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Booklet Layout and editing by Elena Longhin All images are credited at the end of this book Name. Surname.

Text Authorship

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015


Projective Sandscapes Manipulation of Desertifying Mechanisms

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION MA Landscape Urbanism 2014 | 2015

directors Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico design tutor Clara Oloriz Sanjuan seminar tutors Douglas Spencer Tom Smith technical tutors Vincenzo Reale Gustavo Romanillos Giancarlo Torpiano

submitted by Chris Lo Elena Longhin Howe Chan

Architectural Association School of Architecture London


Abstract This project delves into questions related to ongoing desertification processes and remote landscape influences. We always more frequently find claims about the overuse of land and unsuitable agricultural processes that provoke droughts and desertification, leading to increasing competition over environmental resources, therefore instability, large-scale migrations and human conflicts. The very causes from which these conditions take over are inappropriate land management and unwise resource use practises which exploit waters, forests, grasslands and subsoil. These activities play crucial roles within environments’ capabilities of coping with altered morphological conditions emerged from over-exploiting activities as part of particular territorial management. We tackle European decertifying processes due to over exploitation of natural resources resulting in man-made territories characterised by altered properties and behaviours. The desiccation of the Aral Sea 68,000 square kilometres basin announced in October 2014 brings the attention on reckless water resources practices in Central Asia which produced the Aralkum Desert. In our project we intervene within the urbanized area of Nukus in Uzbekistan, where shifting sands are moving over cities and productive grounds. We attempt to negotiate and choreograph dunes formations as a way to re-sew preserved urban clusters and transforming their morphological conditions in landscape spatial qualities. This approach may be further applied to similar cases across Europe undergoing desertification processes. E.L.

Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Sea series #7 AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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CONTENTS 8-9 10-11

Design Methodology Forewords

12-15 16-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29

Atlas Research on Territory and Map Desertification A Global Phenomenon Highlands Bledow Deserts Oleshky Sands European Landscape Convention

32-35 36-37 38-45 46-47 48-49 50-53 54-55 56-57

Territorial Formation An Utopic Plan Research Diagrams of Aral Sea Basin International Agency Oases and Shelter Belts Cartography of Sand Storm The Capital City - Nukus Wind Simulation

58-61 62-63 64-67 68-69

Social Formation The Karaklpak The Sectional Study Local Economies

70-73 74-77 78-81 82-85 86-87

Geomorphology Nature of Sand Numeric Sandscape - Technical Essay Part I Morphology of Barchan Dunes On Site Material Qualities

88-91 92-93 94-97 98-99 100-107 108-109 110-113

Cartogenesis Development Factors Agroforestry - Technical Essay Part I Organization Strategy Guidelines Land Use Strategy Manipulating Sand

114-117 118-121 122-127 128-129 130-137 138-141

Tectonic Intersection Inhabiting Shifting Sand - Technical Essay Numeric Sandscape - Technical Essay Part II Dune Stabilization Buffer Catalogue of Materials Clustering on Dunes

142-145 146-148 149-151 152-153

Manufactured Grounds Agroforestry - Technical Essay Part II Clusters Sections & Sectional Perspectives Activities Iteration

154-157

Field of Operations

158-159 160-161 162-163 164-165 166-167 168-169 170-171 172-173

Appendix I- Generic Sand Simulations II- Cartogenesis Wind Buffer Schedule III- Cartogenesis Wind Simulation Video IV- Cartogenesis Sand Simulation Video V- Cluster Model Process VI- Building Growth Pattern Catalogue VII- Site Visit Documentary Video

174-175 176-178 179 180-181

Acknowledgments Illustration Credits AV Credits Bibliography // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Sea series #7

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“It is not down in any map; true places never are.” —Herman Melville, Moby Dick

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Foreword

To See a Landscape as it is when I am not there

1

“It is not enough to say, in the manner of all poets, that mirrors are like water. Nor is it enough to take this hypothesis as an absolute and presume, like some Huidobro that cool breezes blow from mirrors or the thirsty birds drink from them, leaving their frames empty. We must make manifest the whim transformed into reality that is the mind. We must reveal an individual reflected in the glass who persists in his illusory country (where there are figures and colors, but they are ruled by immutable silence).” —Jorge Luis Borges, After Images

Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Sea series #5

1 Simone Weil, Gravity and Grace, Routledge, 1962, p. 42 2 Ginzburg, interviewed by Melanie Marino on March 20, 2014

This research project focuses in the territory surrounding the extinct Aral Sea and the effects of Soviet land management and overexploitation of water resources for cotton production. The disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991 led to the creation of five newly independent Central Asian countries where scarce water resources became a subject of competition. The 60s Soviet massive plan of diversion of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Rivers into the steppe of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan drastically changed the whole environment with the annihilation of the Aral Sea. Despite the Soviet transference of power, these five newly independent nations of the Aral Sea Basin still have an imperative to maintain high levels of cotton production, and hence irrigation, to support their economies. Greatly reduced river flows through deltas, the virtual elimination of spring floods and declining ground water levels, caused by the falling level of the Aral Sea, have led to spreading and intensifying desertification. As Jorge Luis Borges states the whim transformed into reality must be unveiled. Threatened by the advancing desert, resource management is now being aggravated by competing governments battling in a globalised market economy. Moreover, the Karakalpastan Region weak and remote position outside leading governments hold exacerbated social conditions caused by the decline of the Aral Sea’s role as a transport corridor. Fishing, animal husbandry and main economic activity are lost, whilst the shrinkage of grassland and reduced soil productivity are depriving thousands of people of their traditional livelihoods. As Anton Ginzburg approaches the waterless sea as a ready-made earthwork in his Walking the Sea Series in order to make visible a territory, a history and a potential imaginary space that remain largely inaccessible2, our project attempt at conjuring territorial opportunities to engage with its geomorphology in order to equip it with a renew identity. Exploring ways to reduce each nation’s dependence on cotton production would put forward an alternative territorial organization. At a larger scale, the local knowledge extracted from Nukus will build a frame or approach to tackle and critically reflect on Europe’s desertifying processes, in its broadest sense, how the political management affects controversial production dynamics and territorial organization. E.L. AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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The European Union within the Eurasia continent and its border in 2015. The Aral Sea extension & Uzbekistan location amog the ex five "Stans"

Nowadays, the Aral Sea and Karakalpakstan seems to be a forgotten territory isoldated from the rest of the world but Uzbekistan.

Jean Janvier, L' Europe, 1782

In three hundreds years ago cartography, the Aral Sea area had been included and described in Jean Janvier’s L’Europe Map

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Atlas Ground surface is constantly under incessant geological alteration. The Atlas of Guilty Territories is an attempt at unveiling ongoing over-exploiting activities which are engendering high-risk terrains. These processes are provoking arid lands where environmental productivity and liveable conditions are significantly compromised. As designers we endeavour to negotiate and choreograph relevant geomorphological formations originated from conflicting systems in the manipulation of projective sandscapes. The capacity of cartography to unveil hidden connections enable us to delve into the argument and the specificity of the territory we are exploring. It allows us to make manifest concealed relationships through historical traditional maps, but also to adopt different perspectives which help us conveying changes that ground surface undergoes ceaselessly. It is important to emphasize that every maps distortions and orientations included in this bookl have been carefully chosen with the intention of better understand and explain their territorial qualities. In particular, the world projection we decided to use for this Atlas helps us to show the unknown sand movement in between the Aralkum Desert and Europe, and therefore highlight the veiled relevance these distant territories have on each other’s. Along with the analysis of exploited territories, we have mapped down a series of selected sites across Europe, with the aim of envisage where territorial conflicts would arise in the near future. In sites of exploiting activities, we begun to deep the knowledge about territorial policies over European deserts. Furthermore, we have explored the European legacy on remote territories and the capacity of the Landscape Convention of dealing with the concept of possible responsibilities on adjoining territories. This formed the basis of our site selection of an extreme distant landscape. E.L.

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Atlas Guilty Landscape Panel // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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“...the Aral’s sea bed emits massive amounts of salt and dust into the atmosphere. Pollutes air is carried over the area by a powerful air stream. Traces of pesticides and salt from the Aral region are now found in the blood of penguins in Antartica. Moreover, the pollution affects areas thousands of miles away, such as the glaciers of Greenland and the forests of Norway.” - Timur Ceylan, The Death of the Aral Sea, Issue 66 / Nov- Dec 2008.


One of the trigger for our research was the discovery of Primark ‘Cry for Help’ labels, that marked the issue of the territorial responsibility, in this case caused by cotton production

Primark 'Cry for Help' Label, 25 June 2014

A Chronicle of forced Labour in the Cotton Sector in Uzbekistan, 9 September 2014 The True Cost of Cotton: Cotton Production and Water Insecurity. Environmental JuticeFoundation. Report, September 2012. Tesco takes a stand against forced labour in Uzbek cotton harvest, Environmental JuticeFoundation, 15 October 2014 Developers Turn Aral Sea Into a Catastrophe, The New York Times, December 20, 1988 Third Primark Shopper Discovers 'Cry for Help' Label in £10 Dress, International Business Times, June 25, 2014

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12/09/2015

Primark 'cry for help' labels have painted Bangladeshi women as helpless | Guardian Sustainable Business | The Guardian

Primark 'cry for help' labels have painted Bangladeshi women as helpless Tansy Hoskins Labels found in Swansea remind the public of the cost of fashion, but we need a better approach to change the working conditions in factories that make our clothes Wednesday 2 July 2014 13.29 BST

S

everal weeks ago a story appeared in the South Wales Evening Post about a shopper who found a label stitched into her Primark dress: "Forced to work exhausting hours". While it may have been a hoax, the horror felt by the shopper spread, more labels were found, and the story became a national concern that has tied the Primark PR department up in knots. So what is to be made of these labels that Primark assert were sewn onto its clothes in the UK? Why have they been interpreted as the long lost voice of Bangladeshi garment workers? And what is wrong with seeing them as a cry for help to which we must urgently respond? The National Garment Workers Federation (NGWF) is the largest trade union federation in Bangladesh's garment sector. It is currently campaigning to end inhumanely long hours and overtime. The label correctly states that workers in garment factories in Bangladesh work exhaustingly long hours. While by law there is a limit of eight hours plus two hours of overtime, workers routinely work 14 hours a day. Other campaigns being fought are for safe working conditions, maternity leave, child care centres in factories, adequate housing and for a living wage (workers currently get €53 a month, or €68 for more skilled workers). The overarching priority for the NGWF is, however, the organisation and unionisation of workers. President of the NGWF, Amir-ul-Haque Amin says: "We believe that trade unions in factories are the main tool for workers to bargain with management for better working conditions, better wages and to ensure safe workplaces." Unionising the Bangladeshi garment industry is a tough job. Out of four million garment workers only about 7% are currently unionised. It is also particularly tough to unionise an 85% female workforce in a heavily male dominated society where women remain marginalised and often uneducated and where intimidation techniques by factory bosses include sexual harassment, violence and sackings. Because of this the NGWF is running special leadership development programmes for women so that they can lead the organising process themselves. "Day by day the participation of young women inside trade unions is growing," says Amirul Haque Amin. http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable­business/sustainable­fashion­blog/primark­label­cry­help­bangladesh­women­factories

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The actual proximity of the Aral territory to Europe and its consideration within past centuries cartographies is displayed in various historical maps. The World Map by Fra Mauro in the 15th century and even earlier the Tabula Rogeriana draw by Al’Idrisi at the court of the Norman King Roger II of Sicily, in 1154, are some examples of how the Eurasian continent was conceived. They unveil its unity, and the state of the known world during those historical periods. It is quite interesting to notice in all these maps, and inside the Catalan Atlas as well, the centrality of the Aral. Especially inside Al Idrisi’s map, where it is located at the centre of the whole region and play a crucial role within the Central Asia vast territory. Fra Mauro indeed depicted the Sea as a huge green lake (lago), acting as an oasis where the two Rivers of Amu Darya and Syr Darya flow into. The lake is also crowned by blooming different urban settlements, giving us the idea of the dynamism of the Aral Sea basin. The same vitality and relevancy is given by the Catalan Atlas which map down specifically these cities from the Aral border till hillside territory. These cartographies helped us understanding the role of the Sea in the past within the social formation frame and raise the reflection of its identity in the present. E.L.

Al-Idrisi, layout of the Tabula Rogeriana, 1154.

Layout from the Catalan Atlas, 1375.

Al-Idrisi, layout of the Tabula Rogeriana, 1154.

Fra Mauro, extract of The World Map, 1450.

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Fra Mauro, The World Map, 1450. // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Ground Overexploitation Research

Desertification a global phenomenon Theoretical Research

When capital ‘uses up’ the ground in which it invests, it renders resources scarce. Its manufacturing and agricultural industries leave land chemically toxic, soil fertility exhausted and water system polluted. Large tracts of land are uselessly occupied by the remnants of redundant infrastructure and abandoned elements of the built environment. — Douglas Spencer ‘Investing in the Ground’1

1 AD Scarcity Architecture in an Age of Depleting Resources, n. 218, 2012, p.84.                           

The exacerbate use of land in response to growing needs and demands from population and economic production poses serious threats to land resources. Today territories are strained beyond their capacity because of the increasing pressure from agro-industrial expansion, extractive activities, infrastructure development and industrial logging. The reduced capability of land to sustain basic services and produce new economic value (such as food, renewable energy and biological and cultural diversity) is always more a wide spreading phenomenon, that is generating land degradation, and in extreme cases, desertification. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification defines desertification as “the degradation of dry lands in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. It involves the loss of biological or economic productivity and complexity in croplands, and woodlands. It is mainly due to climate variability and unsustainable human activities” and driven by the interaction and interdependence of global environmental pressures, climate change and constantly changing impacts of human activities that often lead to loss of natural productivity and biodiversity2. Desertification is an end state of the process of land degradation; this process is expressed by a persistent reduction or loss of biological and economic productivity of lands that are under uses by people whose livelihoods deepen, at least partly, on this productivity3. It is widely believed that land degradation has no spatial and temporal confinement and that desertification takes place under a variety of physical conditions. Actually desertification, a fancy word for land that is turning into desert, happens as a result of over-exploiting activities as part of particular territorial management. It occurs because dry land ecosystems are extremely vulnerable as a consequence of over-exploitation and inappropriate land use. Poverty, political instability, deforestation, overgrazing and improper irrigation practices can all undermine the productivity of the land. Population have a very close relationship with the development of pressure on land. There is a vicious circle by which human activities put under stress vulnerable lands through their agricultural practices and daily activities, and as a result, they cause further land degradation4. Desertification adversely affects nearly 3,100 million ha of range-lands (80 % of their total area in dry lands), 335 million ha of rain fed croplands (60% of their total area in dry lands), and 40 million ha of irrigated croplands (30% of their total area in dry lands), in all, up to 3,475 million or 70% of total area of drylands5. In order to evaluate this ecosystem dynamic JRC has built the new World Atlas on Desertification (WAD) (UNEP 1997) which summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge on the dry lands of the globe using satellite images. It aims at pragmatically illustrate the complex interactions between land and humans, integrating components such as soil, plant cover and how the land is used and managed, combining climatic variables, bio-physical and human factors that potentially drive land degradation, and land use systems information such as those provided by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The World Atlas of Desertification, assesses that more than 6.1 billion ha, 47.2 % of the Earth’s land surface, is dry land6.

Human Ecologies of the Anthropocene: a global map of anthromes in year 2000

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Percentage of Early Signs Declining Land Productivity Dynamic Per Land Use Legend

Pasture Forest, Semi Natural Arable Land

Others

Permanent Crop

Land cover types showing early signs of land productivity dynamics (pies indicate respective % of land cover types as per total area per country under early signs of land productivity decline).

Coping with desertification means addressing all stages of land degradation including those that precede the level of productivity loss specific to desertification, the one for which reclamation, rather than rehabilitation measures are required to restore the persistently lost productivity of the land7. In Europe, desertification is outspread across Mediterranean semi-arid and dry sub humid regions8. This area includes the southern and eastern parts of the Iberian Peninsula, parts of Mediterranean France, most of the Mezzogiorno in Italy, Sardinia and Corsica, and most of Greece, including its islands, especially Lesvos. The United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification identified Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey as countries with a marked problem of desertification because of the occurrence of particular conditions over large areas. Even though desertification is usually confined to areas affected by aridity, it can actually take place under humid climates such those of Scotland and Iceland9. In particular, we will focus on those territories affected by concentration of economic activities as a result of a global market demand for goods production. We have explored the Highlands located in Iceland, which emerged after the 8th century destruction of the forest, the Oleshky Sands in Ukraine that has been caused by the 19th century overgrazing activities, and Poland’s clear cutting occurred in the medieval time which generated Bledow Deserts. All these sites are treated with the same approaches which superficially try to control sands from shifting toward urban areas or productive grounds. In most cases, sandy territories in Europe are considered just as leisure areas for touristic purposes. E.L.

Industrial logging, oil extraction Overgrazing, clearcutting

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Overexploitation Sites Research, Deserts in Europe

Highlands Iceland

migration

grazing

deforested

recover

Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techinques Highlands Desert Shifting Sands

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EXTENSION: 75 km2 1 O. Arnalds, F. O. Gisladottir & H. Sigurjonsson, Sandy deserts of Iceland: an overview, 2012 2 Wikipedia < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Highlands_of_Iceland> 3 <http://www.land.is/english/main-projects> 4,5 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4737743.stm>

SOIL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS: About 60% of the country was covered in bushes, trees, grass and all that. As one of the sagas says: “At that time, Iceland was covered with woods, between the mountains and the shore. “There were no native people and no grazing animals. But the Vikings, aside from chopping down trees for their own needs, also brought along their sheep. As a result, there is incredible soil erosion that started centuries ago. Desert is situated above 400–500 metres and is mostly an uninhabitable volcanic one, because the water precipitating as rain or snow infiltrates so quickly into the ground that it is unavailable for plant growth. This results largely in a surface of grey, black or brown earth, lava and volcanic ashes2. Andres Arnalds

says that Iceland is a prime example of what would happen to the rest of the world if people in other countries, on other continents, continue cutting down trees and overusing the land at the rate they are doing it now. LAND USE ACTORS: Livestock (sheep grazing) POLICIES: Soil Conservation Service1 PROJECTS/PLANS: 1. Criss-crossed with fences2 2. Planting (Using bombers to drop the fertilizer and seeds from a WW II aircraft)3 CONDITION: Controlled

Kerlingarfjöll Area Dunes Controlling Technique

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Overexploitation Sites Research, Deserts in Europe

Bledow Deserts Poland

tree cutting for mining activities

deforestation

Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techinques Bledow Desert Shifting Sands

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EXTENSION: 32 km2

Stabilization approach to the desert, top view

SOIL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS: Bledow Desert is a result of human interference in the environment. After warming of about 10 thousand years ago, the area of ​​desert have been covered up with a dense pine forest. From the 13th century the development of silver and lead mining and smelting in the area of Olkusz caused the clear cutting of trees for industry production. Then situated here thick layers of sand were exposed running aeolian processes creating “anthropogenic desert” which can be seen today. During the Second World War the area was used by the German Afrika Korps for training and test-site before deployment to Africa. In the 1950s, a part of the Błędów desert has been planted with sharp-leaf willows as well as pine trees.

The Bledowska Sands constitute the largest accumulation of loose sand away from any sea in Central Europe. The appearance of a desert landscape has been created since the Middle Ages, as an effect of mining (zinc, silver, coal), but the specific geological structure has been of big importance - the average thickness of the sand layer is about 40 meters (maximum 70 meters), which made the fast and deep drainage very easy. In the recent years the sands have started to shrink. LAND USE ACTORS: Deforest, mining, tree cutting Tourism CONDITION: Controlled

Bledow sands seen from Czubatka, after conservation Dunes Controlling Techinique

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Overexploitation Sites Research, Deserts in Europe

Oleshky Sands Ukraine

grazing

deforested

tourism

Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techniques Olehsky Sands Shifting Sands

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EXTENSION: 1612 km2

LAND USE ACTORS: Livestock (sheep grazing)

SOIL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS: This sand area used to be covered with plants, which prevented the sands from spreading. However, in the 19th century, the founder of the wildlife preserve â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Askania-Novaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Friedrich Falz-Fein brought a huge number of sheep (up to one million) to these lands. After a while they ate all the grass, and because of wind erosion, the unrestrained sands began to take over new territories. Later, for a long time the territory of the Oleshky Sands was used as a zone for military exercises. The works on mine neutralization have been holding there for today.

POLICIES: In order to prevent the whole Black Sea region from turning into one big desert, in the 20th century, artificial forests were planted around the sands. Today, spread over a territory of 100,000 hectares, these forests are the largest artificial forests world.

Stabilization Approach to the Desert, Top View

PROJECTS/PLANS: 1.Surrounded by a thick ring of forest plantations that have to prevent the dunes from moving CONDITION: Controlled. Touristic site.

Desert seen from Slowinski National Park Dunes Controlling Technique

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Europe

The European Landscape Convention The Border Concept

Article 9 from the European Landscape Convention, 2000 1, 3 European Landscape Convention http://www.coe.int 2 Landscape has no borders Landscape is not a matter for individual states alone. It also needs to be considered in international policies and programmes. Co-operation between Parties is designed to enhance the effectiveness of the measures taken in each state, provide mutual technical and scientific assistance and facilitate exchanges of landscape specialists and the sharing of information on all matters relating to the Convention. Transfrontier co-operation is encouraged at local and regional level and, where necessary, can pave the way for the preparation and implementation of joint landscape programmes.

4 Andreas Stalder (Vice-Chairman of the Steering Comď&#x20AC;­ mittee for Heritage and Landscape of the Council of Europe CDPATEP), Transfrontier landscapes - a challenge with multiple and sometimes conflicting approaches. In Futuropa. Landscape and transfrontier co-operation. Number 02 / 2010

Dust storm from the Aralkum Desert (Central Asia), shown by a satellite image from the International Space Station from 16 April 2003, indicating a long salt-dust plume stretching from north to south.

The European Landscape Convention - also known as The Florence Convention - was adopted in Florence on October 20th, 2000 and came into force on March 1st, 2004 (Council of Europe Treaty Series no. 176), after it had been ratified by ten countries. It was composed within the Council of Europe activities in the area of cultural and natural heritage in order to promote the protection, management and planning of European landscapes and organise European co-operation on landscape issues1. The Convention is aimed at the protection, management and planning of all landscapes and raising awareness of the value of a living landscape. It concerns landscapes that might be considered outstanding environments. The significance of this document is reflected in the fact that it relates to the overall territory of the signatory state, including different types of landscapes, natural, urban and suburban areas, also focusing on those territories not covered by any protective or conservative regulations. The ambition of the Convention of defining tailor-made approaches to the specificities of European territories was actually just able to compile decidedly labyrinthine policies contradictorily distant from meaningful systems of space production. Even though the convention encourages a transfrontier co-operation and the implementation of joint landscape programs (art.9) it denies the concept of possible responsibilities due to specific land practices and their political governance on adjoining territories. It doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t suggest specific territorial approaches and, since its confirmation, it was not able to identify any design strategy able at coping and engaging with current geomorphological dynamics. In particular, it does not suggest constructive practices to tackle desertification processes beyond generic attempts of control, and its validation seems to limit itself inside the Europe Continent, thus consequently denying the concept of landscape as a matter with no borders2 and chiefly ignoring the legacy of the European Union within mould territories emerged after productive processes.

In particular, Article 9 states that a transfrontier co-operation should be encouraged in order to implement joint landscape programme3. But what does article 9 mean in practice? At first sight, this provision seems to contradict itself. It can only really be understood and have any effect if it is read and understood in the spirit of the Convention and the other provisions. As we shall see, considerable political astuteness is required to interpret this article and put it into practice. [...] The discrepancy pointed out above should on no account be a barrier to promoting transfrontier landscapes and landscape proects.4 In this sense a transfrontier landscape approach should evaluate the range of European politics of managements, interests and economies on larger scale. It seems clear that the aim and policies of the Convention should involve also those adjoining and remote territories whose identity and morphology had been modified, shaped, threatened or even damaged by activities and processes that belong to European production dynamics. The concept of boundary need to be questioned. E.L.

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Many products we use every day are created from commodities traded internationally through complex product supply chains. Lack of regulation means these supply chains are prone to poor working conditions, breaches of national and international labour standards, child and forced labour, exploitation and abuse. Unsustainable production and processing practices, such as irrigation for crops and the use of toxic chemicals, leads to overexploitation of natural resources and devastating environmental abuses. - Environmental Justice Foundation, 2015

The Projective Expansion of European Union

The continuous expansion of European Union territory provokes that the European Landscape Convention would increasingly take wider responsibility of the territorial landscape surrounding the area. These area, usually at the edge between superpowers, is usually affected by the legacy of the subsequent and aggressive policy that results as victims in over-exploitation of their landscape.

The Projective Legacy of Past and Future

The legacy of the Soviet past occupation intertwining together with the future expansion of Europe, question how these territorial landscape management policy could impact to the local community.

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Walking through the Dessicated Seabed in May 2015 AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Territorial Formation Aralkum is a new terrestrial surface. This drawing shows the territorial formation of the desert which have been mould from the European production demand for cotton, satisfied by a Soviet massive plan of diversion of two rivers into the steppe of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan during the 60s. What used to be a seabed is now a saline field covered with wind-blown sand. The 1991 Soviet transference of power meant the inheritance of unwise water use practices that are causing a spreading desertification and the emergence of threatening shifting sand dunes shifting over the territory. As indexed through thicker black lines within the drawing, this resulted in massive migrations from rural to urban (circles) and urban to abroad, especially due to powerful sand storms that destroy rural agricultural fields, the principal production resource of sustainment for the population. Even though various national and international organizations started to focus on the Aral Sea issue, trying to implement planting systems for defence, Karaburan storms, a katabic strong wind, blows Aralkum salty polluted sands miles away. The area we chose to study in detail is the Aralkum Desert and the city of Nukus, the capital of the Republic of Karakalkpastan, where the construction of the New Silk Road (Eurasian Land Bridge) is taking place, connecting soon China to Europe. Moreover, from research to our understating of the current environmental condition, we elaborated our own reading of wind dynamic affecting the site considered. E.L

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Territorial Formation The Aralkum Desert Panel // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Karakalpastan Territory

An Utopic Plan Depletion of Resources

                     

Arch. Grigory Voropaev, architect of the harebrained scheme that diverted the course of the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya rivers: 'let the Aral die beautifully!'

The USSR centrally planned economy directed from Moscow aimed at developing industries directed towards benefiting the Union as a whole, rather than its constituent republics. This is nowhere more evident than in Central Asia after authorities in Moscow decided to turn the region into the USSR’s cotton plantation, in order to feed the textile industry that began to spring up around Moscow and Europe. After the fall of the USSR the five “Stans” Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan spar over the region’s most precious yet increasingly rare resource – water1. Large irrigated agricultural areas in Central Asia are now affected by land degradation, mainly due to exploitative land and water use practices and insufficient irrigation management. The primary cause of the environmental crisis is due to irrigation. The thin Amu Darya River cuts through one of the world’s most desolate desert regions, yet its 15 km-wide floodplain is covered with water-intensive crops like cotton and rice. Since 1960 though, rivers that once flowed into the lake have been diverted to irrigate crops. To sustain these crops, irrigation projects remove water from the river bed and deliver it across the floodplain. Water from the river used to flow into the Aral Sea, but now it is all used up for agriculture before it reaches the lake. With the decrease in the amount of water flowing into the sea, evaporation has become the dominant process2. The lakebed sediments (fine-grained sand and dirt) that are now exposed on the desert floor can be picked up by wind quite easily, contributing to large dust storms in the region3. Only around 50 years ago, the Aral Sea stretched across an area of 66,000 km2, surrounded by smaller lakes and biologically diverse marshes and wetlands. Uzbekistan continues to mismanage this vital resource: up to 60% of the diverted water is lost through evaporation and linkage and never reaches crops4. Since 1961, irrigated areas have tripled to about 7.9 Mha in 1999, mainly along the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya. This made Central Asia one of the largest irrigated zones in the world and raised the value of the land. Cotton grows on 2.4% of the world’s arable land, yet it is responsible for the release of over US$ 2bn of chemical pesticides each year. The irrigated land in the study region is served by the extensive irrigation and drainage network established in 1950s5. The irrigation water is supplied from the Amu Darya River via a dense network of 16,000 km and 6,000 km of irrigation canals and 8,000 km and 5,000 km of drainage collectors in Khorezm area6, and in the South Karakalpastan7. Only 11% in Khorezm and 0.04% in South Karakalpastan of these canals are lined, while

“Aral, a natural mistake to be corrected. Let it die beautifully!” - Grigory Voropaev, 1960

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Irrigation Soviet Plan, 1989

the on-farm systems consists mostly of earth ditches, which greatly reduce the amount of water that is ultimately delivered to crop fields. The irrigation water is supplied by both direct gravity flow and pumped flow via a hierarchically constructed irrigation network, including main, inter-farm, and on-farm canals. Water pumping is more frequent in the South Karakalpastan, where around 96% of irrigated crop-land is served by pumps within the on-farm network8. The drainage system is mainly open horizontal. The water is drained away via a hierarchically arranged network to the lakes and depressions outside the irrigated area. E.L. Irrigations systems network

Fish Catch In the Aral Sea and the Amu Darya Delta

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Aral Sea History, Policy and Change in Social Formation

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In the process of changing in political boundaries in recent 100 years, the Eurasia Continent, the Aral Sea basin was planned for massive development that changed the type of production from fishing to cotton mono-culture. After the collapse of Soviet, the area is ruled under Uzbekistan central government continued it leading to dry up of the sea. The relationship with Europe is linked ecologically with due to sand storm and aided financially due to Aral Sea crisis apart from cotton trade. The Cotton Production & Trade Model

The cotton process and trade is usually undertaken in Uzbekistan centrally rather than in Aral Sea basin, it means that the local people has the only choice to work in cotton cultivation

Alternative Model

With the new silk road, the local people hopes to change the local economy by diversifying the economy and working opportunity with Europe and Asia.

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Central Asia Depletion of Water Resources AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;The demise of the Aral Sea in Central Asia remains one of the most iconic global images of mismanaged agriculture policies and highlights the interconnectivity between such policies and water scarcity.â&#x20AC;? Majority Staff Report, Prepared for the Use of the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, 2011. The True Cost of Cotton: Cotton Production and Water Insecurity. Environmental Justice Foundation.

This map explores Central Asia water system, dam implementations for energy purposes and the diversion of rivers between Kazakhstan and China. It aims at showing the amount of water resources absorbed by countries that used to fed the Aral Sea and made its drop down 24 metres.

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Desert Ships, 2015

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Ghostly, empty and devoid of life, the Aral Sea how it appears today is symptomatic of a time that has obscured and repressed imaginative aspirations for more hopeful futures. - Laura Herman, Specters of Communism: Contemporary Russian Art

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Cultivated Territories and Drifting Sands

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1977

1999

2009

2015

This map shows current agricultural fields highlightening those areas more affected by wind pressure and sand drifting. Since the 60s massive plantation plan, the shrinkage of the Sea went at the same pace with the expansion of cultivated lands.

Expansion of Fields and Sea Shrinkage

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Aralkum Desert and Nukus Region

International Agency Coping with desertification

The urgency to minimise the deflation and dust output from the dessicated floor since the independence of the Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan countries, pushed various national and international organizations to focus on the Aral Sea issue and cooperate with population within some regions. They include United Nation and Western Countries such as Canada, United States, the European Union and some Islamic Countries. They provide consultancy services, financial aid and physical help to the area. In particular, some have attempted to restore shelter belts and windbreaks plantations along urban areas borders and try to combat the desertification.

Classification of Aiding Agencies

International Organization International Org.

United Nations Development Programme

Territorial Organization Territorial Org.

Aarhus Convention

Foreign CountryCountry Organization Western Org.

Central Asia Government Central Asia Gov.

Autonomous Government Local District Government

United State Agency for International Development

The Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM)

Karakalpakstan

KFW Bank Germany Kazakhstan

The Global Mechanism

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Canadian International Development Agency

Uzbekistan

United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification

Kuwait Fund For Arab Economic Development

United Nation Convention on Climate Change Islamic Development Bank

International Fund for Saving Aral Sea

Convention on Biological Diversity

International Fund for Agricultural Development

Convention on Environmental Protection for Sustainable development to Central Asia

Development of Cooperation in the Aral Sea Basin to Mitigate Consequences of Environmental Catastrophe

Gesellschaft f端r Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

Japan International Cooperation Agency

Regional Program for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Central Asia and the Caucasus

Asia Development Bank

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or the Bonn Convention)

European Union

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States

The World Bank

The World Bank AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

These organizations came from international level of United Nations and territorial co-operation programmes especially from Germany and Japan, which decided to fund Central Asia governments to build infrastructures that would be finally implemented by each local government. This process usually imply a very top-down approach which unables local people from participating within or benefitting from the process of their realization.

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These projects implemented in the area around the Aral Sea in recent years include shelter-belts, power plants, new highways, and the update of short branches of the irrigation system. However, most of them do not actually success in coping with the mono-cotton cproductin consequences and the areas social condition, but instead support it to be continuously existed. A interesting project to note is the sand dam built in the Kazakhstan part of the sea to retain the water in the area which is a good example of using the local available material, but due to the technical problem, it finally collapsed and have been subsituted by the concrete one funded by the World Bank. C.L.

Schedule of Existing Works

Country

Project

Location

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Description

Material

Time

Area (Ha)

Cost (USD)

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Aralkum Desert and Nukus Region

Oases and Shelter Belts Protection System

The area near city of Nukus and Karakum Desert is especially suffering from dust storms that cyclically destroy agricultural fields and attempt to cover most exposed urban areas. Over 50% of the croplands suffer from wind erosion, and continued losses of the fertile topsoil layer are observed every year. Through the international funding and Soviet legacy, oasis and shelter belt are built to reduce the impact of the sand storm and separate the human existence with sand. However, The maintenance of the existing shelter-belts will not be able to protect the shifting sandscapes towards and covering of agriculture fields and urban areas Desertification Process across Cotton Fields, sites examples studies.

2005 2012

2005

2005

2005 2005

2012

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The way they built in is to use the local waterway to divert the water or the city grey water to grow it to the main wind direction in the form of wall to form a total separation. Due to the limited resource, it is impossible to fence off all the edge of cotton field and city with the desert by oasis and shelter belt. Therefore, some area are still suffering from desertification and sand storm of a higher wind velocity. C.L.

Sectional Diagram of Oasis & Shelter Belt

Shelter Belt

Oasis

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Aralkum Desert and Nukus Region

Cartography of Sand Storm Sand Drifts

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The bleak desert that surrounds this town stretches for hundreds of miles in every direction, with only an occasional fly-infested truck stop to break the monotony of sand dunes and forlorn camels.â&#x20AC;? -Sthephen Kinzer, New York Times, January 4, 1998

1 T.Panagopoulos, D. Blumberg, L. Orlovsky, Monitoring the Aral Sea Landscape Change, 2008 2,3 O.E. Semenev, Dust Storms and Sandstorms and Aerosol Long#Distance Transport, in Aralkum - A Man-Made Desert, 2012 4 S-W. Breckle, W. Wucherer, Climatic Conditions in the Aralkum in Aralkum - A Man-Made Desert, 2012

In Central Asia, where the sand and dust storms are common phenomena due to the presence of vast areas of sandy and clayey deserts, scarcity of vegetation coverage and strong winds, large-scale anthropogenic changes lead to the formation of new dust-raising sites1. Formerly, the Aral had acted as a giant climate buffer, and in the course of its shrinkage summers got hotter and controversially winters colder. What is left behind the Aral Sea depletion is a salty flat territory of nearly 200 square miles (300 square kilometres) wide, infused with pesticides from decades of agricultural run-off. The average number of days with strong winds in most of the Aral Sea region is about 15 days, in some parts it is up to 25-29 days2. The arid climatic conditions and the open surface with fine grains sizes are favourable for the development of regular storms3 which cyclically cause the dispersion of hundreds of tons of sand and salt.

Sandstorms use to occur ten times per year, feeding the emergent new desert and threatening the current insufficient windbreaks which constitute the forest and endured oasis DESERTIFICATION PROCESSfunded DESERTIFICATION by internationalPROCESS organizations. Satellite pictures from NASA Laboratory taken in 2003 started to unveil the physical extent of these storms, indicating evidently the deflation flats of the desiccated sea-floor as the main source. The region is under the influence of the Siberian anticyclone for long times during the year, especcially in winter. Thus, northerly winds prevail in January and February. During spring and summer, the wind regime can change: sometimes westerly and 68,000 km2 68,000 km 2 southwesterly winds can bring moister air masses4. + Nowadays, many villages are abandoned due to the intolerable sand accumulation (see picture on the left) which are provoking significant health impacts, especially in the Eastern areas. The Karaburan storms, a katabic strong wind, blows Aralkum salty polluted sands to 1960 1970 1960 1980 1970 1990 19802000 19902010 2000 Switzerland European territories reaching thousand miles away. C.L. & E.L.

WIND EROSION

2010

WIND EROSION Saksaulskaya

Saksaulskaya

Aralsk

Aralsk Monsyr

Barsa Kelmes

Kazalinsk

Barsa Kelmes

K

Dzhusaly Lazarev

Lazarev

Uyaly

Uyaly

Naryn Kyzyl Orda Chirik Rabat

The result of space monitoring of dust storms from the dried bottom of the Aral Sea in 2008 and its intensity.

Chirik Rabat

The result of space monitoring of dustMean vectorial roses of sand and dust transportation. Mean vectorial roses of sand and dust storms from the dried bottom of the Aral Sea in 2008 and its intensity.

Dust Storm, shown by a satellite image from 18/04/2003 The result of space monitoring of dust storms from the dried bottom of the Aral Sea in 2008 and its intensity and meanvectorial roses of sand and dust transportation, 2014 The result of space monitoring of dust storms from the dried bottom of the Aral Sea in 2008 and its intensity and meanvectorial roses of sand and dust transportation, 2014

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Cartography of Sand Storm Karakum Wind Intensity Panel // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Nukus City

The Capital City of Nukus Geography & Weather

Nukus is surrounded by large amount of farmlands, most of them are collective farms and just few of them are private farms. The current crop policy prioritizes cotton for export to be processed and traded overseas, while only few private farms operate for the production of food supply for the local population. Nukus is the centre and biggest city to mobilization of people for cotton cultivation. During the harvesting period, the manpower is widely mobilized through the city to the fields.

Google Nukus Aerial Image

The bleak desert that surrounds this town stretches for hundreds of miles in every direction, with only an occasional fly-infested truck stop to break the monotony of sand dunes and forlorn camels. -Sthephen Kinzer, New York Times, January 4, 1998

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The government obstinacy to not update cultivation methodologies, crops rotation and restructure the production chain cripples the social condition. The local climate has changed with the disappearance of the sea due to Soviet plan for mono-cotton culture, and Nukus now experiences an average of ten dust and sand storms a year. The weather changes greatly recently due to desertification, it is hotter in the summer and colder in the winter. The Karaburan Storm is especially strong blowing sand and dust from the East to the city during earlier Spring till late Autumn. C.L.

Wind Rose of Nukus

Sand Storm Near Nukus

Temperature Change of Nukus

Village buildings suffering from sand accumulation

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Aralkum Desert and Nukus Region

Wind Simulation Oases and Shelter Belts

Vasari Wind Simulation (Ecotect) enabled us to explore and visualize the intensity of sand storm across the area and test shelter-belts and oases behaviours. The process implied the obstacle input of the shelter belts and oasis toward the prevailing wind direction. The result given provokes the question of which affected areas we would intervene first.

The oasis and shelter belt identified on site near Nukus are drawn as obstacle to put into the simulation in order to observe the result of the wind sheltered area and the intensity of it.

Nukus City, Karakum Desert & Shelterbelt Shelterbelt & Oasis Obstacle Input

Combined Multiple Result Dem Result Insertion

From the result, it is found that the south part of Nukus is suffering from strong sand storms and probably the shifting sand in the future.

Wind Intensity Simulation Results Mapping AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Simulation Process & Results

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Social Formation Nukus, the capital of the Karakalpakistan Autonomous Republic, is located in the down steam Amu Darya River and about 230 km south of the town Muynaq,the former shoreline of the Aral Sea. The city, which is a center for the growing of cotton, was built in 1932 and in-between three deserts, the Karakum (black sands) atthe South, the Kyzylkum rocky desert (red sands) to its East and the Ustyurt plateau at West. Recently, the fourth new made desert Aralkum (formed by white sands, as a result of the drying up of the salty sea) joined them in the North side. The system of agriculture production inherited by the Soviet Union forced the state owned mono-cotton production to be practiced as collective farmlands, a system that is proving to be clumsily managed and suffering from the government obstinacy to not update cultivation methodologies, crops rotation and restructure the production chain. Since 1991, the reform of the agricultural sector has taken place and has been characterized by state-induced farm restructuring, land transfer from collective to individual use, state ownership of land, and area-based state targets for cotton at fixed prices1. Being planned according to the developed irrigation network, the boundaries of the field parcels in the cadastral maps have not been changed over last 20 years2. Social Formation herein aimed at charting these productive activities in form of network to illustrate a proper understanding and knowledge for further developments of project. C.L.

1 O. Dubovyk, Multi-scale targeting of land degradation in northern Uzbekistan using satellite remote sensing, University of Bonn, 2013

Time-lapsed Image of Amu Darya River

2 Djanibekov et al. 2012, in O. Dubovyk, 2013. AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Social Formation Nukus Productive Network Panel // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Nukus City

The Karaklpak Social Formation from the Past

The history of Nukus begins not from the obtaining the status of the capital of Karakalpakstan, but from the origin of the human settlement on the occupied territory. The settlement did not disappear, but then it was developing as the Soviet urban-type settlement. The 1989 census indicated that Nukus was the fastest growing city in Uzbekistan as a consequence of the deteriorating environmental conditions in the surrounding countryside. During the Soviet ruling, it was over-imposed a system of production and a different urban model with the specific objective of exploit a territory and its resources without engaging with the environmental condition and real possibilities. Mono-culture is not only for production of cotton but also the architectural style and urban model. The State controls forcibly over every economic and social formation. C.L.

Karaklpak Nomad 1932

Karaklpak, also known as 'Black Hat' is desert nomad living in the region for many years Activities alone the Amu Darya River

They were settled and nomad between desert and coastal area near the river of Amu Darya seasonally, a self-sufficient agricultural lifestyle with nature and geomorphology the desert and water

Propaganda poster, Let us gather vast crops from the virgin land

After Soviet Ruling, peoples were mobilized to go to the fields.

Collective Farm for Cotton

Soviet Union modernized the desert nomad lifestyle into mono-cotton cultivation

Cotton Picker

Nowadays, sand dune beside the vast collective cotton field is served by forced child labour seasonally

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Soviet Totalitarianism, collage Typological Change of Local Architecture

Yurt is a traditional architecture typology of within this territory. It is basically a tent which is made of animal skin and wood. It has a very light structure and is quite fast and easy to be built or demolished, properties that suit the needs of local population nomadic lifestyle. It is also strong enough to protect people inside from sand storm, inserts attack and provide natural ventilation as well. After Soviet ruling, this typology becomes disappearing in the territory but it gives a hint on how people could live within the desert environment as an alternative to the generic planned Soviet urban structure.

Yurts in the Desert

Design for Lenin Square in the center of Nukus

Plans for Lenin Square in the centre of Noâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;kis during the 1970s

Ruins of Soviet building block in the desert

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Nukus City

The Sectional Study Study of Existing Urban Condition

These sectional studies reflect the examination of existing cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condition, typology and topography based on typological drawing. From the first step, we analysed the size and percentage of different typelogies of urban plots classified by their function for living, working and water-storing. This formed a basic knowledge which informed our decision making on whether the type of plot would be worth to be protected from shifting sands or plan its dismantlement. C.L.

Analysis of Plot Typologies

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Sectional Drawing of Nukus

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

Projective Axonometric

une d D ears San 20 Y eAg une d D ears San 30 Y eAg

Secondly, different functions of the city in particular area is studied through production of this section drawing which indicate both existing programme and the projective sand movement towards the area.

une d D ears San 40 Y eAg

Existing Condition

nd mla Far 20% ate on Priv entati g Ve

une d D ears San 50 Y eAg

y

nsit De Low 5% al - n enti ntatio id s e Re Veg

Projective Section

e entr yC % unit n -0 mm tio Co genta Ve

m ediu -10% al M on enti entati sid Re y Veg nsit De

se hou are % l/ W -0 tria tation s u Ind egen V

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

Projective Axonometric

une d D ears San 20 Y eAg

une d D ears San 30 Y eAg une d D ears San 40 Y eAg

Existing Condition

e entr yC % unit n -0 mm tio Co genta e V

e ous reh Wa -0% ial/ on ustr tati Ind egen V

Projective Section

une d D ears San 50 Y eAg y

nsit De Low 5% al - n enti ntatio id s e Re Veg

in Pla % od Flo on -5 ti er/ Riv genta Ve

ffer Bu % ree 15 k/ T on Par entati Veg

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg une d D ears San 20 Y eAg

Projective Axonometric

une d D ears San 30 Y eAg une d D ears San 40 Y eAg

Existing Condition

% nal Ca on -0 tati gen

Ve

une d D ears San 50 Y eAg m ediu -10% al M on enti entati sid Re y Veg nsit De

tility e/ U ntr Ce -0% nity on mu entati m Co Veg

Projective Section

y nsit De igh % al H n -5 enti ntatio id s Re Vege

se hou are % l/ W -0 tria tation s u Ind egen V

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg une d D ears San 20 Y eAg

Projective Axonometric

une d D ears San 30 Y eAg une d D ears San 40 Y eAg

Existing Condition

Projective Section

une d D ears San 50 Y eAg

nd mla Far 0% tive tion 4 llec Co genta Ve % nal Ca on -0 ti nta

e Veg

nd mla Far 20% ate on Priv entati Veg

y nsit De Low 5% al - n enti ntatio id s Re Vege

d lan 0% ste Wa tation en Veg

une d D ears San 10 Y eAg

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Soviet Union left a system of mono-culture production of cotton which is based on a state labour practice that force the population of all ages to have an active role picking up and cleaning cotton fields throughout the year. We have attempted to describe with this map the manpower attracted from these activities and the close relationship between the urban & cultivated areas.

In the Private farms are only the 10% but theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re proved to be 60% more productive than the collective ones. They are allowed to cultivate the land differently, so to produce wheat, rice, and some types of veg to provide food for the city. The main crops are cotton and winter wheat, which occupy 50-70% (cotton) and 20-30% (winter wheat) of the arable land2. The all cotton production is actually exported outside and sold by the state, so not proving any cotton processing industries in the territory, losing a potentially relevant resource of income for the population1.

1 UZSTAT 2010; Mott-MacDonald 2011

Social Formation Chart AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Thirdly, based on the typological elements in the city, this flow chart is produced to summarize overall â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ecologyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the area and the links from local to Central Uzbekistan, and then to Europe

Nowadays, the cotton cultivation does not change due to lack of resource from Central Government, and forced labour of children and adults is still common in the region that is not threatened by the shifting dune moving towards the city. Threatened by the advancing desert and dune scape, resource management is now being aggravated by competing governments battling in a globalization market economy.

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Nukus City

Local Economies Social Formation

From the site visit, we have traced the production flow of the cotton and the agricultural products from the collective farm and private farm respectively to understand what they produce and how it is connected to the factory or market. The collective farm land size is bigger than private owned farm and is managed centrally by the government. Peoples are mobilized from the city the the collective farm from time to time to work for cotton cultivation and the cotton will be collected and delivered to other city for industrial processing.

Forced Labour in a Collective Cotton Farm

Peoples Collecting Cotton from the Farm

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The private owned farmland is relatively small in size and is managed by the family who lives in the same plot of land. The farm is mainly to produce food such as vegetable and fruit to be sold in the local consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market inside the city centre.

Private Farm with Housing

Market Selling Foods from Private Farm

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Geomorphology This projective cartography of geomorphology is from the knowledge of generic sand dune morphology and collective results of simulation of existing oasis, wind corridor, and sand dune. Based on existing urban condition, the shift sand dune will cover part of the city from 2025 and will penetrate into the deeper part of it in 2065. The morphology and behaviour of the sand dune would also change depending on the topography it covered. The density, form, height, sloping angle of dune would change periodically on time. This drawing of sediments movement provokes the question of how we could negotiate the drifting geomorphology of dunes simultaneously with the aim of envisioning a future for the city deepening the knowledge on desertification process occurring across it. C.L.

Google Image of Karakum Desert AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Methodology of the Systematic Technical Approach of Studying the Dune Morphology and Determining the Design of the Project.

11 ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information. It is used for: creating and using maps; compiling geographic data; analyzing mapped information; sharing and discovering geographic information; using maps and geographic information in a range of applications; and managing geographic information in a database. 12 A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain's surface - commonly for a planet (including Earth), moon, or asteroid - created from terrain elevation data.

The study area is inside Nukus city, Uzbekistan which the topography is nearly a flat plain. We traced the urban area outline and built it as a Rhino block. Also, we exported the surface data from ArcGIS11 and transforming it to Rhino surface. From our previous studies, obstacle is an important factor which affects sand movement. Sand pattern changes while the change of the obstacleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shape and size. In this case, we input three kinds of obstacles with different parameters. The flow chart shows the systematic technical approach of studying the dune morphology and determining the design of the project. The key methodological steps are: 1) Collecting basic data for the site, for instance, GIS topography (Digital Elevation Model)12, prevailing wind direction. 2) Import the topography data into ArcGIS, trim the site area and convert it to Rhino compatible format. 3) In Rhino, cleanup the model. Trace the urban area outline and convert it to three dimensional model. 4) Simulate the site, the parameter using this equation: y=supercounter n=year

y=25n

5) Receiving the first topography of the dune. 6) From the result above, the tracing of pocket area outline and crest indexing are very important. After completing step 6, the result could be able to feedback to design and determine the right location of putting the obstacle. for sources refer to Bibliogaphy

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Sand Dune Simulation

morphology of Barchan Dunes Morphological Transformation Study

Simulation, Slope Analysis & Indexing of Barchan Dune

The type of sand dune near Nukus is Barchan Dune which it is focusing on. Simulation of the dune with the factor of time is extracted and the result below shows the repetition of pattern and its revolution of it. The plan dimension of height, angle, density and form have changed over time. From the analysis of the slope angle into gradient, it is identified that the colour in Red as the flat pocket space between the dune and the Blue is the mostly sloping land, the understanding of the data would be useful for manipulation of the dune with the intervention.

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Axomometric of Barchan Dune Change over Time

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Based on the simulation and the measurement of the dune patten near Nukus, we have speculated a projective result of shifting speed and dune pattern change over time in the coming 50 years. This means that the morphology of the dune would change based on the duration it has been covered that would be a crucial factor to be considered. The drawing also shows the change in height and angle in section.

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// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

0°-15°

83


Process of Projective Simulation over City

From the observation of existing sand dune in the nearby desert, it is Barchan dune of various dimension from 50-200m in width and 3-15m in height. With the previous wind simulation of the territory with the existing shelter belt and oasis, several loophole of wind corridor are identified which will be affected by the sand storm. One of the corridors intersecting most South part of the city is selected to study in details to speculate what condition it could be without any intervention. Then, the sand path is obtained based on the average low area of the topography within the wind path where the sand dune movement is the most active. Furthermore, it is to input the major waterbody and major network as obstacles that human will maintain to finally obtain the sand dune surface.

Sand Dune Simulation

Combined Obstacle

Major Road Network

Water Body

Selected Sand Path Across City Terrain to be Developed as Site

Sand Path based on Topography

Survey of Existing Dune Pattern Wind Corridor from Wind Simulation (Prevailing Wind Direction )

Exist City of Nukus AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Speculation of Dune Shifting Speed towards City

2017

2019

2021

2023

2025

The speculation of the dune shifting speed towards city is based on the knowledge of the dune movement speed in this territory multiplied by a factor of assuming the sand storm will be getting worse. i.e. over 300 meters per year. Therefore, the part of the city would be covered up in 10 years, while the sand dune would change the dimension, height, sloping angle and form based on the age of it covered due to increase of sand supply that results a variation of pattern.

2025-2065 // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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South Nukus

On Site Material Qualities Geomorphology

On the site, we have travelled to different area to investigate the desertification and ground condition change over time. The soil deteriorates from salty ground, to the dry up surface and then the sand accumulation and finally the shifting sand dune. The reason behind is due to the over-exploitation of water for intensive agriculture, i.e. cotton.

Salty Ground

Dry-up Soil Surface

Sand Accumulation

Sand Dune Formation

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The type of dune found around the city is Barchan dune which is moving towards the city due to the fact that the dune is oriented to the prevailing wind direction. When there is dry season with strong seasonal wind, sand storm will happen and some of the sand would move to the inside of the city. The scale, size and shape of the dune have also been measured and studied. C.L.

View of Geomorphology from the Plane

Aerial View of Sand Dune Shifting Towards City

View of Scale of Sand Dune on Ground

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

87


Cartogenesis The Cartogenesis is to actualize the overall intervention strategy based on the understanding of geomorphological knowledge and mono-culture of Soviet legacy. The sand storm is threatening the urban population to move abroad and will leave the part of the city abandoned with sand; while the on-going rural exodus to this city provides an opportunity to rethink how this city within sand can be redeveloped. The strategy is not aimed at confronting the shifting sand nor creating another separation. Rather, taking the projective movement of sand as a starting point, it will manipulate the sand dune by means of Agro-forestry to create protected pocket area between sand dunes where human activities could take place. The generation of smaller but denser urban clusters within the protected pocket space means that the less and flexible layout of forestry area is needed to protect the settlement in contrast to the existing massive total separation model. C.L.

Nukus in the Desert AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Cartogenesis A Manifesto of Intervention Panel // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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South Nukus

Development Factors Change in Social Formation

Shrinking Urban Condition in Nukus

There are particular reasons to drive the project to work with sand despite that the site is surrounded by desert. Firstly, the urban shrinking condition due to shifting sand & lack of job opportunities due to mono-culture is seen to have no alternative in governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policy and the deterioration of city and shifting sand will be leaving as it is. Secondly, the pressure for development and agricultural activities due to rural migration to urban area because of drying Aral Sea would supplement the shrinking urban population and look for new opportunity. Thirdly, the central government is seen to have less control over desert terrain than urbanized area that is an opportunity for establishment of informal settlement. Forthly, the ground salination due to long-term cotton cultivation would need a renovation of the soil/ ground to sustain so that cultivation on the shifting sand could be an alternative. Finally, the local culture and technique of living and using of sand would support the development technically.

Rural Migration in Aral Sea Basin Area to Nukus

Informal Housing on Sand

Salty Ground Condition near Nukus

Mud Brick Production Technique using Sandy Soil

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The proposed social formation learns from the Karakalpak culture, to use traditional species that are able to grow in sandy and salty terrain to form the Agro-forestry. It is not only used as shelter belt and dune stabilization but also cyclically supply raw material such as such as grass, fruit, wood and fabric that would encourage the renaissance of Karakalpak craftsmanship and renovate the economic structure. With the wild growing vegetation on sand, grazing activity would support the supply of meat and animal skin also fishing along the waterway. The material used for building would be based on vernacular technique, i.e. use of local available material such as mud brick, wood and fabric to re-establish the semi-nomadic live and production habits in a self-sufficient way. Diagram of Material Cycle

The financial model is suggested to be bottom up in which the NGOs would take the major roles due to the policial condition. NGOs can work with the local community to grow the Agro-foresty system and to diversify the type of crops. Moreover, the new silk road from China to Europe will passing through the site that could provide a new marketing opportunity to support the production and service.

Diagram of Bottom Up Development

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Machining Landscape Technical Essay - Elena Longhin - Part #1

Agroforestry A dynamic system for sand manipulation practice Techniques and precedents on the small scale

Notes 1 World Agroforestry Center http://www.worldagroforestry.org/crp6 2 Ibid. 3 USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC), <http:// nac.unl.edu/#about> Accessed on 29.07.2015 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 JR Brandle, MM Shoeneberger, 'Workin Trees: Supporting Agriculture and healthy Landscpaes', 1993, in Journal of Tropical Forest Science, Vol. 26, No. 3 (July 2014), pp. 305-308 < http://www.jstor.org/stable/43150911> Accessed on 29.07.2015

Forests play a vital role for the sustainment of our environment and overall for the whole planet. It is widely recognised the always more relevance of forest resources in supporting large population1 in terms of food supply and agricultural services. Furthermore they help to slow the pace of climate change through carbon storage and mitigating the effects of severe weather events2. The following essay provides an exploration of the agroforestry technique as an effective rehabilitation strategy of forest implementation in arid environments. It describes its practices and benefits and attempts to bring to light what we learned from current agroforestry applications in areas which share similar environmental conditions with our site of research in Uzbekistan. It also aim at investigate how we would adjust its implementation within the manipulation of the sandscape situation and therefore inform our project. One third of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface is covered by forests and almost half of its agricultural territories present a ten percent of trees coverage highlighting its relevance for the livelihoods of millions of people. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) acknowledges the integrated system of trees, crops and livestock provided by agroforestry practice crucial to control desertification processes and rehabilitation approaches. Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management3 approach which combines agriculture and forestry to establish an integrated sustainable land-use system through forestry and agricultural technologies. It aims at improving productivity by planting crops and trees simultaneously or sequentially within a managed farm or agricultural landscape to create diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land-usesystems4 in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland5. It takes advantage of the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock6. Agroforestry definition is the deliberate growing of woody perennials on the same unit of land as agricultural crops and/or animals, implying two or more plant/animal species, two or more outputs, a cycle of more than one year and an ecological and economical complex system7. The development of this approach has been revealed to be more productive than conventional agricultural and forest methods and adaptable on a wide variety of environmental conditions. Effectively, agroforestry practices include alley cropping, forest farming, silvopasture and windbreak infrastructures, providing remarkable benefits both in economic and in ecological terms . This approach ensures a diversity in goods and services provided such as the production of local commodities (fuel wood, timber, fruit, fodder and construction materials), together with a higher biodiversity compared to traditional agricultural methods. Indeed, within a given territory, even at a small scale of intervention, the interaction of various (two as minimum) plant species increase biodiversity, enriching the pre-existent habitat, and helping to establish a more complex variety of birds, insects and animals. Agroforestry systems can be implemented at different levels varying from plots to farms to landscape interventions: in the first case farmers may combine nitrogen fixation with cereal crops, at farm level as a productive and protective method along boundaries (like windbreak plantations), in the latter case it rehabilitates degraded areas, strengthen resilience and sustain agriculture productive capacity. Furthermore, depending on the species, trees function as a green manure to enrich the soil, serve as a feed source, and bring nutrients from deeper soil layers through nitrogen fixation, which can convert leaf litter into fertilizer for crops8. In addition, trees combination with crops and livestock mitigates environmental risks, helps to create a ground permanent cover for stabilizing soils against erosion

The world's forests (>10 percent tree cover)

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Agroforestry wind control, section

8 USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC), <http:// nac.unl.edu/#about> Accessed on 28.07.2015 9 Ibid. 10 World Agroforestry Center <http://www.worldagroforestry.org/crp6> Accessed on 26.07.2015 11 'Agroforestry practices in a community-based forest management site', XII World Forestry Congress, 2003 12 Ibid. The lack of, or restrictions on, government cost-share funding is an important disincentive for conservation agroforestry.

and minimizes damage from flooding benefitting crops and pastures. In this perspective agroforestry systems also contribute to the rehabilitation of degraded soils and stimulate productivity. This procedure improve farms resilience and assures seasonal production through the harvesting of diverse products. Even though agroforestry diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels, it is still considered a peripheral activity of agriculture9 and its benefits are not adequately explained. Actually, agroforestry can provide additional rural household income, expanding the economic benefits to rural communities and national economies10, therefore contributing to a strategic objective within our project in helping to eradicate poverty, provide food security and environmental sustainability. Despite agroforestry potentials to address environmental degradation has been proven through numerous programmes in recent years and its practice is able of bringing to such promising social and economic benefits, its implementation is still limited. Constraints seems to lay within four broad fields: land management, financial resources, cultivation methodologies and public policy. An important factor seems to be related to the ownership of the land and the size of farms involved. Owners of large farmlands, more sustainable medium sized farms or small private ones all long for different set of priorities. Trees become profitable only after a number of years, implying that farmers have to sustain initial investments and potential losses before benefitting from agroforestry outcomes. Commercially intense farming operators may be concerned on a wide production with short-term profit, whilst smaller operators are likely to be more interested in output quality or environmental results. Agroforestry adoption may also be constrained by land management factors in terms of technologies applied and availability of resources. Trees and shrubs may be seen to interfere with farming operations (e.g., aerial spraying or equipment movement), to compete excessively with crops for limited resources (e.g., water), or to displace valuable cropland11. Moreover, agroforestry strongly needs the coordination of national activities and efforts since legislations, markets conditions and the lack of technical informations play critical roles in farmer adoption of agroforestry12. The establishment of a knowledge network which provide locally relevant informations and on-farms demonstrations would serve a communal platform for sharing experiences and advices among farmers, helping to sustain and develop this practice.

Agro-forestry example

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Crops evaluation and productivity. Existent situation and project species in comparison Diachronic Sections of Sand Dunes and Pocket Formation

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13 Buttoud, GeĚ rard, et al., 'Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A guide for decision-makers', Agroforestry Working Paper no. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome 2013 14 Breckle et ali., 'Sustainable Land Use in Deserts', 377

An agroforestry field in Kisumu, Kenya, 2010

The research of efficient cases of agroforestry implementation on ground suffering from desertification processes has not proved to be simple. Indeed, it is quite difficult to find reliable farm-level cost/benefit analyses and demonstrated applicability cases, especially across shifting sands environments. Nevertheless, we focused on a couple of cases to base the strategy for our project and mould agroforestry techniques within the sand dune territory we explored. The project started in 2009 in Kenia as an attempt to cope with deforestation process in the region of Kisumu. The pilot initiative explored the potential benefits proceeded by urban agroforestry with the aim of integrating its technologies into peri-urban and urban practices. This approach was sustained by the government through a farm policy regulation that required at least ten percent of all farms to be under tree cover together with seedling supply13. In the attempt to provide Karakalpastan with a renovated land management regulation this proposal appear quite interesting to us inasmuch a specific instrument was formulated to increase sustainable management of agricultural land areas and motivate farmers to plant trees. Nevertheless, a public policy promoting agroforestry development should include a more pragmatic approach rather than just a creation of norms. What still miss inside this project is the involvement of private and public partnerships able to build a local collective that would generate returns inside a small scale markets network. The case of the area around the Lake Nasser in Egypt proved to be an interesting experiment that however is still in progress. The experiment is quite interesting since its development and the man-made lake mutually take advantage from the ecosystem they contribute to enrich. Economically important indigenous desert plants such as Balanites aegyptiaca and Faidherbia albida have been selected for cultivation of an experimental farm with 600 trees of the first specie and 200 of the second one. The aim was to enrich the diversity and productivity of the natural vegetation in the area proving agroforestry as an alternative type of land management. The results obtained on the growth rate showed that with sufficient water supply the desert plants grow fast and some reached a height above two m in less than two years. The architecture of the roots supported the idea of subsurface irrigation, which facilitate the vertical growth of the roots14. This projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s benefits seems to be quite interesting in comparison to our site, especially in the perspective of a strategic selection of location inside the city where the system would start to grow. Indeed, we aim at insert first riparian tree lines where water sources are available inside the city, like around grey waters mall lakes, along existent ditches or extending limited green areas. The process of growing would need a quite long time to expand and extend linearly inside the urban tissue, more years will be needed to prove that plants are becoming self-sustaining and survive without irrigating and protection from grazing. for sources refer to Bibliogaphy

incipient dune

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Organization Strategy Hybridizing agro-forestry with city and sand

Instead of continuing the existing model, i.e. by building huge city, cotton field and shelter-belt as separation of human and shifting sand, it is to provoke a new organization of hybridizing urban space with shifting sand, taking the advantage of its shifting form and dynamic characteristics. The agro-forestry is inserted function as wind break to protect the existing city and to negotiate the shifting sand dune to achieve a desirable pocket space in-between where urbanization would be taken place and broken down into cluster to suit the landforms as a total system. Conceptual Ecological Section

Due to the constrain of water, manpower resources, and crops cycle, the intervention is developed through time, from protection of existing important urban area to extension of urban space that negotiate with the predicted growing size of shifting dune. A branching system patten is deployed as a guide for the growth of agro-forestry along existing protected area. The system of branching follows the rhythm of the dunes as well as the predicted dune size between crests of the time it intervened and the length is based on the wind buffer from the simulation showing the area of relative low wind velocity. Time-based Diagram of Branching System & Section

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Simulation is used to predict the result of the sheltered pocket area in time which would be the method of negotiation to make the decision of when and how to protect and extend it to stabilize the dune so as to get the pocket space for urbanization and agriculture. It is found that the behaviour of sand would be shaped by the vegetation, in this case, the proposed agro-forestry system would be the tool to negotiate with it. There are three major functions: firstly the protection of particular area of existing city; secondly the extension of it to frozen the shifting dune surrounding and finally the human activities such as agriculture and living can be taken place in-between the area it sheltered. Therefore, it is to carefully study the factor that the forestry and sheltered area may change. Time-based Simulation of Pocket

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South Nukus

Guidelines Process and Simulation

The Guideline is an appendix to Cartogenesis that formulates the territorial manual to extrapolate on the principles of intervention strategy that may be applied to the site of similar nature across European and local territories around Aral.

Details of Guideline Steps

It illustrates the of procedural steps of how it leads to the formation of Cartogenesis based on four steps. Firstly, the study of the wind direction and dune movement path onsite; secondly, the study of existing site to make decision of which area are to be protected: thridly the time-based insertion of agro-forestry into area to be protected; fouthly, the actual protected area and sand pattern from simulations; finally the recursive simulations of wind and sand for extension / growth of agro-forestry from protected area to sand corridor.

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The Plan is to study the three major prevailing wind directions and its projective path to the unprotected area. Wind Direction & Affected Area Plan

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From the unprotected area of the city, the details of its primary function and condition is studied to determine which part of the urban district or urban plot is to be protected by agro-forestry wind break insertion. Study of Affected Area, Function & Population & Area to be Protected

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Wind Break Insertion Diagram

Then, the insertion of the agro-forestry wind break in the void of existing city to protect the selected area. This diagram shows the negotiation between the actual wind break position and the area to be protected on site.

This details plan & section shows the nominal protection area from the research and observation of the simulation. Thus, this shape is deployed as the first obstacle input in exchange of the actual wind buffer that negotiate the actual knowledge and the digital simulation constrain.

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Growth of Agro-forestry Diagram & Branching System Diagram

Finally, the growth of agro-forestry to the land covered by sand can reclaim the city area from the protected clusters that hybridises both existing city and the new form of geomorphological driven landscape.

The branching system is used due to the time-based growth of sand dune size. The agro-forestry pattern would follow itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interval change for easier planting work.

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Close up View of Simulation Steps Close-up View of Cluster

Wind Simulation

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Sand Simulation

Sand Dune Under Wind Shadow

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Land Use Strategy Diversification of Urban Program

To offer a diverse outcome of programme and resilient production that would revitalize the shrinking Soviet planned city, the land use strategy is refined. The programme on new reclaimed land on sand would be determined based on the land use of nearest existing protected land for both type of agro-forestry and urbanization. Also, it aims to be part fixed and part flexible on the combination to cater for the uncertain condition of future development.

Programme Diagram

In the actual operation of each branch, the agro-forestry starts from the wind break protecting selected existing city area is extended to the area covered by sand to stabilize the shifting dune under wind shadow of itself and then urbanize it. Both agro-forestry and urbanization programmes are diverse and mix in each phase.

Actual Programme Deployment Diagram

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Circular Programme Diagarm

Finally, six combination of programme is proposed, the circular diagram shows the mix of them in each stage together as a whole programme system.

Schedule of Programme Allocation

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Local Scale

Manipulating Sand Model Making Processes

Apart from computer 3d modeling, digital and model making technique are used not only to represent the final design but as a process of tectonic development. We have tested different material and scale, both to explore dunes morphology (different papers models), both to understand how to represent its dynamic shifting (see layer in mdf model that resemble sand accumulation and saltation), both to explore how to manipulate its formation in order to create spaces in-between of certain sizes (see paper model, mdf models and mdf models) we also explore way to proliferate building units over the dune slope and how they could cluster through time in relation to the dune formation and therefore to its steepness and capacity. Paper Model 1 Top View

Paper Model 2 Top View

Paper Model 3 Top View

Paper Model 4 Top View

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Paper Model 5 Top View & Perspective View

Paper Model 6 Top View & Perspective View

Paper Model 7 Top View & Perspective View

Paper Model 8 Top View & Perspective View

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Paper Model 9 Top View & Perspective View

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Paper Model 10 Top View & Perspective View

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Tectonic Intersectioin With this drawing we have explored how sand dunes can be manipulated across urban clusters. The proposal aims at stabilize progressively sand dunes through time re-sewing city urban clusters across the dunes scape. The area we decided to explore is an urban cluster where the intervention would take place at first due to its proximity to the city border and therefore to the shifting sands and for the mixitè its urban tissue present. Clusterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s buffer wind zones developed with first wind simulations are here undergoing further study through the simulation of sand movement with Python Script and a paper models experiments. We aim at manipulate dunes in order to create pockets protected from sand storm where new agricultural activities would take place. The implementation of agroforestry has the relevant role of shaping the ground and controlling the amount of space we need. The plantation of combined trees such as local poplars, pines and smaller shrubs would serve as an effective obstacle for the whole dune to move ahead. Moreover, the system would also expand through the pocket creating a sort of productive oasis in-between where silvo-pasture and forest farming would take place. In time forest farming the cultivation of alternative crops will play a vital role both for the production systems and for encouraging foresting as an economic service which could play an important role in the revival of the industry sector. E.L.

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Machining Landscape - Technical Essay - Chris Lo

Inhabiting Shifting Sand Learning from Vernacular Cases

Deserts in Globe

Desertification has been a global phenomenon nowadays including in Europe and its surrounding territory that people cannot neglect. The aggressive environment of the decertifying land is always contradictory to human existence. It causes the strict control of these land through reforestation as the common means of management which tries to separate human habitation and the sand. This essay questions this phenomenon and alternatively takes the decertifying land as an ecology where people may live with, to speculate how the landscape of sand and its dynamic could be incorporated into the contemporary urban design. Through the study of resources in desert condition and the vernacular cases, it aims at collecting knowledge to inform how the city and the geomorphology of sand could be designed to be hybridized, liveable, sustainable and productive. People settles in the sand or carries out productive activities are not rare in ancient history but mostly successful in vernacular way in Africa, such as villages in Mali or Agadez, a Tuareg city in Niger. In the contemporary history, people trends to develop the desert massively through top-down urbanization and intensive production due to technology advancement. The Karakum desert in Aral Sea Basin was one of those very extreme failure1 near Europe. It is a several hundred kilometre square artificial oasis created in 1960 by very top-down Soviet planning that transformed the desert into a highly waterconsuming mono-cotton production base and collective resettled the local nomadic community into generic communist cities. The way Soviet did was to intensively divert the natural waterway Amu Darya into many artificial canal to feed the adjoining desert land in different directions to grow cotton2. Nowadays, we can witness the fault of the Aral Sea crisis where dries up surface water; leaves up toxic dust from cotton pesticide; decertifies land everywhere and exodus of local people. The planning is destroying itself in just 40 years after it created and also activated the natural dynamic of sand that reach everywhere locally and several thousand miles away territorially. While in the Aral Sea case, the plan to use of desert was too aggressive that results further desertification. In Europe, however, the norm would be too conservative to settle and produce in the desert, like the case of Oleshky Desert in Ukraine since 19 century, Highland Desert in Iceland since 18 century and Bledow Desert in Poland since Medieval Period. After they were decertified, they had been separated by the technique of reforestation and then mainly used for entertainment and natural reserve only. Conventional touristic use for camping, hiking, fishing and hunting are all popular in these deserts among those seeking sunshine, warm weather, unusual terrain, interesting plants, animals and off-road vehicle tour3, but none of them were planned for long term habitation and production. In the latest development of landscape urbanism4 in Architectural Association, the project tries to hybridize both the nature of sand and the city of artificial dynamic through proper understanding of geomorphological and social process. To collect knowledge for strategization of settlement and production in the sand, it is firstly to study the ecological potential of the geography and secondly the actual social formation of the human habitant to achieve the outcome that is neither conventional top-down urban planning nor strict control by separation forestation. Desert has always given people a misunderstanding of merely barren, dry, and lack of life ecological condition apart from the shifting sand and touristic but it is actually much more than that. Herein, it will discuss firstly the climatic condition, secondly the ecological system of the hidden life in desert so as to fully understand the potential out of generic perception. In deserted area, although the climatic condition is vary, it is generally of very little precipitation all over the year with long yet strong sunlight so that surface is usually dry and out of water body in addition to great day and night temperature difference. Also, the geographical condition of a desert would usually have very strong wind that blows on to the sandy ground that shifts the sand dunes and creates sand storm from time to time5.

Traditional African Architecture

The arid environment actually does not stop plants and animalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; existence in deserts but rather unique ecology is created. There is sometimes rain in the desert that formes temporary lake, underground springs and well from aquifers exposed on ground as oasis that gives the opportunity to the life. For example, Cacti, Camel Thorn Tree and some wild grass are common plants that can be found around the sand dune. On the other hand, camel Euphorbia, Kangaroo Rats, Jerboas, Phrynosoma, Moloch and Cursorius are able to stay in the desert too6. People also has a long history of living in deserts in vernacular way which they developed skills for animal tracking, water finding, foraging for edible plants and use what they found in desert for everyday needs and knowledge are passed down through the generations by word of mouth7. Their way of life are mainly nomadic with herders of sheep, goats, cattle, camel, yaks, llamas and reindeer or caravan. It is not only because of trade between locations but it also follows the seasonal change of rainfall and plant growth cycle to shift so as to reach a sustainable and self-sufficient way in scarcity of resource8. It is noted that there are lots of hidden potential of desert: rich solar and wind power, shifting sand, salty ground, underground water, oasis, edible plants, animals AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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Satellite Image of Nouakchott

and livestock. The failure of plan in Aral Sea and other similar Europe cases caused serious desertification or lost of biodiversity in sandscape would be respectively overexploitation or control it too much rather than deploying what it has as the predecessor did in vernacular way. It is crucial for us to learn what the vernacular experience and contemporary knowledge can be combined into a synthesis strategy to live with this type of dynamic landscape sustainably. In order to generate knowledge from the successful example of sustainable desert habitation and production to inform the Aral Sea project and Europe, three cases are selected to analysis to extract their merits in different scale. Firstly, Nouakchott in Mauritania Sahara presents the process of how a city of 1 million population adopts diachronically with ongoing shifting sand; secondly, Adjder Oasis, Northwest of Timimoun in Algeria demonstrates how a self-containing agricultural and living unit can be systematically grown into a village following the shifting landforms of sand. Finally, Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy in Vietnam shows the method of cultivation and agriculture system on the sand dune.

Aerial View of Nouakchott

Satellite Image of Adjder Oasis

that is livable and productive.

NOTES 1 Daily Telegraph (2010-04-05). Aral Sea one of the planet's worst environmental disasters. The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on April 8, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 2 Soviet cotton threatens a regions sea - and its children. New Scientist. November 18, 1989. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 3 UNEP (2006) . Alternative Benefits And Uses of Deserts . http://www.unep.org/geo/gdoutlook/041.asp Retrieved 31 July 2015. 4 AA Landscape Urbanism (2014) . Research <http://landscapeurbanism.aaschool.ac.uk/ research/>Retrieved 31 July 2015. 5 United States Geological Survey (2012). What is a desert?. Retrieved  31 July 2015.

Nouakchott is one of the largest cities in western coast of Sahara and is the centre of administration and economy of Mauritania. The name Nouakchott, derived from Berber means ‘place of winds’ actually shows how the climatic condition it is9. It was a small fishing village until 1958 when it was chosen to be the capital of Mauritanian and since that it is been growing to more than 2 million population10. Between 1975 to 1992, the 750 ha of green belt around Nouakchott was built to protect the land from Sahara that did not cover the land for this population growth that accidentally causes a unique phenomena of large part of city within or extended to sand dune. It means that the city has been growing together with the sand dune within the same place11. Recently, it is assisted by FAO and UNDP with Europe Institutions to carry out a protection program to reduce sand encroachment that involves construction of green belts through biological fixation at the outer ring of city and stabilization of sand dune already existed within the city parameter through mechanical mean12. The city itself can be read into different ecological zone. i.e. The bare sand in the centre area of the city is to be eliminated by hardening and vegetation. The urban area of the city partly covered by sand dune is to be stabilized using palisades and fence constructed of local leaves and leftover materials such as Euphorbia Palsamifera, Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, Prosopis Juliflora and Phoenix Dactylifera. The outer area of the city is constructed with artificial sand storm break through forestation by using species that suit the salty and sandy soil condition and drought climate such as Prosopis Juliflora, Stipagrostis Pungens, Calligonum Comosum, Acacia Tortilis and Ziziphus Mauritiana to stop further sand arrive the particular protection area and aim for external enclosure of grazing area surrounding the city13. The major infrastructure network such as waterway and road are still penetrated between the points to support the city’s production and living needs by regular maintenance. These measures together with the city population grows in the same time creates different patterns that can be clearly identified. Some area is completely protected out of sand, some area covered by sand has been stabilized and community exists on top of it, some area is densely vegetated as the wind break to fully stop the sand movement and finally the vegetation grows on the sand dune at the outer ring for agricultural production. The city’s life and production process, for example, agriculture, industry, commercial trade and entertainment etc. are remained unaffected as usual. It has unintentionally represents the hybridization of how city, human and shifting sand can be working together to create diverse outcome rather than generic green belt approach that just fence-off the sand ecology with habitation and production activity which would eliminate the spatial and ecological diversity. OASIS WITHIN SAND Adjder Oasis is a village in the Northwest of a small town Timimoun and North of Charouine in Algeria within North Sahara that a photographer George Steinmetz firstly discovered and bring it into scene by publishing its stunning landscape photo in 201014. It is in the centre of the Sahara desert where has been always full of sand dune where local people tried to settle 500 years ago15. It was a small village but nowadays it expands unit-by-unit to almost 5km by 5 km in size. According to George Steinmetz interviewed to the local farmers, it is a self-sufficient agricultural village in form of many small scale, modularized oasis in between each rows and follow the shape of the sand dune oriented backward to the major wind direction of Northeast16. Each of the modular oasis size is between 50m to 150m diameter and separated by rows of dune around 50 to 100 meters that not only suit the landforms itself but maintain a stable wind and underground water condition. Inside each of such, it consists of several essential elements that allows it to stand on the sea of sand. Firstly, it has a barriers of palm fronds either surrounding or facing the windward size as wind breaker to stop sand blowing to the pocket area. Secondly, the farmland grows crop with fertilized soil from the human and livestock waste just located in front of the wind breaker under the wind shadow together to create a small type of agro-forestry. Thirdly, the water supply is from the hand dug well that reach the underground water level of 15 meters below, traditionally raised by hand and beast but now by electric pumps for irrigation. Fourthly, the building such as house, communal space or tent is located in between the farmland, wind break and sand // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Adjder Oasis , George Steinmetz 2010

dune17. As observed, the major infrastructure such as electrical supply line and the major road connect other town to the centre of the village and distributed locally so that people generally walk on sand between the units. This type of modularized organization together with the sand dune itself generates geometric beauty of landscape and subdivision of land not only be self-sufficient but has the ability to replicate and adopt to other similar condition that envisions an ecological landscape driven urbanization process in the center of the desert.

Satellite Image of Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy

Image of Sand Dune in Front of Farm Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy

Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy are in the central coastal zone of Vietnam that they were stripped off the vegetation due to massive bombing during Vietnam War and deforestation after many years of lacking care that causes massive sand dunes along hundreds kilometres by eight kilometres in size nowadays18. The salt laden winds during hot and dry seasons has worsen the situation by blowing the sand inshore to the villages and farmland while floods and cyclones in wet seasons makes it much messy19. The local community faces the growth of population, urbanization that means they need more space but lack of funding to remove the sand. Thanks for a NGO project funded by Australian government, VACVINA, to test the possibility of sand to reclamation that turns the sand dune into productive and sustainable farmland to solve the problem of lack of cultivation land20. Local community has received training for the method of cultivation on dune called intensive gardening techniques and sand dune stabilization21. It starts the dune stabilization in unconventional way from the windward side of the crest with the salt loving and wind resisting trees as wind break. Subsequently, branches of wind break trees are cut as fuel wood as well as providing opportunity to grow bushier layer underneath while livestock are kept away to reduce loss of vegetation around the dune to strengthen the wind break22. Then valley in-between the dunes are used for agricultural use by planting economic, indigenous species or fruit trees such as common paddy in non-wind season and root crop like onions, chives, garlic, ginger, sweet potato and taro that can survive from flood in monsoon23. To grow crops on sand, organic fertilizer is required which is from growing of green manure crop and pig manure mix in compost and place under and around during seeding24. Afterward, continuous monitoring is needed so as to add extra fertilizer when the leaf appears weak green or has fruit or flowering that finally creates vigorous in pure sandy terrain25. The other way make dune productive is an innovative leaky fish pond system26. It is usually located near the village where freshwater is aerated and pumped to the tapped dune valley in the size of around 300mm width each strip module and several-ten meters in length near the coconut, banana, sweet potato, taro, mints or herbs crops to reduce water lost and maintain a cooler temperature that is used for fish production. Apart from techniques, the subdivision of sand dune providing an ‘ownership’ or land tenure system is also innovative as sand dunes were divided into sections and leased to different farmers and families that forms hamlets on sand dune27.

6 Pianka, Eric R. (2015) Convergent Evolution. Biology Reference. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 7 Fagan, Brian M. (2004). People of the Earth. Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 169-181 8 Dyson-Hudson, Rada; Dyson-Hudson, Neville (1980). Nomadic pastoralism. Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 15-61 9 Pazzanita, Anthony G. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Mauritania. Scarecrow Pres. pp. 369-372. 10 Brian Rajewski . (1999) Cities of the World . Vol. 1; ed. for Eastword Publications Development Inc. . Cleveland, Ohio. Gale Research. Detroit. pp. 331 11 Michael Welland. (2009) Sand: The Never-Ending Story. p.168. 12 FAO . (2005) . Rehabilitating and Extending the Nouakchott Green Belt . <www.fao.org/docrep/012/ i1488e/i1488e05.pdf>. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 13 Fall Alioun and Dr Ahmedou Soule(2013) . Presentation in 3rd Africa-Asia Drought Adaptation Forum . http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/ Environment%20and%20Energy/sustainable%20 land%20management/AADAF3/2.4.Fall.pdf> Retrieved  31 July 2015.

This innovative bottom-up project has demonstrated how the land administration, wind break, sand dune farming and fish production can be carried out with local materials and agricultural techniques, crop rotation and management measure that transforms sand dune into a productive and habitable land in reality. Theses three cases have demonstrated in different scale of how people can live with sand dune in a much productive way that is neither conservative nor aggressive. The Nouakchott case shows how a large city can be survived by strategizing the city into different zones and pattern following sand that the city life can function as usual for living, trade and production. The plan for that should be diverse but flexible to adopt, some fix, some temporal and some non-plan that suit the dynamic condition of landforms intersection with city in time. Moreover, the use of local material while maintaining major infrastructural connection is also essential. The Adjder Oasis shows how a module of all-in-one windbreak-house-farm can be self-sustainable by making use of local source of waste and water. and grown systematically creating geometrical beauty of subdivision base on landforms rather than generic planning grid. The Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy cases shows the method of how to cultivate on sand dune for agriculture and fish farm that makes use of the landforms potential for windbreak and sand dune to be productive and liveable while considering the climatic and seasonal change is also crucial. These examples, together with the hidden potential of desert, can form the base of the strategy for Aral Sea Basin and as well as Europe in terms of sustainable and ecological cities within sandscape. Nowadays, as a designer or agency, with the help of advanced digital tools such as GIS28 for data collection and analysis, Python cellar automation for geomorphological simulation29, CFD wind simulation30 and the collective knowledge from research, we can break through the fixity of the traditional urban design towards a much more flexible, dynamic and responsive approach to achieve the hybridized landscape with urbanism for sources refer to Bibliography simultaneously. Let the sand flows and adopt the cities to suit the natural dynamic nature

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Analysis of Zone of Sand in Nouakchott

Earth with its living skin pulled away . https://www. newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2012/12/ algerian-oases.html . Retrieved  31 July 2015. 15 ASA-Agency(2009).Timmimoun, Adrar, Algeria. Description of image . http://www.asa-agency.com/en/media/5dcd62f2-c8a611e1-8786-c3d7416a55dc-aerial-view-of-adjder-oasissome-100-km-nw-of-timimoun-north . Retrieved  31 July 2015. 16 lbid. 17 lbid. 18 Rosemary Morrow . (1995) . Sand Dune Farming . http://www.agriculturesnetwork.org/magazines/global/ room-for-farmers/sand-dune-farming . Retrieved  31 July 2015. 19 lbid. 20 lbid. 21 lbid . 22 lbid . 23 Rosemary Morrow . (1995) . Sand Dune Farming . ILEIA Newsletter Vo. 11 No.1 p.6 24 lbid. 25 lbid. 26 lbid. 27 lbid. 28 ArcGIS. (2015). Features.<https://www.arcgis.com/ features/> Retrieved  31 July 2015. 29 Jim Elder. (2009) . Dune Field Morphology. <http:// web.ncf.ca/jim/sand/dunefieldMorphology/sw/> . Retrieved  31 July 2015. 30 Autodesk. (2015) . Flow Design. <http://www. autodesk.com/products/flow-design/features/all/listview . Retrieved  31 July 2015.>

Diagram of Modular Adjder Oasis Section of Garden System in Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy

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Machining Landscape Technical Essay - Howe Chan - Part #2

Numeric Sandscape Techniques and methodology on simulation models use

Catalogue of I-Shape Obstacle Simulation

We used a long box as an obstacle to represent a row of windbreak in order to observe the behaviour of how windbreak (obstacle block) affecting sand movement. In order to observe the relationship between the height of obstacles and the size of protected areas, we set the obstacles as single boxes with three different heights as the first group, they represent three different kinds of vegetation species which were mentioned above. The results indicate that the length from the obstacles to the next dune slope grows as the height of the obstacles increase, they extends to a distance of about 5 H (H=height of obstacle). Therefore we can conclude that the height of the vegetation for the windbreak which be planted should be enough tall to achieve a certain effect. However, based on the other researches, the height of the trees should not exceed 20 meters, otherwise they would be broken by wind easily.

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In the second group, we observed the theory of the effect produced by C-shaped windbreaks, whose techniques are further explained inside the next chapter. Based on the previous simulations, we learnt that although the C-shape windbreaks which were mentioned to be effective in the research, in our case in the simulation they almost got the same results as the normal I-shape windbreaks. Therefore we decided to keep using I-shape in our design, in order to save resources to make them achieving the largest effort. Also, obstacles located in a specific arrangement (in our case obstacles are trees planting as windbreaks) create shapes of pockets in between dunes after several years. In the condition of continuous sand supply and obstacles are placed, those pockets grow as time goes by. Catalogue of C-Shape Obstacle Simulation

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Python Cluster Simulation Phases Slope Analysis and Indexing

The I-shape obstacle as prototype is investigated to be applied to our design strategy through times. Different sand dune pattern have been generated from the application of different section and sizes of obstacle, so through various tree ages and number of plantings. Since we have noticed that sand dune geomorphology changings through time is a significant factor within the design ofthe project, we tried to explore deeply its capabilities in order to manipulate shapes of dunes. In the test shown, we input our actual site into the simulator and test if the obstacles are able to generate a timeline based topography. Also, considering the social context of our project, there would be an existing urban area which is count to be one of the objects in the test. Firstly, we used the urban area block and generates a basic dune landscape after running the simulator for once. Then, we started to put the first group of obstacle blocks into to represent the first phase of the artificial windbreak plantation. As it can be seen in third step from below, the dune was stabilized after putting the obstacles on the foot of the leeward side of the dunes while the dunes in other parts of the site were still shifting.

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Then we put the second group of the obstacle blocks which represent the second phase of the plantation. We repeated the process triple until the simulation finished. Because the dunes kept shifting in the parts which were not affected by the obstacle blocks, they became larger as time went by. The dunes themselves became massive obstacle blocks, therefore, the pockets in between also became larger. Comparing with the other global environmental issues on topography such as flooding, desertification and sand dunes are always ignored or less to be concerned about. In order to achieve a final design project which is relative to reality , these simulation tools offer us a graphical way to understand how the sand dunes formed and a platform which we can affect the movement and behavior of sand dunes through the design. Also, we are able to make use of these features from the tools to feedback to the design works. Thus, as designers, these types of models enable the design discipline to go much further. However, due to the needs of collaboration between Python and Rhino, the result of the Python script simulation is extremely heavy which it can only offer a limit range of sand pattern. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;particleâ&#x20AC;? which represents the supply of sand is limited and moves in loop so the pattern always goes in a repeat way. Also, the result of the simulation is not able to reach to rule of 20h, the average of the distance from obstacle to the end of the pocket is 5h.

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Zoom-In for Dune Stabilization Phases

Detail of Cartogenesis drawing

1st dune stabilization buffer

2nd dune stabilization buffer

0 year

10 years

Stabilization Simulation

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From previous simulation we extracted the knowledge of manipulating sand dunes to create pockets. Through time and specifically with four phases of interaction we stabilize sand drifting towards cluster border. The implementation of agroforestry within the urban tissue would extend gradually across the sandscape and behave like an obstacle for wind carrying sand particles within next phases.

3rd dune stabilization buffer

4th dune stabilization buffer

20 years

30 years

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Local Scale

Catalogue of Material Overall View

After analysing the dune formation, we tried to combine different kinds of technique in different phase of dune formation. This sequence of drawings shows an example which about the time and spatial arrangement of the soft technique and hard technique are being installed on the dunes. The division is based on the strength of stabilization of plantation, contour and area size.

Catalogue of Materials

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The dunes were formed by continuous prevailing wind, they are not stable and shift as the direction of wind.

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Soft technique: grass mesh as checkerboard is placed on the upwind side of the dunes. Hard technique: Wood sticks are plugged on the foot of the leeward side along the contour in order to stable the dune, also, they are the base structure for the first layer of housing. Road networks are setup either for the working of the wood sticks.

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Soft technique: bushes and shrubs are planted in between the space of the checkerboard, strengthen the stabilization. Hard technique: first layer of the housing is built on the wood sticks. Foundation is built along the +3 meters contour from the wood sticks in order to create plateau for the second layer of housing.

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Soft technique: planting the first line of agroforestry Hard technique: second layer of the housing and network are built on the plateau. Foundation is built along the +3 meters contour from the second layer of housing in order to create plateau for the third layer of housing.

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Local Scale

Clustering on Dunes Model Making Processes - smaller explorations

Thread on MDF Sand Dune Model

Thread is used to explore the subdivision of land inside the dune unit. It represents the main network of road, waterway and dune stabilization that forms a whole system.

Block on MDF Sand Dune Model

Paper strip is deployed to explore the building block size, density and arrangement on the dune.

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Relational Model Diagram for Different Programme

Inspired in the model making process, a relational model is developed based on the parameter of the generic urban elements such as block size, density, lot subdivision by road and water network which demonstrates the designed parameters to the programmes as a linkage and hint to the smaller scale design.

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Time-Based Building Proliferation Model

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Building Proliferation Model

Close-Up View

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Manufactured Grounds Manufactured Grounds drawing explores spatial qualities that would occur within the pocket provoked by the manipulation of two dunes drifting. The knowledge extracted from various tests carried out on physical models guided the design proposal. Simultaneously, previous researches on planting allow us to develop our own implementation of agroforestry as a toll for sand control. Through the exploration of possible sand stabilization and accumulation practices, we intervene on the advancing dunes strategically locating wooden fences and sticks that would control dune location and its ridge, whilst implementing a checkerboard of dead grass that has the potential to stabilize the soil and and mostly fertilize it. This technique would stop sand saltation and enable soil fertilization for further plantation in order to vegetate the dune slope. Other techniques to control sand sedimentation and wind intensity are wooden cages would help to grasp the sand at given locations to create in some areas allotments at the dune base or terracing for pathways along slopes. Moreover, adobe technique, which is widely implemented in the areas as a device to informally expand the urban tissue over the desert and which implies the manufacturing of mud bricks in loco, would stabilize slopes at given heights. This tools would make possible the proliferation of building units simply built with local available materials over dune according to its slope degrees and program decided. Lastly, we foreseen a possible activities iterations within the pocket and across sandscapes. E.L.

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Machining Landscape Technical Essay - Elena Longhin - Part #2

Implemetation Phases & Modulation Techniques and precedents on the small scale - Materials & Methods

Within our frame of research it is quite interesting what agroforestry may provide at the urban scale: its positive outcomes would contribute to enhance a more resilient food pro13 'Agroforestry practices in a community-based forest duction system, which could gradually replace the mono-culture systems prevailing in the management site', XII World Forestry Congress, 2003 Central Asia. Moreover in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, where territories were harshly affected by lack of 14 Mariya, Lamers, Martius, Tischbein, 'Rural vulnerability resources due to overexploitation of water supplies, this approach may also help to preserve to environmental change in the irrigated lowlands of a local environmental knowledge especially in view of the urgent need to design a rational Central Asia and options for policy-makers: A Review', water management system and establish natural resources regulations. 81 Land degradation in Uzbekistan is associated with the enormous expansion of irrigated 15 croplands due to the intensive development of large-scale irrigation systems since the Ibid., 85 1960s13. Indeed, the current crop policy which prioritizes cotton for export, and wheat to feed the population, are inconsistent in the current environmental condition14. Therefore, 16 Breckle, Wucherer, Dimeyeva, Ogar, 'Aralkum - a a differentiated crop scheme would start to set up a series of initiatives that would develop Man-Made Desert. The Desiccated Floor of the Aral an effective agriculture programme, support small business developments and found an Sea(Central Asia)', 290 educational infrastructure and social services. Moreover, a lower water demand would cer17 tainly decrease the vulnerability to droughts and reduce the present environmental issues Nukus urban area and it near territories are nowadays caused by the intensive cotton cultivation (Rudenko, 2008)15. suffering from five strong dust storms per year. In time forest farming and the cultivation of alternative crops will play a vital role both for 18 the production systems and for encouraging foresting as an economic service which could In the 1947 the former USSR in 1947 issued the de- play an important role in the revival of the industry sector. cree 'Reform in Nature' on a contractual basis on all This opportunity, together with its effectiveness of this approach in the context of a straits republics. tegically large scale application, is of much interest to us, since strategic trees planting has 19 revealed itself to be an effective tool for constraining wind velocity and therefore sand accuDuring 1966-1992, windbreaks were planted on about 40,000 ha agricultural land and on about 1,425,000 ha mulation. The arid climatic conditions and the open surface with fine grain sizes are favourof steppe. able for the development of regular dust storms in the Aralkum area16. About 80-85% of the Uzbekistan territory suffers from strong winds, dust storms and garmsels (hot dry winds) 20 Forest transition proved to be effective for the resto- (Gintzburger et al., 2003) and Nukus especially undergoes always more strong dust storms ration of deforested and degraded lands. blowing from north-east and east-north-east directions17. Protective forest planting has been practiced starting from the 60s through to the 80s in 21 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- the former USSR and periodically brought up to date all over Soviet republics, within agritions cultural lands and on slopes18. Such tree plantations mainly included Morus, Populus, Ul<http://www.fao.org> mus, Salix, and Elaeagnus species. Unfortunately, this practice ceased in the 90s19 when the transfer of power to the local regions occurred – as a consequence its management changed, 22 Ibid. financial resources became scarce, and awareness of the necessity of windbreaks plantation was all but lost. Today most of the plantations are cut down or die due to a lack of care and 23 Buttoud, Gérard, et al., 'Advancing agroforestry on the environmental knowledge, and are increasingly damaged by dust blowing and desertificapolicy agenda – A guide for decision-makers', Agrofor- tion. Moreover, the need for diversification was not given proper thought, while Populus estry Working Paper no. 1. Food and Agriculture Orga- which is a good source of construction wood, was widely planted, but not well harvested. nization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome 2013 prevealing wind direction Agroforestry benefits have been proved to 1make a valuable contributions against environment degradation, nevertheless trees species selection and their intercropping need to be taken in careful consideration. Some annual and perennial species might not benefit from being planted together, while in some other cases plants cold compete for water resources or may be inappropriate for the site soil characteristics. In the case of our project site, it would be recommendable to use sturdy plants able to withstand a low amount of nutrients and water, and suitable for sandy soils – often affected by secondary salinization. Moreover, plants selection would have to take into consideration their ability to provide a ground rehabilitation thorough a stabilizing processes of fertilization of its superficial strata inside the development of a forest transition scenario20. 1 prevealing wind direction When considering agroforestry planting, three zones have to be considered: the windward 1 prevealing direction zone wind (from which the wind blows); the leeward zone (on the side where the wind passes); and the protected zone. Effective windbreaks should lie In designing an agroforestry system, effective windbreaks shelterbelts (considered as perpendicular to and the prevailing wind direction or in-between a synonymous) have to be arranged as barriers of trees or shrubs that 30° zone and should extend about are planted to reduce 15m beyond the and sheltered field wind velocities and, as a result, reduce evapotranspiration prevent wind erosion21. They have to be established perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction for a maximum effect or in-between a 30° zone and should extend about fifteen meters beyond the sheltered field. Notes - following from previous part #1

30°

Effective windbreaks sh perpendicular to the pre wind direction or in-bet 30° zone and should ex 15m beyond the shelter

15 m

porosity 30%

30°

3 4m

15 m

1 prevealing wind direction

1 prevealing wind direction 30°

Effective windbreaks should lie perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction or in-between a 30° zone and should extend about 15m beyond the sheltered field

15 m 3 4m

porosity 30%

In order to face differen directions a C shape she has proven to be more e

3 wind Secondary directionscriteria, minimum 2

rows or a number of rows sufficient to ensure the health of the windbreak trees and to maintain the appropriate porosity. Maximum shelter is best achieved with a dense windbreak which means less than 30% porosity. A medium porosity windbreak (roughly 50-60%) will also provide adequate shelter.

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1 prevealing wind direction

porosity 30%

Secondary criteria, minimum 2 rows or a number of rows suffi3 wind directions cient to ensure the health of the

In order to face different winds directions a C shape shelter belt

Secondary criteria, min rows or a number of row cient to ensure the heal windbreak trees and to the appropriate porosit mum shelter is best ach a dense windbreak whic less than 30% porosity. porosity windbreak (rou 50-60%) will also provi adequate shelter.


The size of both shaded and sheltered zones behind a windbreak depends on the windbreak height, which is why shade and shelter effects are expressed in terms of windbreak heights, minimal of 5 m and as high as possible.

mature tree

premature tree

shrubs cropfield

Planting Spacing Section

3-4 m

3-4 m

3-4 m

In this way they provide direct benefits to agricultural crops, resulting in higher yields, and provide shelter to livestock, grazing lands, and farms22. When the prevailing winds are mainly in one direction, a series of parallel shelterbelts perpendicular would be efficient while a checkerboard pattern is required when the winds originate from different directions. A secondary criteria is the number of rows of trees since its effectiveness of the windbreak or shelterbelt is influenced by its permeability: to maintain the appropriate porosity, minimum two rows or a number of rows sufficient to ensure the health of the windbreak trees should be planted. Maximum shelter is best achieved with a dense windbreak which means less than 30% porosity. A medium porosity windbreak (roughly 50-60%) will also provide adequate shelter and reduce evaporation from the soil and transpiration from plants. Experience has shown that the most effective windbreaks and shelterbelts are those consisting of several rows of trees. Regarding shape of plantation, in order to cater for winds blowing in different directions, in many experiments a C shape shelter belt has proven to be more efficient. Quite often, initial spacing is three meters between the rows, with trees two meters apart within a specific row. An optimal windbreak design would include one row of tall trees, than a row of medium trees and two of shrubs. Inter-row spacing is site-specific but generally about three of four meters. This includes tree age, health and damage status and maintenance. A windbreak has a lifespan that is dependent on the trees or shrubs making it up. Since the effectiveness and longevity of a shelterbelt depends on its maintenance, pruning and chopping are required to stimulate height growth, while thinning can boost diameter growth. These activities also control the density of the windbreak, and help maintain the desired porosity once it has been reached. Agroforestry development as a sand stabilization method would imply a slow but steady effort that would take quite a long period of time to fully implement. Planting of vegetation is the best and most enduring method for sand dune stabilization, for this reasons we decide to explore this land management approach as a sand manipulating method. For the project in hand, the first step would entail the insertion of woody sticks on the ground to control sand accumulation position and define its crest location. In the meantime, the application of fences along the planned tree planting line would provide shelter for the initial young saplings. These would be evergreen conifers, which would provide a good porosity even though in the long run; and poplars (in the Karakalpastan Region Karatal is a widespread specie) that grow more quickly and can be chopped more frequently, providing materials for building construction.

Woody stick implementation as a sand control techniques Dead grass checkerboard application over the Tarim Desert, China

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All along the shelterbelt different plant species can be farmed, like fruit trees, such as apricots, peppers and olive trees. It will be more convenient to plant large containerized plants close together (1x1 meter) on the windward side, but they can be planted further apart (2x 2meters) on the sheltered side. During first years of implementation a good irrigation for the initial establishment will be required, especially because of the site soil condition. In time, plants may develop a sufficiently deep root system, together with first soil fertilization. Along dune slopes sticks would leave space for the plantation of a checkerboard of dead grass helpful to stabilizing fine sandy particles and in time preparing the ground for small living plants. Hand weeding would be preferred to mechanical one, to minimize the side-effects of traction in the sand. As a rule, on the sand dunes, all livestock movement and other traffic should be virtually eliminated; when necessary, delimited and protected passages for livestock can be established. In the meantime machinery would be allowed to circulate through the shelterbelt along a road provided, in order to allow for all required work to be carried out. Shelterbelt growth would later be expanded further across the site area in order to take full advantage of the wind safe pocket created among two sand dunes. Fruit trees lines would be arranged across crops. Inter-row crop production must be carefully timed to avoid interfering with a potential woody crop harvest. The system should be designed to optimize the use of light, water and nutrients between woody plants and the inter-crops. It is clear that agroforestry approach and initiatives would need to be more carefully evaluated through time within the desert condition and in regard to sand dunes behaviour. The manipulation of drifting sands through planting techniques is a greater assignment in the frame of coping with desertification. Although they would be unable to restore the pre-existent ecology of such a compromised territory, they may aim soften the consequences of the desertification, ameliorate soil conditions and provide an effective control approach. Benefits from agroforestry within the necessity to improve the socio-economic condition of the degraded lands around the Aralkum desert would be effective in the perspective of a simultaneous implementation across Nukus and other smaller urban areas.The city possibility of coping with desertification progress may develop strategies that would be capable of renovate the productivity network and agglomerate diverse urban areas that share same environmental condition and potentials. for sources refer to Bibliography accumulation

Agroforestry development within dunes formation and stabilization approach

stabilization

1. fence

1. stick level 0

2. fence + bushes + bushes

2. stick level 1

3. fence + bushes + trees + bushes

3. stick level 2

4. fence + bushes + trees + agroforestry + bushes

4. stick level 3 + checkboard

5. fence + bushes + trees + agroforestry + bushes

5. stick level 3 + checkboard + bushes/trees

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building units clustering

agricultural pocket

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fence

bush

poplar

pine

poplar

fruit tree

crops

field ditch

pathways

checkerboard

agroforestry sheleterbelt


agroforestry sheleterbelt

dune slope stabilization agricultural pocket

building units clustering

wind

building units clustering dune slope stabilization

adobe stabilization

fence

wind

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local scale

Activities Iteration

p

Projective Process

c du o r

a sc nd a el tiv

pe

s

uc tr

soc ial in fra s

s re tu u to

ris tic

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Social Infrastructure

Productive Landscapes

Touristic Facilities

networks

forestry

desert camping-site

educational

alley cropping

sandboarding

public open spaces

silvopasture

camel riding

markets

farmlads

quadbiking

housing

communal vegetable garden

viewpoints

parks

tree nursery

excursions

fields education cotton processing

tou

ris tic fac ilit ies

wood laboratories

li nf

ra s tr uc

e ap

s

so

cia

tur e

s

od pr

l ve i t uc

an

c ds

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Fields of Operation Projective Sandscapes gave us the opportunity to reflect upon multiple agendas and chiefly on the concept of legacy, produced by specific forms of territorial management. The knowledge extracted from this research demonstrated us that political inheritance is a crucial determinant condition, in relation to the resulting social formations, to be taken into account in our proposal. In Nukus and the Aral Sea basin, Soviet over-imposed a particular system of cotton production and designed an urban model to exploit a territory and its resources without engaging with the real capacity of its environmental condition. The consequence of this management continue to reverberate to this day, more than two decades after the fall of the USSR. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, their management policies left behind a territory emptied from its resources, with no alternatives and with the legacy of unwise and retrograde water practices, a forced labour system which obligates population from all ages to harvest cotton seasonally and a common property policy for land which therefore control production and goods market. Reflecting upon this legacy and how it conditioned our proposal, it led us to re-think our desertification atlas of Europe. It made us question which past territorial forms of management have ruled in each of the particular sites across Europe, producing as a result contemporary conditions such as the desertification occurring across the Monegros Desert in Spain due to overexploitation of water resources and oil extraction and water distribution conflicts accrued, for example, in Greece with the shrinkage of the Koroneia Lake caused by a massive plan of intensive agriculture or that of Lake Tuz in Turkey provoked by the construction of dams and well drilling. Despite the fact that the overarching argument of the atlas, related to over-exploitation policies, brings together all these particular sites such as the Highlands, the Bledow Desert and Olehsky Sands under the umbrella of desertification conditions, the idea of the territorial legacy underlines the specific and unique particularities of each of the sites, questioning the very possibility of considering them at the scale of a common European policy, as though the Florence Convention aims at doing. Whilst the Atlas of Guilty Territories aims at unveiling remote and transboundary consequences within the frame of Eurasia desertification process, the new cartography attempts at disclose on-going effects over landscape from dominant collective policy-maker such as the European Union and Russia. The over-exploitation and desertification becomes significantly a matter of discussion especially across borders and remote landscapes involved which particular productivity chains. These grounds would be warranted fields of operation where new strategies take place. What we learned is that significant social conflicts are tightly stranded together with political and territorial approaches, and specifically in this case to desertification processes. At any given time environmental emergencies provoked by the scarcity of resources and therefore competitive practices are inciting large scale migrations across perilous routes towards Europe. Uzbek cities which were formerly relying on fishing production from the Aral Sea and later on the expansion of the cotton monoculture cultivation, are rapidly shrinking because populations are moving to city centres and abroad for better life and job opportunities. Desertification processes are swiftly threatening all the agriculture production and water resources availability. This brings to ask ourselves which is the role of the European Union within this frame of instability and which is the meaning of territorial border when it comes to deal with territorial influences negotiated by over-imposed systems of production, especially where their legacy provokes particular consequences both of territorial managements and social change. E.L.

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APPENDIX

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I - Generic Sand Simulations II - Cartogenesis Wind Buffer Schedule III - Cartogenesis Wind Simulation Video IV - Cartogenesis Sand Simulation Video V - Cluster Model Files VI - Building Growth Pattern Catalogue VII - Site Visit Documentary Video Acknowledgments A/V Credits Bibliography

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Sand Dune Desert Semi- Desert Coastal Desert General Semi- Desert t= t =4040

Coastal General

t= t =5050

wi wi

Sand Dune

wind wind direction direction

Parabolic ParabolicSand SandDune DuneSimulation_Dunefield Simulation_DunefieldSimulator Simulator

Coastal

Multiple

Coastal

Multiple

I - Generic Sand Simulations

wi wi

win w

This schedule documents the evolution of generic sand dune form Dune Field Simulator.

wind winddirection direction

p

Dune Field Simulator Simulation Catalogue

wi wi

Parabolic Sand Dune Simulation_Dunefield Simulator

wind wind direction direction

werner’s werner’s model model moore moore neighbourhood neighbourhood sand sand height height = = 01 01 hop hop = = 05 05 pp sand sand = = 0.6 0.6 pp no no sand sand = = 0.4 0.4

win w

p

Parabolic Sand Dune Simulation_Dunefield Simulator

wi wi

Linear Sand Dune Simulation_Dunefield Simulator

win w

wind winddirection direction tt = = 40 40

tt = = 50 50

p

werner’s werner’smodel model moore mooreneighbourhood neighbourhood sand sandheight height==0101 hop hop==0505 p psand sand==0.6 0.6 p pnonosand sand==0.4 0.4

wind directi

wind directi

wi wi

win w

Linear LinearSand SandDune DuneSimulation_Dunefield Simulation_DunefieldSimulator Simulator

p

wi wi t= t =4040

t= t =5050

win w

p

wind wind direction direction

werner’s werner’s model model moore moore neighbourhood neighbourhood sand sand height height = = 10 10 hop hop = = 05 05 pp sand sand = = 0.6 0.6 pp no no sand sand = = 0.4 0.4

wi wi

win w

Site Sand Dune Simulation_Python_North Aral Sea

wind direction wind direction

werner’s model moore neighbourhood sand height = 01 werner’s hopmodel = 05 moore neighbourhood p sand = 0.6 sand =werner’s 01 model werner’s model p no height sand = 0.4 moore neighbourhood moore hop =neighbourhood 05 sandheight sand ==1010 p sand = 0.6height hop==0505 hop wind winddirection directionp no sand = 0.4 sand==0.6 0.6 p psand

p

wi wi

win w

sand==0.4 0.4 p pnonosand

Linear Sand Dune Simulation_Dunefield Simulator

p wind wind direction direction

Site SiteSand SandDune DuneSimulation_Python_North Simulation_Python_NorthAral AralSea Sea

Linear Sand Dune Simulation_Dunefield Simulator

wi wi super super counter counter = = 50 50 wind wind shadow shadow = = 15 15 pp sand sand = = 0.6 0.6 pp no no sand sand = = 0.4 0.4

win w

p

wind winddirection direction

win w

p

supercounter counter==5050 super windshadow shadow==1515 wind sand==0.6 0.6 p psand sand==0.4 0.4 p pnonosand

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werner’s model moore neighbourhood sand height = 10 werner’s hopmodel = 05 moore neighbourhood

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Sand Dune Python Script Simulation Catalogue Wind Direction

test 01

test 02

test 03

test 04

test 05

test 06

supercounter=50 avalanches in cells: 284 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5279

supercounter=100 avalanches in cells: 746 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5418

supercounter=150 avalanches in cells: 1055 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5337

supercounter=200 avalanches in cells: 1185 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5209

supercounter=250 avalanches in cells: 1024 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4860

supercounter=500 avalanches in cells: 1111 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4377

test 01

test 02

test 03

test 04

test 05

test 06

supercounter=50 avalanches in cells: 402 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5383

supercounter=100 avalanches in cells: 821 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5329

supercounter=150 avalanches in cells: 1137 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5267

supercounter=200 avalanches in cells: 1263 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4992

supercounter=250 avalanches in cells: 1280 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4680

avalanches in cells: 1083 avalanches in cells: 908 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 3875

test 01

test 02

test 03

test 04

test 05

test 06

supercounter=50 avalanches in cells: 261 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 6039

supercounter=100 avalanches in cells: 593 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 6110

supercounter=150 avalanches in cells: 813 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 6180

supercounter=200 avalanches in cells: 845 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5882

supercounter=250 avalanches in cells: 872 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5757

supercounter=500 avalanches in cells: 801 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5551

test 01

test 02

test 03

test 04

test 05

test 06

supercounter=50 avalanches in cells: 394 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5281

supercounter=100 avalanches in cells: 718 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 5108

supercounter=150 avalanches in cells: 919 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4927

supercounter=200 avalanches in cells: 876 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4822

supercounter=250 avalanches in cells: 844 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4723

supercounter=500 avalanches in cells: 681 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4505

test 01

test 02

test 03

test 04

test 05

test 06

supercounter=50 avalanches in cells: 200 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4728

supercounter=100 avalanches in cells: 584 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4925

supercounter=150 avalanches in cells: 751 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4870

supercounter=200 avalanches in cells: 872 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4925

supercounter=250 avalanches in cells: 877 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4907

supercounter=500 avalanches in cells: 908 total sand: 48974 total shadow: 4235

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II - Cartogenesis Wind Buffer Schedule This schedule documents the shape change of wind buffer traced from the recursive wind simulation including the area, size and shape change and merge.

2nd Simulation Growth of Wind Buffer

Nominal Protected Area

3rd Simulation Growth of Wind Buffer

1st Simulation Actual Protected Area

4th Simulation Growth of Wind Buffer

Wind Buffer Change Schedule

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Nominal Protected Area

1st Wind Buffer

2nd Wind Buffer

3rd Wind Buffer

4th Wind Buffer

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1st Wind Buffer

2nd Wind Buffer

3rd Wind Buffer

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III - Cartogenesis Wind Simulation Video The reading of the simulation of deep blue area is extracted from each steps of the simulation to get the average wind buffer area for development of agro-forestry pattern.

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IV - Cartogenesis Sand Simulation Video The simulation of sand patten is done by inputting the wind buffer from each step to get the sand dune size over-time, i.e. in 50 years. The interval size would be the key to determine the branching system of agro-forestry.

Cartogenesis Python Sand Dune Simulation Video

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V - Cluster Model Files This series of sections is showing three layers of sand ac cumulation, sand dunes & pocket areas size change by timeline.

Sections of Model

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Sections of Model

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VI - building growth pattern catalogue

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01:42

01:12

00:34

00:37

00:15

VII - Site Visit Documentary Video

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01:07 01:31 00:12

00:17 00:23

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would really much like to thankall our tutors for their essential contributions to this projectOr deepest thanks go to Alfredo Ramirez, Eduardo Rico, Clara Oloriz Sanjuan, Douglas Spencer, Tom Smith, Gustavo Romanillos, Vincenzo Reale and Giancarlo Torpiano. We also thank the whole AA family and Brett Steele for their support. We are also really grateful to our LU classmates and the larger group of AA friends for advising and helping us throughout the whole research. Our thanks go also to all jurors and professors who contribute to this project with their comments and opinions. In particular we thank Philip Micklin, Panos Panagos, David and Sue Richardson, Olena Dubovynk, Nick Hubing, Paul Solomonan, Richard James MacCowan and Katya Larina and Yussup Kamalov, chairman of the Union for Defence of the Aral Sea and Amudarya and our guide across Uzbekistan territories and the Aralkum Desert. Special thanks go to our families for supporting us throughout this whole year at the AA.

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ILLUSTRATION CREDITS The arrangment of the image is from left to right and from top to bottom. Unless otherwise stated, all drawings, collages, photographs and photo editing were produced by team members.

4, Declan Mccullagh Photography, Ridge of sand dunes in Sahara Desert, Sabria, Tunisia, 2005 < http://www.mccullagh.org/photo/1ds-4/sand-dune-ridge-sahara> 6-7, detail of Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Seaseries #5, 2013, (30.6 x 45.7 cm), archival inkjet print 8, H.Chan, Scales Guidelines, 2015 C. Lo, Design Methodology, 2015 10, detail of Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Seaseries #3, 2013, (30.6 x 45.7 cm), archival inkjet print 11,H. Chan, Location of Aral Sea & Karaklpakstan, an autonomous republic in Uzbekistan in 2015, 2015 Jean Janvier, L'Europe, 1782 14, E. Longhin, Aralkum Sands, 2015 13, E. Longhin, H. Chan, Atlas. Guilty Territories, panel (118.9 x 78 cm), 2015 15, detail of , Atlas. Atlas. Guilty Territories, panel 16, Darren Britton/Wales News Service < https://i.guim.co.uk/img/static/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2014/6/25/1403714125012/Primark-label-with-a-mess-014. jpg?w=620&q=85&auto=format&sharp=10&s=f53c65a53ebc6a80b413b2194fa0e1a4> Accessed on 15.11.2014 17, Samantha Payne, Third Primark Shopper Discovers 'Cry for Help' Label in £10 Dress, International Business Times, June 25, 2014 A Chronicle of forced Labour in the Cotton Sector in Uzbekistan, 9 September 2014 , cottoncampaign.org <http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ACHRONICLE-OF-FORCED-LABOUR-IN-THE-COTTON-SECTOR-IN-UZBEKISTAN.pdf> Accessed on 15.12.2014 Environmental JuticeFoundation. The True Cost of Cotton: Cotton Production and Water Insecurity. Environmental JuticeFoundation. Report, September 2012. Environmental JuticeFoundation, Tesco takes a stand against forced labour in Uzbek cotton harvest. <http://www.ejfoundation.org/news/tesco-takes-stand-against-forced-labour-uzbek-cotton-harvest> Accessed on 15.10.2014. Bill Keller, Developers Turn Aral Sea Into a Catastrophe, The New York Times, December 20, 1988 <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/12/20/science/developers-turn-aral-sea-into-a-catastrophe.html> Accessed on 15.11.2014 Samantha Payne , Third Primark Shopper Discovers 'Cry for Help' Label in £10 Dress, International Business Times, June 25, 2014 < http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/third-primark-shopper-discovers-cry-help-label-10-dress-1454206 > Accessed on 15.11.2014 18, Al-Idrisi, layout of the Tabula Rogeriana, 1154< http://www.cawater-info.net/aral/aral2_e.htm> Al-Idrisi, extract of Tabula Rogeriana, 1154 Layout from the Catalan Atlas, 1375 <http://www.cawater-info.net/aral/aral2_e.html> Detail of a reprocuction of The World Map, Fra Mauro, 1450. Museo Correr, Venice 19, Ibid. 20, Erle C. Ellis, Human Ecologies of the Anthropocene: a global map of anthromes in year 2000, in Ecologies ofthe Anthropocene, in New Geographies 06 Grounding Metabolism, 22 21, European Commission, Land cover types showing early sings of land-productivuty dynamics, 2012 Industrial logging, <http://ecodaily.org/environmental-activists-worry-over-wworkers-deaths-in-extractive-industry/> E. Burtynsky, Oil Fields #19abBelridge, California, USA, 2003 < http://www.edwardburtynsky.com/site_contents/Photographs/Oil.html> Clear-cutting in Romania <http://www.vice.com/pt_br/read/centenas-de-hectares-de-floresta-desapareceram-na-romenia> 22, H. Chan, Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techinques, 2014 H. Chan, E. Longhin, Highlands Desert shifting sands, 2014 23, Michael Feldmann, Kerlingarfjöll, 2013 <http://www.eldey.de/English/gallery/gallery6/gallery6/gallery6_5.html> H. Chan, Dunes controlling techinique, 2014 24, H. Chan, Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techinques, 2014 H. Chan, C. Lo, Olehsky Sands shifting sands, 2015 25, Mark A. Wilson, Bledow sands seen from Czubatka, after conservation, Wikipedia commons < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C5%82%C4%99d%C3%B3w_Desert#/ media/File:Pustynia_B%C5%82%C4%99dowska_061914.jpg> Desert, <http://www.samper.pl/wystawa_gea/obrazki/expopig-22.jpg> H. Chan, C. Lo, Dunes controlling techinique, 2015 26, H. Chan, Time-based collage of the overexploitation and controlling techinques, 2014 H. Chan, C. Lo, Olehsky Sands shifting sands, 2015 27, Google Earth, 2015 Desert seen from Slowinski National Park < http://www.wikiwand.com/es/Parque_nacional_de_S%C5%82owi%C5%84ski> H. Chan, Dunes controlling techinique, 2014 28, European Landscape Convention, Florence, 20.10.2000. European Treaty Series - No. 176 NASA, Dust storm from the Aralkum Desert (Central Asia), NASA Johnson Space Center, ISS006E46653, in Aralkum - A Man-Made Desert, 2014 29, C. Lo, The Projective Expansion of European Union, 2015 C. Lo, The Projective Legacy of Past and Future, 2015 30-31, E. Longhin, Walking through the Dessicated Seabed, May 2015 32, Google Earth, 2015 33, H. Chan, E. Longhin, Territorial Formation. The Aralkum Desert, panel (118.9 x 78 cm), 2015 34-35, detail of Territorial Formation. The Aralkum Desert, panel 36, Arch. Grigory Voropaev in Portrait of a doomed Sea < http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/earth-sciences/report-20242.html> 37, Mapping Agency Aerospace Center, Irrigation Soviet Plan, 1989 H. Chan, Fish Catch In the Aral Sea and the Amu Darya Delta, from Global Water Partnership Integrated Water Resources Management In the Amu Darya Delta, 2010 Environmental Justice Foundation <http://ejfoundation.org/> 38, C. Lo, Aral Sea History, Policy and Change in Social Formation, 2015 39, C. Lo, The Cotton Production & Trade Model & Alternative Model, 2015 40-41, E. Longhin, H. Chan, Central Asia Depletion of Water Resources, 2014 42-43, E. Longhin, Desert Ships, 2015 44-45, E. Longhin, Cultivated Territories and Drifting Sands, 2015 45, E.Longhin, H. Chan, Expansion of fields and sea shrinkage, 2014 46, C.Lo, Classification of Aiding Agencies, 2014 47, C.Lo, Schedule of Existing Works, 2014 48, E. Longhin, Desertification Process across Cotton Fileds, from Google Earth 2014 49, C.Lo, Sectional Diagram of Oasis & Shelter Belt, 2015 50, The Worst Case of Water Depletion Has Already Happened, Waterwars, April 22, 2013 < http://waterwarswelker.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/the-worst-case-of-water-depletion-has.html> AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2014-2015

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NASA, Dust Storm, shown by a satellite image from 18 April 2003, Image Science & analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center; <http://earthobservatory.nasa. gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id+11348 E. Longhin, Dust storms generation and its intensity and meanvectorial roses of sand and dust transportation, 2014 Shauer Kulkarni et ali., Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2:5 in Central Asia, Atmospheric Chemistryand Physics 15, 1683-1705, 2015 51, C.Lo, H. Chan, Carthography of Sand Storm, panel (118.9 x 78 cm), 2015 52-53, detail of Carthography of Sand Storm, panel 54, C.Lo, E. Longhin, Google Nukus Aerial Image, 2015 55, E. Longhin, Sand Storm Near Nukus, 2015 C.Lo, Temperature Change of Nukus, 2015 Unknown, Village building suffering from sand accumulation, 2010 56, C. Lo, Nukus City, Karakum Desert & Shelterbelt; Shelterbelt & Oasis Obstacle Input; Combined Multiple Result Dem; Result Insertion, Wind Intensity Simulation Results, Mapping, 2015 57, C.Lo, Simulation Process & Results, 2015 58, Carleton College, Time-lapsed Image of Amu Darya River, <http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/measure_sat2/case_study.html, 2000> 59, H.Chan, C.Lo, E. Longhin, Social Formation Nukus Productive Network Panel (118.9 x 78 cm) , 2015 60-61, detail of Social Formation Nukus Productive Network Panel 62, Unknown, Karaklpak Nomad, 1932 N.N. Karazine, Venice of Amu Darya, Figure, The Magazine 'Nava' No.3 1886 Propaganda poster, Let us gather vast crops from the virigin land, 1954 Unknown, Collective Farm for Cotton, <www.qaraqalpaq.com> Unknown, Cotton Picker, www.robertharding.com 63, E.L onghin, Collage Soviet Totalitarianism, 2015 C.Lo, Typological Change of Local Architecture, 2015 C.Lo, Yurt in the Desert, May 2015 Soviet Union, Design for Lenin Square in the Center of Nukus, 1970 <http://www.karakalpak.com/stangeography.html> Anton Ginzburg, Walking the Sea series #21 64, C.Lo, Analysis of Plot Typologies, 2015 65, E. Longhin, C.Lo, Sectional Drawing of Nukus, 2015 66-67, C.Lo, Social Formation Chart, 2015 68, H.Chan, C.Lo, E. Longhin, Peoples Working in Collective Cotton Farm, May 2015 H.Chan, C.Lo, E. Longhin, Peoples Collecting Cotton from the Farm, 2015 69, H.Chan, C.Lo, E. Longhin, Private Farm with Housing , May 2015 H.Chan, C.Lo, E. Longhin,Market Selling Foods from Private Farm, May 2015 70, Unknown, Google Image of Karakum Desert, 2015 71, H. Chan, C.Lo, Geomorphology Nukus Shifting Sand Panel, 2015 (118.9 x 78 cm) 72-73, detail of Geomorphology Nukus Shifting Sand Panel 74-75, C.Lo, Sand Dune Typology Study 1, 2005 76, C.Lo, Sand Dune Typology Study 2, 2015 77, C.Lo, Formation of dune and Type of Erosion and Angle Disposition Diagram, 2015 C.Lo, Sand Dune Formation Factor Diagram, 2015 C.Lo, Generic Dune Behavior Diagram, 2015 78, Barchan dunes in Kyzyl-Kum Desert , <http://www.elenatour.uz/photo/uzb/pages/Uzbekistan.%20Desert%20Kizil%20Kum.%20%20Dune.html> H. Chan, The process of a sand dune formation, 2015 79, H. Chan, Moore Neighbourhood, Cell Saltation, Von Neumann Neighbourhood, 2015 H. Chan, Dune Field Simulator Interface of Dune Field Simulator, 2015 H. Chan, Shadows Cast at 15 Degrees by Sand Slabs, 2015 80, H.Chan, Software Interface of Rhino and Sand Dune Python Script, 2015 H.Chan, Examples of Surface and Obstacle in Rhino Environment, 2015 H.Chan, Generic Test of Sand Dune Python Script, 2015 81, H. Chan, Methodology of the systematic technical approach of studying the dune morphology and determining the design of the project, 2015 H. Chan, Methodology of the systematic technical approach of studying the dune morphology and determining the design of the project, 2015 82, C.Lo, Simulation, Slope Analysis & Indexing of Barchan Dune, 2015 83, C.Lo, Axonometric of Barchan Dune Change over Time, 2015 Unknown, Image of Typical Barchan Dune, 2015 84, C.Lo, Process of Projective Simulation over City, 2015 C.Lo, Survey of Existing Dune Pattern, 2015 85, C.Lo, Speculation of Dune Shifting Speed towards City, 2015 86, E. Longhin, Salty Ground, 2015 E. Longhin, Dry-up Soil Surface, 2015 E. Longhin, Sand Accumulation, 2015 E. Longhin, Sand Dune Formation, 2015 87, E. Longhin, View of Geomorphology from the Plane, 2015 E. Longhin, Aerial View of Sand Dune Shifting Towards City, 2015 C.Lo, View of Sand Dune on Ground, 2015 88, C. Lo, Image of Nukus in the Desert, 2015 89, C. Lo, Cartogenesis A Manifesto of Intervention, Panel 2015 (118.9 x 78 cm) 90-91, detail of Cartogenesis A Manifesto of Intervention Panel 92, E. Longhin, Shrinking Urban Condition in Nukus, 2015 E. Longhin, Rural Migration in Aral Sea Basin to Nukus, 2015 E. Longhin, Informal Housing on Sand, 2015 E. Longhin, Mud Brick Production Technique using Sandy Soil, 2015 93, C.Lo, Diagram of Material Cycle, 2015 C.Lo, Diagram of Bottom Up Development, 2015 94, United Nations International Year of Forests <http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/forests-for-people/forest-graphs/> // PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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Elena Longhin, Agroforestry wind control, section, 2015 95, The World Congress on Agro-forestry, Agro-forestry, 2014 96, E. Longhin, H. Chan, Crops evaluation and productivity. Existent situation and project species in comparison, 2015 E.Longhin, Diachronic Sections of Sand Dunes and Pocket Formation, 2015 97, P. Casier, (CGIAR), An agroforestry field, Kisumu, Kenya, 2010 98, C.Lo, Conceptual Ecological Section, 2015 99, H. Chan, Time-based Simulation of Pocket, 2015 100, C.Lo, Details of Guideline Steps, 2015 101, C. Lo, Guideline Manual of Simulation & Intersection, 2015 102, C.Lo, Wind Direction & Affected Area Plan, 2015 103, C.Lo, Study of Affected Area, Function & Population & Area to be Protected, 2015 104, C.Lo, Wind Break Insertion Diagram, 2015 105, C. Lo, Growth of Ago-forestry & Branching System Diagram, 2015 106-107, C. Lo, Close up View of the Simulation Steps, 2015 108, C.Lo, Programme Diagram, 2015 C.Lo, Actual Programme Deployment Diagram, 2015 109, C.Lo, Circular Programme Diagram, 2015 C.Lo, Schedule of Programme Allocation, 2015 110 -111, H. Chan, E, Longhin, Paper Model Top View & Perspective View, 2015 112-113, E, Longhin, Paper Models, 2015 114, H. Chan, Model, 2015 115, E. Longhin, Tectonic Intersection Sand Manipulation Panel, 2015 (118.9 x 78 cm) 116-117, E.Longhin, detail of Tectonic Intersection Sand Manipulation Panel 118, Magnus Manske, Deserts in Globe, 2009 Jacques Jangoux, Traditional African Architecture , 2006 119, SPOT Satellite, Satellite Image of Nouakchott, 2007 Google, Aerial View of Nouakchott, 2013 Google, Satellite Image of Adjder Oasis, 2014 120, George Steinmetz, Adjder Oasis , 2010 Google, Satellite Image of Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy, 2014 Unknown, Image of Sand Dune in Front of Farm VoNinh and Thanh Thuy , 2015 121,C. Lo, Analysis of Zone of Sand in Nouakchott, 2015 C. Lo, Diagram of Modular Adjder Oasis, 2015 C. Lo, Section of Garden System in Vo Ninh and Thanh Thuy, 2015 122-123, H. Chan, Catalogue of I-Shape Obstacle Simulation, 2015 124-125, H. Chan, Catalogue of C-Shape Obstacle Simulation, 2015 126-127, E. Longhin, Python Cluster Simulations Phases, 2015 H. Chan, Slope Analysis and Indexing, 2015 128, C. Lo, Detail of Cartogenesis Panel, 2015 128-129, E. Longhin, Stabilization Simulation, 2015 E. Longhin, Stabilization Simulation, 2015 130-137, H. Chan, Catalogue of Material, 2015 138, H. Chan, C. Lo, E. Longhin, Threads & Block MDF Sand Dune Models, 2015 139, C. Lo, Relational Model Diagram for Different Programme, 2015 140-141, E. Longhin, H. Chan, Building Proliferation Models, 2015 142, E. Longhin, Manipulating Dunes Surface, 2015 143, E.Longhin, Manufactured Grounds, panel, 2015 (118.9 x 78 cm) 144-145, detail of Manufactured Grounds, panel 146, E. Longhin, Planting strategies, 2015 147, E. Longhin, Planting Spacing Section, 2014 Biomimicry, 2015, <http://safeharborenv.com/services/coastal-restoration-strategies/biomimicry-creating-land-from-air/>, accessed July 21, 2015 Tarim Desert Highway across the Taklamakan Desert, in China <http://edukalife.blogspot.it/2013/05/the-green-belt-along-worlds-longest.html#sthash.j6ZFzVTz.dpuf>, accessed May 08, 2015 148, H. Chan, E. Longhin, Agroforestry development within dunes formation and stabilization approach, 2015 E. Longhin, Detail of Section across the pocket, 2015 149, E. Longhin, Sand Accumulation along drifting dune and units proliferation, 2015 150-151, E. Longhin, Detail Sections of Operations, 2015 152, E. Longhin, Micro Cluster, 2015 153, E.Longhin, Agricultural Pocket, 2015 155, E.Longhin, H. Chan, Fields of Operation Atlas, 2015 156-157, E.Longhin, H. Chan, detail of Fields of Operation Atlas, 2015 160, H.Chan, Dune Field Simulator Simulation, 2015 161, H.Chan, Generic Tests of Sand Dune Python Script, 2015 162-163, C. Lo, Wind Buffer Change Schedule, 2015 164-165, C. Lo, Cartogenesis Wind Simulation Video, 2015 164-165, C. Lo, Cartogenesis Python Sand Dune Simulation Video, 2015 169, E. Longhin, Pyton Model, 2015 170-171, E. Longhin, C. Lo, Building Growth Pattern Catalogue, 2015 172-173, H.Chan, C. Lo, E. Longhin, Video Frames, 2015 COVER, H. Chan, 2015

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A/V CREDITS

Amanda Pope, Tchavdar Georgiev,The Desert of Forbidden Art, 2011 (USA) M.E. van der Tuuk, Delta Blues (In A Land Of Cotton), 2001 Davis Guggenheim, An Inconvenient Truth, Participant Media 2006, USA BBC News, Aral Sea: Man-made environmental disaster - <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzvEW1FHc60, 2015> Pink Floyd, Louder Than Words - Official Music Video - < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ezc4HdLGxg4>

// PROJECTIVE SANDSCAPES

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David Harvey, 'Globalization 'and the 'Spatial Fix', 2011. Koster, Eduard A., The European Aeolian Sand Belt: Geoconservation of Drift Sand Landscapes, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, 2009. Cherlet M., Ivits E., Sommer S., Toth G., Jones A., Montanarella L.., Belward A., Land-足Productivity Dynamics in Europe, Towards Valuation of Land Degradation in the EU, European Union, 2011 European Commision Joint Rsearch Centre, World Atlas of Desertification, compiled from 24 years of satellite information (JRC, 2011) Commission of the European Community, J. L. Rubio, R. J. Rickson, Strategies to Combat DEsertification in Europe, Report EUR 11175, 1990. Sciortino, Maurizio, Desertification in the Mediterranean, HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF DESERTIFICATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND ITS CONTEMPORARY REALITY. http://www.isodarco.it/courses/candriai01/paper/candriai01sciortino.html (last access 22.01.15. 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Chen, Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences Volume 2013, Article ID 261546, 17 pages Shauer Kulkarni et ali., Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2:5 in Central Asia, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 15, 2015. Whish-Wilson, P.: The Aral Sea environmental health crisis the desiccation of the Aral Sea health in the Aral Sea region, Journal of Rural and Remote Environmental Health, 1, 2002. http://www.jcu.edu.au/jrtph/vol/v01whish.pdf (last access: 06 March 2015). Micklin, Philip et al. (eds.), The Aral Sea, Springer Earth System Sciences, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Micklin, Philip, The Devastation and Partial Rehabilitaton of the Aral Sea: Lesson for Lake Urmia? 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http://aalu1415sandscape.wix.com/home

Howe Chan, Chris Lo, Elena Longhin


ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION MA Landscape Urbanism 2014 | 2015

directors Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico design tutor Clara Oloriz Sanjuan seminar tutors Douglas Spencer Tom Smith technical tutors Vincenzo Reale Gustavo Romanillos Giancarlo Torpiano

Projective Sandscapes Manipulation of Desertifying Mechanisms

Dissertation Booklet September 2015

submitted by Chris Lo Elena Longhin Howe Chan

contacts: Howe.Chan@aaschool.ac.uk Lo-Tong-Kit.Chris@aaschool.ac.uk Elena.Longhin@aaschool.ac.uk


Projective Sandscapes: Manipulation of Desertifying Mechanisms' AA Landscape Urbanism 2015  

Projective Sandscapes is an AA Landscape Urbanism Design thesis by Elena Longhin, Chris Lo and Howe Chan which delves into questions related...

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