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WEAVE

Rethinking the Urban Surface

MENTOUGOU, CHINA

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 08

40

DENSITY CONTROL

42

DENSITY MESH

44

MAIN CONNECTIVITY

Industrial Bridge Linking Past and Future

46

EFFICIENT LINKAGE

CONSTRAINED SITE + HIGH LAND VALUES

48

BRANCHING STRUCTURE

50

FINAL ROAD NETWORK

MENTOUGOU PAST AND PRESENT Farming and Industry

10

FUTURE VISION

12

URBAN AGRICULTURE

14 16

Rooftop Agriculture

ROOFTOP CORRIDORS

Opportunities to Connect Rooftop Production

52

CONNECTED ROOFTOPS BECOME NEW PUBLIC REALM IN THE CITY

54

SECOND SKIN

56

22

SECOND SKIN ESTABLISHES A NEW RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND CITY

58

24

WEAVE

60

ANCHOR

62

ANCHOR AS CENTRE OF COMMUNITY

64

CASE STUDY

66

SECOND SKIN DEVELOPMENT

18

A new Skin upon the urban surface

20

A New Productive Socio Economic Surface

Integration of Layers

CHAPTER 2 28

DE INDUSTRIALIZATION Generating Site Vacancies

30

DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION PROCESS

32

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

Phasing and Resulting Vacancy

Transportation Road Network

34

URBAN AGRICULTURE PROCESS

36

EXISTING URBAN DENSITY

38

DENSITY STRUCTURE

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

SITE DRAINAGE

Existing Canals and Drainage Paths

STORMWATER COLLECTION

Rooftop Collection and Storage

FOREST NETWORK

Green Infrastructure and Natural Corridors

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

2

DRAINAGE AND FOREST

Performative Infrastructure

68

Water Supply as Social Catchment

Transport Oriented Design and the Sustainable Neighborhood

Transportation and Urbanism

SECOND SKIN ON EXISTING

Identifying and Connecting Existing Rooftops

70

PHASING

72

SECOND SKIN IN VACANT PARCEL

From Existing Rooftops to New Development

Drainage and Forests as Backbone for Growth

74

SUN ORIENTATION AND PRODUCTIVITY From Intensive - Industry to Extensive - Leisure


78 3D MESH

Programatic Flows

80 SECOND SKIN TYPOLOGY Program Distribution

82 SECOND SKIN TYPOLOGY Combination

84 SECOND SKIN AND URBAN TYPOLOGY 86 COMBINATION OF URBAN TYPOLOGIES 88 COMBINATION APPLIED TO SITE Generates Urban Fabric

90 DENSITY

Anchor and Second Skin as Urban Attractors

92 DENSITY ADAPTATION Urban Fabric Deformed

94 ADAPTATION OF TYPOLOGIES 96 ADAPTATION OF TYPOLOGIES 98 URBAN PROPOSAL

Typologies Applied to the Site

100 3D EXPLORATION

APPENDIX TECHNICAL REPORT

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2011 -2012

WEAVE - Rethinking the Urban Surface FINAL PROJECT BOOK Submitting: David Witte and Du Chen Course Director: Eva Castro

REFERENCES

Design Tutors:

Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Clara Oloriz H&T Tutor: Douglas Spencer Machinic Landscape Tutor: Tom Smith

Architectural Association School of Architecture London, September 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

76 MESH DEVELOPMENT


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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1


WEAVE

MENTOUGOU CHINA RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO INFRASTRUCTURE WEAVE sets as its framework China’s economic boom and migration from the countryside which is boosting a high-speed urbanism that produces new cities in the shortest imaginable time, changing the faces of older towns. This directional urbanization, propelled from the coastal zones into the countryside, has brought the smallest villages face to face with the phenomenon of globalization – and its foreign capital and generic architecture. Our course brief was based on China’s ambition to build 400 new cities by the year 2020. And we were asked to engage opportunistically with the generation of ‘proto-strategies’ for new large-scale agglomerations as a means of critically addressing the phenomenon of mass-produced urban sprawl. Our test bed is the growing sprawl of Beijing as capital of an emerging global superpower (AALU 2011/12 Student Course Guide, 32).

Mentougou is one of the 6 inner suburbs of Beijing and is located in the mountainous terrain of its western hills. It is known as the Green Gateway to Beijing for its natural beauty, and occupies an area of 1,321 square kilometres 1.5% of which is suitable for construction as the remaining land is made up of mountainous peaks. With a population of 266,591 inhabitants it has the lowest population of all of Beijing’s 16 administrative county-level subdivisions. It is an important source of coal, limestone and granite and its agricultural supplies to Beijing include roses, wild jujubes, mushrooms and Beijing white pears (Needham 2011).

Plan of Beijing highlighting location of Mentougou in relationship to all other projects from AALU 2011/12 6

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


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MENTOUGOUS PAST AND PRESENT FARMING AND INDUSTRY Mentougou’s background is predominately rural and it wasn’t until the 1990’s that it began to play a greater role within the suburbs of Beijing. Its abundant natural resources led to the development of numerous coal and sandpit mines (Needham 2011). The Shougang Steel plant, established in 1919 along the banks of the Yongding River was one of the primary steel manufactures for Beijing reaching a record of 10 million tons of annual output and employing over 200,000 workers (Anon, 2011). The extensive extraction of minerals from the mountains resulted in a scaring of the landscape and a degradation of the natural ecosystem. Industrial activity stripped the trees from the mountainsides and drained the water from the rivers and water table leaving many villagers unable to access water for drinking and what little water remained was polluted from the industrial activity. Pollution was so high that by 1997 the Yongding River had deteriorated to Grade 5 making it no longer suitable to supply drinking water to Beijing and was relegated to industrial use only (He, S., 2008, 4). In the 2010 in order for Beijing to meet air quality standards for the Olympics the Shougang Steel plant was closed, which up to that point had been discharging 9,000 tons of air pollutants into the atmosphere. While the elimination of this major air polluter was a positive sign for the environment of Mentougou it was a devastating blow to the population leaving 20,000 people unemployed, and resulting in the closure of all supporting industries in the area including the mining pits (Anon, 2011). The rapid urbanization and sprawl from Beijing projected an increase of 77,000 people to the area, leaving the residents of the area in desperate hopes of finding employment with the competing migration to the city. Wide spread corruption has ensued leaving the existing population with very few options but to migrate to other cities.

DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION 20,000 Unemployed , 445 Closed Mines, 2737 ha of Vacated Urban Sites, Contaminated Site

RAPID URBANIZATION Increased Land Values, Corruption, Population Increase 77000 (50%), Displaced Villagers, Migration

STRAINED RESOURCES 267 Dams Reducing Water Flow, Polluted River, Deforestation, Erosion, Drought, Low Water Table

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


Steel Production: 1919 - 2010

Steel and Minning

HUAILAI

HUAILAI

MIYUN

HUAIROU

MIYUN

HUAIROU

CHANGPING

CHANGPING

Shougang Factory: 1919 - 2010

Farming: 1000 years of history SHUNYI

SHUNYI

MIN NIN G

FAR MI NG

DISTRIB

ION UT TRIBUTION DIS

SANHE

SHOUGANG

TONGZHOU

STEEL PRODUCTION Steel Production 200,000 Employees (Shougang) XIANGHE

8

Million Annual tonnes Production

IO

N

DAXING

T DIS T R I B U

D ISTRIBUTION TONGZHOU

FANGSHAN

Prime Location to all transportation routes

FARMING AND VILLAGES

BEIJING

DAXING

ST DI

FANGSHAN

SHIJINGSHAN

RIB UTI ON

BEIJING

ST

SHIJINGSHAN

DI

DISTRIBUTION

RI BU TI ON

XIAN

Steel Production 200,000 Employees (Shougang)

8

Million Annual tonnes Production

Prime Location to all transportation routes

STEEL AND MINNING

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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FUTURE VISION The states vision for Mentougou projects a future of High Tech businesses, a corporate jet airport, a seven star hotel and eco village, such as the 100 sq. km development proposed by Ericson architects, which includes environmental research centres and housing for 50,000 people (Meinhold, B., 2011). A high speed Mag Lev Train is proposed as a connection between the Haidan business district of Beijing and the Shilong business district proposed for Mentougou creating an incentive for a huge influx of businesses to the area. The masterplan proposes over 40% of all new construction to be residential and a removal of over 50% of the existing villages. This vision while producing economic benefits to the area completely ignores the existing population of farmers and unemployed low skilled workers that resulted from the de-industrialization. WEAVE intends to propose a strategy that takes into consideration the potentials of this high tech vision while not ignoring the realities of the present. Our strategy

proposes the use of urban agriculture as a new industry that can bridge the gap between the low skilled workers and farming background of the area and the high tech and research industries that will form part of the cities future. Our strategy also takes into consideration the limited land available for construction due to the physical constraints of its geography. We propose a multilayered strategy that takes into account the vertical dimensions of the city.

EIJING AND ITS FOUR FUNCTIONAL REGIONS

ING CITY TO SUBURBAN SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

MENTOUGOU MENTOUGOU SHILONG

HAIDIAN INNER CITY OUTER CITY INNER SUBURB OUTER SUBURB MAGLEV TRAIN CONNECTION

The Proposed Maglev Train connection from Haidan to Shilong Business Districts

Future Techno Vision Disjunction 10

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

Futuristic visions of Mentougou clash with the realities of its present. The high tech ambitions of the masterplan while relevant to todays economy do not take into consideration the unemployed from its industrial and agricultural past. The limited land available for construction creates increased landvalues but also potentials for a plan that takes into account the vertical dimensions of the city.


1.5% of Land

RIDGE LINE

Only in Mentougou Region is fit for Construction

SITE AREA 4390 HECTARES

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AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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URBAN AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIAL BRIDGE LINKING PAST AND FUTURE The relationship of food with the city is of immense complexity, but in its simplest form it can be explained as follows: “without farmers and farming, cities would not exist” (Steel 2008, 7). As cities continue to grow they are finding it harder to feed themselves and demanding a huge amount of resources to do so. China is becoming dependent on countries such as Brazil to supply much of its food (Steel 2008, 7). Urban agriculture - the growing of food within the urban area (Mougeot, L., 2006, 6) provides a great opportunity to mitigate the demand of this production by taking advantage of the land within the city. The immediate availability of this produce to the consumer, increases its freshness and minimizes requirements and cost of transportation. This reduction in cost helps narrow the gap between those who have enough to afford it and those who don’t (Viljoen, A., 15). At the same time urban agriculture provides numerous community benefits such as community

Deforestation Polluted River Contaminated Soils Low Water Table Loss of Habitat for Wildlife

Retraining, Education Community Center

GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION

Vegetables, Fruits, Flowers, Higher Plants (Research, Pharmaceuticals), Algae (Biofuel)

RESOURCES AND SPACE Water - Irrigation Electricity and Heat

DRAINAGE AND WATER STORAGE

Irrigation for Urban Agriculture Treatment of Urban runoff protects River ecosystem and alleviates flooding downstream Replenish water table - Infiltration

URBAN FOREST

Reforestation, Phytoremediation, Carbon Sequestration Soil Stabilization Habitat for Wildlife Recreation

RESOURCES AND SPACE

Water - Innitial establishment of Trees 12

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION

STRAINED RESOURCES

GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

Migration Increased Landvalue

SOCIAL PROGRAMS

NEW URBAN STRUCTURE

Managers, Agronomists, Sales Personel, Laboratory Personel Security Personel, Educators, Delivery, Harvesting, Waste Personel

Farmers Low Skilled Workforce

RAPID URBANIZATION

Intensive Urban agriculture using Greenhouse production maximizes the potential for small spaces within the city but has a higher start up cost.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

UNEMPLOYMENT

URBAN AGRICULTURE

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL

SHOUGANG STEEL PLANT AND ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIES

DE - INDUSTRIALIZATION

Extensive urban agriculture takes advantage of small plots within the city and produces lower yields

Supply Demand


empowerment, public health, education and training and environmental justice (Ackerman 2012, 2). Job opportunities can be increased through the intensification of this production in the city, and Mougeot estimates that thousands of part-time and full time jobs could be generated through the production and processing of food in the city (2012, 59). Despommier in his book Vertical Farming predicts a whole new set of careers that could emerge from the intensification of urban agriculture in specialized greenhouses. Jobs such as management, agriculture specialists, researches, farmworkers and nursery and planting personnel, can all be part of a larger industry of production that takes place within the city itself (2012, 172). The industrial past of Mentougou and its connectivity to broader markets through existing infrastructures of rails and roadways provides strategic opportunity for this production to be intensified to a point where it can begin to provide food to Beijing and other surrounding suburbs. Many of the existing

Shougang Plant facilities could be reconfigured into distribution centres generating new potentials from its industrial past. Urban agriculture also has the potential to be a “productive green urban infrastructure” that helps mitigate storm water runoff, remediates soil and reduces the use of energy (Ackerman 2012, 2). Our proposal is to generate a new urban structure that WEAVE’s both strategies of green infrastructure and Urban Agriculture together creating varied and complex interactions that generate new opportunities within the urban fabric. Interactions that take into account the distribution flows of production and waste from both city and the agricultural process. Using storm water capture and re-use to meet irrigation demands of production while treating gray water for the city. Interactions that will generate numerous, social programmes and employment opportunities.

HUAILAI

New Industry

MIYUN

HUAIROU

Market of Beijing

CHANGPING

6T H

O RC HA RD S

R I NG ROA

D SHUNYI

AN DF LO

Mentougou’s location close to the transportation routes from the old Shougang steel plant, generate opportunities in finding new uses for the abandoned buildings. we propose a portion of them to become the new distribution center for the food produced in the city

WER

5TH

+

RING ROAD

S

SHOUGANG

E OU S N H N E E GR CT I O PRODU

SHIJINGSHAN

Greenhouse (Vegetables and Fruits) SANHE

BEIJING TONGZHOU

Orchards

XIANGHE DAXING FANGSHAN

Distribution Center (Shougang)

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CONSTRAINED SITE + HIGH LAND VALUE =

ROOFTOP AGRICULTURE The One Acre Urban Farm in Queens NY is the largest rooftop urban farm in the world

14

The limited space and high land values of Mentougou are no reason to disqualify the use of Urban Agriculture. Brooklyn one of the boroughs of New York City has become the “borough of farms� producing most of its agriculture on the rooftops of industrial buildings (Foderaro 2012, 1). Companies such as Brooklyn Grange and Bright Farms are leading the way in this urban agriculture revolution, with Bright Farms set to open the largest rooftop greenhouse in the world - 100,000 square foot, in Sunset Park, Brooklyn. This greenhouse would have the capacity to produce enough vegetables for 5,000 people, generate

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

25 jobs and prevent 1.8 million gallons of storm water from entering the waterways (Bright Farms, 1). Brooklyn Grange has over two acres of rooftops under cultivation in Brooklyn and is opening up a 45,000 square foot greenhouse at the Brooklyn Navy yard. Its first project was to develop the largest rooftop surface agriculture farm in the world in the Borough of Queens (Foderaro 2012, 1). For Despommier, a new agricultural frontier has emerged, the urban landscape and its rooftops. With cities like New York, Chicago, Vancouver, Portland and San Francisco leading the way, urban dwellers are forming


business groups for agricultural production. Restaurants and grocery stores are growing their own food and in Japan, office workers are being lured to the rooftops for employment and to grow food for the city (Harumi, O., 2008). “If this continues to gain momentum, then, as with China, the next agricultural revolution might well be an urban based one” (2012, 127).

1

In the project site we identified the existing markets in the city and established their “food demand neighbourhoods”. This divided the city into 7 neighbourhoods each with varying demands of consumption. By using the estimated food production per year of a 1 acre greenhouse we were able to represent the total footprint of greenhouses required to produce vegetables and fruits for the entire population. The small footprint that resulted was a positive sign as it establishes the potential to expand production within the city, to reach other markets or new types of production, meeting more of the food demands of the city. It also provides a foundation for future growth of the city and reconfiguring the food neighbourhoods and location of production as a way to minimize the distance required to reach fresh produce for everyone in the city.

GREENHOUSE 4,400 sq.m

110 Tons Food/ year $1.5 - 2 million revenue (20% net income/year)

1

MENTOUGOU

GREENHOUSE

(250,000 people)

4,400 sq.m

110 Tons Food/ year $1.5 - 2 million revenue (20% net income/year)

1

4,400 sq.m

$1.5 - 2 million revenue (20% net income/year)

3 2 ppl tfy

(250,000 people)

17.500 Tons Food/ year

160

(1.010.00 sq.m)

$240 - 320 million revenue (20% net income/year)

ppl tfy

5

20945 ppl 1466 tfy

(1.010.00 sq.m)

$240 - 320 million revenue (20% net income/year)

ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES

2369 4 33845

36662 ppl 2566 tfy

1153 116475

(250,000 people)

17.500 Tons Food/ year

ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES

MENTOUGOU

MENTOUGOU 18889 ppl 1322 tfy

Sunset Park - Largest Rooftop Greenhouse in the World

160

GREENHOUSE

110 Tons Food/ year

17.500 Tons Food/ year

160

ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES (1.010.00 sq.m)

$240 - 320 million revenue (20% net income/year)

wine process

6 27738 1941

ppl tfy

LEGEND

LEGEND Neighborhouds of Food Demand ppl - Population tfy - Food Demand (Tons of Food per Year)

wine process

7 22344 1564

ppl tfy

Existing Market 10 min Walking Radius Greenhouse required to meet food demand per neighbourhood DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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ROOFTOP CORRIDORS OPPORTUNITIES TO CONNECT ROOFTOP PRODUCTION While farms are sprouting up on rooftops around the world the growing popularity of greenroofs as gardens, restaurants, outdoor patios, athletic fields and even swimming pools has created a multimillion dollar industry (Nowalk 2004, 13). The roof has taken on a new and varied role within the city, and with public space at ground level shrinking from the constant pressures of new development, moving the commons to the rooftops its continuing to emerge as an additional possibility in urban environments (Abel, C., 29). These spaces not only serve the public but are habitats for birds and insects,

Elevated view of the Highline showing vacant rooftops adjacent to it. The highline can act as a corridor connecting these various patches of rooftops that can take on productive or recreational activities

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

capture storm water runoff and reduce the heat island effect. Greenhouses can be tied into the HVAC system of a building creating huge energy savings (Caplow 2007, 172) developing a symbiotic relationship between the production happening on the roof and the consumer living and working in the spaces below. If the rooftop can become a new realm within the city then what is its street? Projects such as the High Line in New York and the Promenade Plantee in Paris shed insight into the opportunities that could exist in trying to connect the various


The close relationship of the Highline to adjacent buildings acts as an elevated street creating new potential for public interaction with adjacent buildings at the upper levels of the city

rooftops of the city. Both projects, linear parks built on top of abandoned rail lines create a unique experience for visitors and city dwellers to engage with the upper levels of the city. In many instances their proximity to adjacent buildings has led to new interactions to occur. In the Promenade Plantee in Paris, residential properties have begun to add entrances to the buildings that connect directly with the linear park, other properties have been built that engage with the parks in new ways, such as the Standard Hotel in New York which hovers above the High Line (LaFarge, A). For Chris Abel in his article The Vertical Garden City: Towards a New Urban Topology the old models of figure ground that only consider the street and buildings are outdated, spatial configurations that happen on the ground plane don’t predict the arrangement of the spaces above (2010, 29). This is especially true with cities such as Bangkok which has a multilevel web of bridges, tram lines and roadways connecting various transportation hubs. The complexity that emerges from this multilayered, multifunctional and often conflicting organization in cities has left state agencies incapable of visioning how this new urbanism should be structured (Mohsen 2003, 5). But this complexity should not be seen as a negative. Nature shows us that systems that are complex are most likely to survive, and in the same way a cities health is in many ways tied to the diversity it is able to provide in a variety of fields (Melet, E., and Vreedenburgh, E., 9). Our challenge is in identifying a way to structure or provide guidance to the structuring of the upper realm of the city, one that allows flexibility and does not inhibit future development but has an effect on how the new development engages with it. We challenge the current view of rooftops in architecture which has relegated the roof as only capable of accepting the decorative facade of the greenroof, one that is rarely accessible to the public and when it is, does not provide further programme or amenities to activate it. It has become a cliche, an element that is added to enhance the environmental standards of the building but loses site of the potential it could generate in engaging with the public, becoming a productive surface in the city or by providing new amenities. Our goal is to generate a city fabric including typologies that take into account the rooftop as an active layer in the city ready to be engaged with in different ways. We learn from the activities that are taking place on today’s rooftops and envision a city that engages these as part of an overall strategy for the city, one that can WEAVE the food production requirements, habitat corridors, recreational opportunities and become a green infrastructure network operating in the upper levels of the city.

Promenade Plantee - Paris

Multilayered Pedestrian Bridges and Elevated roadways in Bangkok

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Connected rooftops become a new

PUBLIC REALM IN THE CITY A NEW SKIN UPON THE URBAN SURFACE We can envision the city taking the rooftops into account in its planning process, exploring the various options of connectivity that could be implemented and the networks they create. “It becomes a new way of looking at the city one in which space that is unused is a wasted opportunity and an asset that is being denied to the well being of the community (Mougeot, L., 2006, 64). Options for the roof are not just limited to food production or green roofs, new insertion of programme, housing and recreation could be used as a way to reactivate communities, the addition of new layers to the city would bring new life into the

city (Melet, E., and Vreedenburgh, E., 9). All while diminishing the impact of the existing fabric of the city. By no means is this intended to diminish the importance of the street and the public realm at ground level, but with more people moving to the cities the demand for available public space continues to increase. Taking into consideration a multilevel strategy of public space and programme and engaging various levels within the urban realm is the future of our cities, and is a strategy we intend to implement in Mentougou.

Conceptual sketch connecting Rooftops of Manhattan DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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SECOND SKIN A NEW PRODUCTIVE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURFACE The concept for the second skin emerges as a new urban topology that is three-dimensional and takes advantage of the vertical realm of the city. It is born from the potential to connect existing rooftops but also extends into new vacant areas of the city WEAVING with the green infrastructure system and creating a new structure for the future urban development. It functions as an infrastructural catalyst and a continuous productive surface that provides socio-economic functions to the city and engages with the surrounding urban fabric, influencing the development of new urban typologies that can engage with the rooftop realm of the city.

EXISTING CONDITION

The second skin responds and adapts to the complexities of the city and the pressures faced by the rapid urbanization process, by providing opportunities for new programme to be introduced in the city that diminish the impact on the existing, engaging with it in new ways. It establishes a new paradigm for the planning of cities, not limited to the figure ground of street and building but taking into account the engagement of the roof in the public realm of the city.

URBAN GROWTH ERASES FARMLAND

VILLAGE RESIDENCE

NEW HIGH RISE RESIDENCE

VILLAGE ROAD

FARMLAND FACTORY

20

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

ERASED FARMLAND NEW FACTORY


The second skin WEAVE’s elements of multilevel circulation, infrastructure, education and greenhouse production

ROOFTOP AGRICULTURE

SECOND SKIN

SELECTED RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES ACCEPT ROOFTOP AGRICULTURE

EDUCATIONAL FACILITY

GROUND LEVEL CIRCULATION

UPPER LEVEL CIRCULATION

COMMUNITY CENTER NEW CONSTRUCTION IS BUILT TO ACCEPT ROOFTOP AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE (GREENHOUSE) COMERCIAL

AGRICULTURE ON EXISTING ROOFTOPS

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Second Skin Establishes a new relationship between

INFRASTRUCTURE AND CITY The second skins operates as an infrastructural element capable not only of ordering the urban field but engaging with it and creating new potentials and hybrids within the urban fabric. It challenges the separation of infrastructures in the city as isolated elements and pursues a potential for it to be linked with production and new programmatic elements that can activate and create new catalysts within neighbourhoods. For Abel the

current climate and financial crisis have created a new scenario in cities, in which the shift from private to public has become a more urgent necessity, he feels it is not unlikely to imagine a Vertical Garden City where public authorities hold the responsibility for maintaining and building the infrastructural and shared spaces above ground just as they hold responsibility for the infrastructure at ground level such as streets and buried services (2010, 29).

Birds eye view of Bangkok highlighting the elevated roadways that cut through the city. 22

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WEAVE INTEGRATION OF LAYERS neighborhood boundary

Low point

DISTRIBUTION

Road Network

Parcel and Neighbourhood

WEAVE focuses on the interaction between three main layers within the site. The road network which creates the primary structuring of the site ensures an efficient transportation system to and from markets and production centres. It creates the framework for the forest and drainage systems within each of the parcels that are created. These forest and drainage systems operate as the green infrastructure framework within each neighbourhood and serve as a guide for the growth and expansion of the second skin. The development of the project will be described in the next chapters following this sequence ending in 3D studies of its interaction with the urban environment and the generation of new architectural typologies.

Drainage and Forest

Second Skin

SECOND SKIN FOREST AND DRAINAGE ROAD NETWORK

WEAVE LAYERS

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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER 2


DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION GENERATING SITE VACANCIES The empty and leftover spaces resulting from the process of de-industrialization, are the birthplace of landscape urbanism as a profession. The study of Detroit and its vacant land in the middle of the city proposed a new strategy to deal with these contemporary issues. These spaces were seen not only as opportunities but as a set stages for “wholly indeterminate futures� (Corner 2001, 122). It was not about finding a formal solution or proposing remedies but understanding their dynamics and the logistics involved in creating and maintaining them (Corner 2001, 122). The closure of the Shougang Steel

Plant in Mentougou will have a dramatic impact on the structure of the city. The large number of industries associated with the steel production process will find themselves having to close in a sequence of stages that will lead to vast spaces within the city being left vacant. The relationship of these spaces to their surroundings creates the framework for our intervention within the city.

Abandoned industrial building in Mentougou

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DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION PROCESS PHASING AND RESULTING VACANCY According to exsiting industry types and local policies, we can foresee a sequence in the removal of factories that had associations with the Steel Manufaturing process. The result of this removal leaves vacant areas within the city that need reactivation, our project focuses on utilizing these available spaces while taking into consideration the urban fabric and landuses that are adjacent to them.

Phase 1: Decommission Origin Removal Shougang steel plant Coal mining pit

Phase 2: High-Related Industry Removal Casting factory Steel process plant Mining facility factory Coal refinement plant

Phase 3: Low-Related Industry Removal Instrument product factory Cement product plant Stone product plant Furniture factory

The removal sequence has been divided into 4 stages each with a varitey of industries that share diminishing linkages to the original steel manufacturing site. The resulting vacant site has been placed in comparison to existing recognizable spaces such as Hyde Park in London and Central Park in New York

Phase 4: Other Industry Removal Clothes factory Plastic product factory Artifact factory Chemical plant

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

Farmland Removal Ongoing process, not limited to one phase and occuring at all phases of de-industrialization


0

250 500

1000

RESULTING VACANCY = 2545 ha 140 ha 18 x Hyde Park

340 ha 8 x Central Park DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION - ROAD NETWORK The term “infrastructure” has been used since the 1920s to refer to the basic physical and organizational structures such as roads, power lines, and water mains needed for the material and organizational aspects of modernity (Gandy 2006, 58). In a traditional urban planning term, these infrastructure elements not only support but also enhance urban development. While according to later landscape practices, infrastructure might include earthwork grading, drainage, soil cultivation and so on – the preparation for ground to future uses. As Kathy Poole reflects on existing infrastructure conditions, “Through roughly 150 years of industrialization we have come to believe that the politics of efficiency are beyond question and that standardization is the ultimate expression of democracy” (Poole 1998). It is not difficult to notice the trend of increasing standardization of infrastructural systems when we are pursuing a higher efficiency. Most road networks were designed in a similar way to meet with demand of cars, only as a track for this machine. Numerous riverways were converted from natural curving forms into artificial crude lines in the name of flooding prevention. These urban environments have been considered and evaluated solely on technical criteria while ignoring the functions in social, aesthetic and ecology. When applauding for the successful proposals like Chon Gae Canal renovation in Seoul and Los Angeles River restoration, we just cannot help to being

32

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

surprised that China’s on-going South-to-North water diversion project is extremely similar to these samples before refurbished. In the last few decades, lessons of the infrastructure construction result in a consensus that all kinds of space are valuable and meaningful, not only the traditional public spaces as parks and squares. This requires the re-examination of the single-functional oriented infrastructure and the liberation of infrastructure from impacts of congestion, pollution and noise into an inhabitable part of city. Also it needs the engagement with natural phenomenon as well as the social and cultural demands of the community. Rather than to precisely control urban conditions, landscape urbanism implies to create a more flexible future. With deliberately organizing the infrastructural catalysts, this methodology is able to produce effects and performances (Corner 2006, 60). WEAVE attempts a new strategy in the design of our road network, one that is responsive to the existing conditions and density of the site yet projective towards the future potential of the city, we don’t view streets as only “paved surfaces but as elements in a larger network and hierarchy” (Rabinovitch 1995, 8) They don’t just connect to buildings, they create opportunities of exchange with the different programatic elements of the city, and establish the structuring of the site on which the future potential can grow.


URBAN AGRICULTURE PROCESS Economic Relationship A successful agriculture system should provide a whole process which needs different types of organisation and linkages which could be projected to the actual site.

Related bureau

University & college

Policy support

Labour support

Fruit institute

Research & Development District

Water institute

Soil institute

Engineering institute

R&D center

Rural agriculture District Vegetable field

ProtectionTechnology institute support Feedback Feedback

Crop field

Pratice testing

Planting guide Pratice feedback

Crops Vegetables

Agriculture info. Village storage

Orchard field

Equipments supply

Equipment factory

Seeds supply

Seed factory

Equipments supply

Labour training

Fertiliser factory

Vegetable greenhouse

Agriculture info.

Pratice demand

Village storage Vegetables

Fruit greenhouse

Fruits

Suburban agriculture District

Market information Product information

Research result

Product process

Management center

Resource utilization

Market demand

Juice & wine produce

Package

Plastic product supply

Plastic product factory

Product process

Dehydration process

Machinery factory

Machinery supply

Staffs, technicians, workers

Residential & public facilities Traders, staffs, workers

Agricultural information

Fertiliser supply

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

Research application

Cannery

Refinement

Farmers, research staffs, workers

Planting guide

34

Training & meeting

Steel product supply

Resource utilization

Residential Local residents & public Local residents facilities

Seeds supply

Economical relation organization Central Agricultural District (C.A.D.)

Skill & techlonogy

Steel product factory

Process District

Staffs, technicians, workers

Scientists, research staffs, teachers, officers

Fruits

Fertiliser supply

Research guide Information exchange

Demonstration testbed

Instrument supply

Residential & public facilities

Research result

Market demand

Instrument factory

Scientists, research staffs, teachers, officers

Farmers, research staffs, workers

Residential & public facilities Traders, staffs, workers

Agricultural products Research result

Latest product

Trade & exhibition center

Traders, buyers, sellers

Exchange District

Product export

Storage Product order Quality control Product distribution

Storage information Delivery information

Raw material

Test result Sample

Quality test detection

Transportation infrastructure Raw material

Logistics center Delivery

Product export

order

Labour support

Retail or secondary market

University & college


Spatial Adjacency Based on the study of the boundary situation, as well as the possible tendency of future development, we can find out a series of spatial adjacency relationship for different node or boundary. With this analysis, the urban process could be displayed in a spatial form.

Market Boundary

Processing Factory

Housing

Urban Agriculture Supermarket Regional Distribution Community Center Local Market

School

Nodal Boundary

Water Treatment

R & D Institution

Local Market

Community Center Medium End Housing

Local Market Housing

Agriculture Boundary

Public Service/ Office

Supermarket

Regional Distribution Processing Factory

Processing Factory

Storage

Community Center

Sport Plot

Public Space

Urban Agriculture Sport Plot

Water Treatment

IndustryBoundary

Commercial

Sport Plot

Urban Agriculture Sport Plot

R & D Institution

Processing Factory

Local Market Urban Agriculture

Housing School

Regional Distribution

R & D Institution

Storage

Regional Distribution

Adaptive Network System Rather than providing an over-abundant grid network without any relationship to urban process that would be a waste of precious land, we try to create a framework based on a study for urban agriculture system via the method of minimal path which is a perfect sample of efficient connection system. 1. Generic vacant site mode with various boundary conditions

2. Possible program adjacency spatial relation according to context.

3. Identify main connection between crucial nodes as linkage framework.

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

4. Utilize minimal path system as an efficient sample to reorganise the main network system.

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EXISTING URBAN DENSITY LANDUSE DENSITY Various landuses remain at the edge of the vacant site, such as villages, housing and factories. Each display different scales and types of fabrication. The new urban development requires structure that works in harmony with the site rather than clashing with the context. As a result, a mechanism of merging fabrication is explored.

50X50 m Village

200X200 m Industry/Greenhouse

100X100 m Residential/Commercial

DENSITY TRANSITION To find a structure that can best represent forseable urban fabrication we utilize the geomitric features identified in the existing fabric. Taking the boundary of one vacant plot as an example, we create a grid network on it that is translated into a rhomboid mesh which represents the existing condition and future development.

Aeral view of a section in Mentougou showing the variety of density conditions

Edge of vacant area

Proposal urban grid

Gradual density representation

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DENSITY STRUCTURE According to research on the geometric relation between different scale of urban fabric and rhomboid units, we create a catalogue of rhomboid conditions that can reflect the conditions, in which the distance of the arc comes from the adjacent network and the angle represents the denisty of the fabrication. With the information from site identification, we are able to apply this layer stacking method to generate a gradually changing fabrication over the site.

Rhomboid units geometric catalogue

Dense unit (Boundary)

Loose unit (Vacancy)

Fabrication density change from boundary towards vacancy

38

Small unit (Village)

Large unit (Urban)

Fabrication size change from village towards urban

1. Set activating points for proposed mesh according to exsiting networks accessbility.

2. Generate arches from activating points based on the certain condition of this boundary to adapt its fabrication density and size.

3. Use density lines to control and fuse the growth of urban fabrication according to different surrounding conditions.

4. Create the rhomboid mesh to represent the probable urban fabrication pattern as a spatial guideline.

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


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DENSITY CONTROL Control lines are used to adapt and adjust the fabrication density based on different node identification.

Arc Degree

1

2

Node Area Fabric Fast transforming density

210` 180` 150` 120` 90`

Arc Degree Normal Area Fabric Medium transforming density

210` 180` 150` 120` 90`

Arc Degree

3

Infrastructure Area Fabric Slow transforming density

210` 180` 150` 120` 90`

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2 1

3

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DENSITY MESH The combination of the density control lines with the density structure create a density mesh that is used as a guide to structure the road network.

1

High Density

2

Medium Density

3

Low Density 42

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


2 1

3


MAIN CONNECTIVITY Based on the research of urban agriculture process and crucial nodes in the site, we determine the main connections needed including daily transportation and product delievery which will guide the framework of road network.

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


EFFICIENT LINKAGE With the main connections that are created in previous study, we use the minimal path rules to generate a system to serve as a guideline for transportation network

Direct Connection

4 Point Linkage

5 Point Linkage

6 Point Linkage 46

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Minimal Path


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BRANCHING STRUCTURE

Network Efficiency Natural constraints of the site, such as the Yongding River seperate this area into two parts and only a few connections exist, the increasing demand for daily transportation in west-east direction needs to be met in order to improve infrastructure accessbility. Meanwhile, the interconnection between different area inside this area should not be ignored. A more efficient way of connection system should be generated to solve both problems.

Branching Network Regional distribution Local market Bridge

Connections and constraints

Possible linkage

Center/ Region market

Village/ Greenhouse

Tertiary Road 2 (1+1) Lanes

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Secondary Road 4 (2+2) Lanes

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Primary Road 6 (3+3) Lanes

Main Road 8 (4+4) Lanes

We adopt the branching system as the logic for network arrangement due to two reasons. The first one is that this system has the feature of integrating scattering parts into few main streams that solves the problem of limited connection in the site. Another reason is that the hierarchy in branching system will imply an accurate way for arrange different types of roads according to site conditions so that gurantees the high efficiency in the operation of the netwrok.

Network Materialization Since different levels of road have certain regulations such as speed limitation, intersection distance and turning angel, we try to analyze the possible condtions of them when applying them into branching system.


Tertiary Road 2 (1+1) Lanes < 20km/h > 100m < 60’

1

Secondary Road 4 (2+2) Lanes < 40km/h > 150m < 45’

2 Primary Road 6 (3+3) Lanes < 60km/h < 250m < 30’

3 Arterial

4

8 (4+4) Lanes < 80km/h < 350m < 15’

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FINAL ROAD NETWORK We start to merge the road network on one hand from exsiting significant infrastructures on the other hand from urban fabrication, while referring to minimal path guideline and taking the branching system as a materialising way to construct the final road network. 350m

250m

100m 100m150m

Road application on fabrication base

Dense network near regional market

Normal network in city proximity

Loose network near village area 50

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2

3

1

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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT DRAINAGE AND FOREST PERFORMATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE Landscape Urbanism describes a disciplinary realignment currently underway in which landscape replaces architecture as the basic building block of contemporary urbanism. For many, across a range of disciplines, landscape has become both the lens through which the contemporary city is represented and the medium through which it is constructed (Waldheim 2006, 11). Landscape urbanism brings a series of relating disciplines in to the study of contemporary urbanism. James Corner and Stan Allen’s scenario of the field, Rem Koolhass’s concept for the matrix of landscape, all of which signify the shift of focus from a concentrated and close-ended traditional urban model to a more loose and open matrix land arrangement. Recent competitions for Fresh Kills in New York and Downsview Park in Toronto, present landscape urbanism’s potential of integrating natural ecology into urban processes seamlessly (Mossop 2006, 125). All these precedents illustrate how the landscape infrastructure has become the main role to deal with the complexity of natural and urban processes, since it is the essential factor in landscape urbanism. The relationship between urban infrastructure and natural processes provides an unprecedented urban strategy based on constructing ecological landscape infrastructure network. According far as can be seen, the most permanent and enduring elements of cities are often related to the underlying landscapes – the geology, the topography, the rivers and harbours, and the climate (Mossop 2006, 172). Water, as a significant resource to human, domains an irreplaceable position in constructing the city. That is the reason why more cities take water system to frame itself in the way of urban structure and open space network. Understanding natural water 52

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

process is a key to implement this strategy, including drainage collection, storm rain management, water purification, habitat construction etc. On top of this landscape matrix, the city will become a complex that can provide abundant open spaces, create various urban experience and increase biodiversity. At the region and city level, we can see several samples that where water conditions impact the form of urban development, not only from historical cities as Venice or Suzhou, where rivers and canals generate their unique pattern, but also from recent planning proposals. SWA’s proposal for the North Lake Region of Chongming Island in Shanghai presents rather than a traditional master plan but a comprehensive landscape strategy. By creating a series of continuous relation between coast and landform, a landscape structure is generated to restore ecological function while adequately providing economic alternatives to impacted farmers. Meanwhile the demand of Shanghai’s program of having a nature-based refuge for the benefit of citizens and tourists is achieved through developing an open space system that will also support on-going international research regarding wetland creation and community-scale environmental interpretation (Anon, 2008). The Guadalupe River Park designed by Hargreaves Associates is a paradigm of a modern flood-control project integrated with a major recreation park and wildlife habitat expressed as culturally “made.” The River Park underlay consists of the topography for the flood-control channel itself; it provides the underlying structural spine for the design of the River Park. Undulating terraced banks and landforms create the obviously manmade and river-influenced backbone for the native riverbank landscape. The second level, or River Park overlay, consists of the plan for open spaces, events and habitat restoration along the channel; these places try to interrelate the relationship of humankind, technology and nature (Hargreaves).


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SITE DRAINAGE EXISTING CANALS AND DRAINAGE PATHS Mentougous mountainous terrain ensures a rapid and high volume flow of water into the city during rains, existing drainage canals running east - west were put in place to direct the water quickly to the river to minimize its disruption to the city. With the prolonged drought that has affected Beijing and its suburbs the canals have dried up, leaving an infrastructure in the city that is more divisive than engaging with its surroundings. We propose to reconfigure this infrastructure by caping it with a permeable layer allowing drainage and storage of water to happen bellow while a linear park and ecological corridor could remain at the surface, improving connectivity across its length and establishing a new function as a social and recreational space for the city. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The methods of landscape urbanism are operative, tey prioritize the way in which things work and the way in which they are used. And like a landscape architect, the landscape urbanist always begin with the givenâ&#x20AC;? (Mohsen 2004, 8)

Existing Dry Canal

Refurbished Canal Forest Corridor Drainage

Storage Canal Strategy Polystorm Lite Modulare Cells are a good example of how to provide water storage below while still providing structural support for activites and planting above.

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

Enhancing existing infrastructures allows for new uses to be


YO

N

GD IN

R IVE G R

TING EXIS

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STORMWATER COLLECTION ROOFTOP COLLECTION AND STORAGE A study of the percentage of rooftop cover of the existing landuses, allowed us to calculate the potential volumes of water that could be captured per year using average rainfall numbers. An indexical drawing was used to find the path of water from the rooftops to the nearest adjacent vacant lot and calculate the volume of water each catchment would provide. Although it is unrealistic to capture all the rainwater it provided us with a guide to understand the potentials of using rainwater for greenhouse production. Our calculations estimate that the annual rainfall could produce enough volume to supply 320 greenhouses with their annual water demands.

The vacant lots which provide the highest potential for stormwater capture have been highlighted and will become part of our greeninfrastructure spine. The existing canals on site while only serving a purpose of directing water to the river could be tied to this spine and create a water storage network with the potential for much higher volumes of storage. The existing valley will become the overflow capture for this system and provide additional storage while also serving as habitat for a variety of species. It will also serve the purpose of slowing down runoff before reaching the river.

5923 cu.m

47241 cu PERCENT ROOF COVER

TOTAL ROOF AREA

VILLAGE

67%

6.417.229 sq.m

COMMERCIAL

337.214 sq.m

FACILITY

889.693 sq.m

HIGH RISE

1.622.127 sq.m

INDUSTRY

1.199.064 sq.m

EDUCATIONAL

484.155 sq.m

55% 47%

37% 35% 33%

16316 cu.m

9373 cu.

TOTAL AREA = 10.465.327 sq.m RAINFALL = 0,50 m/year COEFICIENT LOSS = 0,62

TOTAL = 3.374.021 cu.m

1

4,400 sq.m GREENHOUSE

10,532 cu.m/ year

320

GREENHOUSES

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

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28077 cu.m

87226 cu.m

24985 cu.m

12116 cu.m 39922 cu.m

64264 cu.m

54747 cu.m

35387 cu.m

10321 cu.m

21457 cu.m 6409 cu.m 16385 cu.m

9212 cu.m

27487 cu.m

21020 cu.m

112254 cu.m

47955 cu.m

8028 cu.m 34441 cu.m

47771 cu.m 42060 cu.m

20116 cu.m 16044 cu.m

72634 cu.m 39942 cu.m

67842 cu.m

25730 cu.m

123317 cu.m

34480 cu.m 24096 cu.m

20633 cu.m 9340 cu.m

64234 cu.m

7798 cu.m

5902 cu.m 8614 cu.m

53204 cu.m

12400 cu.m

28014 cu.m

56124 cu.m

11867 cu.m

u.m

31943 cu.m

158682 cu.m

71994 cu.m

24923 cu.m

83782 cu.m 29346 cu.m

25328 cu.m 11536 cu.m

15031 cu.m 11940 cu.m

10463 cu.m 77856 cu.m

.m

13587 cu.m

15861 cu.m

15014 cu.m

61221 cu.m 39331 cu.m

44869 cu.m

12018 cu.m

s Ove ya lle Va

34160 cu.m

30023 cu.m

12496 cu.m

30110 cu.m

9920 cu.m

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108814 cu.m 13779 cu.m

39355 cu.m 24156 cu.m

60000 - 80000 cu.m

32739 cu.m

80000 - 100000 cu.m

33014 cu.m 15340 cu.m 27668 cu.m

100000 - 120000 cu.m 120000+ Areas identified as part of the green infrastructure spine

13961 cu.m

16239 cu.m

ag

31030 cu.m

e

56986 cu.m

To R iver

15866 cu.m

81929 cu.m 37196 cu.m

13936 cu.m

or

0 - 20000 cu.m 20000 - 40000 cu.m 40000 - 60000 cu.m

38139 cu.m

St rflow

78640 cu.m

14578 cu.m

9785 cu.m

33596 cu.m

19242 cu.m

23747 cu.m

81401 cu.m

31043 cu.m

30518 cu.m

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FOREST NETWORK GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND NATURAL CORRIDORS The existing canals and the land vacancies adjacent to it form the backbone of an ecological landscape infrastructure that serves as flood mitigation and natural corridor for wildlife, creating connections from the Mountains to the River. We look at the unbuilt as â&#x20AC;&#x153;potentially an event of equal intensity to the built, where the built is indicative of cultural intensity, and the unbuilt of ecological intensityâ&#x20AC;? (Viljoen, A., 53) In the mountains a reforestation strategy would return the damaged hillsides to their original state and help control soil erosion and drainage on the slopes. They also serve the important function of carbon sequestration and the restoration of habitats. In the city urban forests form part of a series of parks and open spaces that engage with the city. This open space network creates numerous recreational benefits for the city and enhances the opportunities for residents to engage with the two most

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STATE MASTERPLAN

POP= 100/HA 770 HA

dominant landscape elements in their site, the Yongding River and the Mountains. The variety of urban experiences that occur along the length of these corridors will provide numerous opportunities to engage with the varying topography of the site. Exploring a variety of density scenarios allowed us to increase the widths of these corridors until the minimum 300 meters was reached, which according to The principles of Wildlife Corridor Design by Monica Bond is the recommended width for these corridors. (2003, 2) The existing valley will form the main north to south ecological corridor through the city and provide unique habitats for animals in its numerous wetlands which serve to capture overflow from the water storage system and the canals allowing the east west corridors to feed into it and subdividing the city into a series of neighborhoods.

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BROOKLYN DENSITY

POP= 135/HA 570 HA

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

POP= 284/HA 271 HA

0

58

DELHI DENSITY

Density studies were used to condense the footprint of the new development allowing for the widening of the ecological 250 500corridors 1000


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EXITING PARKS REFORESTATION

FOREST CORRIDOR VALLEY FOREST CORRIDOR

WETLANDS RIVER PARK LINEAR CONNECTIONS

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System of Modules Independant of eachother but operate a

ANCHOR

Anchor Precedent Chinese Well WATER SUPPLY AS -SOCIAL CATCHMENT Water Supply and Social Catchment

Well

Stack

As Water Supply

Well

As Social Catchment The Chinese well plays an important role in the life of the village, as the source of water it was frequently the point of gathering and interaction for people in the village.

60

The pumping and access of water from underground storage creates an opportunity to establish a link to the Chinese cultural icon of the well. Its role in the village, as both a supply of water and social meeting place for the villagers establishes direct links to notions of city planning, with a central open space and a community building that houses many of the functions of the city. The anchor emerges as an iconic multi use infrastructural building, it incinerates urban waste and biomass from the agricultural process and adjacent forest corridors using a Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit. This incineration process creates heat and electricity for the city and the greenhouses and the CO2 that is emitted can be pumped into the greenhouses to benefit growth of the plants. It focuses

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

on creating a circular system for the city which sees waste as a valuable resources and uses it to its full advantage reducing its output into the environment (Despommier 2012, 197). Its association with water are both in its function as a pumping unit but also in the treatment of gray water for the city. By providing social programs such as education facilities, libraries and museums it serves as a social catchment for the neighbourhood and the inclusion of a large open space adjacent to the building provides opportunities for recreation and habitat for birds and other animals. Its link with the production of food and its central location make it an ideal place to house a market that can sell food created in the greenhouses and provide an affordable and direct access for fresh fruits and vegetables in the city.


Heat, Power, Nutrient

Water Storage/Supply

Pump

Forest Waste

Storage

Surface Runoff + Treatment

Short Rotation Crop (Willow)

ass

=

Bio-Char

Nutrient

Community Park

Market

Urban Forest

Production

Supply

Biom

W as te

Anchor

Anchor

MARKET

tricity O2 Elec ing C a He t

Ferti lizer for Gre en ho u

se

tion Irriga

Graywater + Treatment

CHP Furnace

Urban Waste

Rainwater

Exhaust

Anchor

Anchor

n uctio Prod

T MARKE

Habitat

Demand

Direct Link

Vegatables and Fruits

Recreation & Leisure

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ANCHOR AS CENTER OF COMMUNITY TRANSPORT ORIENTED DESIGN AND THE SUSTAINABLE NEIGHBOURHOOD The establishment of the anchor as the central infrastructural and cultural element within the neighborhood, begins to reference a radial pattern of growth and concepts of polycentric development championed by Ebenezer Howard in his Garden Cities of Tomorrow. His concepts, while seen as utopian, have had a powerful impact on architecture and urbanism (Abel, C., 2010, 2) and continue to influence models of urbanism today, such as the Sustainable Neighborhood Model developed by Douglas Farr. This model focuses on defining a neighborhood by a 10 minute walking radius with its center being the location of community facilities. It is a building block for the transportation corridor with transit nodes at its center. The mix of densities ensures a compact an walkable community with car free housing. The boundaries of the individual neighborhoods are defined by green infrastructure and ecological corridors and linked together through roads and efficient public transportation system.

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

The Sustainable Neighborhood model developed by Farr is an improvement to the previous models by Calrence Perry and Duany Plater-Zyberk (DPZ.) and relies on efficient public transportation linking the central nodes of the neighbourhood and controloing expansion throgh ecological corridors at the boundary of hte 10 min walking radius.


0 500

Anchors are located at primary intersections along the main East West roads connections to the bridges crossing the Yongding River. These roads will provide the main distribution path for urban agriculture production as well as connectivity in and out of the city. Anchors are located 20 minute apart from each other and linked together through elevated tramlines which are suspended under the track, this allows for a dual use of the infrastructure, by allowing pedestrian circulation above and transport bellow. These elevated tramlines connect back to the main Metro stops of the Beijing Subway System. R

PINGGUOYAN METRO

M

GUCHENG METRO STOP

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M

LEGEND ANCHOR TRANSPORT STOP

MAGLEV TRAIN TERMINAL

M

SUBWAY STOP ELEVATED TRAM LINES 10 MIN WALKING RADIUS

1000

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CASE STUDY

TRANSPORTATION AND URBANISM CURITIBA - BRAZIL Curitiba offers a great example of how to integrate transportation into overall planning for the city, by tying it into the other smaller interventions that as a whole create a large impact. Jaime Lerner the Mayor of Curitiba, champions the strategy of “Urban Acupuncture’ in which rapid powerful interventions are inserted in the city that help fill the voids and reactivate the spaces. He describes the lack of continuity in the city as detrimental and should be filled even with temporary structures if needed (Lerner, 29). His rapid bus system has

created a huge impact around the world with many replicas appearing in cities across Latin America and Europe (Shannon, K., 25) He placed his focus on the public realm, favouring the use of buses and public transportation over the car which was the centrepiece of the Le Corbusier 1950‘s and 60‘s urban planning strategies. He claims the street is a set stage which is too expensive to have only one use (Lerner, 46) and his successful interventions have served as a model for our day (Rabinovitch 1995, 6).

The iconic tube stops that were part of the rapid bus system allowed passengers to pay before boarding reducing loading times and making the system operate much more effectively. It became quicker to ride the bus than drive in your own car.

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MEDELLIN - COLOMBIA Medellin followed the example of Curitiba but applied it in a three dimensional way, The Metrocable system relied on gondolas used traditionally for ski slopes as a way to improve connectivity between the hillside barrios and the urban centers bellow (Shane 2011, 290) At the stops within the barrios public spaces and buildings such as libraries and schools were implemented to â&#x20AC;&#x153;repair the social fabric of the communityâ&#x20AC;? (Bianco 2009, 164) The high quality of the interventions,

minimum disruption to the existing urban fabric and a high level of community participation were part of a strategy that focused on only the best being good enough for the poorest of society (Bianco 2009, 164). This combination of projects were called Integral Urban Projects (PUI) and led to successful improvements to many areas of the existing slums.

The Gondolas are the most iconic element of this intervention, but the succesfull PUI projets of plazas, libraries, museums, slope stabilization and new housing for the residents of the barrios made this a true success story.

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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT SECOND SKIN Ficae voluptibus iur, utempor aut eaquid magnamus es ut pratest orumqui nust, quuntiossum laute volorei catios quam rercillamet quaesecto con cus, imus ernates cullor senda culpa quidus, nonsequas remquae pudigna taturem perunte vit fuga. Voles que comniscita entotatem sum reprectempor mi, offic te vidit doluptiument qui antis et aut deliquam enihilit earitia sequi dicatur amendit, eum alictot atiatatent es mo moloriatur? Quid ma vel maio idem quibusciis ut explign atempore, ut acculli gnihillia nosam eate quatatio temporendis et am eribus dunt, consequia duntem. Nequam, qui untion nos aut eic to mi, nonet pra pa ius magn

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DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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SECOND SKIN ON EXISTING IDENTIFYING AND CONNECTING EXISTING ROOFTOPS The occupation of existing rooftops takes as reference the projects researched in Brooklyn and other boroughs of New York. An inventory of existing rooftops allowed us to identify flat rooftops within the city that had the potential to receive various interventions. These rooftops were clustered based on a variety of proximities to determine a potential network of connectivity that will form the framework for the development of the second skin. The second skin within the

existing acts as a catalyst which will have an impact on the surrounding fabric of the city generating new dynamics and potentials for future development. The interventions on the rooftop realm are not limited to greenhouse or rooftop farms only. Opportunities exist for educational facilities, restaurants, recreational facilities and community centers to occupy these spaces and revitalize the neighbourhoods around them.

Occupation of rooftops is not limited to agriculture production only, a variety of recreational and programmatic options can be pursued base on the requirements of the surrounding.

EXISTING

EXISTING ROOFTOPS

STAGE 1

OCUPY ROOFTOP

STAGE 2

CLUSTER PROXIMITIES

STAGE 3

LINK CLUSTERS 68

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wine process

KEY PLAN DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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PHASING FROM EXISTING ROOFTOPS TO NEW DEVELOPMENT STAGE 0

ENGAGE WITH EXISTING

STAGE 1

PRIMARY ROAD DRAINAGE STRUCTURE FOREST STRUCTURE

STAGE 2

ANCHOR AND SECOND SKIN PLACED SECONDARY ROAD CONNECTION URBAN GROWTH

A

UR

A

A

EXISTING ROAD EXISTING ROOFTOPS SUITABLE FOR ROOFTOP PRODUCTION VALLEY- FOREST CORRIDOR

Existing rooftops are occupied allowing production and programatic elements to be inserted into the existing fabric, connections between the existing roofs begin to create a rooftop network.

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

PRIMARY ROAD DRAINAGE FOREST LOW POINT CURB CUT

Site grading and road layouts allow for the establishment of the green infrastructure spine

SECONDARY ROADS SECOND SKIN A ANCHOR URBAN GROWTH

Anchor is located and second skin begins to expand, urban development is established in conjunction with the Second skin allowing for their interaction to take place from the first stages of the urban development

SECONDA SECOND S URBAN GR FULL GRO


STAGE 3

STAGE 4

ADDITIONAL PARCELS ESTABLISHED DRAINAGE AND FOREST NETWORK RBAN GROWTH EXPANDS INTO PARCEL

JOINTS ESTABLISHED AND SECOND SKIN GROWTHED FULL URBAN GROWTH REACHED SECONDARY ROAD CONNECTION SECOND SKIN ENGAGES WITH ADJACENT BUILDINGS URBAN GROWTH

UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT

PROPOSED A

ARY ROADS SKIN ROWTH OWTH

ALTERNATIVE 1 COMPRESSED

ALTERNATIVE 2 EXPANDED

The system is adabptable to changes in adjacent unplanned development. Their impact on the layout of the roads will have a direct impact on the drainage and therefore the location of the second skin.

a a

EXISTING DEVELOPMENT REMOVED

A

STAGE 5

a A

A

a

A

A

a SECONDARY ANCHORS SECONDARY ROADS SECOND SKIN URBAN GROWTH FULL GROWTH

Expansion continues to occur and the second skin connects with other anchors and second skin.

SECOND SKIN EXPANSION FULL GROWTH

Once full growth is established the second skin expands into new areas of the city. engaging with adjacent architecture.

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SECOND SKIN IN VACANT PARCEL DRAINAGE AND FOREST AS BACKBONE FOR GROWTH DRAINAGE PATH

FOREST WIDTH VARIATION

STORAGE PIPE

LOW POINT CURB CUT

LOW POINT

Drainage from the roads and adjacent urban development drains towards the lowpoint in each parcel creating the guide for the forest network.

The forest network varies in width based on its proximity to the anchor and the valley forest corridor

Road Drainage Street Planter Drainage Path Storage Pipe Pump

Rooftop Greenhouse

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

The second skin emerges as an infrastructual catalyst in the vacant parcels left by de-industrialization. Drainage from the roads using a curb cut strategy directs water towards the low point in each parcel and is collected in underground pipes that will be used for the greenhouse production. The forest network follows these paths varying in width based on the projected volume of runoff it will receive and its proximity to the main forest corridor in the existing valley on site. The Second Skin grows from the Anchor and joints reaching out to the surrounding urban fabric and to other anchors and joints until it reaches its full growth.

wine process

KEY PLAN


25%

25%

J

J

JOINTS ESTABLISHED

INITIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND PROGRAM ESTABLISHED STRUCTURE BUILT TO HOUSE FURTHER GROWTH (DISCONECTED)

VILLAGE

LOW POINT

JOINT

35%

50%

J

J JOINTS GROW

ADDITIONAL PROGRAM ADDED (DISCONECTED)

MARKET

ANCHOR

75%

50%

J

BRIDGE

J

JOINTS REACH GROWTH

ANCHORS REACH MINIMUM GROWTH REQUIRED FOR BRIDGE TO ESTABLISH (DISCONNECTED)

VILLAGE

100%

J

100% BRIDGE

J

JOINTS CONNECTED

BRIDGE CONNECTION MADE MAXIMUM PRODUCTIVITY AND PROGRAM REACHED (CONNECTED)

INDUSTRY

EXPAND

100%

100%

J

J

SECOND SKIN EXPANDS

SECOND SKIN GROWS OUT TO ADJACENT URBAN (CONNECTED)

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SUN ORIENTATION AND PRODUCTIVITY FROM INTENSIVE- INDUSTRY TO EXTENSIVE- LEISURE The orientation of the Second Skin to sunlight plays an important role not only in the physical character of the Second Skin but on its level of productivity. Solar orientation divides the second skin into 4 categories. The first is the industrial line which receives maximum exposure to sunlight and therefore intensifies its productivity making it ideal for an industrial operation that can process, package and distribute this high level of production. The second is the Research line which uses its solar orientation to expand production of pharmaceutical and higher plants that can be used for research. The third line is the commercial line which becomes a more localized production operating through neighbourhood collaboratives growing food that an be sold in local food markets. The fourth line receives the least solar exposure and generates opportunities for individual surface plots that can be farmed by the residents of the neighborhood for their own personal use. This line would be very similar in width and height to the High Line in New York and generates opportunities for leisure activities operating as a linear park.

The four categories of the second skin based on solar exposure

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INTENSIVE

INDUSTRY

0 - 22.5

PLAN

25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00

0 - 22.5

ELEVATION

24.00 24.00 24.00 24.00

SUN ANGLE

RESEARCH

22.5 - 45

20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00

22.5 - 45

19.50 19.50 19.50 19.50

0 - 22.5 0 - 22.5

COMMERCE

45 - 67.5

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00

45 - 67.5

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00

22.5 - 45 22.5 - 45

LEISURE

67.5 - 90

10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00

67.5 - 90

9.00 9.00 9.00

9.00

45 - 67.5 45 - 67.5

67.5 - 90 67.5 - 90

EXTENSIVE

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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MESH DEVELOPMENT

ALLOW SUNLIGHT TO GROUND BELLOW (BRIDGE)

MAXIMIZE OUTPUT

J J

COLLECTION

PUBLIC SPACE

J

PUBLIC SPACE

PUBLIC SPACE

PRODUCTION PUBLIC SPACE

COLLECTION

COLLECTION PUBLIC SPACE

COLLECTION

PUBLIC SPACE

PUBLIC MAXIMIZE OUTPUT

COMPRESS

J

PUBLIC SPACE AND PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION

MINIMIZE PUBLIC ACCESS TO SECURE PRODUCTION AREA

ALLOW SUNLIGHT TO GROUND BELLOW

PRODUCE

MINIMIZE PUBLIC ACCESS TO SECURE PRODUCTION AREA

(BRIDGE)

PUBLIC

GROUND LEVEL

WATER MOVEMENT

MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE

PUBLIC SPACE

J

J

RECIRCULATION WATER PUMPING

MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE AND WATER CAPTURE AT GROUND LEVEL MAXIMIZE PATHS TO ROOFTOP LEVEL PUBLIC SPACE (RAMP)

MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE AT GROUND LEVEL WATER CAPTURE AND ACCESS TO ROOFTOP (RAMP)

PUBLIC AND WATER CAPTURE AT GROUND LEVEL MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE MAXIMIZE PATHS TO ROOFTOP LEVEL PUBLIC SPACE (RAMP)

INFILTRATION UTILITY/ RECIRCULATION PUMP ROOM WATER PUMPING

MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE

COMBINED

J J

COMBINED

J

RECIRCULATION WATER PUMPING

MAXIMIZE PUBLIC SPACE AT GROUND LEVEL WATER CAPTURE AND ACCESS TO ROOFTOP (RAMP)

EXPAND

J

WATER MOVEMENT

PUBLIC SPACE

EXPAND

J J

PUBLIC SPACE

GROUND LEVEL

PUBLIC SPACE

PRODUCE

PUBLIC SPACE

J J

SECURITY

PUBLIC SPACE AND PRODUCTION

N N COLLECTIO COLLECTIO

COMPRESS

J J

SECURITY

PUBLIC SPACE

J J

ROOF LEVEL

N N COLLECTIO COLLECTIO

ROOF LEVEL OF SECOND SKIN WITH ROOF AND GROUND LEVEL INTERACTION

PUBLIC

STORAGE

INFILTRATION UTILITY/ PUMP ROOM

STORAGE

PROGRAM LINKAGES PROGRAM LINKAGES

J

COMMUNITY CENTER

EDUCATION DISTRIBUTION COMMUNITY CENTER COMMERCIAL PARKING

EDUCATION

UTILITY/ PUMP ROOM

J

J

J J

UTILITY/ RECIRCULATION PUMP ROOM WATER PUMPING

RESEARCH MANAGEMENT

RESEARCH MANAGEMENT

J

COMMUNITY CENTER

TRAINING DISTRIBUTION COMMUNITY CENTER COMMERCIAL PARKING

TRAINING DISTRIBUTION COMMERCIAL PARKING

DISTRIBUTION COMMERCIAL PARKING

TYPES OF FLOWS WITHIN THE SECOND SKIN FLOW IN PLAN VIEW

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J TYPE A

FLOW IN ELEVATION VIEW

FLOW IN PLAN VIEW

FLOW IN ELEVATION VIEW

J

Industry TYPE A

TYPE B

Research TYPE B

TYPE C

Commerce TYPE C

TYPE D

Leisure TYPE D

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Forest corridor

KIN A ND S ry O C SE Indust Joint

Canal

B

SECOND SK IN D Leisure

Anchor

SE CO Co ND m SK m IN er ce C

IN SK ch D r ONesea C SE R

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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3D MESH PROGRAMATIC FLOWS Joint

SECOND SKIN A SECOND SKIN B

CANAL SECOND SKIN C

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SECOND SKIN D

VALLEY - FOREST CORRIDOR

ANCHOR

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SECOND SKIN TYPOLOGY PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION + 27.00

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

FLOW AND PROGRAM ARRANGEMNT

COLLECTION COLLECTION DISTRIBUTION PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION

SECOND SKIN A INDUSTRY

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

PUBLIC COLLECTION

SECTIONALWATER SPATIAL CONFIGURATION PACKAGE STORAGE

PROCESSING MARKET MARKET PRODUCTION

COLLECTION WATER STORAGE

PACKAGE STORAGE PRODUCTION STORAGE

PUBLIC

PROCESSING PRODUCTION

COLLECTION PUBLIC WATER STORAGE

DISTRIBUTION COLLECTION

MARKET PROCESSING

COLLECTION WATER STORAGE

DISTRIBUTION

MARKET

PUBLIC COLLECTION PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION PROCESSING

+ 27.00

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

MANAGEMENT

+ 18.00 + 18.00 9.00 + 27.00 + 9.00

MANAGEMENT

PRODUCTION PACKAGE MANAGEMENT STORAGE PACKAGE

+ 27.00 + + 0.00 18.00 + 0.00 + + 18.00 9.00

+ 9.00 + 0.00

STORAGE + 0.00

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

+ 27.00 + 27.00

DISTRIBUTION MARKET DISTRIBUTION MARKET

SECOND SKIN B RESEARCH

PRODUCTION

RESEARCH

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

RESEARCH

COMMERCE

LEISURE

DISTRIBUTION MARKET

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

EDUCATION CENTER

PUBLIC

EDUCATION CENTER COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION COMMERCIAL

PUBLIC

EDUCATION CENTER PRODUCTION

COLLECTION PUBLIC MANAGEMENT

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION CENTER

COLLECTION MANAGEMENT

DISTRIBUTION MARKET

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC COLLECTION MANAGEMENT COLLECTION

PRODUCTION

+ 18.00 + 18.00 9.00 + 27.00 + 9.00

MANAGEMENT PUBLIC

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION

+ 27.00 + + 0.00 18.00 + 0.00 + + 18.00 9.00

+ 9.00 + 0.00

COMMERCIAL + 0.00

PRODUCTION

RESEARCH

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

RESEARCH

COMMERCE

LEISURE

+ 27.00 + 27.00 + 18.00

SECOND SKIN C COMMMERCE

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL SERVICE SERVICE

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PUBLIC

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION SERVICE COMMERCIAL SERVICE

PRODUCTION

PUBLIC PUBLIC COLLECTION WATER STORAGE COLLECTION WATER STORAGE

PRODUCTION EDUCATION

+ 9.00

COMMERCIAL

+ + 27.00 0.00 + 18.00

PRODUCTION

COLLECTION WATER STORAGE

9.00 + 27.00

EDUCATION COMMERCIAL

PUBLIC COLLECTION WATER STORAGE PUBLIC

+ 18.00

EDUCATION PRODUCTION COMMERCIAL EDUCATION

+ 0.00 + + 18.00 9.00

+ 9.00 + 0.00

COMMERCIAL + 0.00

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PRODUCTION

COMMERCE

LEISURE

+ 27.00 + 27.00 + 18.00 + 18.00

PUBLIC PUBLIC COMMERCIAL

SECOND SKIN D LEISURE LEISURE

COMMERCE

LEISURE

PUBLIC COMMERCIAL PUBLIC COMMERCIAL

80

FACILITY

COMMERCIAL

COMMERCE

COMMERCE

LEISURE

COMMERCE

LEISURE

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

PUBLIC

FACILITY SERVICE SERVICE

COMMERCIAL COMMUNITY CENTER COMMERCIAL PUBLIC

FACILITY FACILITY

PUBLIC COMMUNITY CENTER

SERVICE SERVICE

9.00 + 27.00 + 9.00 + + 27.00 0.00 + 18.00 + 0.00 + + 18.00 9.00

COMMUNITY CENTER

PUBLIC COMMERCIAL

COMMUNITY CENTER COMMERCIAL

+ 9.00 + 0.00

+ 0.00


SECOND SKIN SECTIONAL MODEL

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

81


SECOND SKIN TYPOLOGY COMBINATION TYPE A

TYPE A

TYPE B

TYPE A

TYPE A

TYPE B

TYPE B

TYPE B

TYPE A

TYPE C

TYPE B

TYPE C

TYPE A

TYPE D

TYPE B

TYPE D

The physical and programatic characteristics of each line present unique opportunities for the combination of one line with another. The following table shows the various combinations types and the transition that occurs between them to meet the change in height and width

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE


TYPE C

TYPE A

TYPE D

TYPE A

TYPE C

TYPE B

TYPE D

TYPE B

TYPE C

TYPE C

TYPE D

TYPE C

TYPE C

TYPE D

TYPE D

TYPE D

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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SECOND SKIN AND URBAN TYPOLOGY PROGRAM SYNERGY

URBAN TYPE A High productivity related urban program: food process, package, storage etc.

PLAN CONNECTION

Transport food product

Pa

PACKAGE

SPINE

S

STORAGE

Pr

PROCESS

Obtain product

Pr

PROCESS

obtain raw material

A

SECOND SKIN A SECOND SKIN

LOOP

URBAN TYPE B Mid-high productivity related urban program: research, education and training center etc.

E

EDUCATION

T

Exchange

Work force

Coopertaion

R

RESEARCH

TRAINING

R

Experiment feedback

RESEARCH Test result

B

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN

OFFICE

URBAN TYPE C Mid-low productivity related urban program: commercial, office, service etc.

Communicate

O

S

NETWORK SERVICE Coopertaion

event

SERVICE

S

C

Leisure

COMMERCIAL Fresh food

C

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN

RESIDENTIAL

URBAN TYPE D Low productivity related urban program: residential, community center etc.

r

r social

RESIDENTIAL

r

work & leisure

fresh food

D SECOND SKIN

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LINEAR RESIDENTIAL

r

RESIDENTIAL

SECOND SKIN D

SECTIONAL CONNECTION


GENERAL URBAN CONDITION

INTRODUCING SECOND SKIN

ACTIVATING NEW URBAN SPACE

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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COMBINATION OF URBAN TYPOLOGIES URBAN TYPE A-B Transport food product

obtain product

Pr

Advanced technology technical support

Pa

URBAN TYPE B-A

R

obtain raw material

labour training Experiment feedback

E

B

R

R

A

B

Test result

Obtain raw material

SECOND SKIN B

URBAN TYPE A-C Transport food product

C

fresh food

communicate

obtain product

Pr

URBAN TYPE B-C

Cooperation Product sales

Pa

obtain raw material

O

bussiness management

A

E

Labour training

C

Test result

Bussiness Leisure

Communicate

R Experiment feedback

SECOND SKIN A

O

Work force

Cooperation

SECOND SKIN C

leisure

SECOND SKIN

B

SECOND SKIN B

URBAN TYPE B-D

Social

Labour training

Social

Pa

r

E

r

social

work & leisure obtain raw material

D

Coopertaion

SECOND SKIN D

r

A

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

Work & leisure Social

R Experiment feedback

SECOND SKIN A

86

SECOND SKIN C

Fresh food

Transport food product

Obtain product

C

C

URBAN TYPE A-D

Pr

SECOND SKIN A

Pr

Experiment feedback

SECOND SKIN A

Pr

Obtain raw material

Cooperation

SECOND SKIN B

Test result

A

Work force

Transport food product

Test result

D

SECOND SKIN D

r

B

Fresh food

SECOND SKIN B


URBAN TYPE C-A

URBAN TYPE D-A

Transport food product

O Communicate

C Leisure

Transport food product

Pa

Product sales Obtain product Bussiness management

A

SECOND SKIN A

Pr

C

Pa

r Social

Fresh food

r

Obtain raw material

A

Work & leisure

Pr

SECOND SKIN A

obtain raw material

D

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN D

URBAN TYPE C-B

URBAN TYPE D-B advanced technology

Advanced technology

O

Communicate

C Leisure

Business support Technology application

R R

r

Experiment feedback

B

SECOND SKIN B

Work & leisure

C

R

B

Social Fresh food

r

Test result

experiment feedback

R

test result

D

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN D

URBAN TYPE C-D

O Communicate

Work & leisure

C Leisure

Shopping

C

URBAN TYPE D-C

r

r Fresh food

Social

SECOND SKIN B

D

SECOND SKIN D

r

Work & leisure

Leisure

Event

Social

Shopping Fresh food

C

r SECOND SKIN C

O

Cooperation

C

SECOND SKIN C

Fresh food

D

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

SECOND SKIN D

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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COMBINATIONS APPLIED TO SITE GENERATES URBAN FABRIC

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN A

Applying the various combinations of the urban typology to the site results in an internal road structure that will help define the placement of the typologies.

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WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN A

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN B

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN D

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN C

SECOND SKIN D


DENSITY ANCHOR AND SECOND SKIN AS URBAN ATTRACTORS Cd1

Ca10

Plot Index

Cb4

C‐a6 C‐a7

Cd2 Cd3 A‐d1 A‐d2

Ab6 Ac5

Ac4

Ac6

Ab3

Ac2

Ac3

Ab1

Ac1

Aa2

Ac9

Aa4

Ad8

Bb6

Aa5

A‐a3 A‐a5

Setting Density

Bb4

Bb5

2 2 2 4

Bb10 Bb3

Bb12

2

2

4 2 2

4

4

4

4

4 4

4

4

Bb1

Ad7

4

4

4 4 4 4 4 4

4

Ba1

Ad5

A‐b5

C‐b4 C‐d2 A‐b6

A‐b2 A‐a1

Ad4

A‐b7 B‐b7

B‐b9

B‐b8

B‐b10

B‐a9 B‐a10

B‐a7 B‐a8

B‐b5 B‐b3 B‐b2 B‐a2 B‐a2 B‐a6 B‐a6 D‐b7 D‐b4 D‐b2

B‐b4 B‐b1 B‐a1 B‐a1 B‐a3 B‐a4 B‐a5 D‐b8 D‐b5 D‐b1

2

2

2 4 4 4 4

2 2 2 2

2

4 4 4

4 4 4

B‐b6

6 6

6 6

4 4 4 4 2

4 4

Ba3

2

D‐b6 D‐b6 D‐b3

Ba8

Db7

As the center of the comunity the Anchor defines a higher density around it and which transitions to a lower density as it reaches the adjacent villages and other urban fabric. A relational density model was used to determine the distribution of density on site.

6 6

2 2 2 2

6 6

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Relational Density

Ba9 Ba10

4

4 4 4

2.4 3.4

Ba6

6 6

2

Ba2

Ad2

WEAVE RETHINKING THE URBAN SURFACE

A‐b3

B‐b9 B‐b11 B‐b12

Bb2

Ba7

90

A‐a4

A‐b5

ab1 A‐a2

A‐a6

Bb8

Aa1

Bb11 Aa6

A‐b4

Bb7

Aa3

Ad9

Ad1

A‐c1

A‐c4 A‐c2

Bb9

Ac8

Ad3

A‐c5 A‐c3

C‐a9

C‐a3 C‐a2 C‐a1 C‐b1 C‐b3 C‐d1 C‐d3

Ab2

Ac7

Ad6

A‐d4

A‐d5

A‐c6 A‐c7 A‐d9 A‐d8

Ab7

Ab5

Ab4

A‐d3

A‐c9 A‐c8 A‐d6 A‐d7

C‐a10

C‐a4 C‐a5 C‐a8 C‐b2

3 2.8

3.4 3.2

2.8 2.6

3 2.6 3.4 3.6

3.2 2.4 2.8 3

2.8 3.4

2.8

3.2 4

3.2

4 4.4 4.8 4.8 4

6.6 7 4.8 5.2 4.8

4

5.2

3 3.7 4 4.5

2.8

2.4

2.6 2.2 2.1

3.6

2.8

1.9

5.4 5.4 2.8 3.2 3.2

2.4 2.4 2.8 3.4

4.2 2.8

5 3.4

1.7 1.7 2.1 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 2.4 1.7 2.4 2.3 1.8

2.2 2.9 6 6.3 3.6 2.7 2.1 1.3 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 1.9 2.9 5.9 5.9 2.8 2 1.8 2.6 5.5 5.1

1.8 1.7 1.5

1 1 1 1


SECOND SKIN AS URBAN ATTRACTOR JOINT

SECOND SKIN

DENSITY CONDITION SECOND SKIN

URBAN BLOCK

80%

100%

60%

40%

DENSITY TRANSITION

BOUNDARY CONDITION

FOREST

ROAD

BOUNDARY TRANSITION

The second skin itself also attracts a certain level of density to it, when we combine or overlap it with the density generated by the Anchor we are able to determine the final density distrbution for the site.

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DENSITY ADAPTATION URBAN FABRIC DEFORMED The development of the urban typology has focused primarily on the programatic relationship between the productivity of the second skin and types of activities that would be generated from them. Applying the morphology of the second skin and its density offset allows us to adapt the generic shape of the urban typology into a language that is in direct relationship to the second skin generating cohesion between the parts and their combinations. We will now takes this deformation and apply it to the site generating a new structure for the city.

URBAN FABRIC

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SECOND SKIN DENSITY OFFSET

DEFORMED URBAN FABRIC


ADAPTATION OF TYPOLOGIES

1. Initial industrial building layout

2. Second skin and its expansion

3. New activated urban space

4. Green system

STANDARD GRID

DEFORMED ADAPTATION

TH WALKING PA

COMMON SPACE GREENHOUSE

MANAGEMENT

STORAGE

FACILITY COLLECTION

N

PACKAGING OPE

VEGETATED SL

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PROCESSSING

DISTRIBUTIO


1. Initial research building layout

2. Second skin and its expansion

3. New activated urban space

4. Green system

STANDARD GRID

DEFORMED ADAPTATION

RESEARCH INSTITUTE

COMMON SPACE

GREENHOUSE WALKNG PATH

EDUCATION LABORATORY

COLLECTION

TECHNOLOGY CENTRE

Public slope

RE

TRAINING CENT

STORAGE CENTRAL PLAZA

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ADAPTATION OF TYPOLOGIES

1. Initial commercial building layout

2. Second skin and its expansion

3. New activated urban space

4. Green system

STANDARD GRID

DEFORMED ADAPTATION

HEADQUARTER

OFFICE

ROOF GARDEN SKYBRIDGE

WALKING PATH

RESTAURANT GREENHOUSE

CAFE DEPARTMENT

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STORE

SERVICE


1. Initial residential building layout

2. Second skin and its expansion

3. New activated urban space

4. Green system

STANDARD GRID

DEFORMED ADAPTATION

PLAYGROUND

WALKING PATH

RESIDENTIAL

ROOF GARDEN

FACILITY COURTYARD

COURTYARD

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URBAN PROPOSAL TYPOLOGIES APPLIED TO THE SITE Our Urban Proposal is a strategy. We took into consideration a “perfect scenario” in the development of the second skin, where everything is interconnected and works in harmony to generate a certain outcome. Given the modularity of the second skin and its various prototypes which can operate independently or as a whole, we see numerous outcomes apart from this proposal, each with the capacity to generate new and interesting relationships between the urban fabric the green infrastructure layer and the productive and socio economic surface of the second skin. While our project emerged out of the socio economic needs of the people of Mentougou and the environmental degradation of the site, the purpose of landscape urbanism is not to generate “remedies of fixes” (Corner 2004, 59). We are instead looking for opportunities in the various dynamics of Mentougou to find ways of implementing interventions that can serve as catalysts within the city, WEAVING the various layers to generate new possibilities for its future.

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INDUSTRY

RESEARCH

COMMERCIAL

RESIDENTIAL


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View of Anchor and Surrounding Urban Development

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Second Skin Engages with Village

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Plan Showing Residential and Office areas

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Second Skin Weaves Through Urban Space

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Levels Of Connectivity With The Second Skin

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Second Skin Engages With Rooftops Of Residential

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Second Skin Form Loops Around Research Courtyards

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View Of Multi-Level Bridges And Connections To The Second Skin

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View From Groundlevel Showing Access Ramps To Second Skin

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TECHNICAL REPORT

APPENDIX


SECOND SKIN - RELATIONSHIP TO ADJACENT URBAN The Second Skin establishes typical conditions in its adjacency to the surrounding Urban Development. The four typical conditions described previously in the development of the project are shown with their respective dimensions.

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Second Skin A

35.00

0 2.5 5

10.00

47.50

10

27.50

10.00

Second Skin B

0 2.5 5

27.50

10.00

Second Skin B

10.00

47.50

10

Second Skin A

INDUSTRY

Second Skin A

30.00

5.00

35.00

5.00

40.00 Second Skin C

10.00

COMMERCE

35.00

10.00

Second Skin B

27.50

20.00

10.00

40.00

10.00

Second Skin D 10.00

10.00

40.00

Second Skin C

Second Skin B

20.00

15.00

10.00

35.00

10.00

47.50

10.00

27.50

10.00

Second Skin D

10.00

47.50

RESEARCH

15.00

10.00

35.00

LEISURE 5.00

20.00

30.00

5.00

0 2.5 5

Second Skin C

Second Skin C

10.00

20.00

10

10.00

40.00

10.00

20.00

10.00

40.00

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ROAD NETWORK - TYPICAL WIDTHS The road network seperates the service and distribution circulation underground and the remaining traffice in narrow streets with bike lanes. The goal was to minimize traffice by encouraging pedestrian circulation through a dense and compact neighbourhood.

Roadways are made up of both surface roads with designated bike lanes and underground roads which form part of the distribution network of the second skin and access to underground parking.

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LEGEND MAIN ROAD

UNDERGROUND ROAD - MAIN

SECONDARY ROAD

UNDERGROUND ROAD - SECONDARY

TERTIARY ROAD

EXIT POINTS TO SURFACE

VILLAGE ROAD

UNDERGROUND PARKING


1.

9.00 20.00 20.00

1.

4.00

4.00

6.00

6.00

1.50

1.50

5.00

10 10 3.00 3.00

5.00

25.00 PRIMARY ROAD

PRIMARY ROAD

15.00

TERTIARY TERTIARY ROAD ROAD

9.00

1.50

3.00 3.00 6.00

4.00

9.00

1.50

1.50

4.00

1.50

SECONDARY ROAD

4.00

4.00

20.00 20.00

3.00 3.00

TERTIARY ROAD

1.501.50

MAIN ROAD

6.00 6.00 15.00

1.501.50

0 2.5 5 0 2.5 5

25.00

1.501.50

5.00

1.501.50

6.00

6.00

1.50

5.00

1.50

SECONDARY SECONDARY ROAD ROAD

SECONDARY ROAD

6.00

VILLAGE ROAD

ALLEY ALLEY

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FOREST NETWORK - TYPICAL WIDTHS The forest and drainage corridor structures the neighboorhood and provides connectivity to the adjacent villages and main forrest spine. Drainage is collected and it sereves as the guide for the location of the second skin.

Las Ramblas in Barcelona was used as a case study to determine the character and width of the forest within the urban fabric.

LEGEND

LEGEND

LEGE

MAIN ROAD

UNDERGROUND ROAD - MAIN

FOREST VALLEY

SECONDARY ROAD

UNDERGROUND ROAD - SECONDARY

FOREST CORRIDORS

TERTIARY ROAD

EXIT POINTS TO SURFACE

FOREST UNDER ROAD

VILLAGE ROAD

UNDERGROUND PARKING

PARKS SECOND SKIN

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LEGEND EXISTING DEVELOMENT


5.00

5.00

30.00

5.00

30.00

5.00 5.00

40.00

5.00

40.00

5.00 5.00

20.00

5.00

20.00

5.00

30.00 30.00

30.00

20.00

30.00

5.004.00

40.00

2.00 5.00

20.00

0 2.5 30.00

5.00 5

5.00

12.00

4.00

11.00

2.00

20.00

15.00

10

FOREST CORRIDORS

0 2.5 5

10

0 2.5 5

10

REFERENCE: LAS RAMBLAS (BARCELONA, SPAIN)

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WATER STORAGE - PIPE NETWORK The underground water storage network is made up of pipes which are located beneath the forest and drainage corridors. Runoff is collected as well as treated gray water, providing the required irrigation for the greenhouse system.

Products such as Rigistorm LEGEND XL were researched to determine MAIN ROAD capacity for storage and diameter of pipes in our storage network SECONDARY ROAD

LEGEND

LEGEND

UNDERGROUND ROAD - MAIN

FOREST VALLEY

STORAGE PIPE

UNDERGROUND ROAD - SECONDARY

FOREST CORRIDORS

FOREST NETWORK

TERTIARY ROAD

EXIT POINTS TO SURFACE

FOREST UNDER ROAD

SECOND SKIN

VILLAGE ROAD

UNDERGROUND PARKING

PARKS SECOND SKIN

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LEGEND EXISTING DEVELOMENT


STORAGE CAPACITY

STORAGE CAPACITY

2098 m length x 2m dia

1181 m length x 2m dia

14835 cu.m

8351 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

STORAGE CAPACITY

2162 m length x 3m dia

1928 m length x 2m dia

15288 cu.m

13633 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

2564 m length x 3m dia

18131 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

2798 m length x 2m dia

19785 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

2471 m length x 3m dia

17473 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

1677 m length x 2m dia

STORAGE CAPACITY

11858 cu.m

2250 m length x 3m dia

15910 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

2264 m length x 3m dia

STORAGE CAPACITY

2117 m length x 3m dia

16009 cu.m

STORAGE CAPACITY

2276 m length x 3m dia

16094 cu.m

14970 cu.m

LEGEND ANCHOR NEIGHBOURHOO BOUNDARY EXISTING URBAN

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REFERENCES DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TEXT Abel, C., (2010) The Vertical Garden City: Towards a New Urban Topology. [Electronic] CTBUH Journal Issue II. [08 September 2012] Ackerman, K. (2012). The Potential for Urban Agriculture in New York City: Growing Capacity, Food Security, & Green Infrastructure. [Electronic] Urban Design Lab, The Earth Institute Columbia University. [Accessed 15 May 2012] Anon (2011) Beijing steelmaker halts production to cut pollution. [Online] Available at China.org.cn http://www. china.org.cn/business/2011-01/13/content_21731198.htm [08 June 2012]

Harumi, O., (2008) Tokyo - Rooftop and underground urban farming lures young Japanese office workers. [Online] City Farmer News, Available at: http://www.cityfarmer. info/2008/11/10/tokyo-rooftop-and-undergroundurban-farming-lures-young-japanese-office-workers/ [10 September 2012] He, Shi., 2008. Yongding River in Mentougou District, Translated from Chinese by Ross M. and Li, F. Bejing Water oral History No. 5. [Electronic] http://journal.probeinternational.org/2010/01/01/oral-history-yongding-river-inmentougou-district/

Anon, (2012) [Online] Brooklyn Grange, Available at: www.brooklyngrangefarm.com [08 September, 2012]

Jing, L., (2009) Mentougou going from nitty gritty to gorgeous green. [Online] China Daily, Available at: http:// www.chinadaily.com.cn/bw/2009-02/09/content_7455306. htm [08 May 2012]

Bright Farms. Sunset Park, Brooklyn. [online] Available At: http://brightfarms.com/projects/sunset-park-brooklyn [Accessed 10 May 2012]

La Farge, A., Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s that building? [Online] Available at: http://www.livinthehighline.com/buildings/ [10 September 2012]

Caplow T. et.al. (2007) Building-integrated greenhouse systems for low energy cooling. [Electronic] New York Sun Works. [Accessed 08 May 2012]

Meinhold, B., (2011) Mentougou: Eriksson Architects Unveils Geodesic Eco Valley for China. [Electronic] Inhabitat, Available at: http://inhabitat.com/mentougou-eriksson-architects-unveils-geodesic-gemstone-eco-valley-for-china/ [08 February 2012]

Castro, E. et.al. Project Brief - MA Programme 2011-12 Student Course Guide - Architectural Association - School of Architecture Landscape Urbanism page 32 Corner, J., (2003) Landscape Urbanism. In: Mostafavi, M. ed. Landscape Urbanism: A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. London: AA Print Studio. DeFreitas, S., (2012) Urban Farming In New York Is On The Up, Thanks To Groups Like Brooklyn Grange. [Online] Huffingtonpost, Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost. com/2012/07/25/urban-farming-new-york-brooklyngrange_n_1702175.html [08 September 2012] Dr. Despommier, D., (2010) The Vertical Farm. New York, Picador. Foderaro, L.W. (2012) Huge Rooftop Farm is Set for Brooklyn. [online] New York Times. Available at: http://www. nytimes.com/2012/04/06/nyregion/rooftop-greenhousewill-boost-city-farming.html [Accessed 11 May 2012]

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Melet, E. and Vreedenburgh, E., (2005) . Rooftop Architecture: Building on an elevated surface. Rotterdam, NAi Publishers Mentougou, China. [Online] Wikipedia, Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentougou_District [04 July 2012] Mohsen, M., (2003) Landscape as Urbanism. In: Mostafavi, M. ed. Landscape Urbanism: A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. London: AA Print Studio. Mougeot, Luc J.A (2006) Growing better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre

Needham (2011) Exhibition of Chinese farming culture cum Mentougou District cultural resources [Online] Inside China, Available at: http://insidechina.onehotspots. com/exhibition-of-chinese-farm-culturecum-mentougoudistrict-cultureresources/41764/ [12 August 2012] Nowalk, M. (2004) Urban Agriculture on the Rooftop. [Electronic] Cornell University. [Accessed 09 May 2012] Puro, R. (2011) Startup Profile: Sustainable Agriculture: Coming Soon to a Supermarket Rooftop Near You! [online] Seedstock. Available at: http://seedstock.com/2011/05/06/ sustainable-agriculture-market-roofto/ [Accessed 12 May 2012] Shane, G.D., (2003) The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism: Reflections on Stalking Detroit. [Electronic] Harvard Design Magazine. [04 May 2012] Shane, G.D, (2006) The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism. In: Waldheim, C., ed. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Steel, C. (2008) Hungry City How Food Shapes our Lives. London: Vintage Viljoen, A., (2005) Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes. New York, Architectural Press. Xinhuanet. (2007) Shougang Confirms Plant Closure for Olympics. [Online] Available at: http://en.beijing2008. cn/76/95/article214079576.shtml [08 September 2012].


IMAGES ManWith Suitcase: China’s urban explosion: A 21st century challenge http://articles.cnn.com/2012-01-20/ asia/world_asia_china-florcruz-urban-growth_1_hukouurban-population-rural-population?_s=PM:ASIA ShougangSteelFactory: The abandoned Old Beijing Shougang Steel Company Site http://www.skyscrapercity.com/ showthread.php?p=80327692 Mountain of coal: Mountains of unsold coal are heaped along a roadside near a closed colliery pit in Fangshan district. ZOU HONG/ CHINA DAILY http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-08/25/content_15705033.htm Image of Steel: James Hardy - AltoPress. Steel worker China http://www.colourbox.com/image/james-hardyaltopress-maxppp-steel-worker-using-industrial-transferladle-image-1618866 Lifestyle and editorial photography - Chinese market man selling onion and ginger http://la76.photoshelter.com/image/I0000Qxs9rngEBYY ---Burj Dubai, now Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest tower, in the Gulf emirate on January 3, 2010. ©AFP PHOTO/ KARIM SAHIB http://www.herworldplus.com/travel/updates/chinaplans-s-1-7bn-seven-star-hotel 2 images: Eco-city by Eriksson Architects in China, a shift from the ordinary http://www.designlaunches.com/building/eco-city-by-eriksson-architects-in-china-a-shift-from-the-ordinary.php Maglev train coming out of the Pudong International Airport in Shanghai http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Maglev_Train Ariel Schwartz (2010) China Developing Traffic-Straddling Bus That Drives Over Cars | Inhabitat - Sustainable Design Innovation, Eco Architecture, Green Building http://inhabitat.com/china-developing-traffic-straddlingbus-that-drives-over-cars/

Joseph A. Hardy Connellsville Airport Charter Flights and Air Charter Service http://www.internationalaircharter.com/airports/pennsylvania/connellsville/joseph-a-hardy-connellsville-airport/ ap21342/

The internationally unique, 600m long temperature controlled pipe test loop facility at the University of Sheffield http://www.shef.ac.uk/research/impact/stories/fce/14

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GreenStructure: Dock de Paris/ Jakob + MacFarlane http:// www.archdaily.com/21151/docks-de-paris-jakob-macfarlane/

Michael J. Coren (2012) Lufa Farms. Office buildings add cash crops to their balance sheet http://www.cityfarmer.info/2012/07/08/

teacherwithwoman: Chinas first textbook on elderly care. http://www.hongkongbankfoundation.org/1/2/foundation/cn_prog/cn_photo

This roof garden in China is owned by Shell Oil, Nanhai. http://inspirationgreen.com/urban-ag.html?start=20

highline-complexbridges: highline003_lg mankey.eu/?attachment_id=6160

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lufa-farms greenhouse: Montreal project boasts world’s first commercial scale rooftop greenhouse http://professionalgardening.com/news/montreal-project-boastsworld-s-first-commercial-scale-rooftop-greenhouse

Photographer Alex Maclean (2012) ‘Up on The Roof: New York’s Hidden Skyline Spaces’ http://hungeree.com/tag/alex-maclean/ --Photographer Alex Maclean (2012) ‘Up on The Roof: New York’s Hidden Skyline Spaces’ http://hungeree.com/tag/alex-maclean/

http://www.

--Bangkok night - bangkok night - http://www.phombo. com/art-photography/high-dynamic-range-hdr-photography-wallpapers/319711/full/popular/

Sunset Park Exterior - http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/ united-states/worlds-largest-rooftop-farm-set-for-brooklyn-215663.html --HighLine Window http://benedante.blogspot. co.uk/2011/12/high-line-or-what-big-government-is-for. html Promenade Plantee - http://betterbike.org/2011/05/policyopportunity-arises/ Cronenberg1978 (2012)- Bangkok http://www.flickr.com/ photos/76267466@N08/7393913270/ manhattan rooftops - Stephen Hanafin/ “Midtown Manhattan from Empire State Building” http://www.flickr. com/photos/shanafin/398874482/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 04/09/12

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CHAPTER 2 - PROJECT DEVELOPMENT TEXT *Abel, C., (2010) The Vertical Garden City: Towards a New Urban Topology. [Electronic] CTBUH Journal Issue II. [08 September 2012]

Hargreaves. Guadalupe River Park. [Online] Available at: http://www.hargreaves.com/projects/PublicParks/GuadalupeRiverPark/ [03 September 2012]

Anon, (2012) Beijing floods: Death toll climbs to 77. [Online] BBC News Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-asia-china-19002080 [07 September 2012]

Lerner, J., (2003) Acupuntura Urbana. [Electronic] IaaC [24 April 2012]

Anon (2008). New Terrain for the North Lake Region of Chongming Island. [Online] ASLA 2008 Professional Awards, Available at: http://www.asla.org/ awards/2008/08winners/108.html [08 September 2012] Blanco, C., et.al. (2009) Urban Transformation in Slum Districts Through Public Space Generation and Cable Transportation at Northeastern Area: Medellin, Colombia. [Electronic] The Journal of International Social Research Volume 2/8 [29 April 2012]

Lubow, Arthur (2007) The Road to Curitiba. [Online] The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/05/20/magazine/20Curitiba-t.html [02 May 2012] Meyer, D. (2009) Biochar - A Survey. [Electronic] Tampere University of Technology. [Accessed 08 May 2012] Mohsen, M., (2003) Landscape as Urbanism. In: Mostafavi, M. ed. Landscape Urbanism: A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. London: AA Print Studio.

Blanco, C. et.al. (2009) Only the Best is Good Enough, Urban Integration of an Informal Area, Medellin, Colombia. [Electronic] Global Holcim Awards Finalist 2009, 162-169 [01 May 2012]

Mossop, E. (2006). Landscape of Infrastructure; The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Princeton Architectural Press. , p165

Bond, M., (2003) Principles of Wildlife Corridor Design. [Electronic] Center for Biological Diversity [03 July 2012]

Nan, X., (2012) Beijing floods: not enough prevention. [Online] theguardian, Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/jul/25/flooding-china [09 September 2012]

*Corner, J. (2001) Landscraping. In: Daskalakis, G. et.,al ed. Stalking Detroit. Barcelona, ACTAR. Corner, J., (2003). Landscape Urbanism. Landscape urbanism : a manual for the machinic landscape. Architectural Association. Davila, D.J., et.al. (2011) Poverty, Participation and Aerial Cable-Cars: A Case Study of Medellin. [Electronic] 12th NAERUS Annual Conference ‘The City at a human scale’ [12 April 2012] *Dr. Despommier, D., (2010) The Vertical Farm. New York, Picador.

Nederhoff, E. (2005) Co-generation or combined heat & power (CHP). [Electronic] Grower - Energy in greenhouses - part 27, p. 42-43. [Accessed 11 May 2012] Poole, K., (1998). Civitas Oecolgie: Civic Infrastructure in the Ecological City. Harvard Architecture Review: 131. Princeton Architectural Press. Port, T. (2009) Biochar - Turning Garbage into Environmental Gold. [Online] Available at: http://voices.yahoo. com/biochar-turning-garbage-into-environmentalgold-3830036.html?cat=7 [Accessed 13 May 2012

Farr, D., (2008) Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rabinovitch, J., et.al. (1995) A Sustainable Urban Transportation System: The “Surface Metro” in Curitiba, Brazil. [Electronic] The Environmental and Natural Resources Policy and Training Project [02 May 2012]

Gandy, M., (2006). Landscape and Infrastructure in the Late-Modern Metropolis. The New Blackwell Companion to the City. Wiley-Blackwell. , p58

Shannon, K., (2010) The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure. Nai Publishers.

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Shane, G.D.,(2011) Urban Design Since 1945 – A Global Perspective. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Waldheim, C., (2006) Landscape as Urbanism. In: Waldheim, C. ed. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

IMAGES Man Installing Polystorm Lite Modular Cell http://www. theconstructionindex.co.uk/news/view/polypipe-civilsachieves-bba-approval-for-its-polystorm-lite-modular-cell Polystorm Xtra - http://www.theconstructionindex.co.uk/ news/view/polypipe-wms-value-engineers-heavy-dutymodular-cell-solution-for-new-school-project Chinese Well, Independent Ancestral Hall- http://www. visitourchina.com/guide/yuchang_building.htm Ancient Well - B&W Image: http://heyuan.cn/ xw/20120411/65411.htm Children at Well - http://club.china.com/data/ thread/1011/2743/97/71/8_1.html FlettA, D., (2009) Wuppertal Monorail -http://www.flickr. com/photos/9003948@N05/3888145974/ Elevated Tram Line - http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/ bankology/Recent Curitiba Buses - http://myownsystem.blogspot. co.uk/2012/03/5-kota-paling-hijau-di-dunia.html Medellin - http://gregmccausland.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/ medellin-metro.html basketbar - NLArchitects - http://architettura.it/architetture/20031018/index_en.htm lufa-farms greenhouse: Montreal project boasts world’s first commercial scale rooftop greenhouse http://professionalgardening.com/news/montreal-project-boastsworld-s-first-commercial-scale-rooftop-greenhouse


APPENDIX - TECHNICAL REPORT IMAGES woman rooftop farming - http://www.joshuafoss.com/ Richard, L. Rooftop Architecture by Alfred Munkenbeck, Paxton Locher Refurbishment. Available at: http://www. yelp.co.uk/biz_photos/NpB5MaFy0OgwxsgJWjvGBg?sel ect=5XIJCExdeYqYzphXhcqQ2Q#5XIJCExdeYqYzphXh cqQ2Q green street planters - http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/ greeninfrastructure/index.cfm VertiCrop System - http://sigalonenvironment.soup.io/ tag/Big%20Green?since=36296078 food factory - http://www.charliefawell.com/sections/1animate/subsections/4-on-the-production-line/ monographs/71-food-factory/images/463-food-factory-1

bike and road - http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/ index.ssf/2008/04/bicycle_friendly_portland_work.html Road Tunnel - http://www.allaboutsh.com/Transportation/FXRTunnel.php Las Ramblas - http://www.destination360.com/europe/ spain/barcelona/la-rambla rigistorm pipe - http://www.polypipe.com/civils/casestudies-article?id=4ee66b60321b2a5147000000 rigistorm installation - http://www.theconstructionindex. co.uk/news/view/turbo-installation-for-ridgistorm-xl

bright farms greenhouse - http://www.ecosox.com/apps/ blog/entries/show/14037880-brightfarms-to-create-rooftop-greenhouse-in-brooklyn agronomist - http://science-girl-thing.eu/jobs/agronomist Bright Farms - Sunset Park Greenhouse - http://renewcanada.net/2012/rooftop-farm-the-model-for-urbanagriculture/ urban farming: roof garden china owned by Shell Nanhai http://inspirationgreen.com/urban-ag.html farmers market http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ballard_ Farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;_Market_-_vegetables.jpg

DAVID WITTE, DU CHEN

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 11/12

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AA Landscape Urbanism: Weave, rethinking the urban surface  

Weave is the design thesis by David Witte and Du Chen within the Architectural Association Landscape Urbanism programme Master. The project...

AA Landscape Urbanism: Weave, rethinking the urban surface  

Weave is the design thesis by David Witte and Du Chen within the Architectural Association Landscape Urbanism programme Master. The project...

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