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Intertidal Mediations

Jimmy Ta Yaxin Zhao Kai Zhu Architectural Association MSc Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Negotiating Nautical Territories


Google Earth Satellite Image Altered by J. Ta




Intertidal Mediations Negotiating Nautical Territories

Jimmy Ta Yaxin Zhao Kai Zhu

Directors Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Studio Master Clara Oloriz History and Theory Tutor Douglas Spencer Technical Tutors Andrew Barkwith Claudio Campanile Elena Longhin Giancarlo Torpiano Gustavo Romanillos Vincenzo Reale Acknowledgements

Thank you to the Landscsape Urbanism tutors and AA staff. In addition, we thank all collaborators, family, and friends who supported us through out the year: Plymouth University | Gillean Glegg Gregorio Iglesias Jon Miles Olivia Wilson Plymouth Fisheries | Mark Heslop Family and Significant Other | Ann Truong Ta, Zhao, Zhu Family

Architectural Association School of Architecture Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018


Abstract The project focuses on the Tamar Estuary, located in Plymouth, a coastal community south west of England that strives for marine tourism. In response to marine tourism, Plymouth intends to expand its primary industry by proposing a national marine park. However, the existing fishing industry is slowly being forgotten by absence of a developed marine spatial planning and a lack of space along the coastline. Intertidal mediations examine the development of coastal communities, cities located along the coast, in the United Kingdom. Many of these cities have a primary mode of production such as marine tourism, fishing, wind farming, agriculture, etc. As the coastal communities develop, natural resources are exploited through the means of mode of production (Cosgrove 52). However, the exploitation of natural resources, in this case the sea and coastline, provides a conflict between the different actors, creating competition for marine real estate. The marine resource in the United Kingdom are competed for along the coastline. There is a disproportion of coastal ownership and development. Disproportion of coastal economies are due to the lack of a developed coastal and marine spatial planning. Many of these communities are focusing on primary mode of production without the alternative means of economic balance. The project looks specifically at the intertidal areas in Plymouth, which provides an opportunity to expand into other industries while accommodating for the existing fishing community and a future national marine park. The research looks at redefining marine management by informing a design policy that influences the decision making of today’s marine spatial planning. Through various tests, the project looks at physical and digital techniques that informs a diverse landscape that allows for diverse economic prosperity. Through the role of a designer, the deployed techniques include interactive mapping and physical low tide simulation model to assist design decision internally, but not limited to internal use. Through careful case studies, the project seeks to utilize structures at the architectural scale to better inform the development of diverse marine use at the intertidal areas within Plymouth. This scale can be extrapolated at multiple scales to better inform decision making amongst the local actors. Through various scenarios, the project works through the variable of time: economic fluctuations, constant changing of tides, sediment accumulation and eroding processes.


01

Contextual Boundaries

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02

Competitive Quay

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Intertidal Composition

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03 04

Prologue Fish for Thought Maritime Limits New Economic Foundation Social Formation Britain’s Ocean City Plymouth Fisheries First National Marine Park Marine Spatial Planning Conflicting Nautical Quays Geomorphology

Historical Development Coastal Environment Tamar Estuary Ecology

Nautical Translocation

Territorial Formation

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Furher Quay Development New Economic Foundation Inform Design Policy Case Study | Tollesbury Fish Production Vessel Storage

05 06 07

Digital Articulation

Technical Report

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Nautical Negotiation Creek Environment Simulation Physical Creek Simulation

Tributary Agglomerations 102

Cartogenesis

Millbrook Intertidal Areas Existing Intertidal Estuary and Potential Model Explorations Tide Conditions Tributary Recongfigurations

Collective Creek Formations

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Manufactured Grounds

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Techtonic Manipulations Evaluation of Territory Vertical Materiality Vertical Sequence and Archetypes Evolutionary Scenarios Intersecting Archetypal Grounds

Adaptive Nautical Management Cartogenesis Epilogue Figures List Works Cited Contact Information

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Contextual Marine Politics Fish for Thought

01

<Plymouth Fisheries> United Kingdom Plymouth

Maritime Limits <Lack of Marine Management> United Kingdom

New Economic Foundation <The Blue New Deal> United Kingdom

Conflicting Interests

Existing and Projected Conditions Competitive Quay

02

<Social Formation> Plymouth

How is it impacting the physical conditions?

Intertidal Composition

03

<Geomorphology>

Digital Methods

Tamar Estuary

Future Scenario | Lack of Management

Nautical Translocation

04

<Territorial Formation> Plymouth

Develop understanding of site conditions in various scenarios

Social Conflict

05

Digital Articulation <Technical Report>

Intertidal Mediations

Dynamic Tool Development | Negotiating between different actors

Redefine a role of a Designer | Marine Management at varying scales and time constraints

8 Drawing by J. Ta


Design Methodology Process and Reflections Varying Scales

In the diagram below, the project examines the existing conditions of Plymouth and its surrounding context. In contextual boundaries, the chapter 1 explores the limitations of Plymouth fisheries, marine management, and New Economic Foundation. By understanding the wider contextual influences in the United Kingdom, Plymouth is affected by the existing and projected site conditions, seen in chapter 2 to 4. The project then explore digital techniques to negotiate among the stakeholders in chapter 5, familiarize with existing creek formations and utilize creek formations in chapter 6, develop along creek formations in chapter 7, and deploy technique at multiple scales in chapter 8. This process is a way of redefining a role of a designer to take decisions at a top down approach.

Site Specifics 06 Tributary Agglomerations

Site Selection | Actor Negotiations

<Cartogenesis> Millbrook Creek

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Collective Creek Formations <Manufactured Grounds> Tidal Creek

Extrapolate to Multiple Scales | Inform Design Policy

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Adaptive Nautical Management <Cartogenesis> Tamar Estuary

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Materialize Formations | Architectural Scale

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Contextual Boundaries

Intertidal Mediations

Prologue


01| Contextual Boundaries The project examines the existing economic opportunities and management in Plymouth, United Kingdom. Plymouth, claims to be Britain’s Ocean city, celebrates its marine heritage with many marine activities ranging from marine recreational activities to local fisheries. The city thrives on the varying economies, primarily in marine tourism. Although with the city’s success in marine tourism, the city and as a country currently lacks a developed marine spatial management, equivalent to spatial planning for land. By lacking the ability to manage the city’s sea and coastal areas, the city plans to propose a national marine park, discussed in chapter 2, thus relying on a primary economy without relying on alternative economies. Additionally, the project works with a non-profit organization, New Economic Foundation, examining the need for a diverse economy to allow for coastal communities to be resilient by balancing the varying mode of production. As seen in the drawing above, the existing fishing industry plays a big role within the community and the interaction along the English Channel as a natural resource.

Drawing by J. Ta | Plymouth Fisheries Photograph by J. Ta | Sutton Harbour 2018

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Prologue

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Fish for Thought Plymouth Fisheries | Main Hub Plymouth

Plymouth plays a big role in the fishing business within the United Kingdom. This is an underappreciated industry and the United Kingdom takes a big role in this economy. Since Plymouth is the main fish market hub in the south west, the city supplies fish throughout the entire UK. This will be further discussed in chapter 2. Fish is important the United Kingdom. In the larger scale of the fishing industry, more than half of the fish in the United Kingdom are exported outside of the country. While most UK consumed fish are imported mostly from the European Union. The global economy plays a role in the territory it faces with the fishing policies and maritime boundary limits (Carpenter 4). As the mode of fish production increases, the economy plays a role in shaping the territoriality of the economic sea boundaries (Elden 800). Through capitalistic interests, nautical boundaries are drawn to define where fishermen can go. The fishing industry is a complex system with different quotas for each fish and different exclusive economic zones. Most of the fish caught in the United Kingdom exported to a foreign country, approximately 76% (Carpenter 4). Since the seas have economic exclusive zones, EEZ, fishermen throughout Europe and United Kingdom fish in the same EEZ and 12 nautical mile sea limit boundary. By allowing the fish vessels to catch seafood in the same boundaries, European Union and United Kingdom are able to share the allowable catches by trading amongst each other(Carpenter 18). However, Brexit plays a role of gaining British seas all for themselves. This notion of British seas lead to a surplus of fish since Britain does not have enough existing fish infrastructure to process all fish for trade. This stems into negotiating territorial seas between European Union and the United Kingdom. The imports and exports are currently exhibiting insufficient middlemen management in the fishery business. The territorial sea conditions begin to influence the supply and demand of the market, thus creating inefficient movement of fish from one facility to another.

[Figure 1.1 - Plymouth Fisheries Website]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 1.2 - Plymouth Fish Market]

Photograph by J. Ta | Fish Equipment

12 Drawing by J. Ta


Meters

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Fish for Thought

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Maritime Limits Lack of Marine Management United Kingdom

Currently, marine spatial planning is in the beginning phase of development in the United Kingdom. There is a lack sea planning strategy that rivals the equivalent land planning. As of now, marine spatial planning is composed of layered geospatial data. The database is static and does not respond well to a changing landscape. As shown in the drawing to the right, marine spatial planning is zoned in arbitrary drawn lines without considering the fluidity of the marine landscape. A need for a better marine plan is discussed in chapter 2. With the lack of marine management, there tends to be a disproportion in economic development in marine areas.

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 1.3 - Government Website/Marine Planning]

[Figure 1.4 - Marine Management/Marine Spatial Planning]

14 Drawing by K. Zhu


North East Offshore

North East Inshore

East Offshore East Inshore

South East Inshore

South Inshore

South Offshore South West Inshore

South West Offshore


New Economic Foundation The Blue New Deal United Kingdom

The project further coordinates with a non-profit organization, New Economic Foundation, to develop a more resilient coastal community. Many coastal communities rely on a primary economic strategy, which lends itself to instability and unhealthy local economy (Belata 9). The team coordinated with the organization to understand the importance of a diverse economy and understand the need of stakeholders. Various stakeholders are left forgotten due to the incremental development of coastal communities, such as local fishers in East Sussex, Graham’s story to build a better coastal community (Belata 32). The New Economic Foundation advocates for small actors to provide a resilient community, allowing for communities to retain economic alternatives. In relevance to Plymouth, New Economic Foundation and a diverse economy is further discussed in chapter 4.

[Figure 1.5 - Blue New Deal website]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 1.6 - Flamborough Head No Take Zone]

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[Figure 1.7 - Medway Estuary Fishery Management]


[Figure 1.8 - Fisheries management NEF website]

[Figure 1.10 - Fishers lead management NEF website]

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[Figure 1.9 - Coastal Communities NEF website]

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Competive Quay Social Formation

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02| Competitive Quay This chapter looks at Plymouth, Britain’s Ocean City. The city prides itself on its marine activities. However, existing conflict occurs in the coastal areas of Plymouth, especially in the Sutton Harbour. In the map to the left, there is a conflicting interest with the marine tourism outnumbering other harbour uses. This indicates a high concentration of marine tourism economy, with little interest in other industries. The fishing community feels constrained and without further room to grow. This is problematic to Plymouth because the city is not diversifying its economic portfolio. Chapter 4 further discusses the negative impacts relying on one primary marine industry in the Blue New Deal. Additionally, this chapter further discusses the plans Plymouth is proposing in the future in celebration of its marine heritage and marine management.

Drawing by J. Ta Drawing by K. Zhu | Marine Management

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Social Formation

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Britain’s Ocean City Development along the coast line Plymouth

£218m - Marine Tourism

£13.5m - Fish Industry

Photograph by K. Zhu | Retail development

Intertidal Mediations

Photograph by K. Zhu | Fishers Dock

Photograph by K. Zhu | Yacht Harbour

20 Drawing by J. Ta - Zoom In

As one of the most port cities in the UK, Plymouth has the most major economies spreading along the central coastline. Marine related businesses thrive around the major harbours supporting thousands of local employment opportunities. According to research and report, the marine tourism has pumped £28 million into the local economy while £13.5 million come from fishery industry (Plymouth City Council 78). As for now, there are many commercial and retail business present in the city coast and recreation activities comes along with the fishing community. Most of the revenue source from recreational activities includes kayaking, boating, kiteboarding and yachting.



Plymouth Fisheries Main fish market hub located southwest of England Sutton Harbour

Intertidal Mediations

According to the research, Plymouth Fisheries stand as the second biggest fish market in England within the Sutton Harbour, one of the most historic harbor in the city, and it has provided around 560 fishery jobs out of 770 jobs and generated ÂŁ28 million a year for the local economy (Plymouth City Council 78). However compare with the amount the revenue generated in the harbour, the marina portion contribute much less jobs and profit than the fisheries while it took over majority parts of the harbour space. As seen in the image below, Plymouth fishing community is located in the red, where fishing community is limited 23 boats within 400 recreational boats. There is a lack of space for the fishermen in Sutton Harbour.

Google Earth Satellite Image

22 Drawing by J. Ta


Plymouth Fisheries


First National Marine Park United Kingdom’s first national marine park Plymouth

Since 2013, the idea of creating the first National Marine Park in Plymouth area has been brought up in several marine conferences. Last year, the newly dominated Members Parliament Luke Pollard has pushed this concept into a much more realization. Besides the protection of recreational use and ecological habitat, the marine park is about boosting its tourism economy and trying to attract more investors into the new development. However, questions rise against this concept as a marketing tool for the tourism business in particular while neglected the lack of voice in fishery business, which could bring the conflict between the two over the use of water and space. The idea is still undergoing its definition as a unique marine park for Plymouth, whether it is about the protection and promotion for the recreation activities or the re-configuration and development of the boat parking facilities. United Kingdom currently do not have a single designated national marine park. What does a national marine park mean? National marine parks give this impression of a positive effect to a community and benefit marine areas environmentally. However, a national marine park is not the case of providing environmental protection. The notion of a national marine park is the celebration of marine activities, thus protecting the interest of economic prosperity and marine tourism such as marine recreation and leisurely angling and fishing (Rutgar). At first glance, the notion of marine parks provides the notion of marine conservation, but it is quite different from a no-take zone, marine reserves, or special protection areas. In the case of marine parks, not all marine parks are created. For example, Plymouth in United Kingdom currently have various type of special interest groups and different protection zones (Marine protected Areas in the UK). Not all protection areas are created equal. The designated no-take zones in the United Kingdom are located at specific locations (Mzgoulton).

Intertidal Mediations

[ Figure 2.1 - First National Marine Park - Website]

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Photograph by K. Zhu | Interview

“The city is looking for a boost in the economy. Tourism is one of the sectors. There is the fishing community, but they are a small group.� Interviewee: Olivia Wilson | Spatial Planning, Plymouth University


Marine Park

Row Boat

Scuba Dive

Yacht

[ Figure 2.2 - Scuba Diving] Water Ski

Jet Ski

Kayak [ Figure 2.3 - Yacht Acitivity] [ Figure 2.4 - Waterskiing]

Marine Parking

Boating Activities

Photograph by Y. Zhao | Plymouth Sound 2018

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[ Figure 2.5 - Monaco Marina]

25 Drawing by K. Zhu


Primary Coastal Industries Marine Spatial Atlas

NTS

Meters

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Existing Coastal Industry

Marine Spatial Planning Boundary


Marine Spatial Planning Upcoming Planning for the Sea United Kingdom

What is marine spatial planning? It is a policy discipline. In order to plan and regulate all human uses of the sea, EU commences a process that could gather all stakeholders together and coordinate among each other to make a collaborated decision on the application of marine resources. And right now UK is in the beginning stages of preparing a marine spatial planning. According to Marine Experts, the discussion of the planning would be on how a marine plan is needed for managing a Marine Park. As mentioned in earlier section, the current performance of marine management is not ideal. However, there are criticism rose against Marine Planning as a static map of large-scale land use blocks. With the simple and cruel delineation, the UK Sea is cut into several big chunks by its relative distance to the land (inshore/offshore) without any propositional suggestions. This act seems more in favor of protection over action.

“National parks are not for conservation of ecosystems or it’s not preservation of lifestyles, but it is celebrating things about those areas with recreation. We need marine planning for the sea, similarly to spatial planning for land.” Interviewee: Gillian Glegg | Head of Marine Sciences, Plymouth University

Photograph by Y. Zhao | Interview

Description by J. Ta

Drawing by Y. Zhao Photograph by Y. Zhao | Sutton Harbour

Marine Spatial Planning

• One city or Region

• Static mapping

• Similar to National Parks on land i.e. Lake District or Grand Canyon

• Composed of geospatial data without design decision

• Tend to attract tourism

• More about protection and less about proposition

• Tend to become a way of advetisement

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Marine Park

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Conflicting Nautical Quays Fisher Community Lash Back Plymouth

As mention earlier in the case of Sutton Harbour, where majority of the docking space were dedicated to marina, fisher community in the area felt intimidated by the idea of Marine Park that promotes more tourism economic growth. Although the fishing community brings 13 million pounds per year to Plymouth economy and also provide fish throughout the entire UK, Marine Park would still pushing out the fishery business gradually and forcing Plymouth Fisheries to further relocate and lose its economic importance that built-up over many generations. The fisher community does not want that to happen because eventually with the growth of tourism economy under the promotion of Marine Park, fishers would have nowhere else to dock their boats. Therefore, with the feeling of left out in the future economy, fishermen raised protests in the city to advocate for their importance in Plymouth harbours. Currently, there are many ongoing protests and backlashes from the fishing communities and complains are associated with the lack of boating spaces for fishers to stay.

[ Figure 2.6 - Fishers Protest, Website]

Intertidal Mediations

[ Figure 2.7 - Plymouth Sound Fisher Protesters]

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[ Figure 2.8 - Fishers Flare with Smoke]


“Plymouth fish market is the main hub. Plymouth contributes to the local fishermen throughout the south west of England.” Interviewee: Mark Heslop |Plymouth Trawler Agents Limited

[ Figure 2.6 - Plymouth Fisheries]

Photograph by Y. Zhao | Boating Facility

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Photograph by Y. Zhao | Plymouth Fisheries

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Intertidal Composition Geomorphology

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03| Intertidal Composition In order to find a way to intervene the site and construct new landscape typology for the future economy of Plymouth, the natural formation of the estuarine environment needs to be well comprehended and integrated into the later design strategy. By carefully examining the built environment of the coast line and study the intertidal movement in the mudflat area along the entire estuary, the group were able to identify the essential forces that alters and shapes the land. Besides the nature, historical human settlement and infrastructure also reshapes the boundaries of the coastline and gradually change the composition of sediment placement and distribution over decades. All those traits are particularly intriguing for the group to further move on and speculations about those geomorphological processes could be justified for the scope of work. This chapter is about the preliminary study on the current coastal infrastructure and its association with geomorphological forces over long period of time.

[Figure 3.1 - Estuarine Marshlands] Drawing by J. Ta

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Geomorphology

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Historical Development Coatal Evolvement Tamar Estuary

Historically, the town of Plymouth was situated along the pockets of mudflat landscape. Overtime, harbours and docks were built along the coast, and mudflat gradually transformed into a large port for docking ships and marine trades. Over the years, new development took place and the natural landscape of intertidal ground is gradually dissolving into the Tamar river.

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 3.2 - Historic Plymouth]

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[Figure 3.3 - Historic Coastline] Drawing by J.Ta - Zoom In


There are 106 estuaries in Great Britain (UK, excluding Northern Ireland) and the majority of the estuaries fall into five groups (left): (1) rias, or drowned river valleys, are short, deep and steep-sided with small river flows; (2) coastal plain estuaries are long and funnel-shaped with extensive intertidal zones; (3) bar-built estuaries are short and shallow with small river flows and tidal range, and are located along coasts with plentiful supplies of sediment; (4) embayed estuaries are large shoreline indentations with a relatively small amount of fresh water input; and (5) fjords and fjards,

Caption etc

NTS

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Meters

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Caption etc

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Coastal Environment Hard Strcuture vs. Soft Structure Tamar Estuary

Through google satellite images of Plymouth, it was discovered that there are various types of practices exist along the coastal line of the city and surrounding towns. Those infrastructure are mostly still in use and mainly used for marine activities, particularly boat docking. However, the use of material and its form varies depending on the location. The group synthesized a catalogue of those different structures to study its potential application in project development.

Seawall Structure

The marina is constructed with reinforced concrete, gabions and boulders. It is does not only offer conventional coastal protection, but also harbour boats. But it require land construction and the construction is rather permanent than floating pontoon and less susceptible to erosion.

Floating Pontoon

Intertidal Mediations

Instead of land construction that might alter the natural coastal environment, the floating structure allows marina to grow overtime. Attaching to the land, the timber pontoon could be added as needed.

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Drawing by K.Zhu Google Earth Satellite Image


Tidal Control

Watergate persist throughout Plymouth, and those gates were used to generate energy and electricity through mill. Most of them are placed at the fringe of creeks and most of them are no longer in use.

Intertidal Zone

Drawing by K.Zhu Google Earth Satellite Image

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

The natural tide events and surface water drain create many small creek fingers overtime. The soil property of the mudflat is fine and sticky.

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Tamar Estuary Ecology Formation and Condition Millbrook Creek

There are 106 estuaries in Great Britain (UK, excluding Northern Ireland) and the majority of the estuaries fall into five groups (below): (1) rias, or drowned river valleys, are short, deep and steep-sided with small river flows; (2) coastal plain estuaries are long and funnel-shaped with extensive intertidal zones; (3) bar-built estuaries are short and shallow with small river flows and tidal range, and are located along coasts with plentiful supplies of sediment; (4) embayed estuaries are large shoreline indentations with a relatively small amount of fresh water input; (5) fjords and fjards, which occur mainly in Scotland and represent drowned glacial valleys. Estuaries interact with the adjoining coast and can be a sediment source or sink: highly-stratified, short and ebb-dominant estuaries (i.e. bar built estuaries) are likely to be sediment sources, whereas partially-mixed, longer and flooddominant estuaries (i.e. coastal plain estuaries) and embayed estuaries tend to be sediment sinks (Burgess et al., 2002).

[Figure 3.4 - climate change on coastal erosion]

Schematic effects of embanking and reclamation on the estuary form and hydrodynamics.

Intertidal Mediations

Schematic effects of managed realignment (or sea defence failure/abandonment) near the head of an estuary which has previously been embanked (a and b), near the estuary mouth (c and d).

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[Figure 3.5 - Coastal Sediment Dynamics]


Historical Formation

Devonport Before becoming one of the most important military harbour, deveport region was a small stone dock with a few settlement. It would look much like the other cornwall side of the river at present day.

Sutton Habour As on the UK’s most historic ports, the out line of the original mudflat remains while the hard engineered structure enclosed the area. It still functions as the main point for tourism and fishery. However, without the mudflat the region is constantly subject to flooding.

Historical Dam It is a common practice for the people of the region to use mill and watergate to generate electricity and power for the household.

Tamar River

NTS

Formed under the Glacial Movement, the river valley was cut down since the Hoxnian age, and continue to function as the main catchment stream.

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Meters

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37 Flooding Zone

Mudflat

Current Boarder

Historical Trace


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Nautical Translocation Territorial Formation

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04| Nautical Translocation Plymouth is currently focusing its economy towards a marine tourist attraction. However, this have some negative implications to the entire sound and the city. As seen in the drawing in the left, the varying routes and potential port locations indicate a projected scenario of development. By developing more ports along the coast line of Plymouth, the harbour beings to exhibit an influx of activities that potentially thwarts the existing development of smaller industries such as the fishing community. This is due to the local member of parliament, Luke Pollard, advocating for a national marine park to be imposed along the greater sound of Plymouth. National marine park impact would include more of a tourist destination and advertisement for the city rather than a preservation of natural resources (Glegg). Heavy marine activities occur because the city operates within its marine environment as an opportunity to exploit natural resources (Cosgrove 49). Plymouth primarily navigates through its marine economy. However, Plymouth lacks the ability to rely on multiple economies. This project looks at alternatives to inform design policy to incorporate a diverse economy as discussed later in the chapter.

Drawing by J. Ta

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Territorial Formation

39 Photograph by Y. Zhao | Smeaton Light Tower


Future Quay Development Plymouth Coastal Development Areas Plymouth

Plymouth is currently going through changes in its sound. Plymouth is shifting its industry towards marine tourism because of a Marine Park. This leaves the existing fishing community pinched for space. In the enlargement drawing to the right, the red circles indicate the potential areas of development due to accessibility by road at the existing slipways. The drawing portrays a scenario in which development could occur throughout this region, but not all ports would be developed. The further explains the physical impacts along the estuaries and the sound due to dredging requirements to dock boats and facilities along coastlines. There is a need for a better management of the coast line exploitation.

Photograph by K. Zhu | Mudflat Millbrook Creek

ECONOMY PROJECTION Plan adapts to the scenarios throughout the design making process

Phase

0

1

2

3

4

Natural Resources

Marine Tourism

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Drawing by Y. Zhao and K. Zhu Drawing by J. Ta - Zoom In

CRISIS

Time Intensity

Intertidal Mediations

Fish Industry

LACK OF ALTERNATIVE ECONOMY

AVAILABLE NATURAL RESOURCES



New Economic Foundation -United Kingdom

Plymouth is focusing mainly on its tourism economy. In many cases of coastal communities, cities rely on their primary economic industry. Often, cities face a recession or economic crisis within their primary industry, thus struggling to find alternative generated income (Balata 10). Plymouth focuses heavily on their tourism economy. However, tourism economies are quite seasonal and fragile in many cases of low wage and part time employment opportunities only. As a result, Plymouth could struggle from diversifying its economy, leaving it unable to respond to a fluctuating economy. Plymouth needs to see its existing local industries as a shared coastal space for all economies to thrive to diversify its portfolio of generating income (Balata 12).

[Figure 4.1 - NEF Website]

Intertidal Mediations

Photograph by Y. Zhao | Sutton Harbour 2018

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[Figure 4.2 - Plymouth Fisher Vessels]


Diversifying economies in Plymouth means focusing on the existing fishing industry as a mode of production income. Additionally, existing recreational activities, include: waterskiing, yachting, jet skiing, kayaking, provide marine tourism economy in their marine environment. In New Economic Foundation’s Blue New Deal, the organization collaborates with local stakeholders such as fishers in East Sussex to voice their needs in the coastal community. The Blue New Deal strives to diversify many coastal communities’ economic model. In the role of designers, the project is finding a way to inform decision making at a higher level to incorporate spatial qualities and economic prosperity.

[Figure 4.3 - Blue New Deal Website]

[Figure 4.4 - Cawsand Bay, Plymouth]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Photograph by Y. Zhao | Restaurant

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Inform Design Policy Introduce precedence and techniques

The project explores the idea of designing spatial strategies to inform more decision making at the policy level that is typically not considered in the architectural scale. To inform decision making, the project researches on the precedence of marine tourism and production economies. In the case of fish production, the local fishing community and major fish market is an important role in the community. However, the project sees potential adjacencies of related development such as mariculture, fish hatcheries, fish stocking that can allow for collaboration of self-sufficient management. Additionally, there is a need for more vessel storage facilities due to influx of boating and recreational activities. Due to lack of space, the project sees opportunities in creating designated fish vessel storage and recreational vessel storage. The project allows for multiple programmatic uses along the coastal areas, thus creating a diverse design policy that informs diverse programmatic uses as discussed in the Blue New Deal.

Diversify Marine Programs

(Alternative Economy = Resilient Mode of Production)

Marine Tourism Economy

Production Economy

+

Intertidal Mediations

Existing Boating Activities (Fishing Boats + Recreational Boats)

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Drawing by J. Ta

Existing Fishing Community

+

+

Additional Recreational Facilities

Supplemental Production Economy (Seafood Production)


Case Study | Tollesbury South East England | Environmental Agency Management

The case study research has expanded to the other side of the UK coastline, and the group looks at Tollesbury as an example in particular. Situated on the Essex coast at the mouth of the River Blackwater, the village of Tollesbury has a long history in celebrating both plough and sail activities. Its unique geographical location allows harvests from both land and sea. Today Tollesbury marina still functions as a main trading port for oysters. Woodrolfe Creek, one of the main creeks at Tollesbury, became the main sailing route for yachts and boats. With some minimal path construction, the surrounding saltmarshes were acting as trails for boat owners to reach their vessels. According to researches, this area is a nature reserved managed by the Environment Agency as a way of regulating cargo, boating industry, and mariculture and this site creates a diverse economy that responds to the landscape.

[Figure 4.6 - UK Government Website]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.5 - Boating at Estuary]

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Intertidal Mediations 46

[Figure 4.7 - Tollesbury Salt Marsh]


[Figure 4.8 - Tollesbury Oyster Farm]

Google Earth Satellite Image | High Tide

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Google Earth Satellite Image | Low Tide

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Fish Production Supplemental mode of production

The project looks at varying precedence of fish production from the United Kingdom to international scale of fish farming. There are varying types of fish production ranging from high production at the cost quality to low production at higher quality. With the varying case studies of fish production, this allows an implementation of production that finds alternative ways of diversifying Plymouth’s mode of production. What makes fish production in the United Kingdom?

Mud Crab

Mussels

Clams

Plymouth Founder

Intertidal Mediations

Herring

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Images Altered by K. Zhu [Figure 4.8 Lobster V Notch] [Figure 4.9 Lyme Bay Hatcheries]

United Kingdom is one of the leading fish farming industry in the European Union with highest yield in tonnage and third per value (Ellis). With United Kingdom yielding large quantities, various types of aquaculture are produced in the United Kingdom. This chapter examines the various types of aquaculture methodology to further understand the different kind of techniques that can be deployed on maritime boundaries to supplement the fishing industry. This could lead to not only production and consumption, but a subcategory of aquaculture emerges as hatcheries to replenish fish stock for the future of marine ecosystems and fishermen economy.


[Figure 4.10 Fish Stocking]

[Figure 4.12 Fish Hatcheries]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.11 Mussel Farm]

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Marine Harvest | Intensive Fish Farm

Mariculture

Intensive aquaculture focuses on the mass production of fish rather than the quality of the fish. In this case, Marine Harvest’s salmon farms exhibited high concentration of diseased fish and a sea lice problem(Fraser). Because the fish are confined in small spaces, the salmon live stock suffers from various diseases and pest problems, which are typically solved by supplementing the fish with antibiotics and occasional pesticides to eliminate disease(Fraser).

[Figure 4.13 - Marine Harvest Fish Pan]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 4.14 - Intensive Fish Farm]

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Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image | Invervailort, Scotland UK


Lerøy | Intensive Fish Farm Mariculture

In the case of Leroy, the company tries to focus on the production of fish in mass production, but to supplement the fish living conditions with symbiotic sea fauna and flora (Lerøy). Leroy focuses on the production of mussels to feed to fish, farm seaweed for wrasses or lumpfish spawning to eat sea lice, and create artificial reefs to eliminate the accumulation of concentrated fecal matter.

[Figure 4.15 - Lerøy]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.16 - Sustainable Mariculture]

Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image |Avløypet, Hardbakke, Norway

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Aquapod | Semi-Extensive Fish Farm

Mobile Mariculture

As for the case of Aquapod, the approach utilises the broad area of the ocean as an advantage. The goal is to create mass production of fix, but confined fish produces negative impacts in one stagnant location. By producing throughout the vast ocean, the fish swims and moves with the structural unit. This creates an advantage of minimal maintenance and dispersing nutrients from the fish production (Earth Ocean Farms).

[Figure 4.14 - Intensive Fish Farm]

[Figure 4.17 - Deometric Mariculture Dome]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 4.18 - Passive Mariculture]

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Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image | Esterito, La Paz Mexico


Greenwave | Semi-Intensive Fish Farm Mollusc Farming

Greenwave is a company founded in New York, United States, focusing on the production of sustainable polyculture. Most of their production consists of seaweed and seasonal shellfish (Greenwave). By doing so, this creates a seasonal rotating crop that allow a more resilient farming that can resist specific weathers in different seasons. In addition to the higher yield of production, the crops promote different food products on the dinner plate such as seaweed used as noodles. Seaweed and shellfish end up complimenting each other by filtering the sediments in the water together, thus creating a symbiotic relationship between the different crops(Greenwave).

[Figure 4.19 - Seaweed Farm]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.20 - Mussel Farm]

Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image | Thimble Islands, New York USA

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Bioaqua | Extensive Fish Farm

Aquaponics

Extensive aquaculture focuses more on the quality of the fish within a smaller yield. In the case of Bioaqua, the farming focuses on aquaponic systems that allow the recirculation of water from the fish and the crops in a closed loop system. In addition, Bioaqua provides an aquaponics programme that allows local communities to take part of classes to either start micro production or commercial production(Bioaqua). As a result, the quality of the fish is sought after as oppose to the mass production of an intensive farm.

[Figure 4.21 - Aquaponic System]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 4.22 - Fish Farm Aquaponics]

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Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image | Blackford, England UK


Veta La Plama | Extensive Fish Farm Eco-Sustainable Aquaculture

On the different scale spectrum, Veta La Palma provides an integrated ecological reserve that serves as a symbiotic relationship between the birds and farmed fish. The aquacultural system imitates a natural system without any added food for the fish, which allows a better cost management to the fish livestock. Veta La Palma proves to be the ideal example of fish farming without any supplemental additives to the livestock(Veta La Palma).

[Figure 4.23 - Extensive Fishing]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.24 - Eco-sustainable Farm]

Drawing by J. Ta Google Earth Satellite Image | La Puebla de Rio, Sevilla Spain

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Vessel Storage Fishing boats, yacht vessels,and other recreational activities

Currently, there are various types of storage facilities. There are temporary pontoons, dry stack facilities, kayak storage facilities, and boat docking on shallow waters. In the trophic level of boating activities, many boats situated in marinas tend to block out waters, reducing the chance of wildlife to grow underneath the marinas. Dry stacking units, storage of boats on land, allows for the consolidation of boats stacked vertically. However, dry stacking systems require land development with local slipways and forklifts to bring boats to the waters.

[Figure 4.25 - Boat Perching]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 4.26 - Kayak Stacking]

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Drawing by J. Ta [Figure 4.27 - Boat Dry Stacking]


[Figure 4.28 - Jetty Peppermint Grove]

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

[Figure 4.29 - Boaters’ Quay]

Drawing by J. Ta [Figure 4.30 - Saint Cast Marina]

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Digital Articulation Technical Report


Prot Development Tool <Scripting / Processing>

Nautical Negotiations <Dynamic Formations> <Decision Making/Site>

Plymouth

Digital Low Tide Creek Simulations <CAESAR - Lisflood, Geomorphological/Landscsape Evolution Model>

Intertidal Composition <Geomorphology> <Understand Tide Behavior>

Tamar Estuary

Physical Low Tide Creek Simulation <Physical Simulation + Generative Design>

Collective Creek Formations <Manufactured Grounds> <Understand Low Tide Creek Formations>

Tidal Creek

05| Digital Articulation The project continues to explore the social conditions in which there is a lack of port space in Plymouth and examine the existing geomorphological conditions as an opportunity to change the way major actors utilizes the space in Plymouth. This chapter discusses the three digital techniques to inform design decisions, assist the understanding of existing geomorphological conditions, and simulate low tide conditions. The first tool focuses on the interactive and dynamic nature of javascript, Processing, as a way informing design decision by giving site constraints and path dependent routes to allow for future potential development along the coast. The second tool utilizes a flooding simulation tool, CAESAR, that examines the tide flooding conditions to better understand Plymouth’s intertidal areas. Finally, the third tool utilizes generative design, Grasshopper Firefly, to capture imagery of a physical water and sediment simulation to better inform long term change and development of existing creeks.

Diagram by J. Ta Drawing by J. Ta

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Technical Report | Technology Utilization

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Nautical Negotiations Dynamic Formations | Interactive Tool Plymouth

This is an interactive tool that responds to the existing marine park and marine spatial planning. Through the development of coastal ports, local stakeholders seek a place to situate their vessels and development. This section discusses an interactive application tool that allows coastal stakeholders to take part of negotatiating port development.

//In response to a future proposal of a National Marine Park, data layers are updated each year by different agency, such as marinas, geomorphology data, etc.

Intertidal Mediations

// click and get the optimal solutions according to the existing conditions. Background data layers can be viewed here as well. Path finding tool is located here as well.

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// click and drag the timeline to see the live feedbacks for stakeholders.

Drawing by Y. Zhao Scripting by Y. Zhao


This interactive tool is developed with javascripting, processing, as a mean of expressing a method of dynamically involving map interactions. Additional, vistualization and communication has been communicated in Adobe After Effecets to articulate the potential of the tool. Currently, the application tool is at its preliminary stages of development and exhibits potential use in the future. This is a potential tool that responses to design decision making amongst local communities to understand the spatial location of future port development.

//Tourists’number fluctuation, time constraint in marine tourism

//file input //zoom in & zoom out

Scan QR Code for Video

https://vimeo.com/289269609

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

//In response to marine management, new sets of data are updated each year by different agency.

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Import Territorial Data To Interface

Geographic information system data are imported into the tool as a way of analyzing the following: marine protected areas, intertidal areas, marine tourism hot spots, and waterfront interest points. All layers are processed and visualized as background information to better understand site conditions to better inform internal decision making. This tool provides an opportunity for stakeholders who use the tool a better understanding of site conditions with live feedback informations. User Interface Data Visualization Layer: Marine Protected Area Input Data // Input Spatial Data into processing from a geological information system toolďźš 1. Marine Protected Area Hierarchy; 2.Tides Changing Area; 3.Network of Popular Tourism Spots and Waterfront Area Infrastructures

User Interface Data Visualization Layer: Tides Changing Area

Intertidal Mediations

User Interface Data Visualization Layer: Network of Popular Tourism Spots and Waterfront Area Infrastructure

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Drawing by Y. Zhao Scripting by Y. Zhao


Negotiation Part Stakeholders Negotiation

User Interface

Data Output Examples

Marine Routes Finding User Interface Visualisation

Fish Buyers Fishing Market Fish Buyers

Fish Buyers

Additional Recreational And Production Areas

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Existing Fishing Communities; Existing Fish Buyers; Network Between Fishing Communities And Fish Buyers;

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Path Finding System | Route Development

Marine Protected Area

Protected Area Hierarchy GIS data

Processing_Marine Area Grid System

Overlap GIS data with Processing Grid

A* Path Finding Method

A* Path Finding Method -

0

10

0 1 4 2 6 3 8

1

2

3

9

3

10

9 11

9

10 1

8 10

4

7 10

5

4 8

4

4

5 8

5

3

6 10

10

8

7

6

1

2

3

4

Numbers in nodes: Top Left = G Score Top Right = H Score Bottom = F Score = Starting Node = Finishing Node = Wall(Unaccessable)

11 = The grey numbers indicate the numerical sequence the algorithm follows, shows the nodes its calculating data for. G = Shortest distance (steps) from start node to current node. H = Estimated distance to finish node. F = G Score + H Score When nodes progress the light blue line represents the first “step”, the dark blue indicates the other steps. So, the light blue just gives an idea on how the algorithm progresses.

In our rules, we using the protected hierarchy cost times the shortest distance from start node to current node instead of the A* method G-Score. Therefore, the optimal path finding rule for marine management in our tool is: Intertidal Mediations

G’ = G*node Cost

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F = G’ Score + H Score Obstacles added determine port development and port passages as constraints .

Drawing by Y. Zhao Scripting by Y. Zhao

The tool explores the idea of marine path finding as a way of determining the added obstacles such as marine protected zones, port development, etc influencing the port passages along the Plymouth. To determine the tool’s set of rules and criteria, the utilizes A* path finding method, combined with with a grid of vectors and geographical information data. The goal of the tool is to determine the impact of natural resources along the Tamar estuary in Plymouth. By added obstacles, the tool determines the need of protecting Plymouth’s natural resources as a way of maintaining the resilience of the city.


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

This tool allows the user to understand the impacts of development through a simulated scenario of impacted passages. This allows an understanding of port development and the environmental impacts on the natural resources that many local communities rely on: marine tourism, fishing industry, seafood production (Balata 21).

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Users’ Negotiation System | Graphical Interface

in the development of the tool, the tool attempts to utilize the interface as a way of visualization information to the stakeholder decision making options. The tool has the potential to allow major stakeholders to determine which coast line is availble for port development. Through the development of coastlines, the tool sees potential in providing opportunities and capacity constraints to allow for live feedback decision making for users. This provides opportunities such as development in intertidal areas and its capacity. The interface is a visualization in after effects to determine the potential of nautical negotiations. Users’ Interactive Interface Visualization

Users’ Interactive Interface Visualization

0-10 years live feedback

The tourism economy downtown

Users’ Scenario

Intertidal Mediations

This diagram shows the rules how the different stakeholders develop their facilities on intertidal creek based on the marine management through fluctuating time constraints such as economy.

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Drawing by Y. Zhao Scripting by Y. Zhao


In a superimposed scenario, one fisher wants to be develop a mariculture system along deeper water areas. He/she checks the application to see the availability of port development. When the fisher sees the individual development capacity is full, the application indicates another location. Through time, the application informs live feedback to the user whether ports are available for development. Through time, fishers are able to determine where and when he/she can develop their mariculture system.

Users’ Interactive Interface Visualization

10-20 years live feedback

Tool Summary

The interactive tool is a negotiation between varying stakeholders wanting to develop additional ports. The tool is utilized in a way of responding to marine spatial planning at a conversational level while information decision making for development. This is assisted with the path finding feature to inform vessel passages through the impact of development and obstacles, i.e. dredging. This tool has the potential of information marine management.

Marine Management Agency

Marine Plan

Marine Protected Area

Protected Hierarchy Marine Routes

Stakeholders Economy Fluctration

Marine Park Marine Intertidal Area

Fisheries Tourism

Creek Branching Area

Live Feedbacks Infrastructures

Water Depth

Creek Developing Area

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Vessel Drivers

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Creek Environment Simulation Diagram Simulated Tide Environment Tidal Creek

After observing the mudflat of Tamar Estuary through site visit and satellite images, the group aims to understand the nature of this geomorphological process. The first step was to produce a prototypical model to understand the overall formation of the creek system by using simulation program. Several attempts and adjustments have been made to create the model look the most close to the actual landscape.

SketchUp Model

Experiment Setup <Simulated Environment>

Simulation

CEASAR

Initial Result

<Tidal Environment>

<Comparative Study>

<Fine Grain> <Tide Mode> <Reach Mode>

Experiment Iterations <Possible Interventions>

Intertidal Mediations

Parameter A

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Drawing by K. Zhu [Figure 4.1 - Plymouth Tidal Creek]

Detail Analysis <Comparative Study>

Parameter B

Parameter

<Natural Formation>

<Both Sides>

<Thin Creek>

<Barrier>

<One Side>

<Wide Creek Middle>

<Dredging>

<More vs. Less>

<Wide Creek Side>



Creek Environment Simulation Tidal Creek

From the simulation result, the model at the bottom represented the most accurate creek system comparing with the other two above. The water followed the creek channel and flowed directly into the larger creek system.

Design Parameters Experiment Setup

CEASAR

<Simulated Environment>

<Tidal Environment>

Initial Setup

6 Water Inlets on both sides

Tide Range

0.1% slope

0.1% slope

Tide Range

0.1% slope

0.1% slope

Intertidal Mediations

Tide Range

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Simulation by K. Zhu Drawing by K. Zhu

Deeper Channel -2 m @ 0.1% slope

Tidal Pattern


Initial Result <Comparative Study>

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Erosion/Deposition Pattern

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Creek Environment Simulation After picking out the most suitable simulation model, the group decided to run more tests to see the results of different variations and tried to explore the potential intervention for the later stage. Besides the natural formation process, the group wanted to create two sets of tests: Barrier and Dredging. These are considered as the fundamental strategies in terms of introducing intervention. Another variables was to control the amount of water inlets on both side of the simulation model. That could offer more opportunities to compare and contrast the simulation results.

Experiment Iterations <Possible Interventions>

Intertidal Mediations

Dredging

Barrier

Natural Formation

Both Side

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Simulation by K. Zhu Drawing by K. Zhu

One Side

More vs. Less


The selected simulation model represented the results of the variation tests. From those results, the group realized that the simulation program cannot accurately capture the geomorphological process in detail while running the tests was a time consuming process due to its large context. The group decides to narrow down the scope of work to a sectional study of the creek instead of a much larger scale.

DEM

Contour

Erosion

Natural Formation One Side

Dredging More vs. Less

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Barrier Both Side

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Creek Environment Simulation In order to study the specific condition of the creek, the group looked back at the actual landscape and came up with three distinct creek types relating to creek position and width.

Detail Analysis

Tide

<Comparative Study>

Slope 0.1%

DEM

Intertidal Mediations

Contour

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Erosion

Simulation by K. Zhu Drawing by K. Zhu

Slope 0.1%

Slope 0.1%


From the result of the simulation, the group realized that the computer program has its limits in terms of the details. Although CAESAR was able to capture the geomorphological process, the resolution of the creeks was not as high as expected, therefore hard to related to the actual meandering creek. However, the group get many useful information for setting up further experiment on the physical tank.

Simulation by K. Zhu

Wide Creek Middle

Wide Creek Side

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Thin Creek

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Creek Formation | Simulation Conclusion By using simulation program, one important thing the group discovered was that the geomorphological force that shaped the creek landscape was coming from the latent energy of tide water retained in the soil. During tide event, part of the tide water was absorbed and stored in the mudflat area. After tide retreat, most of the surface water came back immediately except parts of water retained in the soil. Then the water within the soil slowly release the water towards the lower ground. The flow formed a trace of water channel, which later result the creek.

1. Tide Rises.

2. Water Retained in the Mudflat Soil.

Intertidal Mediations

3. Water Slowly Release Back into the Sea.

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4. Soil Erosion results Creek Formation. Drawing by K. Zhu


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018 Google Earth Satellite Images (from low to high tides) Millbrook, UK

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Physical Creek Simulation Computer Vision + Physical Simulation Physical Simulation

Tidal Creek

This section of the chapter focuses on the merging of the physical simulation and computer vision learning. The project utilizes generative design to detect the changing physical photos in the simulation. In the diagram below, the experiment below curates a juxtaposition of wood barriers within a sand and water environment. The image to the right examines the dynamic shift of sediment movement, creating varying lines of water boundary. This experiment allowed us to understand the principles of that time that is interwoven into the design in chapter 7, Collective Creek Formations. As a result, the physical simulation was instrumental at the individual creek scale.

Design Parameters Design Rules <Angle + Distance Units> Retaining Barrier

Design Results Angle Variations

90°

75°

60°

45°

30°

Design Results <Design Actions>

Filling

Interval Spacing Angle Variable Result Dredging

60mm

120mm

180mm

240mm

Environment Set-Up <Physical Simulation Tank>

2m

Ph 4

Ph 3

Ph 2

Ph 1

Distance Variable Result Design Sequence Electrical Power

1m

Drain Fountain Pump Water Reservoir

Repeat Pipe Camera + Tripod

Run Multiple Iterations

LED Lights

<Repeat simulation with different variables>

Water Output

Intertidal Mediations

Output

78

Evaluate

Design Results

Evaluate Each Iteration

<Adjust Design Optimization>

<Examine the design result variations>

Applicable Result Design Intent <Modifying Creeks> Simulation by J. Ta Drawing by J. Ta Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta

X Non-Applicable Result


Phase 1

35 m2 Ponded Water

200 m2 Sediment Accumulation

Phase 2

25 m2 Ponded Water 120 m2 Sediment Accumulation

Phase 3

30 m2 Ponded Water 70 m2 Ponded Water

Phase 4

20 m2 Ponded Water

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

14 m2 Ponded Water

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Workflow Diagram In chapter 3, Intertidal Composition, the project looks at the development of existing creek formations. It focuses its development on the understanding of creek formations formed by the existing low and high tide conditions. Through the development of understanding the tide conditions, chapter 6 and 7 looks at the long-term effect of tides forming new creeks over time. Through the development of the creeks, the project hypothesizes a branching formation of new creek development. The diagram below sets

Existing Low Tide Creeks <Tamar Estuary>

Introduce Barriers

Introduce Dredging

Introduce Filling

<Retaining structure>

<Excavate Sediment>

<Displacement of Sediment>

Time: Phasing in long term development

Medium Physical Simulation <At Low Tide Condition Testing | Long Term Transformation>

Nozzle + Pipe Waterproofing Membrane

7:8 Kiln Sand + 1:8 Silica Flour Wooden Table Frame 1m x 2m Sealed PVC Drain Reservoir + Pump

Parameters

+

Obstacles <3mm wood board barriers>

75°

Intertidal Mediations

90°

80

Drawing by J. Ta Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta

60°

45°

30°

Distances <Distance Criteria>

50mm

100mm

150mm

200mm


three variables of dredging, filling, and retaining sediment in a physical environment. The physical simulation allowed for quick testing on different angles and distance between the different barriers. This was then captured into the computer for further analysis on shifting sediment and water boundaries. Through many tests, the tests were interpreted as similar site conditions seen in Plymouth.

<Generative Design | Workflow >

<Iterator Count>

<Bitmap Crop > <Color Adjust >

<Bitmap Read >

<Resolution Fix >

<Points 2 Mesh >

<Evaluation >

<Max Height: Color Swatch >

<Contour Mesh > <Water Line > <Land Accumulation>

<Batch Layer Output> <Color Code Range > <Move Objects >

<Output Objects >

Modified Creeks

Diverse Design Programs

<Branching System>

<Multiple Creeks, Ponds, and Accumulated Sediments>

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Computer Visualization

Computer Vision

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Design Rules | Action Criteria Single Unit / Multiple Units

The physical simulation in the first image and diagram below examines the act of dredging and filling sediment on either side. This experiment looks at the varying effects of creating water ponds and land formations as a strategy to create programmatic uses of aquatic food production or additional boat storage facilities. By examining the varying programmatic uses, seen in chapter 8, in varying sediment levels and water depth conditions, the act of dredging and filling allowed the programs change based on the physical environment. This allowed for the following programs to occur through these actions: boat stacking, hatchery facilities, boating storage, recreation, etc. Dredging, filling, and barriers facilitated these programs to occur in the varying conditions.

Barrier

To allow for variation, added single units allowed for a more diverse program. This allowed for the development of alternative industries to flourish in the intertidal mudflat conditions. As seen in the diagrams below, the experiment conducts angle and distance tests among the single unit intervention. The project hypothesizes the development of varying depths and conditions that allows for a more diverse program. The project sees development in a diverse landscape that informs alternative economies to rely on each other as a way of management (Balata 10).

Hatcheries Drystacking

Filling Dredging

Boating

Aquaculture Recreational

High Tide

Medium Tide

2

1

Simulation by Y. Zhao Drawings by K. Zhu

Diverted Creek

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Diverted Creek

Intertidal Mediations

2

Diverted Creek

Existing Creek

Simulation by k. Zhu

Low Tide


Experiment Set-Up Conditions | Fabricated Environment The development of the physical tank was a way of understanding the sand and water environment. The project encompasses a coastal community that allowed for the utilization of the experiment. In diagram below, varying parts to build the tank was crucial, such as the extensive waterproofing of the environment. Varying factors include optimal lighting conditions allowed for the development drawings to be clear and concise when visualizing in the computer. Set up of the physical simulation required careful camera placement and water source to allow the experiment to be successful. Additionally, design intent played a major role when utilizing the sand and water environment in phases, which allowed for careful observation and understanding of use. Dim Windows (Control Lighting) Sand Bags (Weight to hold camera)

1m

Water Output (Control flow with nozzle)

LED Lights (Control Computer Vision Output)

Barriers (typical)

Ph 1

2m

Ph 2

Ph 3

Ph 4

Design Sequence

Electrical Power

Drain Fountain Pump Water Reservoir Redirect Water Camera + Tripod Drawings by J. Ta

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

7:8 Kiln Sand 1:8 Silica Flour

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Iterative Evaluation | Catalogue Single Unit - Angles

The simulations to the right looked at the dredging in either the front or back side from the water output location. From the varying experiments, many of the dredging behind the water source and filling in front of the water source diminished over time quickly. This was problematic because it would not allow for further program development. The project goal was to accumulate sediment over time to allow for land programs to flourish.

Intertidal Mediations

On the contrary, dredging in front of the water source allowed for potential boat programs to happen. However, the sediment accumulation would occur in the water ponds over a slow period. This was taken into consideration for the development of programs that would then eventually consolidate itself on land as a strategy for boat storage. Fish production became ideal at the filling location away from the water source. This allowed protection from the water source and a slower rate of sediment accumulation in the recently dredged areas.

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Photograph by K. Zhu


Video by K. Zhu

https://vimeo.com/289269247 30° - Dredge Front of

Simulation by K. Zhu

Creek

Scan QR Code for Video

https://vimeo.com/289270261

30° - Dredge Back of Creek

45° - Dredge Front of Creek

45° - Dredge Back of Creek

60° - Dredge Front of Creek

60° - Dredge Back of Creek

75° - Dredge Front of Creek

75° - Dredge Back of Creek

90° - Dredge Front of Creek

90° - Dredge Back of Creek

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Scan QR Code for Video

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Iterative Evaluation | Catalogue Single Unit - Angles

Intertidal Mediations

The simulations to the right looked at the dredging in either the front or back side from the water output location. From the varying experiments, many of the dredging behind the water source and filling in front of the water source diminished over time quickly. This was problematic because it would not allow for further program development. The project goal was to accumulate sediment over time to allow for land programs to flourish.

86

Drawing by Y. Zhao


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

On the contrary, dredging in front of the water source allowed for potential boat programs to happen. However, the sediment accumulation would occur in the water ponds over a slow period. This was taken into consideration for the development of programs that would then eventually consolidate itself on land as a strategy for boat storage. Fish production became ideal at the filling location away from the water source. This allowed protection from the water source and a slower rate of sediment accumulation in the recently dredged areas.

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Iterations | Multiple Units Angles vs. Distances

At the rate of the single units are deployed, multiple units utilized understand the relationship between the distancing of the interventions that are used. The distance in the experiment include the following: 50mm, 100mm, 150mm, and 200mm. The distance begins to inform the shifting locations of sediments. Through the hypothesis of conducting multiple barriers, the project predicted the proximity of the barriers allow for clustering of sediment. However, the experiment showed the further placement of barriers allow for further displacement of the sediment.

Intertidal Mediations

Scan QR Code for Video

88

Video by Y. Zhao Simulation by Y. Zhao Photograph by Y. Zhao

https://vimeo.com/289274285


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

This allowed for understanding of creating barriers further to allow for a diverse program throughout the physical simulation. To concluding the studies of the experiments, the multiple dredging and filling units placed further apart allowed for a diverse landscape potential that allowed multiple variations in programming. The variations of sediment and water depths allowed for a diverse landscape that response to a need for Plymouth’s lack of economic diversity.

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Barrier Test Erosion | Distance Dredging in front of the board

Barrier Test Erosion | Distance

Intertidal Mediations

Dredging behind the board

90

Simulation by Y. Zhao Drawing by Y. Zhao Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta


Barrier Test Water Boundary | Distance Dredging in front of the board

Barrier Test Water Boundary | Distance

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Dredging behind the board

91


Barrier Test Erosion | Angle

Dredging in front of the board

Barrier Test Erosion | Angle

Intertidal Mediations

Dredging behind the board

92

Simulation by Y. Zhao Drawing by Y. Zhao Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta


Barrier Test Water Boundary | Angle Dredging in front of the board

Barrier Test Water Boundary | Angle

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Dredging behind the board

93


Intertidal Mediations

Evaluation Outputs: Water Analysis

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Simulation by Y. Zhao Drawing by Y. Zhao Grasshopper Definition by Y. Zhao


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Evaluation Outputs: Water Depth Analysis

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Evaluation Outputs: Slope Analysis The analysis is done through generative analysis to help determine the site’s slope potential. This helps inform design decision making through the various interventions used in the later chapters. The workflow indicates the development of varying tests and analysis in conjunction with the physical simulation. This helps build a set criteria to allow for determination of programmatic uses through out the site. The generative analysis are conducted through the water flows, slope analysis, and depths of water.

Point

Topography Mesh

2D Grid With Square Cells

Intersect A Mesh With A Semi-Infinite Ray

Find Closest Point On The Mesh

Mesh Parameter for Closest Point

Evaluate The Mesh At A Given Parameter

Normal Vector At Mesh Parameter

Unit Vector Parallel To The World Z Axis

Compute The Angle Between Two Vectors

Compute The Tangent Of The Value

Compute The Absolute Value

Intertidal Mediations

Methmatical Multiplication of 100

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Adjust The Color

Preview Drawing by Y. Zhao Grasshopper Definition by Y. Zhao


Evaluation Outputs: Water Depth Analysis

Point

Topography Mesh

2D Grid With Square Cells

Intersect A Mesh With A Semi-Infinite Ray

First Intersection Point

Deconstruct The Point Into Its Component Parts

Deconstruct A Numeric Domain into its Component Parts

Adjust The Color

Preview

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Create A Numeric Domain Which Encompasses A List Of Numbers

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Informed Design Output Phase 1 | Boat Storage Through the varying tests, the results are broken down into four phases to conduct a scenario in which the fish production and boat storage facilities compensate each other during economic crisis. In the array of drawings below, the lines indicate the land accumulation shown in high tide conditions. In the drawing below, the first barrier is added to allow for boat storage facilities to occur such as pontoons and jetties.

Barrier Added/Boat Storage Facility

Intertidal Mediations

Sediment Accumulation

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Drawing by J. Ta Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta

Barrier Added/Boat Storage Facility Sediment Accumulation


Informed Design Output Phase 2 | Marine Production In phase 2 drawing on the right, two more barriers, 60° and 45° dredging back of creek, are added to allow for more fish industry to flourish to compensate for the expected economic crisis event. Conducting this scenario puts the project in a situation of responding to the seasonal fall of marine tourism. In this case, the boat infrastructure is potentially utilized by the existing local fishing community. Additionally, production economic models such as mariculture and mollusc farming can flourish in the context of the low intertidal areas.

Diminishing Sediments

Diminishing Sediments

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Barrier Added/Seafood Production

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Informed Design Output Phase 3 | Incremental Boat Facility In phase 3, two barriers, 90° and 45° dredging front of creek, are added to allow for temporary boating activities to occur. This is in response of the development of the fish industry and the recreational boating industry balancing each other with adjacent programs and activities. At this stage, the barriers allow sediment to accumulate at the previous dredged areas. Overtime, the dredged areas are filled in due to the sediments carried Growing Facility/ Consolidate Boat Storage

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Barrier Added

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Boating Opportunity Mix Use with Fish Production Drawing by J. Ta Grasshopper Definition by J. Ta

Growing Facility/ Consolidate Boat Storage


Informed Design Output Phase 4 | Marine Production + Boat Facility across the low tide creek system. Through time, the barrier locations allow for the development of recreational and fish industry to balance each other. Similarly, phase 4 barriers, 45° and 30° dredging back of creek, allow for the increasing development of the entire landscape. The diverse landscape allows for many programs to occur.

Barrier Added/Boating Opportunity Mix Use with Fish Production

Consolidate Fish Production

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Barrier Added/Boating Opportunity Mix Use with Fish Production

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Tributary Agglomerations Cartogenesis

Existing Town Access

Boat Storage Stacking

200m2

Boat Storage Stacking

Rural Area Access

Shellfish Farm

150m2

Existing Town Access 200m2

150m2

100m2 100m2

Shellfish Production

130m

2

120m2

60m2

Existing Marina Deeper Areas

140m2 Fisher Boats

Fisher Boats

Temporary Boat Storage

Yachts Storage Kayak Facility Low Tide Seafood Production

Extensive Fish Farm

Meters

N

Shallow Waters

NTS Perspective

Millbrook Creek


06| Tributary Agglomerations Cartogenesis

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

In this chapter, the project examines the relationship between the intertidal areas with the opportunities posed in chapter 2. Intertidal areas discussed in chapter 3 looks at the existing conditions of creek formations and the development of local ports. Many of these develop through the maintenance of dredging and creating barrier marinas. In the case smaller marinas, intertidal areas utilize pontoons that dock itself to adjacent creeks and rivers to allow boat launching to occur in low tide conditions. Tributary agglomerations modify existing creeks to develop varying creek formations that allow for a diverse programmatic use.

Drawing by J. Ta Drawing by J. Ta | Millbrook Creek, Existing Creek System

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Millbrook Intertidal Areas Activities along the mudflat areas Millbrook Creek

The project looks at Millbrook creek’s intertidal area. In the existing tide conditions, boats reside along the creek and sporadically all throughout the mudflats. This gives an opportunity of utilizing the geomorphological process of developing along the creek systems. The creeks are formed by the natural tide processes, thus creating creek formations over time. By utilizing this process, the individual creeks can be diverted to create a diverse intertidal landscape. The project continues to explore the idea of branching technique as shown in the technical report. Since there is a lack of space along the main harbour of Plymouth, development opportunities can occur within the intertidal zones. Currently in Plymouth, there are special protected areas along some parts of the intertidal zones (Marine Protected Areas in the UK). However, natural resources are part of a resilient coastal community. Many local economic sectors, such as marine tourism, fishing, and farm depend on natural resources (Balata 21). Through intertidal areas, creeks serve as a territory of natural resources.

Intertidal Mediations

The intertidal creeks serve as a vessel of space, mode of production, and ownership (Elden 810). Current stakeholders can take control of the intertidal areas as a way of managing their needs by taking territory as a role in the intertidal areas. By doing so, the project looks at the varying types of intertidal areas as a way of managing different type of territorial formations. Located in the Tamar Estuary, Millbrook creek indicates varying depths of tide levels and opportunity for many programs to flourish. Territory can be taken control and negotiated through the constraints of existing creeks. With the need of natural resources to sustain a marine city, development along creeks are limited to a capacity of existing numbers. The existing development are considered as an opportunity, but a constraint is kept in mind to inform a management of preservation of the natural environment that supplies the economic prosperity of the city. As a result, designing along creek systems allow for a negotiation of territorial decisions to inform marine spatial policy in a designer’s role.

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Photograph by K. Zhu Google Earth Satellite Image



Existing Intertidal Estuary and Potential Composition of intertidal areas and locating potentials Tamar Estuary

Intertidal Mediations

The existing intertidal areas are composed of varying subtital, intertidal, and supratidal zones depending on the location of mudflat areas and depth. Through the strategy of planning and understanding of the physical conditions, programmatic areas are optimal at particular depths and conditions. This helps inform a way of interevening with existing creeks to create more diverse economic programs through the intertidal areas.

106 Drawing by Y. Zhao


107

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Intertidal Mediations

Estuarine Potential Development

108 Drawing by Y. Zhao


109

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Model Explorations Tangible Experimentations

Model explorations examines the intersection between the tectonic formations of the intertidal areas through programmatic interventions. In the model below, existing intertidal mudflat areas are examined and then explore the dynamic shift of branching rivers. Through the conventions of adding barriers, dredging, and filling along the creeks as shown in chapter 5, territorial creeks form. The cnc model below informs the sediment accumulation through time as a way of responding to scenarios. In the models to the right, layered tide conditions are studied at different strata to understand the tide conditions at varying depths. The model was formed by setting an orthogonal grid to allow constraints along a creek study model. These series of models helped inform a more detailed approach on a creek system. This is then understood further in chapter 7.

Intertidal Mediations

Collect Creeks

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Branching System

Physical Model by J. Ta Photograph by Y. Zhao


High Tide Conditions

Low Tide Conditions

Physical Model by J. Ta Model Assembly by Team

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Medium Tide Conditions

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Tide Conditions Existing Creek Formations Millbrook Creek Change in tide levels every six hours

https://vimeo.com/289269326

Intertidal Mediations

Scan QR Code for Video

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Video by K. Zhu & J. Ta Drawing by J. Ta Grasshopper Definition By J. Ta

Low Tide to High Tides 00:00-06:00 // 12:00-18:00

High Tides to Low Tides 6:00-12:00 // 18:00-24:00


Developing creeks with unit conditions

Dredging/Filling Unit

Phase 1: Adding Units

Diminishing Units Dredging/Filling Unit

Dredging/Filling Unit

Phase 2: Adding Units, Diminishing Units

Disappearing Unit Diminishing Units Dredging/Filling Unit

Dredging/Filling Unit

Phase 3: Adding Units, Diminishing Units

Remaining Barriers Diminishing Units Dredging/Filling Unit

Dredging/Filling Unit

Phase 4: Adding Units, Diminishing Units

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Disappearing Units

113 Note: See chapter 5 for detailed technique


Tributary Reconfigurations Modification to existing intertidal creeks Millbrook Creek

In the previous pages, the existing Millbrook Creek experiences constant influx of tide flows. Tide runs through its full cycle every 6 hours, creating a water table in the mudflat areas and discharging when over saturated. Through this process, the intertidal creeks form through series of time. In the scenario of economic fluctuations and events, creeks are used to generate a need for leisure and production. Plymouth’s intertidal creeks are the underutilized infrastructure, demystifying today’s definition of creek areas. Similar to the case in Paris’ Seine river as a public infrastructure, Plymouth’s creek system moves from the pastoral landscape to a modification of production and asset (Gandy 33). In the drawing below, the creek is no longer the pastoral landscape. The creek system of Plymouth serves as a multi-functional system that establishes benefit to the existing stakeholders through the modification of creek systems. In this case, diverting flow and collecting sediments

Intertidal Mediations

Scan QR Code for Video

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Video by K. Zhu & J. Ta Drawing by J. Ta

https://vimeo.com/289269503


Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

allow reconfiguration of physical creek form and diverse landscape. In the designer’s role, manipulating creek as a strategy allows for adjacent development such as towns and agricultural areas. The drawing below shows lighter blue of past development along the creek morphology. As the lines get darker and deeper in blue, the creek system grows and reaches a pinnacle opportunity for adjacent communities to take control of territorial creeks. This is a resource that allows development to decide spatially at a higher level to take control of their needs in diverse landscape characteristics.

115


Drawing by J. Ta



Collective Creek Formations Manufactured Grounds

Existing Creek System

Shallow waters

Existing Town Area

Deeper waters Drystack Boats : 9 larger vessels Drystack Boats : 9 small vessels

Bridge Access

Fish Hatchery Facility Shellfish Production

Path Network Kayak Storage

Accumulated Sediments

Deeper waters Mussel Farms Existing Rural Area

Small Kayaking Storage

1002 Clam Farming

Remaining Potoon System Connecting Path Network

Small Boat Docking

6 Vessels

Meters

N

120m

2

Mariculture Pen

400m2

NTS Perspective

Shellfish Farming


07| Collective Creek Formations Manufactured Grounds

Photograph by J. Ta

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Collective Creek Formations is a composition of challenging the conventional way of information design at a higher level. Today, land and sea are treated differently. However, sea and land have the same territory implications and spatial quality. The sea is simply diluted land with a fluid spatial quality (Steinberg 250). The project examines the blurring between land and water. Through design strategy at the architectural scale, creek formations are manipulated with vertical elements, merging the programmatic use on land and water. The chapter further discusses the development organizing through time as a response to future scenarios of coastal development.

119 Drawing by J. Ta


Tectonic Manipulations Reconfiguring intertidal areas Tidal Creek

The project utilizes the physical simulation as seen in the chapter 5. The physical model is instrumental to see the physical impacts along the existing streams. In time, project takes into account scenarios of events that could occur. This is one sample scenario of development through time. Through various iterations, the project can understand the composition of sediment movements and low tide creek formations. In the drawing to the right, structures are place through time responding to the blurring between use on land and water. Programs storage facilities and seafood production industries merging with their adjacencies to create a diverse landscape.

Intertidal Mediations

This model is shown as a way of self-managing between many stakeholders and a way of marine management at the micro scale. In today’s marine spatial planning, management has been developed through arbitrary lines and points (Steinberg 258). The marine space is constantly in flux and marine spatial planning does not respond to a constant changing landscape. As a result, the project maps out a scenario by responding with cooperative built structures that encompasses a diverse landscape with a diverse set of programs.

Photograph by J. Ta

120 Drawing by J. Ta - Zome In



Evaluation of Territory Generative Analysis

Intertidal Mediations

Tidal Creek

122 Drawing by Y. Zhao


Set Criteria for Vertical Development

Wall Barrier Docking

Kayak + Jetski Mussel Farm

Clam Farm semi ext.

Algae Farm Salt Marsh Temp. Pontoon

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Drystack facility Fish Hatchery

Matrix by Y. Zhao Diagram by J. Ta

123


Intertidal Mediations

Water Depth Analysis | Generative Analysis

124


125

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Intertidal Mediations

Slope Analysis | Generative Analysis

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127

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Vertical Materiality Varying Case Studies of Structural Development

In the previous pages, generative analysis was conducted to understand the results of the physical simulation. The simulation results indicated certain depths and slope conditions, under 10%, that allowed for path development along the accumulated sediments. The matrix indicates set a depth and slope criteria that allowed for program placement constraints. With the given analysis, the project looked at three case studies in the images below. This includes mud dyke barriers, farming techniques, and barrier lane techniques. These case study systems are used as a way of organizing different programs to allow for resilience amongst the existing and new stakeholders. The programs are added for a diversity of production and tourism/recreation without eliminating the existing stakeholders.

[Figure 7.1 - Seaweed Farm, China]

Intertidal Mediations

[Figure 7.2 - Mud Dyke, Bangladesh]

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[Figure 7.3 - Bricola Barrier, Venice, Italy]


Vertical Sequence and Archetypes Set Criteria and Sequential Development Materiality

In the drawings below, the project looks at variation of vertical archetypes. These structures form kit of parts that builds upon the sequential time and everchanging landscape. Through a series of growing structures, the development of boat storage and seafood production continue to shift. The structures grow into boat and recreational facilities or seafood production.

Orthogonal Grid:

Contour Barrier Grid:

Density Grid: Retaining Barriers

Sizing Grid: Structural Support

Pontoon

Barriers

Pole Mud Dykes

Mussel/Clam Farm

Walkway

Groynes

Kayak Docking Shellfish Farming

Kayak/Small boat storage

Aquaculture Fish Pens

Dominant Seafood Production Facilities

Wall Barrier

Pontoon

Pontoon + Mussel Farm

Drystack + Recreational Storage

Drawing by J. Ta and K. Zhu

Wall Barrier

Mariculture Pen

Mussel Farm + Recreational Stoage (kayak, small boats)

Fish Stocking Facility + Hatcheries + Small boat storage

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Dominant Boat + Recreational Facilities

Boat Drystacking Fish Hatcheries

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Evolutionary Scenarios Time-Based Development Responding to Scenarios Tidal Creek

In the catalogue of drawings below, the project takes a sample of an evolutionary scenario. The project responds to the following need: Phase 1 – 100% Marine Tourism, Phase 2 – 70% Marine Tourism, 30% Fishery Industry, Phase 3 – 50% Marine Tourism, 50% Fishery Industry, Phase 4 – 40% Marine Tourism, 60% Fishery Industry. In the series of drawings below, the development of barriers and vertical infrastructural systems coincides with the development of creek formations. This creates micro branching Vertical Archetypes

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Time Step 1: Initial Creek

Time Step 2: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Phaes 2: 10 to 20 Years

Intertidal Mediations

Phaes 1: 0 to 10 Years

Retaining Barriers

Path Network by Y. Zhao Drawing by J. Ta


Time Step 4: Pontoon Structure

Time Step 5: Path Network

Time Step 6: Path Development

Time Step 4: Mariculture Pens

Time Step 5: Path Network

Time Step 6: Path Development

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

systems within the intertidal areas. This is a response to the territorial nature of fisheries and boating facilities. Rather than competing with the different industries, marine management is spatialized in a coherent diversity. These programs respond to the economic impacts as alterative industries, shifting functionality throughout varying scenarios. This becomes a cooperative approach to change the role of policy making and inform how designers can take a role in the juxtaposition of policy and spatial design.

131


Time-Based Development Responding to Scenarios

Vertical Archetypes

132

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Phaes 4: 30 to 40 Years

Intertidal Mediations

Phaes 3: 20 to30 Years

Retaining Barriers

Path Network by Y. Zhao Drawing by J. Ta


Time Step 5: Path Network

Time Step 6: Path Development

Time Step 4: Consolidating Pontoon and Fish Hatchery Facility

Time Step 5: Path Network

Time Step 6: Path Development

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Time Step 4: Temporary Pontoon System and Consolidating Pontoon System

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Time-Based Development Responding to Scenarios

Vertical Archetypes

The design bridges between the existing conditions and the sediment accumulation uses. Through the various conditions, time plays an important role in the development of the creek system. As seen in the drawing, multiple programs locate themselves at desired areas. However, adjacent industries coexist together in the creek system, making this coastal community resilient to changes.

Retaining Barriers

Existing Town

Bridge to existing conditions

Accumulated Sediments Drystack Facilities Existing Creek System

Drystack Facilities

Kayak Storage

Mussel Farms

Fish Hatchery Facility

Intertidal Mediations

Mussel Farms

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Path Network by Y. Zhao Drawing by J. Ta


Shallow water access

6 Vessels

400m2 Mussel Farms

Shellfish Farming

MillBrook Creek

Small Boat Docking

120m2 Mariculture Pen

Bridge to existing conditions

Existing Rural Area

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Shallow water access

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Time-Based Development Responding to Scenarios

Phase 2

Time Step 1: Initial Creek

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 4: Pontoon Structures

Time Step 4: Mariculture Development

Intertidal Mediations

Phase 1

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Time Step 5: Marina Development Path Network by Y. Zhao Drawing by J. Ta


Phase 4

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 1: Retaining Barriers

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 2: Shifting Sediments

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 3: Lane Barriers

Time Step 4: Consolidating Pontoons

Time Step 4: Mariculture + Pontoon

Scan QR Code for Video

Time Step 5: Drystacking Facility Video by J. Ta

https://vimeo.com/289269631

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Phase 3

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Path Network by Y. Zhao Drawing by J. Ta



Intersecting Archetypal Grounds Dynamic response to Tectonic Shifts | Existing Creek Section

Intertidal Mediations

Match Line | Existing Creek

The sections portray the development of an architectural scale to alter how marine management can be informed spatially through time and respond to the changing landscape conditions. In the drawing below, the section begins with the existing conditions. Through the various scenarios of development, sediment accumulation and water flows disperse through time. This responses to the changing landscape by the vertical archetypes informing the geomorphological processes. The territory shifts the landscape based on the needs of the existing stakeholders and the fluctuating economic conditions.

140 Drawing by Y. Zhao


https://vimeo.com/289269668

Scan QR Code for Video

https://vimeo.com/289269736

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Match Line | Existing Creek

Scan QR Code for Video

141 Video by Y. Zhao


Intertidal Mediations

142

Drawing by Y. Zhao

Trophic Levels Diagram by K. Zhu Sequester Carbon

Match Line | Phase 1

Shadow Casting

Accumulated Fecal Matter

Marshland Sequester Carbon

Phase 1 | Creek Formations, 0 to 10 years


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Accumulated Fecal Matter

Shadow Casting

Shadow Casting

Match Line | Phase 1

Shadow Casting

Shadow Casting

Sequester Carbon


Intertidal Mediations

144

Drawing by Y. Zhao

Trophic Levels Diagram by K. Zhu Sequester Carbon

Filter Water Mariculture Rotation

Filter Water Mariculture Rotation

Match Line | Phase 2

Filter Water Mariculture Rotation

Replemish Nutrients

Phase 2 | Creek Formations, 10 to 20 years


145

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Accumulated Fecal Matter

Accumulated Sediment

Match Line | Phase 2

Replemish Fish Stocks

Sequester Carbon


Intertidal Mediations

146

Drawing by Y. Zhao

Trophic Levels Diagram by K. Zhu Sequester Carbon

Dredged Marina

Oil Contamination

Shadow Casting

Shadow Casting

Match Line | Phase 3

Shadow Casting

Filter Water

Shadow Casting

Phase 3 | Creek Formations, 20 to 30 years


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Accumulated Fecal Matter

Oil Contamination

Sequester Carbon

Match Line | Phase 3

Supply Fish Stocking

Sequester Carbon


Intertidal Mediations

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Filter Water Containminant

Match Line | Phase 4

Drawing by Y. Zhao

Trophic Levels Diagram by K. Zhu Shadow Casting

Sequester Carbon

Filter Water

Phase 4 | Creek Formations, 30 to 40 years


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Accumulated Fecal Matter

Accumulated Fecal Matter

Sequester Carbon

Match Line | Phase 4

Sequester Carbon


Adpative Nautical Management

Intertidal Mediations

Cartogenesis


08| Adaptive Nautical Management Adaptive nautical management sees opportunity in Plymouth. This chapter addresses the lack of fish boat docking and economic diversification through the development of intertidal areas. More space is allocated throughout Plymouth, but not exceeding a capacity within the existing creek system constraints. Through the development of intertidal creeks, vertical archetypes influence a way of managing intertidal cooperatives from the architectural scale to the regional scale of marine management. In the drawing to the left, the panel locates all existing slipways as potential of development along existing creek systems. The creek system is monitored and managed at a capacity since natural resources influences the success of marine tourism and production industry, as see in the economic scenario diagram, page 42. This coincides with New Economic Foundation’s philosophy of a diverse economy. However, in a designer role, decisions must be made at a higher level to inform design policy with spatial qualities.

Drawing by K. Zhu

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Cartogenesis

151


Intertidal Mediations

In the drawing below, the intertidal areas depict the potential areas of port development that encompasses the capacity of production and vessel storage. Marine spatial planning should be defined by blurring the roles of land and sea as a way of accommodating the varying stakeholders. This becomes a negotiation and dynamic mapping to inform the need of a fluctuating landscape. In addition, economic events and social conflicts are things to consider marine management that is not considered in today’s marine spatial planning. Marine spatial planning is not changing the economy directly, but a way to respond with spatial qualities that help inform cartographic dynamism. Plymouth needs a marine management plan that responds to its advent national marine park proposal. Intertidal creeks in Plymouth become a proposal that reacts as a territory

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that serves the local stakeholders as owners to take control of space (Elden 804). Territory or territoriality is not confined to only land but the interface of land and water. The ownership of coastal areas plays a big role in Plymouth. Local fishers play a role in the estuary as much as the recreational activities and the boating activities. The role in which designers consult stakeholders provide a change on how intertidal areas can be altered as oppose to the conventional mudflat creeks of navigation and leisure. Intertidal areas are a territory of interest and provides opportunity for development within the capacity of natural resources relied on marine tourism and the fishing industry (Balata 21). A better marine management across the architectural scale and regional scale is a better resilient coastal community.

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Intertidal Mediations


Epilogue The project focuses on the blurring between land and water. Existing development along Plymouth’s coast line exhibits marine real estate conflict, which hinders the development of existing fisher community. Because Plymouth is focusing on marine tourism, through an advertisement of a marine park, Plymouth relies on an unstable economy. The blurring between land and sea indicates the opportunities in Plymouth’s intertidal creek regions, creating management along creeks through intervening vertical archetypes. Plymouth needs a better marine management to negotiate between the varying stakeholders at a multiscale level, which is not considered in today’s marine spatial planning. The project sees marine spatial planning at the architectural, regional, and national level to inform design policy to consider the influx of water. Today’s cartography is composed of only lines and boundaries, which are static and does not respond to time: the fluctuations of economy, constant tide movements, and landscape processes. Intertidal mediations are interested in the negotiation of nautical activities that advocate for a diverse coastal community. A coastal community that can take back control in the marine environment as well as on land.


Figure List Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 Plymouth Fisheries. Record Amount Of Fish Landed At Plymouth Fisheries. 2014, http://www.plymouthfisheries.co.uk/ news/2014/11/7/record-amount-of-fish-landed-at-plymouthfisheries. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.2 Rossiter, Keith. Plymouth Fish Market Brings In Record-Breaking £1Million Haul In A Week. 2017, https://www. plymouthherald.co.uk/news/business/plymouth-fish-marketbrings-record-726737. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.3 Marine Management Organisation. Have Your Say On Marine Planning In England. 2018, https://www.gov. uk/government/news/have-your-say-on-marine-planning-inengland. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.4 Marine Management Organisation. Marine Information System. 2018, http://defra. maps.arcgis.com/ apps/webappviewer/index. html?id=3dc94e81a22e41a6ace0bd327af4f346. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.5 New Economic Foundation. Blue New Deal. 2018, http://www.bluenewdeal. org/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.6 Davison, Heather. Protecting And Restoring Flamborough Head. http://www.bluenewdeal.org/story/ protecting-and-restoring-flamborough-head/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.7 Clegg, Tom. Protecting Fish And Livelihoods In The Medway. http://www.bluenewdeal.org/story/protecting-fishand-livelihoods-in-the-medway/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.8 Carpenter, Griffin, and Charles Millar. Fisheries Management Costs. 2018, https://neweconomics.org/2018/08/ management-costs. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.9 Balata, Fernanda, and Griffin Carpenter. Coastal Communities In The Uk. 2018, https://neweconomics. org/2018/08/coastal-communites-in-the-uk. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 1.10 Pool, Beshlie. Fishers Leading On Improved Management. 2018, http://www.bluenewdeal.org/story/fishersleading-on-improved-management/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 Google. Plymouth. 2018, https://www.google. co.uk/maps/@50.3677188,-4.1315624,1323m/data=!3m1!1e3. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.2 Luke Pollard MP. Luke Calls For Plymouth Sound To Be The UK’S First National Marine Park. 2018, https://www. lukepollard.org/legacy/2017/05/29/nationalmarineparkcall/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Intertidal Mediations

Figure 2.3 Mittiga, Lorenzo. There Is No Better Feeling For A Scuba Diver Than To Be Neutrally Buoyant, But Many Divers Struggle To Achieve Underwater Nirvana.. 2017, https://www. scubadiving.com/tips-for-wearing-less-weight-underwater. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

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Figure 2.4 Bavaria Yachts. Understand Boat Statistics. https:// www.yachtingmonthly.com/news/bavaria-yachts-expectedannounce-administration-65537. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.5 Aphrodite Boat Trips-Kyrenia. Kyrenia Watersports. http://www.kyreniaboattrips.com/kyrenia-watersports/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 2.6 chrispy thoughts. The Yachts Docked At The Port. 2013, https://chrispythoughts.wordpress.com/2013/05/07/all-ina-days-trip-monaco-and-eze/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.7 Rossiter, Keith. Why Fishermen Are Staging A Mass Protest In Plymouth Today. 2018, https://www.plymouthherald. co.uk/news/plymouth-news/fishermen-staging-mass-protestplymouth-1414375. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.8 BBC NEWS. Fishermen On The Tyne Head For The Demo In Newcastle. 2018, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ukengland-43680686. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.9 BBC NEWS. Fishermen Paraded In Plymouth Sound Before A Crowd Of Supporters And Sightseers On Shore. 2018, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-43680686. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 2.10 Plymouth Trawler Agents. Plymouth Trawler Agents. https://www.plymouthtrawleragents.com/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 AONB. Tamar Valley. http://geographical.co.uk/uk/ aonb/item/771-tamar-valley. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 3.2 Google Map. Plymouth. 2018, https://www.google. co.uk/maps/@50.3569016,-4.2137576,593m/data=!3m1!1e3. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 3.3 A Trve Mapp And Discription Of The Tow. 1643, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/ Wenceslas_Hollar_-_Siege_of_Plymouth.jpg. Accessed 13 Sept 2018 Figure 3.4 Steve Johnson Cyberheritage. Map Of Plymouth. 1540, https://i.pinimg.com/736x/cb/70/e5/ cb70e55fd8ea516046341037d53faae1--plymouth-gaia.jpg. Accessed 14 Sept 2018. Figure 3.5 Masselink, G. & Russell, P.. Impacts of climate change on coastal erosion. 2013. MCCIP Science Review 2013: 71-86. Figure 3.6 Esteves, Luciana & J Williams, Jon. Changes In Coastal Sediment Dynamics Due To Managed Realignment. 2015. 10.1142/9789814689977_0165. Chapter 4 Figure 4.1 New Economic Foundation. Together We Can Build A New Economy Where People Really Take Control.. https:// neweconomics.org/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.2 Trawlerphotos. Vessels. http://www.trawlerphotos. co.uk/gallery/showphoto.php?- photo=50949. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.3 New Economic Foundation. Blue New Deal Initiative. https://content.gulbenkian.pt/wp-content/uploads/ sites/18/2016/05/14121146/nef.png. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.4 Shop Manager. Oxwich Bay Kayak Fishing Competition 2015. 2015, https://www.bluezonefishing.co.uk/ oxwich-bay-kayak-fishing-competition-2015/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.5 Peckett, Bruce. SV Brigantia - Ships Log. http:// svbrigantia.blogspot. com. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.6 GOV.UK. Environmental Agency. https://www.gov. uk/government/organisations/environment-agency. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.


Figure 4.8 Goldhanger Digital Archive. The Oyster Beds At Low Tide To The East Of Goldhanger Creek In 2014. 2014, http:// www.churchside1.plus.com/Goldhanger-past/Oysters.htm. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.9 Ideas Home Interior Design. 6 Rarest Colors Of American Lobsters. https://paramountgolfforeste.info/6-rarestcolors-of-american-lobsters. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.21 Hemmaodlat. Kurs I Aquaponics På Bioaqua Farm. 2016, https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/86623992809321564. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.22 European Aquaponics Association. Bioaqua Farm. http://europeanaquaponicsassociation.org/places/ united-kingdom/somerset/blackford/producer/bioaqua-farm/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.23 Browne Trading. Canals That Were Once Used To Pump Water Out Of The Estate Have Been Used To Help Pump Water Back In!. 2017, https://www.brownetrading.com/blog/ exclusive-us-distributors-veta-la-palma-seafood/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.10 Lyme Bay Reserve. Lyme Bay Reserve Seafood. 2018, http://www.lymebayreserve.co.uk/reserve-seafood/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.24 The Growing Connection. A Farm That Doesn’T Feed Its Animals. 2010, https://thegrowingconnection. wordpress.com/2010/06/14/farming-outside-the-box/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.11 Midwest Lake MANAGEMENT. Tubin Shiners. http:// midwestlake.com/pond-n-lake-fish-stocking/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.25 Dog Paddler. Shell Point Dock Low Tide. 2011, http://thedogpaddler.com/EmailPages/110124_LowTide/ LowTide.htm. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.12 Canadian Aquaculture. Responsible & Sustainable Canada Is A Global Leader In Responsible And Sustainable Best Practices.. http://www.aquaculture.ca/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.26 Pensacola Fishing Forum. Kayak Storage Rack. https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/713679872170261216/?lp=true. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.13 Maine Fish & Wildlife Field Notes. Millions Of Trout, Salmon And Togue Eggs Are Stored In These Containers Until They Are Near Hatching. 2013, https://mefishwildlifefieldnotes. wordpress.com/2013/12/13/why-do-you-separate-eggs-in-thehatchery/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.14 SeaWestNews. Court Dismisses ‘Namgis Application To Stop Restocking Fish Farm. 2018, https://www.seawestnews. com/court-dismisses-namgis-application-stop-restocking-fishfarm/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.15 Acquisitions Daily. Marine Harvest Bid Rejected By Cermaq. 2013, http://www.acquisitionsdaily.com/2013/05/02/ marine-harvest-bid-rejected-by-cermaq/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.16 Tallaksen, Eva. Leroy, NGO Launch Multi-Trophic Farming Project. 2013, https://www.undercurrentnews. com/2013/08/16/leroy-ngo-launch-multi-trophic-farmingproject/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.17 algaeworldnews. Leroy Seafood To Raise Norwegian Salmon On Feed Made With Algae. 2017, http:// news.algaeworld.org/2017/04/leroy-seafood-to-raisenorwegian-salmon-on-feed-made-with-algae/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.18 Bastyra, Gaby. Free-Range Fish Farming. 2015, https://atlasofthefuture.org/project/aquapod-fish-farm/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.19 Thimble Ocean Farm. Bren Smith, An Ex-Industrial Trawler Man, Operates A Seaweed Farm In Long Island Sound, Connecticut. 2016, https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/ show/single/en/9993-How-farming-giant-seaweed-can-feedfish-and-fix-the-climate. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.20 Yuan, LinYee. Is Kelp The New Kale? Greenwave’S Model For 3D Ocean Farming Might Feed The World And Restore The Seas. 2016, https://thisismold.com/space/farmsystems/greenwaves-model-for-3d-ocean-farming-might-feedthe-world-and-restore-the-seas#.W5p3NYWcFaR. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

Figure 4.27 Hamble Yacht Services. Drystack. http://hysgroup. co.uk/service/dry-stacking-hamble/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.28 I Love Fishing. Freshwater Bay Jetty. https:// ilovefishing.com.au/portfolio-items/freshwater-bay-jettypeppermint-grove/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.29 I Love Fishing. Success Hill Reserve Jetty. https:// www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-a-harbourport-dry-dock-jetty-quay-and-a-wharf. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 4.30 Skipper Buds. Daytona Beach Halifax Harbor Marina. http://www.skipperbuds.com/page.aspx/ pageid/38590/page.aspx. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 Google Map. Plymouth. 2018, https://www.google. co.uk/maps/@50.3569016,-4.2137576,593m/data=!3m1!1e3. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Chapter 6 Figure 6.1 Google Map. Plymouth. 2018, https://www.google. co.uk/maps/@50.3569016,-4.2137576,593m/data=!3m1!1e3. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Chapter 7 Figure 7.1 Boethling, Joerg. Bangladesh , Village Kalabogi At River Shibsha Close To Bay Of Bengal, Peoples Are Most Affected By Climate Change, Dike Construction. 2007, https:// www.alamy.com/stock-photo/bay-of-bengal-dyke.html. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 7.2 Images of Network. Seaweed Farm In China. 2017, https://www.reddit.com/r/MostBeautiful/duplicates/5d2jz8/ seaweed_farm_in_china/. Accessed 13 Sept 2018. Figure 7.3 Gatto, D. Bricola. 2018, https://www.eyeem. com/p/120561658. Accessed 14 Sept 2018.

Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018

Figure 4.7 Robinson, Geoff. An Aerial Of Striking Marshland At Tollesbury Marina In Essex Is Used At The Beginning Of The Programme, Which Centres On An Allegation Of Rape. 2017, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4985090/Touristsflock-marshland-used-Liar-opening-sequence.html. Accessed 13 Sept 2018.

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Works Cited

Text Credit

Balata, Fernanda. The Blue New Deal. New Economic Foundation, June 2015, 1-56. New Economic Foundation, https://neweconomics.org/.

Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages

Bioaqua. “Consultancy.” Bioaqua Farm, bioaquafarm.co.uk/ consultancy/. Carpenter, Griffin. “Not in the Same Boat.” New Economic Foundation. Cosgrove, Denis E. Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. “Earth Ocean Farms.” Earth Ocean Farms, www. earthoceanfarm.com/. Elden, Stuart. The Birth of Territory. The University of Chicago Press, 2013. Ellis, Tim, et al. “CEFAS.” Aquaculture Statistics for the UK, with a Focus on England and Wales, Cefas, Jan. 2015, assets. publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/ uploads/attachment_data/file/405469/Aquaculture_Statistics_ UK_2012.pdf. Fraser, Douglas. “Scottish Salmon Farming’s Sea Lice ‘Crisis’.” BBC News, BBC, 14 Feb. 2017, www.bbc.co.uk/news/ukscotland-38966188. Gandy, Matthew, The Fabric of Space: Water, Modernity, and the Urban Imagination. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014, pp. 145-183. Glegg, Gillian, Et al. “Plymouth National Marine Park, Interview.” 22 Mar. 2018.

Book Layout Simulation layout - Y. Zhao Template layout - K. Zhu Chapters and Index layout - J. Ta

Catalogue Pages Pages Pages Pages

70 to 75 84 to 101 112 to 116 122 to 137

Creek Environment Simulations Physical Creek Simulations Tide Conditions Archetypes, Analysis, and Scenarios

Appendix Videos

Lerøy. “Ocean Forest.” Lerøyseafood, www.leroyseafood. com/en/sustainability/innovation/ocean-forest/.

Page Page Page Page Page Page Page

Mzgoulton. “‘No-Take’ Marine Reserves in the UK.” Enviro-Blog, 11 Nov. 2014, mzgoulton.wordpress.com/2014/11/11/no-takemarine-reserves-in-the-uk/. Plymouth City Council. “Plymouth Report 2017.” Plymouth, Oct. 2017, Plymouth.gov. Rutgar. “What Is the Difference between Marine Reserves and Marine Parks? -.” Book Your next Adventure Trip Today, The Scuba Page, 5 Feb. 2018, rushkult.com/eng/scubamagazine/ marine-reserves/. Steinberg, Philip and Peters, Kimberley. Wet Ontologies, Fluid Spaces: Giving Depth to Volume through Oceanic Thinking. Sage Journals, 2015. 247- 265. Sage Journals, journals. sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d14148p. Veta La Palma. “Welcome to VETA LA PALMA.” Veta La Palma - Parque Natural, www.vetalapalma.es/index.asp?LG=2. Intertidal Mediations

J. Ta K. Zhu J. Ta K. Zhu J. Ta J. Ta Y. Zhao K. Zhu J. Ta Y. Zhao J. Ta J. Ta Y. Zhao J. Ta J. Ta J. Ta J. Ta

“GreenWave.” GreenWave, www.greenwave.org/ greenwaveorg/.

“Marine Protected Areas in the UK.” Marine Protected Areas in the UK, jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-5201.

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Nautical Negotiations Single Unit Simulations Multiple Unit Simulations Tide Conditions Tributary Reconfigurations Evolutionary Scenarios Intersecting Archetypal Grounds


Team vimeo Intertidal Mediations

Jimmy Ta jimmykta@gmail.com Yaxin Zhao yaxin.zhao02@gmail.com Kai Zhu itskksama@gmail.com Disclaimer: The enclosed document is a product of students’ research and drawings with all works cited. However, if there are any discrenpancies, please enquire further information with the provided contact. Thank you.

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