Swansea New Deal

Page 1



CONTENTS

COASTAL COMMUNITY

TIDE AND COAST

SWANSEA, WALES, UK

SWANSEA NEW DEAL

APPENDIX

Prologue

8

6 Maps

12

Uk Tide

22

Swansea Tide

32

Swansea Heyday

60

Swansea of the Day

68

Get the Chances

76

Coastal Engines

90

Hybrid IMTA

98

How to Deploy

124

Land Script

158

Case Study

164

Manufactured Ground

172

Reference List

179

CO-DIRECTOR JOSE ALFREDO RAMIREZ EDUARDO RICO

STUDIO-MASTER CLARA OLORIZ

TUTOR CLAUDIO CAMPANILLE GUSTAVO ROMANILLOS

2018-2019 MSC LANDSCAPE URBANISM Architectural Association School of Architecture London, UK

REFERENCE


ABSTRACT The post-industrial landscape of Swansea Bay sits in one of the highest tidal ranges in the UK. A tidal lagoon project was rejected by the central government there, based on comparing its cost with the neighbouring Hinkley nuclear power station and dashing the regeneration hopes of the local community. This project looks at the lagoon debate and proposes community-based energy production, by re-purposing the existing maritime infrastructure, abandoned after the decline of the cooper industry. The tidal dynamic through the different time scales of this form of energy put into question conventional spatial and temporal understandings in the re-development of the docks. Its small-scale energy production is put forward as a prototype for post-industrial dock infrastructures in the UK and as an alternative for centralized energy management.

by EUNJI LEE x JIANXIN LIANG x MINXIANG HUANG

PROLOGUE 6 MAPS


COASTAL COMMUNITY Our project is interested in the UK coastal community. Our way to understanding those areas was derived from New Economics Foundation(NEF)’s initiatives. which is called as a ‘Blue New Deal’. NEF made some guidelines, how they can make improvements for the coastal communities, mainly putting the focus on tourism, energy, fisheries, aquaculture, climate change, and investment. We have started to look at the UK coastal area, from those points of view, as a starting point of our research. And we’ve tried to look, with the overall, spatial, and critical views, at what is the background of the current situations surrounding the coastal communities. Besides, we have created 6 cartographies to understand the issues what we’ve found so far, and it has helped us to get the spatial and geographical understanding of the UK coastal area. In addition, It has brought a chance to find the hidden and new relationships within the coastal landscape.

Swansea © Mollie Bylett


The Meaning of Coastal Area

Coastal Area and In-land

From ancient times to the present, the coastal area has played a significant role in the development of human civilization, such as exploration of the world, trade business, cultural exchanges and so on.

Due to the economic transformation, many inland cities, such as London, Birmingham, which are mainly relying on the tertiary industry, such as education, finance, services, and other sectors, have experienced the rapid economic development. And it largely exceeded the almost of the British coastal areas.

Birmingham-city-skyline © 2019 VisitBritain Captured by E. LEE American Indian © Edward S. Curtis Captured by E. LEE

London City © Cross-sector Safety & Security Communications Captured by E. LEE

The Viking Age © 2000-2019, Salem Media Captured by E. LEE Duquesne Canoe Club © 2008 - 2019 The Verona Captured by E. LEE

Hardship of Coastal Area Meanwhile, the problem of coastal communities has started to be deteriorated. Social environment, overall education level, population aging, uncertain policies after Brexit, tariffs, quota, coastal flooding and erosion, and their lives are highly relying on the natural condition itself, for production and living.

The Meaning of Coastal Area in the UK In the UK, the coastal area also has provided excellent necessary conditions for human lives such as giving prosperous life through shipping, fishing, etc.

Coastal Aging © CC0 Public Domain Captured by M. HUANG

Sandown Pier © Rex Captured by E. LEE

NEF Guidance for Coastal Area

A Way of Life © Joanne Coates

New Economic Foundation, a British think-tank that aims to help build a “new economy where people are really in control,” has suggested some guidelines for the coastal communities as well.

Captured by E. LEE

10

PROLOGUE

So, we have referenced NEF’s Blue New Deal, Multi-level and comprehensive guidelines to revitalize coastal communities, to make six categorized maps according to their focuses to discover and understand their situation in terms of spatial and geographical aspects in the UK, especially England and Wales.

Turning Back to the Sea © NEF Captured by M. HUANG


Highlands and Islands £10.0m

Rest of Scotland £7.7m

North East £15.2m

North West £8.8m Yorkshire £12.0m

East Midlands £1.9m

East of England £8.6m Wales £6.9m

South East £20.3m South West £24.4m

100 km

Fish Activity Area

Top 30 UK Ports

UK Main Fishing Area Administrated Vessels

12

6 MAPS

Number of Fishing Activity, Vessel, Small Vessel We’ve started to make a series of maps, and first, this cartography is about fisheries that had been mainly done in the coastal communities. And through this map, we could see that there were many vessels registered in South England and Wales, which could be interpreted as a lot of fishing activities and a lot of fishers in this area. And the proportion of small fishing vessels compared to large fishing vessels showed a much higher rate as well in this area.

Compass

100 km

Compass

Key Area

Other Area

CCF Fund

Compass

Key Area

Other Area

CCF Fund

Key Area

Key Area

Other Area

Other Area

Investment for Coastal Community

Number of Fishing Activities, Vessels, Small Vessels Map sources from Digimap, UK Sea Fisheries Statistics 2017 Drawn by M. HUANG

The Coastal Communities Fund (CCF) encourages the economic development of UK coastal communities by giving funding to create sustainable economic growth and jobs. Thus, we’ve expressed this through the cartography, the fund in the UK was mostly higher in South England. However, it was significantly less in East England, and also Wales.

Investment for Coastal Community Map sources from Digimap, NEF, CCF Progress Report 2015, P43 Drawn by J. LIANG

CCF Fund

CCF Fund


100 km

Null Low Medium High

Pre-nester Family Independant Empty Nester

National Park Area

Tourists attractions

6 MAPS 14

Seaweed Farm

Density of Aquaculture

Density of Coastal Tourism Then, we’ve made a map of the coastal tourism. So we could see coastal tourism is highly focused in South England, but the other communities have less. The proportion of tourists visiting South England was over 60 percent, and London was 16 percent. However, all the rest of the regions showed less than 6%.

100 km

Density of Coastal Tourism Map sources from Digimap, The National Coastal Tourism Academy, 2014 GBTS Drawn by M. HUANG

This map is about the aquaculture, especially related to the IMTA system as a new economic viability alternative for the coastal community, to identify the current scale of each business of finfish, shellfish, and seaweed aquaculture. As a result of making this map, we could notice that the seaweed farm was significantly lower in England. Finfish farms are mainly concentrated in Scotland, and shellfish are concentrated in Scotland and South England.

Density of Aquaculture Map sources from Digimap, NEF, European Atlas of the Seas Drawn by J. LIANG

Shellfish Farm

Finfish Farm


Morpeth

Hull Formby Lincolnshire

Great Yarmouth Dunwich Heath Fishguard Ramsey Pembrokeshire

Walla sea

Godrevy

Yarmouth

Medmerry

Swansea Porthcawl

Birling Gap

Bristol

Hayle Plymouth Falmouth

100 km

Flood Warning Area

Flooded Area

Erosion Managed Retreat Erosion Risk Area Different Methology Site

16

6 MAPS

Flooding and Erosion We’ve also created a map of the floods and erosion that have been a significant threat to the British coastal community these days. The floods were mainly flooded around the Severn River, and England inland was easy to drown. In the case of the erosion, the situation has high risks in South West England, and the new measures to be applied by the NEF were distributed mainly in South and East England.

100 km

EPC Rating Percentage

Energy Implement Site

Energy Efficiency (poor condition rating)

Coastal Flooding and Erosion map Map sources from Digimap, NEF, Friedns of the Earth, DEFRA and SEPA Drawn by E. LEE

This map based on the rating of energy efficiency level of UK households in seven levels from A to G. Among the whole grade, this map is focused on only F and G grades, which mean poor energy efficiency of houses. After creating this map, we’ve seen the distribution of low-efficiency F and G grades, with the highest allocation of households in Wales and South West England.

Energy Efficiency Grade map (poor condition rating: F-G) Map sources from Digimap, NEF and Centre for Sustainable Energy Drawn by E. LEE

3.1 - 5.7% 5.8-10.2% 10.3-20.1% 20.2-39.6%


NUMBER OF FISHING ACTIVITY, VESSEL, SMALL VESSEL

DENSITY OF COASTAL TOURISM

DENSITY OF AQUACULTURE

aquaculture

FLOODING / EROSION

ENERGY EFFICIENCY (poor condition rating)

INVESTMENT FOR COASTAL COMMUNITY

Highlands and Islands £10.0m

Rest of Scotland £7.7m

North East £15.2m Morpeth

investment

North West £8.8m

Formby

Hull Lincolnshire

East Midlands £1.9m Great Yarmouth

18

Pembrokeshire

Godrevy

East of England £8.6m

Walla sea

Medmerry Birling Gap Yarmouth

Wales £6.9m

Fishguard Ramsey Swansea Porthcawl Bristol

Hayle Falmouth

Plymouth

South East £20.3m South West £24.4m

COASTAL COMMUNITY

6 MAPS

Dunwich Heath

As a result of the six maps created by referring to the NEF’s six main categories of guideline, we were able to understand the geographical and spatial situation according to each cartography, and we were able to find something in common. When the poor condition areas were selected for all indexes, South Wales was repeated in all aspects, including a lot of small fishing boats, low aquaculture status, low tourist share, high erosion and flood risk, poor energy efficiency and little financial support.

Yorkshire £12.0m


UK TIDE SWANSEA TIDE


TIDE AND COAST During the research about the energy part of the coastal area, we’ve found that the UK has the rich tidal energy which can contribute a third of the total energy generation of 2015, theoretically. Then, we’ve also checked whether the UK is taking account of that advantage properly, but we’ve found that it was the lowest rank as a renewable energy source. However historically, the ancestor used tidal power since the Roman era, so we’ve started to document it through the cartographies and found interesting things about the tide.

Swedish Maritime Administrations © CARL


UK Tidal Energy Firstly, we have wanted to visualize the tidal energy in the UK and understand it spatially. As a result, we’ve produced a UK tidal map. Since Britain is an island country, it has rich tidal energy. And it generally showed stronger tidal power in the western part of England, and Wales. And the most powerful tidal area was the G-zone, was located in the Bristol channel. Besides, It is estimated that about 25% of Europe’s tidal energy resources could reside in Scotland’s coastal areas. Thus, Scotland and the UK generally are seen as world leaders in tidal energy research, but the US and Canada are both investing heavily in the field, rather than the UK do.

Mean Tidal Energy of UK Drawn by M. HUANG / map sources from Digimap, The Atlas of UK Marine Renewables Energy Resources

UK Tide Data by Zoning

24

UK TIDE

Drawn by M. HUANG / data from British Oceanographic Data Centre

HIGH MEDIUM LOW NULL

100km


Historical Tidal Energy While confirming this abundant British tidal energy, we have been able to discover traces of ancient ancestors who have also used tidal power from a thousand years ago. It is a water mill. UK millers were harnessing the power of our tides almost 1,000 years ago. And by the 18th Century, it is estimated that there were 200 operating in the UK, of which 76 were in London.

These original tide mills work much like the concepts of today with the only difference is that they did not generate electricity. The water wheel is replaced with a steel turbine, and rather than turn stones to grind grain, the turbine spins a generator to produce electricity.

Basically, a dam was built to contain the tide when it was high. Once the tide fell, the held water was directed into a conduit where it pushed a wooden water wheel that was then used to turn the machinery of varying sorts (mostly stones for grinding grain). And such a mill can only operate at half tide and then for about four hours. Then the miller must wait eight hours for another half tide and work for a further four hours.

Researched by E. LEE data from Wikipedia, Mills Archive

Water Mill

The Workings of the Tide Mill in Woodbridge, Suffolk © Shell Film Unit

Undershot

Overshot

water flow

wheel rotation

In the subsequent Roman era, the use of water-power was diversified, and different types of water mills were introduced. Water mills can be classified in several ways. One of them is by an essential trait about their location.

wheel rotation

tail race

Types of Water Mill / data from Daniel M. Short

mill race

TIDE MILL

water flow

Pitchback

flume

flume

100km

Tide Mills in the UK

Breastshot

water flow

wheel rotation

tail race

So we have gathered marks of tide mills that used traditional tidal energy through this map. However, because it is an old record, this location map is not complete and has had its limits, mainly focus on England history. However, although this is only a small part, and through this map, we could notice how many tide mills were located in the UK, how many ancestors had used the tidal energy, and how much densely the tide mills were found.

Launder head race

wheel rotation water flow

26

UK TIDE

tail race

Location of Historic Tide Mills / Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by E. LEE map sources from Digimap, Mills Archive

Ship Mill

Tide Mill

Ship mills are water mills which are onboard (and constituting) a ship. And they are built on a floating platform and best matched with a standard undershot mill type.

Tide mills use the movement of the tide, and it can be any mill type such as undershot, overshot or horizontal type.

Shipmill on the Mura, Slovenia © Ziga opgeslagen

tail race

Battlesbridge Mill © John Saville


Carew Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE

Tidal Infrastructure Tidal range affected the landscape along the coastal line, to take advantage of the natural resource. Thus we’ve looked more closely to each tide mill and looked at the location of them, then we’ve found their common feature that it is located on the river estuaries, but it has a reasonable tidal range. Besides, the way to use tidal power in history was that by creating a lagoon wall, they could use the tidal range twice a day. Tidal mills use two types of the land formation to hold the water to produce the tidal energy, one of which is a sluice with a tidal inlet, and the other one is that part of the river estuary is made into a reservoir.

Woodbridge Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE

Location of Historic Tide Mill Drawn by E. LEE / Map source from Google Inc. 100m

Thorrington Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE

Hayling island Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE

St Anthony’s Passage Tide Mill

28

UK TIDE

East Sussex Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE

West Looe Tide Mill © Google Inc. / Captured by E. LEE


Hayling Island

TIDE MILL Tide Mill, Hayling Island Drawn by E. LEE Map source from Google Inc.

100m

Emsworth

Emsworth

Hayling Island ,Hampshire

Chichester Harbour ,West Sussex

Birdham TIDE MILL TIDE MILL Tide Mill, Emsworth

(assume)

Drawn by E. LEE Map source from Google Inc.

Hayling Island

TIDE MILL TIDE MILL (assume)

30

UK TIDE

1km

100m

Tide Mills in One Estuary

Birdham

Another interesting thing we’ve found was that once the tide comes in through the one estuary, it let each community get the power, even though they are 12km far away. One example of this is seen through the Hampshire area in South England. Through this, we could recognize the impacts and power of the tidal landscape and the possibility as well. Besides, we thought the tide is a very interesting nature resource, in the sense the way to use that which is predictable twice a day - and also it can be a very powerful resource.

TIDE MILL TIDE MILL Tide Mill, Birdham

Tide Mills in One Estuary

Drawn by E. LEE

Drawn by E. LEE / Map source from Google Inc.

Map source from Google Inc.

(assume) 100m


Tide in South Wales

Modern Tidal Infrastructure

Also in the Bristol Channel, South Wales, the most powerful tide area, we could found the same historical tidal infrastructures. And not only historical practices, but also there were new proposals for that to manage that energy resource till nowadays. However, all of that wasn’t actualized, and the most recent one was Swansea tidal lagoon project.

Such traditional use of tidal energy has been passed to modern times, and the power of grinding the wheat with the wheel has been led to the electric power production by advanced technologies such as the following. A recent version of a tide mill is the electricity-generating through the tidal barrage, tidal current, and tidal lagoon. Modern Technology of Tidal Energy

Be Eager for Tidal Energy in Bristl Channel

Drawn by J. LIANG

Drawn by M. HUANG x E. LEE

Data from Wikipedia (https://renewablenw.org/node/wave-tidal-energy-technology.)

Map sources from Google Inc., Mills Archive

Pembroke Tide Mill © Google Inc. Captured by E. LEE

Bridgwater Tide Mill © Google Inc. Captured by E. LEE

Broadoak Pembroke Swansea Lagoon Beachley Barrage

Sudbrook Newport Lagoon Cardiff Lagoon Welsh Grounds Lagoon Portishead

Cardiff Weston Barrage

West Somerset Lagoon

Bridgwater Lagoon

Instow Bridgwater

MODERN TIDAL PROJECT HISTORIC TIDE MILL

32

SWANSEA TIDE

10km

Tide in Swansea The private sector, Tidal Lagoon Project Ltd has proposed the Swansea Tidal Lagoon project. It is introducing how human can take advantage of nature power by creating tidal lagoon in Swansea Bay. (The company is proposing a total of six lagoons including Swansea Bay, with three additional sites in the Severn River and two in the UK, among which the Swansea Lagoon is the first pilot concept project. And the operation of the remaining tidal lagoons in the proposed area can be carried out more efficiently and stable based on know-how from Swansea case.) The proposal was not only generating the electricity by utilizing tidal energy, which means the creation of renewable energy and regional energy supply, but also enhancing the local economies by increasing job opportunities and attracting tourists through that huge and unique landscape. However, this project, a private sector initiative, is rejected by the UK government because of the subsidies, which amount was 1.3 billion pounds. See our vision for the world’s first tidal lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc. Captured and Edited by E. LEE


Eager for Tidal Energy After the rejection, Swansea East Member of Parliament expressed the deep disappointment on behalf of locals, for losing their chance to be redeveloped. Because locals and local authorities are strongly supportive of the project, but the government has refused to grant subsidies. Through this issue, we were curious about what the meaning of this project was for the local community, and why it has rejected. Hence, we’ve decided to look into more about this issue. BBC, “Frustration and anger in my city tonight.”

BBC, “Labour conference: Corbyn Swansea tidal lagoon pledge.”

BBC, “Tidal lagoons ‘could be £70bn industry’.”

BBC, “Swansea council looks for tidal lagoon partners.”

BBC, “Swansea Bay tidal lagoon rejection a crushing blow, says FM.”

34

SWANSEA TIDE

BBC, “How Swansea’s tidal lagoon would help the economy.”


Emergence of Tidal Lagoon Project

Renewable Energy of UK

First, the Tidal Lagoon project is primarily aimed at producing renewable energy, and the Paris Climate Agreement is the background for this project. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions have accelerated global warming, thus countries around the world including the UK, have promised to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The most recent one is the Paris climate agreement. Hence, the United Kingdom has adopted a 2008 climate change act to reduce the UK’s GHG emissions by at least 80% by 2050(from the 1990 baseline) and promised to provide 15% of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2020, according to the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive.

Thus we’ve looked at the proportion of energy production by the resource in the UK and found that electricity production by coal has decreased compared to the past, and power generation by renewable energy has increased significantly. Coal

UK Electricity Generation by Source Data from Carbon Brief Ltd

Gas

Nuclear

Renewable

Other

400 TWh

Climate Change Fueling Disasters, Disease in ‘Potentially Rrreversible’ Ways, Report Warns © 2018, Chicago Tribune

300 TWh United Kingdom © Clay Moss

200 TWh

World Leaders On Edge as President Trump Weighs Pulling U.S. Out of Paris Climate Deal © Anadolu Agency - Getty Images

30 TWh The 2008 Climate Change Act

25 TWh

Reduce the UK’s GHG emissions by at least 80% by 2050 (from the 1990 baseline)

20 TWh

2009 Renewable Energy Directive Provide 15% of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2020

17 20

16 20

15 20

14 20

13 20

12 20

11 20

10 20

09 20

08 20

07 20

06 20

20

05

04 20

03 20

02 20

00 20

20

0 TWh

01

100 TWh

onshore wind offshore wind solar

15 TWh

other bioenergy biomass

10 TWh

marine

5 TWh

17 20

16 20

15 20

14 20

13

12

20

20

11 20

10 20

09

08

20

07

20

20

06 20

05 20

04

03

20

20

02 20

01 20

00

99

20

98

19

97

19

96

19

95

19

94

19

93

19

92

19

91

19

19

19

90

0 TWh

However, when we have found a little more research on renewable energy, we have seen a little unusual. Looking at the amount of renewable energy by resource, the generation of wind energy and solar energy tended to increase rapidly in 2010. Until 2017, these two energies were seen as Britain’s most dependable renewable energy sources. But what was most interesting was marine energy. In the 1990s, Britain was first interested in developing renewable energy through marine energy. Since then, however, power generation from marine resource has remained mostly unchanged, but on the other hand, power generation through other energy sources has increased radically. By 2017, as a result, marine energy has become the least used energy source in the UK. UK Renewable Electricity by Source Data from Carbon Brief Ltd

Type of Marine Energy Marine energy consists of tidal energy, wave energy, temperature gradients, and salinity gradients. Among them, the power generation method proposed in Swansea Bay is the tidal range, which uses the difference between the high tide and low tide. And among tidal range method, they have suggested shaped like a lagoon. Marine Energy Classification Data from K. Mackinnon, H.C. Smith, F. Moore

36

SWANSEA TIDE

Potential of Tidal Energy Besides, if we get the electricity using the tidal range method only, theoretically, it will contribute 36% of the power output of 2015. Of the 36% power production capacity, if all of the six lagoons, proposed by the Tidal Lagoon Power Ltd, are used, they can produce about a quarter of 36%. Energy Generation by Tidal Range Data from The Crown Estate

8% 36% 2015 UK (339 TWh)

Tidal Range : theoretical resource potential of 121 TWh/year


Nuclear Plant © 2019 NKFU

We’ve been wondering why the British government has not been using the tidal energy, which is such a rich British natural condition, and why the present tidal project in Swansea Bay is refused to receive funding and why it is got a cynical review from the government. Hence we’ve started to research about the hidden reasons and found that there are some direct and indirect reasons for the delayed realization of the Swansea Lagoon project and the government’s refusal to grant subsidies: Political bias, cost, environmental concern, the discordance of interest and regional conflict.

Pounds Sterling © Chris Ratcliffe

Open Water © Shutterstock

Collaboration and Disagreement © 2019 Wiesner Consulting Group

Political Bias The first reason is the government’s customary attitudes and stance in renewable energy. When the Swansea Lagoon project was first proposed, it had received support from the previous government and even received project plan agreements. But after the general election, the situation changes as the regime changes. After the new government, the project has been delayed, and even subsidies have been rejected, thus by now the developers of the project are pushing to attract project with private investments without government assistance. Timeline of Swansea Tidal Lagoon Project Made by E. LEE Data from BBC

Researched by E. LEE

Protestors against Dean Quarry gather at nearby Roskilly’s Farm in 2015 © Keith Richards Data from BBC, Health Protection Agency, NIA, NRW, MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, CADS, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.11.066.

By the former government

Interests

Consent

Optimistic

General election

Brexit

Political Bias 12. 2014 National Treasury‘s National Infrastructure Plan by HM Treasury 12. 2014 Autumn Statement by DECC

03. 2015 BUDGET 2015 by HM Treasury

06. 2015 01. 2016 05. 2016 06. 2016 01.2017 06. 2017 Planning Consent Raised Concerns Review of Tidal Lagoons ‘NO REGRET‘ by Former PM by Former Energy Minister by Former Energy Minister 01.2017 Meeting with BEIS

By the present government

Cost Delay

General election 06. 2017

03. 2018 Loaned by Welsh Gov.

Reject

without Gov.

06. 2018 Rejected by Government

02. 2019 Revival by private investors

Nuclear Approved

Environmental Concern The background was that the new government had a cynical attitude toward renewable energy. Their common tendencies are as follows. To achieve climate change international agreements we have seen before, the current government is willing to reduce carbon emissions on the contrary, rather than to focus on building more renewable energy. Therefore, they tend to implement reductions in carbon emissions as follows. They hope to reduce the emission of fossil fuels like coal and replace energy with solar and wind energy. But in recent years, the government has changed its focus once again by focusing on offshore wind energy and filling its energy resources with nuclear energy, cutting subsidies for solar and onshore wind energy.

Discordance of Interest

Increasing Renewable Energy

<

Highlighting Costs to customer

Decreasing Carbon Emission Highlighting Energy Security

Diagram of New Government’s Tendency Made by E. LEE / data from BBC

Fossil Fuel Decreasing Carbon Emission

38

SWANSEA TIDE

Regional Conflict

Highlighting Energy Security

Coal / Oil / Gas

Replace Renewable Energy

Solar On-shore wind Off-shore wind Marine(lagoon) Bio Hybrid Geothermal

cut subsidies cut subsidies Intermittent reject subsidies -

Nuclear Off-shore wind

POLITICAL BIAS

Hurdles of Swansea Tidal Lagoon


BBC, “Swansea tidal lagoon numbers are awful, Alun Cairns says.”

BBC, “Ecotricity chief says Swansea tidal lagoon ‘too costly’.”

COST

BBC, “£1.3bn Swansea Bay tidal lagoon project thrown out.”

40

SWANSEA TIDE

Cost The second reason the central government opposes the Swansea Lagoon project is the price aspect. The government tends to focus on prices when looking at renewable energy particularly. They provide a strike price, which provides a fixed price per MWh for electricity generated through renewable energy as part of a subsidy. The problem, however, is that the strike price generated by the Swansea Tidal lagoon exceeds 100 pounds per MWh and is higher than the strike price of nuclear energy at Hinckley Point, located literally the opposite side of the Swansea bay. Hence, the private developer once again has suggested that the price could be the same as the Hinckley Point if it is supported by the Welsh government. Besides, to make it worse, the strike price of offshore wind energy, which was recently set at auction prices, declined to 57.5 pounds per MWh, and Swansea is about twice as expensive.

Strike Prices of Renewable Energy / Data from BBC

BBC, “Analysis: Is Swansea tidal lagoon dead in the water?.”

Increasing Renewable Energy Highlighting Costs to customer

Swansea (Tidal lagoon)

Hinkley (Nuclear)

Off-shore Wind

£92.5 + Welsh’s help (for 35 years)

£92.5 (for 35 years)

£57.5 (Sep.2018 auction price)

£150 without Welsh’s help (for 30 years)


Cost Given the government’s price logic, Swansea’s prices seem to be expensive and inefficient. However, we have thought that this price logic of the government is not valid. The Swansea Tidal Lagoon project is the first of six Tidal Lagoon series projects and is a pilot concept. Therefore, after the successful completion of Swansea Tidal Lagoon, the price efficiency will surely get better when operating the Cardiff Lagoon, Newport Lagoon, etc., which will be operated continuously, and will be more stable based on the know-how and experience of the operation of Swansea Lagoon. And it will be efficient, but the government has a short-sighted perspective that focuses on a single Swansea project, rather than looking at a series of projects.

COST

Also, the comparison is not valid about the strike price, which is always comparable to that of neighboring Hinckley Point nuclear energy. As we can see from our nuclear cartography and this only part of the operation list, UK has built many nuclear energy power plants since the 1940s and has endowed with unrivaled investment in all related industries and facilities including research and development, treatment facilities, management facilities, education, etc. which can make the price cheaper. Therefore, the strike price of atomic energy, which has been developing for 70 years, cannot be high and comparing it with the tidal lagoon project without considering their long development history, and short life span. Also, the cost doesn’t consider that nuclear energy doesn’t have any connections with local communities, their economies, spaces for the next generations. But tidal energy does.

And this nuclear energy and infrastructure are owned by National Grid and other private companies. The Big Six supply companies (British Gas, E.ON, EDF Energy, nPower, Scottish Energy and SSE) are owned by UK, French, German and Spanish investors. These investors aren’t interested in clean, green, affordable energy. They’re only interested in their profits. Hence, these private energy monopolies often make it difficult for community groups, who want to develop new renewable energy projects, so the process is slower and more expensive than it should be.

Say No to Nuclear Power © Shutterstock

Sizewell A Nuclear Power Station © Greenpeace

The Impact of Chernobyl’s Nuclear Disaster © NewsHour Productions LLC

TIDAL STREAM

Researched by E. LEE

42

SWANSEA TIDE

Data from Common Wealth

Tidal Energy vs Nuclear Energy in UK

Hinckley Point Nuclear Power Station © Greenpeace

Hell Hole on Earth Discovered at Fukushima © Dr. Mark Sircus

Drawn by E. LEE x Edited by M. HUANG Map sources from Digimap, Health Protection Agency, NIA, BBC

CONSENTED

Nuclear Updates from Jordan, Egypt and the UAE © 2019 Green Prophet

TIDAL RANGE CONSENTED

OPERATIONAL 100km

CONSTRUCTION

NUCLEAR PWR GENERATING SHUT-DOWN

PLANNING

NOMINATED

NUCLEAR FACILITY SPENT FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL R&D FUEL ENRICHMENT


Environmental Concerns

Timeline of Getting Marine License Made by E. LEE / Data from BBC

National Resources Wales Environmental regulation and protection

NRW(Dec. 2016), “Salmon and Sea Trout Could Scupper the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon.”

the former government Concern

The TLSB project has the potential to impose considerable changes onto the marine ecosystem of Swansea Bay. Consequently there is a need to consider measures to reduce any adverse environmental effects to an acceptable level.

Delay General election

12. 2016 Predicted to killing Finfish by NRW

05. 2017 Meeting with NRW

06. 2017

about 0.5 years

02.2019 still No Response by NRW about 2 years

Concern on Hard Structure A more detailed look at the review published by MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, the most representative environmental concern is the construction of a huge lagoon barrier. If a sizeable artificial lagoon with solid structure is installed in the middle of the sea, the trapped sea ecosystem in the lagoon and the sea ecosystem outside the lagoon will be changed naturally. Thus, the MarineSpace Ltd and Associates has warned the movement of the species, as existing native species will be hit and replaced by newly emerging invasive species. Therefore, they have encouraged the introduction of soft systems such as sediments instead of introducing these hard structures.

‘‘ Tidal Lagoon Power requires a marine licence from Natural Resources Wales for the project

44

SWANSEA TIDE

BBC, “Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon fish data ‘overly optimistic’.”

Peter Morris of WWT says wildlife data needs to be assessed fully before all the lagoon projects are rolled out

Swansea Tidal Lagoon: The Environmental Arguments © BBC

The introduction of a hard structure (such as a lagoon wall) could provide a ‘stepping stone’ for both indigenous and non-nativespecies that results in epibiota that differ from the surrounding natural environment (Mineur et al.,2012). Research has shown that as the presence and extent of intertidal structures increase, opportunities both indigenous and exotic species also increase, potentially leading to invasion of a natural habitat by an invasive species (Bulleri et al., 2006). Relevant structures include coastal flood defences, harbour or general infrastructure, and theoretically a lagoon wall.

This regulatory environment demands a precautionary approach to managing the risk posed by introducing hard structures, such as lagoon walls, into soft sediment systems.

See our vision for the world’s first tidal lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc. Captured by E. LEE

MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, “Considerations of Biosecurity.”

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

about 2 years

03. 2017 Meeting with NRW

‘‘

Brexit

06. 2016

21% of salmon, 25% of sea trout willl be killed per year

the present government

Delay

02. 2014 Applied for a Marine Licence by TLP.Ltd

‘‘

Upon receipt of the marine licensing application, NRW and MarineSpace Ltd and Associates had reviewed the application, submitted by the Swansea tidal lagoon developer and the measures to be taken to respond to the changing environmental impact, and announced the following conclusions:

‘‘

The third reason is the environmental aspect. To build and operate the Tidal Lagoon in Swansea Bay, they must obtain a marine license from NRW, the largest Welsh government-sponsored body. Therefore, the developer is in the process of acquiring, but the acquisition has been postponed for more than four years. The reason for the difficulty in acquiring is due to environmental concerns. As a result of the large-scale lagoon construction project, there is a lot of concern from various environmental groups as well.


Concern on Oyster

Concern on Artificial Reef & Bioblock The following is an aspect of providing the artificial habitat offered by the developer. The habitat to be lost due to the tidal lagoon, so the developer has suggested the wall which is combined with the introduction of the artificial reef and bio block to provide lost habitat and promote biodiversity. However, MarineSpace Ltd and Associates has told it can help promote biodiversity, but it can cause the introduction of invasive species, so they have worried about the biosecurity of native species.

Another concern of MarineSpace Ltd and Associates is oyster and aquaculture. The oyster industry has gone through the copper industrialization era that we had seen before and Swansea is working to restore it in Swansea Bay. However, due to the impact of the construction of the Tidal Lagoon, the developer has suggested that aquaculture hatchery will be built separately within the Tidal Lagoon and that oyster and seaweed could be successfully exploited. MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, however, has expressed concern that this unstable environment could affect the growth conditions of oysters and seaweed, as the Tidal Lagoon has to be sustained and artificially dredged. Therefore, they also have concluded there is considerable doubt about the way to move the existing habitat of oysters into the lagoon.

Distribution of Native Oyster Ostrea Edulis Records in Welsh Waters © NRW Marine Recorder snapshot 2015

Dredging for Maintenance of Tidal Lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc.

Aquaculture Hatchery in Tidal Lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc.

Captured by E. LEE

Captured by E. LEE

Bioblock © 2019 Bangor University, SEACAMS

46

SWANSEA TIDE

Therefore, the aim of artificial reef habitat (the lagoon wall) needs to encourage as diverse and natural community as possible.

MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, “Considerations of BIosecurity.“

‘‘

Water quality parameters and the need for maintenance dredging within the tidal lagoon mean that the prospect of successful establishment of self maintaining Native Oyster beds within the lagoon basin is open to considerable doubt. Considering the expected need for extensive and repeated dredging within the lagoon basin, there is little evidence to suggest that a stable system will be established within such a structure.

Consequently, the potential for generating long-term functional replacement of lost habitat within the lagoon walls is open to considerable doubt. These factors mean that it would be unwise to place significant reliance upon habitat creation measures such as laying seagrass or Native Oyster beds within the lagoon as realistic offsets for loss of existing habitat.

MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, “Application to New Development Proposals.”

‘‘

The use of bioblocks within low diversity estuarine environments will potentially provide little biodiversity gain and may compromise biosecurity.

‘‘

‘‘

‘Beneficial habitat’ has in the past been created with statements about biodiversity gain, recent legislative drivers and general awareness reflect changing attitudes towards facilitating the arrival of invasive non-native species.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

Artificial Reef © PR Dept


Concern on S.alveolata

Overall Concerns

And this measure has been suggested by the developer that will transfer and provide the habitat environment, considering the impact of a large number of S.alveolata reef in Swansea Bay due to the construction of the Tidal Lagoon. But MarineSpace Ltd and Associates has said it was hard to take action because there is no evidence that the S.alveolata reef will be stable and successfully transferred.

As we have seen, MarineSpace Ltd and Associates has reviewed the developer’s proposed environmental impact measures for each item and concluded that overall, their environmental actions were highly uncertain, inadequate, and inferior. Therefore, through this research, we have thought that Tidal Lagoon project cannot avoid environmental damages and it will be difficult in retreatments due to the Tidal Lagoon construction method for the use of tidal energy as proposed. Thus, we’ve thought they should find breakthroughs and alternatives in terms of the environment.

Distribution of S.alveolata Reef Habitat Records in Wales © NRW Marine Recorder snapshot 2015

The Overall Confidence Levels for Each of the Habitats, Species and Measures Assessed in This Sabellaria Alveolata © Picssr

Review © MarineSpace Ltd and Associates

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

SWANSEA TIDE 48

MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, “Effective Measures to Offset Habitat Loss.”

‘‘

There is no evidence, beyond Swansea Bay, to support the contention that S.alveolata reef can be translocated. Consequently, initial results of the trial translocation should not be considered a reliable indication of the long term prognosis for translocated S.alveolata reef, especially considering the full scale translocation associated with the proposed project impact footprint.

‘‘

It is clear that in the majority of cases, there is an inadequate evidence base upon which to placegreat confidence in the measures proposed within the TLSB project. This analysis highlights the considerable uncertainties about the likely efficacy of possible offsetting measures. The TLSB project mainly impacts upon hard surfaces in the intertidal zone and upon subtidal habitats where the evidence base for possible offsetting measures is generally poor.

MarineSpace Ltd and Associates, “Effective Measures to Offset Habitat Loss.”

‘‘

‘‘

TLSB project has investigated translocation of this habitat type at the proposed location of the potential development. Trials were at a small, demonstration scale, compared to the full scale required to mitigate impacts should the development proceed.


Discordance of Interest

Survey Participants_Influencer

Those, we have seen so far, are some of the more direct reasons that affected the delay and subsidy rejection of the Swansea Tidal Lagoon project, but the following reasons are somewhat indirect. In one journal, they have conducted a survey on the Swansea tidal lagoon, divided the survey participants into developer and “influencer” that affects the project realization. And it’s the result was interesting. Briefly speaking, when the two groups consider about Swansea Tidal Lagoon project, they have had their pursuits and goals which were quite different from each other.

First, the survey participants, Influencers, consisted mainly of people associated with government agencies or organizations that pursued the public interest. Their professional background comprised about half of the environmental sector, 20% policy-related, and the rest were technology, engineering, and socio-economic areas.

Influencer’s Professional Backgrounds Made by J. LIANG / Data from Renewable Energy Journal

Researched by E. LEE data from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.11.066.

Diagram of Participating Organisations Made by J. LIANG / data from Renewable Energy Journal

Survey Participants_Developer On the contrary, the background of developers of the Tidal Lagoon, a participant group in the survey, was somewhat unusual because most of the developers have been belong to the local community. They were mostly private developers, and the developers’ organizations consisted primarily of local, local business people, and people from local forums. For example, the developer group Wyre Tidal Energy was an organization of three local businessmen.

Local

DEVELOPER

Tidal Lagoon Project

Developer organizations

locals

local business people

local forums

Wyre Tidal Energy

50

SWANSEA TIDE

Made by E. LEE / data from Renewable Energy Journal

was formed by three local business-men

DISCORDANCE OF INTEREST

Developer’s Backgrounds


Priority Outcome of Project Participants in these two groups have been asked to comment on the following questions, and the results were somewhat inconsistent between the two groups. First, they have asked the two groups what Swansea Tidal Lagoon project’s ultimate goal was. Developers, consist of locals, have put the top priority of regeneration and wealth creation in the region, and then selected the stable power supply and good environmental impact. On the other hand, Influencers, which had a large number of environmental and policy areas, have placed the best ecological impact first and then chosen the price competitiveness. As shown in the following graph, we could see that the purpose of the Tidal Lagoon project, which the two groups primarily consider, is very different from each other.

Priority Lagoon Outcomes Made by J. LIANG / Data from Renewable Energy Journal

(Red = ≥5% difference in % mention, Yellow = ≥2% ≤ 4%, Green = <2%)

Environmental Concern from Project

Benefits from Project

They again have asked the two groups about the environmental damage concerns, which was one of the reasons for the delay of the Tidal Lagoon. When asked what the most environmentally conscious concern in the realization of Swansea tidal lagoon project is, we could see the also opposite opinions from developers and Influencers, except for the worry about regularly accumulated sediment management aspect. Developers have been concerned about changes in hydrodynamics and changes in water levels, but the Influencers haven’t emphasized much, and the water quality was also crucial to developers, but Influencers haven’t responded to this. On the other hand, Influencers have been very concerned about the limited pathways of ocean creatures, habitat migration, and benthic habitat loss, but developers haven’t been very interested. Influencers have been also worried about the noise and vibration and visual effects of the Tidal Lagoon, but none of the developers has concerned about it.

Next, two groups have been asked what the benefits of the project are, what is expected from the project. And the colors, shown in the following table, help understand the differences of opinion visually and is colored in red when their opinions are substantially different, yellow when they differ to some extent, and green when they are similar. Developers have pointed out that they could also gain socio-economic benefits for local areas and expected for regional economic activity and regional job creation. On the other hand, influencers have expected it could promote flood prevention and leisure activities. The result of this question also has shown that they had different expectations of the Tidal Lagoon.

Environmental Impacts Made by J. LIANG / Data from Renewable Energy

Environmental Benefits Made by E. LEE / data from Renewable Energy Journal

SWANSEA TIDE 52

DISCORDANCE OF INTEREST

When we have comprehensively understood these surveys, we have concluded that: The developers were mainly local people groups, so naturally the focus of looking at the Tidal Lagoon project was always keeping ‘local’ in their mind. On the contrary, influencers, which could influence the realization of the project, consisted mainly of people in the public interest area, so they had a focus and perspective on policies such as environment and costs. Therefore, we’ve believed that because of the contradictory opinions, on the Tidal Lagoon project presented in each of the above items, the lagoon project cannot avoid the slow progress since the direction of the thinking and view in mind are different from each other.


Cornwall Against Dean Super Quarry (Cads) However, the local communities around the Cornwall quarry have been very opposed to this, because of the environmental reasons such as noise and dust, and because the tourism industry now accounts for a large part of the local economy. And they have created a civic organization called Cornwall Against Dean Super Quarry, which is actively protesting against the restart of the quarry by running a website, twittering, appealing to the government, and campaigning. They do not object to green energy, but they are arguing that “it’s essential that green energy means green energy from start to finish, including the supply chain. We have only claimed that every sought to protect the landscape and seascape.” Cornwall Against Dean Super Quarry website © CADS

Breakwater of Tidal Lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc.

Captured by E. LEE

Captured by E. LEE Breakwater Section of Tidal Lagoon © Tidal Lagoon Plc and Tidal Lagoon (Swansea Bay) Plc. Captured by E. LEE

Regional Conflict Another indirect hurdle in the Swansea tidal lagoon is the conflict between regions. To build a Tidal Lagoon, they need to create 6.5 miles of breakwaters, which require about three megatonnes of stones. Thus the CEO of tidal energy company has suggested that these stones would be brought back to the Swansea Bay by restarting the quarry, which had been shut down since 2005 in Cornwall. And the reason for this plan was that the CEO of Tidal Lagoon Power Ltd owns a quarry in Cornwall.

54

REGIONAL CONFLICT

SWANSEA TIDE

Protestors against Dean Quarry gather at nearby Roskilly’s Farm in 2015 © Keith Richards


CornwallLive, “Cornwall Dean Quarry future on hold after blow to Swansea Bay tidal lagoon project.”

The Guardian, “Quarry threatens Cornish beauty spot.”

SWANSEA TIDE 56

The Guardian, “World’s first tidal-lagoon clean energy scheme prompts environmental row.”

The Telegraph, “Cornish villagers fear devastation over quarry for green energy scheme.”

TIDE AND COAST

The Telegraph, “‘Mad’ Swansea tidal lagoon scheme heading for the rocks.”


SWANSEA HEYDAY SWANSEA OF THE DAY


SWANSEA, WALES, UK After looking at these controversial debates, surrounding tidal infrastructure project in Swansea Bay, we were interested in both, the ways that people try to use this un-actualized energy source and the local community of Swansea city. Thus before starting to formulate our initiatives about this issue directly, we’ve started to look into more about Swansea as our research site. Hence, first of all, we have decided to look at the historical background of this area to understand Swansea’s current issues and circumstances.

Hafod Morfa Copperworks © Penderyn Distillery


Copperopolis

Ore and Swansea

First of all, the copper industry, which is the most significant feature of the history of Swansea, is considered to be the best in the world at the time and has a history of the copper industry as follows.

However, Swansea had no local deposits of copper ore, and from the very beginning, it was wholly dependent upon imported raw materials.

By 1717, it was recognized that the Lower Swansea Valley possessed not only rich seams of easily extracted coal but also a suitable navigable river, the Tawe, capable of taking larger ocean-going vessels. And 1800s Swansea smelted 90 percent of Britain’s total copper output, and in 1848, the copper works at Hafod, just outside Swansea in South Wales, was the world’s largest. By the 1860s it was producing around 65 percent of total world output.

Cornish ore Thus, until about 1780, Swansea copper had used Cornish ore supplemented by small quantities imported from southern Ireland, but Anglesey then had emerged as a new source of supply. Anglesey ore

Researched by M. HUANG

Then, Parys Mountain had dominated the world’s copper market during the 1780s when mine was the largest in Europe. Its rise severely had damaged the mining industry in Cornwall.

Data from Huw Bowen, “Copperopolis: Swansea’s Heyday, Decline, and Regeneration.”

Swansea © Pat Smale

The Copper Works of South Wales © Ordnance Survey

Ore Supply Crisis and Swansea Also, the ore supply crisis was the catalyst that fully extended the global reach of the Swansea copper industry. A world-wide search for alternative sources of ore was initiated during the 1820s, and this process saw Swansea connected with far-flung mines on several continents. Because, thanks to changes in Britain’s tariff schedule in the late 1820s they could now fetch ore from any port on earth, provided that ore was of sufficient richness to warrant the cost of freighting it to Wales. So, after 1830, the divergence became radical. Vessels carrying ore to Swansea Bay were no longer restricted to shuttling back and forth to the north coast of Cornwall.

Wales and the World Copper Trade 1700-1914 © Robert Protheroe-Jones

This reconfiguration of the copper trade had put Swansea itself at the heart of a worldwide network which facilitated flows of not only raw materials and finished products but also migrant labor, expertise, knowledge. The price of copper was set in Swansea, and global connections were inscribed into a townscape - home to 15,000 people in 1821 and 31,000 in 1851 - through the establishment of Consulates and the naming of wharves, streets, public houses, and hotels.

Global Demand of Copper The overseas market had provided a crucial element in the rapid early growth of Swansea’s copper industry. Some products had gone to the slave trade and consumer markets in colonial America. Rising amounts of copper were directed towards India via the East India Company. Indeed, the successful and rapid penetration of Indian markets by the copper smelting firms of south-west Wales had a considerable long-term effect upon the maritime economy of Asia.

62

SWANSEA HEYDAY

The Triangular Trade © Mr Lammas

Copper Heyday & Swansea City Scape The effect that the copper industry had on the development of Swansea itself was profound. The nine significant works operating in 1850 employed some 10,000 men, women, and children. And the wealth generated by the copper magnates enabled estates and country houses to be established around the edge of Swansea Bay in picturesque places such as Singleton, Clyne, and Grenfell Park, and it trickled into the burgeoning urban infrastructure through the construction Royal Institution, as well as assembly rooms, banks, shipping offices, and a multitude of chapels and churches.

Landore Viaduct and Canal 1850s (https://ididitthisway.wordpress.com/image-88/.)

Wind Street Swansea (https://ididitthisway.wordpress.com/2012/01/09/wind-street/#jp-carousel-1532.)


Copper and Infrastructure Thus, we have wanted to visualize this historical background spatially on a Swansea scale map. Coal, which had a significant impact on the copper industry that had made a big difference in the growth of Swansea, was also crucial for smelting copper. Therefore, it was necessary to supply the railway and maritime infrastructures such as harbour and docks, to carry the coal around the copper smelter. And also we could confirm that the copper smelter was line up along the Tawe River where large vessels were able to be transported from both inland and the sea. Social Formation of Swansea

64

SWANSEA HEYDAY

Drawn by J. LIANG / Map sources from Digimap, Ordnance Survey, Google Inc.

Folding page


SWANSEA HEYDAY 66

5 km

Copper Area

Coal Field

Copper Trade

Railway

Infrastructure

Colliery

Copper Work


Aquaculture Heyday Aquaculture industry, as well as copper, was a very popular business sector in Swansea, especially in the oyster and laverbread industries. The oyster trade in Mumbles reached prominence in 19C. At its peak in 1871, 18 million oysters were brought ashore by Mumbles fishermen(value of £50,000) and at that time the industry employed up to 600 men and Mumbles oysters were being exported to London and northern Europe. And Historically “Welsh Laverbread” was very important as a nutritious high energy food source particularly for hard-working pit workers in the South Wales mining valleys where it became a staple breakfast food. Women and children, who also worked underground in the pits were often malnourished and were advised by doctors to eat Welsh Laverbread because it was a very good source of iron. In 1800-1950 collecting laver to make “Welsh Laverbread” was a small cottage industry. The laver was thrown over thatched huts to dry before being picked up by a horse and cart and taken to Pembroke station to be sold to businesses in Swansea where it was cooked into “Welsh Laverbread” and sold at local markets.

Swansea Fish Market © Swansea & Port Talbot Docks Retired Section Website Laverbread © Stuart Freedman Drawn by E. LEE x M. HUANG Map sources from Digimap, Ordnance Survey, Google Inc.

Folding page

Mumbles Oyster Sellers © Carol Powell MA The Men who worked the Skiffs © Carol Powell MA

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SWANSEA HEYDAY

Oyster Fishing © BFI


End of Heyday

Deprivation Level of Swansea

1830, but a robust challenge to Swansea had become a reality from the 1850s onwards as far more extensive and systematic smelting was undertaken in South America, North America, and Australia as large coal seams were opened up. Eventually, smelting has ceased in 1924, and although mergers and takeovers enabled the manufacturing of semi-refined copper to continue until 1980, most works were either given over to other forms of metallurgical production or abandoned to become derelict. Together with the deeply polluted landscape and the general effects of the interwar depression, this has created a powerful sense of stagnation and decay, which accelerated after 1945, to the point that the Lower Swansea Valley became the most massive post-industrial landscape in Western Europe.

After looking at the historic social formation of Swansea city, we’ve begun to look at the local current situation of the Swansea community. Hence firstly, we’ve seen the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) which is the Welsh Government’s official measure of relative deprivation for small areas in Wales from the economic and social welfare sector. It is based on access to service, education, employment, environment, health, housing, and income. And then, it is a way of evaluating all the towns in Wales and then assigning the rank. Therefore, based on this figure, we have re-expressed as different size of the circle, which the bigger circle means the worse situation. After making these maps, we could notice that Swansea and NeathPortTalbot were the poorest in Wales.

The Remains of Derelict Factory Sites Situated in Landore in 1960 (WalesOnline)

Negative Influences From the copper heyday, there were not only positive impacts but also negative influences on Swansea. The human costs were considerable, not least because copper smelting required long hours of hard labour in intense heat and an atmosphere poisoned by the constant output of noxious sulfurous fumes that were produced when arsenic and other impurities were burnt off during the roasting process. The works themselves were blighted by giant waste tips formed of these by-products, and the surrounding landscape became devoid of plant, tree, and animal life as the ever-present copper smoke took a heavy toll on the natural environment.

Copperworks © Black Mountains Archaeology

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SWANSEA OF THE DAY

Impacts on Aquaculture Industry It has also affected the local oyster industry. Pollution, disease, and overfishing had all but wiped out the oyster population by 1920. Thus nowadays, Swansea city hopes to revive these oyster industry, so they have announced plans to reintroduce the Oyster farming industry again. Also, for the laverbread industry, as the mining society declined in the mid-20th century and the processed ready meals became popular, the demand for laverbread decreased significantly. Thus nowadays, the value of this industry is small and difficult to quantify, however, fortunately, there are known to be local family-run businesses producing fresh laverbread direct for sale still.

BBC, “Hopes for oyster industry revival in Swansea Bay.”

Deprivation Level of Swansea and Neath Port Talbot Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by E. LEE

The Guardian, “Bringing oysters back home to Britain.”

map sources from Mapbox, OpenStreetMap, Alex Singleton, Michail Pavlis


After we have understood the relative deprivation level of the Swansea Bay community in Wales, we have compared the economic index, unemployment rate, and education level statistics to find out what Swansea’s economic level is in comparison to Wales and the UK. As a result, Swansea was below all levels in the United Kingdom, and all items except for annual income were poor than Wales. Swansea’s Economic Status Comparison to Wales and UK Made by E. LEE / data from Swansea Council

Economic

Unemployment

Education

Swansea

Wales

UK

Gross Value Added (per head)

£19,559

£19,899

£27,555

2017

Gross Disposable Household Income (per head)

£14,911

£15,835

£19,432

2016

Earning (annual)

£22,979

£22,088

£24,006

2018

Unemployment

6.0%

4.6%

4.2%

2018

NVQ level (4 and above)

34.4%

35.1%

38.4%

2017

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SWANSEA OF THE DAY

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After that, we have decided to compare Swansea with London, which is a symbol of the inland city and its representative city in England, by applying the same indexes previously compared. And we have found that the distribution of deprivation level is also related to the population distribution, in the previous deprivation map. Thus in this map, we’ve expressed the comparative index inferior to that of London by the size of the cross on the distribution of the population.

The Poor Economic Condition of Swansea Compared to London Drawn by E. LEE x Edited by J. LIANG map sources from Digimap, Ordnance Survey, ESRC Consumer Data Research Centre, Swansea Council, National Statistics


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SWANSEA OF THE DAY

Swansea of the Day After researching the social formations of Swansea City, we’ve combined the two and documented it as a map. Through this cartography, we could recognize the economic hardship was higher than that of London, near the place that the copper and coal industry was busy and steel factory that is still running.

5 km

Copper Work

Railway

Infrastructure

Copper Trade

Deprivation Grade Lower Social Grade (Comparison with Wales) (Comparison with London)

Social Formation of Swansea Drawn by J. LIANG / Map sources from Digimap, Ordnance Survey, Google Inc.


SWANSEA OF THE DAY

SWANSEA, WALES, UK

76

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GET THE CHANCES COASTAL ENGINES HYBRID IMTA HOW TO DEPLOY


SWANSEA NEW DEAL After researching about the social formation of Swansea Bay, we’ve thought, there are three main dilemmas. Thus, based on the Blue New Deal guidelines, we’ve begun to formulate the strategy and alternatives, for the Swansea local community, in a community-based way and long term vision. During the field trip, we’ve found a very interesting heritage that abandoned nowadays, which could be used as tidal infrastructures. And we’ve started to consider how we could use this old off shore infrastructure properly for locals. Through our design, we hope our strategy and proposal could be employed in the whole UK scale of coastal communities where post-industrial cities.

Lock Gate © Swansea & Port Talbot Docks Retired Section Website


3 Dilemmas

3 Concepts

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Controversial Energy Debate

Disappeared Cultural History

Deprived Surrounding Conditions

Energy Decentralization

Aquaculture (IMTA)

After researching about the issues surrounding Swansea Bay, we thought, these three points are the main dilemma of Swansea city. And then based on the Blue New Deal from NEF, we’ve begun to formulate the strategy, for how this political, environmental, social issues, might be negotiated, through these 3 concepts.

Firstly, through our energy decentralization strategy, we’d like to suggest how we might not only re-actualize the dashed local’s hope but also give an alternative for the renewable energy project with the bottom-up procedure for the whole UK coastal area. Secondly, to revive the disappeared local historic aquaculture industry, we’d like to introduce the IMTA, which is also referred from NEF as a new coastal fisheries business model. Third, our strategy would be deployed by considering the different time scale, to be applied to the local community more suitably.

Frustration and anger in my city tonight © BBC

Tidal Power © LifeGate SpA

Oyster Fishing © BFI

Aquaculture © Marine and Environmental Research

The Poorest © Getty Images

Danger to Life © Getty Images

Short-Mid-Long Term Design


Swansea

Water Current

Bristol Channel

50km

UK key map Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG map sources from Digimap, The Atlas of UK Marine Renewables Energy Resources

Swansea Bay

Bristol Channel © Google Inc. Captured by E. LEE

Swansea Bay © Google Inc. 10km

Captured by E. LEE

Swansea Dock

Regeneration of Swansea Dock For formulating our strategies, we’ve started to see the basic condition of Swansea City, first. During the field trip, we could easily found that in the center of Swansea Bay, there are the old three docks, which came from copper history. However, it was totally prohibited to access and use, and abandoned nowadays. Thus, we’ve decided to re-activate this abandoned heritage as our comparatively small three tidal lagoons, instead of creating any other new infrastructure in the coastal line.

1km

Tidal Dynamics Furthermore, since Swansea sits in the high tidal range, has an average tidal range of 8.5m, during spring tides, thus, we have two main conditions that we should take account of that, for the further design. One is the tidal dynamic twice a day, and the other one is water current within each dock.

Daily Tidal Dynamic

1

2

Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG Map sources from

Water Current within Three Docks 3

4

Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG

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GET THE CHANCES

Data sources from

5

6

Daily Tidal Dynamic Video

Water Current within Three Docks Video

Made by J. LIANG

Made by J. LIANG


Local’s Voice & Interview During the field trip, we met with locals and asked for comments on the Tidal project. They usually have known the Tidal Lagoon project, but not know the details, such as the environmental impacts and other negatives. Why do they support this project is because they expect that this big project would develop Swansea City again. They were hoping that the stagnant economy of local would be improved by creating jobs and increasing tourists by introducing the previous tidal proposals. Ironically, however, they haven’t expected this project would be realized. Local said, “This is not London, but Wales, and not Cardiff, but Swansea.” Once again, we’ve felt that Swansea City was a marginalized area compared to other areas. We’ve also met with tidal techniques specialist, local council officer, and sediment expert to get important ideas about the design we were going to develop. Since Swansea sits in a large tidal range area, the movement of sediment is pretty activated that we could get various ideas, such as the impact on the inside and outside of the dock, its actions, and other possibilities, from the sediment specialist. We were able to hear his personal opinions from the local council officer of Swansea City council which was very interesting and important. It is desirable to consider increasing energy efficiency by reducing current electricity consumption, rather than generating large amounts of electricity through large-scale projects in the private sector, Also reducing the cost of electricity is more important to locals, socially, which is a priority. From, the professor of tidal technic we could get methodological ideas and advice, including how to actually produce electricity and how much to obtain by utilizing the abandoned offshore infrastructure. After obtaining opinion of experts and locals, we’ve begun to formulate our proposals based on these.

Interviewed by E. LEE x M. HUANG x J. LIANG Taken by M. HUANG x J. LIANG

Use the 3 docks separately for the efficiency.

Prof. Dr. Ian Masters(Energy Safety Research Institute, Swansea university)

Accumulation: Left side Movement: Right side

Decreasing energy cost and consumption is more crucial.

Interviewed by E. LEE x M. HUANG x J. LIANG

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GET THE CHANCES

Taken by M. HUANG x J. LIANG Dr. Harshinie Karunarathna (Energy Safety Research Institute, Swansea university)

Sean Hathaway (Nature Conservation Team, City & County of Swansea)


Local Amenities

Monthly Utilization

Also, while researching about Swansea City, we’ve found that the local social amenities, which can be embedded as software into our hardware. Those were mainly a lot of cultural community groups and activities, encouraging local’s participation through the concerts and festivals. Thus we’ve though by using these active amenities to concrete the possibility of promoting voluntary participation in the local community and even increasing tourism factors, including concerts and annual festivals, based on the local community.

In addition, when we thought about the contents to be implemented for the dock regeneration of the further step, due to the natural condition of our site that uses tide, it could be divided into contents that use water or don’t. Then, we’ve considered the availability and applicability during the year, it was possible to estimate when and how many activities would be conducted through the monthly schematic diagram. We’ve thought that outdoor activities are the main contents, thus we’ve considered the monthly average minimum and maximum temperature and sunrise sunset time. Researched by E. LEE Data from Time and Date

Night

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6 Amenity Type

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Software

Researched by E. LEE Drawn by E. LEE x M. HUANG Map sources from Digimap, Google Inc.

Leisure NTS

Fishery

Summer Autumn Winter

Hardware

Connectivity


Weekly Utilization Looking at these temporal and tidal conditions as scenarios for the first week of August, we could find interesting outcomes. From 1st to 7th August, the different time periods of water filling and draining due to different tidal dynamics change, so we could see the intriguing results of changing the time to use the contents and the time to generate energy as well.

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Researched by E. LEE

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Plans in Swansea

Furthermore, in order to understand spatially based on these conditions and tidal dynamics, the scenario of August 1 was visually produced. Basically, the introduction of off water content, water content, and aquaculture into each dock for scenario creation also allowed us to assess the possibilities of activities that could be created. Also interesting was the opportunity to see the dynamics of newly appeared and disappeared activities, depending on the different vertical landscape created by high tide and low tide.

After the understanding of the physical and social conditions of Swansea Bay, we have looked into what the government and local authorities and the developers of the existing Tidal project are planning for the Swansea coastal community. Then, we’ve tried to document it into a single map in order to understand in a spatial view. As a result, most policies were largely classified as tourism, environment, economy, and energy. Through this cartography, we could notice that the western coastal areas and north of Swansea Bay have been highly emphasized on the tourism side, and the environmental aspect is emphasized on the overall area and also for the east coast where the steel factory is now located. Besides, the energy aspect was distributed selectively in Swansea, and the economic plan was distributed in the main Swansea city area. Through this map, we could notice which policies are planned spatially throughout Swansea Bay, and from that, we could recognize the importance of our dock site, located in the heart of Swansea Bay. Therefore, from these political perspectives, the Swansea Dock Regeneration Plan for the coastal community has been recognized as the need for a plan that included energy, tourism, economic growth, and the environmental aspect.

Drawn by M. HUANG x Editied by E. LEE Data from Digimap

What’s on Swansea Bay Researched by J. LIANG x Drawn by M. HUANG / Map sources from Digimap, Google Inc., Swansea Council, Neath Port Talbot Council, Bridgend County Borough Council, Tidal Lagoon Power Limited

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Existing suggestion Our suggestion Income Job creation Tourists

2km

Sediment

Landscape

Conservation

Pollution

Tourism

Economic

Policy

Policy

Policy

Policy

Policy

Policy


Our Proposals

Ofgem is the government regulator for the gas and electricity market in Great Britain. The authority’s powers and duties are largely provided for in the statute. Its primary duty is to protect the interests of consumers, where possible by promoting competition. ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION

After looking at the conditions of Swansea, we’ve started to formulate initiatives. First of all, we were starting with the energy decentralization idea. There are mainly four parts consisting of the UK energy market. Power plants, Suppliers, Electricity network operator, and Supervisor. Currently, UK is appealing for energy market revolution, since the existing system of UK, which is centralized and mainly dominated by nuclear energy, has been gradually monopolized by powerful companies (BIG 6), it’s hard for small energy suppliers to survive, supervisor loses power, energy price is getting higher. In this chapter, a new model based on public-owned energy concept and usage of tidal energy will be proposed. We’ve expected it to become an alternative for the UK energy market and help to shape a better coastal future.

National grid of UK is owned and managed by 10 network operators by regions. The network consists of cables for different voltage level and substations, it connects power plants and all energy consumers. In Swansea, the network owner os Western Power Distribution.

Researched by J. LIANG

Structure of UK Electricity Market

Nuclear Gas Diesel Biomass Hydro Coal

Electricity Distribution Map Map source from Energy Network Association

The existing system is being criticized, the monopoly of minority suppliers leads to the uncontrollable price increase. Since Ofgem fails to formulate regulations properly to balance market competition, the government is also thought to be corrupt in the energy field, cooperating with BIG 6 and grabbing profit from the energy. More and more people and communities start to think about energy autonomy, living off-grid and achieving self-sufficiency with clean energy.

BBC, “Who are the “big six” energy companies?”

BBC, “Gas and Electricity Bills ‘Designed to Confuse’.”

BBC, “‘Big six’ energy firms face competition inquiry.”

BBC, “Energy switch trial brings savings.”

200km

COASTAL ENGINES 94

ENERGY PROCESS

Operate off-grid energy system and distribute electricity to each sector.

CENTRAL TRANSMISSION Collect and transport electricity through independent grid.

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

CENTRAL CONTROL

ENERGY GENERATION

The map presents information on existing power plants location in UK and monopoly situation of Big 6 supplier. In the traditional energy market, suppliers buy energy on the wholesale market from power plants, then transport by national grid managed by 10 network operator companies. Nowadays, Big 6 supply energy to over 90% of UK households. The market space for smaller suppliers is extremely narrow. Without these competitors, the energy price of Big 6 is hard to control. Ofgem, the supervisor of the UK electricity market, gradually loses its power. People in the UK, especially those who live in poor region, blame Big 6 for high price and poor service, blame the existing system. Therefore, some new model needs to be proposed.

Off-grid is a young concept which stands against traditional energy model. In most case, it is based on community and clean energy. The generators using clean energy source produce energy, network connect properties with generators and transport energy. Since the stability of clean source like solar and hydro energy is still under improvement, the system needs the battery to store energy for management.

COMMERCIAL

INDUSTRY

WIND TURBINES

PV SOLAR PANELS

RESI D EN

TIAL

HOU SE

S

TIDAL TURBINES

Map of Energy Market

BATTERY Store remained electricity for future usage and distribution

Drawn by J. LIANG

Off-grid System Concept

Map sources from Exchange Utility, DBEIS

Drawn by J. LIANG


Coastal Engines

Equipment Catalogue To actualize Coastal Engine concept in Swansea Dock, a series of devices are in need to build a network. The catalog below presents basic elements and corresponding parameters, including turbines, batteries, and cables. They work together in the process of electricity generation, transportation, and management. The network also provides the possibility to the community-based, public-owned energy business model, which is regarded as the trend of the UK electricity market.

Electricity Network Drawn by J. LIANG

Diagram of Cable Trench

Data from TESLA

Drawn by J. LIANG

ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION

To make use of the abundant tidal resource of Swansea, an electricity network needs to be built. Three turbines work as engines to generate electricity each time when tidal current flows through them. Underground cable trench connect all buildings and infrastructures around Swansea Dock and expand to outside city, finally, it becomes a network transporting energy from sea to every corner of Swansea. To show our proposals, we’ve set the phase 1 site, to implement our design step by step. Important knowledge and advice were gotten from experts and Swansea city council.

Electricity Network Drawn by J. LIANG

Turbines Turbines Turbines Turbines Turbines Turbines

6.75m

6.75m 6.75m

6.75m

6.75m

Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries

Cables Cables CablesCables CablesCables

Turbines

6.75m

6.75m

Household Household cableHousehold cable Household cable Household cable Household cable cable Covered Covered Covered line wire, lineCovered line wire, Aluminum wire, Covered Aluminum line Aluminum wire, Covered line Aluminum wire,line Aluminum wire, Aluminum

Insulation

Insulation Seperator

Seperator

Conductor Seperator Insulation

Insulation Conductor Insulation

Also, for Also, temporary Also, for temporary for temporary service Also, for service Also, and temporary service for andtemporary Also, andservice for temporary service and and service and street street lightstreet installations. lightlight installations. street installations. light streetinstallations. lightstreet installations. light installations. UnderUnder 450/750V Under 450/750V 450/750V voltage Under voltage 450/750V Under voltage450/750V Under voltage450/750V voltage voltage

1.5m

3.0m

Turbine

Size: 753*1150*147mm Size:Size: 753*1150*147mm 753*1150*147mm Size: 753*1150*147mm Size: 753*1150*147mm Size: 753*1150*147mm AC voltage: AC voltage: AC120/240V voltage: 120/240V AC120/240V voltage: AC voltage: 120/240V AC120/240V voltage: 120/240V Cost: 12,749£ Cost: Cost: 12,749£ 12,749£ Cost: 12,749£ Cost: 12,749£ Cost: 12,749£

Generator 1.5m

Generator 1.5m

Turbine

Generator

Turbine Generator

Generator 1.5m

1.5m

1.5m

Turbine

Generator 3.0m

Turbine

Turbine 3.0m

3.0m

3.0m

3.0m

3.0m

Turbine

TeslaTesla Powerwall Tesla Powerwall Powerwall Tesla Tesla Powerwall Powerwall Tesla Powerwall

Seperator Insulation Conductor Seperator

Conductor

Conductor Seperator

Conductor

Linking Linking distribution Linking distribution distribution Linking network network Linking distribution and network and distribution Linking and network distribution network and and network and user’s user’s service user’s service head. service user’s head. head. service user’s service head. user’s head. service head.

Industrial Industrial cablecable cableIndustrial Industrial Industrial cable Industrial cable cable PVC PVC jacketed, PVC jacketed, jacketed, control PVCcontrol jacketed, PVC cable control jacketed, cable PVC cable control jacketed, control cable cable control cable

Maximum Maximum Maximum 600V voltage 600V Maximum 600V voltage voltage Maximum 600V voltage Maximum 600V voltage 600V voltage

Commercial Commercial cable cable Commercial Commercial cable Commercial cable Commercial cable cable Copper, Copper, Copper, PVC/Nylon PVC/Nylon Copper, PVC/Nylon Insulated Copper, PVC/Nylon Insulated Insulated Copper, PVC/Nylon Insulated PVC/Nylon InsulatedInsulated

Grounding Conductor Assembly Jacket Insulation

Maximum Maximum Maximum 600V voltage 600V Maximum 600V voltage voltage Maximum 600V voltage Maximum 600V voltage 600V voltage Jacket

Insulation Conductor Jacket Grounding Jacket Assembly Insulation

Grounding Insulation Assembly Grounding Conductor Jacket Assembly

Conductor

Insulation Conductor Grounding Conductor Insulation Assembly

Size: 1,308*822*2,185mm Size:Size: 1,308*822*2,185mm 1,308*822*2,185mm Size: 1,308*822*2,185mm Size: 1,308*822*2,185mm Size: 1,308*822*2,185mm AC voltage: AC voltage: AC380/480V voltage: 380/480V AC380/480V voltage: AC voltage: 380/480V AC380/480V voltage: 380/480V Capacity: Capacity: Capacity: 210kwh 210kwh each 210kwh Capacity: each Capacity: each 210kwhCapacity: 210kwh each each 210kwh each Cost: 119,270£ Cost: Cost: 119,270£ 119,270£ Cost: 119,270£ Cost: 119,270£ Cost: 119,270£

Grounding Jacket Assembly

TheseThese cables These cables arecables specifically are These specifically are cables These specifically cables are These specifically arecables specifically are specifically approved approved approved for power, for power, for approved control, power, control, approved for control, power, approved for power, control, for control, power, control, lighting lighting and lighting signal and and signal circuits, lighting signal circuits, lighting in and circuits, signal inand lighting incircuits, signaland circuits, insignalincircuits, in manufacturing, manufacturing, manufacturing, industrial manufacturing, industrial industrial and manufacturing, and and industrial manufacturing, industrial and industrial and and commercial commercial commercial installations. installations. commercial installations. commercial installations. commercial installations. installations.

TeslaTesla Powerpack Tesla Powerpack Powerpack Tesla Tesla Powerpack Powerpack Tesla Powerpack

500m N Turbine location

Commercial Industrial Residential

Turbine array for low water head and the underground

People in Swansea are really looking forward someway

network could the way to extract and transport tidal energy.

providing them cheaper energy.

Andritz Hydromatrix is one of the micro turbines array, which shows great performance in low water head situation, 3-15m. (The average depth of Swansea Dock is 10m.) Turbines array are installed at the bottom of the three docks respectively, near the water entrance.

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COASTAL ENGINES

There are 2 tidal movement circulations per day in Swansea, which means turbines generate electricity 4 times per day since each time water goes in or out of the dock there has tidal current change.

Prof. Dr. Ian Masters(Energy Safety Research Institute, Swansea university)

Sean Hathaway (Nature Conservation Team, City & County of Swansea)

The battery is indispensable in a decentralized energy system since it gives public ability to store energy, also allows people to manage their potential energy surplus, with smart meters. In Swansea Dock case, each building and every household have a battery. The size and parameter of the battery depending on actual need of property owners. Tesla Powerwall has been proved to work well as household battery, while Powerpack is suitable for higher voltage and capacity need in the industrial and commercial field.

1.5m

1m

Electricity network

And

Gros Unit Effic

Jacket

Insulation Jacket Insulation covering Assembly

GrossGross water Gross head: water water head: 3~15m Gross head: 3~15m water Gross 3~15m head: water Gross 3~15m head: water 3~15m head: 3~15m Unit output: UnitUnit output: 100~700kW output: 100~700kW Unit 100~700kW output: Unit output: 100~700kW Unit 100~700kW output: 100~700kW Efficiency: Efficiency: Efficiency: 85% 85% Efficiency: 85% Efficiency: 85% Efficiency: 85% 85%

Insulation covering Insulation JacketAssembly Insulation covering Conductor Assembly Jacket Insulation Conductor Jacket Insulation covering Assembly Insulation Insulation covering Conductor JacketAssembly

Conductor

Andritz Andritz Hydromatrix Andritz Hydromatrix Hydromatrix AndritzAndritz Hydromatrix Hydromatrix Andritz Hydromatrix

Conductor Insulation Insulation covering Conductor Assembly Insulation

For utilities For For utilities systems, utilities systems, For industrial systems, utilities For industrial utilities industrial plants systems, For plants systems, utilities plants industrial industrial systems, plants industrial plants plants and forand general and for general forpurpose general and purpose for orpurpose and applications general orforapplications or general purpose and applications forpurpose or general applications orpurpose applications or applications

Trench cover Cable hub

Cables link battery of every property with turbines, transporting energy from generators to users. In Swansea case, cables are installed underground as cable trench, following the road network.


New Business Model Based on knowledge from New Economic Foundation and Common Wealth Infrastructure, an electricity business model which appeal to decentralized, public-owned energy is proposed. Since those energy suppliers of UK have to meet the 10% quota of selling clean energy, people who own clean energy surplus can sell energy to suppliers to earn profit. In community case, the energy suplus can be collected and stored in community-owned battery array and sold to Big Six. The profit it gain will be allocated by proportion to property owners, the remaind can be used on turbines maintenance and system management.

Community-based energy business model Drawn by J. LIANG

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COASTAL ENGINES

Data from Green Alliance, Stephen Devlin, Gareth Evans

Folding page


NEW BUSINESS MODEL

Battery

Get Energy Pay for property

Residential Houses

Prince Turbine

Size: 753mm*1150mm*147mm

Residence

AC voltage: 120/240V

Smart Meter

Cost: 12,749£

62.1 MWh/Day Get Energy

Size: 1,308mm*822mm*2,185mm

Commercial Buildings

Kings Turbine

Energy Suppliers

AC voltage: 380/480V

Collect

Cost: 119,270£

Sell

Property Renter

Pa yf

or

ren

t

150.0 MWh/Day

Community Energy Cooperative

Queen Turbine

Surplus

Powerpack Batteries Array

Get Energy

Cable Trench Network

Size: 1,308mm*822mm*2,185mm

Industrial Buildings

Size: 1,308mm*822mm*2,185mm

AC voltage: 380/480V

AC voltage: 380/480V

Capacity: 210kwh/ Powerpack

Cost: 119,270£

Cost: 119,270£

111.7 MWh/Day Get Energy

Size: 753mm*1150mm*147mm

Infrastructure

Profit

City Council

AC voltage: 120/240V Cost: 12,749£

Profit Distribution by Cooperative Management Cost

Turbine Maintenance Cost

100

COASTAL ENGINES

Knowledge Sources: 1/ “Power Failure” from New Economic Foundation

Citizen, community, and public action can be a more direct and effective means of achieving aims that are unalterably collective in nature.

2/ This is how we’ll beat the Big 6, NEF

We can take control by setting up publicly owned energy supply companies that offer cheap tariffs by default and, crucially, are directly accountable to customers and citizens through democratic processes.

3/ Tesla Powerwall Datasheet& Powerpack Brochure

Parameter including size, function, performance.

4/ Energy Saving Community: Exporting electricity to the grid

Supplying the grid with surplus power requires you to sell it to a utility company – which now are being required to obtain at least 10% of their electricity supply from renewable, sustainable sources

5/ NEF case study on Abergwaun Community Renewable Group

Proof that there is great appetite in communities to own and manage their energy; Local investment and support from the Welsh government’s programme were key factors in making this project happen.

6/ Community Energy 2.0: The future role of local energy ownership in the UK, P5,21,32

For community energy groups to participate in the energy system and build innovative business models, a clear route to market has to be offered.


ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION

High Tide (Day)

High Tide (Night)

Turbines Operation (Day)

Turbines Operation (Night)

Low Tide (Day)

Low Tide (Night)

Folding page

Images were produced to show that turbines generate electricity 4 times per day since each time water goes in or out of the dock.

1

6

2

5

Coastal Engines

102

COASTAL ENGINES

3

4

Drawn by J. LIANG x M. HUANG Coastal Engines Video Made by J. LIANG


Second Proposal

Site Condition for Aquaculture

Next, we’ve thought about how we intersect dock regeneration, with the aquaculture industry to help us develop our past heritage, to support the disappeared local businesses and local industries, so we studied in detail its possibilities.

Before organizing IMTA, since our purpose of introducing IMTA was to revitalize the local historic industry that we had previously looked at, we’ve considered those followings as our main organisms. we’ve aimed to revive the oyster industry which was disappeared, to reintroduce the mussel industry which had run within dock already, and to reactivate seaweed industry that was also very popular at the heyday of Swansea. Also, we’d like to introduce finfish that would provide nutrients to each nutritional level. However, due to the site conditions of closed water body and low tide, we’ve tried to check the basic conditions and the possibility that which specific species could grow well in this situation, how to culture and so on, through the Aquaculture Feasibility Report for previous Tidal Lagoon project, which is similar condition or severe than ours. First of all, we’ve begun to check the site’s condition where IMTA organisms would be grown, and the main conditions were low tide conditions without water, current flow conditions within an enclosed structure, and dissolved oxygen for healthy and successful industries.

To do so, we’d like to introduce the Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture(IMTA). The purpose of IMTA is to recycle energy and disposal at each nutritional level to reduce investment in contamination and food supply in fish, shellfish and seaweed farm. Typically, it has certain recycling pattern which is each organism consume each other’s energy and disposal. Thus the organisms are gathered within a certain range. The following is a process with certain recycling cycles. Finfish is fed the grinded mussel, and the mussel eats organic matter, suspended particles in water, containing zooplankton and phytoplankton. And seaweed also produces energy by absorbing sunlight and inorganic elements. The reason why each organism of IMTA can consume each other’s energy and disposal is that of the current. Therefore, as a strong current flows, IMTA can be composed of a horizontal design over a wide area, and vertical design of IMTA is formed as there is ‘no’ current or becomes less. And these algae are also consumed for people, such as fuel, cosmetics, and food, and the mussels are again food for the finfish of IMTA or harvested for the people. And fish is sold mainly for people after harvest.

Researched by E. LEE Data from Aquafish Solutions Limited

Researched and Drawn by E. LEE Data from Regional Government of Galicia, Regional Council of the Rural, Regional Maritime Environment, Marine Research Centre

Swansea Bay is a hyper-tidal environment with a tidal range approaching 8.5 m on a mean spring tide and with an associated neap range of approximately 4 m. Modeling shown in this figure shows that with pumping at the end of the energy generation cycle the lagoon should exhibit similar, but offset, tidal extremes to that experienced outside the lagoon. Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Swansea Bay and the Tidal Lagoon Environment.”

104

HYBRID IMTA

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Predicted Tidal Extremes at High and Low Water Following Construction of the Lagoon Data from ABPmer (www.abpmer.co.uk)


The use of E. coli levels in bivalve mollusks as an indicator for Classification of harvesting waters is readily justifiable on scientific grounds as the presence of E. coli is evidence of recent contamination by human sewage or animal fecal matter. If high levels of E. coli are recorded, then this can have very serious economic impacts on shellfish growers as they are then required to either re-lay by moving stock to cleaner water or heat treat the shellfish. In terms of the Classification system, where ‘downgrades’ in Classifications from B to C take place then ultimately this may put the shellfish farmer out of business as the extra work involved in re-laying, or the lower price received for heat-treated shellfish will often make the farm financially uneconomic to operate. For Swansea Tidal Lagoon, the predicted E. coli levels would result in a Shellfish Classification of between Class A to Class B which would be suitable for the production of bivalve shellfish. Further Intertek modeling of coastal water quality has shown that even with the wastewater outfall still in place, there is unlikely to be a significant impact on Dissolved Oxygen levels. The following figure shows a worst-case scenario for Dissolved Oxygen levels with the outfall still in place, a neap tide, no wind, summer temperatures, and maximum salinity. The changes shown in this following figure, even under a worst-case scenario, result in only a <5 % DO level decrease within the lagoon which would have no impact on shellfish aquaculture operations.

In terms of current speeds, modeling by ABPmer indicates that maximum flood flow speed on a spring tide will generally result in increased flows through the west, north, and east of the site, compared to baseline, with a slight decrease in the extreme south of the site as shown in the following figure. During mean spring tides, current speeds within the proposed lagoon site would be up to approximately 0.4 m per second in the southern area of the lagoon and up to 0.2 m per second in the northeast area of the lagoon. Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Swansea Bay and the Tidal Lagoon Environment.”

Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Classifications and Shellfish Hygiene.”

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Difference in Maximum Flood Tide Flow Speed within the Lagoon Data from ABPmer (www.abpmer.co.uk)

Modeling of maximum ebb flow speeds shows a small decrease in flow speeds compared to baseline across the lagoon site of around 0.05 to 0.30 meters per second with the exception of the area immediately inside the turbines to the southwest of the site. Modelling of Dissolved Oxygen Levels Before and After Lagoon Construction Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Swansea Bay and the Tidal Lagoon Environment.”

Data from Intertek (www.intertek.com)

Summary

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HYBRID IMTA

The modeling carried out by ABPmer and Intertek on behalf of TLSB indicates that, in general, the physical environment and water quality characteristics of the proposed lagoon would make it suitable for shellfish cultivation through aquaculture operations. There is some potential for sediment accumulation once the lagoon is operational but the biggest increases in bed thickness are predicted to be in the northwest of the lagoon which is most likely to be outside the area made available for aquaculture e.g. will be used for recreational use only. Predicted E. coli levels of under 500 per 100 ml seawater mean that it is possible that Class A Shellfish Classifications could be obtained which would give aquaculture operators a distinct advantage in terms of both marketing and levels of post-harvest processing requirements. After reviewing the feasibility report of the Tidal Lagoon Project, we’ve could review the possibility of introducing aquaculture into an enclosed water body, because it was generally accepted that the physical environment and water quality would be suitable for growing shellfish through aquaculture operations. Besides, having looked at the concerns about sediment accumulation, we’ve considered not placing aquaculture at each end of the dock, the furthest away from the turbine. Water Flow Rates on an Ebb Tide Following Lagoon Construction Data from ABPmer (www.abpmer.co.uk)

Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Summary.”


Oyster Selection (Crassostrea gigas)

Cultivation Techniques

After reviewing the basic environmental conditions, we’ve entered into a more detailed species selection. The followings provide a general overview of intertidal triploid Pacific oyster cultivation and limitations on the types of culture techniques that could be considered at present in Welsh waters.

- Pacific oysters are usually grown in plastic mesh bags secured to metal trestles in the intertidal zone. Wiremesh ‘trays’ are also available. The following figure shows a comparison between the traditional French-style poche bags with rigid steel trestles and the ORTAC rigid cylinder and a one-piece steel staple.

Researched by E. LEE Data from Aquafish Solutions Limited

- Other alternatives to the French poche bag system include the rigid cylinder containers produced by the Australian companies Aquapurse, SEAPA and BST-Boddingtons. Depending on the prevailing environmental conditions these systems can be mounted on high-tension longlines or on steel or wooden trestles. - Alternatively, in some areas, Pacific oysters may be laid directly on to the seabed or on to ‘mats’ laid on very soft substrates. The seabed plots are often known as ‘parcs’.

- Pacific oysters can also be ‘ranched’ i.e. scattered on sea bed without predator protection. This technique is carried out successfully on one existing sub-littoral south coast site and there it has the advantage of allowing the increased use of mechanisation through the use of an aquaculture barge or ‘eco-harvester’ with an elevator dredge fitted with fluidising head. - Discussions with NRW have however indicated that at present Pacific oyster cultivation even with triploid seed will only be considered within containment e.g. bags or cylinders. - A French style ‘chaland’ aquaculture barge may be the most appropriate form of access for sites where impact on designated features/species, e.g. over wintering birds in the intertidal zone) needs to be avoided.

Aquafish Solutions Limited, “Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas).”

Intertidally Grown Pacific Oysters © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

Intertidally Grown Pacific Oysters © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

- Seawater temperatures above 8 – 9 oC for much of the year are preferable for fastest growth - Salinity generally above 20 PSU in an intertidal area sheltered from extreme wave action or strong tidal flows. - For preference, the seabed should be clean and firm in order to avoid siltation and support the trestles. Areas where the waters carry a very high silt load should be avoided as this can cause smothering. - A tidal flow of 1 –2 knots (50 - 100 cm per second) is optimal as this will ensure a good supply of food, although less (around 0.5 knots) is acceptable. - The trestles should be arranged to maximise seawater flow through the site. If this is not achieved it can result in decreased food availability to the oysters and increased sedimentation around the trestles. - Maximum of 4 hours aerial exposure per tidal cycle for good growth, less is preferable. The longer the period of immersion the better the growth rate, although some exposure is required to promote shell hardness. - During winter months, exposure to very cold winds and air temperatures close to or below freezing can cause the oysters to die. Similarly, air exposure during hot summer days should also be avoided. - Areas with poor water exchange should be avoided as this may result in oxygen depletion, particularly during warm weather. This can weaken or kill the stock.

Cultivation on trestles – French Poche system © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

- Seed or ‘spat’ oysters are purchased from dedicated hatcheries. They are available in a variety of size grades, usually from 4 mm – 30 mm shell length. The size grade quoted by suppliers generally refers to the size of mesh used to sort the oyster seed (3 – 14 mm mesh). - Part-grown or ‘half-ware’ oysters may also be purchased from suppliers who specialise in this market. They are generally graded by weight and are usually sold at between 4 g – 15 g. Larger sizes can also be purchased. Oysters > 10 g are generally suitable for laying directly on to parcs as they are large enough to be safe from most predators. - Where oysters are grown in bags to harvest, the size of the mesh in the bags is increased progressively as the oysters grow. Oyster seed between 4 – 8 mm shell-length is generally placed in 2 mm mesh bags. At 8 – 15 mm shell-length, 4 mm mesh is used. From 15 – 25 mm shell-length the bag is usually of 7 – 8 mm mesh and above 25 mm shell-length, 14 mm mesh is used. By final harvest the bags are generally of 18 – 25 mm mesh. As a general rule the largest mesh that will still retain all the stock is used as this promotes good water flow and optimises growth.

ORTAC staple © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

- The density of the stock within the bags is also reduced progressively as the animals grow. The dimensions of the bags vary between suppliers, but as a general guide stocking densities are approximately: up to 15 mm, 2 000 - 3 000 per m2; > 25 mm, 1 500 per m2; > 50 mm, 500 per m2. Optimal stocking densities for best growth vary from site to site and must be determined by trials. - The bags must be turned and the oysters redistributed every 2 weeks (spring tides) during the summer growing season and once a month or less (if very cold for instance) during the winter. Less intensive cultivation, i.e. at lower stocking densities, can reduce the need to turn the bags as space for optimal growth is not restricted. However, turning is still required to reduce fouling on the upper surfaces of the bags. In northern areas, it may not be necessary to disturb the stock during the winter, but they should be monitored in any event.

BST system(Left) Aquapurse system(Right) © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

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- Monitor the stock, thin, remove dead shells and transfer to larger mesh bags as required. Remove any predators and fouling as encountered.

Pacific Oyster Cultivation in Managed Parcs © Aquafish Solutions Ltd.

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Biology & Environmental Requirements


Equipment

Oyster for Market

- Tractor and trailer (or equivalent) or boat for foreshore access and working. A boat or barge may be required for some sites.

This selected oyster species can be marketed as fresh oysters, frozen, canned, smoked and sauces after harvesting, and even the use of oyster bags, knives and dispensers can be considered to expand the industry. In addition, introducing oyster culture was thought that the introduction of this industry would have a good influence on the Swansea fishery economy after looking at the outline of market wet value, labor volume, and infrastructure area as well.

- Other vehicles for road transport; Forklift for bulk handling. - Oysters bags and trestles on which to support them. - Storage and dispatch facilities. - Depuration facilities. - Pressure washer; Weighing and grading machines etc.

70-100 g

7.5 cm

Frozen oyster

Fresh oyster(shell on)

Mesh bag

24/7 Dispenser

Harvest - Stock may be harvested and marketed year-round. However, occasional problems with flesh quality, i.e. reduced condition, may occur in late summer if the oysters have spawned. Spawning may occur in southern England during very warm summers or at particular sites.

Knife

Canned oyster

Wet Value: £5,300 / t

Smoked oyster

- The size at harvest varies between markets but is generally from 75 g upwards. It can take 2.5 – 3 years to first harvest although 2 years is achievable depending on the location and method of culture.

Labour: 3.4 t / 1 person

- At harvest the bags are removed from the trestles and transported to the processing plant. Here the stock is removed from the bags and washed which then allows dead shell to be discarded.

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Sauce Total Area: 20 ㎡ / t

- Once cleaned, the stock is then graded into different sizes - this is usually by weight. Grading can be done automatically or by hand. Mechanised grading is faster, but it increases the stress on the oyster.

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- Oysters are normally depurated before being sent to market. This can take place before or after grading and can be done in-house or contracted out. It may be required by the buyer even if the stock is from Class A harvesting waters.

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- The stock should be packed into suitable containers for transport to market. This can vary from polystyrene fish boxes (for bulk) to decorative wooden punnets (point-ofsale display). - Transport to market should be in chilled containers. Alternatively, the stock can be covered with ice as long as this does not come into direct contact with the oysters. Hatcher y

Porphyra spp.

Suitability for Cultivation within the Proposed Lagoon

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It is regarded that intertidal Pacific oyster cultivation (within containment) to have a High Technical Feasibility Potential and a Low-Risk level due to environmental factors (based on current knowledge and therefore subject to change). Also, it is considered that intertidal seabed Pacific oyster cultivation to have a Moderate Technical Feasibility Potential and a Moderate Risk level due to environmental factors (based on current knowledge and therefore subject to change).

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Mussel Selection (Mytilus edulis)

Mussel for Market

Biology & Environmental Requirements

After harvesting, it can be sold in a variety of fresh oyster, frozen, and cooked forms, and can be used in other organisms’ feed, such as snails and shrimp. In addition, when the mussel culture is introduced, based on the outline of the market wet value, labor load, and infrastructure area, we’ve found the mussel cultivation has a lower value than the oyster industry and requires a little more facility area.

- Mussels are tolerant to a wide temperature range (2.5 oC – 19 oC) with optimum temperatures for growth falling in the middle of this range. - Salinity should generally be above 20 PSU and up to 30 PSU in areas sheltered from extreme wave action or strong tidal flows. - Tidal flows of 1 – 2 knots (50 - 100 cm per second) are optimal, although less is acceptable.

Cultivation Techniques - The Bouchot pole cultivation system is widely practised in France. - With this system, hardwood posts are driven into the substrate by mechanical means. - Mussel lines are wrapped around the posts and nailed in place. - Mussels are periodically graded and reattached in order to maintain an optimum stocking density. - Depending on the prevailing exposure, the mussels may be kept contained within socking which can be biodegradable (cotton) or can remain permanently in place (nylon).

Fresh Mussel

Shrimp Feed

Snail Feed

Frozen Mussel

Equipment Wet Value: £1,370 / t

- Hardwood posts driven into the substrate and arranged in rows for ease of harvesting - Rope mussel socking (nylon or cotton). - Other vehicles for road transport. - Storage and dispatch facilities. - Depuration facilities. - Weighing and grading machines. - Packing systems.

Labour: 3.4 t / 1 person AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Cooked Mussel Total Area: 30 ㎡ / t

Harvest

Suitability for Cultivation within the Proposed Lagoon

- Harvest of Bouchot mussels normally takes place after approximately 18 months to 2 years in good growing conditions.

It is considered intertidal Bouchot mussel cultivation to have a High Technical Feasibility Potential and a Low Risk level due to environmental factors (based on current knowledge and therefore subject to change).

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- Harvesting can be carried out by hand or by use of specialised harvesting boats.

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- After harvesting the mussels will need to be processed in order to remove byssus thread, dead shell, debris and mud. Researched by E. LEE Data from Aquafish Solutions Limited

Hatcher y

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Seaweed Selection (Porphyra spp)

Seaweed for Market

Biology & Environmental Requirements

After harvesting, the algae can be sold in the form of fresh seaweed, laverbread, and nori sheet, and can be used for other animal feed and cosmetics. Also, as it was a local historical industry, it Is valuable to revitalize the industry, and the value increased more than four times when processed into sheets rather than wet values. The amount of labor required per ton was the least compared to other organisms, and the area of the facility involved was the largest.

Turbidity levels in terms of light penetration and suspended solid levels in terms of the potential for smothering are also important. Powell states that for Porphyra, some rain is an advantage since it brings nutrients via run-off but low salinities can be deleterious as this reduces disease resistance. However, initial indications are that the lower intertidal environment within the lagoon may be suitable for Porphyra cultivation as long as turbidity and suspended solid levels are not too high.

Cultivation Techniques

Conclusions Regarding Intertidal Area

An established method for seaweed cultivation is to drive fixed vertical piling into soft substrates and then string ropes or nets between them. Seaweed is then seeded directly onto these ropes and nets, or pieces are placed into the twist of the ropes.

There is a potential area within the intertidal zone of the proposed lagoon available for macroalgae cultivation although this would require trials to see if cultivation is feasible. Porphyra cultivation may be possible, but its potential for successful growth at this location needs to be confirmed by examination of various water parameters. If these parameters were to prove adequate (e.g. low turbidity and no smothering effects through suspended solids) then we consider intertidal Porphyra cultivation on nets to have a High Technical Feasibility Potential and a Moderate Risk level due to environmental factors (based on current knowledge and therefore subject to change).

These ropes would be fully exposed at low tide, and so only highly desiccation resistant species could be cultured. A suitable species for this cultivation technique could be Porphyra spp. This species grows as thin, fast-growing sheets, tolerant to very high light and desiccation. It has high value as a food; used to make nori sheets or the local Welsh delicacy known as laverbread.

Harvest Due to its morphology, Porphyra can only be grown at low densities on the nets (1 - 3 kg per m2) and harvesting would be labour intensive. It is usually grown on nets in calm areas and harvesting is performed every three weeks and can be mechanized to improve profitability.

3g

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19 cm

Since the final biomass of Porphyra only has value as a food, other characteristics of the water quality would be very important. In particular, the concentrations of fecal coliforms and possibly also suspended solids should be examined (Ref: Kerrison and Hughes, 2015). Modeling of E. coli levels carried out by Intertek would indicate that the Classification for shellfish harvesting purposes may be as high as Class A. This would seem to indicate therefore that water quality within the lagoon would be sufficiently high to consider the cultivation of macroalgae for human consumption.

Sheet Feeds / Supplements

Cosmetics

Laverbread Wet: £659 / t Dry: £10,210 / t Sheet: £27,230 / t Labour: 6.7 t / 1 person

Seaweed

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Total Area: 34.5 ㎡ / t

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Researched by E. LEE Data from Powell, A., 2011. Feasibility Report: Welsh Porphyra farm. Report for Salacia-Marine, Aquafish Solutions Limited

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Intertidal Porphyra Farming in Japan © genderaquafish.org

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Finfish Selection (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Rainbow Trout for Market

As for finfish selection, the salmon, seatrout, and cod were considered when looking at the cage farming methods and farming conditions that are commonly used in this field. However, cod did not have much market value due to poor value for money, and salmon was thought to have a barrier to entry, mainly because the market in Norway and Scotland are very active. Therefore, we’ve thought the most productive and marketable rainbow trout in Wales was found to be suitable for our site.

These rainbow trout can be sold in the form of fresh, frozen, fillet, canned, smoked after harvesting, and furthermore, this cultivation industry has the linkage with fish meal, and angling. And it mainly is consumed for human.

Researched by E. LEE Data from The Welsh Government,

Fresh / Frozen trout

Fillet Angling Fish meal

Summary of the Key Environmental Requirements the Finfish Cage Culture

Wet Value: £2,200 / t

Canned

Labour: 2.8 t / 1 person

Smoked

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Total Area: 10.1 ㎡ / t Also, when we’ve checked the business size of rainbow trout in Wales, it was the biggest finfish industry in 2012, based on the CEFAS report. Production of larger fish (recorded by weight in tonnes) is reported as harvest for human consumption (i.e. for the table), for further on-growing on a fish farm, for release into the wild (for restocking or angling) or for the ornamental trade. In 2012, finfish farms produced 8,709 tonnes in England and 453 tonnes in Wales, the bulk of this production being rainbow trout.

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Finfish production in Wales Data from CEFAS Hatcher y

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Cultivation Methods

Hybrid IMTA Structure

After selecting these species for our IMTA organisms, we’ve started to think about the cultivation methods, based on that research. Then, among many different types of IMTA structure, we’ve found these, which are can be a smaller size and viable, under our site conditions, which are low tide period twice a day and enclosed water.

Based on that founding, we’ve modified it and invented this hybrid IMTA structure. This single structure can be an on-growing spot as a mussel, seaweed, oyster, or fish farm. And also if we put more, it can be linked together, and then create the network as urban infrastructure.

Oyster Bag © Zapco Aquaculture

Mussel Pole © Shutterstock

Aquaculture Cultivation Structures and Swansea Dock

Nori Aquaculture at Ariake © 2019 Japonte Ltd

Drawn by M. HUANG x E. LEE Data sources from Google Inc.

Hybrid IMTA Structure From a Small Boat, Two Fishermen © 2019 Storyblocks.com

Drawn by E. LEE

Aquaculture Seaweed Mussel Oyster

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Activitiy

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Accesibility

Leisure : Sports

Network

Cultural : Education

- Connection - Footpath - Bicycle path

Economic : Aquaculture

After the creation of this hybrid structure, we needed to think, how many structures we need, to deploy into our site, to perform well, as an IMTA system. Thus we’ve calculated, the required amount for each species and got this one unit of hybrid IMTA. If we have 1 fish cage, we need 1 structure for oyster, and 4 mussel poles and 4 structures of seaweed. Then they will be put, in a bidirectional composition, because of the water in and out to ensure other organisms can consume the energy and disposal from finfish. Besides, since the fish cage is floating, it makes fishes be grown, when the tide is low, continuously. Also, this one hybrid IMTA unit has the connectivity by themselves, so that it can take a role as a functional urban structure as well.

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Rainbow Trout

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Swansea Dock without IMTA Unit Drawn by E. LEE

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

Swansea Dock with One IMTA Unit (High Tide) Drawn by E. LEE

Then we’ve begun to see the possibilities how this connectivity of this one IMTA unit can be diversified and to see the spatial outcomes as well, by producing the physical model. From that, as a result, this activity has given us the spatial hints for our further design step.

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Physical Modeling of IMTA © J. LIANG

Swansea Dock with One IMTA Unit (Low Tide) Drawn by E. LEE


Model Thinking Process

Single Unit Structure

A physical model was built to explore the possibilities of the network structure depending on the various direction of water current and tide location. Possible activities on the pathway were also discussed by season.

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

The shape of the prototype depends on the amount of IMTA unit and water current direction of the site. The more IMTA units, the more possibilities of water space it has, as structures can shape different spaces, also the water level can make differences. Single Unit Structure

Since fish waste spreads by water. The seaweed and oyster structure need to follow the water current direction to catch as much fish waste as possible. Model of Hybrid IMTA Prototype

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Made by J. LIANG

Made by J. LIANG

IMTA Output Chart


Double Unit Structures

Triple Unit Structures

AQUACULTURE (IMTA)

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IMTA Output Chart

Doube Unit Structure

Triple Unit Structure

Made by J. LIANG

Made by J. LIANG

IMTA Output Chart


Possibilities of New Function After looking at these various configurations, we’ve found the more IMTA units can create the more interesting hydro scapes. Thus, we’ve chosen the triple IMTA unit as a scenario for further exploration of possible activities and functions, that could be introduced into these manufactured spaces, based on the seasonality. Depending on temperature differences of four season in Swansea, people behavior and activities are varied. In Spring, Swansea temperature is 40-50F, activities mainly can be deployed with off-water, such as jogging, walking, cycling, meditating. Also, the water level caused by tidal movement brings more scene on this structure.

Spring high tide activities

Spring low tide activities

Drawn by J. LIANG

Drawn by J. LIANG

In summer, Swansea temperature is 56-67F. Since water gets warmer, people can have water activities like swimming, Rowing, Scuba diving, and boat fishing. when the water level is low, people can make use of the 3 meters water depth to do water safety education or have family swimming.

Summer high tide activities

Summer low tide activities

Drawn by J. LIANG

Drawn by J. LIANG

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AQUACULTURE (IMTA)


In autumn, Swansea temperature is 50-61F, both water activities and off-water activities are suitable, people can also sit on the structure around the closed open space to watch the show on both low tide and high tide.

Autumn high tide activities

Autumn low tide activities

Drawn by J. LIANG

Drawn by J. LIANG

In winter, Swansea temperature is 38-46F. Outdoor activities become less than the other three seasons. However, IMTA harvesting relies on the cold weather a lot, therefore fishermen can harvest aquaculture product and prepare for the next year work.

Winter high tide activities

Winter low tide activities

Drawn by J. LIANG

Drawn by J. LIANG

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AQUACULTURE (IMTA)


Start to Deploy

After formulating our two main proposals on energy and aquaculture sector for the local community, we’ve begun to think about how we could intersect our plans, with our real site, within one scenario. However, within three docks, there was no connection and chance to be changed into our IMTA structure. Thus for the further step, we needed to produce the network above the water. By doing so, it can also enhance the accessibility within our site for the increasing footfall as well to revitalize and activate this heritage site properly.

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Thus, using those points, if we connect every point, we might get all of the possibilities that can be the network. Thus from this exercise, we’ve started to formulate the algorithm, so that we can resample and define these all possibilities, into our new network design.

Made by M. HUANG x J. LIANG Data source from Google Inc.

Strategic Points Example Made by M. HUANG x E. LEE Data source from Google Inc.

Strategic Networks Example Made by M. HUANG x E. LEE

Researched by M. HUANG

Data source from Google Inc.

SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

HOW TO DEPLOY

To do so, we will use some strategic points, which are from the existing network and the attraction points on the site, to decide as a starting and ending point of the network. Basically, within our site, we already have existing entrance points. The attraction points on the land and water space, also from the Space-Syntax analysis tool, which is simulating, where is the high-density area, we could get the results and points from the water, for the certain scenario.

Absence of Deployment Chances


Frei Otto Wool Experiments To do so, we’ve started some experimental exercises. Firstly, we’ve been inspired by this following method and started to consider making our algorithm. At the beginning of the 1990s, Frei Otto and his team at the Institute for Lightweight Structures in Stuttgart studied what they called “Optimized Path Systems.” In the course of the research, they conducted a variety of experiments. The material interactions frequently result in a geometry that is based on the complex material behaviour of elasticity and variability. Sand, balloons, paper, soap film (including the famous minimal surfaces for the Munich Olympic Stadium), soap bubbles, glue, varnish, and the ones I will be referring to here: the wool-thread machines. This last technique was used to calculate the shape of two-dimensional city patterns, but also of three-dimensional cancellous bone structure or branching column systems. They are all similar vectorized systems that economize on the number of paths, meaning they share a geometry of merging and bifurcating.

Technical Algorithm Introduction In order to restore this experimental phenomenon, we used grasshopper to simulate the process of this change. The principle of this definition operation is to divide the line of the original Direct path into several segments and then connect to a spring (spring from line), the point of the split is connected to a power (Powerlaw), and then the simulation process can be completed with the Kangaroo operator. Finally, those points and segments are rearranged under the force of the introduction force. The last from the control points is the re-establishment of the new Curve from the point of the operation, which is the optimization path we need.

Researched by M. HUANG Frei Otto sketching in his studio circa 1970 © Atelier frei otto warmbronn

Grasshopper script of wool thread experiments Made by M. HUANG

Minimized Detour Path System (Wet Thread Model): Frei Otto, Apparatus for computing minimal path systems, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, 1988 The analog model finds the minimal path system, that is, the system connects a distributed set of given points, thus the overall length of the path system is minimized. Each point is reached but there is a considerable imposition of detours between some pairs of points. The system is a tree (branching system) without any redundant connections. The previous systems represent two extreme solutions, presenting great advantages as well as disadvantages in terms of length and detour. Schaur (1992) presents an experimental model for obtaining minimized detour path systems: a thread direct path system is relaxed with an extra length, corresponding to the maximum allowed deviation, and then the structure is immersed in water whose surface tension forces the threads to bind and trunk, resulting in a shorter network. It combines the advantages of the previous two systems: length and detour are optimized, and a clearly recognizable group of self-generated shapes emerges, even though each experiment produces a distinct form.

Process Introduction First, we created a square in rhino, arbitrarily selected some points on the side length. Imagine that the square is a city range, or a building, and those selected points are the ones we want to create connections between each other. The function space is by using Direct path. The lines in the figure represent the connections between all the required functions.

These lines cannot be directly used to convert into quality spaces and passages. So we used Frei Otto’s wool tread model to simulate and optimize the rough road network system. After optimizing with Grasshopper (mainly using Kangaroo), we can get results that are very similar to real wool simulation.

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Diagrams of Wool Thread Experiment Drawn by M. HUANG Researched by M. HUANG Data from ILEK

SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

Depending on the adjustable parameter of the thread’s sur-length, the apparatus – through the fusion of threads – computes a solution that significantly reduces the overall length of the path system while maintaining a low average detour factor.

As shown on the right, the red dot is the target point mentioned above, that is, the functional space that needs to be connected. The dotted line between each other is Direct path, and the bold thick line in the figure is the optimized result. Of course, this optimization, as a result, you can control the adsorption intensity and the range of influence by adjusting some parameter values in Grasshopper, thus affecting the final shape of the new road network. It can be seen that many of the rough linear connections in the figure are stuck together by an absorbing force, thereby reducing the length of the total path.


Multiple Control Points Simulation

Units Organization

Few Points Setting Single Group

Double Group

Balanced Points Setting

Triple Group

Many Points Setting

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In the next simulation experiment, we still continue the previous practice. First set a square to represent the scope of the venue; next, we want to set a different number of control points and therefore get different results, they are small, equal and a large number of points. By comparing the experimental results, we have come to the conclusion that the number and location of the control points will greatly affect the shape and density of the network.

We extracted some of the results from the previous phase of the simulation experiment, categorizing them into different units, such as single to multiple, in order to meet the different site functional requirements in future designs. Then extract the most core main curve and simplify them into the central line of the road network, and offset a distance away, and finally form different network structures and spatial forms.

Control Points Simulation

Units Organization Diagrams

Drawn by M. HUANG

Drawn by M. HUANG

SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

HOW TO DEPLOY

Multiple Group


Facilities Arrangement on Prototype

Single Group

network edge current direction

Double Group

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open water: 9920 m2 fish cages: 35 units oyster: 35 units mussel: 35 units sea weed: 70 units

Activity Usage

open water: 7056 m2 fish cages: 36 units oyster: 36 units mussel: 36 units sea weed: 72 units

Mixed Usage

open water: 8400 m2 fish cages: 51 units oyster: 51 units mussel: 51 units sea weed: 102 units

Mixed Usage

open water: 5936 m2 fish cages: 48 units oyster: 48 units mussel: 48 units sea weed: 96 units

IMTA Usage

open water: 6816 m2 fish cages: 65 units oyster: 65 units mussel: 65 units sea weed: 130 units

IMTA Usage

open water: 5312 m2 fish cages: 54 units oyster: 54 units mussel: 54 units sea weed: 108 units

Triple Group

network edge current direction

Multiple Group

network edge current direction

Activity Usage

open water: 7088 m2 fish cages: 48 units oyster: 48 units mussel: 48 units sea weed: 96 units

Activity Usage

open water: 7764 m2 fish cages: 58 units oyster: 58 units mussel: 58 units sea weed: 116 units

At this stage, we extracted four typical road network structures as our prototypes from each unit group and decided to use them to be our prototype. First of all, we have added the direction of water flow as the basic principle, because the arrangement of the IMTA system has a high demand for water flow direction. Secondly, according to different activity requirements, we divide the layout principle into three types: activity use, mixed-use, and IMTA use. Therefore, the aquaculture production and site space patterns we receive will be different as well.

Diagrams of Facilities Arrangement Drawn by M. HUANG

Mixed Usage

open water: 6432 m2 fish cages: 55 units oyster: 55 units mussel: 55 units sea weed: 110 units

Mixed Usage

open water: 8848 m2 fish cages: 71 units oyster: 71 units mussel: 71 units sea weed: 142 units

IMTA Usage

open water: 5872 m2 fish cages: 61 units oyster: 61 units mussel: 61 units sea weed: 122 units

IMTA Usage

open water: 6368 m2 fish cages: 74 units oyster: 74 units mussel: 74 units sea weed: 148 units

SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

HOW TO DEPLOY

network edge current direction

Activity Usage


Prototype Testing Stage_03 Test Purpose

Next, we extract the curves from the final simulation results and organize them for initial screening.

Around the beginning of the 1990s, Frei Otto and his team at the Institute for Lightweight Structures in Stuttgart studied what they called “optimized path systems.� In order to better control the shape and structure of the network, and to test the four prototypes we selected can work well in the field at the same time, we conducted the following tests to test our experimental results and for the next step preparation for the design in the site. Diagrams of Prototype Testing Drawn by M. HUANG

Stage_01

Stage_04

First, we set the scope of the site to a rectangle, which is closer to the shape of our dock; at the edge of the rectangle we set up a series of control points to represent some important attraction points, such as the main entrance and building of the site; Next, we have arranged some points inside the rectangle. We assume that the left and right sides of the site have a higher flow velocity, and we hope to get a denser network in these two areas. Finally, we will connect the points to each other through using direct path.

After getting the filtered curves, we redraw them and adjust the subtle parameters, such as rounding chamfer rate and radians, to set them as the centerline of the network.

direct path attractive points

Stage_02

Stage_05

At this stage, the straight line network is gradually exerting pressure, so their shapes slowly change and gradually attract each and become closer to each other. When the value of the pressure is maximized, the main curve network has been formed and effectively connected the control points we have previously set.

After offsetting the central line to both sides, we got the road network. From the observation, we got the experimental results we wanted, and the four different prototypes were produced in the position we looking for.

B type

D type A type

C type

A type

B type

C type

D type

Stage_06 Finally, we placed the previously designed IMTA facility system in the road network, and the entire test process ended. We will also use this system in the next actual site design.

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open water: 12,960 m2 fish cages: 538 units oyster: 538 units mussel: 538 units seaweed: 1076 units


Flow Chart of Points Selection

Flow Chart Introduction Through previous tests and experiments, we know that in order to operate a wool thread system well to generate the networks, choice of control points plays a very important role. In our actual site design, we completed the points selection in three different ways. Mainly, they are from the main traffic situation, site suitability test and the water areas central integration test. The flow chart on the right shows the main elements we considered at different stages and the tools we used.

Target

Search for Attraction Points

The area of water

Flow chart of points selection Drawn by M. HUANG

Stage 01

Stage 02

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existing traffic situation

setting site main entrances

looking for points around the dock

Space Syntax analysis

water area accessibility

looking for points from water area

main entrances accessibility

making site suitability maps

Result Points selection and overlapping

Space Syntax analysis

setting active areas in water

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Stage 03

looking for points outside of the dock


Looking for Points from the Outside of Dock

Process Introduction With regard to points selection, we began to focus on the basic information of the dock and its neighborhood areas. We consider that the existing traffic network around the site and the existing building layout are very important factors that need to be considered as the first priority, as this will directly affect the connection between the design of the future network and the original site conditions. Diagrams of Process Introduction Drawn by M. HUANG

Existing Traffic Network Existing Traffic Network First, we extracted the traffic network information of Swansea city from the open streetMap database and then selected the road network with a radius of about 2.5 kilometers for analysis. The road network includes information such as fast lanes, bridges, and secondary city roads.

Building Axial Map Next, we input the existing road network information into the UCL Depthmap system for analysis and drawing of the Axial Map. The axial map is the minimal set of axial lines such that the set taken together fully surveils the system, and that every Axial line that may connect two otherwise unconnected lines is included. From the integration analysis of the axis diagram, we can see that the integration of the city central areas is very high (the color of the road network is closer to red). On the contrary, when the road network extends to the dock area, the result shows a very low value ( The color is blue). The results of this analysis are consistent with the actual situation. We are paying more attention to the area where the cold and warm colors alternate, and we find that they are all located around the dock and the main entrance to the dock.

Axial Map Low

High

Selecting Points

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Selected Points

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Finally, by analyzing the existing traffic network and the axis map result, we selected some of the main control points around the dock, they connected the existing road network and distributed around the dock. These main control points can effectively link the future network of the terminal with the existing traffic conditions.


Site Suitability Testing_01

Process Introduction In order to find more potential and valuable points in our field, we started the second phase of the selection point. Considering the abandoned open space around the terminal, we plan to develop a series of related facilities to enhance the city’s vitality in the future, including commercial, residential and industrial (aquaculture and processing) production. Based on this idea, we need to design a system that helps us analyze and figure out the hidden information on the site. We mainly use the Space Syntax principle and a series of data analysis tools made by Grasshopper to get three values in the field: integration rate, water accessibility, and main entrance accessibility, and based on these three basic data for the next stage-Suitability map making. Site Integration Rate Value

Diagrams of Process Introduction Drawn by M. HUANG

Site Integration Rate In order to get the site integration rate, we used the Depthmap program. First, we input the boundary information of the site and several main entrances (black arrows) into this program. Then run the agent analysis. In the field of space syntax: an agent-based model is a simulation of Individual movement behaviour in which ‘agents’ choose their direction of movement based on a defined visual field derived from visibility graph analysis, in which agents have access to pre-computed information about what is visible from any given location on the map. Therefore, after the end of the agent analysis, we can get the results in the left picture. The color is warmer, representing the higher integration rate of the site, and the higher the agent’s across and stay time will be. This analysis is considered to be a good guide when we are choosing some relevant attraction points.

Water Accessibility Value

Water Accessibility On the other hand, we consider that water accessibility in the site is also a very important reference data in the process of selecting points. Due to the location and the dock boundary, the distance to the waters in the site is different. For some special functions, such as aquatic processing plants, waterfront houses, high near-water space is required. Therefore, we extract the boundary of the waters in the site, and cover the site equidistantly with a layer of lattice, then calculate the distance from each point to the water boundary through grasshopper, and give each point a corresponding size value by their distance.

Entrance Accessibility Value

Main Entrance Accessibility

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Site Phase_01 Boundary SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

Finally, the distance between the lattice in the field and several main entrances is also taken into account. Because we believe that the distribution of the main entrance will determine the layout of different functional zones in the site, such as the commercial zone and the industrial zone can be closer to the main entrance zone, which is conducive to the distribution of people and goods; on the contrary, the layout of the residential zone can be away from the main entrance. Get a quieter living space. Therefore, we use the calculation method similar to the water accessibility to obtain the distance of the main entrance in the field from each point in the lattice and also give the corresponding value.


Site Suitability Testing_02

Process Introduction After obtaining three different basic values (integration rate, water, and main entrance accessibility), we designed three scoring systems through different business requirements. In the previous stage, we have completed the normalization of the three values, and set their intervals to 0 to 100, in order to facilitate our final superposition operation. Finally, through grasshopper, it helps us to calculate the relatively high-value points in the corresponding aspects suitability map and complete the selection of potential points in the site.

Commercial Suitability Map Low

Diagrams of Process Introduction Drawn by M. HUANG

High

Commercial Suitability Map Inter value

WA value

EA value

100~90

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In the commercial area, it is clear that the integration rate plays a decisive role. We give the highest weight to the integration rate because it reflects the areas that people like to gather in the site, which is conducive to the development of commercial activities. Secondly, in the accessibility of the water and the main entrance, we gave a moderate score, hoping to achieve the good balance of the site.

Residential Suitability Map

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Residential Suitability Map

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In the residential area, we first give the highest weight to the accessibility of the water, because we want to install more waterfront residential areas; secondly, we select the integration rate value in the middle part, which can effectively avoid the conflicts commercial selection, as well as the noisy crowds; finally, the accessibility of the main entrance also selected a lower score interval in order to get a more peaceful environment.

Industrial Suitability Map Low

High

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In the industrial area, we give the highest weight to the accessibility of the water and the entrance. Because aquaculture and processing need to be closer to the water source, it is also necessary to access the main entrance and exit for transportation. In the integration rate, we have chosen the lowest part so that the high-scoring area can be given to commercial and residential choices.

Selected Points SHORT-MID-LONG TERM DESIGN

HOW TO DEPLOY

Industrial Suitability Map


Looking for Points from Water Area

Process Introduction After completing the point selection on the land, we started looking for more points in the water. Based on previous experiments and tests, we know that the number and location of points will determine the shape and density of the network, and the shape and density of the road network will also affect the layout of future IMTA systems and water activities. So we decided to find more potential points in the water area to prepare for future multi-functions and activities usage.

Setting Main Entrance and Boundary

Diagrams of Process Introduction Drawn by M. HUANG

Input Preparation In order to get at the point in the water, we decided to use the Agent Analysis in space syntax again. First, we selected the dock boundary in the phase_01 area as the input boundary. When releasing the agents from entrances and exits, we intentionally set these entrances near the dock edge, which is related to the previously relevant points selection, such as the main entrance control point, point from suitability testing and so on, in order to select the points from water can be effectively linked to the point on the land.

Agents Analysis

Integration rate in the water After completing the agents analysis, we can get the water area integration rate map as shown on the right. The cool color areas in the figure represent lower values, and people are often not willing to pass or gather in these areas; instead, warm color areas represent higher values. Through analysis, we found that people in the simulation are more willing to go and stay in the wide-open waters. This information also gives us general advice on the selection of points in the water.

Water Area Integration Rate

Point Selecting from Water

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Finally, we select a series of points from the region where they are near the high integration rate, in order to better control the shape and density of the network in these high-scoring regions, we can create more space for crowd gathering and pass by, and more possibility of IMTA facilities arrangement.


The Generation of Three Density Network

Process Introduction In the previous section, we selected a series of control points through three aspects (existing traffic situation, suitability test, and water area). Now we will use these selected points to generate a new road network on the site. Through the previous simulation, we know that the number and location of control points will affect the density and shape of the network. Therefore, we divide the points obtained into three groups(low, middle and high density) by selecting different numbers of points, and finally generate three different density networks.

Diagrams of Network Density Drawn by M. HUANG

Low Density Network First, we selected a small number of control points to generate a low-density road network. These control points are mainly distributed around the dock and there are no control points in the water is selected. The low-density network basically meets the requirements of accessibility in the site, which can effectively transport people to various locations.

Folding page Medium Density Network Next, we continue to use the control points of the previous low-density network, but we chose more points around the edge of the dock. At the same time, we have selected some points in the water in order to enhance the accessibility of the network in the high integration rate area. So we get a more complicated network system, which It not only meets the traffic transmission function in the venue but also creates a variety of flexible water spaces.

High Density Network

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On the basis of the medium-density network, we added all the water selected points to the generation of the high-density network. From the results, we can find that the water space generated by the original medium density network is completely replaced by a smaller group space. We think this is a good attempt because there are some areas in the site that need to be filled with these high-density groups, such as IMTA culture areas and special water activities areas.


The Process

The Process

of

of

The Process of

Low Density Network

Medium Density Network

High Density Network

Generation

Generation

Generation

Selected Points Arrangement

Direct Path

Wool Thread Theory Operation

Curves Resamplization

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Network Generation


Network Arrangement Strategy

Process Introduction After getting three different density networks, we’ve tried to use them better. We’ve considered that the medium-density network is most suitable as the basic network for the site, because it first effectively meets the accessibility of the site, and secondly it also has a rich and varied spatial form. On the other hand, we have found that high-density road networks are also very useful in certain areas. At this stage, we’ve planned to extract and merge the advantages of these two types of networks to make them function well together.

Input Medium Density Network First, the medium density network is selected as the basic network. Compared with the low and high-density network, the medium density network can effectively meet the high accessibility of each area in the site and has a rich and varied spatial form, which is beneficial to the next stage to be reedited according to different needs.

Folding page Input Current Situation At this stage, we input the water flow information into the site. Through the visualization of the water information, we can know which areas have higher flow velocity and more stable water flow direction. In the end, we selected some space in the medium density network, which can well meet the above two characteristics of water.

Adding High-Density Network

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After obtaining these selected water zones, we use its boundaries to extract high-density networks in the same location and merge them into the medium-density network. This approach not only ensures the high accessibility of the site but also enhances the density of the road network in some specific areas, in order to meet more different needs and more flexible spatial form.


A Scenario of Network Design

Using the medium-density network what we’ve chosen as the basic network for the site, and high-density networks for certain areas, we were able to get this spatial design for the phase 1 site of Swansea Dock. Although, in this book, we’ve suggested this algorithm that how we could deploy our strategies into the dock with one scenario of the part of the site as a phase 1 design. Hence, it means our algorithm could be applied to other phases for the total development as well.

Medium Density Network

Diagrams of Network Arrangement Strategy Drawn by M. HUANG

Overlapping Current Situation

High-Velocity Area Selection

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Adding High-Density Network


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Swansea Dock Drawn by E. LEE

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These sections are showing, how our initiative will look like vertically, under the different condition. The tidal dynamic produces two different landscapes, within one day. Hence, based on that point, we’ve considered the different daily programs and the structure types as well, which is floating or fixed according to the water level of docks. For the IMTA structure, once the pilot IMTA business has settled down well, we are able to enlarge the scale with local businesses and research institute as well, such as local seafood restaurant, Swansea seafood market, Swansea university and so on.


Coastal Engines is a concept as a prototype, it uses turbines and changes abandoned docks into energy engines taking use of tidal energy. In the UK, there are great amount of docks which have the potential to be the next coastal engine, especially in the Severn Estuary area. They produce electricity with tidal change and provide energy to itself and surroundings. The map depicts the future scene of community-based Coastal Engines, with tidal energy and energy decentralization. We hope this scene could be spread to bigger scale, the UK, and even the world.

Costal Engines Future Drawn by J.LIANG Map sources from Western Power Distribution, Goolge Inc.

Folding page

Our proposal is not only suggesting, how we can deal with the abandoned coastal infrastructure, by creating tidal energy but also, through our strategy, how the local community can be participated, as a key driver of local-based decentralized energy model. Furthermore, it is showing to reduce the construction costs of the lagoon definitely. And it is not necessary to invest a large number of funds at once, and it is reasonably built-in time, such as a 40-year plan through different phases. And also it will entirely decrease the possible environmental impact from the substantial artificial lagoon wall in Swansea Bay. Besides, it can eliminate the issue with other coastal community of the reoperating Cornish quarry to use three megatonnes stones since we introduce to use the existed maritime infrastructure.

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We think our design could be embedded and implemented, where has this kind of infrastructure. It can be a prototype for the other coastal community in the Bristol channel, showing the possible alternatives of actualization of the tidal project. And its small-scale decentralized energy production is put forward as an initiative for post-industrial maritime infrastructures in the UK and as an alternative for centralized energy management.


Milford Haven

Area: 73,000m2 Water depth: 17m Capacity: 5.9MW

Area: 838,000m2 Water depth:10m Capacity: 21.6MW

Milford Haven

Swansea Dock Port Talbot

Area: 408,000m2 Water depth: 17.7m Capacity: 35.0MW

Newport Port

Swansea Dock

Port Talbot

Barry Dock

Royal Portburry Dock Cardiff Port Area: 449,000m2 Water depth: 9.2m Capacity: 10.5MW

Barry Dock

Area: 405,500m2 Water depth: 10m Capacity: 5.5MW

Coastal Boundary

Area: 508,200m2 Water depth: 10m Capacity: 14.0MW

132kV/275kV Line 66kV Line 33kV Line 33kV/132kV Substation 66kV Substation Potential Costal Engines

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10km

Area: 370,000m2 Water depth: 14.5m Capacity: 21.7MW

Cardiff Port

Newport

Royal Portburry Dock


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SWANSEA NEW DEAL

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Folding page


LAND SCRIPT CASE STUDY MANUFACTURED GROUND


APPENDIX This chapter is an appendix that presents new possibilities for the manufactured ground, which uses Swansea Bay’s sediment as a long-term vision. We ‘ve obtained in an interview with sediment specialist that Swansea Bay’s strong tide activity makes sediment movements actively. We’ve looked at the geomorphology, from historical landscape to simulation of predictive scenario creation, to explore the possibilities for its availability. For instance, with our intervention, we might create a manufactured ground using this sediment movement, which can be used as a reaction to sea level rise for the longterm vision of climate change as soft engineering. In addition, the newly created soft landscape is an extension of the site to the outside of the Swansea Dock, and as an extension of the network, new space creation and various activities can be introduced.

Swansea Bay © E. LEE


Landscript of Swansea Bay First of all, we’ve begun to look into the historical geomorphology aspect. From the 1800s to the present, Swansea Bay has been able to confirm the accumulation of sediments from the Tawe River and the Neath River through historical Maps. Besides, because of that accumulation, we also could find the human agency of draining and channel securing for social activities.

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Right-hand Side of River Neath Estuary © Crymlyn Burrows, Baglan Burrows

Left-hand Side of River Neath Estuary © Crymlyn Burrows, Baglan Burrows

Researched by M. HUANG

Researched by M. HUANG

Swansea Bay Landscript / Researched and Captured by M. HUANG

Swansea Bay, 1799 © George Yates’ ‘A Map of the County of Glamorgan’

Swansea Bay, 1801 © William Morris’ Chart of Swansea Bay

Swansea Bay, 1826 © Crymlyn Burrows, Baglan Burrows and Baglan Bay

Swansea Bay, 1877 © Crymlyn Burrows and Baglan Burrows

Swansea Bay, 1901 © The Francis Frith Collection

Swansea Bay, 1923 © The Francis Frith Collection

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Swansea Bay, 1947 © The Francis Frith Collection

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Cost: ÂŁ60 million (85% Gov & 15% province)

Based on this understanding of the geomorphology of Swansea Bay, we have tried to document the movement of the sediments in Swansea Bay, the configuration type of sediments, and so on. Geomorphology of Swansea Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG

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LAND SCRIPT

Map sources from Digimap, BGS, Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council, Crymlyn Burrows, Baglan Burrows

We have also been able to identify sediment movements due to strong tidal activity not only in Swansea Bay, but also in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, and have visualized them as a map for geomorphological understanding. Thus we have been able to confirm the movement of abundant sediments by confirming the accumulation of constant sediments from nature, the dredging activity for the smooth functioning of the infrastructure facilities in the Bristol channel, and the human activities to re-deposit. Hence, we’ve thought there would be possibilities to manufacture a new landscape by using this natural resource and decided to look at the examples related to this.

Geomorphology of Area - A & B Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG Map sources from Digimap, BGS, Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council, Crymlyn Burrows, Baglan Burrows

Major Net Sediment Transport Pathways and Dredging Activities in South Wales Drawn by M. HUANG x Edited by J. LIANG Map sources from Digimap, The Crown Estate, Welsh Government


Sand Motor, Netherlands First of all, this is a Sand Motor in the Netherlands, a representative example of using a massive amount of sediments. The project was a pilot project that creates a unique sandscape while creating the effect of natural soft engineering that produces 35 ha of new beaches and dunes using the water flow and 21.5 million cubic meters of sand on the coast where recurrent erosion occurs. And the surface area after construction was 128 ha which is the same as 256 football pitches and the life span is up to 30 years. This project could reduce the cost per m3 by about 50% from standard scale nourishments. And this has become a popular location for kite surfing due to the unique landscape.

Researched by E. LEE data from Jaap Flikweert, Royal HaskoningDHV

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Location of Sand Motor © The sand motor

Development of the Sand Motor over the 15 Years © The sand motor

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Potential Sites of Sandscape Researchers who have done this have been collaborating with the UK on how these methods can be applied to the coasts of Britain, which are suffering from coastal erosion. They have proposed where these methods can be applied to high potential locations for England and Wales. As a result, we could confirm that Swansea Bay was the only one in the Bristol channel. High Potential Locations Identified for England and Wales

Images Zandmotor © John Curtin, RWS

© Jaap Flikweert, Royal HaskoningDHV


Whitley Lake, 03. 2016

Whitley Lake, Dorset, UK The following is a project which processed in the Dorset of South England region. Whitley Lake had proceeded the Whitley Lake Sea Feasibility Study from 11th March 2013 to 2018 to prevent loss of shoreline and marshland due to the coastal erosion. And the latest update was July 2016, which ended last year but has not yet been updated.

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Researched by E. LEE / data from BPC Council Arial Views of Whitley Lake Showing Saltmarsh Die-back 1952 – 2009 © 2015-2019 BPC Council

As a result of the interim results in March 2016, accumulation had occurred around stone island and vegetation been growing. Thus, they had placed stones around it to protect this new vegetation community and saltmarsh. Also, because there was a possibility stone island had accumulated marshland because of its location, not because of the material, so researchers had put the stone island in the same spot where they had removed the existing timber test and plastic test, to re-test whether it can accumulate the marshland again. After about two years, the project had been terminated, but no official announcement had been made yet. Project Progress Reports © 2015-2019 BPC Council Captured by E. LEE

Whitley Lake, 08. 2013

Accumulation of material around the stone islands before work is carried out

Spartina anglica growing

Stone is placed to protect remnant saltmarsh

Removing the sides of the timber trial islands before stone is placed

Placing the stone

The new islands

In August 2013, it had begun experimenting with the test area using three different types of materials: wood, plastic pipe, and stone island to test and see to how those can reproduce the saltmarsh. Saltmarsh Regeneration Trial Sites © Ordnance Survey, 2015-2019 BPC Council Captured by E. LEE Project Progress Reports © 2015-2019 BPC Council

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Captured by E. LEE


Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA This case is Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA that large and small scale restoration projects. The long, linear lagoon, which is about 20 miles long, is a naturally occurred lagoon and has a somewhat unusual lagoon appearance through human interventions as well.

John’s Island It is islands located in the Lagoon and was created by human interventions. The sediments had been dredged for the smooth flow of the channel seen from the image. And the sediments obtained from the draining activity have been deposited to form the island, and then mangroves have been planted thereon to create a natural ecosystem. As well as the 14-acre oyster bar has been created that filters the water as freshwater flows into the inlet from the canal. John’s Island © 2018 Palm Beach County, FL.

Researched by E. LEE

John’s Island, Lake Worth Lagoon © PBC ERM

data from Palm Beach County

Location of Lake Worth Lagoon Drawn by J. LIANG / data from Palm Beach County Lake Worth Lagoon Completed Projects 2008-2013 Drawn by J. LIANG / data from Palm Beach County, Google Inc.

Snook Island These islands have also settled within the lagoon, and as we can see, it is a new site created by human intervention. It has been built four islands and submerged land suitable for seagrass and created 2.2 acres of oyster reefs. And then it has been stabilized mangrove planting areas with 28,000 tons of limestone boulders. So it has restored 100 acres of wetland habitat. This is a plan of the island of Snook, and it is a new island constructed with the public-use amenities in consideration of the surrounding conditions, nearby local communities and attracting tourists. Here are the activities to be done here: Boardwalk and gazebo, fishing pier, educational kiosks, day-use docks to accommodate boats including a water taxi.

Project Site Plan © Palm Beach County

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Snook Islands Natural Area © Palm Beach County

In researching the above examples of sediments, we could get the idea to use sediments as soft engineering to help the coastal problems such as erosion and floods, to create islands with sediments from dredging, providing new habitats, water purification and various human activities. Also, we were able to see real examples of accumulating even lost marshlands using the stone island. Therefore, we’ve thought to take this opportunity to utilize the sediment, obtained from the dredging activity in the Bristol Channel and Swansea Bay and from nature, as an urban soft structure and ground for the coastal community.


Usage of Lagoon And during the research of case study, we also have found the landforms of the lagoon which are used to protect the biodiversity, flood control and to create new aquaculture, habitat, and tourism and so on. Thus we’ve also got the idea of how about making this kind of soft barrier in the Swansea bay and when it starts to make the soft structure by the natural water flow and tide. It can also produce small islands and marshland gradually as time goes by. Then, we might use that land formation in order to put the social activities for the coastal community and also put microturbines to get the electricity from the tidal energy as a further extension of our alternative.

Researched by M. HUANG data from Wikipedia Lagoons

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Made by M. HUANG / data from Google Inc.

Ria de Aveiro lagoon,Portugal

Mar Menor lagoon,Spain

Vistula Lagoon Poland–Russia border

Venetian Lagoon,Italian

The Aveiro Lagoon is beyond a mere geographical feature of Portugal. This 45-kilometer-long lagoon stands as one of Europe’s last remaining untouched coastal marshland. It is also a haven for numerous bird species. The locals call this rich lagoon Ria de Aveiro. Tourism and aquaculture are the mainstays of the Aveiro Lagoon region. It is also renowned for its artisan fishing and as a center for the collection of Flor de Sal, an expensive salt variety.

Mar Menoris a coastal salty lagoon in the Iberian Peninsula located south-east of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, Spain, near Cartagena. Four municipalities lie by the Mar Menor, Cartagena, Los Alcázares, San Javier and San Pedro del Pinatar. With a surface area of nearly 170 km2, a coastal length of 70 km, and warm and clear water no more than 7 metres in-depth, it is the largest lagoon in Spain.

Localities on the lagoon include Kaliningrad, Baltiysk, and Primorsk in Russia’s Kaliningrad Oblast and Elblag, Tolkmicko, Frombork, Krynica Morska in Poland. The Polish port of Elblag used to see a substantial amount of trading traffic on the lagoon, but that has declined to owe to the current border situation. Kaliningrad and Baltiysk are currently major seaports on the lagoon.

Today, the main cities inside the lagoon are Venice and Chioggia; Lido di Venezia and Pellestrina are inhabited as well, but they are part of Venice. However, the most part of the inhabitants of Venice, as well as its economic core, its airport, and its harbor, stand on the western border of the lagoon, around the former towns of Mestre and Marghera. At the northern end of the lagoon, there is the town of Jesolo, a famous sea resort; and the town of Cavallino-Treporti.


Possibility of Material Obtain After looking at the cases, we have started simulating the possibility of what we have seen. It was created through CEM to look at the process of forming a simple conceptual soft scape, lagoon and islands. However CEM has the limitation for our site because it can not represent swash and backwash of the tide, but it was good to show visually what we’d like to see roughly. Besides, we’ve noticed there are maritime infrastructure facilities such as port, dock, the marina in Bristol channel so that we can get the sediments regularly. And there are a lot of sediments that naturally accumulate in the ocean with the tide. Hence, we have confirmed that it has an advantage in the process to do our agency.

Swansea

Maritime Infrastructures in Bristol Channel Drawn by J. LIANG / data from Google Inc.

Conceptual Simulation of Agency by CEM Coded by E. LEE

Newport

Avonmouth

Port Talbot

Barry

Dredging Amount of Severn Estuary

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Researched by M. HUANG x Drawn by E. LEE / map sources from Digimap, The Crown Estate

Cardiff


Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Simulation Thus, in order to overcome the limitation of the CEM simulation, we’ve changed the software and started to see the flow of the sediment by the tide through CAESAR simulation. We’ve also tested human interventions to create sediment accumulation by defining parameters with various angles, sizes, and locations to check the changes in terms of geomorphology caused by human intervention. In this case, the sediment used had been set as lightweight sediment that moves smoothly in order to obtain the aspect of change in a short time considering the simulation speed of the CAESAR program, and the set date on the simulation system was different for each test. However, since it was a pilot simulation to see the pattern of change, we haven’t placed much emphasis on this stage. And the red color seen in the center of each test means that erosion had occurred and the green color indicates that accumulation had occurred. In tests A and B, the human intervention had been placed at different distances along the coastline of Swansea Bay, but the effect of the additional collection was not shown. In tests C and D, we had tried to see the accumulation of sediments when the barriers were created along the bathymetry line somewhat higher than in the surrounding area, sediment had been accumulated more easily in the west area rather than the east area of the bay which is coincidence what the sediment specialist told. Test A (25 system days)

Test B (57 system days)

Test C (57 system days)

Test D (25 system days)

Test a (45˚/ 25 system days)

Test b (90˚/ 25 system days)

The second set of tests had been conducted to see how small barriers could be created within the bay. We had then applied smaller human interventions than the first test set and decided to look at the result by setting the angle of installation as a parameter. Tests have shown that test c was the least suitable for producing small barriers cleary, and test a was the most explicit and most suitable. Also, test b was ideal for making each separately connected sandscape, which showed an interesting accumulation of deposits on both sides of the human intervention structures. On the other hand, in test a, only sediment accumulation has been observed in the left direction only. Through this series of simulations, we have been able to identify the approximate location and direction that can be effective when human intervention is introduced in order to obtain the desired change in our simulations, which will be more specific in the next term. And the results that were common in this simulation have shown that sediment accumulates from the two rivers located on the north side of the site, and also it could be used to create the manufactured grounds. Sediment Accumulation Tests by CAESAR Coded by M. HUANG

184

It was interesting to see a geomorphology process that can take a role as un urban infrastructure for the coastal community from the point of view of the sandscape. Based on our understanding of the results we have identified through simulations, we’ve produced cartography, that contains the possibility for the further steps as a longterm vision of reaction to the flooding issue and sea-level rise by introducing this soft engineering. It utilizes the sediments accumulated in nature through the strong tide, and those which are obtained through regular dredging in each marine infrastructure, to induce the formation of new geomorphology in Swansea Bay.

APPENDIX

MANUFACTURED GROUND

Test c (135˚/ 25 system days)

New Geomorphology of Swansea Bay Drawn by M. HUANG / map sources from Digimap, Google Inc.

Sandbank

Port Dredging

Sand Dredging

Shipping Line

Accumulation


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