montana and show how much potential it has” Three years back Tica visited Rosia Montana Spring Festival and fell in love with the place and found a home in Rosia Montana. Today he is the founder of the Made in Rosia Montana, which sells wool knitted items made by the women in Rosia Montana.

“I’m here.” Larissa came to Rosia Montana just 6 months back. She is the scouts leader for the little scouts in Rosia Montana. Trying to involve as many kids as she can, she attempts to lift the spirit of young minds and hopes to find more things to do around the town.

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SOCIAL LIFE As the population of Rosia Montana drops to 400, the locals try to bring back the town to life. Meeting the campaigners of Salvai Rosia Montana, we learnt the various livelihoods of the region and realised that mining is not the only mean of survival. Eugene the farmer, the forerunner of protest, invited artist to install sculptures on his farmland (Figure 77), gaining a protection for the land which was the site for the fourth pit of the RMGC project. Now people engage in domestic farming and some rear sheep, cows, horses. They produce their own milk and selling them domestically. The forests here provide logging to used for wood-fire to heat up every house in this region. (Figure 76) Most of the land are pastures and hay land, which they sell the hay to near cities.

63 | Demise of a Town

Figure 72 Cattle Farming Photo by Y.Cheng


Figure 73 Horses Photo by H.Lin

Figure 74 Backyard Poultry Farming Photo by S.Save

Figure 75 Haystack

Figure 76 Logging Photo by H.Lin

Figure 77 Sculptures in Eugene’s Farmland Photo by S.Save

Figure 78 Mining Gallery Photo by H.Lin

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REVIVE THE HOME Figure 79 Annual Summer Festival

Every year, a summer festival, Fan Fest (Hay Fest), and mountain marathon attracts a wave of crowd to this place and locals open their yards for the visitors to camp. Father Palfi of the Unitarian church holds the Sunday mass without fail and most days alone. Young resident, Adi, encourages tourism by letting his home for people who visit. Along with Calin they plan treks and cycling routes for tourists. This makes Rosia Montana feel like home. Recently he received permission to pass receipts to his guest who stay at his house (Figure 82), but yet awaits a day when he can legally run a accommodation facility.

65 | Demise of a Town


Tica, 23 year old boy moved to Rosia Montana and now runs the Made in Rosia Montana company that sells woollen handmade products but cannot set up his head-quarter in the region.(Figure 81) The mono occupation clause on the town has made the attempts of the locals to fail.

Figure 80 Discover Rosia Montata Figure 81 Made in Rosia Montana Figure 82 Receipts

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Rosia Montana Needs the Mine

Figure 84 Dead Town Photo by S.Save

67 | Broad Strategy


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CHAPTER 8 GHOST TOWN OR FLOODED TOWN The dilapidated homes and empty churches manifest a ghost town. Despite the tremendous efforts by the local to revive the town, it continues to fade. No matter how many festival and marathons are held, no matter how beautiful the mountains remain, there is not income for the town. It cannot depend on tourism to sustain. The young population will soon leave to find jobs in big cities. Without the youth the town grows old and decays. All the culture and Heritage continues to deteriorate. To regains its richness the town needs an occupation. Everyone cannot keep living on pension. This makes us think that should reopening the mine be reconsidered?

69 | Broad Strategy

Figure 83 Empty Church Photo by H.Lin


“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs but not every man’s greed.” -Mahatma Gandhi

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71 | Broad Strategy


Predicted dam failure The site visit opened our eyes to the real issues at Rosia Montana. The population has dropped from 1000 to 400 in only couple of years. The company’s dirty tricks to make the people leave their homes was the reason for the anger and rage of the locals. Of course the use of cyanide was no way acceptable but the harsh reality has to be face. The process of gold extraction is a dirty business and won’t change. But with improving technologies, better and much cleaner systems can be adapted. Hence we now wonder, if the company is let to mine, what would be the consequences of their project on the surrounding. According to the project plan, a huge TMF is proposed in the valley of Crona and Bunta. The dam that will hold these tailing back will be 185 meters high. This takes us back to the timeline where we realised the frequency of dam collapses is increasing since 1990’s. The figure below

explain pour study of the predicted dam failure and its effects on the town in Abrud. If ever the dam collapse the town of Abrud would be flooded with toxic waste. This incident must have come in the minds of the company as well. Therefore, before the starting of the project, the region of Abrud was marked out as a flood risk zone. The locals believe this was a political move of the RMGC to make sure they won’t be blamed in case of dam failure in the future.

Figure 85 Geamana, The Flooded Town Photo by H.Lin Figure 86 Predicted Tailing Dam Collapse H.Lin, S.Save

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Alternative Tailing Management For years there has been mining work in the Cetate pit, but the size of the tailing ponds as observed were concise. Since the ore processing was a spread out through Romania and various processes took place at various places, the tailings produced were stored at different places and in small amounts. This reduces the risk of catastrophic dam failures like in Baia Mare. The following drawings compare impoundments tailing from Rosia Montana to the valley fill tailing lake at Geamana at various stages of filling. If we do propose for the mining activity to open as proposed by the RMGC, we must rethink their tailing management. An alternative strategy would be to divide the tailing management and segregate the processes. Smaller tailing ponds mean multiple impoundments. This means the depth of each impoundments would not be much and hence the tailings will dry faster. These small ponds can be scattered in the valley. The can be placed in void spaces. This would mean there won’t be a need to relocate hundreds of household. We studied various current tailing storage techniques and realised with the current technique, multiple tailing ponds are filling up at once, so the land can only be reclaimed after the process finish completely. Therefore we did a several tests on the flowing the tailing with the help of simulation software Ceaser to try different intervention with this filling process.

Figure 87 Tailing Ponds Study S.Save Figure 88 Flow of Tailing Study H.Lin

73 | Broad Strategy


CHAPTER 9 CO-MINING LANDSCAPE Tailing impoundments of any scale are bound to affect the landscape, but if the change of landscape is beneficial to the locals, the mining activity will prove to be bliss rather than a curse. Furthermore if this land generated helps the locals to generate more occupational opportunities while the gold extraction is the process, the company and people can come to terms and co-exist without relocation and dirty political tricks. Hence the broad strategy of this project is to generate landscapes to promote new economic development and reduce the risk of dam failure would result in a peaceful solution.

75 | Co-Mining Landscape

Figure 89 Co-Mining Landscape


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77 | Co-Mining Landscape


MINERS

Zenu Cornea Ex-Miner

Roman Gallery Guide Ex-Miner

EMERGING ECONOMIES

FARMERS WOOD CUTTER Misses Cornea’s Ex-Miner’s wife

Misses Eugen David Farmer’s wife

A cascade of impoundments can be arranged along the valley of slope. Each level can be responsible for a particular type of processing of ore. Thus , different levels will have different pollutant contents. Some tailings can be reused for growing crops or making building material. If a certain pond is reclaimed to grown crops, the impoundments can be of a nature that could blend with the nature over time. Hence the building type of each impound can be different, permanent, temporary or even semi-permeable. The flat land created from the impoundments will provide opportunity for economic activities in this hilly region. In order to realise which new economies could be introduce to Rosia Montana region by using the tailings, we firstly try not to interrupt with the existing industries so we make sure we don’t take over farmer’s land and their pasture land or the existing forestry for the wood industry in this area.

SERVICE

Arpad Palfi Pap of Unitarian Church

Sorin Jurca Ex-Geologist

Adrian Petri Casa Petri

Calin Capros Protester

Tica Darie Young spirit

Larisa Cherechianu New resident

The industries that the Romanian government is looking at venturing into in the near future were also studied and were shown with the icons on the left part of the diagram. For those ones that could be introduced in this region were selected.

GUIDE

Figure 90 Emerging Economies H.Lin, S.Save

NEW RESIDENTS

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81 | Co-Mining Landscape


REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY In order to allot new landuses for each tailing ponds, several criteria had been considered. For instance, whether the impoundments is facing an ideal aspect for crops to grow, and whether it is linked to an existing forest. The drawing below shows a potential area for each type of land from GIS analysis with considering physical constraints and social conditions on site. The darker the area shows the better location for each type of lands. A study model showing the whole valley was also used to study the changes in sections with showing different landuse. The white thread represents pastures, green thread is showing the location of existing forests, and the yellow thread is showing the potential area for farmlands.

Potential Area for Agriculture Land

Figure 95 Regional Study Model Figure 96 Regional Development Strategy H.Lin

Exsisting Forest Land

Potential Area for Pasture Land

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Figure 97 Sectional Landuse Classification H.Lin, S.Save

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Figure 98 Drainage Study Model Figure 99 Road Organisation and Order S.Save

ROAD ORGANISATION AND ORDER The challenges of the proposal would be the multiple pipeline that would run all over the valley. To tackle this issue we can work with the natural run off in the valley by studying various basins. The impoundments could be place at the end of each basin. The roads ways also form another major constraint in deciding the location of the impoundments. They are generated keeping in mind the network to the towns in the region and the slope of the topography. They classified by the staggered alignment of the dams. As the impoundments are generative, the roadways have to be structured before placing the dams.

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TECHNICAL REPORTS IMPOUNDMENT FAILURE, CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE AND ROAD ORGANISATION

Landscape-Urbanism 2015/2016

In any large scale construction projects, roads are the lifelines. For any development, big or small the roadways act as an integral support . The following report ties together the study of dam collapses and road networks that will help generate grounds for the building of new age tailing impoundments. With developing an understanding of the construction of the dams and the subsequent failures of the dams we aim to critically analyse the techniques used and the causes of failure. With this knowledge we hope to acquire a solution for storing the tailings efficiently and with minimum risk.

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Figure 01 Tailing impoundments at Geamana


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Figure 04 Two Tailing basins at Stava-Valley

For the storage of the waste generated from this mine, a dam was constructed on a nearby slope forming a basin. Initially the dam was planned to be built at the height of 9m, but eventually in 1969 it reached a height of 25m. The dam was constructed by separating the gravel and sand from water and mud. This type of construction was a cheap method but was adequate only for a small basin. The first basin which now was situated 150m above the valley, close to inhabited area. The closest house sat just 800m away from the dam. In that era, technology was inadequate and tailing were not treated before storing. This itself was not safe for the people living in the vicinity. But the weak construction of the dams amplified the risk of the inhabitants. To add to the already weak dam and the close vicinity of a village, a second dam was constructed on top of the basin of the first dam.

Avisio River

Figure 02 Areal view of Stava-Valley before collapse of dams

REPORT 1: DAM FAILURE Collapse in val di Stava Location:

Stava Valley, Trento Province, Italy Date:

19th July, 1985 Deaths:

268

Cause:

Dam collapse 91 | Co-Mining Landscape

Avisio River

Figure 03 Areal view of Stava-Valley after collapse of dams

Mining activity in Stava valley has been carried on since the 16ht century. At that time major mining activity was related to extracting silver-bearing minerals. But In the 20th century, the interest of the mine shifted from silver to fluorite due to the growing chemical industry. As the mining works expanded, new mines were opened in the region of Stava and the most important of them all was situated at the foot of the mountain of Prestavel that looked over the entire Satva-Valley.

The local administration of Tesero demanded a safety and stability of the two basins and so in 1975, the mining company submitted reports that ensured the safety of the construction of these dams. The report stated the dams was “extraordinary” and the stability of the construction “at the limits”. In the years 1978 to 1982 the two basins were not used. In all these years the dams and basins were never again controlled, not by the mining company, neither by the public administration responsible for mining activities in the Province of Trento. But soon the inevitable disaster occurred in 1985 at 12.22.55. The upper dam collapsed first, slumping in the substent and triggering the collapse of the lower dam. Releasing 180.000 cubic metres of mud, sand and water into the Stava-Valley and toward the village of Stava at a speed of 90 km/h. Within. 50 seconds the wave reached the village killing 268 people and destroying 62 buildings and 8 bridges and within 3 minutes it reached the Avisio River which was 4.2 km away - engulfing and destroying everything in its path


Figure 05 Avisio River

Figure 06 Angle of gradient for various material

Figure07 Schematic reconstruction and cross-section of the two basins of the mine of Prestavel

The legal investigation into the disaster confirmed that the dams were poorly maintained and the factor of safety, a value calculated considering the angle of repose of sediments and the slope angle, was too small. The schematic angle of repose of various materials depends of the grain size and water content of the sediments. Considering the material used to build the dams that is sand with lots of silt and clay, saturated with water, the chosen value of 39° was extraordinarily high. Lower value of gradient would

Figure 08 Remains of two basins after collapse

have proved to be much safer. Also if the basins were initially to be planned to stack one above the other then the construction of the dam should have been planned accordingly. Hence the material of the dam construction and its techniques play a major role in the safety of the storage of tailings.

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Figure 09 Types of dam constructions Altered by H.Lin

REPORT 2: CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE AND ROAD ORGANISATION Dam construction plays an important role in the safety and security of the tailing impoundments. As the technique of storing impoundments in dams and creating basins is relative a young procedure of waste storage, it is still not fully mastered. Hence there will always be a risk of the unknow fundamentals of its working. In search of the an efficient method of storing the waste generated from mine, we studies the various construction types for tailing impoundments. The three basic constructing type of impoundments are up-stream dam construction, down-stream dam construction and the centre-line dam construction.

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The various type of dams behave differently on different topography. In the diagram above we can see the three types of dams, first on a flat surface and then on a sloped surface. The difference in ground level topography changes the volume the dam can hold back. Also the pressure generated by the waste on the dam changes with slope of the topography. Hence it is very important that one studies the natural slope of the ground and maintain the correct angle of gradient. From the study of dam failures we have realised that dam failures can be avoided if the correct method of construction is followed. Also it important to study the material used for dam construction. All three types of dams has its pros and cons.

Tailings often contain water and this water is the source of carrying the waste from the processing plant to the tailing management facility. The water from the tailings, if leaked into the dam construction, may weakness the dam and causes its collapse. Also the stage at which the second dam is built over the first is crucial. The water must be dried out completely before the next level of dam can be constructed which may add to the risk of dam failure.


Figure 10 Tailing Dam Risks

Figure 11 Fundao Dam

Figure 12 Waihi Gold Mine

For the construction of any kind dam, haul road are required. Haul roads are use for the transport of raw materials during the process of building the impoundments. Every aspect of highway engineering, including minimum slope inclines, properly banked curves, and adequate drainage, must be followed to facilitate construction of safe and efficient mine roads for fast and economical transportation of the mined product to its destination. Different dam staging construction type will provide different type of roadways. With the downstream and central line method, the roadway generated will be replaced every time when staging a new dam. Generally during the construction of centre-line and up-hill dam construction, the dam top surface is exposed at each stage. The top of the dam are usually used for temporary pathway for vehicles, but once the mining process is finished, the roadway will not be used anymore.

Figure 13 Revista MinĂŠrios

These road must follow certain parameters related to the size and use of the vehicle that would be running on it. The construction of these roads in a general scenario is mostly temporary, but through our project we intend to use these roads for a much wider purpose. The roads that would be formed in the construction of dam will surely be use for the construction itself. After the dams are built and the impoundments are filled and dried out, we intend to use the flat surfaces for different land uses like commercial farming, tourism and logging. For these uses, roadways will prove to be a lifeline for transport of goods. By ensuring good connectivity we can ensure the efficiency of the land and make sure the proposal will hold ground.

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Figure 13 Old tarina at Bunta Valley Romania

Hence combining our knowledge of dam failures and construction of dams, we can ensure to build safe impoundments with minimum risk of collapse. Along with this the construction of dams and use of the top surface as road we can generated roads ways that link each impoundment to one another and also to the facilities that will emerge on this land.

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Bibliography :

Figures list:

1. Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [online] Scientific American Blog Network. ] Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 13 Aug. 2016].

Figure 01 Tailing impoundment at Geamana Photo by H.Lin

2. Sites.google.com. (2016). Haul Road Design Guidelines - MiningInfo. [online] Available at: https://sites.google. com/site/mininginfosite/miner-s-toolbox/materialshandling/truck-haulage/haul-road-design-guidelines [Accessed 11 Aug. 2016]. 3. Luino, F., Tosatti, G. and Bonaria, V. (2014). Dam Failures in the 20th Century: Nearly 1,000 Avoidable Victims in Italy Alone. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 3 (2014) 19-31.

Figure 02 Areal view of Stava-Valley before collapse of dams Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [image] Scientific American Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2016]. Figure 03 Areal view of Stava-Valley after collapse of dams Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [image] Scientific American Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2016].

Figure 08 Remains of two basins after collapse Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [image] Scientific American Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2016]. Figure 09 Types fo dam constructions Altered by H.Lin Figure 10 Tailing Dam Risks Kiernan, P. (2016). Mining Dams Grow to Colossal Heights, and So Do the Risks. [image] WSJ. Available at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/brazils-samarco-disastermining-dams-grow-to-colossal-heights-and-so-do-therisks-1459782411 [Accessed 21 Aug. 2016].

Figure 04 Two Tailing basins at Stava-Valley Tailings.info. (2002). Tailings.info ▪ Stava tailings dam failure. [image] Available at: http://www.tailings.info/ casestudies/stava.htm [Accessed 16 Apr. 2016].

Figure 11 Fundao Dam The history of the Fundao Dam near Bento Rodriguez. (2015). [image] The Landslide Blog. Available at: http:// blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2015/11/10/fundao-dam/ [Accessed 13 Aug. 2016].

Figure 05 Avisio River Luino, F., Tosatti, G. and Bonaria, V. (2014). Dam Failures in the 20th Century: Nearly 1,000 Avoidable Victims in Italy Alone. [image] Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 3 (2014) 19-31.

Figure 12 Waihi gold mine Wilson, K. (2016). Lift-by-lift TSF reclamation at the Waihi gold mine in New Zealand.. [image] Available at: http://www.womp-int.com/story/2015vol11/story025.htm [Accessed 21 Aug. 2016].

Figure 06 Angle of gradient for various material Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [image] Scientific American Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2016].

Figure 13 Revista Minérios Jacobi, P. (2013). Revista Minérios. [image] Available at: http://Jacobi [Accessed 21 Aug. 2016]. Figure 14 Old tarina at Bunta Valley Romania Photo by S.Save

Figure07 Schematic reconstruction and cross-section of the two basins of the mine of Prestavel Bressan, D. (2016). July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. [online] Scientific American Blog Network. Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomh istory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stavadam-collapse/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2016].

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Mining Area Surface Road Operating Speed : 45 km/hr Widths : 14.6 m (Single-Lane) 25.6m (Double-Lane) Max Grade : 7% (Surface) 10% (In Pit)

Industrial Access Road Operating Speed : 40 km/hr Width : 7.3 m Max Grade : 6% Standard 2.5%

0%

10%

20%

30%

10% 7% 3% 0%

10% 7% 3% 0%

20%

20%

10% 7% 3% 0%

10% 7% 3% 0%

30% 25% 20%

30% 25% 20%

10% 7% 3% 0%

10% 7% 3% 0%

Figure 100 Road Organization and Order

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Urban Street Operating Speed : 30-60 km/hr Widths : 3.6 m Max Grade : 6%

10% 7% 3% 0%

Hiking and Mountain Biking Trail Widths : 2.5 m - 7.62 m Max Grade : 8%

10% 7% 3% 0%

20% 20% 10% 7% 3% 0%

10% 7% 3% 0%

30% 25% 20%

30% 25% 20%

10% 7% 3% 0%

10% 7% 3% 0%

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CHAPTER 10 IMPOUNDMENT FABRICATION The design of the impoundments respond to the physical constraints such as topography and the natural drainage on site, and the social formation. This brings a different ways of mining waste treatment gradually fabricate a co-mining landscape, which will also affect the near towns. In this chapter, techniques and considered for the fabrication of the landscape and the guideline of intervention are discussed. With a particular detailed area of the valley was selected to apply all the techniques.

99 | Impoundment Fabrication


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Accumulation (Location)

Slope (Area & Depth) Accumulation (Location)

Landuse (Use of Tailing & Size)

Slope (Area & Depth)

Accumulation (Location)

Forest

Farmland

Village

Pastures

Slope (Area & Depth) Infrastructure (Use of Tailing & Size)

Landuse (Use of Tailing & Size)

Logging

Forest

Pastures

Railway

Farmland

Farmland

Road

Figure 101 Impoundment Fabrication Study Model

Village

Figure 102 Methodology Diagram H.Lin Pastures

Landuse (Use of Tailing & Size)

Activities & Turism Infrastructure (Use of Tailing & Size)

Forest

Farmland

101 | Impoundment Fabrication Village

Logging

Pastures

Farmland

Hiking Track/ Marathon/ Cycling

Railway Road


Slope (Area & Depth)

Landuse (Use of Tailing & Size)

Forest

Farmland

Village

Pastures

Landuse (Use of Tailing & Size)

Infrastructure (Use of Tailing & Size)

Logging Forest

Pastures

Farmland

Railway Road

Farmland

Village

Pastures

Activities & Turism

Infrastructure (Use of Tailing & Size)

Hiking Track/ Marathon/ Cycling

Logging

Pastures

Farmland

Railway Road

METHODOLOGY The size and shape of the tailing impoundments will be structured with relation to amount of tailing, the slope, the land use, the infrastructure, and the local activities. The location of the impoundments must be sensitively approached to make sure the social life is not affected. So one detailed area marked in Figure 103 was selected as the study site to fine-tune the techniques of intervention.

Activities & Turism Hiking Track/ Marathon/ Cycling

Figure 103 Site Iteration H.Lin

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SLOPE OF TOPOGRAPHY As the tailing impoundments will gradually merge with the landscape after filling process, slope of the topography is one guiding factor, we created a system with the help of the study models shown on above and the following page. The dam is a fixed structure, of 10m height. The ratio between the amount of waste rock and tailing are around 3:2, so the huge amount of waste rock will be used as construction material for the dams. The drawing on the right is the grid that we started, it then developed into cells. The cells are grouped as per the slope gradient. Area with slope over 30% is ruled out as the tailing held in the impoundments would be too less in volume and will be considered as non profitable to construct. The steeper the slope will require stacking of multiple dams to increase the surface area created for local activities.

Figure 103 Dam Construction Study Model Figure 104 Slope Catalogue H.Lin, S.Save

103 | Impoundment Fabrication


+10

m

0m

10m : 25m 40% +30 +20 +20 +10 +10

30m : 100m 30%

20m : 50m 40%

Figure 105 Impoundment Fabrication H.Lin

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The study model shows the topography of the selected detailed area. A grid of dots was generated and placed with equal spacing on the surface, when the slope exceeds 40%, the dots will be eliminated and hence will not be seen once we placed the nails. The grey thread creates a new grid showing the gradient of slope on the right. The steeper the slope, the higher the dams will be required to hold a certain amount of tailing and to create a reasonable size for the surface area. This is showing in the area with larger grid. The smaller cells mean that there is more possibilities of shaping the impoundments in the flatter area.

105 | Impoundment Fabrication


Figure 106 Slope Constraint Model

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BIO LAKE 12 ha

BIO LAKE 7.5 ha

PASTURE 4.5 ha

BIO LAKE 11 ha

PASTURE 3.5 ha

WOODLAND 2.5 ha

WOODLAND 3.5 ha

FARMLAND 2.8 ha WOODLAND 2.8 ha PASTURE 1 ha

PASTURE 3 ha PASTURE 2.3 ha

WOODLAND 4.4 ha

FARMLAND 2.3 ha WOODLAND 1.6 ha

FARMLAND 3.1 ha FARMLAND 1.6 ha

FARMLAND 1.9 ha FARMLAND 1 ha WOODLAND 3 ha

FARMLAND 6.1 ha FARMLAND 2.2 ha

FARMLAND 2.8 ha FARMLAND 0.5 ha

WOODLAND 5 ha

WOODLAND 5 ha

FARMLAND 5 ha

FARMLAND 6 ha

FARMLAND 3.3 ha

LANDUSE ALLOCATION

Figure 107 Landsize Requirement Catalogue H.Lin Figure 108 Landuse Allocation H.Lin

Since the impoundments will provide flat lands for activities, the cells have to grouped to meet with the minimum size of land requirements. We provided farmland impoundments in associate with the pasture ones because most of the local farmers owns their cattle. The larger commercial woodland impoundments with are placed near the main traffic so the loggings can be sent to near town for wood processing, whereas the smaller woodland impoundments will be near the villages to provide material for wood fire.

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109 | Impoundment Fabrication


Figure 109 Landsize Requirement Model Figure 110 Impoundment Location

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Algae Lake

Pasture Land

Pasture Land (Slope)

Farmland

Woodland

Figure 114 Zonal Cartogenesis H.Lin

ZONAL CARTOGENESIS Using the waste from the gold mine, we aim to generate land that would be as valuable as a gold. This drawing represents the various stages at which the dams will be built over the run of the mine. The colours of the dam shows 3 construction stages. As we can see the roads flow over the dams and connect the ridge to the main road passing through the villages in the valley. By the time the miner have extracted every bit of gold from the mountains, the new landscape will be ready and different economies will flourish.

113 | Impoundment Fabrication


115 | Impoundment Fabrication


Figure 115 Change in Landscape Model

A part of the zonal cartogenesis was selected to make 2 pieces of CNC model on the left. This is to further used for the vacuum forming to compare the landscape before and after intervention. We can see from the model on above shows the section of changes and the volume of tailing each impoundment can hold.

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EPILOGUE Landscape Urbanism explores the emergence of ‘territory’ as a field in design praxis. It not only understand the urban environment as an independent collection of object but rather looks into the landscape as an interconnected series that have implication both on local and global scales. Within this one year we hope to have developed an understanding of the territory and its relation with the living. Through our project ‘FOREVER AUR’ we have put forward a new approach towards negotiating with waste materials that are inevitable in the process of gold mining. The idea of foreverness has been redefined from a mere sense of feeling to a much stronger sense of being. What remains on the earth forever is a notion that is often neglected and the material representation of the same is valued.

has known. With a study of economics and the social formation of a small town on the brink of retirement, we compiled an alternative to generate a landscape that would aid the survival of the town. With the application of various tools we developed a series of cartographies that support our research. With use of parameters we defined new ways of tailing management. And lastly with a study of economics both at small and large scale we developed a new co-mining landscape. We further hope to put forward a radical research and design proposal in relation to political strategies that will support the new landscape and challenge the idea of Forever value future with a reference to obsession of AUR.

Through a series of documentation practises we have gained better knowledge of the landscapes consequences that are left behind. Visiting the places where were self experienced the turmoil bought by the activity of retrieving what is nothing more than a chemical element that has been praised and valued since time

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WORK CITED Roy, S., Gupta, P. and A Renaldy, T. (2012). Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields, India. Resources and Environment, 2(1), pp.67-79. 300 Tons of Gold. (2013). [film] Romania: Tibor Kocsis. Roșia Montană, Town on the brink. (2013). [film] Romania: Fabian Daub. Stephenson, N. (1999). Cryptonomicon. New York: Avon Press. Clark, J. (2012). Profiting from Europe’s new Gold Rush. [online] Casey Research. Available at: https://www. caseyresearch.com/articles/profiting-europes-newgold-rush [Accessed 9 Feb. 2016]. Hernan, C. (2016). Hernan Cortes Quotes. [online] BrainyQuote. Available at: http://www.brainyquote. com/quotes/quotes/h/hernancort211093.html, [Accessed 14 Ari. 2016]. Kubach, Charles. “Basics Of An Open Pit Mine”. Mine-engineer.com. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2016. Pyarelal.,. Mahatma Gandhi. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Pub. House, 1956. Print. Engels, Jon. “Tailings Handling And Storage Techniques”. Tailings Info. Web. 15 Apr. 2016. “INAP: The International Network For Acid Prevention”. INAP. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Apr. 2016. “A Project For Romaia”. Gabriel Resources. N.p., 2016. Web. 5 Mar. 2016. Dunlop, Tessa. “Rosia Montana And Romania’s Decade-Long ‘Gold War’”. BBC 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.


APPENDIX CARTOGRAPHIES

FIGURE LIST

ATLAS - Balkan Gold Atlas Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save

Figure 01 - Gold with Sphalerite, Quartz Weinrich Minerals, (n.d.). Gold with Sphalerite, Quartz. [image] Available at: http://www.minfind. com/mineral-176344.html [Accessed 16 Apr. 2016].

SOCIAL FORMATION - Employment Flow Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save GEOMORPHOLOGY - Ore Movement Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save SOCIAL FORMATION - Relocation Plan Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save CARTOGENESIS - Regrional Base Drawing by H.Lin Information and labelling by S.Save CAROTOGENESIS - Zonal Drawing by H.Lin

Figure 02 - World’s Gold Statistics Diagram Drawing by S. Save Figure 03 - World’s Gold Drawing by S.Save Figure 04 - Europe’s Gold Drawing by H. Lin Figue 05 - Mine Site SANDFIRE RESOURCES NL, (n.d.). SFR Minesite. [image] Available at: http://www.sandfire.com.au/ operations/degrussa/solar-power-project.html [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. Figure 06 - Under-Ground Mine U.S.-Mexico Business Council, (n.d.). Minas. [image] Available at: http://www.usmexico.org/mining/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2016]. Figure 07 - Surface Mine Hoek, E. (n.d.). Practical Rock Engineering. [image] Available at: https://www.rocscience.com/documents/hoek/corner/Practical-Rock-Engineering-Full-Text.pdf [Accessed 14 Apr. 2016]. Figure 08 - Ore Processing Drawing by H. Lin Figure 09-11 - Stage 1 to Stage 3 Drawing by H. Lin Figure 12 - Journey of Ore Drawing by S. Save Figure 13 - Exploding Site for Open-Pit Mining Daily Herald,. Miners Use Explosives To Blast A Section Of The Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi Coal Mine In Tavan Tolgoi, Southern Mongolia. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2016. Figure 14 - Mine Benches Daily Mail,. The Largest North American Landslide EVER That Dropped 165 MILLION Tons More Than Half A Mile Down At Copper Mine In Utah. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2016. Figure 15 - Mining Waste, Tailing Photo by S. Save Figure 16 - Gold Bullions Reuters,. Smelting. 2015. Web. 16 Apr. 2016. Figure 17 - Tailing Pond Helbig, L. (2015). Three standpipes. [image] Available at: http://www.louishelbig.com/louishelbig.html [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016]. Figure 18 - Type of TMF Drawing by S. Save Figure 19 - Management Method of Tailings modified by S. Save Figure 20 - Impoundment Tailings Todorov, J. (2015). Potash, Utah. [image] Available at: http://www.jassentodorov.com/photography.html [Accessed 16 Mar. 2016]. Figure 21 - Dry Stack Tailings Christoff, S. (2010). Oil Sands Tailings Ponds. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/stefanchristoff/16106690025 [Accessed 15 Mar. 2016].


Figure 22 - Valley Fill Tailings UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, (n.d.). Tailing Dam. [image] Available at: http://arlweb.msha.gov/DamSafety/DamSafetyTechGuidance.asp [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].

Figure 38 - 1998, Los Frailes Dam Collapse The Ajkai Timfoldgyar tailings dam disaster. (2010). [image] Available at: http://www.landslideblog.org/2010/10/ajkai-timfoldgyar-mine-disaster-lessons.html [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016].

Figure 23 - Thickened Tailings End Ecocide on Earth, (2014). Ecocide in Finland – Talvivaara Mine. [image] Available at: https://www. endecocide.org/examples/ [Accessed 24 Apr. 2016].

Figure 39 - 2010, Ajka Aluminium Dam Collapse Benedikovic, T. (2010). Ajka Aluminium Dam Collapse. [image] Available at: http://www.theguardian. com/environment/2014/jan/08/devecser-hungary-eco-town [Accessed 18 Mar. 2016].

Figure 24 - Paste Tailings MacLean, A. (2014). Earthen wall to tailing pond. Suncor mining site, Alberta, Canada. [image] Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/photosnew-aerial-pictures-alberta-tar-sands-mines-showscope-eerie-destruction/ [Accessed 16 Apr. 2016]. Figure 25 - Deposition Tailings MacLean, A. (2014). Alberta Tar Sands. [image] Available at: http://www.alexmaclean.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2016]. Figure 26 - Eurostat 2012 Ec.europa.eu. (n.d.). Home - Eurostat. [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat [Accessed 6 Feb. 2016]. modified by H.Lin Figure 27 - Mining Waste Reuse Drawing by H.Lin Figure 28 - Dam Construction and Stages Drawing by S.Save Figure 29 - Reclamation of Tailing Pond Google Earth 7.1. 2011-2013. Rosia Montana, 46°18’8.75”N, 23° 4’27.80”E. [Accessed 11 Mar. 2016]. Available from: http://code.google.com/apis/earth/ Figure 30 - Tailing Drying Stages Drawing by S.Save Figure 30 - Tailing Drying Stages modified by S.Save Figure 31 - Gold ring-Forever Mine? Drawing by H.Lin Figure 32 - Waste from one Gold Ring Drawing by H.Lin Figure 33 - World’s Gold Drawing by H.Lin Figure 34 - World’s Tailings in the Black Sea Drawing by H.Lin Figure 35 - Samarco’s Germano Tailing Basin THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, (2016). Samarco’s Germano Tailings Basin. [image] Available at: http:// www.wsj.com/articles/brazils-samarco-disastermining-dams-grow-to-colossal-heights-and-so-dothe-risks-1459782411 [Accessed 11 Sep. 2016]. Figure 36 - Tailing Dam Failure Timeline Drawing by S. Save Figure 37 - 1985, The Val di Stava Dam Collapse July 19, 1985: The Val di Stava dam collapse. (n.d.). [image] Available at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/history-of-geology/httpblogsscientificamericancomhistory-of-geology20110719july-19-1985-the-val-di-stava-dam-collapse/ [Accessed 18 Apr. 2016].

Figure 40-41 - 2000, Baia Mare Spill Délmagyarország/Karnok Csaba, (2000). Tisza cyanide spill in 2000. [image] Available at: http://www. delmagyar.hu/szeged_hirek/azonnal_olt_a_cian_a_ tiszaban/2415983/ [Accessed 10 Mar. 2016]. Figure 42 - Case Study - Chelopech, Bulgaria Drawing by H.Lin, S. Save Figure 43 - Case Study - Krumovgrad, Bulgaria Drawing by H.Lin, S. Save Figure 44 - Case Study - Skouries, Greece Drawing by H.Lin, S. Save Figure 45 - Case Study - Rosia Montana, Romania Drawing by H.Lin, S. Save Figure 46 - Sitting in an Old Gallery Photo by Y. Cheng Figure 47 - Abandoned Cetate Mine Photo by H.Lin Figure 40 - Extracting Ore from Coşarcă Photo from Roman Gallery Figure 47 - Abandoned Cetate Mine Photo by H.Lin Figure 48 - Rosia Montana Miners Photo from Roman Gallery Figure 49 - History Timeline of Rosia Montana by S.Save Figure 50 - Cetate Mine Site Photo by S.Save Figure 51 - Project Plan by H.Lin Figure 52 - RMGC Master Plan Drawing Altered by H. Lin Figure 53 - Reclamation Plan Travel Guide Romania, (n.d.). Mining project at Rosia Montana. [image] Available at: http://travelguideromania.com/rosia-montana-cultural-natural-heritage/ [Accessed 12 Mar. 2016]. Figure 54 - Geamana Village Photo by H. Lin Figure 55 - Geamana Old Church Photo by S. Save Figure 56 - Rosia Poieni Open Pit Photo by H. Lin Figure 57 - Old Town Geamana Geamana – The Village Flooded By A Toxic Lake. Web. 5 Mar. 2016.

Figure 58 - Geamana Residents Vogt, David. Moving Mountains, Forsaking People. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. Figure 59 - Mining Waste Photo by S. Save Figure 60 - Cetate Open Pit Photo by H. Lin Figure 61 - Rosia Montana Valley Photo from Roman Gallery Figure 62 - Rosia Montana Miners Photo from Roman Gallery Figure 63 - International Conflict Map Drawing by S. SAVE Figure 64 - Proposed Tailing Disposal site Photo by H.Lin Figure 65 - Local Conflicts 300 Tons of Gold. (2013). [film] Romania: Tibor Kocsis. Figure 66 - Church in Corna Valley Photo by H. Lin Figure 67 - Rosia Montana Banners Photo by H. Lin Figure 68 - Save Rosia Montana Logo Save Rosia Montata,. 2016. Web. 16 Apr. 2016. Figure 69 - Rosia Montana Cave Photo by Y. Cheng Figure 70 - Site Visit Plan Drawing by H. Lin Figure 71 - Rosia Poieni Open Pit Photo by Y. Cheng Figure 72 - Cattle Farming Photo by Y.Cheng Figure 73 - Horses Photo by H.Lin Figure 74 - Backyard Poultry Farming Photo by S.Save Figure 75 - Haystack Dimancescu, D. (n.d.). The art of making a haystack - Bran, Romania. [image] Available at: http://www. gobtf.com/innonbalaban/Info/Haystack/HayStacking.html [Accessed 15 Mar. 2016]. Figure 76 - Logging Photo by H.Lin Figure 77 - Sculptures in Eugene’s Farmland Photo by S.Save Figure 78 - Mining Gallery Photo by H.Lin Figure 79 - Annual Summer Festival We are Fan Fest: A revolutionary festival made in Rosia Montana. (2014). [video] Romania: Salvati Rosia Montana. Figure 80 - Discover Rosia Montata


Figure 81 - Made in Rosia Montana Figure 82 - Receipts Figue 83 - Empty Church Photo by H.Lin Figue 84 - Dead Town Photo by S.Save Figure 85 - Geamana, The Flooded Town Photo by H.Lin Figure 86 - Predicted Tailing Dam Collapse Drawing by H. Lin Figure 87 - Tailing Ponds Study Drawing by S. Save Figure 88 - Flow of Tailing Study Drawing by H.Lin, S.Save Figure 89 - Co-Mining Landscape Drawing by H.Lin Figure 90 - Emerging Economies Drawing by H.Lin, S.Save Figure 91 - Filteration Process Drawing by H.Lin Figure 92 - Economies Drawing by H.Lin Figure 93 - Impoundments and Slope Drawing by S.Save Figure 94 - Transforming Landscape Drawing by H.Lin Figure 95 - Regional Study Model Model by H.Lin Figure 96 - Regional Development Strategy Drawing by H.Lin Figure 97 - Sectional Landuse Classification Drawing by H.Lin, S.Save Figure 98 - Drainage Study Model Model by S.Save Figure 99 - Road Organisation and Order Drawing by H.Lin Figure 100 - Road Organization and Order Drawing by H.Lin Figure 101 Impoundment Fabrication Study Model Model by H.Lin, S.Save Figure 102 - Methodology Diagram Drawing by H.Lin Figure 103 - Dam Construction Study Model Model by S.Save Figure 104 - Slope Catalogue Drawing by H.Lin Figure 105 - Impoundment Fabrication Drawing by H.Lin Figure 106 - Slope Constraint Model Model by H.Lin, S.Save

Figure 107 - Landsize Requirement Catalogue Drawing by H.Lin Figure 108 - Landuse Allocation Drawing by H.Lin Figure 109 - Landsize Requirement Model Model by H.Lin Figure 110 - Impoundment Location Model by H.Lin Figure 112 - Impoundment Location Map Drawing by H.Lin Figure 113 - The Flow of Tailing Drawing by H.Lin Figure 114 - Zonal Cartogenesis Drawing by H.Lin Figure 115 - Change in Landscape Model Model by H.Lin Figure 116 - Regional Development over time Drawing by H.Lin Figure 117 - Zonal Development over time Drawing by H.Lin Figure 118 - Evolution Timeline Drawing by H.Lin Figure 119 - Generative Landscape Drawing by H.Lin


FOREVER AUR - AA Landscape Urbanism 2015-16  

Forever Aur is an AA Landscape Urbanism project by Hao Wen Lin (MSc) and Shreya Save (MArch) that explores resulting scenarios from alternat...

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